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Sample records for cutaneous side effects

  1. Clinical side effects during aerosol therapy: cutaneous and ocular effects.

    PubMed

    Geller, David E

    2007-01-01

    Aerosolized medications maximize clinical benefit by targeting the airways and minimize side effects by reducing (though not eliminating) systemic exposure. Aerosolized drugs delivered with a facemask may inadvertently deposit on the face and in the eyes, raising concerns about cutaneous and ocular side effects with these drugs. Cases of anisocoria have been reported from exposure of the eyes to aerosol bronchodilators. Whether inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) can cause skin and eye problems like those seen with systemic or topical steroids is more difficult to answer. Patients who take ICS may have other corticosteroid exposures, or have other conditions that predispose them to side effects, making the analysis of the ICS risk challenging. Also, many studies were not designed to search for cutaneous or ocular effects, or may have been too short to detect these effects. Nevertheless, ICS have been associated with an increased risk of skin thinning, bruising, cataracts and possibly glaucoma in adults, but not in children. The risks increase with advanced age, higher doses, and longer duration of use. In children, the risks of cataracts and glaucoma were negligible with ICS, whether a mouthpiece or a mask interface was used. Side effects like skin rash and conjunctivitis occurred at low frequencies similar to placebo or comparator drugs. We do not know whether exposed children will have increased risks from ICS later in life. Therefore, it is wise to avoid face and eye deposition when possible, and to use the minimally effective dose. PMID:17411401

  2. [Management of the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapies and targeted therapies].

    PubMed

    Delyon, Julie; Gerard, Maud; Nicodeme, Marguerite; Fromantin, Isabelle; Loirat, Delphine

    2015-06-01

    The treatments used in oncology cause frequent cutaneous side effects. The different types of cutaneous toxicities depend on the class of anti-tumour therapies and can involve the skin, mucosa, nails and hair. Effectively managing these cutaneous toxicities requires adapted preventive and curative measures in order to reduce their impact, notably on patients' quality of life. PMID:26146316

  3. Cutaneous Side Effects of BRAF Inhibitors in Advanced Melanoma: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gönül, Müzeyyen

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has recently been increasing. BRAF mutations have been found in 40–60% of melanomas. The increased activity of BRAF V600E leads to the activation of downstream signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which plays a key role as a regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The use of BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma with BRAF mutation ensures clinical improvement of the disease. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two selective BRAF inhibitors approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Both drugs are well tolerated and successfully used in clinical practice. However, some adverse reactions have been reported in patients in the course of treatment. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse events among them with a broad spectrum. Both the case reports and several original clinical trials reported cutaneous reactions during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. In this review, the common cutaneous side effects of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation were reviewed. PMID:27042173

  4. Anti-Angiogenic Drugs: Involvement in Cutaneous Side Effects and Wound-Healing Complication

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: The uses of anti-angiogenic drugs have not only made an impact on the battle to eliminate cancer but are also responsible for a number of medical complications. The long-term use of these drugs has increased the spectrum and incidence of cutaneous side effects and wound-healing complications. It is, therefore, necessary to understand the overall impact that these drugs have on patient care. Recent Advances: This review highlights the role of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in angiogenesis and wound healing and looks at how angiogenic inhibitors promote wound-healing complications. Critical Issues: With an increased use of anti-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of various cancers and ocular diseases, there is an increased need for clinicians to define the risks and to optimize the usage of these drugs to reduce the incidence of cutaneous side effects and wound-healing complications. In addition, awareness is needed when treating patients on anti-angiogenic drugs so as not to exacerbate potential wound-healing complications when performing surgical procedures. Future Directions: Clinicians and surgeons will need to develop management guidelines to optimize patient care to reduce the risk of morbidity. When performing a surgical procedure, the impact of adverse effects from the use of anti-angiogenic drugs should be considered to ensure the welfare of the patient. In addition, the development of more specific inhibitors is necessary to reduce target effects to reduce the occurrence of adverse effects. PMID:25302138

  5. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: An Uncommon Side Effect of Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Use for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Elson Vidal; Gaburri, Ana Karla; Gaburri, Debora; Sementilli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has evolved in the past 15 years and combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin is its current standard therapy. However, several side effects are commonly observed and frequently lead to transient or definitive interruption of treatment. Although sarcoidosis in its systemic or cutaneous form is a very rare side effect in such circumstances, some cases have been reported even with conventional interferon. This brief review of the literature and description of a case of sarcoidosis occurring in a tattoo and a scar patient's face, during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin, is an educative report directed in special to dermatologists. The lesion improved after drug interruption and recurred after retreatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2a. We conclude that this side effect must call the attention of doctors to seek for the diagnosis and therapy as soon as possible in such circumstances. No differences were noticed neither with alpha-2a nor alpha-2b pegylated interferon employment. PMID:21103255

  6. Algorithm for dermocosmetic use in the management of cutaneous side-effects associated with targeted therapy in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Dreno, B; Bensadoun, RJ; Humbert, P; Krutmann, J; Luger, T; Triller, R; Rougier, A; Seité, S

    2013-01-01

    Currently, numerous patients who receive targeted chemotherapy for cancer suffer from disabling skin reactions due to cutaneous toxicity, which is a significant problem for an increasing number of patients and their treating physicians. In addition, using inappropriate personal hygiene products often worsens these otherwise manageable side-effects. Cosmetic products for personal hygiene and lesion camouflage are part of a patients’ well-being and an increasing number of physicians feel that they do not have adequate information to provide effective advice on concomitant cosmetic therapy. Although ample information is available in the literature on pharmaceutical treatment for cutaneous side-effects of chemotherapy, little is available for the concomitant use of dermatological skin-care products with medical treatments. The objective of this consensus study is to provide an algorithm for the appropriate use of dermatological cosmetics in the management of cutaneous toxicities associated with targeted chemotherapy such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and other monoclonal antibodies. These guidelines were developed by a French and German expert group of dermatologists and an oncologist for oncologists and primary care physicians who manage oncology patients. The information in this report is based on published data and the expert group’s opinion. Due to the current lack of clinical evidence, only a review of published recommendations including suggestions for concomitant cosmetic use was conducted. PMID:23368717

  7. Escalating therapy of cutaneous side effects of EGFR inhibitors: experience of German reference centers.

    PubMed

    Homey, Bernhard; Gerber, Peter Arne; Wollenberg, Andreas; Dirschka, Thomas; Hassel, Jessica C; Bölke, Edwin; Hauschild, Axel; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2012-08-01

    Recommendations for the management of cutaneous adverse effects of inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are urgently needed. In this context an expert panel of German dermatologists recently proposed a 3-step management concept based on personal experience and a current literature consensus. While steps 1 and 2 addressed general and preventive measures, as well as the therapy that can be performed by the primary treating physician, here we address the management of challenging cases (step 3) that do not respond well to basic measures and should be referred to an experienced dermatologist. PMID:22672156

  8. Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 550 Side Effects WHAT ARE SIDE EFFECTS? WHO GETS SIDE EFFECTS? ... t assume that you will get every side effect that’s listed! Most people have few or only ...

  9. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication. PMID:26914914

  10. Side effects with amiodarone therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Jowett, N. I.; Thompson, D. R.; Pohl, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Amiodarone hydrochloride is increasingly being used in the treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. Although a highly effective anti-arrhythmic agent, its use is restricted by the high incidence of side effects. To elucidate the value of monitoring serum level of both the parent drug and its active metabolite in predicting the occurrence of side effects, the investigators examined 109 patients from a register of patients treated with amiodarone for the prevalence of known side effects of the drug. The register contained over 90% of patients treated with amiodarone at the Leicester General Hospital during the period of the study. The findings suggest cutaneous side effects and abnormal thyroid function tests (without overt gland dysfunction) are more likely to occur with increasing duration of treatment and cumulative dosage. However, neither the serum amiodarone level nor the serum metabolite level had any predictive power for the occurrence of side effects. In view of this finding, it is recommended that close attention be paid to the continued clinical monitoring of side effects and that there is utility in measuring the serum amiodarone level in each patient to avoid the prescription of unnecessarily high doses. This is necessary not only to lessen the occurrence of cumulative dose-related side effects, but also because the variable but very long half-life of the drug leads to difficulties in relating spot drug levels to long-term effects. PMID:7937427

  11. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  12. Emotional Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Emotional Side Effects In this section you can learn more about ... Finding and Paying for Treatment Treatments and Side Effects Survivorship: During and After Treatment Children and Cancer ...

  13. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  14. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions to the different drugs. The doctors, nurses, and pharmacists will describe what to look out for in ... will be monitored very closely by doctors, nurses, and pharmacists to make sure that all side effects are ...

  15. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  16. "Side" effects: a misnomer.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    The tragic results for the babies of patients prescribed thalidomide, although they can indeed be termed "side" effects, hardly warrant so slight an epithet, and Dr Joyce in his paper would like the term to be dropped in favour of "additional" effects of drugs. Despite extensive clinical trials before drugs are put before the prescribing doctor, side effects cannot be entirely anticipated or eliminated, and indeed many are not harmful. However, it is important, Dr Joyce argues, for information to the doctor from the patient and from the doctor to the manufacturer to be collected and evaluated. Only in this way can effects of drugs other than those intended be drawn to the notice of the manufacturer. The commentary by two practising physicians emphasizes the ambiguities in the descriptive literature accompanying a new drug. Dr Herxheimer and Dr Higgs would like to see some sort of panel to be established to reassess drugs in the light of observations on their effects and "side" effects on patients, a task which the existing Committee on Safety of Medicines could not at the moment undertake. A medical need for a new drug should be established before it is manufactured, let alone offered to the general practitioner. PMID:823336

  17. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Infection “I am extra careful to stay away ... doctor or nurse right away. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances ...

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National ... before taking medicine for diarrhea. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea These foods and drinks may help if ...

