Science.gov

Sample records for customs rates upset

  1. The SEU Figure of Merit and proton upset rate calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, E.L.

    1998-12-01

    This paper re-examines the use of the SEU Figure of Merit for heavy ion upset rate predictions. Slightly different orbit dependent rate coefficients are used for unhardened and hardened parts. The two different coefficients allow for the slight changes of LET spectra that occur due to the earth`s magnetic shielding. Accurate heavy ion predictions can be made for any orbit and any part. The authors show that the Figure of Merit can also be used to predict upset rate due to protons in the proton radiation belt. A proton rate coefficient is introduced to describe the upset likelihood in orbits with proton exposures. These results mean that a part susceptibility can be described by a single parameter, rather than the four Weibull parameters and two Bendel parameters used previously. The Figure of Merit completely describes a part`s SEU susceptibility and can be obtained from either proton or heavy ion measurements, eliminating the expense of making both types of experiment. The total upset rate for a part in a particular orbit can be calculated using its characteristic Figure of Merit and a single orbit specific rate coefficient, the sum of the heavy ion and proton rate coefficients.

  2. Single event upset cross sections at various data rates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; Marshall, C.J.; McMorrow, D.; Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W.; Buchner, S.; La Macchia, M.; Mathes, B.

    1996-12-01

    The authors present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. They show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. They also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies. Knowledge of the relationship between SEU cross section and frequency is important for estimates of on-orbit SEU rates.

  3. Comparison of single event upset rates for microelectronic memory devices during interplanetary solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckerracher, P. L.; Kinnison, J. D.; Maurer, R. H.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the methods and models used for single event upset calculations in microelectronic memory devices can lead to a range of possible upset rates. Using heavy ion and proton data for selected DRAM and SRAM memories, we have calculated an array of upset rates in order to compare the Adams worst case interplanetary solar flare model to a model proposed by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. In addition, methods of upset rate calculation are compared: the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics CREME code and a Monte Carlo algorithm developed at the Applied Physics Laboratory. The results show that use of a more realistic, although still conservative, model of the space environment can have significant cost saving benefits.

  4. An Examination of Environment Perturbation Effects on Single Event Upset Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Michele M.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Lewis, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity of single event upset (SEU) rate predictions to changes in the direct ionization-inducing environment. An examination based on the nature of the SEU rate equation is presented for the case in which the perturbation is constant across varying particle linear energy transfer (LET). It is shown that the relative variation in SEU rate is equal to the relative perturbation in flux. Results are also presented for the case in which the environment perturbations exist in small LET bins. Through this analysis it is shown that the relative variation in expected SEU rate is equal to that in flux only for the LET regime in which the product of the cross section and differential flux is maximum.

  5. Fault Tolerance Implementation within SRAM Based FPGA Designs based upon Single Event Upset Occurrence Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Emerging technology is enabling the design community to consistently expand the amount of functionality that can be implemented within Integrated Circuits (ICs). As the number of gates placed within an FPGA increases, the complexity of the design can grow exponentially. Consequently, the ability to create reliable circuits has become an incredibly difficult task. In order to ease the complexity of design completion, the commercial design community has developed a very rigid (but effective) design methodology based on synchronous circuit techniques. In order to create faster, smaller and lower power circuits, transistor geometries and core voltages have decreased. In environments that contain ionizing energy, such a combination will increase the probability of Single Event Upsets (SEUs) and will consequently affect the state space of a circuit. In order to combat the effects of radiation, the aerospace community has developed several "Hardened by Design" (fault tolerant) design schemes. This paper will address design mitigation schemes targeted for SRAM Based FPGA CMOS devices. Because some mitigation schemes may be over zealous (too much power, area, complexity, etc.. . .), the designer should be conscious that system requirements can ease the amount of mitigation necessary for acceptable operation. Therefore, various degrees of Fault Tolerance will be demonstrated along with an analysis of its effectiveness.

  6. How do you rate in customer relations?

    PubMed

    Peterson, K E

    1987-02-01

    The metaphor of the "moment of truth", as described in the excellent book Service America! Doing Business in the New Economy, is a powerful idea for helping people to shift their points of view and think about the customer's experience. Moments of truth are the collective interactions of customer and employee that take place day in and day out. Every time an employee comes into contact with a customer--a physician, minister, social worker, inspector, visitor, serviceman, vendor, resident--the interaction will spark a moment of truth. It may be a shining moment when that customer feels cared for, cared about, and genuinely valued, or a lousy moment when the customer feels ignored, abused, or undervalued. As an administrator or manager, lead your people ... and manage your moments of truth. PMID:10280518

  7. Radiation hardness evaluations of 65 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator and bulk processes by measuring single event transient pulse widths and single event upset rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Jun; Sonezaki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazutoshi

    2015-04-01

    We measure single event transient (SET) pulse widths on inverter chains and single event upset (SEU) rates on flip-flops (FFs) fabricated in 65 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) and bulk processes. The layout designs of test chips are strictly identical between their processes besides buried oxide (BOX) layers. Experimental results show that neutron-induced SEU and SET rates in the FD-SOI process are 230× and 450× lower than those in the bulk process, respectively.

  8. Self-Reported Stomach Upset in Travellers on Cruise-Based and Land-Based Package Holidays

    PubMed Central

    Launders, Naomi J.; Nichols, Gordon L.; Cartwright, Rodney; Lawrence, Joanne; Jones, Jane; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background International travellers are at a risk of infectious diseases not seen in their home country. Stomach upsets are common in travellers, including on cruise ships. This study compares the incidence of stomach upsets on land- and cruise-based holidays. Methods A major British tour operator has administered a Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) to UK resident travellers aged 16 or more on return flights from their holiday abroad over many years. Data extracted from the CSQ was used to measure self-reported stomach upset in returning travellers. Results From summer 2000 through winter 2008, 6,863,092 questionnaires were completed; 6.6% were from cruise passengers. A higher percentage of land-based holiday-makers (7.2%) reported stomach upset in comparison to 4.8% of cruise passengers (RR = 1.5, p<0.0005). Reported stomach upset on cruises declined over the study period (7.1% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2008, p<0.0005). Over 25% of travellers on land-based holidays to Egypt and the Dominican Republic reported stomach upset. In comparison, the highest proportion of stomach upset in cruise ship travellers were reported following cruises departing from Egypt (14.8%) and Turkey (8.8%). Conclusions In this large study of self-reported illness both demographic and holiday choice factors were shown to play a part in determining the likelihood of developing stomach upset while abroad. There is a lower cumulative incidence and declining rates of stomach upset in cruise passengers which suggest that the cruise industry has adopted operations (e.g. hygiene standards) that have reduced illness over recent years. PMID:24427271

  9. Single event upset in avionics

    SciTech Connect

    Taber, A. ); Normand, E. )

    1993-04-01

    Data from military/experimental flights and laboratory testing indicate that typical non radiation-hardened 64K and 256K static random access memories (SRAMs) can experience a significant soft upset rate at aircraft altitudes due to energetic neutrons created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. It is suggested that error detection and correction (EDAC) circuitry be considered for all avionics designs containing large amounts of semi-conductor memory.

  10. Customer-class risk and rate of return

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, B.H.; Avera, W.E.

    1982-11-11

    The article summarizes the scope and findings of a major research project undertaken to examine thoroughly the regulatory issue of assigning customer classes of an electric utility different rates of return on the basis of differences in risk associated with serving them. The study included a review of the theoretical literature on the subject of risk-adjusted discount rates, a survey of the regulatory agencies in 50 states as well as federal and selected municipal agencies, and an analysis of testimony presented in rate proceedings. In addition, to investigate whether there is a relationship between utilities' customer mix and their risk and, in turn, cost of capital, in-depth interviews were conducted with leading investment analysts and extensive statistical analyses were performed. The authors conclude that the use of relative customer class risk to set target rates of return in electric cost-of-service studies has not been demonstrated to have practical applicability. 1 reference, 2 tables.

  11. Computer simulation of upset welding

    SciTech Connect

    Spingarn, J R; Mason, W E; Swearengen, J C

    1982-04-01

    Useful process modeling of upset welding requires contributions from metallurgy, welding engineering, thermal analysis and experimental mechanics. In this report, the significant milestones for such an effort are outlined and probable difficult areas are pointed out. Progress to date is summarized and directions for future research are offered. With regard to the computational aspects of this problem, a 2-D heat conduction computer code has been modified to incorporate electrical heating, and computations have been run for an axisymmetric problem with simple viscous material laws and d.c. electrical boundary conditions. In the experimental endeavor, the boundary conditions have been measured during the welding process, although interpretation of voltage drop measurements is not straightforward. The ranges of strain, strain rate and temperature encountered during upset welding have been measured or calculated, and the need for a unifying constitutive law is described. Finally, the possible complications of microstructure and interfaces are clarified.

  12. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  13. Single event upsets correlated with environment

    SciTech Connect

    Vampola, A.L.; Albin, F. ); Lauriente, M. ); Wilkinson, D.C.; Allen, J. )

    1994-12-01

    Single Event Upset rates on satellites in different Earth orbits are correlated with solar protons and geomagnetic activity and also with the NASA AP8 proton model to extract information about satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. An extensive discussion of the SEU data base from the TOMS solid state recorder and an algorithm for correcting spontaneous upsets in it are included as an Appendix. SAMPEX and TOMS, which have the same memory chips, have similar normalized responses in the South Atlantic Anomaly. SEU rates due to solar protons over the polar caps are within expectations. No geomagnetic activity effects can be discerned in the SEU rates.

  14. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  15. Single-event upset testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, T.L.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Measel, P.R.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to characterize single event upset phenomena in selected bipolar memory devices irradiated with relativistic heavy ions. The principle objective was to determine the multibit upset rate at normal and parallel beam incidence angles. The impetus for this objective is that multibit errors are not generally detectable by the simple Hamming codes currently used on spacecraft. Multibit errors significantly reduce spacecraft reliability in initiating spurious commands. It was found in this program that the multibit error cross section is equal to or greater than the projected area of the depletion regions for parallel and for normal to 60 degree incidence beams.

  16. Rate Structures for Customers With Onsite Generation: Practice and Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, L.; Takahashi, K.; Weston, F.; Murray, C.

    2005-12-01

    Recognizing that innovation and good public policy do not always proclaim themselves, Synapse Energy Economics and the Regulatory Assistance Project, under a contract with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), undertook a survey of state policies on rates for partial-requirements customers with onsite distributed generation. The survey investigated a dozen or so states. These varied in geography and the structures of their electric industries. By reviewing regulatory proceedings, tariffs, publications, and interviews, the researchers identified a number of approaches to standby and associated rates--many promising but some that are perhaps not--that deserve policymakers' attention if they are to promote the deployment of cost-effective DG in their states.

  17. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision. (a... preventive maintenance, or careless or improper operation. (b) Effect of an upset. An Upset shall...

  18. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  19. 47 CFR 76.1603 - Customer service-rate and service changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer service-rate and service changes. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1603 Customer service—rate and service changes. (a) A cable franchise authority may enforce the customer service standards set forth...

  20. Estimation of customer lifetime value of a health insurance with interest rates obeying uniform distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyawan, A.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Henintyas, Permana, D.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays some firms, including insurer firms, think that customer-centric services are better than product-centric ones in terms of marketing. Insurance firms will try to attract as many new customer as possible while maintaining existing customer. This causes the Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) becomes a very important thing. CLV are able to put customer into different segments and calculate the present value of a firm's relationship with its customer. Insurance customer will depend on the last service he or she can get. So if the service is bad now, then customer will not renew his contract though the service is very good at an erlier time. Because of this situation one suitable mathematical model for modeling customer's relationships and calculating their lifetime value is Markov Chain. In addition, the advantages of using Markov Chain Modeling is its high degree of flexibility. In 2000, Pfeifer and Carraway states that Markov Chain Modeling can be used for customer retention situation. In this situation, Markov Chain Modeling requires only two states, which are present customer and former ones. This paper calculates customer lifetime value in an insurance firm with two distinctive interest rates; the constant interest rate and uniform distribution of interest rates. The result shows that loyal customer and the customer who increase their contract value have the highest CLV.

  1. Predicting transient upset in gate arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, R.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Scherr, S.

    1987-12-01

    A simulation program for predicting dose rate upset has been adapted from the Power Analysis for Integrated Circuits program (PANIC). The program provides detailed analysis on the V/sub CC/V/sub SS/ difference at any location within the array as well as the amount of photocurrent being collected, as a function of design. The simulation has been compared to experiment for a specific design and was found to correlate to within 20% at 5 volts.

  2. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  3. 47 CFR 76.1603 - Customer service-rate and service changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Customer service-rate and service changes. 76.1603 Section 76.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1603 Customer service—rate...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1603 - Customer service-rate and service changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Customer service-rate and service changes. 76.1603 Section 76.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1603 Customer service—rate...

  5. 47 CFR 76.1603 - Customer service-rate and service changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Customer service-rate and service changes. 76.1603 Section 76.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1603 Customer service—rate...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1603 - Customer service-rate and service changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Customer service-rate and service changes. 76.1603 Section 76.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1603 Customer service—rate...

  7. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  8. Tradeoffs in Flight Design Upset Mitigation in State of the Art FPGAs: Hardened by Design vs. Design Level Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Roosta, Ramin

    2004-01-01

    This presentation compares and contrasts the effectiveness and the system/designer impacts of the two main approaches to upset hardening: the Actel approach (RTSX-S and RTAX-S) of low-level (inside each flip-flop) triplication and the Xilinx approach (Virtex and Virtex2) of design-level triplication of both functional blocks and voters. The effectiveness of these approaches is compared using measurements made in conjunction with each of the FPGAs' manufacturer: for Actel, published data [1] and for Xilinx, recent results from the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium (note that the author is an active and founding member). The impacts involve Actel advantages in the areas of transistor-utilization efficiency and minimizing designer involvement in the triplication while the Xilinx advantages relate to the ability to custom tailor upset hardness and the flexibility of re-configurability. Additionally, there are currently clear Xilinx advantages in available features such as the number of I/O's, logic cells, and RAM blocks as well as speed. However, the advantage of the Actel anti-fuses for configuration over the Xilinx SRAM cells is that the latter need additional functionality and external circuitry (PROMs and, at least a watchdog timer) for configuration and configuration scrubbing. Further, although effectively mitigated if done correctly, the proton upset-ability of the Xilinx FPGAs is a concern in severe proton-rich environments. Ultimately, both manufacturers' upset hardening is limited by SEFI (single-event functional interrupt) rates where it appears the Actel results are better although the Xilinx Virtex2-family result of about one SEFI in 65 device-years in solar-min GCR (the more intense part of the galactic cosmic-ray background) should be acceptable to most missions

  9. Laser simulation of single event upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S.P.; Wilson, D.; Kang, K.; Gill, D.; Mazer, J.A.; Raburn, W.D.; Campbell, A.B.; Knudson, A.R.

    1987-12-01

    A pulsed picosecond laser was used to produce upsets in both a commercial bipolar logic circuit and a specially designed CMOS SRAM test structure. Comparing the laser energy necessary for producing upsets in transistors that have different upset sensitivities with the single event upset (SEU) level predicted from circuit analysis showed that a picosecond laser could measure circuit sensitivity to SEUs. The technique makes it possible not only to test circuits rapidly for upset sensitivity but also, because the beam can be focussed down to a small spot size, to identify sensitive transistors.

  10. 40 CFR 403.16 - Upset provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Upset provision. 403.16 Section 403.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.16 Upset provision....

  11. Heavy Ion Irradiation Fluence Dependence for Single-Event Upsets of NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Dakai; Wilcox, Edward; Ladbury, Raymond; Kim, Hak; Phan, Anthony; Seidleck, Christina; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the single-event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the Micron 16 nm NAND flash, and found the single-event upset (SEU) cross section varied inversely with fluence. The SEU cross section decreased with increasing fluence. We attribute the effect to the variable upset sensitivities of the memory cells. The current test standards and procedures assume that SEU follow a Poisson process and do not take into account the variability in the error rate with fluence. Therefore, heavy ion irradiation of devices with variable upset sensitivity distribution using typical fluence levels may underestimate the cross section and on-orbit event rate.

  12. Method for characterizing the upset response of CMOS circuits using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. A technique utilizing test structures to quickly and inexpensively characterize the SEU sensitivity of standard cell latches intended for use in a space environment. This bench-level approach utilizes alpha particles to induce upsets in a low LET sensitive 4-k bit test SRAM. This SRAM consists of cells that employ an offset voltage to adjust their upset sensitivity and an enlarged sensitive drain junction to enhance the cell's upset rate.

  13. Transient upset models in computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Essential factors for the design of transient upset monitors for computers are discussed. The upset is a system level event that is software dependent. It can occur in the program flow, the opcode set, the opcode address domain, the read address domain, and the write address domain. Most upsets are in the program flow. It is shown that simple, external monitors functioning transparently relative to the system operations can be built if a detailed accounting is made of the characteristics of the faults that can happen. Sample applications are provided for different states of the Z-80 and 8085 based system.

  14. Process Upsets Involving Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.; Perry, Jay; Wright, John; Bahr, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Paradoxically, trace contaminant control systems that suffer unexpected upsets and malfunctions can release hazardous gaseous contaminants into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere causing potentially serious toxicological problems. Trace contaminant control systems designed for spaceflight typically employ a combination of adsorption beds and catalytic oxidation reactors to remove organic and inorganic trace contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. Interestingly, the same design features and attributes which make these systems so effective for purifying a spacecraft's atmosphere can also make them susceptible to system upsets. Cabin conditions can be contributing causes of phenomena such as adsorbent "rollover" and catalyst poisoning can alter a systems performance and in some in stances release contamination into the cabin. Evidence of these phenomena has been observed both in flight and during ground-based tests. The following discussion describes specific instances of system upsets found in trace contaminant control systems, groups these specific upsets into general hazard classifications, and recommends ways to minimize these hazards.

  15. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; et al

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environmentsmore » for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.« less

  16. Electron-induced single event upsets in 28 nm and 45 nm bulk SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Trippe, J. M.; Reed, R. A.; Austin, R. A.; Sierawski, B. D.; Weller, R. A.; Funkhouser, E. D.; King, M. P.; Narasimham, B.; Bartz, B.; Baumann, R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Labello, R.; Nichols, J.; Weeden-Wright, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present experimental evidence of single electron-induced upsets in commercial 28 nm and 45 nm CMOS SRAMs from a monoenergetic electron beam. Upsets were observed in both technology nodes when the SRAM was operated in a low power state. The experimental cross section depends strongly on both bias and technology node feature size, consistent with previous work in which SRAMs were irradiated with low energy muons and protons. Accompanying simulations demonstrate that δ-rays produced by the primary electrons are responsible for the observed upsets. Additional simulations predict the on-orbit event rates for various Earth and Jovian environments for a set of sensitive volumes representative of current technology nodes. The electron contribution to the total upset rate for Earth environments is significant for critical charges as high as 0.2 fC. This value is comparable to that of sub-22 nm bulk SRAMs. Similarly, for the Jovian environment, the electron-induced upset rate is larger than the proton-induced upset rate for critical charges as high as 0.3 fC.