  20. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  1. Benoxaprofen: side-effect profile in 300 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, J P; Cardoe, N

    1982-01-01

    Out of 300 patients who had taken benoxaprofen for a mean of 6.4 months, 196 (65.3%) reported side effects, resulting in 104 patients (34.6%) having the drug withdrawn. Out of 42 patients aged over 70, 35 (83.3%) had side effects and 29 (69.0%) had the drug withdrawn because of them. cutaneous side effects accounted for 180 (69.5%) of all 259 side effects reported. The commonest cutaneous side effect was photosensitivity, which occurred in 86 patients (28.6%). Photosensitivity, which occurred in half of the patients treated in the summer, resulted in withdrawal of benoxaprofen in 26 (30.2%) of the patients who experienced it. Onycholysis was observed in 38 patients (12.6%) and was frequently unnoticed by patients. The overall incidence of gastric side effects was 12.6% (38 patients), and the figure rose to 40.5% (17 cases) in patients over 70. During treatment with benoxaprofen one patient developed an active duodenal ulcer but no cases of major gastrointestinal haemorrhage occurred. Multiple subepidermal cysts (milia) were observed in 16 patients, who had been treated for a mean of 10.8 months. These findings show that benoxaprofen is a potent phototoxic drug and that the manufacturers' recommended dosage of 600 mg daily is associated with an unacceptable incidence of side effects in the elderly. Images p1366-a PMID:6803978

  2. Effect of Propolis on Experimental Cutaneous Wound Healing in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates clinically the effect of propolis paste on healing of cutaneous wound in dogs. Under general anesthesia and complete aseptic conditions, two full thickness skin wounds (3 cm diameter) were created in each side of the chest in five dogs, one dorsal and one ventral, with 10 cm between them. These wounds were randomly allocated into two groups, control group (10 wounds) and propolis group (10 wounds). Both groups were represented in each dog. The wounds were cleaned with normal saline solution and dressed with macrogol ointment in control group and propolis paste in propolis group, twice daily till complete wound healing. Measurement of the wound area (cm2) was monitored planimetrically at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days after injury. The data were analyzed statistically. The results revealed a significant reduction in the wound surface area in the propolis group after 14 and 21 days compared to control group. The wound reepithelization, contraction, and total wound healing were faster in propolis group than in control group during five weeks of study. In conclusion, propolis paste has a positive impact on cutaneous wound healing and it may be suggested for treating various types of wounds in animals. PMID:26783495

  3. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination The smallpox vaccine prevents smallpox. For most people, ... go away without treatment: The arm receiving the vaccination may be sore and red where the vaccine ...

  4. Side Effects and Their Management

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Donate One Time Monthly Event Tribute For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) ... Care and Treatment Newly Diagnosed Continuum of Care Brain Tumor Treatments Brain Tumor Treatment Locations Treatment Side Effects & ...

  5. Nonprescription ibuprofen: side effect profile.

    PubMed

    Furey, S A; Waksman, J A; Dash, B H

    1992-01-01

    Single doses of nonprescription analgesics are commonly used to treat self-diagnosed conditions. To evaluate the safety of single doses of nonprescription-strength ibuprofen, we examined reported side effects from 15 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials we conducted of the drug to treat various common painful conditions (e.g., headache, sore throat). All studies included placebo and another nonprescription analgesic, acetaminophen. A total of 878 subjects received ibuprofen 200 or 400 mg, 849 acetaminophen 650 or 1000 mg, and 852 placebo. The overall frequency of side effects was comparable: ibuprofen 2.4%, acetaminophen 3.2%, and placebo 2.1%. The frequency of central nervous system symptoms was 0.8%, 2.1%, and 0.9%, respectively. Upper gastro-intestinal upset ranged from 0.8-0.9% of subjects in all groups. We conclude that single doses of nonprescription ibuprofen are well tolerated and demonstrate a side effect profile indistinguishable from that of acetaminophen and placebo. PMID:1437701

  6. Study on epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis in northern India and effectiveness of dimethylsulphoxide in cutaneous amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Arvind; Nath, Bhola; Dhir, G. G.; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Budhiraja, Virendra; Singh, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Context: Amyloidosis, which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of a proteinaceous substance, is usually associated with considerable tissue dysfunction. However, the etiology of the disease remains uncertain and the treatment disappointing. Aim: 1. To know the epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis 2. To evaluate the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on cutaneous amyloidosis. Settings and Design: Data was collected from patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD) over a period of one year. Material and Methods: Patients were screened on the basis of signs and symptoms and then confirmed histologically. A total of 62 patients who were suspected to be suffering from amyloidosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and 38 patients who were further confirmed histopathologically underwent the treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used for testing the significance of proportions. Results: 63.15 percent of the patients had macular amyloidosis and the interscapular area was the most common area involved (52.63%). Pruritus, pigmentation, and papules responded excellently to dimethylsulphoxide after one month of treatment. Conclusions: Cutaneous amyloidosis is a disease found in middle-aged persons, with a female preponderance, and dimethylsulphoxide seems to be an effective therapy. PMID:23189250

  7. A second international cooperative investigation into thioacetazone side effects

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Fox, Wallace; Somasundaram, P. R.; Tall, Ruth

    1972-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international cooperative investigation into the side effects of thioacetazone-containing regimens in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of the variation in the frequency of side effects between different countries and between different centres in the same country and of the likely reasons for this variation. In 3 countries patients of different racial origin were under observation in the same hospital. Over a 12-week period of treatment there was considerable variation between the countries and centres in the overall frequency of side effects and of those leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment, the variation being similar for the two thioacetazone-containing regimens and for the streptomycin plus isoniazid control regimen, though at a lower level for the latter. In Malaysia, Singapore, and Trinidad, where different racial groups were under treatment, there was no clear indication that race was an important factor in explaining the differences between countries, except for cutaneous side effects in Trinidad and possibly in Malaysia. It is concluded that the differences in the frequency of side effects to thioacetazone-containing regimens probably result from variation in the closeness of supervision of patients, in the recording and interpretation of side effects, and in environmental factors including the previous use of other medicaments or exposure to sensitizing substances. PMID:4118761

  8. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS ANTIBODY AGAINST ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS ON CHANNEL CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish recovered from sublethal ichthyophthiriasis acquire protective immunity against Ichthyophthirius (Ich). The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of cutaneous antibody produced by channel catfish immune to Ich on cohabited non-immune catfish after exposure to 15,000 ther...

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  10. Fillers: Contraindications, Side Effects and Precautions

    PubMed Central

    Lafaille, Philippe; Benedetto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Fillers are generally considered safe. However side effects may happen and hence a practicing dermatologist need to be aware of such side effects, contraindicatons and precaution to be adopted while using fillers. PMID:20606987

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and ... at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself at the ...

  12. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Ahsun; Awais, Rafia; Salem, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed. PMID:25120955

  13. Adverse Effects of Nonsystemic Steroids (Inhaled, Intranasal, and Cutaneous): a Review of the Literature and Suggested Monitoring Tool.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ratika; Fonacier, Luz S

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled, intranasal, and cutaneous steroids are prescribed by physicians for a plethora of disease processes including asthma and rhinitis. While the high efficacy of this class of medication is well known, the wide range of adverse effects, both local and systemic, is not well elucidated. It is imperative to monitor total steroid burden in its varied forms as well as tracking for possible side effects that may be caused by a high cumulative dose of steroids. This review article highlights the adverse effects of different steroid modalities as well as suggests a monitoring tool to determine steroid totality and side effects. PMID:27207481

  14. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  15. Side effects of commonly prescribed analgesic medications.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Duong, Vicky; Ho, Stanley; Ngo, Kathryn C; Greer, Christopher L; Weeks, Douglas L

    2014-05-01

    Analgesics, including opioids, steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, acetaminophen, antiepileptics, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, are medications commonly used to treat many forms of pain. However, all of these agents may have significant adverse side effects. Adverse effects may occasionally be inseparable from desired effects. Side effects are often dose dependent and time dependent. It is critical that the prescribing practitioner and the dispensing pharmacist provide a thorough, understandable review of the potential side effects to all patients before these drugs are administered. Proper monitoring and follow-up during therapy are crucial. PMID:24787343

  16. Polarization effects in cutaneous autofluorescent spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Angelova, L.; Jeliazkova, Al.; Genova, Ts.; Pavlova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2014-05-01

    Used polarized light for fluorescence excitation one could obtain response related to the anisotropy features of extracellular matrix. The fluorophore anisotropy is attenuated during lesions' growth and level of such decrease could be correlated with the stage of tumor development. Our preliminary investigations are based on in vivo point-by-point measurements of excitation-emission matrices (EEM) from healthy volunteers skin on different ages and from different anatomical places using linear polarizer and analyzer for excitation and emission light detected. Measurements were made using spectrofluorimeter FluoroLog 3 (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) with fiber-optic probe in steady-state regime using excitation in the region of 280-440 nm. Three different situations were evaluated and corresponding excitation-emission matrices were developed - with parallel and perpendicular positions for linear polarizer and analyzer, and without polarization of excitation and fluorescence light detected from a forearm skin surface. The fluorescence spectra obtained reveal differences in spectral intensity, related to general attenuation, due to filtering effects of used polarizer/analyzer couple. Significant spectral shape changes were observed for the complex autofluorescence signal detected, which correlated with collagen and protein cross-links fluorescence, that could be addressed to the tissue extracellular matrix and general condition of the skin investigated, due to morphological destruction during lesions' growth. A correlation between volunteers' age and the fluorescence spectra detected was observed during our measurements. Our next step is to increase developed initial database and to evaluate all sources of intrinsic fluorescent polarization effects and found if they are significantly altered from normal skin to cancerous state of the tissue, this way to develop a non-invasive diagnostic tool for dermatological practice.

  17. Temporal effects of topical morphine application on cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Jerri M.; Hasan, Wohaib; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that topical administration of exogenous opioid drugs impairs wound healing by inhibiting the peripheral release of neuropeptides, thereby inhibiting neurogenic inflammation. This delay is immediate and peaks during the first days of wound closure. This study examined the effects of topical morphine treatment in a cutaneous wound healing model in the rat. Methods Full-thickness 4mm diameter wounds were placed on the periscapular region of rats that subsequently received twice-daily topical applications of IntraSite Gel (Smith+Nephew, Hull, United Kingdom) alone or gel infused with 5 mM morphine sulfate on days 0–3 or 4–10 post-wounding or throughout the time course. Wound tissue was taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8, and 18 post-wounding and immunostained for myofibroblast and macrophage markers or stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results Delays in wound closure observed during morphine application on days 0–3 post-wounding mimicked those seen in wounds treated with morphine throughout the entire healing process. However, no significant delays in closure were seen in wounds treated with morphine beginning on day 4 post-wounding. Treatment of wounds with morphine significantly reduced the number of myofibroblasts and macrophages in the closing wound. Additionally, morphine application resulted in decreases in skin thickness and an increase in residual scar tissue in healed skin. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the time-dependent and persistent nature of the detrimental effects of topical morphine on cutaneous wound healing. The data identify specific limitations that could be ameliorated to optimize topical opioid administration as an analgesic therapeutic strategy in the treatment of painful cutaneous wounds. PMID:18580183

  18. A STUDY OF SIDE EFFECTS OF LITHIUM

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Sugumar, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The present report is a study on the side effects experienced by the patients attending the Lithium Clinic of the Institute of Psychiatry, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. Out of the 120 (M 78, F42) patients studied, 97 had side effects. The effects were examined in respect of their frequency, time of onset and course, their relation to one dose and serum levels of lithium and to the clinical response. The duration of therapy ranged from 3 months to 6 years. The most frequent side effects were tremors (26.6%) and polyuria (20.8%). The side effects occurred at varying periods from the onset of therapy. During the first 3 months, tremors, excess salivation, nausea and abdominal discomfort; weight gain, memory defects and polyuria, between 3 months and 1 year; and hypothyroidism, tardive dyskinesia, acne and hair fall beyond one year. PMID:21847262

  19. Unique side effects of interferon.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hina; Qadeer, Rashid; Kashif, Syed Mohammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Afsar, Salahuddin

    2015-08-01

    Interferon-alpha, a potent mediator of host immune response, has immunomodulatory properties in addition to its antiviral effects. A wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases can occur in patients treated with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis B and D, of which clinical systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) accounts for less than 1% and hypothyroidism for 2-4 %. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old male who developed antinuclear antibody (ANA)-negative SLE and hypothyroidism after treatment with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis. High index of suspicion is therefore necessary in all patients treated with interferon for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26228341

  20. [Side effect management of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in urology : Gastrointestinal side effects].

    PubMed

    Lieb, V; Rink, M; Sikic, D; Keck, B

    2016-06-01

    For approximately one decade, tyrosinkinase inhibitors (TKIs, smart drugs) have dramatically changed and improved the treatment of patients suffering from metastasized renal cell carcinoma. However, the different drugs have substantial side effects. Especially gastrointestinal symptoms may be problematic for patients. These side effects represent a challenge for the physician. On the one hand, dosage modifications and treatment interruption should be avoided to minimize the risk for progression. On the other hand, only mild side effects are tolerable for the patient. Based on a literature review, a clear overview of the incidence of possible side effects for the drugs axitinib, cabozantinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and sunitinib is provided. Furthermore, we give a practical guide on how to prevent and treat the different gastrointestinal side effects. Finally, it is pointed out when dosage modifications or interruption of treatment are necessary and how to expeditiously re-escalate the treatment after mitigation of side effects. PMID:27146873

  1. Clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol enhances its effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2016-03-11

    Clonidine prolongs duration of analgesia when used as an adjunct to local anesthetics for infiltrative cutaneous analgesia, and propranolol produces local anesthesia. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol on the quality and duration of cutaneous analgesia. A rat model of cutaneous trunci muscle reflex (CTMR) in response to local skin pinprick was employed to evaluate the cutaneous analgesic effect of propranolol combined with clonidine. The long-lasting local anesthetic bupivacaine was used as control. Cutaneous analgesia elicited by propranolol and bupivacaine was dose-dependent, and both propranolol (9.0μmol) and bupivacaine (1.8μmol) produced 100% nociceptive blockade. On an 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the relative potency was bupivacaine [0.48 (0.42-0.55) μmol] greater than propranolol [2.27 (1.98-2.54) μmol] (p<0.01). Subcutaneous saline and clonidine (0.12μmol) did not produce cutaneous analgesia. The mixture of an ineffective-dose clonidine (0.12μmol) and a drug (propranolol or bupivacaine) at ED50 or ED95 increased the potency and extended the duration at producing cutaneous analgesia. The resulting data demonstrated that propranolol is less potent than bupivacaine as an infiltrative anesthetic. Clonidine as an adjuvant for propranolol or bupivacaine has a significant peripheral action in increasing the depth and duration of action on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. PMID:26828301

  2. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  3. Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on cutaneous vasodilation during body heating in humans.

    PubMed

    Shastry, S; Dietz, N M; Halliwill, J R; Reed, A S; Joyner, M J

    1998-09-01

    We sought to examine further the potential role of nitric oxide (NO) in the neurally mediated cutaneous vasodilation in nonacral skin during body heating in humans. Six subjects were heated with a water-perfused suit while cutaneous blood flow was measured by using laser-Doppler flowmeters placed on both forearms. The NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) was given selectively to one forearm via a brachial artery catheter after marked cutaneous vasodilation had been established. During body heating, oral temperature increased by 1.1 +/- 0.1 degreesC while heart rate increased by 30 +/- 6 beats/min. Mean arterial pressure stayed constant at 84 +/- 2 mmHg. In the experimental forearm, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler) decreased to 86 +/- 5% of the peak response to heating (P < 0.05 vs. pre-L-NMMA values) after L-NMMA infusion. In some subjects, L-NMMA caused CVC to fall by approximately 30%; in others, it had little impact on the cutaneous circulation. CVC in the control arm showed a similar increase with heating, then stayed constant while L-NMMA was given to the contralateral side. These results demonstrate that NO contributes modestly, but not consistently, to cutaneous vasodilation during body heating in humans. They also indicate that NO is not the only factor responsible for the dilation. PMID:9729554

  4. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  6. Ocular side effects of accutane therapy.

    PubMed

    Lerman, S

    1992-01-01

    The recent interest in treating acne with one of the retinoid drugs has been accompanied by a wide variety of ocular side effects involving the eyelids, cornea, lens, optic nerve and retina. In one group of patients being evaluated for possible efficacy of a retinoic acid analogue in treating psoriasis, several patients complained of difficulty driving at night due to decreased dark adaptation which we were able to document. Fortunately, most of the above side effects tend to disappear within months after the drug is discontinued. However, we have recently seen two cases of dry eye syndrome associated with Accutane therapy that have persisted for more than two years. In addition, scattered reports have appeared regarding cataracts in young patients (teens to early 40's) which developed during, and/or after Accutane treatment. We have examined lens matter derived from two such patients who had extracapsular cataract extractions. Their lens proteins showed an elevation in UV absorptivity (between 330-390 nm) compared with matched control material (derived from Eye Bank specimens) and HPLC analyses demonstrated an abnormal peak in their profiles which was similar to one present in control samples incubated with retinoic acid and was not present in lens protein samples derived from cataracts not associated with Accutance therapy. These observations demonstrate that some of the Accutane induced ocular side affects are not reversible when the drug is stopped, and patients on such therapy should be carefully monitored. PMID:1301795

  7. Effects of genistein on early-stage cutaneous wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the effect of genistein on cutaneous wound healing. {yields} Genistein enhanced wound closure during the early stage of wound healing. {yields} These genistein effects on wound closure were induced by reduction of oxidative stress through increasing antioxidant capacity and modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. -- Abstract: Wound healing occurs in three sequential phases: hemostasis and inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Inflammation, the earliest phase, is considered a critical period for wound healing because immune cells remove damaged tissues, foreign debris, and remaining dead tissue. Wound healing would be delayed without inflammation, and this phase is affected by antioxidation capacity. Therefore, we hypothesized that genistein, which has an antioxidant effect, might modulate the wound healing process by altering the inflammatory response. After three days of acclimation, mice were divided into three groups: control, 0.025% genistein, and 0.1% genistein. After two weeks of an experimental diet, skin wounds were induced. Wounded skin areas were imaged, and the healing rate calculated. To measure lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, skin and liver tissues were harvested at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Genistein did not affect body weight. The rate of wound closure in mice fed genistein was significantly faster than in the control group during the early stage of wound healing, especially in first three days. Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD expression in wound skin tissue in the 0.1% genistein group was lower than in the control group. However, CAT expression did not differ among groups. We also found that genistein modulated NF-{kappa}B and TNF-{alpha} expression during the early stage of wound healing. The genistein group had significantly lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher SOD, CAT, and GPx activities than the control group. These results

  8. The nocebo effect: patient expectations and medication side effects.

    PubMed

    Faasse, Kate; Petrie, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Expectation of treatment side effects is consistently linked with those symptoms being realised. Patient expectations, including those generated by the informed consent process, can have a large influence on the side effects that patients feel after starting a new medical treatment. Such symptoms may be the result of the nocebo effect, whereby the expectation of side effects leads to them being experienced. Side effects may also be due to the misattribution of pre-existing or unrelated symptoms to the new medication. Medical professionals' own negative beliefs about a treatment, especially generic drugs, may further enhance patients' expectations of adverse effects. The news media may also influence expectations, particularly when media attention is directed towards a health or medication scare. This field of research has ethical and clinical implications for both medical professionals and the news media with respect to the level and type of information about treatment side effects that is provided to patients or members of the public. PMID:23842213

  9. Ocular side effects and trichomegaly of eyelashes induced by erlotinib: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Celik, Tuba; Kosker, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    Therapeutics belonging to the group of epidermal growth factor inhibitors are currently in widespread use for the treatment of certain malignancies, especially in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A wide spectrum of the cutaneous side effects of these drugs are well known but the ocular side effects and trichomegaly of eyelashes are rarely reported, particularly for an ophthalmology audience. This report presents a case of erlotinib induced eyelash trichomegaly and the other ocular side effects of this drug in a 74 year-old female patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Trichomegaly is not a drug-limiting side effect, however long eyelashes often cause eyeball irritation and corneal epithelial defects. Herein, the authors emphasize the importance of recognizing this side effect in order to avoid from severe complications such as corneal ulcers in uncared patients. PMID:25249292

  10. Systemic effects of low-power laser irradiation on the peripheral and central nervous system, cutaneous wounds, and burns

    SciTech Connect

    Rochkind, S.; Rousso, M.; Nissan, M.; Villarreal, M.; Barr-Nea, L.; Rees, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we direct attention to the systemic effect of low-power helium-neon (HeNe) laser irradiation on the recovery of the injured peripheral and central nervous system, as well as healing of cutaneous wounds and burns. Laser irradiation on only the right side in bilaterally inflicted cutaneous wounds enhanced recovery in both sides compared to the nonirradiated control group (P less than .01). Similar results were obtained in bilateral burns: irradiating one of the burned sites also caused accelerated healing in the nonirradiated site (P less than .01). However, in the nonirradiated control group, all rats suffered advanced necrosis of the feet and bilateral gangrene. Low-power HeNe laser irradiation applied to a crushed injured sciatic nerve in the right leg in a bilaterally inflicted crush injury, significantly increased the compound action potential in the left nonirradiated leg as well. The statistical analysis shows a highly significant difference between the laser-treated group and the control nonirradiated group (P less than .001). Finally, the systemic effect was found in the spinal cord segments corresponding to the crushed sciatic nerves. The bilateral retrograde degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord expected after the bilateral crush injury of the peripheral nerves was greatly reduced in the laser treated group. The systemic effects reported here are relevant in terms of the clinical application of low-power laser irradiation as well as for basic research into the possible mechanisms involved.