  17. RH1020 Single Event Clock Upset Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.; Wang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the testing and analysis of "single event clock upset' in the RH1020. Also included are SEU-rate predictions and design recommendations for risk analysis and reduction. The subject of "upsets" in the RH1020 is best understood by using a model consisting of a global clock buffer and a D-type flip-flop as the basic memory unit. The RH1020 is built on the ACT 1 family architecture. As such, it has one low-skew global clock buffer with a TTL-level input threshold that is accessed via a single dedicated pin. The clock signal is driven to full CMOS levels, buffered, and sent to individual row buffers with one buffer per channel. For low-skew performance, the outputs of all of the RH1020 row buffers are shorted together via metal lines, as is done in the A1020B. All storage in the RH1020 consists of routed flip-flops, constructed with multiplexors and feedback through the routing segments. A simple latch can be constructed from a single (combinatorial or C) module; an edge-triggered flip-flop is constructed using two concatenated latches. There is no storage in the I/O modules. The front end of the clock buffering circuitry, at a common point relative to the row buffer, is a sub-circuit that was determined to be the most susceptible to heavy ions. This is due, in part, to its smaller transistors compared to the rest of the circuitry. This conclusion is also supported by SPICE simulations and an analysis of the heavy ion data, described in this report. The edge triggered D flip-flop has two single-event-upset modes. Mode one, called C-module upset, is caused by a heavy ion striking the C-module's sensitive area on the silicon and produces a soft single bit error at the output of the flip-flop. Mode two, called clock upset, is caused by a heavy ion strike on the clock buffer, generating a runt pulse interpreted as a false clock signal and consequently producing errors at the flip-flop outputs. C-module upset sensitivity in the RH1020 is essentially

  18. Further development of the Heavy Ion Cross section for single event UPset: Model (HICUP)

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, L.W.; Sexton, F.W.; Prinja, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The Heavy Ion Cross section for single event UPset (HICUP) models the angular dependent heavy ion upset cross section. It pulls together many of the parameters and concepts used to characterize the Single Event Upset (SEU) phenomena, unifying them in a single cohesive model. HICUP is based on a Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) geometry for the sensitive volume and the Weibull density function for the upset threshold energy. Excellent agreement is obtained between the model and heavy ion test data. HICUP is used to derive the correct scaling laws for transforming angular cross section data to normal incidence, reconciling two previously proposed inverse cosine scaling corrections. The angle integrated HICUP model, I-HICUP, is used in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) upset rate calculations with results nearly identical to the Space Radiation{trademark} code. Letaw has produced an automated SEU parameter fitting routine based on HICUP and the {chi}{sup 2} method. It ferrets out the best-fit critical SEU parameters embedded within the raw angular test data, including charge collection depth and funnel length. His method couples directly to the upset rate calculation in a self-consistent manner eliminating the need to arbitrarily assume a device depth. Results of this new procedure are presented.

  19. Analysis of vortex wake encounter upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Teper, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of an airplane being upset by encountering the vortex wake of a large transport on takeoff or landing is currently receiving considerable attention. This report describes the technique and results of a study to assess the effectiveness of automatic control systems in alleviating vortex wake upsets. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear digital simulation was used for this purpose. The analysis included establishing the disturbance input due to penetrating a vortex wake from an arbitrary position and angle. Simulations were computed for both a general aviation airplane and a commercial jet transport. Dynamic responses were obtained for the penetrating aircraft with no augmentation, and with various command augmentation systems, as well as with human pilot control. The results of this preliminary study indicate that attitude command augmentation systems can provide significant alleviation of vortex wake upsets; and can do it better than a human pilot.

  20. Mass Customization Production Planning System by Advance Demand Information Based on Unfulfilled-order-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Masaya; Okuhara, Koji

    In this paper, we try to model for ‘Naiji System’ which is a unique corporation between a maker and suppliers in Japan. We propose Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) based on unfulfilled-order-rate by using Advance Demand Information, which is called ‘Naiji’. This model is formulated as a nonlinear stochastic programming problem which minimizes the sum of production cost and inventory holding cost subject to the set of probabilistic constraint and some linear production constraints. We propose the new upper bound SOn (ρmin) to estimate the unfulfilled-order-rate more strictly. The procedure to find a good solution is developed by solving the linear programming problem repeatedly on the basic solution strategy that is ‘relaxation’. A computational load to obtain a solution by the proposed indicator is shown to be very small. Finally, an availability of the procedure is shown.

  1. Upset Characterization of the PowerPC405 Hard-core Processor Embedded in Virtex-II Pro Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Allen, Gregory S.; Farmanesh, Farhad; George, Jeffrey; Petrick, David J.; Chayab, Fayez

    2006-01-01

    Shown in this presentation are recent results for the upset susceptibility of the various types of memory elements in the embedded PowerPC405 in the Xilinx V2P40 FPGA. For critical flight designs where configuration upsets are mitigated effectively through appropriate design triplication and configuration scrubbing, these upsets of processor elements can dominate the system error rate. Data from irradiations with both protons and heavy ions are given and compared using available models.

  2. Use of PuBe source to simulate neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Wert, J.L.; Doherty, W.R.; Oberg, D.L.; Measel, P.R.; Criswell, T.L.

    1988-12-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets were measured in static memory devices using a 10 curie PuBe source. The PuBe source conservatively overestimates the spectrum of fast neutrons emitted by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). For the 93L422, the neutron-induced upset rate compared favorably with calculated values derived using the burst generation concept. By accounting for the production of the ionizing particles by the PuBe and RTG neutron spectra, convenient upper bound SEU upset rates for memory devices near an RTG can be derived.

  3. Further development of the ion cross section for single event upset: model (HICUP)

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, L.W.; Sexton, F.W.; Prinja, A.K.

    1995-07-01

    The HICUP models are shown to be useful tools for both analyzing cross section data and performing upset rate calculations, thereby allowing the cross section concept to be used in both areas. The angular dependent HICUP model is developed from the RPP geometry and the Weibull density function. It is compared with angular cross section data, showing good agreement. The HICUP model is used to derive the correct scaling laws for transforming cross section data taken off-normal to normal incidence. The HICUP scaling reconciles two previously proposed inverse cosine scaling corrections which are shown to be asymptotic forms of the HICUP scaling. The angle-integrated form, I-HICUP, is developed and used in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) upset rate calculations on several devices. Results are nearly identical to SPACE RADIATION{trademark} calculations. I-HICUP is used to perform an uncertainty analysis of GCR upset rate, examining the sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters. The GCR upset rate shows the greatest sensitivity to upset threshold, device depth (and funnel depth if applicable), and saturation cross section, the least sensitivity to RPP length-to-width aspect ratio. The other Weibull parameters, width, W, and shape, b, are of intermediate sensitivity.

  4. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  5. Mass Customization Production Planning System by Advance Demand Information Based on Unfulfilled-order-rate II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Nobuyuki; Kadomoto, Kiyotaka; Okuhara, Koji

    In the previous paper, we proposed Mass Customization Production Planning & Management System (MCPS) based on unfulfilled-order-rate by using Advance Demand Information which is called ‘Naiji System’ as an unique corporation between a maker and suppliers in Japan, and 3 indicators to estimate the unfulfilled-order-rate. Applying these indicators to the model, we investigated the behavior of unfulfilled-order-rate at the final period in the planning horizon. In this paper, we propose a new model for purchasing, and investigate the unfulfilled-order-rate at each period and the impact to the total inventory. We find that the total inventories become 5.9%-20.0% decreases by using SOn rather than by using SOn(0). And we enhance a base-stock policy to a new one with multi-period. We prove that the MCPS model for purchasing by using SOn(0) is equivalent to the base-stock policy with multi-period under the specified condition. Under this condition, the proposed model by using SOn decreases inventories more than the base-stock policy with multi-period.

  6. Effects of cosmic rays on single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venable, D. D.; Zajic, V.; Lowe, C. W.; Olidapupo, A.; Fogarty, T. N.

    1989-01-01

    Assistance was provided to the Brookhaven Single Event Upset (SEU) Test Facility. Computer codes were developed for fragmentation and secondary radiation affecting Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) in space. A computer controlled CV (HP4192) test was developed for Terman analysis. Also developed were high speed parametric tests which are independent of operator judgment and a charge pumping technique for measurement of D(sub it) (E). The X-ray secondary effects, and parametric degradation as a function of dose rate were simulated. The SPICE simulation of static RAMs with various resistor filters was tested.

  7. QIE10: a new front-end custom integrated circuit for high-rate experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbaugh, A.; Dal Monte, L.; Drake, G.; Freeman, J.; Hare, D.; Hernandez Rojas, H.; Hughes, E.; Los, S.; Mendez Mendez, D.; Proudfoot, J.; Shaw, T.; Tully, C.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Zimmerman, T.

    2014-01-01

    We present results on a new version of the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder), a custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed at Fermilab. Developed specifically for the measurement of charge from photo-detectors in high-rate environments, this most recent addition to the QIE family features 3 fC sensitivity, 17-bits of dynamic range with logarithmic response, a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) with sub-nanosecond resolution, and internal charge injection. The device is capable of dead-timeless operation at 40 MHz, making it ideal for calorimetry at the Large hadron Collider (LHC). We present bench measurements and integration studies that characterize the performance, radiation tolerance measurements, and plans for deployment in the Atlas and CMS detectors as part of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades.

  8. Studies Of Single-Event-Upset Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents latest in series of investigations of "soft" bit errors known as single-event upsets (SEU). In this investigation, SEU response of low-power, Schottky-diode-clamped, transistor/transistor-logic (TTL) static random-access memory (RAM) observed during irradiation by Br and O ions in ranges of 100 to 240 and 20 to 100 MeV, respectively. Experimental data complete verification of computer model used to simulate SEU in this circuit.

  9. Unit-level voluntary turnover rates and customer service quality: implications of group cohesiveness, newcomer concentration, and size.

    PubMed

    Hausknecht, John P; Trevor, Charlie O; Howard, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Despite substantial growth in the service industry and emerging work on turnover consequences, little research examines how unit-level turnover rates affect essential customer-related outcomes. The authors propose an operational disruption framework to explain why voluntary turnover impairs customers' service quality perceptions. On the basis of a sample of 75 work units and data from 5,631 employee surveys, 59,602 customer surveys, and organizational records, results indicate that unit-level voluntary turnover rates are negatively related to service quality perceptions. The authors also examine potential boundary conditions related to the disruption framework. Of 3 moderators studied (group cohesiveness, group size, and newcomer concentration), results show that turnover's negative effects on service quality are more pronounced in larger units and in those with a greater concentration of newcomers. PMID:19594245

  10. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics.

  11. Customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS): climate satisfaction evaluation based on subjective perception.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Climate not only influences the behavior of people in urban environments but also affects people's schedules and travel plans. Therefore, providing people with appropriate long-term climate evaluation information is crucial. Therefore, we developed an innovative climate assessment system based on field investigations conducted in three cities located in Northern, Central, and Southern Taiwan. The field investigations included the questionnaire surveys and climate data collection. We first analyzed the relationship between the participants and climate parameters comprising physiologically equivalent temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, cloud cover, and precipitation. Second, we established the neutral value, comfort range, and dissatisfied range of each parameter. Third, after verifying that the subjects' perception toward the climate parameters vary based on individual preferences, we developed the customized rating assessment of climate suitability (CRACS) approach, which featured functions such as personalized and default climate suitability information to be used by users exhibiting varying demands. Finally, we performed calculations using the climate conditions of two cities during the past 10 years to demonstrate the performance of the CRACS approach. The results can be used as a reference when planning activities in the city or when organizing future travel plans. The flexibility of the assessment system enables it to be adjusted for varying regions and usage characteristics. PMID:25900004

  12. Proton-sensitive custom SRAM detector

    SciTech Connect

    Soli, G.A.; Blaes, B.R.; Buehler, M.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Because of the recently discovered importance of protons to the upset of spaceborne electronics, a custom 4--bit SRAM chip was tested with protons. The SRAM was developed to determine the Single Event Upset hardness of CMOS latches using alpha particle measurements, by adjusting an offset voltage that reduces the charge required to upset a cell. The proton experiments were designed to observe both proton and silicon recoil produced ionization. The silicon recoils were generated by protons undergoing nuclear coulomb scattering. It was discovered that silicon recoil produced charge can be collected from very deep in the silicon substrate. This paper describes a calibration procedure for rhe SRAM detector. Source spectra were acquired with this chip by measuring the number of upset cells versus offset voltage.

  13. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  14. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    PubMed

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response. PMID:20222267

  15. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  16. Single event upset studies using the ATLAS SCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafinca, A.; Henderson, J.; Weidberg, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Single Event Upsets (SEU) are expected to occur during high luminosity running of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT). The SEU cross sections were measured in pion beams with momenta in the range 200 to 465 MeV/c and proton test beams at 24 GeV/c but the extrapolation to LHC conditions is non-trivial because of the range of particle types and momenta. The SEUs studied occur in the p-i-n photodiode and the registers in the ABCD chip. Other possible locations for SEU were not investigated in this study. Comparisons between predicted SEU rates and those measured from ATLAS data are presented. The implications for ATLAS operation are discussed.

  17. Mechanisms and modeling of single-event upset

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, Paul E.

    1998-10-12

    The basic mechanisms of single-event upset are reviewed, including charge collection in silicon junctions and transistors, and properties of single-event upset in CMOS static random access memory (SRAM) cells. The mechanisms are illustrated through the use of three-dimensional device and circuit simulations. Technology trends and implications for commercial devices are discussed.

  18. Performance analysis of a generalized upset detection procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blough, Douglas M.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1987-01-01

    A general procedure for upset detection in complex systems, called the data block capture and analysis upset monitoring process is described and analyzed. The process consists of repeatedly recording a fixed amount of data from a set of predetermined observation lines of the system being monitored (i.e., capturing a block of data), and then analyzing the captured block in an attempt to determine whether the system is functioning correctly. The algorithm which analyzes the data blocks can be characterized in terms of the amount of time it requires to examine a given length data block to ascertain the existence of features/conditions that have been predetermined to characterize the upset-free behavior of the system. The performance of linear, quadratic, and logarithmic data analysis algorithms is rigorously characterized in terms of three performance measures: (1) the probability of correctly detecting an upset; (2) the expected number of false alarms; and (3) the expected latency in detecting upsets.

  19. Single event upset tests of a RISC-based fault-tolerant computer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Butner, D.N.; Colella, N.J.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Shaeffer, D.L.; McKnett, C.L.; Coakley, P.G.; Casteneda, C.

    1996-03-23

    The project successfully demonstrated that dual lock-step comparison of commercial RISC processors is a viable fault-tolerant approach to handling SEU in space environment. The fault tolerant approach on orbit error rate was 38 times less than the single processor error rate. The random nature of the upsets and appearance in critical code section show it is essential to incorporate both hardware and software in the design and operation of fault-tolerant computers.

  20. Analog-digital simulation of transient-induced logic errors and upset susceptibility of an advanced control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.; Choi, G.; Iyer, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation study is described which predicts the susceptibility of an advanced control system to electrical transients resulting in logic errors, latched errors, error propagation, and digital upset. The system is based on a custom-designed microprocessor and it incorporates fault-tolerant techniques. The system under test and the method to perform the transient injection experiment are described. Results for 2100 transient injections are analyzed and classified according to charge level, type of error, and location of injection.

  1. Single event upsets caused by solar energetic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tylka, A.J.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Boberg, P.R.; Dietrich, W.F.; Smith, E.C.

    1996-12-01

    The authors calculate single event upset (SEU) rates due to protons, alphas, and heavier ions in two satellite systems for the major solar particle events of 1989--92, using a new and complete analysis of GOES proton data and high-energy heavy-ion fluences from the University of Chicago Cosmic Ray Telescope on IMP-8. These measurements cover the entire range of energies relevant to SEU studies and therefore overcome shortcomings of previous studies, which relied upon theoretical or semi-empirical estimates of high-energy heavy-ion spectra. They compare the results to the observed SEU rates in these events. The SEU rates in one device were overwhelmingly dominated by protons. However, even after taking into account uncertainties in the ground-test cross-section data, the authors find that at least {approximately}45% of the SEUs in the other device must have been caused by heavy ions. The results demonstrate that both protons and heavy ions must be considered in order to make a reliable assessment of SEU vulnerabilities. Furthermore, the GOES/Chicago database of solar particle events provides a basis for making accurate solar particle SEU calculations and credible worst-case estimates. In particular, measurements of the historic solar particle events of October 1989 are used in worst week and worst day environment models in CREME96, a revision of NRL`s Cosmic Ray Effects on MicroElectronics code.

  2. Testing Electronic Devices for Single-Event Upset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report prepared describes equipment and summarizes both pretest and onsite procedures for testing of digital electronic devices for susceptibility to single-event upset. Term "single-event upset" denotes variety of temporary or permanent bit flips or latchup induced by single particles of ionizing radiation. Vacuum chamber houses device under test while exposed to ion beam. Vacuum chamber and associated equipment must be brought to ion-beam facility for test.

  3. More About Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup; Edmonds, Larry D.; Zoutendyk, John A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports describe preliminary theoretical and experimental studies based on method described in "Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets" (NPO-18216). Laser-scan and heavy-ion data found correlated within factor of two. Method of testing for single-event upsets intended to overcome disadvantages of, complement, and/or substitute for more-expensive cyclotron-testing method, which does not provide spatial resolution.

  4. Measuring Critical Charges For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.

    1988-01-01

    Concept for determining susceptibility of integrated circuits to single-event upsets (SEU's) based on direct measurement of critical charge causing upset. Test circuit is modified version of standard complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor static cell. Contains six transistors, connected to form latch that retains state of cell set by input pulses. Makes possible to evaluate vulnerability to SEU during design and development of digital equipment.

  5. The impact of customer focus on program participation rates in the Virginia WIC Program (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children).

    PubMed

    Chance, K G; Green, C G

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown in the for-profit sector (business, service, and manufacturing) that the success of an organization depends on its ability to satisfy customer requirements while eliminating waste and reducing costs. The purpose of this article was to examine the impact of current practices in customer focus on program participation rates in the Virginia WIC Program. The results of this study showed that the use of customer-focused strategies was correlated to program participation rates in the WIC Program. The mean data showed that teamwork and accessibility were at unsatisfactory levels in Virginia. PMID:11141618

  6. Observations of single-event upsets in non-hardened high-density SRAMs in sun-synchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, C. I.; Ward, J. W.; Dyer, C. S.; Sims, A. J.

    1992-12-01

    Observations of single-event upset (SEU) activity in nonhardened static and dynamic RAMs of both low (16-kb) and high (256-kb, 1-Mb), density are presented for a family of small spacecraft in low-earth, near-polar, sun-synchronous orbits. The observation of single-event multiple-bit upset (MBU) in these devices is discussed, and the implications of such events for error-protection coding schemes are examined. Contrary to expectations, the 1-Mb static RAMs (SRAMs) are more resilient to SEU than the 246-kb SRAMs, and one type of commercial 1-Mb SRAM shows a particularly low error rate.

  7. The single event upset environment for avionics at high latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.J.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L. . Space and Communications Dept.); Johansson, K.; Pettersson, H. ); Farren, J. . Harwell Lab.)

    1994-12-01

    Modern avionic systems for civil and military applications are becoming increasingly reliant upon embedded microprocessors and associated memory devices. The phenomenon of single event upset (SEU) is well known in space systems and designers have generally been careful to use SEU tolerant devices or to implement error detection and correction (EDAC) techniques where appropriate. In the past, avionics designers have had no reason to consider SEU effects but is clear that the more prevalent use of memory devices combined with increasing levels of IC integration will make SEU mitigation an important design consideration for future avionic systems. To this end, it is necessary to work towards producing models of the avionics SEU environment which will permit system designers to choose components and EDAC techniques which are based on predictions of SEU rates correct to much better than an order of magnitude. Measurements of the high latitude SEU environment at avionics altitude have been made on board a commercial airliner. Results are compared with models of primary and secondary cosmic rays and atmospheric neutrons. Ground based SEU tests of static RAMs are used to predict rates in flight.

  8. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Integration Transmission Service (NITS). SUMMARY: This action is to temporarily extend the existing NITS... Southwest Region Network Integration Transmission Service and WALC Ancillary Services Formula Rates. Order Confirming and Approving a Temporary Extension of the Network Integration Transmission Service and...

  9. The single event upset response of the analog devices, ADSP2100A, digital signal processor

    SciTech Connect

    Harboe-Sorensen, R.; Seran, H.; Armbruster, P.; Adams, L. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a radiation evaluation program carried out by ESTEC on the Analog Devices, ADSP2100A, which is a single chip microprocessor optimized for 12.5 Mips Digital Signal Processing (DSP). Single Event Upset/Latch-up (SEU/SEL) testing using Californium-252 was the primary aim of this program, however, accelerator heavy ion and proton SEU/SEL data as well as total ionizing dose data are also presented. The hardware design and software used will be described and details of the various tests and test facilities will be given. Finally, the authors report on the use of the SEU data for the calculation of expected in-orbit upset rates using the CREME suite of programs.

  10. Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin; Fremaux, Charles M.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, research has been in progress to develop aerodynamic modeling methods for simulations that accurately predict the flight dynamics characteristics of large transport airplanes in upset conditions. The motivation for this research stems from the recognition that simulation is a vital tool for addressing loss-of-control accidents, including applications to pilot training, accident reconstruction, and advanced control system analysis. The ultimate goal of this effort is to contribute to the reduction of the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control. Research activities have involved accident analyses, wind tunnel testing, and piloted simulation. Results have shown that significant improvements in simulation fidelity for upset conditions, compared to current training simulations, can be achieved using state-of-the-art wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic modeling methods. This paper provides a summary of research completed to date and includes discussion on key technical results, lessons learned, and future research needs.

  11. New mechanism for upset of electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Molina, Luis Leroy; Salazar, Robert Austin; Patterson, Paull Edward; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2004-03-01

    For many decades, engineers and scientists have studied the effects of high power microwaves (HPM) on electronics. These studies usually focus on means of delivering energy to upset electronic equipment and ways to protect equipment from HPM. The motivation for these studies is to develop the knowledge necessary either to cause disruption or to protect electronics from disruption. Since electronic circuits must absorb sufficient energy to fail and the source used to deliver this energy is far away from the electronic circuit, the source must emit a large quantity of energy. In free space, for example, as the distance between the source and the target increases, the source energy must increase by the square of distance. The HPM community has dedicated substantial resources to the development of higher energy sources as a result. Recently, members of the HPM community suggested a new disruption mechanism that could potentially cause system disruptions at much lower energy levels. The new mechanism, based on nonlinear dynamics, requires an expanded theory of circuit operation. This report summarizes an investigation of electronic circuit nonlinear behavior as it applies to inductor-resistor-diode circuits (known as the Linsay circuit) and phased-locked-loops. With the improvement in computing power and the need to model circuit behavior with greater precision, the nonlinear effects of circuit has become very important. In addition, every integrated circuit has as part of its design a protective circuit. These protective circuits use some variation of semiconductor junctions that can interact with parasitic components, present in every real system. Hence, the protective circuit can behave as a Linsay circuit. Although the nonlinear behavior is understandable, it is difficult to model accurately. Many researchers have used classical diode models successfully to show nonlinear effects within predicted regions of operation. However, these models do not accurately predict

  12. A Simple Rate Law Experiment Using a Custom-Built Isothermal Heat Conduction Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Xi.

    2008-01-01

    Most processes (whether physical, chemical, or biological) produce or consume heat: measuring thermal power (the heat production rate) is therefore a typical method of studying processes. Here we describe the design of a simple isothermal heat conduction calorimeter built for use in teaching; we also provide an example of its use in simultaneously…

  13. When Patients Customize Nursing Home Ratings, Choices And Rankings Differ From The Government's Version.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Dana B; Amin, Alpesh; Weimer, David L; Sharit, Joseph; Ladd, Heather; Sorkin, Dara H

    2016-04-01

    Report cards currently published by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offer composite (summary) quality measures based on a five-star ratings system, such as the one featured on the Nursing Home Compare website. These ratings are "one size fits all patients" measures. Nursing Home Compare Plus is an alternative that allows patients and their families to create their own composite scores based on their own preferences and medical needs. We present data from 146 patients who were discharged from the hospital to nursing homes who used Nursing Home Compare Plus. We found that the individual patient-constructed composites differed from CMS's five-star ratings composite. Patients differed from each other and from CMS in the number of performance measures they chose to include in their composite and in their weighting of each performance measure. When comparing Nursing Home Compare Plus to Medicare's five-star ratings, we found only minimal agreement on ranking of nursing homes. We conclude that patients might benefit if current report cards are modified to include an option for personalized ranking. PMID:27044973

  14. Measurement of gas yields and flow rates using a custom flowmeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Pinkston, J.C.; Stern, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple gas collection apparatus based on the principles of a Torricelli tube has been designed and built to measure gas volume yields and flow rates. This instrument is routinely used to monitor and collect methane gas released during methane hydrate dissociation experiments. It is easily and inexpensively built, operates at ambient pressures and temperatures, and measures gas volumes of up to 7 L to a precision of about 15 ml (about 0.0025 mol). It is capable of measuring gas flow rates varying from more than 103 to less than 10-1 ml/min during gas evolution events that span minutes to several days. We have obtained a highly reproducible hydrate number of n=5.891 with a propagated uncertainty of ??0.020 for synthetic methane hydrate. ?? 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Interim Report on Customer Acceptance, Retention, and Response to Time-Based Rates from the Consumer Behavior Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Hans, Liesel; Scheer, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Time-based rate programs1, enabled by utility investments in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), are increasingly being considered by utilities as tools to reduce peak demand and enable customers to better manage consumption and costs. There are several customer systems that are relatively new to the marketplace and have the potential for improving the effectiveness of these programs, including in-home displays (IHDs), programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs), and web portals. Policy and decision makers are interested in more information about customer acceptance, retention, and response before moving forward with expanded deployments of AMI-enabled new rates and technologies. Under the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program (SGIG), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partnered with several utilities to conduct consumer behavior studies (CBS). The goals involved applying randomized and controlled experimental designs for estimating customer responses more precisely and credibly to advance understanding of time-based rates and customer systems, and provide new information for improving program designs, implementation strategies, and evaluations. The intent was to produce more robust and credible analysis of impacts, costs, benefits, and lessons learned and assist utility and regulatory decision makers in evaluating investment opportunities involving time-based rates. To help achieve these goals, DOE developed technical guidelines to help the CBS utilities estimate customer acceptance, retention, and response more precisely.

  16. Neuroendocrine Disruption: More than Hormones are Upset

    PubMed Central

    Waye, Andrew; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small proportion of the published research on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) directly examined effects on neuroendocrine processes. There is an expanding body of evidence that anthropogenic chemicals exert effects on neuroendocrine systems and that these changes might impact peripheral organ systems and physiological processes. Neuroendocrine disruption extends the concept of endocrine disruption to include the full breadth of integrative physiology (i.e., more than hormones are upset). Pollutants may also disrupt numerous other neurochemical pathways to affect an animal's capacity to reproduce, develop and grow, or deal with stress and other challenges. Several examples are presented in this review, from both vertebrates and invertebrates, illustrating that diverse environmental pollutants including pharmaceuticals, organochlorine pesticides, and industrial contaminants have the potential to disrupt neuroendocrine control mechanisms. While most investigations on EDC are carried out with vertebrate models, an attempt is also made to highlight the importance of research on invertebrate neuroendocrine disruption. The neurophysiology of many invertebrates is well described and many of their neurotransmitters are similar or identical to those in vertebrates; therefore, lessons learned from one group of organisms may help us understand potential adverse effects in others. This review argues for the adoption of systems biology and integrative physiology to address the effects of EDC. Effects of pulp and paper mill effluents on fish reproduction are a good example of where relatively narrow hypothesis testing strategies (e.g., whether or not pollutants are sex steroid mimics) have only partially solved a major problem in environmental biology. It is clear that a global, integrative physiological approach, including improved understanding of neuroendocrine control mechanisms, is warranted to fully understand the impacts of pulp and paper mill effluents

  17. Investigation for single-event upset in MSI devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, J. P.; Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation shows that low-power TTL, standard TTL, low-power Schottky, and Schottky devices are all subject to upset by heavy ions. Low-power Schottky was the most sensitive of the device technologies tested. No evidence was found to correlate sensitivity to cosmic rays with any particular device manufacturer. The probability of upset of the logic devices is comparable to that of RAM's on a per-flip-flop basis, based on RAM data obtained by Kolasinski et al. (1979). The testing was performed by subjecting the devices to 120 MeV krypton ions from a cyclotron.

  18. Upset welding process for 21-6-9 spherical vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanne, W. R., Jr.

    1993-02-01

    An upset resistance welding process which was developed to fabricate high quality spherical vessels from forged 21-6-9 stainless steel is discussed. The two hemishells of the vessels were joined at the girth using solid-state upset welding. Vessels passed nondestructive examinations (X-ray radiography, proof and leak tests, volume and dimensional measurements) and destructive examinations (burst tests and metallography). A set of six high quality vessels was produced. These vessels are 1.86 inches in diameter with a threaded boss and tube on top.

  19. Single event upset (SEU) sensitivity dependence of linear integrated circuits (ICs) on bias conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Penzin, S.H.; Crawford, K.B.; Crain, W.R.; Moss, S.C.; Pinkerton, S.D.; LaLumondiere, S.D.; Maher, M.C.

    1997-12-01

    The single event upset (SEU) sensitivity of certain types of linear microcircuits is strongly affected by bias conditions. For these devices, a model of upset mechanism and a method for SEU control have been suggested.

  20. Electrical upsetting of metal sheet forms weld edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherba, E. S.

    1966-01-01

    Electric gathering of sheet stock edges forms metal sheets in the shape of gore sections with heavier edge areas that can be welded without loss of strength. The edges are gathered by progressive resistance heating and upsetting, and are formed automatically. This process avoids disturbance of the metals internal structure.

  1. Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup; Soli, George A.; Schwartz, Harvey R.

    1992-01-01

    Microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) is opto/electro/mechanical apparatus for nondestructive testing of integrated memory circuits, logic circuits, and other microelectronic devices. Multipurpose diagnostic system used to determine ultrafast time response, leakage, latchup, and electrical overstress. Used to simulate some of effects of heavy ions accelerated to high energies to determine susceptibility of digital device to single-event upsets.

  2. Single-Event-Upset Laser Scanner With Optical Bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Quiesup

    1992-01-01

    Light-assisted microelectronic advanced laser scanner (LAMEALS) is augmented version of microelectronic advanced laser scanner (MEALS) described in article, "Laser Scanner Tests For Single-Event Upsets", (NPO-18216). Only major difference, steady illumination from helium/neon laser, argon-ion laser, and/or other source(s) combined with pulsed dye-laser illumination of MEALS into single illuminating beam.

  3. Modeling and experimental verification of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, T. N.; Attia, J. O.; Kumar, A. A.; Tang, T. S.; Lindner, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed and the results obtained at the Laboratory for Radiation Studies, Prairie View A&M University and Texas A&I University, on the problem of Single Events Upsets, the various schemes employed to limit them and the effects they have on the reliability and fault tolerance at the systems level, such as robotic systems are reviewed.

  4. Frequency Dependence of Single-Event Upset in Highly Advanced PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; White, Mark; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions were measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes at three frequencies of 500, 1066 and 1600 MHz. Frequency dependence of single-event upsets is discussed. The results of our studies suggest the single-event upset in registers and D-Cache tend to increase with frequency. This might have important implications for the overall single-event upset trend as technology moves toward higher frequencies.

  5. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM-Based FPGAs from the Xilinx Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, G. M.; Yui, C. C.; Carmichael, C.; Koga, R.; George, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Static random access memory (SRAM) upset rates in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) from the Xilinx Virtex 2 family have been tested for radiation effects on configuration memory, block RAM and the power-on-reset (POR) and SelectMAP single event functional interrupts (SEFIs). Dynamic testing has shown the effectiveness and value of Triple Module Redundancy (TMR) and partial reconfiguration when used in conjunction. Continuing dynamic testing for more complex designs and other Virtex 2 capabilities (i.e., I/O standards, digital clock managers (DCM), etc.) is scheduled.

  6. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics ofCustomer-Sited PV: A Study of Commercial Installations inCalifornia

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-06-01

    We analyze the impact of retail rate design on the economics of grid-connected commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems in California. The analysis is based on 15-minute interval building load and PV production data for 24 commercial PV installations in California, spanning a diverse set of building load shapes and geographic locations. We derive the annual bill savings per kWh generated for each PV system, under each of 21 distinct retail rates currently offered by the five largest utilities in California. We identify and explain variation in the value of bill savings attributable to differences in the structure of demand and energy charges across rates, as well as variation attributable to other factors, such as the size of the PV system relative to building load, the specific shape of the PV production profile, and the customer load profile. We also identify the optimal rate for each customer, among those rates offered as alternatives to one another, and show how the decision is driven in large measure by the size of the PV system relative to building load. The findings reported here may be of value to regulators and utilities responsible for designing retail rates, as well as to customers and PV retailers who have a need to estimate the prospective bill savings of PV systems.

  7. Single event upset sensitivity of low power Schottky devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. E.; Nichols, D. K.; Measel, P. R.; Wahlin, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Data taken from tests involving heavy ions in the Berkeley 88 in. cyclotron being directed at low power Schottky barrier devices are reported. The tests also included trials in the Harvard cyclotron with 130 MeV protons, and at the U.C. Davis cyclotron using 56 MeV protons. The experiments were performed to study the single event upsets in MSI logic devices containing flip-flops. Results are presented of single-event upsets (SEU) causing functional degradation observed in post-exposure tests of six different devices. The effectiveness of the particles in producing SEUs in logic device functioning was found to be directly proportional to the proton energy. Shielding was determined to offer negligible protection from the particle bombardment. The results are considered significant for the design and fabrication of LS devices for space applications.

  8. Simulating Single-Event Upsets in Bipolar RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation technique saves testing. Uses interactive version of SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis). Device and subcircuit models available in software used to construct macromodel for an integrated bipolar transistor. Time-dependent current generators placed inside transistor macromodel to simulate charge collection from ion track. Significant finding of experiments is standard design practice of reducing power in unaddressed bipolar RAM cell increases sensitivity of cell to single-event upsets.

  9. 19 CFR 24.16 - Overtime services; overtime compensation and premium pay for Customs Officers; rate of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... affecting § 24.16, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... aircraft (vessel). (Pilot, Owner, or Person in Charge) (3) An application on Customs Form 3171 for overtime... during overtime. Except as expressly authorized by statute, regulation, or court order (i.e.,...

  10. Grain Size Estimation of Superalloy Inconel 718 After Upset Forging by a Fuzzy Inference System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Luis; Cavazos, Alberto; Colás, Rafael

    2009-12-01

    A fuzzy logic inference system was designed to predict the grain size of Inconel 718 alloy after upset forging. The system takes as input the original grain size, temperature, and reduction rate at forging and predicts the final grain size at room temperature. It is assumed that the system takes into account the effects that the heterogeneity of deformation and grain growth exerts in this particular material. Experimental trials were conducted in a factory that relies on upset forging to produce preforms for ring rolling. The grain size was reported as ASTM number, as this value is used on site. A first attempt was carried out using a series of 15 empirically based set of rules; the estimation error with these was above two ASTM numbers; which is considered to be very high. The system was modified and expanded to take into account 28 rules; the estimation error of this new system resulted to be close to one ASTM number, which is considered to be adequate for the prediction.

  11. Neutron induced single-word multiple-bit upset in SRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Ohlsson, M.; Olsson, N.; Blomgren, J.; Renberg, P.U.

    1999-12-01

    The Single-word Multiple-bit Upset (SMU) frequency for nine commercial Static Random Access Memories (SRAM) have been evaluated at eight different neutron energies: 0-11MeV, 14MeV, 22MeV, 35MeV, 45MeV, 75MeV, 96MeV, 160MeV. The SRAM types used at these experiments have sizes from 256Kbit up to 1Mbit, with date-codes ranging from 9209 up to 9809. The result showed a slightly rising dependence on the neutron energy. Also experiments at two neutron energies, 45MeV and 96MeV, were performed where the supply voltage influence on the SMU-rate was studied. Five device types were used at 96MeV and the supply voltage was changed between 5V, 3.3V and 2.5V. At 45MeV three devices at 5V and 3.3V were irradiated. The experiments showed a relation between the amount of total upset and SMU that indicates no clear supply voltage dependence.

  12. Comparison between observed and theoretically determined SEU rates in the Texas TMS4416 DRAMs on-board the UoSAT-2 micro-satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.

    1998-06-01

    A single event upset (SEU) prediction tool, PRISM (Protons in Semi-conductor Materials) has been used to model the proton induced upset rate in Texas TMS4416 DRAMs on-board the UoSAT-2 micro-satellite. Good agreement is found between the observed and theoretically determined SEU and MBU (multiple-bit upset) rates for this device.

  13. Device simulation of charge collection and single-event upset

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, P.E.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the author reviews the current status of device simulation of ionizing-radiation-induced charge collection and single-event upset (SEU), with an emphasis on significant results of recent years. The author presents an overview of device-modeling techniques applicable to the SEU problem and the unique challenges this task presents to the device modeler. He examines unloaded simulations of radiation-induced charge collection in simple p/n diodes, SEU in dynamic random access memories (DRAM`s), and SEU in static random access memories (SRAM`s). The author concludes with a few thoughts on future issues likely to confront the SEU device modeler.