  11. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de. PMID:20087340

  12. The effects of ageing on cutaneous wound healing in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, G S; Horan, M A; Ferguson, M W

    1995-01-01

    The dogma that cutaneous wound healing is impaired as a function of age is largely unsubstantiated. This can be attributed to poor experimental design of human studies, the lack of subject characterisation with the exclusion of disease processes, and the study of inappropriate animal models. Structural and functional changes in skin with age have been reported, such as a decrease in dermal thickness, decline in collagen content, a subtle alteration in the glycosaminoglycan profile, and a loss of elasticity, but these reports are subject to the above criticisms in addition to the often-neglected requirement for site specificity. Wound repair can be thought of as a culmination of three major overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. The inflammatory process has not been studied systematically with respect to age, and despite a reported decline in cellular function and number, there is a confounding increase in the production of specific cytokines involved in the process of repair. The proliferative phase is associated with a loss of cellular responsiveness to specific cytokines with a decline in motility and proliferation; however caution in interpreting these findings is important as, for example, the definition of 'ageing' is used rather loosely with the result that neonatal versus young adult cells are compared instead of young versus old adults. During remodelling, fibronectin and collagen production may increase with age, as may wound contraction; the deposition of elastin has not been assessed and the resulting mechanical properties of the scar are controversial, not least because human in vivo studies have been ignored. The absence of a critical review on the effects of advancing age on wound healing has conspired to permit the perpetuation of the belief that well defined tenets exist. This review aims to redress this imbalance and to highlight the need for well designed research into an increasingly important field. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

  13. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    PubMed

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  14. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed. PMID:25457625

  15. Effects of symptomatic treatments on cutaneous hyperalgesia and laser evoked potentials during migraine attack.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, M; Losito, L; Libro, G; Guido, M; Di Fruscolo, O; Sardaro, M; Sciruicchio, V; Lamberti, P; Livrea, P

    2005-05-01

    Previously an amplitude enhancement of laser evoked potentials (LEPs) was detected during migraine attack: we further examined pain threshold to CO2 laser stimuli and LEPs during attacks, evaluating the effect of almotriptan, lysine-acetylsalicylate and placebo treatment on cutaneous hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli delivered by CO2 laser and on LEP components. Eighteen patients suffering from migraine without aura were analysed. They were divided into three groups of six patients each, randomly assigned to lysine acetyl-salicylate, almotriptan or placebo treatments. The supraorbital zones and the dorsum of the hand were stimulated on both the symptomatic and not symptomatic side in all patients. The LEPs were recorded by 25 scalp electrodes. During attacks, the P2 wave was significantly enhanced; the amplitude of the P2 component obtained by the stimulation of the supraorbital zone during the attack on the side of the headache was significantly correlated with the intensity of pain and the frequency of headache. Both almotriptan and lysine acetyl-salicylate significantly reduced the P2 amplitude but they showed no effects on hyperalgesia to laser stimulation; headache relief following therapy was correlated with the reduction of the P2 amplitude. The cortical elaboration of laser-induced experimental pain seemed increased during migraine attack, and the severity of headache was mainly related to the increase of the later LEPs components expressing the attentive and emotive compounds of suffering. Reversion of this process appeared to be primarily responsible for the efficacy of drugs in treating migraine, though both almotriptan and lysine-acetil salicilate seemed to have no effect in reducing sensitization at second and third order nociceptive neurons. PMID:15839851

  16. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (<30 kDa) key signaling proteins that modulate cellular activities in immunity, infection, inflammation and malignancy. Key to understanding their function is recognition of their pleiotropism and often overlapping and functional redundancies. Classified here into 9 main families, most of the 20 approved cytokine preparations (18 different cytokines; 3 pegylated), all in recombinant human (rh) form, are grouped in the hematopoietic growth factor, interferon, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) families. In the hematopoietin family, approved cytokines are aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  17. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline

    PubMed Central

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. Materials and methods: The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drops of saline water on each nasal cavity 3 times a day and the other group was applied with 2 drops of oxymetazoline HCl 3 times a day. At the end of experiment, samples from mandible, parotid and tails of the rats were taken in 10% formalin for histopathological investigations. Results: In histopathological experiments, when compared with the control group, the oxymetazoline group showed significant increase in many of the histopathological parameters (ischemic changes: P = 0.0001; congestion: P = 0.0006; arterial thrombosis: P = Ns; PNL accumulations: P = 0.001; necrosis: P = 0.0001; and ulceration: P = 0.014). The results of histopathologic tests on the samples taken from mandible and parotid gland, in comparison with the control group, showed no significant increase (focal inflammation: P = Ns; and lymphocyte aggregation: P = Ns). Conclusion: Due to the damage that the long-term use of nasal spray including oxymetazoline, it may cause injury on the end organ, which we revealed in our histopathological experiments. We believe that it’s essential for the physicians to provide information on the side effects of the medicine to their patients who use for a long term. PMID:25932218

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to ... human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes Protect your skin from ...

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Why do ... manage or treat your fatigue. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Take time ...

  20. Stitching interferometry: side effects and PSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    1999-11-01

    Stitching Interferometry is rapidly emerging as an alternative to Standard Interferometry, in the measurement of Large Optics -- such as those found in Laser MegaJoule and NIF. Stitching Interferometry involves multiple overlapping sub-aperture measurements over large components, and a computer software to reconstruct the wavefronts. Obviously, the Stitching Interferometer's measurement characteristics have to be different to those of the Standard Interferometer of same nominal measurement area. Two questions emerge: (1) What metric do we choose to express these characteristics? (2) How does Stitching Interferometry compare to Standard Interferometry, using this metric? We choose to use the PSD to illustrate how Stitching Interferometry of large components compares with Standard Large-Size Interferometry, for various lateral scales. Also, we highlight some important characteristics of Stitching Interferometry, which arise from judicious use of the particular configuration of the device. Ignorance of basic propagation phenomena can lead to bad design of the Stitching Interferometer, and loss of any performance advantage over Standard Interferometry. Because many of these effects are not direct consequences of the Stitching process, we call them side effects. In this paper, we provide basic explanation, and keep the mathematics to a low profile -- indeed, it is not necessary to actually compute anything to understand the effects. However, some very basic formulas, a few numerical tables and lots of graphs are presented, in order to provide basis for discussion.

  1. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  2. Cutaneous effects of exposure to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs): the Michigan PBB incident

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, J.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Glamb, R.W.; Lomatch, D.L.; Wolff, M.S.; Voorhees, J.J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1982-10-01

    In 1973 an environmental accident occurred in northern Michigan in which 1000-2000 pounds of the toxic fire retardant polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was added to the livestock food supply of much of northern Michigan. PBB is highly lipophilic, poorly metabolized, and biocumulative. It subsequently entered the human food chain of the entire state of Michigan. Health effects were noted in contaminated animals and among exposed farmers some months after the contamination; these often included cutaneous problems. Three years later a multidisciplinary study of the farming population was undertaken. Detected cutaneous abnormalities included halogen acne, hair loss, skin redness, skin peeling, and scaling, itching, increased sweating, and increased growth of fingernails and toenails. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. PBBs appear to be etiologically implicated for significant cutaneous toxicity.

  3. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    PubMed

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  4. Safety and side effect profile of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Wernicke, Joachim F

    2004-09-01

    Fluoxetine was the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor to be widely available for treatment of depression and numerous other neuropsychiatric disorders. Its attributes have been described in numerous scientific papers, and it has been the subject of a considerable volume of lay press. Fluoxetine is generally safe and well-tolerated. Common adverse events reported with the recommended dose of 20 mg/day are referable to the gastrointestinal system and the nervous system. The approved dose range is up to 80 mg/day, and when higher doses are used, adverse events are more common. The long half-life of fluoxetine and its active metabolite essentially preclude a withdrawal phenomenon. It is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 and other CYP enzymes, which increases the potential for drug interactions. However, most of these are not clinically important. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of some of the most important information related to safety and side effects of this drug. PMID:15335304

  5. Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise?

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2011-01-01

    Side effects of combined oral contraceptives are the most common reason why women discontinue them. Over the past half century, an elaborate mythology about these ill effects has evolved, fueled by rumor, gossip and poor-quality research. In contrast, placebo-controlled randomized trials document that nonspecific side effects are not significantly more common with combined oral contraceptives than with inert pills. These reported nonspecific side effects may reflect the nocebo phenomenon (the inverse of a placebo): if women are told to expect noxious side effects, these complaints occur because of the power of suggestion. Alternatively, nonspecific complaints may simply reflect their background prevalence in the population. Because Level I evidence documents no important increase in nonspecific side effects with oral contraceptives, counseling about these side effects or including them in package labeling is unwarranted and probably unethical. When in doubt, clinicians should err on the side of optimism. PMID:21134497

  6. Cutaneous autoimmune effects in the setting of therapeutic immune checkpoint inhibition for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mochel, Mark C; Ming, Michael E; Imadojemu, Sotonye; Gangadhar, Tara C; Schuchter, Lynn M; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Payne, Aimee S; Chu, Emily Y

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic immune checkpoint blockade for metastatic melanoma has been associated with vitiligo, pruritus and morbilliform eruptions. Reports of other autoimmune skin disease in this setting are rare. We sought to expand the spectrum of cutaneous immune-mediated effects related to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. In this report, we describe two unusual cutaneous reactions related to checkpoint inhibitor therapy, namely bullous pemphigoid (BP) and dermatitis herpetiformis. The development of BP and dermatitis herpetiformis in the context of checkpoint inhibitor therapy is consistent with previous investigations supporting the importance of effector and regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:27161449

  7. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  8. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  9. Effects of number of side dumps and side dump angles on outlet parameters in a side-dump combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedpoor, M.; Doustdar, M. M.; Soltani, H.; Chegini, M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study on the effect of side-dump number on fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been investigated in present paper. The mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit is named as the effective mass fraction. In the first step we have considered a side-dump combustor with two dumps and dump angle of 0o (plumb to cylinder) and by increasing the entrance airflow velocity from 20 to 30, 40 and 50 (m/s) respectively, the mean diameter of fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied. After this step, we have changed the number of dumps from two to four and we have repeated last examination again. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multicomponent code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

  10. Effects of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells isolated from Wharton's jelly of caprine umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing; histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Azari, Omid; Babaei, Homayoon; Derakhshanfar, Amin; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin; Poursahebi, Raheleh; Moshrefi, Mojgan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transplanted Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) of caprine umbilical cord on cutaneous wound healing process in goat. After collection of caprine pregnant uterus of mixed breed goats from abattoir, the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of umbilical cord was harvested. The tissues were minced in ventilated flasks and explant culture method was used for separating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The isolated cells were immunostained for Actin protein, histochemically assayed for the presence of alkaline phosphatase activity, and analyzed for detection of matrix receptors (CD44) and hematopoetic lineage markers (CD34), using flow cytometery. After The isolated cells, 3×10(6) MSCs were stained with BrdU and prepared for transplantation to each wound. Four 3-cm linear full thickness skin incisions were made on both sides of thoracic vertebrate of four Raeini goats (two wounds on each side). The left wounds were implanted with MSCs in 0.6 ml of Phosphate buffer saline (PBS), and the right wounds considered as control group that received 0.6 ml of PBS. The samples were taken from the wounds 7 and 12 days after the wounding, and healing process was compared histologically between the two groups. Anti-BrdU staining showed that the transplanted cells were still alive in the wound bed during the study. The histopathological study revealed that re-epithelialization was complete at days 7 in treated wounds with WJMSCs, whereas in control wound the wounds still showed incomplete epithelialization 12 days after wounding. Also, microscopic evaluation showed less inflammation, thinner granulation tissue formation with minimum scar in the treated wounds in comparison with control wounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the beneficial effect of caprine WJMSCs in cutaneous wound healing in goat. PMID:21340694

  11. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  12. [From Biological Effects of Local Cutaneous Thermal Stimulation to Moxibustion Therapy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-yu; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Guang-yong; Zou, Yang-yang; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Jian-bin

    2015-12-01

    Moxibustion is one of the major external therapies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and exerts a definite favorable effect in the treatment of patients with different problems. In the present paper, the authors reviewed 38 papers about somatic thermal intervention therapy published in recent 15 years and analyzed its biological functions from local, distal, and whole body effects. The local effects include 1) improving cutaneous inflammatory illnesses as verruca, herpes simplex, Leishmania infection, cutaneous necrosis, wound disunion, and promoting percutaneous absorption of some medicines, swelling pain; 2) reliving sports fatigue and muscular injury, eliminating inflammation and pain reactions, probably by lowering local reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase,catalase, glutathione, etc. levels, and strengthening the flexibility of the knee-joint, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments; 3) increasing blood perfusion of the regional arteriola, micrangium to eliminate accumulated subcutaneous blood cells, inflammatory mediators and other metabolic products. The distal effects contain 1) increase of the distal cutaneous blood flow and suppression of the arterial stenosis; and 2) improvement of the visceral functions including the heart (ischemia), liver, gastrointestinal blood flow and smooth muscles, uterus smooth muscular tension, etc. The whole body effects include raising immunoability against cancer, and reducing tumor blood flow to damage the blood vessels in the tumor tissue, etc. In addition, the effects of thermal stimulation are affected by the temperature, stimulating duration and the stimulated positions. These research results may help us to comprehensively understand the effects and mechanisms of moxibustion therapy in the treatment of different clinical disorders. PMID:26887216

  13. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER), is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES) calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO) terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network) was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes and side effects in an

  14. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  15. Effects of a topically applied counterirritant (Eucalyptamint) on cutaneous blood flow and on skin and muscle temperatures. A placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hong, C Z; Shellock, F G

    1991-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of a new product of counterirritant, Eucalyptamint, on the cutaneous circulation and on skin and muscle temperatures. Ten normal subjects (six males and four females, with an average age of 34 +/- 6 yr) were involved in this study. Eucalyptamint was applied to the anterior forearm skin of one side, and placebo was applied to the contralateral forearm. The subjective feelings, cutaneous blood flow, and skin temperature were measured before and periodically (5-min intervals) after the application of the compound. Muscle temperature was measured before and 30 min after the application of the Eucalyptamint. There was no significant effect on the subjective sensation. However, there were statistically significant (P less than 0.05) increases in cutaneous blood flow (up to 4 times base-line) and skin temperatures (up to 0.8 degrees C higher than base-line) after the application of Eucalyptamint with the effects lasting up to 45 min after the application. The muscle temperature was also increased (0.4 degrees C) significantly (P less than 0.05) 30 min after application of the Eucalyptamint. There were no significant changes in the placebo application. The results of this study suggested that the new product of counterirritant, Eucalyptamint, produced significant physiologic responses that may be beneficial for pain relief and/or useful to athletes as a passive form of warm-up. PMID:1994967

  16. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159602.html Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study Doctors should weigh ... research is needed to confirm a cause-and-effect relationship, the researchers said. Still, "I don't ...

  17. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 1/11/2016; last reviewed 1/11/2016) Key ... in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the National Institutes of ...

  18. Stability, transdermal penetration, and cutaneous effects of ascorbic acid and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Stamford, Nicholas P J

    2012-12-01

    Topically applied antioxidants exert their benefits by offering protection from damaging free radicals and over-the-counter cosmeceuticals incorporating antioxidants are among the most popular anti-aging products available. One potent antioxidant of particular note, vitamin C, has been extensively utilized because it possesses a variety of other cutaneous benefits including photoprotection from UV A & B, neocollagenesis, inhibition of melanogenesis and improvement of a variety of inflammatory skin disorders. However, the instability of this water-soluble vitamin, together with difficulties associated with its topical delivery, has presented issues for the formulation chemist. This article reviews the scientific data and clinical studies that underpin the stability, percutaneous absorption, and cutaneous effects of vitamin C together with its commonly utilized, commercially available derivatives. PMID:23174055

  19. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siehr, Stephanie L.; McCarthy, Elisa K.; Ogawa, Michelle T.; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adults and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population. Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil [alone or in combination with other pulmonary hypertension (PH) therapies] completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys) on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys) on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) (bosentan or ambrisentan) and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil). Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular, and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular, and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular, and 25% neurologic. Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for PAH was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an ERA and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy. PMID:25806361

  20. Cutaneous pain effects induced by Nd:YAG and CO2 laser stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Rui; Yu, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Zai-Fu; Chen, Hong-Xia; Hu, Dong-Dong; Zou, Xian-Biao

    2012-12-01

    The near infrared laser technique can activate cutaneous nociceptors with high specificity and reproducibility and be used in anti-riot equipment. This study aimed to explore cutaneous pain effect and determine the threshold induced by Nd:YAG and CO2 laser stimuli. The corresponding wavelength was 1.32μm and 10.6μm. The pain effect was assessed in three healthy subjects (1 woman and 2 men) on the skin of dorsum of both hands. The energy of each pulse and whether the subjects felt a painful sensation after each stimulus were recorded. A simplified Bliss Method was used to calculate the pain threshold which were determined under three pulse durations for Nd:YAG laser and one pulse duration for CO2 laser. As a result the pain thresholds were determined to be 5.6J/cm2, 5.4J/cm2 and 5.0J/cm2 respectively when using Nd:YAG laser, 4.0mm beam diameter, 8ms, 0.1s and 1s pulse duration. The pain threshold was 1.0J/cm2 when using CO2 laser, 4.0mm beam diameter and 0.1s pulse duration. We concluded that the threshold of cutaneous pain elicited by 1.32μm laser was independent upon the pulse duration when the exposure time ranged from 8ms to 1s. Under the same exposure condition, the threshold of cutaneous pain elicited by 1.32μm laser was higher than that elicited by 10.6μm laser.

  1. Some side-effects of alpha-methyldopa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, V K

    1976-04-10

    Three different regimens of drug treatment for hypertension were compared with regard to the development of undesirable side-effects in a group of 53 patients attending a hypertension clinic. The combination of alpha-methyldopa and chlorthalidone produced the highest incidence of side-effects. Weakness and impotence were most frequently encountered. In contrast, the combination of chlorthalidone, hydralazine and propranolol, and chlorthalidone alone, produced fewer side-effects. It is recommended that alpha-methyldopa should not be a first choice in the treatment of hypertension. PMID:1224274

  2. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  3. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: A rare side effect of a common over-the-counter drug, Acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, Amit

    2013-07-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is an uncommon cutaneous reaction characterized by sudden onset of generalized non-follicular aseptic pustules. It is most often secondary to drugs but causes as varied from viral infection to insect bites are reported. A case report of a 48-year-old male who developed pustular eruptions after taking acetylsalicylic acid is reported here. Clinicians need to be aware of this entity when dealing with pustular rash as this rare side effect of a very common drug is both, easy to miss and easy to manage. PMID:23984244

  4. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ciarimboli, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1), the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2), the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1). Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters. PMID:24278698

  5. Cutaneous manifestations of nontargeted and targeted chemotherapies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Veronica J; Levy, Lauren L; Choi, Jennifer N

    2016-06-01

    Care of the oncologic patient requires an integral understanding of the adverse reactions of chemotherapy. With the advent of targeted agents and immunomodulating therapies, reactions to these newer treatments are of clinical interest. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapeutic agents, including toxic erythema and mucositis, are common and may require cessation of treatment if associated with discomfort, superinfection, or negative impact on quality of life. This article reviews the cutaneous adverse reactions and treatment options of both conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents and newer targeted, multikinase inhibitors and immunomodulating therapies. An understanding of possible cutaneous reactions by all providers involved in the care of the oncologic patient is critical for prompt recognition, allowing for appropriate treatment and referral to dermatologists when necessary. PMID:27178698

  6. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  7. Exanthema medicamentosum as a side effect of promazine.

    PubMed

    Lasić, Davor; Cvitanović, Marija Zuljan; Uglešić, Boran; Višić, Vitomir; Hlevnjak, Ivana

    2011-06-01

    Dermatological side effects of psychopharmacological drugs are fortunately not so often. They are mostly presented in the group of mood stabilizers and antiepileptic drugs, particularly the carbamazepine and lamotrigine, and can be manifested through the Stevens Johnson syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN)/Lyell's syndrome with about 30% lethality. According to the literature the group of phenothiazines is the category of drugs with rare appearances of skin reactions. Promazine, aliphatic phenothiazines antipsychotic, including less frequent side effects in the leaflet states increased skin sensitivity to sun, skin rash-associated with contact dermatitis, allergic reactions, cholestatic icterus. The only reported dermatological side effect of promazine is its metabolites deposition in the cornea. Analyzing the e-data basis we have not found references connecting the Exanthema medicamentosum as a side effect of promazine. A forty-two years old female patient was admitted to the Dermatological Clinic because of suspected exanthema, undoubtedly caused by promazine as a medication for Sy. Borderline. PMID:21685860

  8. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    In a Danish population study using health registers, agranulocytosis caused by antithyroid drugs was 4 times more frequent than liver failure. Both were very rare in pregnancy, where birth defects were the dominant side effect. PMID:26815881

  9. [Side effect management of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in urology : Hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sikic, D; Meidenbauer, N; Lieb, V; Keck, B

    2016-07-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors like sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib or axintinib are regarded the standard of care in the systemic therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. However, the many side effects associated with this therapy pose challenges for the treating physician and the patient. This review offers an overview of the classification and the treatment of hypertension, which is one of the major side effects induced by all tyrosine kinase inhibitors, in order to improve treatment efficacy and patient compliance. PMID:27146871

  10. [Control of the effects and side-effects of detergents].