  14. High performance static latches with complete single event upset immunity

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, W.T.; Weaver, H.T.

    1994-04-26

    An asymmetric response latch providing immunity to single event upset without loss of speed is described. The latch has cross-coupled inverters having a hardened logic state and a soft state, wherein the logic state of the first inverter can only be changed when the voltage on the coupling node of that inverter is low and the logic state of the second inverter can only be changed when the coupling of that inverter is high. One of more of the asymmetric response latches may be configured into a memory cell having complete immunity, which protects information rather than logic states. 5 figures.

  15. High performance static latches with complete single event upset immunity

    DOEpatents

    Corbett, Wayne T.; Weaver, Harry T.

    1994-01-01

    An asymmetric response latch providing immunity to single event upset without loss of speed. The latch has cross-coupled inverters having a hardened logic state and a soft state, wherein the logic state of the first inverter can only be changed when the voltage on the coupling node of that inverter is low and the logic state of the second inverter can only be changed when the coupling of that inverter is high. One of more of the asymmetric response latches may be configured into a memory cell having complete immunity, which protects information rather than logic states.

  16. Modeling of single-event upset in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of work done on the quantitative characterization of single-event upset (SEU) in bipolar random-access memories (RAMs) have been obtained through computer simulation of SEU in RAM cells that contain circuit models for bipolar transistors. The models include current generators that emulate the charge collected from ion tracks. The computer simulation results are compared with test data obtained from a RAM in a bipolar microprocessor chip. This methodology is applicable to other bipolar integrated circuit constructions in addition to RAM cells.

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Upset and Recovery of the National Ignition Facility's Optics Module

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bernardin

    1999-05-01

    temperature changes in the optical components. However, the corresponding recovery times of the optical components were found to be less than three hours, well within the seven hour limit posed by NW operations. Simulated laser shots also were found to create thermal upsets within the OM's optical components over a range of heat deposition rates. However, the recovery times of these thermal upsets were found to be less than one hour. Finally, the use of non-contact infrared thermocouples was demonstrated as an effective means to track the temperature of the OM's optics.

  18. Single event upset in irradiated 16k CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Axness, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Koga, R.

    1988-12-01

    The Single Event Upset (SEU) characteristics of a CMOS SRAM cell irradiated under conditions that simulate the total-dose degradation anticipated in space applications are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Simulations of SEU sensitivity utilizing a 2D circuit/device simulator, with measured transistor threshold-voltage shifts and mobility degradations as inputs, are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data at high total dose. Both simulation and experiment show a strong SRAM cell SEU imbalance, resulting in a more SEU tolerant preferred state and a less tolerant non-preferred state. The resulting cell imbalance causes an overall degradation in SEU immunity which increases with increasing total dose and which should be taken into account in SEU testing and part characterization.

  19. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  20. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ..., DSW-EI2, DSW- SPR2, and DSW-SUR2 on June 26, 2006 (Rate Order No. WAPA-127, 71 FR 36332).\\1\\ These..., Extension of Rate Order No. WAPA-127 through September 30, 2013. 76 FR 28767, May 18, 2011. Desert Southwest... published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 37835). Under Delegation Order Nos. 00-037.00 and 00-001.00C, 10...

  1. Use of new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron cross sections for single event upset calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-12-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data for incident protons and neutrons with energies up to 150 MeV. This paper focuses on the nuclear reaction physics that is important for calculating recoil spectra, and burst generation rate spectra. Comparisons are made with previous results, obtained from intranuclear cascade calculations as well as from previous ENDF data below 20 MeV, to demonstrate new features in the present calculations. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  2. A knowledge based system to help building operators respond to real time electricity rates: Customer profitability and response to pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.K.; Englander, S.L.

    1996-03-01

    Building operators are increasingly faced with complex pricing information from electric utilities. Operators of commercial and industrial facilities have the opportunity to respond to price signals in whatever ways are feasible and can in principle evaluate in a rational manner the trade-offs between costs and possible reduction or shifts in end-use services fueled by electricity (lights, heating, cooling, process loads). The flexibility associated with real-time rates come at the expense of a demand for increased vigilance, knowledge, and computational skells on the part of the building operator. Periods of high rates will create high electricity bills if there is no appropriate response. This paper describes work to develop a knowledge base and software system to aid building operators in minimizing energy costs under real-time pricing electricity rates by assessing possible control strategies and performing necessary numerical computations.

  3. Markovian Statistical Data Analysis of Single-Event Upsets Triggered by High Intensity Neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakdawala, Anushka V.; Zhang, Hong; Gonzalex, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from a single-event upset experiment conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Statistical tools, based on well-known x(sup 2) hypothesis testing theory, are used to determine if sequences of upsets can be modeled as a homogeneous Markov chain of a specific order. The experiment consisted of radiating a new experimental flight control computer (FCC) with a high intensity neutron beam while the FCC controlled a simulation of a Boeing 737. The analyzed data is a sequence of states that indicates when the FCC is under an upset condition.

  4. Custom microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this program are to develop custom microcircuit technology, also known as Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technology, for use in flight and ground programs. Supporting this effort are activities to investigate the effects of the space environment, and particularly ionizing radiation, on microcircuits and to develop a space qualification methodology. Another aspect of the program emphasizes innovative applications of custom microcircuit technology to image and signal processing and communications.

  5. Data and results of a laboratory investigation of microprocessor upset caused by simulated lightning-induced analog transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed a assess the upset susceptibility/reliability of a computer system onboard an aircraft flying through a lightning environment. Upset error modes in a general purpose microprocessor were studied. The upset tests involved the random input of analog transients which model lightning induced signals onto interface lines of an 8080 based microcomputer from which upset error data was recorded. The program code on the microprocessor during tests is designed to exercise all of the machine cycles and memory addressing techniques implemented in the 8080 central processing unit. A statistical analysis is presented in which possible correlations are established between the probability of upset occurrence and transient signal inputs during specific processing states and operations. A stochastic upset susceptibility model for the 8080 microprocessor is presented. The susceptibility of this microprocessor to upset, once analog transients have entered the system, is determined analytically by calculating the state probabilities of the stochastic model.

  6. An Approach for the Assessment of System Upset Resilience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2013-01-01

    This report describes an approach for the assessment of upset resilience that is applicable to systems in general, including safety-critical, real-time systems. For this work, resilience is defined as the ability to preserve and restore service availability and integrity under stated conditions of configuration, functional inputs and environmental conditions. To enable a quantitative approach, we define novel system service degradation metrics and propose a new mathematical definition of resilience. These behavioral-level metrics are based on the fundamental service classification criteria of correctness, detectability, symmetry and persistence. This approach consists of a Monte-Carlo-based stimulus injection experiment, on a physical implementation or an error-propagation model of a system, to generate a system response set that can be characterized in terms of dimensional error metrics and integrated to form an overall measure of resilience. We expect this approach to be helpful in gaining insight into the error containment and repair capabilities of systems for a wide range of conditions.

  7. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia.

  8. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  9. Mitigating Upsets in SRAM Based FPGAs from the Xilinix Virtex 2 Family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Yui, Candice C.; Carmichael, Carl; Koga, Rocky; George, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the single event upset static testing of the Virtex II field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) that were tested in protons and heavy-ions. The test designs and static and dynamic test results are reviewed.

  10. Hedging customers.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Ravi; Glazer, Rashi

    2003-05-01

    You are a marketing director with $5 million to invest in customer acquisition and retention. Which customers do you acquire, and which do you retain? Up to a point, the choice is obvious: Keep the consistent big spenders and lose the erratic small ones. But what about the erratic big spenders and the consistent small ones? It's often unclear whether you should acquire or retain them and at what cost. Businesses have begun dealing with unpredictable customer behavior by following the practices of sophisticated investors who own portfolios comprising dozens of stocks with different, indeed divergent, histories and prospects. Each portfolio is diversified so as to produce the investor's desired returns at the particular level of uncertainty he or she can tolerate. Customers, too, are assets--risky assets. As with stocks, the cost of acquiring them is supposed to reflect the cash-flow values they are likely to generate. The authors explain how to construct a portfolio based on the notion that a customer's risk-adjusted lifetime value depends on its anticipated effect on the riskiness of the group it is joining. They also show how this approach was used to identify the best prospects for Myron Corporation, a global leader in the personalized business-gift industry. The concept of risk-adjusted lifetime value has a transforming power: For companies that rely on it, product managers will be replaced by customer managers, and the current method of accounting for profit and loss--which is by product--will be replaced by one that determines each customer's P&L. Once adjusted for risk, those P&Ls will become the firm's key performance and operational metric. PMID:12747165

  11. Statistics and methodology of multiple cell upset characterization under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrev, G. I.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Useinov, R. G.; Emeliyanov, V. V.; Ozerov, A. I.; Anashin, V. S.; Kozyukov, A. E.; Zemtsov, K. S.

    2015-03-01

    Mean and partial cross-section concepts and their connections to multiplicity and statistics of multiple cell upsets (MCUs) in highly-scaled digital memories are introduced and discussed. The important role of the experimental determination of the upset statistics is emphasized. It was found that MCU may lead to quasi-linear dependence of cross-sections on linear energy transfer (LET). A new form of function for interpolation of mean cross-section dependences on LET has been proposed.

  12. In-flight and ground testing of single event upset sensitivity in static RAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, K.; Dyreklev, P.; Granbom, B.; Calvet, C.; Fourtine, S.; Feuillatre, O.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents the results from in-flight measurements of single event upsets (SEU) in static random access memories (SRAM) caused by the atmospheric radiation environment at aircraft altitudes. The memory devices were carried on commercial airlines at high altitude and mainly high latitudes. The SEUs were monitored by a Component Upset Test Equipment (CUTE), designed for this experiment. The in flight results are compared to ground based testing with neutrons from three different sources.

  13. Customer Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Li, Min; Jiao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ruijin

    The contemporary company attaches great importance to marketing relationship and customer relations is the core of this relationship. Further, customer satisfaction and loyalty is the core of the customer relationship management. Sometimes, high customer satisfaction causes low profit because enterprises do not realize that strengthening the loyalty of the aimed customer is the key of customer relationship management.

  14. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there by W. Scot Appel under the direction of Dr. John E. Finn. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia and at Vanderbilt University by W. Scot Appel under the direction of M. Douglas LeVan. All three participants collaborated in all of the various phases of the research. The most comprehensive document describing the research is the Ph.D. dissertation of W. Scot Appel. Results have been published in several papers and presented in talks at technical conferences. All documents have been transmitted to Dr. John E. Finn.

  15. The Customer Service Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Chip R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to embed customer service learning and customer loyalty including making customers think, examining every aspect of customers' service encounters with staff, providing follow-up, making learning fun, and involving customers in your business. (JOW)

  16. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals. PMID:25518816

  17. Accelerators for critical experiments involving single-particle upset in solid-state microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle interactions in microelectronic circuit chips (integrated circuits) present a particularly insidious problem for solid-state electronic systems due to the generation of soft errors or single-particle event upset (SEU) by either cosmic rays or other radiation sources. Particle accelerators are used to provide both light and heavy ions in order to assess the propensity of integrated circuit chips for SEU. Critical aspects of this assessment involve the ability to analytically model SEU for the prediction of error rates in known radiation environments. In order to accurately model SEU, the measurement and prediction of energy deposition in the form of an electron-hole plasma generated along an ion track is of paramount importance. This requires the use of accelerators which allow for ease in both energy control (change of energy) and change of ion species. This and other aspects of ion-beam control and diagnostics (e.g., uniformity and flux) are of critical concern for the experimental verification of theoretical SEU models.

  18. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianqi, Liu; Chao, Geng; Zhangang, Zhang; Fazhan, Zhao; Song, Gu; Teng, Tong; Kai, Xi; Gang, Liu; Zhengsheng, Han; Mingdong, Hou; Jie, Liu

    2014-08-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209Bi and 12C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12C ions but keep constant for 209Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed.

  19. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  20. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Zhen-Yang

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61403395), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 13JCYBJC39000), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Civil Aircraft Airworthiness and Maintenance in Civil Aviation of China (Grant No. 104003020106), and the Fund for Scholars of Civil Aviation University of China (Grant No. 2012QD21x).

  1. UpSET recruits HDAC complexes and restricts chromatin accessibility and histone acetylation at promoter regions

    PubMed Central

    Rincon-Arano, Hector; Halow, Jessica; Delrow, Jeffrey J.; Parkhurst, Susan M.; Groudine, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Developmental gene expression results from the orchestrated interplay between genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Here we describe upSET, a transcriptional regulator encoding a SET domain-containing protein recruited to active and inducible genes in Drosophila. However, unlike other Drosophila SET proteins associated with gene transcription, UpSET is part of an Rpd3/Sin3-containing complex that restricts chromatin accessibility and histone acetylation to promoter regions. In the absence of UpSET, active chromatin marks and chromatin accessibility increase and spread to genic and flanking regions due to destabilization of the histone deacetylase complex. Consistent with this, transcriptional noise increases, as manifest by activation of repetitive elements and off-target genes. Interestingly, upSET mutant flies are female sterile due to up-regulation of key components of Notch signaling during oogenesis. Thus UpSET defines a class of metazoan transcriptional regulators required to fine tune transcription by preventing the spread of active chromatin. PMID:23177352

  2. Comparison of threshold transient upset levels induced by flash x-rays and pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Raburn, W.D.; Buchner, S.P.; Kang, K.; Singh, R.; Sayers, S.

    1988-12-01

    The use of pulsed laser testing as a method of evaluating the transient radiation (..gamma..) upset thresholds of integrated circuits is discussed. By comparing upset levels using a pulsed laser with those obtained using a flash x-ray which has long been accepted ..gamma.. simulator, we show that the laser can be used as a reliable source for 100% screening and also as an efficient development tool. Differences in the responses of the two sources are pointed out, and we show that upset levels of CMOS SRAMs using the two sources are in good agreement when these factors are taken into account. Results for both wafer level and packaged parts testing are presented.

  3. Single-Event Upset and Snapback in Silicon-on-Insulator Devices and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    DODD,PAUL E.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; WALSH,DAVID S.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; HASH,GERALD L.; LOEMKER,RHONDA ANN; DRAPER,BRUCE L.; WINOKUR,PETER S.

    2000-08-15

    The characteristics Of ion-induced charge collection and single-event upset are studied in SOI transistors and circuits with various body tie structures. Impact ionization effects including single-event snapback are shown to be very important. Focused ion microbeam experiments are used to find single-event snapback drain voltage thresholds in n-channel SOI transistors as a function of device width. Three-Dimensional device simulations are used to determine single-event upset and snapback thresholds in SOI SRAMS, and to study design tradeoffs for various body-tie structures. A window of vulnerability to single-event snapback is shown to exist below the single-event upset threshold. The presence of single-event snapback in commercial SOI SRAMS is confirmed through broadbeam ion testing, and implications for hardness assurance testing of SOI integrated circuits are discussed.

  4. The Reliability of FPGA circuit designs in the presence of radiation induced configuration upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Wirthlin, M. J.; Johnson, E.; Rollins, N.; Caffrey, M. P.; Graham, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    FPGAs are an appealing solution for space-based remote sensing applications. However, an a low-earth orbit, FPGAs are susceptible t o Single-Event Upsets (SEUs). In an effort to understand the effects of SEUs, an SEU simulator based on the SLAAC-1V computing board has been developed. This simulator artifically upsets the conjiguration memory of an FPGA and measures its impact on FPGA designs. The accuracy of this simulation environment has been verified using ground-based radiation testing. This sim{approx}ulataon tool is being used to characterize the reliabilitg of SEU mitigation techniques for PI'GAs.

  5. Upset welded 304L and 316L vessels for storage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Two sets of vessels for tritium storage tests were fabricated using upset welding. A solid-state resistance upset weld was used to join the two halves of each vessel at the girth. The vessels differ from production reservoirs in design, material, and fabrication process. One set was made from forged 304L stainless steel and the other from forged 316L stainless steel. Six vessels of each type were loaded with a tritium mix in November 1995 and placed in storage at 71 C. This memo describes and documents the fabrication of the twelve vessels.

  6. Global Aerodynamic Modeling for Stall/Upset Recovery Training Using Efficient Piloted Flight Test Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunningham, Kevin; Hill, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Flight test and modeling techniques were developed for efficiently identifying global aerodynamic models that can be used to accurately simulate stall, upset, and recovery on large transport airplanes. The techniques were developed and validated in a high-fidelity fixed-base flight simulator using a wind-tunnel aerodynamic database, realistic sensor characteristics, and a realistic flight deck representative of a large transport aircraft. Results demonstrated that aerodynamic models for stall, upset, and recovery can be identified rapidly and accurately using relatively simple piloted flight test maneuvers. Stall maneuver predictions and comparisons of identified aerodynamic models with data from the underlying simulation aerodynamic database were used to validate the techniques.

  7. First record of single event upset on the ground, Cray-1 computer memory at Los Alamos in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, Sarah E; Quinn, Heather M; Grider, Gary A; Iwanchuk, Paul N; Morrison, John F; Wender, Stephen A; Normand, Eugene; Wert, Jerry L; Johnson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Records of bit flips in the Cray-1 computer installed at Los Alamos in 1976 lead to an upset rate in the Cray-1 's bipolar SRAMs that correlates with the SEUs being induced by the atmospheric neutrons. In 1976 the Cray Research Company delivered its first supercomputer, the Cray-1, installing it at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos had competed with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Cray-1 and won, reaching an agreement with Seymour Cray to install the machine for a period of six months for free, after which they could decide whether to buy, lease or return it. As a result, Los Alamos personnel kept track of the computer reliability and performance and so we know that during those six months of operation, 152 memory parity errors were recorded. The computer memory consisted of approximately 70,000 1Kx1 bipolar ECL static RAMs, the Fairchild 10415. What the Los Alamos engineers didn't know is that those bit flips were the result of single event upsets (SEUs) caused by the atmospheric neutrons. Thus, these 152 bit flips were the first recorded SEUs on the earth, and were observed 2 years before the SEUs in the Intel DRAMs that had been found by May and Woods in 1978. The upsets in the DRAMs were shown to have been caused by alpha particles from the chip packaging material. In this paper we will demonstrate that the Cray-1 bit flips, which were found through the use of parity bits in the Cray-1, were likely due to atmospheric neutrons. This paper will follow the same approach as that of the very first paper to demonstrate single event effects, which occurred in satellite flip-flop circuits in 1975. The main difference is that in the four events that occurred over the course of 17 satellite years of operation were shown to be due to single event effects just a few years after those satellite anomalies were recorded. In the case of the Cray-1 bit flips, there has been a delay of more than 30 years between the occurrence of the bit flips and the

  8. Single event upset vulnerability of selected 4K and 16K CMOS static RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, W. A.; Koga, R.; Blake, J. B.; Brucker, G.; Pandya, P.; Petersen, E.; Price, W.

    1982-01-01

    Upset thresholds for bulk CMOS and CMOS/SOS RAMS were deduced after bombardment of the devices with 140 MeV Kr, 160 MeV Ar, and 33 MeV O beams in a cyclotron. The trials were performed to test prototype devices intended for space applications, to relate feature size to the critical upset charge, and to check the validity of computer simulation models. The tests were run on 4 and 1 K memory cells with 6 transistors, in either hardened or unhardened configurations. The upset cross sections were calculated to determine the critical charge for upset from the soft errors observed in the irradiated cells. Computer simulations of the critical charge were found to deviate from the experimentally observed variation of the critical charge as the square of the feature size. Modeled values of series resistors decoupling the inverter pairs of memory cells showed that above some minimum resistance value a small increase in resistance produces a large increase in the critical charge, which the experimental data showed to be of questionable validity unless the value is made dependent on the maximum allowed read-write time.

  9. Single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices - A summary of JPL test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    The data summarized describe single event upset (bit-flips) for 60 device types having data storage elements. The data are from 15 acceleration tests with both protons and heavier ions. Tables are included summarizing the upset threshold data and listing the devices tested for heavy ion induced bit-flip and the devices tested with protons. With regard to the proton data, it is noted that the data are often limited to one proton energy, since the tests were usually motivated by the engineering requirement of comparing similar candidate devices for a system. It is noted that many of the devices exhibited no upset for the given test conditions (the maximum fluence and the maximum proton energy Ep are given for these cases). It is believed, however, that some possibility of upset usually exists because there is a slight chance that the recoil atom may receive up to 10 to 20 MeV of recoil energy (with more energy at higher Ep).

  10. Custom controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  11. Building brand equity and customer loyalty

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, G.

    1995-05-01

    Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are two different concepts, not merely two different phrases measuring a single consumer attitude. Utilities having identical customer satisfaction ratings based on performance in areas like power reliability, pricing, and quality of service differ dramatically in their levels of customer loyalty. As competitive markets establish themselves, discrepancies in customer loyalty will have profound impacts on each utility`s prospects for market retention, profitability, and ultimately, shareholder value. Meeting pre-existing consumer needs, wants and preferences is the foundation of any utility strategy for building customer loyalty and market retention. Utilities meet their underlying customer expectations by performing well in three discrete areas: product, customer service programs, and customer service transactions. Brand equity is an intervening variable standing between performance and the loyalty a utility desires. It is the totality of customer perceptions about the unique extra value the utility provides above and beyond its basic product, customer service programs and customer service transactions; it is the tangible, palpable reality of a branded utility that exists in the minds of consumers. By learning to manage their brand equity as well as they manage their brand performance, utilities gain control over all the major elements in the value-creation process that creates customer loyalty. By integrating brand performance and brand equity, electric utility companies can truly become in their customers` eyes a brand - a unique, very special, value-added energy services provider that can ask for and deserve a premium price in the marketplace.

  12. Talking about Customer Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Mary; Axelroth, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses customer service in information centers and how to define it. Topics include the effects of competition, that give customers more choices; defining customers, and defining services; communications; physical environment; change, in customers and in technology; measuring customer service; and evaluating policies and procedures. (LRW)

  13. SQUIRT. Seepage Quantification of Upsets In Reactor Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, D.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Rahman, S.; Krishnaswamy, P.

    1994-11-30

    The SQUIRT software is designed to perform leakage rate and area of crack opening calculations for through-wall cracks in pipes. The fluid in the piping system is assumed to be water at either subcooled or saturated conditions. The development of the SQUIRT computer model enables licensing authorities and industry users to conduct the leak-rate evaluations for leak-before-break applications in a more efficient manner.

  14. Single event upsets in gallium arsenide pseudo-complementary MESFET logic

    SciTech Connect

    Fouts, D.J.; Wolfe, K.; Van Dyk, S.E.; Weatherford, T.R.; McMorrow, D.; Melinger, J.S.; Tran, L.H.; Campbell, A.B.

    1995-12-01

    An introduction to gallium arsenide (GaAs) Pseudo-Complementary MESFET Logic (PCML) circuits is presented. PCML was developed to reduce the sensitivity of high-speed GaAs logic to radiation-induced single event upsets (SEUs). Experiments for testing the single-event upset (SEU) sensitivity of GaAs PCML integrated circuits (ICs) are described. The results of the experiments are analyzed. This new type of high-speed, low-power, GaAs logic provides decreased sensitivity to SEUs compared to more traditional circuit designs such as Directly-Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). PCML is fully compatible with existing GaAs E/D MESFET fabrication processes, such as those commonly used to make DCFL.

  15. Simulation of the characteristics of low-energy proton induced single event upset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Xi, Kai; Liu, TianQi; Liu, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation results are reported on the single event upset (SEU) triggered by the direct ionization effect of low-energy proton. The SEU cross-sections on the 45 nm static random access memory (SRAM) were compared with previous research work, which not only validated the simulation approach used herein, but also exposed the existence of saturated cross-section and the multiple bit upsets (MBUs) when the incident energy was less than 1 MeV. Additionally, it was observed that the saturated cross-section and MBUs are involved with energy loss and critical charge. The amount of deposited charge and the distribution with respect to the critical charge as the supplemental evidence are discussed.

  16. Modeling and assessing the influence of linear energy transfer on multiple bit upset susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Liu, Jie; Xi, Kai; Zhang, Zhan-Gang; Gu, Song; Liu, Tian-Qi

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the metric of linear energy transfer (LET) on single event upset (SEU), particularly multiple bit upset (MBU) in a hypothetical 90-nm static random access memory (SRAM) is explored. To explain the odd point of higher LET incident ion but induced lower cross section in the curve of SEU cross section, MBUs induced by incident ions 132Xe and 209Bi with the same LET but different energies at oblique incidence are investigated using multi-functional package for single event effect analysis (MUFPSA). In addition, a comprehensive analytical model of the radial track structure is incorporated into MUFPSA, which is a complementation for assessing and interpreting MBU susceptibility of SRAM. The results show that (i) with the increase of incident angle, MBU multiplicity and probability each present an increasing trend; (ii) due to the higher ion relative velocity and longer range of δ electrons, higher energy ions trigger the MBU with less probability than lower energy ions.

  17. Possible role for secondary particles in proton-induced single event upsets of modern devices

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.W.; McNulty, P.J.; Roth, D.R.; Foster, C.C.

    1998-12-01

    Increases in the SEU sensitivity of some modern COTS devices suggest that other reactions besides the direct spallation reaction may begin to play a role in proton SEU events, but only in devices with upset thresholds significantly lower than devices currently flown in space or sold commercially for terrestrial applications. Triple coincidence tagged proton exposures and neutron exposures are combined to demonstrate these reactions in the same device.

  18. Characterizing SRAM Single Event Upset in Terms of Single and Double Node Charge Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. D.; Ball, D. R., II; Robinson, W. H.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Reed, R. A.; Black, D. A.; Warren, K. M.; Tipton, A. D.; Dodd, P. E.; Haddad, N. F.; Xapsos, M. A.; Kim, H.; Friendlich, M.

    2008-01-01

    A well-collapse source-injection mode for SRAM SEU is demonstrated through TCAD modeling. The recovery of the SRAM s state is shown to be based upon the resistive path from the p+-sources in the SRAM to the well. Multiple cell upset patterns for direct charge collection and the well-collapse source-injection mechanisms are then predicted and compared to recent SRAM test data.

  19. Fluoride-added Pr-Fe-B die-upset magnets with increased electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Marinescu, M.; Liu, J. F.; Gabay, A. M.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.

    2009-04-01

    This work reports the effect of NdF{sub 3}, DyF{sub 3}, and CaF{sub 2} additions on the electrical resistivity and magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B hot-pressed and die-upset permanent magnets. Composite magnets were synthesized from ground Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 79.5}B{sub 6} melt-spun ribbons blended with 5 wt % of fluoride fine powders and consolidated by hot pressing at 650 deg. C, followed by die upsetting at 800 deg. C. While CaF{sub 2} is stable at the processing temperatures, the rare earth atoms separate from their fluorides to a certain degree with the assistance of the Pr-rich phase from the magnet matrix. Addition of fluorides increased the resistivity of the hot-pressed specimens by more than 200%. The resistivity of the die-upset specimens measured perpendicularly to the direction of the applied pressure, which is also the direction of magnetization, is, however, only slightly increased compared to the magnet counterparts without the fluoride addition. The intrinsic coercivity of Pr{sub 14.5}Fe{sub 79.5}B{sub 6} die-upset specimens is increased from 14.5 kOe to 15.3, 17.1, and 17.7 kOe for the addition of CaF{sub 2}, DyF{sub 3}, and NdF{sub 3}, respectively, at a slight expense of the residual flux.

  20. Single event upset susceptibility testing of the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yui, C.; Swift, G.; Carmichael, C.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of the Xilinx Virtex IZ was conducted on the configuration, block RAM and user flip flop cells to determine their single event upset susceptibility using LETs of 1.2 to 60 MeVcm^2/mg. A software program specifically designed to count errors in the FPGA is used to reveal L1/e values and single-event-functional interrupt failures.

  1. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Normand, E.

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  2. Solid-state resistance upset welding: A process with unique advantages for advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Solid-state resistance upset welding is suitable for joining many alloys that are difficult to weld using fusion processes. Since no melting takes place, the weld metal retains many of the characteristics of the base metal. Resulting welds have a hot worked structure, and thereby have higher strength than fusion welds in the same mate. Since the material being joined is not melted, compositional gradients are not introduced, second phase materials are minimally disrupted, and minor alloying elements, do not affect weldability. Solid-state upset welding has been adapted for fabrication of structures considered very large compared to typical resistance welding applications. The process has been used for closure of capsules, small vessels, and large containers. Welding emphasis has been on 304L stainless steel, the material for current applications. Other materials have, however, received enough attention to have demonstrated capability for joining alloys that are not readily weldable using fusion welding methods. A variety of other stainless steels (including A-286), superalloys (including TD nickel), refractory metals (including tungsten), and aluminum alloys (including 2024) have been successfully upset welded.

  3. Single event upsets in gallium arsenide dynamic logic

    SciTech Connect

    Fouts, D.J. . ECE Dept.); Weatherford, T. ); McMorrow, C.; Melinger, J.S.; Campbell, A.B. )

    1994-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using gallium arsenide (GaAs) dynamic logic in computers and digital systems are briefly discussed, especially with respect to space applications. A short introduction to the topology and operation of GaAs Two-Phase Dynamic FET Logic (TDFL) circuits is presented. Experiments for testing the SEU sensitivity of GaAs TDFL, using a laser to create charge collection events, are described. Results are used to estimate the heavy-ion, soft error rate for TDFL in a spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit, and the dependence of the SEU sensitivity on clock frequency, clock voltage, and clock phase. Analysis of the data includes a comparison between the SEU sensitivities of TDFL and the more common static form of GaAs logic, Directly Coupled FET Logic (DCFL). This is the first reported SEU testing of GaAs dynamic logic.

  4. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  5. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  6. 19 CFR 10.625 - Refunds of excess customs duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refunds of excess customs duties. 10.625 Section 10.625 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican...

  7. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  8. Reprogrammable field programmable gate array with integrated system for mitigating effects of single event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Herath, Jeffrey A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An integrated system mitigates the effects of a single event upset (SEU) on a reprogrammable field programmable gate array (RFPGA). The system includes (i) a RFPGA having an internal configuration memory, and (ii) a memory for storing a configuration associated with the RFPGA. Logic circuitry programmed into the RFPGA and coupled to the memory reloads a portion of the configuration from the memory into the RFPGA's internal configuration memory at predetermined times. Additional SEU mitigation can be provided by logic circuitry on the RFPGA that monitors and maintains synchronized operation of the RFPGA's digital clock managers.

  9. Single event upset and charge collection measurements using high energy protons and neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.; Ness, J.D.; Majewski, P.P. ); Wender, S.; Gavron, A. )

    1994-12-01

    RAMs, microcontrollers and surface barrier detectors were exposed to beams of high energy protons and neutrons to measure the induced number of upsets as well as energy deposition. The WNR facility at Los Alamos provided a neutron spectrum similar to that of the atmospheric neutrons. Its effect on devices was compared to that of protons with energies of 200, 400, 500, and 800 MeV. Measurements indicate that SEU cross sections for 400 MeV protons are similar to those induced by the atmospheric neutron spectrum.

  10. Single event upset suspectibility testing of the Xilinx Virtex II FPGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, C.; Swift, C.; Yui, G.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy ion testing of the Xilinx Virtex II was conducted on the configuration, block RAM and user flip flop cells to determine their static single-event upset susceptibility using LETs of 1.2 to 60 MeVcm^2/mg. A software program specifically designed to count errors in the FPGA was used to reveal L1/e, values (the LET at which the cross section is l/e times the saturation cross-section) and single-event functional-interrupt failures.

  11. Comparison of photocurrent enhancement and upset enhancement in CMOS devices in a medium-energy x-ray environment

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, D.E.; Beezhold, W.; Browning, J.S.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Counts, N.E. ); Knott, D.P. ); Freshman, C.L.; Conners, M.P. )

    1990-08-01

    Radiation-induced upset levels in SA3001 static random access memories (SRAM's) and SA 3246 clock integrated circuits (IC's) have been measured in a medium-energy flash X-ray environment (average photon energy {approximately}100 keV) where dose-enhancing effects are very important. By comparing device responses using a non-dose-enhancing ceramic package lid and a dose-enhancing Kovar/gold lid, dose-enhancement factors for photocurrent and upset were generated. The observed upset enhancement factors of 3.0 {plus minus} 0.5 (SRAM) and 2.2 {plus minus} 0.2 (clock IC) are in excellent agreement with measurements of photocurrent enhancement factors (2.5 {plus minus} 0.5) in diodes processed with the same diffusions as the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) IC's irradiated in a steady-state X-ray environment. These results indicate that upset is dominated by the radiation-induced transient supply current in these IC's, and that steady-state diode photocurrent measurements are a good predictor of both photocurrent and upset enhancement for IC's made with this technology.

  12. 39 CFR 501.18 - Customer information and authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transmit general information to all Postage Evidencing System customers concerning rate and rate category... the same information is provided to all Postage Evidencing System customers and no particular Postage... provider all applicant and system information pertaining to that provider's customers and systems that...

  13. 39 CFR 501.18 - Customer information and authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmit general information to all Postage Evidencing System customers concerning rate and rate category... the same information is provided to all Postage Evidencing System customers and no particular Postage... provider all applicant and system information pertaining to that provider's customers and systems that...

  14. DMSP dosimetry data: a space measurement and mapping of upset-causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite-dosimeter star-event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star-event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term star event is used because linear-energy-transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high-energy proton or heavy-ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star-type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high-energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high-energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high-energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7, the star-count maps of the 840-km region of space, and their relation to upset phenomena are described.

  15. DMSP dosimetry data: A space measurement and mapping of upset causing phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, E.G.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Lynch, K.A.; Brautigam, D.H.

    1987-12-01

    Data from the DMSP/F7 satellite dosimeter star event counters are presented. The DMSP dosimeter star event counters measure the number of pulses that exceed set energy deposition levels (40 MeV for three detectors and 75 MeV for the fourth detector) behind four different thicknesses of aluminum shielding. The term ''star event'' is used because linear energy transfer depositions above 40 MeV can be produced by high energy proton or heavy ion interactions with nuclei in the detector creating a star type release of energetic secondaries. The energy deposition that creates the high energy pulses in the detectors can come either directly from incident cosmic rays, directly from high energy protons that traverse long path lengths in the detector volume, indirectly from nuclear reactions in the detector created by incident high energy protons, or indirectly from nuclear reactions in the vicinity of the detector which create recoiling nuclei that deposit energy in the detector. These nuclear stars and direct energy pulses create single event upsets (SEUs) in microelectronic components in the near-Earth space environment. Here the authors first describe the properties of the star channel of the dosimeter on DMSP/F7; then present the star count maps of the 840 km region of space; and finally discuss their relation to upset phenomena.

  16. High LET Single Event Upset Cross Sections For Bulk and SOI CMOS SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, F.D.; Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Dodd, P.E.; Rossi, P.

    2003-08-26

    Electronics in spacecraft and satellites are exposed to high-energy cosmic radiation. In addition, terrestrial radiation can also affect earth-based electronics. To study the effects of radiation upon integrated circuits and to insure the reliability of electronic devices, cosmic and terrestrial radiations are simulated with ion beams from particle accelerators. A new, higher Linear Energy Transfer (LET) acceleration system for heavy ions has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Heavy ions from a 6.5 MV EN tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at 0.25 MeV/amu are injected into a two-stage Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which accelerates the ions to 1.9 MeV/amu. These ions together with those from the Brookhaven National Laboratory MP Tandem have been used to measure single event upset (SEU) cross sections as a function of LET for both bulk and Silicon on Insulator (SOI) Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, Static Random Access Memories. The magnitudes of these cross sections indicate that the upsets in both the SOI and bulk parts are caused by OFF-drain strikes.

  17. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) microscopy of ICs: Relation to Single Event Upsets (SEU)

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.; Sexton, F.W. ); Laird, J.S.; Saint, A.; Cholewa, M.; Legge, G.J.F. . Micro Analytical Research Center )

    1992-01-01

    Single Event Upset (SEU) Imaging is a new diagnostic technique recently developed using Sandia's nuclear microprobe. This technique directly images, with micron resolution, those regions within an integrated circuit which are susceptible to ion-induced malfunctions. Such malfunctions are an increasing threat to space-based systems which make use of current generation IC designs. A complimentary technique to SEU-Imaging involves measurement of the charge collection volumes within integrated circuits; charge collection is the underlying physical process responsible for single event phenomena. This technique, which we term. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) has been used here and elsewhere to generate micron resolution maps of the charge collection response of integrated circuits. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of combining the SEU-Imaging and IBICC techniques in order to gain a better understanding of single event upset phenomena. High resolution IBICC images are used to extract more detailed information from charge collection spectra than that obtained from conventional broad-area ion exposures, such as from radioactive sources. Lastly, we will comment on the applications for IBICC as a replacement of Electron Beam Induced Conduction/Current (EBIC) measurements. As reductions in circuit feature size continue in the sub-micron regime, IBICC could certainly prove to be a technologically valuable replacement for EBlC and an important business opportunity for all nuclear microprobe facilities. 12 ref.

  18. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) microscopy of ICs: Relation to Single Event Upsets (SEU)

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Laird, J.S.; Saint, A.; Cholewa, M.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1992-07-01

    Single Event Upset (SEU) Imaging is a new diagnostic technique recently developed using Sandia`s nuclear microprobe. This technique directly images, with micron resolution, those regions within an integrated circuit which are susceptible to ion-induced malfunctions. Such malfunctions are an increasing threat to space-based systems which make use of current generation IC designs. A complimentary technique to SEU-Imaging involves measurement of the charge collection volumes within integrated circuits; charge collection is the underlying physical process responsible for single event phenomena. This technique, which we term. Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) has been used here and elsewhere to generate micron resolution maps of the charge collection response of integrated circuits. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of combining the SEU-Imaging and IBICC techniques in order to gain a better understanding of single event upset phenomena. High resolution IBICC images are used to extract more detailed information from charge collection spectra than that obtained from conventional broad-area ion exposures, such as from radioactive sources. Lastly, we will comment on the applications for IBICC as a replacement of Electron Beam Induced Conduction/Current (EBIC) measurements. As reductions in circuit feature size continue in the sub-micron regime, IBICC could certainly prove to be a technologically valuable replacement for EBlC and an important business opportunity for all nuclear microprobe facilities. 12 ref.