    PubMed

    Schneider, W

    1977-08-01

    An examination of detergents on the skin has to take into account the facultative sensibilisation and the wear and tear. In this connection the effect of summation between soapbody and perfume is pointed out as well as the different results of skin tests. To control the obligate effects, first of all a reliable technical reference has to be established; this is the washing activity, to which the side-effects then are related. To measure the hydratation, the resonance-frequency method of Tronnier and Wagener is used, where especially the syndets react very differently: partly similar to water and partly similar to soft soap. Further methods of examination are the measurement of the roughness and the quantitative determination of the fat of the skin. Concerning certain hand wash detergents and industrial cleaners the grade of rubbing is also of interest. Finally the relatively good compatibility of the bioactive detergents and the rinsing agents is discussed. PMID:588219

  11. CNS-related side-effects with metoprolol and atenolol.

    PubMed

    Cove-Smith, J R; Kirk, C A

    1985-01-01

    Vivid and bizarre dreams, hallucinations, sleep disturbance and psychosis have all been described following treatment with beta-blockers. It has been suggested that these central nervous system (CNS) side-effects are related to the degree of lipophilicity of the beta-blocker. A randomized double-blind crossover study was performed to compare the incidence of CNS side-effects with atenolol and metoprolol in hypertensive patients who had reported CNS side-effects with lipophilic beta-blockers. Eleven women and six men completed the study, in which a 30-item psychiatric questionnaire was used to detect changes in psychological status and possible CNS side-effects. Discontinuation of the original lipophilic beta-blocker produced a significant improvement in quality of sleep, dreams, concentration, memory, energy, and anxiety. No significant CNS side-effects were reported with atenolol, but introduction of metoprolol caused a significant increase in the incidence of sleep disturbance (p less than 0.01) and restless nights (p less than 0.05), as well as failure to achieve satisfactory sexual intercourse (p less than 0.05). When compared with atenolol, metoprolol was associated with a significantly higher incidence of restless disturbed nights (p less than 0.05). Blood pressure control was identical for both beta-blockers. This study appears to confirm the association between CNS-related side-effects and the lipophilicity of beta-blockers. PMID:4054193

  12. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  13. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects.

    PubMed

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations. PMID:25587246

  14. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  15. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  16. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages. PMID:7448666

  17. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  18. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    PubMed

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-01

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed. PMID:24997192

  19. Effects of a Skin Neuropeptide (Substance P) on Cutaneous Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Ramdani, Yasmina; Jaouen, Thomas; Duclairoir-Poc, Cécile; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Lati, Elian; Yvergnaux, Florent; Driouich, Azzedine; Lefeuvre, Luc; Farmer, Christine; Misery, Laurent; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin is the largest human neuroendocrine organ and hosts the second most numerous microbial population but the interaction of skin neuropeptides with the microflora has never been investigated. We studied the effect of Substance P (SP), a peptide released by nerve endings in the skin on bacterial virulence. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus cereus, a member of the skin transient microflora, was used as a model. Exposure to SP strongly stimulated the cytotoxicity of B. cereus (+553±3% with SP 10−6 M) and this effect was rapid (<5 min). Infection of keratinocytes with SP treated B. cereus led to a rise in caspase1 and morphological alterations of the actin cytoskeleton. Secretome analysis revealed that SP stimulated the release of collagenase and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we also noted a shift in the surface polarity of the bacteria linked to a peel-off of the S-layer and the release of S-layer proteins. Meanwhile, the biofilm formation activity of B. cereus was increased. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor (Ef-Tu) was identified as the SP binding site in B. cereus. Other Gram positive skin bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis also reacted to SP by an increase of virulence. Thermal water from Uriage-les-Bains and an artificial polysaccharide (Teflose®) were capable to antagonize the effect of SP on bacterial virulence. Conclusions/Significance SP is released in sweat during stress and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous skin diseases through neurogenic inflammation. Our study suggests that a direct effect of SP on the skin microbiote should be another mechanism. PMID:24250813

  20. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  1. The Effect of Aging on the Cutaneous Microvasculature

    PubMed Central

    Bentov, Itay; Reed, May J

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of function in all organs. Under normal conditions the physiologic compensation for age-related deficits is sufficient, but during times of stress the limitations of this reserve become evident. Explanations for this reduction in reserve include the changes in the microcirculation that occur during the normal aging process. The microcirculation is defined as the blood flow through arterioles, capillaries and venules, which are the smallest vessels in the vasculature and are embedded within organs and tissues. Optimal strategies to maintain the microvasculature following surgery and other stressors must use multifactorial approaches. Using skin as the model organ, we will review the anatomical and functional changes in the microcirculation with aging, and some of the available clinical strategies to potentially mitigate the effect of these changes on important clinical outcomes. PMID:25917013

  2. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis and multidermatomic herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Margarita; Jaramillo, Laura; Ortiz, Diana; Díaz, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Standard treatment of leishmaniasis consists of n-metilglucamine, meglumine antimoniate, which can trigger side effects such as general malaise, renal and hepatic impairment, and cardiac arrhythmias. Infrequently, reactivations of varicella-zoster virus infections have been reported. This paper describes a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis in treatment with meglumine and herpes zoster multiplex. After ruling out other possible causes of immunosuppression, an acyclovir therapy was initiated. PMID:24522317

  3. [Cutaneous lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Beyeler, M; Burg, G; Dummer, R

    2004-10-01

    Cutaneous lymphomas are uncommon. They must be distinguished from secondary skin manifestations of primary nodal lymphomas. Primary cutaneous lymphomas are divided into B-cell- and T-cell cutaneous lymphoma and commonly have good prognosis. Therapy is based on the stage of the disease. Since cure is not possible, the aim of treatment is to control the disease and reduce symptoms. A variety of new and promising therapeutic modalities have been introduced in recent years. PMID:15349694

  4. The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Ross D; Provan, Sally; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

    2011-12-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency. WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies on single musculotendinous units. We investigated the effects of WBV at two amplitudes on balance, joint position sense (JPS) and cutaneous sensation in young healthy subjects. Eighteen adults (24.3 ± 1.5 years, 15 females) were assessed before WBV (five 1 min bouts, 30 Hz) then immediately, 15 and 30 min afterwards. Two amplitudes (4 and 8 mm peak to peak) were investigated on different occasions. Standing balance was assessed with feet together and eyes closed, and standing on one leg with eyes open and closed. JPS at the knee and ankle was assessed by repositioning tasks while cutaneous sensation was recorded from six sites in the lower limb using pressure aesthesiometry. Neither amplitude affected JPS (P > 0.05). There were minimal effects on balance only in the vertical plane and only 30 min after WBV (P < 0.05). Low amplitude vibration only reduced sensation at the foot and ankle immediately after WBV (P < 0.008). High amplitude vibration impaired sensation at the foot, ankle and posterior shank for the entire test period (P < 0.008). In young healthy individuals WBV did not affect JPS or static balance, but reduced cutaneous sensation. These data may have implications for older and clinical populations with compromised postural control. PMID:21455611

  5. Effects of 14 days of head-down tilt bed rest on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Shibasaki, Manabu; Cui, Jian; Levine, Benjamin D.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2003-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) reduces adrenergic and nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Additionally, an exercise countermeasure group was included to identify whether exercise during bed rest might counteract any vasoconstrictor deficits that arose during HDBR. Twenty-two subjects underwent 14 days of strict 6 degrees HDBR. Eight of these 22 subjects did not exercise during HDBR, while 14 of these subjects exercised on a supine cycle ergometer for 90 min a day at 75% of pre-bed rest heart rate maximum. To assess alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness, intradermal microdialysis was used to locally administer norepinephrine (NE), while forearm skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored over microdialysis membranes. Nonlinear regression modeling was used to identify the effective drug concentration that caused 50% of the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response (EC(50)) and minimum values from the SkBF-NE dose-response curves. In addition, the effects of HDBR on nonadrenergic cutaneous vasoconstriction were assessed via the venoarteriolar response of the forearm and leg. HDBR did not alter EC(50) or the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction to exogenous NE administration regardless of whether the subjects exercised during HDBR. Moreover, HDBR did not alter the forearm venoarteriolar response in either the control or exercise groups during HDBR. However, HDBR significantly reduced the magnitude of cutaneous vasoconstriction due to the venoarteriolar response in the leg, and this response was similarly reduced in the exercise group. These data suggest that HDBR does not alter cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous NE administration, whereas cutaneous vasoconstriction of the leg due to the venoarteriolar response is reduced after HDBR. It remains unclear whether attenuated venoarteriolar responses in the lower limbs contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance after bed rest and

  6. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs. PMID:20603395

  7. No effects of bosentan on microvasculature in patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hettema, Martha E; Zhang, Dan; Stienstra, Ymkje; Smit, Andries J; Bootsma, Hendrika; Kallenberg, Cees G M

    2009-07-01

    The endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor molecule endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). We studied the effect of bosentan on microvascular structure and function in patients with RP secondary to limited cutaneous SSc in a mechanistic pilot study. In this single center, open study, 15 patients with limited cutaneous SSc were treated with bosentan for 16 weeks with a follow-up period of 4 weeks. Changes in microvascular structure and function were studied with assessment of vasodilatory microvascular responses using laser Doppler fluxmetry combined with iontophoresis, capillary permeability using fluorescence videomicroscopy, nailfold capillary microscopy, and serological markers of endothelial activation. No significant changes were seen in vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside following bosentan treatment. No effect was noted on capillary permeability during treatment. The number of nailfold capillaries remained unchanged. The endothelial activation marker vascular cell adhesion molecule did not change during treatment, but levels of thrombomodulin significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment. Bosentan did not induce significant changes in vasodilator responses, capillary permeability, and capillary density during treatment, so no evidence was obtained for structural improvement of microvascular structure and function in this short-time mechanistic pilot study in patients with lcSSc. PMID:19350343

  8. Cutaneous adverse effects of targeted therapies: Part I: Inhibitors of the cellular membrane.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James B; Macdonald, Brooke; Golitz, Loren E; LoRusso, Patricia; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    There has been a rapid emergence of numerous targeted agents in the oncology community in the last decade. This exciting paradigm shift in drug development lends promise for the future of individualized medicine. Given the pace of development and clinical deployment of targeted agents with novel mechanisms of action, dermatology providers may not be familiar with the full spectrum of associated skin-related toxicities. Cutaneous adverse effects are among the most frequently observed toxicities with many targeted agents, and their intensity can be dose-limiting or lead to therapy discontinuation. In light of the often life-saving nature of emerging oncotherapeutics, it is critical that dermatologists both understand the mechanisms and recognize clinical signs and symptoms of such toxicities in order to provide effective clinical management. Part I of this continuing medical education article will review in detail the potential skin-related adverse sequelae, the frequency of occurrence, and the implications associated with on- and off-target cutaneous toxicities of inhibitors acting at the cell membrane level, chiefly inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor, KIT, and BCR-ABL, angiogenesis, and multikinase inhibitors. PMID:25592338

  9. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Cho-Hee; Eom, Na-Young; Jang, Hyo-Mi; Jung, Hae-Won; Choi, Eul-Soo; Won, Jin-Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kang, Byeong-Teck

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and efficacy of intralesional injection as a method of application to acute cutaneous wounds in dogs. Healthy adult beagles (n = 3) were used in this study. Autologous PRP was separated from anticoagulant treated whole blood in three dogs. Cutaneous wounds were created and then treated by intralesional injection of PRP in the experimental group, while they were treated with saline in the control group on days 0, 2 and 4. The healing process was evaluated by gross examination throughout the experimental period and histologic examination on day 7, 14 and 21. In PRP treated wounds, the mean diameter was smaller and the wound closure rate was higher than in the control. Histological study revealed that PRP treated wounds showed more granulation formation and angiogenesis on day 7, and faster epithelialization, more granulation formation and collagen deposition were observed on day 14 than in control wounds. On day 21, collagen deposition and epithelialization were enhanced in PRP treated groups. Overall, PRP application showed beneficial effects in wound healing, and intralesional injection was useful for application of PRP and could be a good therapeutic option for wound management in dogs. PMID:27051343