  19. The board implementation of AVR microcontroller checking for single event upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lho, Young Hwan; Jang, Dae Jin; Seo, Kang Kuk; Jung, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Yup

    2005-12-01

    Radiation hardening parts are to be used for satellites and nuclear power plants due to various kinds of radiation particles in space and radiation environment. Here, our focus is to implement a testing board of AVR Microcontroller checking for Single Event Upsets (SEU); the effects of protons on the electronic devices. The SEU results form the level change of stored information due to photon radiation and temperature in the space environment. The impact of SEU on PLD (Programmable Logic Devices) technology is most apparent in SRAM/ROM/DRAM devices wherein the state of storage cell can be upset. In this research, a simple and powerful test technique is suggested, and the results are presented for the analysis and future reference. In our experiment, the proton radiation facility (having the energy of 30 MeV with a beam current of 20 uA in the cyclotron) available at KIRAMS (Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences) has been applied on two kinds of commercially available SRAM and EEPROM.

  20. Prediction of particle orientation in simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Chao-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chang, Can-Xun

    2013-12-16

    The magnetic properties of NdFeB magnets are strongly affected by crystallographic texture which is highly associated with particle orientation. This study proposed a method for predicting the particle orientation in the simple upsetting process of NdFeB magnets. The method is based on finite element simulation with flow net analysis. The magnets in a cylindrical form were compressed by two flat dies in a chamber filled with argon at 750°C. Three forming speeds were taken into account in order to obtain flow stress curves used in simulations. The micrographs of the cross sections of the deformed magnets show that the particle deformation significantly increases with the compression. The phenomenon was also predicted by the proposed method. Both simulated and experimental results show that the inhomogeneity of the texture of the NdFeB magnets can be increased by the simple upsetting process. The predicted particle orientations were in a good agreement with those examined in the deformed magnets. The proposed method for predicting particle orientations can also be used in other forming processes of NdFeB magnets.

  1. Uncertainty Modeling for Robustness Analysis of Control Upset Prevention and Recovery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Khong, Thuan H.; Shin, Jong-Yeob; Kwatny, Harry; Chang, Bor-Chin; Balas, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. Such systems (developed for failure detection, identification, and reconfiguration, as well as upset recovery) need to be evaluated over broad regions of the flight envelope and under extreme flight conditions, and should include various sources of uncertainty. However, formulation of linear fractional transformation (LFT) models for representing system uncertainty can be very difficult for complex parameter-dependent systems. This paper describes a preliminary LFT modeling software tool which uses a matrix-based computational approach that can be directly applied to parametric uncertainty problems involving multivariate matrix polynomial dependencies. Several examples are presented (including an F-16 at an extreme flight condition, a missile model, and a generic example with numerous crossproduct terms), and comparisons are given with other LFT modeling tools that are currently available. The LFT modeling method and preliminary software tool presented in this paper are shown to compare favorably with these methods.

  2. Aircraft Flight Envelope Determination using Upset Detection and Physical Modeling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.; McKillip, Robert M. Jr.; Kim, Singwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of flight control systems to enhance aircraft safety during periods of vehicle impairment or degraded operations has been the focus of extensive work in recent years. Conditions adversely affecting aircraft flight operations and safety may result from a number of causes, including environmental disturbances, degraded flight operations, and aerodynamic upsets. To enhance the effectiveness of adaptive and envelope limiting controls systems, it is desirable to examine methods for identifying the occurrence of anomalous conditions and for assessing the impact of these conditions on the aircraft operational limits. This paper describes initial work performed toward this end, examining the use of fault detection methods applied to the aircraft for aerodynamic performance degradation identification and model-based methods for envelope prediction. Results are presented in which a model-based fault detection filter is applied to the identification of aircraft control surface and stall departure failures/upsets. This application is supported by a distributed loading aerodynamics formulation for the flight dynamics system reference model. Extensions for estimating the flight envelope due to generalized aerodynamic performance degradation are also described.

  3. Ferromagnetic grain boundary signature in die-upset RE-Fe-B magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson Lewis, L.; Zhu, Y.; Welch, D.O.

    1994-07-01

    Previous nanostructural and nanocompositional studies performed on the boundaries of deformed grains in two die-upset rare earth magnets with bulk compositions Nd{sub 13.75}Fe{sub 80.25}B{sub 6}, and Pr{sub 13.75}Fe{sub 80.25}B{sub 6} indicate that the intergranular phase in many grain boundaries is enriched in iron relative to the bulk. Preliminary magnetic data are presented that provide further evidence that this grain boundary phase is indeed iron-rich, and in fact appears to be ferromagnetic. Hysteresis loops were performed at 800 K on die-upset magnets with the above compositions. Each sample showed a clear hysteresis with coercivities between 34 and 40 Oe average remanence 4{pi}M{sub R} of 6.8 G for the Nd-based sample and 10.3 G for the Pr-based sample. The ferromagnetic signals measured at high temperature in these magnets are attributed to the iron-rich grain boundary phase. The implications of this conclusion with respect to coercivity are discussed.

  4. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  5. Implications of the spatial dependence of the single-event-upset threshold in SRAMs measured with a pulsed laser

    SciTech Connect

    Buchner, S. SFA Inc., Landover, MD ); Langworthy, J.B.; Stapor, W.J.; Campbell, A.B. ); Rivet, S. )

    1994-12-01

    Pulsed laser light was used to measure single event upset (SEU) thresholds for a large number of memory cells in both CMOS and bipolar SRAMs. Results showed that small variations in intercell upset threshold could not explain the gradual rise in the curve of cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET). The memory cells exhibited greater intracell variations implying that the charge collection efficiency within a memory cell varies spatially and contributes substantially to the shape of the curve of cross section versus LET. The results also suggest that the pulsed laser can be used for hardness-assurance measurements on devices with sensitive areas larger than the diameter of the laser beam.

  6. Evaluation of a Wake Vortex Upset Model Based on Simultaneous Measurements of Wake Velocities and Probe-Aircraft Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, B. J.; Jacobsen, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements were made of the upset responses experienced and the wake velocities encountered by an instrumented Learjet probe aircraft behind a Boeing 747 vortex-generating aircraft. The vortex-induced angular accelerations experienced could be predicted within 30% by a mathematical upset response model when the characteristics of the wake were well represented by the vortex model. The vortex model used in the present study adequately represented the wake flow field when the vortices dissipated symmetrically and only one vortex pair existed in the wake.

  7. An exact, closed-form expression of the integral chord-length distribution for the calculation of single-event upsets induced by cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luke, Keung L.; Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of an exact closed-form expression of the integral chord-length distribution for the calculation of single-event upsets (SEUs) in an electronic memory cell, caused by cosmic rays. Results computed for two rectangular parallelepipeds using this exact expression are compared with those computed with Bradford's (1979) semiexact expression of C(x). It is found that the values of C(x) are identical for x equal or smaller than b but are vastly different for x greater than b. Moreover, while C(x) of Bradford gives reasonably accurate values of SEU rate for certain sets of computational parameters, it gives values more than 10 times larger than the correct values for other sets of parameters.

  8. Improvements in the process of boss bar upset forging into a horizontal forging machine with the aim of joint knuckle forging quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, D. L.; Nizamov, R. S.; Kharisov, I. Zh

    2016-06-01

    A new technique for tapered composing transition shaping has been put forward in the process of upset forging with the use of an experimental tool. The results of the upset forging process with the use of a new composing transition has been computer simulated.

  9. Defining the customer`s buying parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.

    1997-03-01

    Many customers are already implementing processes to select suppliers in anticipation of full customer choice, establishing price and risk parameters. Customers are also recognizing that transitional steps on the way to full competition, including such options as buy-through and real-time pricing, can lower costs at reasonable risk. Retail competition is transforming the US electricity market at a dazzling pace, promising major customers greater choices and better prices--and a lot of new headaches. Even though regulators have not yet put retail access into general practice, many customers are working diligently to make sure they are properly prepared to deal with the additional issues and complexities being created by electricity`s new world order. By the time retail competition is officially unleashed, many national buyers of electricity will have: (1) specified their service criteria (contract terms and conditions), (2) defined their price risk tolerances, (3) structured their purchasing organization/process, and (4) chosen their national/regional suppliers.

  10. The case for customer loyalty.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Arthur C

    2004-09-01

    How does customer loyalty grow? Through good customer experiences. Yet some organizations seem to genuinely fail to understand that they can keep or lose a customer in the proverbial blink of an eye. And in this era of increasing customer demands across all industries, it's important that healthcare financial managers understand the correlation between customer loyalty and customer experience. PMID:15460948

  11. Experience with custom processors in space flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraeman, M. E.; Hayes, J. R.; Lohr, D. A.; Ballard, B. W.; Williams, R. L.; Henshaw, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a magnetometer instrument for a swedish satellite named Freja with launch scheduled for August 1992 on a Chinese Long March rocket. The magnetometer controller utilized a custom microprocessor designed at APL with the Genesil silicon compiler. The processor evolved from our experience with an older bit-slice design and two prior single chip efforts. The architecture of our microprocessor greatly lowered software development costs because it was optimized to provide an interactive and extensible programming environment hosted by the target hardware. Radiation tolerance of the microprocessor was also tested and was adequate for Freja's mission -- 20 kRad(Si) total dose and very infrequent latch-up and single event upset events.

  12. Companies and the customers who hate them.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Gail; Moon, Youngme

    2007-06-01

    Why do companies bind customers with contracts, bleed them with fees, and baffle them with fine print? Because bewildered customers, who often make bad purchasing decisions, can be highly profitable. Most firms that profit from customers' confusion are on a slippery slope. Over time, their customer-centric strategies for delivering value have evolved into company-centric strategies for extracting it. Not surprisingly, when a rival comes along with a friendlier alternative, customers defect. Adversarial value-extracting strategies are common in such industries as cell phone service, retail banking, and health clubs. Overly complex product and pricing options, for example, may have been designed to serve various segments. But in fact they take advantage of how difficult it is for customers to predict their needs (such as how many cell phone minutes they'll use each month) and make it hard for them to choose the right product. Similarly, penalties and fees, which may have been instituted to offset the costs of undesirable customer behavior, like bouncing checks, turn out to be very profitable. As a result, companies have no incentive to help customers avoid them. Tactics like these generate bad publicity and fuel customer defections, creating opportunities for competitors. Virgin Mobile USA, for example, has lured millions of angry cell phone customers away from the incumbents by offering a straightforward plan with no hidden fees, no time-of-day restrictions, and no contracts. ING Direct, now the fourth-largest thrift bank in the United States, offers accounts with no fees, no tiered interest rates, and no minimums. In industries where squeezing value from customers is commonplace, companies that dismantle these harmful practices and design a transparent, value-creating offer can head off customer retaliation and spur rapid growth. PMID:17580650

  13. Understanding customer experience.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

  14. Customer service revisited.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2001-03-01

    Customer service requires a system, which includes, but is not limited to having pleasant staff members. It requires a systemized approach to every patient every day. The steps of customer service are as integral to the success of the practice as are those of scheduling and case presentation. Customer service is a unique opportunity to differentiate a practice, justify the value for fees, and satisfy almost every patient. PMID:11913255

  15. The dependence of single event upset on proton energy /15-590 MeV/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Andrews, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Low earth orbit satellite and Jupiter orbiter probe semiconductor devices may incur soft errors or single event upsets, manifested as bit flips, during exposure to such nuclear particles or heavy ions as trapped protons with energies ranging up to 1000 MeV. Experimental data is given on the average proton fluence needed to cause a bit flip as a function of proton energy for isoplanar bipolar TTL RAMs. Error dependence data shape and threshold energy can be related to the existing body of theoretical data on energy deposition following proton nuclear reactions. Experimental data also show that the relative cross sectional amplitude for functionally identical devices can be related to the device's power consumption.

  16. Simulation of temporal characteristics of ion-velocity susceptibility to single event upset effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao; Xi, Kai; Liu, Tian-Qi; Gu, Song; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Using a Monte Carlo simulation tool of the multi-functional package for SEEs Analysis (MUFPSA), we study the temporal characteristics of ion-velocity susceptibility to the single event upset (SEU) effect, including the deposited energy, traversed time within the device, and profile of the current pulse. The results show that the averaged dposited energy decreases with the increase of the ion-velocity, and incident ions of 209Bi have a wider distribution of energy deposition than 132Xe at the same ion-velocity. Additionally, the traversed time presents an obvious decreasing trend with the increase of ion-velocity. Concurrently, ion-velocity certainly has an influence on the current pulse and then it presents a particular regularity. The detailed discussion is conducted to estimate the relevant linear energy transfer (LET) of incident ions and the SEU cross section of the testing device from experiment and simulation and to critically consider the metric of LET.

  17. Influence of edge effects on single event upset susceptibility of SOI SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Song; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Fazhan; Zhang, Zhangang; Bi, Jinshun; Geng, Chao; Hou, Mingdong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Tianqi; Xi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility for heavy ions at tilted incidence was performed. The differences of SEU cross-sections between tilted incidence and normal incidence at equivalent effective linear energy transfer were 21% and 57% for the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) of 0.5 μm and 0.18 μm feature size, respectively. The difference of SEU cross-section raised dramatically with increasing tilt angle for SOI SRAM of deep-submicron technology. The result of CRÈME-MC simulation for tilted irradiation of the sensitive volume indicates that the energy deposition spectrum has a substantial tail extending into the low energy region. The experimental results show that the influence of edge effects on SEU susceptibility cannot be ignored in particular with device scaling down.

  18. Survey of Quantitative Research Metrics to Assess Pilot Performance in Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2016-01-01

    Accidents attributable to in-flight loss of control are the primary cause for fatal commercial jet accidents worldwide. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine and identify the quantitative standards for assessing upset recovery performance. This review contains current recovery procedures for both military and commercial aviation and includes the metrics researchers use to assess aircraft recovery performance. Metrics include time to first input, recognition time and recovery time and whether that input was correct or incorrect. Other metrics included are: the state of the autopilot and autothrottle, control wheel/sidestick movement resulting in pitch and roll, and inputs to the throttle and rudder. In addition, airplane state measures, such as roll reversals, altitude loss/gain, maximum vertical speed, maximum/minimum air speed, maximum bank angle and maximum g loading are reviewed as well.

  19. Heavy-ion induced single-event upset in integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic ray environment in space can affect the operation of Integrated Circuit (IC) devices via the phenomenon of Single Event Upset (SEU). In particular, heavy ions passing through an IC can induce sufficient integrated current (charge) to alter the state of a bistable circuit, for example a memory cell. The SEU effect is studied in great detail in both static and dynamic memory devices, as well as microprocessors fabricated from bipolar, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) and N channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) technologies. Each device/process reflects its individual characteristics (minimum scale geometry/process parameters) via a unique response to the direct ionization of electron hole pairs by heavy ion tracks. A summary of these analytical and experimental SEU investigations is presented.

  20. The effect of yield strength on side-bonding upset welds

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Perkins, M.A.

    1991-09-24

    During the course of 9{degree} tapered side-bonding resistance upset weld development at Mound, various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of yield strength on welds in 304L stainless steel. The results of these studies have concluded that at high yield strengths there may be a minor reduction in the length of Class 2 or better bond. Satisfactory welds have been produced with materials having yield strengths ranging from 36.0 to 141.0 ksi. However, when body yield strengths exceed 80.0 ksi a minor decrease in bond lengths begins. A significant inverse relationship between stem yield strength and bond length was shown to exist. 8 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for Single Event Upset (SEU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Price, W. E.; Malone, C.

    1984-01-01

    A guideline for heavy ion radiation testing for single event upset was prepared to assist new experimenters in preparing and directing tests. How to estimate parts vulnerability and select an irradiation facility is described. A broad brush description of JPL equipment is given, certain necessary pre-test procedures are outlined and the roles and testing guidelines for on-site test personnel are indicated. Detailed descriptions of equipment needed to interface with JPL test crew and equipment are not provided, nor does it meet the more generalized and broader requirements of a MIL-STD document. A detailed equipment description is available upon request, and a MIL-STD document is in the early stages of preparation.

  2. Application of RADSAFE to Model Single Event Upset Response of a 0.25 micron CMOS SRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Kevin M.; Weller, Robert A.; Sierawski, Brian; Reed, Robert A.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Schrimpf, Ronald D.; Massengill, Lloyd; Porter, Mark; Wilkerson, Jeff; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Adams, James

    2006-01-01

    The RADSAFE simulation framework is described and applied to model Single Event Upsets (SEU) in a 0.25 micron CMOS 4Mbit Static Random Access Memory (SRAM). For this circuit, the RADSAFE approach produces trends similar to those expected from classical models, but more closely represents the physical mechanisms responsible for SEU in the SRAM circuit.

  3. Causal relationships between solar proton events and single event upsets for communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Cahoy, K.; Liu, Shiyang

    In this work, we analyze a historical archive of single event upsets (SEUs) maintained by Inmarsat, one of the world's leading providers of global mobile satellite communications services. Inmarsat has operated its geostationary communication satellites and collected extensive satellite anomaly and telemetry data since 1990. Over the course of the past twenty years, the satellites have experienced more than 226 single event upsets (SEUs), a catch-all term for anomalies that occur in a satellite's electronics such as bit-flips, trips in power supplies, and memory changes in attitude control systems. While SEUs are seemingly random and difficult to predict, we correlate their occurrences to space weather phenomena, and specifically show correlations between SEUs and solar proton events (SPEs). SPEs are highly energetic protons that originate from solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is thought that when these particles impact geostationary (GEO) satellites they can cause SEUs as well as solar array degradation. We calculate the associated statistical correlations that each SEU occurs within one day, one week, two weeks, and one month of 10 MeV SPEs between 10 - 10,000 particle flux units (pfu). However, we find that SPEs are most prevalent at solar maximum and that the SEUs on Inmarsat's satellites occur out of phase with the solar maximum. Ultimately, this suggests that SPEs are not the primary cause of the Inmarsat SEUs. A better understanding of the causal relationship between SPEs and SEUs will help the satellite communications industry develop component and operational space weather mitigation techniques as well as help the space weather community to refine radiation models.

  4. Characterization of Inorganic Biocarriers That Moderate System Upsets during Fixed-Film Biotreatment Processes

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Don R.; Marshall, Leda C.; Miller, James G.; Chmurny, Alan B.

    1994-01-01

    Inorganic matrices were developed for fixed-film bioreactors affording protection to microorganisms and preventing loss of bioreactor productivity during system upsets. These biocarriers, designated Type-Z, contain ion-exchange properties and possess high porosity and a high level of surface area, which provide a suitable medium for microbial colonization. Viable cell populations of 109/g were attainable, and scanning electron micrographs revealed extensive external colonization and moderate internal colonization with aerobic microorganisms. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were established with various biocarriers and colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and comparative studies were performed. The data indicated that bioreactors containing the Type-Z biocarriers were more proficient at removing phenol (1,000 ppm) than bioreactors established with Flexirings (plastic) and Celite R635 (diatomaceous earth) biocarriers. More significantly, these biocarriers were shown to moderate system upsets that affect operation of full-scale biotreatment processes. For example, subjecting the Type-Z bioreactor to an influent phenol feed at pH 2 for periods of 24 h did not decrease the effluent pH or reactor performance. In contrast, bioreactors containing either Celite or Flexirings demonstrated an effluent pH drop to ∼2.5 and a reduction in reactor performance by 75 to 82%. The Celite reactor recovered after 5 days, whereas the bioreactors containing Flexirings did not recover. Similar advantages were noted during either nutrient or oxygen deprivation experiments as well as alkali and organic system shocks. The available data suggest that Type-Z biocarriers represent an immobilization medium that provides an amenable environment for microbial growth and has the potential for improving the reliability of fixed-film biotreatment processes. Images PMID:16349386

  5. Focusing on customer service.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  6. 47 CFR 76.980 - Charges for customer changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charges for customer changes. 76.980 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.980 Charges for customer changes. (a... charge for customer changes in service tiers effected solely by coded entry on a computer terminal or...

  7. British Sign Name Customs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  8. Customized Training Marketing Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Ted

    This report outlines Oregon's Lane Community College's (LCC's) plan for marketing its customized training program for business, community organizations, public agencies, and their employees. Following a mission statement for the customized training program, a brief analysis is provided of the economic environment; of competition from educational…

  9. Managing customer service.

    PubMed

    Paget, Zoe

    2015-02-28

    Zoe Paget is the customer services manager at YourVets. Her role includes managing the company's call centre, social media marketing, working with the marketing department to develop customer care initiatives and reporting service levels to the company's directors. PMID:25722341

  10. Customer Relationship Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  11. Delivering astounding customer service

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, B.

    1995-05-01

    The elements needed to launch a successful quality customer service revolution are: vision and goals; inputs (time, money, and people); and systems. Flawlessly executed activities and behaviors result in quality, customer satisfaction, customer retention, profits, referrals, and growth. Feedback to keep your company on course is necessary. The revolution starts with the leader. Vision is what gets it started, and a sense of purpose is what keeps it going. Changing the organization`s culture requires an obsession, an almost fanatical devotion to exceeding customer expectations. If you don`t set the example and walk your talk, it won`t get off the ground. I can think of no better way to insure yourself a bright future than for you to make certain that each and every customer is extraordinarily satisfied.

  12. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations. PMID:25795511

  13. Enhanced magnetic and mechanical properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering via alloy powder blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. H.; Dong, H.; Ma, D. W.; Luo, C.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic and mechanical properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets prepared by spark plasma sintering via alloy powder blends have been investigated. The results showed that the MQP-C powder addition could improve the remanence and maximum energy product of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets. The maximum fracture toughness of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets was obtained at the MQP-C powder content ratio of 0.4, which indicates the proper MQP-C powder addition contributed to improve the mechanical properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets. Meanwhile, the MQP-C powder addition could improve the microstructure and crystallographic alignment of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets, and we presumed that the intrinsic coercivity of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets was mainly determined by the anisotropy field of Nd-Fe-B magnets, and the influence of microstructure defects on the mechanical properties was more sensitive than the magnetic properties of die-upset Nd-Fe-B magnets.

  14. Developing customer databases.

    PubMed

    Rao, S K; Shenbaga, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among pharmaceutical companies that more product and customer-specific approaches to marketing and selling a new drug can result in substantial increases in sales. Marketers and researchers taking a proactive micro-marketing approach to identifying, profiling, and communicating with target customers are likely to facilitate such approaches and outcomes. This article provides a working framework for creating customer databases that can be effectively mined to achieve a variety of such marketing and sales force objectives. PMID:11209474

  15. Customer Communication Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  16. Upset Simulation and Training Initiatives for U.S. Navy Commercial Derived Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Steven; Priest, James; Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Militarized versions of commercial platforms are growing in popularity due to many logistical benefits in the form of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts, established production methods, and commonality for different certifications. Commercial data and best practices are often leveraged to reduce procurement and engineering development costs. While the developmental and cost reduction benefits are clear, these militarized aircraft are routinely operated in flight at significantly different conditions and in significantly different manners than for routine commercial flight. Therefore they are at a higher risk of flight envelope exceedance. This risk may lead to departure from controlled flight and/or aircraft loss1. Historically, the risk of departure from controlled flight for military aircraft has been mitigated by piloted simulation training and engineering analysis of typical aircraft response. High-agility military aircraft simulation databases are typically developed to include high angles of attack (AoA) and sideslip due to the dynamic nature of their missions and have been developed for many tactical configurations over the previous decades. These aircraft simulations allow for a more thorough understanding of the vehicle flight dynamics characteristics at high AoA and sideslip. In recent years, government sponsored research on transport airplane aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack has produced a growing understanding of stall/post-stall behavior. This research along with recent commercial airline training initiatives has resulted in improved understanding of simulator-based training requirements and simulator model fidelity.2-5 In addition, inflight training research over the past decade has produced a database of pilot performance and recurrency metrics6. Innovative solutions to aerodynamically model large commercial aircraft for upset conditions such as high AoA, high sideslip, and ballistic damage, as well as capability to accurately

  17. A customer's definition of quality.

    PubMed

    Miller, T O

    1992-01-01

    What's the best way to get "close to the customer"? One company has developed a customer feedback system to drive product design, sales, service, and support functions in order to ensure better customer responsiveness. PMID:10116010

  18. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccot, Sila

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  19. Customization through Homeschooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes why home school is a natural environment for customizing instruction to meet the individual needs of students, especially those with special needs and talents. (Contains 19 references.) (PKP)

  20. The customer has escaped.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paul F; Cespedes, Frank V

    2003-11-01

    Every company makes choices about the channels it will use to go to market. Traditionally, the decision to sell through a discount superstore or a pricey boutique, for instance, was guided by customer demographics. A company would identify a target segment of buyers and go with the channel that could deliver them. It was a fair assumption that certain customer types were held captive by certain channels--if not from cradle to grave, then at least from initial consideration to purchase. The problem, the authors say, is that today's customers have become unfettered. As their channel options have proliferated, they've come to recognize that different channels serve their needs better at different points in the buying process. The result is "value poaching." For example, certain channels hope to use higher margin sales to cover the cost of providing expensive high-touch services. Potential customers use these channels to do research, then leap to a cheaper channel when it's time to buy. Customers now hunt for bargains more aggressively; they've become more sophisticated about how companies market to them; and they are better equipped with information and technology to make advantageous decisions. What does this mean for your go-to-market strategy? The authors urge companies to make a fundamental shift in mind-set toward designing for buyer behaviors, not customer segments. A company should design pathways across channels to help its customers get what they need at each stage of the buying process--through one channel or another. Customers are not mindful of channel boundaries--and you shouldn't be either. Instead, they are mindful of the value of individual components in your channels--and you should be, too. PMID:14619155

  1. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    SciTech Connect

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Sugibayashi, T.; Natsui, M.; Hanyu, T.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm{sup 2}/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10{sup −12} per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (I{sub C0}) became less than 30 μA.

  2. Analysis of single-event upset of magnetic tunnel junction used in spintronic circuits caused by radiation-induced current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimura, N.; Nebashi, R.; Natsui, M.; Ohno, H.; Sugibayashi, T.; Hanyu, T.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the possibility of a switching upset of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) caused by a terrestrial radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) current in spintronic integrated circuits. The current waveforms were simulated by using a 3-D device simulator in a basic circuit including MTJs designed using 90-nm CMOS parameters and design rules. The waveforms have a 400 -μA peak and a 200-ps elapsed time when neutron particles with a linear energy transfer value of 14 MeV cm2/mg enter the silicon surface. The authors also found that the SEU current may cause soft errors with a probability of more than 10-12 per event, which was obtained by approximate solution of the ordinary differential equation of switching probability when the intrinsic critical current (IC0) became less than 30 μA.

  3. Analysis of the Radiated Field in an Electromagnetic Reverberation Chamber as an Upset-Inducing Stimulus for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis for a physical fault injection experiment of a digital system exposed to High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) in an electromagnetic reverberation chamber suggests a direct causal relation between the time profile of the field strength amplitude in the chamber and the severity of observed effects at the outputs of the radiated system. This report presents an analysis of the field strength modulation induced by the movement of the field stirrers in the reverberation chamber. The analysis is framed as a characterization of the discrete features of the field strength waveform responsible for the faults experienced by a radiated digital system. The results presented here will serve as a basis to refine the approach for a detailed analysis of HIRF-induced upsets observed during the radiation experiment. This work offers a novel perspective into the use of an electromagnetic reverberation chamber to generate upset-inducing stimuli for the study of fault effects in digital systems.

  4. Method and Apparatus for Reducing the Vulnerability of Latches to Single Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delay circuit includes a first network having an input and an output node, a second network having an input and an output, the input of the second network being coupled to the output node of the first network. The first network and the second network are configured such that: a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of approximately one-half of a standard glitch time or less does not cause the voltage at the output of the second network to cross a threshold, a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of between approximately one-half and two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for less than the length of the glitch, and a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of greater than approximately two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for approximately the time of the glitch. The method reduces the vulnerability of a latch to single event upsets. The latch includes a gate having an input and an output and a feedback path from the output to the input of the gate. The method includes inserting a delay into the feedback path and providing a delay in the gate.

  5. Method and Apparatus for Reducing the Vulnerability of Latches to Single Event Upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A delay circuit includes a first network having an input and an output node, a second network having an input and an output, the input of the second network being coupled to the output node of the first network. The first network and the second network are configured such that: a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of approximately one-half of a standard glitch time or less does not cause tile voltage at the output of the second network to cross a threshold, a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of between approximately one-half and two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for less than the length of the glitch, and a glitch at the input to the first network having a length of greater than approximately two standard glitch times causes the voltage at the output of the second network to cross the threshold for approximately the time of the glitch. A method reduces the vulnerability of a latch to single event upsets. The latch includes a gate having an input and an output and a feedback path from the output to the input of the gate. The method includes inserting a delay into the feedback path and providing a delay in the gate.

  6. Texture evolution in upset-forged P/M and wrought tantalum: Experimentation and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bingert, J.F.; Desch, P.B.; Bingert, S.R.; Maudlin, P.J.; Tome, C.N.

    1997-11-01

    Preferred orientations in polycrystalline materials can significantly affect their physical and mechanical response through the retention of anisotropic properties inherent to the single crystal. In this study the texture evolution in upset-forged PIM and wrought tantalum was measured as a function of initial texture, compressive strain, and relative position in the pressing. A <001>/<111> duplex fiber texture parallel to the compression axis was generally observed, with varying degrees of a radial component evident in the wrought material. The development of deformation textures derives from restricted crystallographic slip conditions that generate lattice rotations, and these grain reorientations can be modeled as a function of the prescribed deformation gradient. Texture development was simulated for equivalent deformations using both a modified Taylor approach and a viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. A comparison between the predicted evolution and experimental results shows a good correlation with the texture components, but an overly sharp prediction at large strains from both the Taylor and VPSC models.

  7. Noise impact of single-event upsets on an FPGA-based digital filter

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Keith S; Caffrey, Michael P; Graham, Paul S; Pratt, Brian H; Wirthlin, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays are well-suited to DSP and digital communications applications. SRAM-based FPGAs, however, are susceptible to radiation-induced single-event upsets (SEUs) when deployed in space environments. These effects are often handled with the area and power-intensive TMR mitigation technique. This paper evaluates the effects of SEUs in the FPGA configuration memory as noise in a digital filter, showing that many SEUs in a digital communications system cause effects that could be considered noise rather than circuit failure. Since DSP and digital communications applications are designed to withstand certain types of noise, SEU mitigation techniques that are less costly than TMR may be applicable. This could result in large savings in area and power when implementing a reliable system. Our experiments show that, of the SEUs that affected the digital filter with a 20 dB SNR input signal, less than 14% caused an SNR loss of more than 1 dB at the output.

  8. Apparatus for and method of eliminating single event upsets in combinational logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Hass, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Cameron, Kelly B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for and method of eliminating single event upsets (or SEU) in combinational logic are used to prevent error propagation as a result of cosmic particle strikes to the combinational logic. The apparatus preferably includes a combinational logic block electrically coupled to a delay element, a latch and an output buffer. In operation, a signal from the combinational logic is electrically coupled to a first input of the latch. In addition, the signal is routed through the delay element to produce a delayed signal. The delayed signal is routed to a second input of the latch. The latch used in the apparatus for preventing SEU preferably includes latch outputs and a feature that the latch outputs will not change state unless both latch inputs are correct. For example, the latch outputs may not change state unless both latch inputs have the same logical state. When a cosmic particle strikes the combinational logic, a transient disturbance with a predetermined length may appear in the signal. However, a function of the delay element is to preferably provide a time delay greater than the length of the transient disturbance. Therefore, the transient disturbance will not reach both latch inputs simultaneously. As a result, the latch outputs will not permanently change state in error due to the transient disturbance. In addition, the output buffer preferably combines the latch outputs in such a way that the correct state is preserved at all times. Thus, combinational logic with protection from SEU is provided.

  9. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Guo, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Feng-Qi; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Ding, Li-Li; Fan, Xue; Luo, Yin-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed.

  10. Empirical modeling of Single-Event Upset (SEU) in NMOS depletion-mode-load static RAM (SRAM) chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Smith, S. L.; Atwood, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of single-event upset (SEU) in static RAM (SRAM) chips fabricated using a family of high-performance NMOS (HMOS) depletion-mode-load process technologies, has been done. Empirical SEU models have been developed with the aid of heavy-ion data obtained with a three-stage tandem van de Graaff accelerator. The results of this work demonstrate a method by which SEU may be empirically modeled in NMOS integrated circuits.

  11. Real-time closed-loop simulation and upset evaluation of control systems in harsh electromagnetic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1989-01-01

    Digital control systems for applications such as aircraft avionics and multibody systems must maintain adequate control integrity in adverse as well as nominal operating conditions. For example, control systems for advanced aircraft, and especially those with relaxed static stability, will be critical to flight and will, therefore, have very high reliability specifications which must be met regardless of operating conditions. In addition, multibody systems such as robotic manipulators performing critical functions must have control systems capable of robust performance in any operating environment in order to complete the assigned task reliably. Severe operating conditions for electronic control systems can result from electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, high energy radio frequency (HERF) transmitters, and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). For this reason, techniques must be developed to evaluate the integrity of the control system in adverse operating environments. The most difficult and illusive perturbations to computer-based control systems that can be caused by an electromagnetic environment (EME) are functional error modes that involve no component damage. These error modes are collectively known as upset, can occur simultaneously in all of the channels of a redundant control system, and are software dependent. Upset studies performed to date have not addressed the assessment of fault tolerant systems and do not involve the evaluation of a control system operating in a closed-loop with the plant. A methodology for performing a real-time simulation of the closed-loop dynamics of a fault tolerant control system with a simulated plant operating in an electromagnetically harsh environment is presented. In particular, considerations for performing upset tests on the controller are discussed. Some of these considerations are the generation and coupling of analog signals representative of electromagnetic disturbances to a control system under test

  12. Single Versus Customized Treatment Planning for Image-guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer: Dosimetric Comparison and Predicting Factor for Organs at Risk Overdose With Single Plan Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Alexander Gao Mingcheng; Sinacore, James; Nguyen, Nam P.; Vali, Faisal; Albuquerque, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose distribution between customized planning (CP) and adopting a single plan (SP) in multifractionated high-dose-rate brachytherapy and to establish predictors for the necessity of CP in a given patient. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 computed tomography-based plans for 10 patients were evaluated. Each patient had received 6 Gy for five fractions. The clinical target volume and organs at risk (i.e., rectum, bladder, sigmoid, and small bowel) were delineated on each computed tomography scan. For the SP approach, the same dwell position and time was used for all fractions. For the CP approach, the dwell position and time were reoptimized for each fraction. Applicator position variation was determined by measuring the distance between the posterior bladder wall and the tandem at the level of the vaginal fornices. Results: The organs at risk D{sub 2cc} (dose to 2 cc volume) was increased with the SP approach. The dose variation was statistically similar between the tandem and ring and tandem and ovoid groups. The bladder D{sub 2cc} dose was 81.95-105.42 Gy{sub 2} for CP and 82.11-122.49 Gy{sub 2} for SP. In 5 of the 10 patients, the bladder would have been significantly overdosed with the SP approach. The variation of the posterior bladder wall distance from that in the first fraction was correlated with the increase in the bladder D{sub 2cc} (SP/CP), with a correlation coefficient of -0.59. Conclusion: Our results support the use of CP instead of the SP approach to help avoid a significant overdose to the bladder. This is especially true for a decrease in the posterior wall distance of {>=}0.5 cm compared with that in the first fraction.

  13. Early warning system for potential churners among mortgage customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irpan, Hamidah Muhd; Aidid, Sharifah Sakinah Syed Hassan; Mohmad, Sarahiza; Ibrahim, Noorazilah

    2014-07-01

    Retaining existing customer is a major task for many companies because cost to acquire new customers is higher than retaining existing customers. For mortgage business in Bank X, customer relationship management plays a big role to understand their customers' profile and churners so that suitable action can be done to retain their potential churners. Objectives of this study are (1) understanding their customers' profile and churners, (2) modeling potential churners using neural network model and (3) to deploy the model to identify potential churners. Data was divided into two parts: sampling (67,470 cases) and scoring (4,488 cases). Analysis was done using SAS Enterprise Miner. Dependent variable is churner/non churner while independent variables are balance and amount of loan, interest rate offered installment amount, loan performance, months in arrear, vintage, tenure, age, race and gender. Potential churners were identified as Malays, followed by Indian, other races and Chinese. Nonperforming loan and male customers tend to churn compared to performing loan and female customers. Younger customers with small loan amount, balance and monthly instalment, higher interest rate, have many months in arrears, longer vintage and tenure have higher tendency to churn from Bank X. Hence, Bank X should focus on the potential churners for their campaign to minimize the expenses of retaining existing customers by doing an effective campaign with high successful rate.