  10. Therapeutic effects of topical application of ozone on acute cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (P<0.05) and 7 (P<0.01 and P<0.05) after wound surgery, respectively. Both hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson-trichrome staining revealed an increased intensity of collagen fibers and a greater number of fibroblasts in the ozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-beta, and VEGF. PMID:19543419

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Application of Ozone on Acute Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (P<0.05) and 7 (P<0.01 and P<0.05) after wound surgery, respectively. Both hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson-trichrome staining revealed an increased intensity of collagen fibers and a greater number of fibroblasts in the ozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF. PMID:19543419

  12. Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jee, Cho-Hee; Eom, Na-Young; Jang, Hyo-Mi; Jung, Hae-Won; Choi, Eul-Soo; Won, Jin-Hee; Hong, Il-Hwa; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Jeong, Dong Wook; Jung, Dong-In

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and efficacy of intralesional injection as a method of application to acute cutaneous wounds in dogs. Healthy adult beagles (n = 3) were used in this study. Autologous PRP was separated from anticoagulant treated whole blood in three dogs. Cutaneous wounds were created and then treated by intralesional injection of PRP in the experimental group, while they were treated with saline in the control group on days 0, 2 and 4. The healing process was evaluated by gross examination throughout the experimental period and histologic examination on day 7, 14 and 21. In PRP treated wounds, the mean diameter was smaller and the wound closure rate was higher than in the control. Histological study revealed that PRP treated wounds showed more granulation formation and angiogenesis on day 7, and faster epithelialization, more granulation formation and collagen deposition were observed on day 14 than in control wounds. On day 21, collagen deposition and epithelialization were enhanced in PRP treated groups. Overall, PRP application showed beneficial effects in wound healing, and intralesional injection was useful for application of PRP and could be a good therapeutic option for wound management in dogs. PMID:27051343

  13. Visualisation of edge effects in side-gated graphene nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Vishal; Lartsev, Arseniy; Manzin, Alessandra; Yakimova, Rositza; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Kazakova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Using local scanning electrical techniques we study edge effects in side-gated Hall bar nanodevices made of epitaxial graphene. We demonstrate that lithographically defined edges of the graphene channel exhibit hole conduction within the narrow band of ~60-125 nm width, whereas the bulk of the material is electron doped. The effect is the most pronounced when the influence of atmospheric contamination is minimal. We also show that the electronic properties at the edges can be precisely tuned from hole to electron conduction by using moderate strength electrical fields created by side-gates. However, the central part of the channel remains relatively unaffected by the side-gates and retains the bulk properties of graphene. PMID:25073589

  14. Appearance-related side effects of HIV-1 treatment.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, HIV infection was associated with visible signs and symptoms, adding to the stigma associated with the disease. Physical manifestations associated with HIV infection included muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, Kaposi's sarcoma, candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, and hairy leukoplakia. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, particularly the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1996, many of these outward manifestations of the disease became rare. Ironically, however, the treatments used to control HIV infection (and its visible markers) have themselves been associated with appearance-related side effects. Patients may develop changes in fat distribution, rashes, skin hyperpigmentation, or paronychia. These effects not only have cosmetic and psychological consequences but also may decrease adherence to therapy, potentially causing regimen failure and drug resistance. Newer antiretroviral agents offer improved potency, more convenient dosing, and more treatment options with the potential for fewer side effects and drug interactions, which should foster optimal adherence by the patient. However, these newer drugs are also associated with appearance-related side effects, which must be considered in the selection of treatment regimens. This paper reviews the appearance-related side effects associated with classes of antiretroviral drugs as well as individual agents, including the newer antiretrovirals. PMID:16426151

  15. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated ... health care provider tells you to. What HIV medicines can cause a hypersensitivity reaction? Nevirapine (brand name: ...

  16. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Lipodystrophy (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Lipodystrophy refers to the changes ... loss on the face and leg . Which HIV medicines are linked to lipodystrophy? Although more research is ...

  17. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the ... the liver can be life-threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following ...

  18. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in ... are also infected with hepatitis C. What HIV medicines increase the risk of type 2 diabetes? Some ...

  19. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  20. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER (‘Side Effect Resource’, http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug–ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug–ADR pairs, 19% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do not correspond to ADRs. PMID:26481350

  1. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. PMID:22129319

  2. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  3. Cutaneous adverse effects of targeted therapies: Part II: Inhibitors of intracellular molecular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, James B; Macdonald, Brooke; Golitz, Loren E; LoRusso, Patricia; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    The last decade has spawned an exciting new era of oncotherapy in dermatology, including the development of targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Along with skin cancer, deregulation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK intracellular signaling pathways contributes to tumorigenesis of a multitude of other cancers, and inhibitors of these pathways are being actively studied. Similar to other classes of targeted therapies, cutaneous adverse effects are among the most frequent toxicities observed with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway inhibitors, PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors, hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors, and immunotherapies. Given the rapid expansion of these families of targeted treatments, dermatologists will be essential in offering dermatologic supportive care measures to cancer patients being treated with these agents. Part II of this continuing medical education article reviews skin-related adverse sequelae, including the frequency of occurrence and the implications associated with on- and off-target cutaneous toxicities of inhibitors of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, hedgehog signaling pathway, and immunotherapies. PMID:25592339

  4. Effect of Topical Morphine on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Animal Model: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Akbarzadeh, Afsoon; Heiran, Hamid Reza; Karimi, Ali Asghar; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Ghobadifar, Mohamed Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials remain the choice of treatment for leishmaniasis, despite their toxicity, high cost, and difficult administration. As an alternative, morphine may induce the healing process of cutaneous leishmaniasis by its immunoregulatory characteristics. Objectives To study the effect of morphine on the wound-healing process of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in a mouse model. Materials and Methods This was an experimental study in which 40 BALB/c mice (female, 6 - 8 weeks) were divided into four groups (each n = 10) who received either placebo alone (group 1), morphine ointment after parasite inoculation (group 2), morphine ointment after wound occurrence (group 3), or placebo after wound occurrence (group 4). Wound size was measured weekly for eight weeks. Results On the first day of treatment, the lesions measured ~1.5 mm in diameter. After eight weeks of treatment, the wound size was significantly smaller in the mice who received morphine ointment (4.81 ± 3.22 mm) compared to those who received placebo after parasite inoculation (8.95 ± 5.71 mm; P = 0.0001) or placebo after wound occurrence (P = 0.028). Conclusions The above data suggest that topical application of morphine accelerates the healing process of CL wounds. We are cautiously optimistic that the results of this study can be used clinically for potentiating CL wound-healing. PMID:27437123

  5. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.03; n = 13). Fifteen of 20 (75%) patients tolerated tacrolimus well. The most frequent side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  6. [Successful treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with amphotericin B; a case of unresponsive to pentavalent antimony therapy].

    PubMed

    Yeşilova, Yavuz; Turan, Enver; Sürücü, Hacer Altın; Aksoy, Mustafa; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2015-03-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a skin infection caused by various species of Leishmania parasites, which is transmitted by infected Phlebotomus sandfly bites. Pentavalent antimonials (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate) are used for the treatment of adult CL patients as an effective and safe method. Liposomal amphotericin B is an alternative for the treatment of choice in cutaneous leishmaniasis cases which pentavalan antimony contraindicated or unresponsive to pentavalent antimony therapy. In this study, successful treatment with systemic liposomal amphotericin B of a cutaneous leishmaniasis case developing local side effects related both systemic and intralesional meglumine antimonate treatment was presented. PMID:25917587

  7. AB40. Sexual side effects of medical treatment of BPH

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun

    2014-01-01

    The medical and surgical management of BPH/LUTS can affect erectile function (EF), cause ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) or affect libido. Five alpha reductase inhibitors, such as finasteride and dutasteride have good efficacy for benign prostatic hyperplasia, however they have also sexual side effects including loss of libido, erectile dysfunction and decreased ejaculatory volume. Also, alpha adrenergic blockers are well known and standard medical treatment options for BPH/LUTS, and in spite of their high efficacy and low adverse effects, retrograde and diminished ejaculation are potential sexual side effects. Although the prevalence of five alpha reductase inhibitors and alpha adrenergic blockers are not high, their impact on the patients’ quality of life must be regarded as important as their efficacy for BPH/LUTS. This lecture will review the effects of these therapies on sexual function.

  8. The effect of topical ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria Scop. on cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Halil; Sancar, Mesut; Sen, Ali; Okuyan, Betul; Bitis, Leyla; Uras, Fikriye; Akakin, Dilek; Cevik, Ozge; Kultur, Sukran; İzzettin, Fikret Vehbi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the cutaneous wound healing effects of the ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria leaves in rats by excision wound model to provide scientific evidence for the traditional use of C. coggygria Scop. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and hydroxyproline were investigated in wound tissues. Histopathological examination was also performed. The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue and the glutathione levels were both significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05 for both); while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the treatment group (p < 0.05). These results were supported with histological results. The ethanol extract of C. coggygria Scop could be considered as an effective agent in wound healing in accordance with its traditional use. PMID:25775378

  9. Effect of protein crystal hydration on side chain conformational heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atakisi, Hakan; Moreau, David; Hopkins, Jesse; Thorne, Robert; Robert Thorne's group Team

    The structure of protein crystals is determined in part by water-mediated interactions involving both protein surface-ordered (hydration) and bulk water, and so is sensitive to the relative humidity of the environment. Monoclinic lysozyme provides a remarkable model for studying structural changes induced by dehydration, as it maintains excellent order for relative humidities (r.h.) down to 5%, corresponding to solvent content of 9% by volume, much smaller than the 88% (22% by volume) at which lysozyme loses its enzymatic activity. Although the main chain conformation does not change significantly, the effect of dehydration on side chain conformations has not been systematically studied. High resolution (1.1 to 1.7 A) structural data sets for monoclinic lysozyme at r.h. between 99% and 11% have been analyzed to identify major and minor side chain conformers at each humidity, and to map out how the side chain conformational ensemble evolves with hydration. Modest dehydration produces comparable overall effects to cooling to T =100 K, but with conformational changes largely confined to solvent-exposed residues. The largest side chain conformation changes occur at humidities that deplete water within the first two hydration shells.