  14. Effects of total dose irradiation on single-event upset hardness.

    SciTech Connect

    Paillet, Philippe; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Flores, Richard S.; Schwank, James Ralph; Felix, James Andrew; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Hash, Gerald Leon; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.; Blackmore, E. W.; Dodd, Paul Emerson; Baggio, J.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of total dose on SEU hardness is investigated as a function of temperature and power supply voltage to determine worst case hardness assurance test conditions for space environments. SRAMs from six different vendors were characterized for single-event upset (SEU) hardness at proton energies from 20 to 500 MeV and at temperatures of 25 and 80 C after total dose irradiating the SRAMs with either protons, Co-60 gamma rays, or low-energy x-rays. It is shown that total dose irradiation and the bias configuration during total dose irradiation and SEU characterization can substantially affect SEU hardness for some SRAMs. For one SRAM, the bias configuration made more than two orders of magnitude difference in SEU cross section at the highest total dose level examined. In addition, it is shown that increasing the temperature during SEU characterization can also increase the effect of total dose on SEU hardness. As a result, worst-case SEU hardness assurance test conditions are the maximum total dose and temperature of the system environment, and the minimum operating voltage of the SRAM. In contrast to previous works, our results using selective area x-ray irradiations show that the source of the effect of total dose on SEU hardness is radiation-induced leakage currents in the memory cells. The increase in SEU cross section with total dose appears to be consistent with radiation-induced currents originating in the memory cells affecting the output bias levels of bias level shift circuitry used to control the voltage levels to the memory cells and/or due to the lowering of the noise margin of individual memory cells caused by radiation-induced leakage currents.

  15. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Fiskum, Sandra K.

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  16. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management and Customer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binsar Kristian P., Feliks Anggia; Panjaitan, Hotman

    2014-01-01

    This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. Fast food restaurant KFC, always strives to continue to make improvements in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on…

  17. Customer Service in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogliore, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the child support enforcement program in Alaska has responded to the challenges of distance, weather, and cultural differences through training representatives, making waiting areas more comfortable, conducting random customer evaluation of services, establishing travel hubs in regional offices and meeting with community leaders and…

  18. Customized hazard maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Finding out about the historic occurrence of six different types of natural hazards in any region in the United States recently became a little easier.A Project Impact initiative of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and ESRI—a leading provider of Geographic Information System (GIS) software and a Project Impact partner—offers the public customized online hazard maps.

  19. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  20. Students as Customers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, Rob

    2010-01-01

    The idea that students might be treated as customers triggers academics' antipathy, which in turn can lead to managerial irritation and political frustration. There are different discourses which barely overlap as their protagonists speak past one another. This article argues that these differences can be reconciled by re-conceiving the…

  1. Chippewa Customs. Reprint Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Frances

    Using information obtained between 1907 and 1925 from members of the Chippewa tribe, the Bureau of American Ethnology, and the United States National Museum, the book describes various Chippewa customs. Information, collected on six reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin and the Manitou Rapids Reserve in Ontario, Canada, is provided concerning…

  2. Customer requirements process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

  3. Custom uniform source system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcom, John L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this final report is to provide information on the Custom Uniform Source System (CSTM-USS-4000). The report includes documentation and summaries of the results for the work performed under the contract. The Annex contain laboratory test findings, photographs, and drawings of the sphere system.

  4. Family Customs and Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  5. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    PubMed

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit. PMID:11184973

  6. SEU rate prediction and measurement of GaAs SRAMs onboard the CRRES satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, T.R.; McDonald, P.T. Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC ); Campbell, A.B.; Langworthy, J.B. )

    1993-12-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) launched in July of 1990 included experiments to study effects of Single Event Upset (SEU) on various microelectronic ICs. The MicroElectronics Package (MEP) subsection of the satellite experiments monitored upset rates on 65 devices over a 15 month period. One of the purposes of the SEU experiments was to determine if the soft error modeling techniques were of sufficient accuracy to predict error rates, and if not, to determine where the deficiencies existed. An analysis is presented on SPICE predicted, SEU ground tested, and CRRES observed heavy ion and proton soft error rates of GaAs SRAMs. Upset rates overestimated the susceptibility of the GaAs SRAMs. Differences are accounted to several factors.

  7. Upper-Bound SEU Rates In Anisotropic Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    Upper bounds on rates of single-event upsets (SEU's) in digital integrated circuits and other electronic devices exposed to anisotropic fluxes of energetic ionizing particles computed by use of improved method. Derived from simplified, worst-case mathematical models of charge-collecting volumes and physical phenomena in electronic devices.

  8. Drawing in industrial customers

    SciTech Connect

    Pittman, R. )

    1994-10-01

    Gas companies have long played a role in attracting businesses to their service territories. Along with railroad companies, utilities were among the first to practice economic development, having established departments for these activities as early as the 1920s. Today, firms that want to expand or relocate sat that utilities are a preferred source of information, offering confidentiality, good service, professionalism and reliable data. One thing industrial customers say they want is energy-cost comparisons among different locations around the country. Another issue important to industrial users is the gas company's pricing method. Finally, US industry has taken careful note of the effects of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 636, which unbundled pipeline services. Industrial customers want the same freedom to choose the service they receive and pay for. At the same time, they want some assurance about the reliability of gas supplies, since gas may be coming from several sources at different contract prices and under different terms.

  9. Experimental determination of single-event upset (SEU) as a function of collected charge in bipolar integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Malone, C. J.; Smith, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) in bipolar integrated circuits (ICs) is caused by charge collection from ion tracks in various regions of a bipolar transistor. This paper presents experimental data which have been obtained wherein the range-energy characteristics of heavy ions (Br) have been utilized to determine the cross section for soft-error generation as a function of charge collected from single-particle tracks which penetrate a bipolar static RAM. The results of this work provide a basis for the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling in bipolar ICs.

  10. Single-Event Upset (SEU) model verification and threshold determination using heavy ions in a bipolar static RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.; Smith, L. S.; Soli, G. A.; Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H. E.

    1985-01-01

    Single-Event Upset (SEU) response of a bipolar low-power Schottky-diode-clamped TTL static RAM has been observed using Br ions in the 100-240 MeV energy range and O ions in the 20-100 MeV range. These data complete the experimental verification of circuit-simulation SEU modeling for this device. The threshold for onset of SEU has been observed by the variation of energy, ion species and angle of incidence. The results obtained from the computer circuit-simulation modeling and experimental model verification demonstrate a viable methodology for modeling SEU in bipolar integrated circuits.

  11. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  12. Partnership with the customer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachta, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    This discussion will recount some historical observations about establishing partnerships with the customer. It suggests that such partnerships are established as the natural evolutionary product of a continuous improvement culture. Those are warm, ethereal terms about a topic that some people think already suffers from an excess of hot air. We will focus on some real-world activities and workplace artifacts to show there are substantive concepts behind the TQM buzzwords.

  13. CERTS customer adoption model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  14. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  15. A pilot rating scale for vortex hazard evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot rating scale is developed for subjective assessment of hazard resulting from wake vortex encounter upsets. The development of the rating scale is based on a survey of 48 pilots regarding the semantic properties of various phrases and a choice of formats for the rating scale. The rating scale can be used to define a hazard/nonhazard boundary as well as to determine a measure of the hazard.

  16. To Customize or Not to Customize? Exploring Science Teacher Customization in an Online Lesson Portal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littenberg-Tobias, Joshua; Beheshti, Elham; Staudt, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    New technologies are increasingly giving science teachers the ability to access and customize science lessons. However, there is substantial debate in the literature about whether and under what conditions teacher customization benefit student learning. In this study, we examined teacher customization of inquiry-based science lessons from an…

  17. Down-select ion specific media (ISM) utilization in upset and outage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    capacities on the candidate media; however, equilibrium testing does not provide information on the exchange kinetics and the shape of the packed column breakthrough isotherm. The performance of the most promising of the pre-screened media was then further tested and validated at the NPP site, using small packed bed columns containing the media to be evaluated, with use of actual NPP waste water under dynamic flow conditions. In the cited example, dynamic flow testing validated the performance characteristics for the most promising media, as previously-selected by the laboratory batch testing. In particular, it revealed that two novel media were particularly useful under process upset conditions, viz., AGC-5860 (a chemically modified activated carbon) for chelated transition metals (especially Co{sup 58} and 60), and ASM{sup 125} (a highly selective and tenacious resin product) especially for Sb{sup 125}. Subsequently, two of the most effective novel media identified in the screening effort have now been deployed at full-scale at an NPP site for the duration of approximately one year (to-date). The antimony-selective resin has performed especially well, greatly outperforming and outlasting previously utilized media, under many variations in the NPP influent waste water composition (including outage conditions and high boron concentrations, etc.). It was further found that the ASM 125 ISM had an excellent affinity for tellurium (Te{sup 125m}), a daughter of antimony (Sb). (See data from Exelon's Byron Station. Also, on-going at Calvert Cliffs). At the request of two other NPPs (STP and Calvert Cliffs), the AGC ISM was found to solve their Fe 55 and Ni 63 problem, likely resulting from steam generator change outs at the plants. Lastly, work is on-going remove radioactive iodine (I{sup 129}) with the granulated AGC. (authors)

  18. The mismanagement of customer loyalty.

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Werner; Kumar, V

    2002-07-01

    Who wouldn't want loyal customers? Surely they should cost less to serve, they'd be willing to pay more than other customers, and they'd actively market your company by word of mouth, right? Maybe not. Careful study of the relationship between customer loyalty and profits plumbed from 16,000 customers in four companies' databases tells a different story. The authors found no evidence to support any of these claims. What they did find was that the link between customers and profitability was more complicated because customers fall into four groups, not two. Simply put: Not all loyal customers are profitable, and not all profitable customers are loyal. Traditional tools for segmenting customers do a poor job of identifying that latter group, causing companies to chase expensively after initially profitable customers who hold little promise of future profits. The authors suggest an alternative approach, based on well-established "event-history modeling" techniques, that more accurately predicts future buying probabilities. Armed with such a tool, marketers can correctly identify which customers belong in which category and market accordingly. The challenge in managing customers who are profitable but disloyal--the "butterflies"--is to milk them for as much as you can while they're buying from you. A softly-softly approach is more appropriate for the profitable customers who are likely to stay loyal--your "true friends." As for highly loyal but not very profitable customers--the "barnacles"--you need to find out if they have the potential to spend more than they currently do. And, of course, for the "strangers"--those who generate no loyalty and no profits--the answer is simple: Identify early and don't invest anything. PMID:12140857

  19. Your customers may be satisfied, but are they loyal?

    SciTech Connect

    Heupler, K.; Dion, S.; Wilder, S.

    1994-11-01

    Utilities have long recognized the importance of addressing the issue of customer satisfaction in their marketing research efforts. However, as typically defined and evaluated by utilities, the concept of satisfaction is generally too limited, and overlooks the core issue of customer loyalty. Satisfaction with service performance attributes such as power delivery, billing accuracy, customer service, and rates does not guarantee customer loyalty to an electric service provider in the face of increasing competition. Although satisfaction is a key indicator of loyalty, additional elements including mobility, energy-use characteristics, location, cost-sensitivity, stability, psychographics, and previous experience will each play a role in determining the level of commitment a utility customer is willing to make. The challenge in assessing customer loyalty is in the measurement process itself. Utilities need an ongoing process to evaluate loyalty and convert their research into specific actions that can be used to gain or maintain a competitive foothold in the market. This paper explores the issue of loyalty from a utility perspective. Loyalty is explored primarily as it relates to commercial and industrial customers. However, many of the concepts and issues pertain to loyalty measurement in other industries is discussed from a historical perspective, and a framework is presented for measuring customer loyalty among utility customers. Finally, a model for translating loyalty research results into actionable measures is presented.

  20. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    PubMed

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it. PMID:26571974

  1. Customer care in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Ruddick, Fred

    2015-01-20

    Viewing individuals in need of NHS care as customers has the potential to refocus the way their care is delivered. This article highlights some of the benefits of reframing the nurse-patient relationship in terms of customer care, and draws parallels between good customer care and the provision of high quality patient care in the NHS. It explores lessons to be learned from those who have studied the customer experience, which can be adapted to enhance the customer care experience within the health service. Developing professional expertise in the knowledge and skills that underpin good-quality interpersonal encounters is essential to improve the customer experience in health care and should be prioritised alongside the development of more technical skills. Creating a culture where emotional intelligence, caring and compassion are essential requirements for all nursing staff will improve patient satisfaction. PMID:25585766

  2. Predictive Systems for Customer Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Ravi; Albert, Sam; Singh, Vinod Kumar; Kannan, Pallipuram V.

    With the coming of age of web as a mainstream customer service channel, B2C companies have invested substantial resources in enhancing their web presence. Today customers can interact with a company, not only through the traditional phone channel but also through chat, email, SMS or web self-service. Each of these channels is best suited for some services and ill-matched for others. Customer service organizations today struggle with the challenge of delivering seamlessly integrated services through these different channels. This paper will evaluate some of the key challenges in multi-channel customer service. It will address the challenge of creating the right channel mix i.e. providing the right choice of channels for a given customer/behavior/issue profile. It will also provide strategies for optimizing the performance of a given channel in creating the right customer experience.

  3. Customer service providers' attitudes relating to customer service and customer satisfaction in the customer-server exchange.

    PubMed

    Susskind, Alex M; Kacmar, K Michele; Borchgrevink, Carl P

    2003-02-01

    The authors proposed and tested a model describing the relationship between customer service providers' perceptions and attitudes toward their service-related duties and their customers' perceptions of satisfaction with their service experiences. Results indicated that the perception of having standards for service delivery in an organization is strongly related to line-level employees' perceptions of support from coworkers and supervisors. Perceived support from coworkers was significantly related to service providers' customer orientation, whereas perceived support from supervisors showed a weaker relationship to a customer orientation. Ultimately, service providers' customer orientation was strongly related to customers' satisfaction with service. Finally, a set of post hoc analyses indicated that coworker and supervisory support explained a greater proportion of incremental variance in the model than did perceived organizational support alone. PMID:12675405

  4. Clueing in customers.

    PubMed

    Berry, Leonard L; Bendapudi, Neeli

    2003-02-01

    Leonard L. Berry and Neeli Bendapudi When customers lack the expertise to judge a company's offerings, they naturally turn detective, scrutinizing people, facilities, and processes for evidence of quality. The Mayo Clinic understands this and carefully manages that evidence to convey a simple, consistent message: The needs of the patient come first. From the way it hires and trains employees to the way it designs its facilities and approaches its care, the Mayo Clinic provides patients and their families concrete evidence of its strengths and values, an approach that has allowed it to build what is arguably the most powerful brand in health care. Marketing professors Leonard Berry and Neeli Bendapudi conducted a five-month study of evidence management at the Mayo Clinic. They interviewed more than 1,000 patients and employees, observed hundreds of doctor visits, traveled in the Mayo helicopter, and stayed in the organization's many hospitals. Their experiences led them to identify best practices applicable to just about any company, in particular those that sell intangible or technically complex products. Essentially, the authors say, companies need to determine what story they want to tell, then ensure that their employees and facilities consistently show customers evidence of that story. At Mayo, the evidence falls into three categories: people, collaboration, and tangibles. The clinic systematically hires people who espouse its values, and its incentive and reward systems promote collaborative care focused on the patient's needs. The physical environment is explicitly designed for its intended effect on the patient experience. In almost every interaction, an organization's message comes through. "Patients first," the Mayo Clinic's message, is not the only story a medical organization could tell, but the way in which Mayo manages evidence to communicate this message is an example to be followed. PMID:12577657

  5. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  6. Customer Behavior Clustering Using SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongying; Su, Xiaolong

    In order to supply better service for network customers, deeply analyzing customers' behavior is required. This paper extracts three features from customers' network behavior which is divided into different categories, such as browsing news, downloading shared resources and real-time communications etc. Support vector machine is used to perform clustering, thanks to its fast and valid executing, especially in the situation of small datasets. Using the analysis results, we can make our applications and services more personalized and easier to be used.

  7. Techniques for understanding the customer.

    PubMed

    King, B

    1994-01-01

    Who are the customers and what do they want? Every health care employee sometimes serves as a supplier providing input to an activity and sometimes as the recipient of the activity. This article explains the Kano model, which distinguishes between expected quality, one-dimensional, quality, and exciting quality. It also introduces Quality Function Deployment and the Customer Window, two tools for understanding and prioritizing customer demands. PMID:10133368

  8. Discussion series on PURPA related topics: information to customers

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, J I

    1980-08-01

    This volume relates primarily to Time-of-Day rates standard, PURPA IB(d)3, and deals with the content and methods of providing rate and conservation information to customers when Time-of-Day rates are used. Information to customers in the Demonstration and Pilot Projects fell mainly into four categories: administrative communications; explanations of new rate structures; information and advice on load management; and facts, recommendations and encouragements about energy conservation and end-use improvement. Administrative communications were about such matters as the existence of Projects, their funding, their periods of performance, the selection of their test customers, conditions of participation, procedural changes during the tests, and the time and conditions of ending the tests. These communications were important to good customer cooperation. All Demonstration Projects devoted considerable effort to the crucial task of clearly explaining the rationale of Time-of-Use (TOU) pricing and the test rate structures. The Projects then presented the concept of TOU pricing as a means of (a) fairly charging customers the true cost of their electricity and (b) rewarding them for shifting consumption to times when costs are less. For the most part, Demonstration Projects gave specific information on the individual customer's own rate structure and none on any others that were under test. The information was presented in face-to-face interviews, group presentations, television, radio, and print media, and traveling exhibits. The results are evaluated. (LCL)

  9. Study on the metal flow of large marine full-fiber crankshaft processed by TR bending-upsetting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhen; Xu, Bin; Sun, Ming-yue; Li, Dian-zhong; Deng, Jun-jiang; He, Ming-jiu

    2013-05-01

    Large marine crankshaft is the heart of medium-speed diesel engine. The TR forming method used to obtain full-fiber workpiece is considerably complex. However, the metal flow behavior during bending-upsetting process, which determines the forming quality, was seldom studied in previous works. In this study, a finite element model (FEM) was established using constitutive model of 42CrMo4 steel and specified boundary conditions. The simulated results has demonstrated that the early filled metal resists the following metal entering the upper cavity, thereby causing the flash on the upper edge and the unfilled defect on the lower edge of the crank-arm. Further analysis has indicated that larger initial angel of the elbow rod θ0 and a good lubrication condition between dies and workpiece can effectively decrease the volume of flash and eliminate the unfilled defect on the final product.

  10. The Dangers of Failure Masking in Fault-Tolerant Software: Aspects of a Recent In-Flight Upset Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    On 1 August 2005, a Boeing Company 777-200 aircraft, operating on an international passenger flight from Australia to Malaysia, was involved in a significant upset event while flying on autopilot. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau's investigation into the event discovered that an anomaly existed in the component software hierarchy that allowed inputs from a known faulty accelerometer to be processed by the air data inertial reference unit (ADIRU) and used by the primary flight computer, autopilot and other aircraft systems. This anomaly had existed in original ADIRU software, and had not been detected in the testing and certification process for the unit. This paper describes the software aspects of the incident in detail, and suggests possible implications concerning complex, safety-critical, fault-tolerant software.