  10. Relevant Issues in Pharmacotherapy of Psycho-Cutaneous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sreyoshi; Behere, Rishikesh V; Sharma, PSVN; Savitha, S

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with dermatological conditions and psychotropic agents may be indicated in treating the underlying psychiatric symptoms. Use of psychotropics can be associated with significant cutaneous adverse effects as well as drug interactions with pharmacological agents used in treatment of the dermatological conditions. Knowledge of indication, contraindication, side effects, and interactions of psycho-tropics is essential for the practicing dermatologist in managing psycho-dermatological conditions. This review aims at discussing relevant issues in pharmacological management of psycho-cutaneous disorders. PMID:23372216

  11. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective. PMID:22105043

  12. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS ANTIBODY PRODUCED BY CHANNEL CATFISH IMMUNE TO ICHTHYOPHTHIRIUS ON COHABITED NON-IMMUNE CATFISH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish recovered from sublethal ichthyophthiriasis acquire protective immunity against Ichthyophthirius (Ich). This study evaluated the protective effect of cutaneous antibody excreted by channel catfish immune to Ich on cohabited non-immune catfish. Non-immune and immune fish controls were separatel...

  13. Effect of immunization of channel catfish with inactivated trophonts on serum and cutaneous antibody titers and survival against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of immunization of channel catfish with inactivated trophonts on serum and cutaneous antibody titers and survival against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet (Ich). In trial I, catfish were intraperitoneally (IP) immunized with: 1) 1% formalin-inac...

  14. Acute side effects of homologous interleukin-3 in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, F. C.; Mulder, A. H.; van den Bos, C.; Burger, H.; van Leen, R. W.; Wagemaker, G.

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin-3 treatment of juvenile rhesus monkeys elicits a dose- and time-dependent syndrome that includes urticaria, palpable lymph nodes, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, edema, and arthritis, apart from a strong stimulation of hemopoiesis. Arthritis was found to occur significantly more often in animals expressing the major histocompatibility complex alleles B9 and Dr5. Histological analysis revealed an abundance of mast cells in urticaria and, to a lesser extent, in lungs and synovia of arthritic joints. Active osteoclasts were abundant in ribs and arthritic joints. Extramedullary hemopoiesis was encountered in liver, spleen, and kidneys. The spleen showed deposits of hemosiderin, and in the liver, Kupffer cells were loaded with iron, indicating enhanced turnover of hemoglobin. Lymph nodes and bone marrow showed macrophages involved in hemophagocytosis, which probably contributed to the development of anemia and thrombopenia. Biochemical parameters in sera were indicative of parenchymal liver damage, with cholestasis and increased erythrocyte destruction. The side effects were strongly reduced in monkeys subjected to total body irradiation just before interleukin-3 treatment. Histamine antagonists were not significantly effective in preventing side effects, which is explained by the perpetual stimulation of basophilic granulocytes by exogenous interleukin-3. The nature of the side effects indicates that interleukin-3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute type hypersensitivity reactions and arthritis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8256852

  15. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Rojas, Ernesto; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Pardo, Henry; Torrico, Mary Cruz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit. PMID:25397995

  16. Psychological side effects of immune therapies: symptoms and pathomechanism.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, David; Kovacs, Peter; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapies revolutionised the treatment of several disorders but show specific side-effect profiles which frequently involve psychological symptoms. Long term interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can cause wide-ranging psychiatric side-effects from fatigue, insomnia, anxiety to full-blown depression. This treatment-emergent depression shares several symptoms with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a predominance of somatic/neurovegetative symptoms, and can be treated with antidepressants. However, this experience directed research to inflammatory mechanisms in MDD. MDD has been confirmed as a heterogeneous disorder with a subgroup of patients suffering from low-grade chronic inflammation and frequently resistant to traditional antidepressant treatment. Thus future research should develop strategies to identify those MDD patients who could benefit from drugs acting through inflammatory pathways. PMID:27456240

  17. [Uncommon cutaneous ulcerative and systemic sarcoidosis. Successful treatment with hydroxychloroquine and compression therapy].

    PubMed

    Meyersburg, D; Schön, M P; Bertsch, H P; Seitz, C S

    2011-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multisystemic disease of unclear etiology, which can affect any organ. The cutaneous manifestations are variable, but ulcerative cutaneous sarcoidosis is very rare. One must rule out other granulomatous skin diseases, especially necrobiosis lipoidica. There is no standarized therapy; usually an interdisciplinary approach over years taking multiple side effects into consideration is needed. A 58-year-old woman with a long history of cutaneous, nodal and pulmonary sarcoidosis suddenly developed ulcerations within the disseminated skin lesions on her legs. The combination of systemic hydroxychloroquine and modern wound management lead to complete healing of the ulcers and a significant improvement in the remaining skin lesions. PMID:21656110

  18. A review of adverse cutaneous drug reactions resulting from the use of interferon and ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Nisha; Shapero, Jonathan; Crawford, Richard I

    2009-01-01

    Drug-induced cutaneous eruptions are named among the most common side effects of many medications. Thus, cutaneous drug eruptions are a common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospital settings. The present article reviews different presentations of drug-induced cutaneous eruptions, with a focus on eruptions reported secondary to the use of interferon and ribavirin. Presentations include injection site reactions, psoriasis, eczematous drug reactions, alopecia, sarcoidosis, lupus, fixed drug eruptions, pigmentary changes and lichenoid eruptions. Also reviewed are findings regarding life-threatening systemic drug reactions. PMID:19826642

  19. Renewable energy - what are its environmental side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1983-02-01

    This article reviews the National Audubon Society's report ''Side Effects of Renewable Energy Sources (SERES).'' The report, prepared by Dr. Larry Medsker, surveyed nine types of renewable energy, identifed the possible problems with each type, and showed how the problem could be minimized or avoided. Tables that list the consequences of development and the accompanying environmental stresses on land, air, water, wildlife, and flora are contained in the report.

  20. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  1. Beta-blocker therapy: identification and management of side effects.

    PubMed

    Dennis, K E; Froman, D; Morrison, A S; Holmes, K D; Howes, D G

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale designed to identify and quantify the impact that the side effects of beta-blocker therapy have on people's lives, and the self-management practices people use to mediate their influence. Instruments included the 20-item beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale and the Profile of Mood States. Subjects had hypertension; 51 men were involved in a larger study involving antihypertensive medications and exercise, and 19 men and women were receiving beta-blocker therapy as first-line drug of choice. Estimates of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and concurrent and discriminant validity were moderately strong. The most problematic side effects were related to lack of sleep, vivid or active dreams, lack of energy and pep, diminished interest in sexual activity, and changes in vision. Among self-management practices used to mediate side effects were planning rest and activity periods, thinking carefully before reacting, and seeking out others for support. PMID:1680114

  2. Computational Performance Evaluation of a Side Structure Considering Stamping Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Se-Ho; Kim, Kee-Poong

    In this paper, the influence of the stamping effect is investigated in the performance analysis of a side structure. The analysis covers the performance evaluation such as crashworthiness and NVH. Stamping analyses are carried out for a center pillar, and then, numerical simulations are carried out in order to identify the stamping effect on the crashworthiness and the natural frequency. The result shows that the analysis considering the forming history leads to a different result from that without considering the stamping effect, which demonstrates that the design of auto-body should be carried out considering the stamping history for accurate assessment of various performances.

  3. Side-effects of henna and semi-permanent 'black henna' tattoos: a full review.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-07-01

    Henna, the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis, is widely used as a dye for the skin, hair, and nails, and as an expression of body art, especially in Islamic and Hindu cultures. As it stains the skin reddish-brown, it is also called red henna. Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary 'black henna tattoos'. This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic. Red henna appears to be generally safe, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions. In children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, topical application of henna may cause life-threatening haemolysis. Black henna tattoos will induce contact allergy to its ingredient PPD at an estimated frequency of 2.5%. Once sensitized, the patients may experience allergic contact dermatitis from the use of hair dyes containing PPD. There are often cross-reactions to other hair dyes, dyes used in textiles, local anaesthetics, and rubber chemicals. The sensitization of children to PPD may have important consequences for health and later career prospects. Systemic toxicity of black henna has been reported in certain African countries. PMID:23782354

  4. Cutaneous cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Ethan E; Crawford, Paul

    2012-12-15

    Cutaneous cryosurgery refers to localized application of freezing temperatures to achieve destruction of skin lesions. It can be used to treat a broad range of benign and premalignant skin conditions, and certain malignant skin conditions, with high cure rates. Cellular destruction is accomplished by delivery of the cryogen via dipstick, probe, or spray techniques. It is widely used in primary care because of its safety, effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, good cosmetic results, and lack of need for anesthesia. Cryosurgery is as effective as alternative therapies for most cases of molluscum contagiosum, dermatofibromas, keloids, and plantar or genital warts. It is a more effective cure for common warts than salicylic acid or observation. Cryosurgery is generally the treatment of choice for actinic keratosis. Contraindications to cryosurgery include cryofibrinogenemia, cryoglobulinemia, Raynaud disease, agammaglobulinemia, and multiple myeloma. Complications from cryosurgery include hypopigmentation and alopecia, and can be avoided by limiting freeze times to less than 30 seconds. Referral to a dermatologist should be considered in cases of diagnostic uncertainty or for treatment of skin cancer, which requires larger amounts of tissue destruction, resulting in higher complication rates. PMID:23316984

  5. Composition of the Cutaneous Bacterial Community in Japanese Amphibians: Effects of Captivity, Host Species, and Body Region.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Bletz, Molly Catherine; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Shimizu, Norio; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Vences, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The cutaneous microbiota plays a significant role in the biology of their vertebrate hosts, and its composition is known to be influenced both by host and environment, with captive conditions often altering alpha diversity. Here, we compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of 61 amphibians (both wild and captive) from Hiroshima, Japan, using high-throughput amplicon sequencing of a segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The majority of these samples came from a captive breeding facility at Hiroshima University where specimens from six species are maintained under highly standardized conditions for several generations. This allowed to identify host effects on the bacterial communities under near identical environmental conditions in captivity. We found the structure of the cutaneous bacterial community significantly differing between wild and captive individuals of newts, Cynops pyrrhogaster, with a higher alpha diversity found in the wild individuals. Community structure also showed distinct patterns when comparing different species of amphibians kept under highly similar conditions, revealing an intrinsic host effect. Bacterial communities of dorsal vs. ventral skin surfaces did not significantly differ in most species, but a trend of higher alpha diversity on the ventral surface was found in Oriental fire-bellied toads, Bombina orientalis. This study confirms the cutaneous microbiota of amphibians as a highly dynamic system influenced by a complex interplay of numerous factors. PMID:27278778

  6. Plasma levels after peroral and topical ibuprofen and effects upon low pH-induced cutaneous and muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Steen, A E; Reeh, P W; Geisslinger, G; Steen, K H

    2000-01-01

    Cutaneous applications are gaining popularity in the treatment of cutaneous pain and of painful disorders in joints and muscle. The low pH-pain model in human skin has previously been able to demonstrate the effects of NSAIDs in dose-dependent manner and to establish time-effect relationships. We examined the analgesic action of ibuprofen after cutaneous application and compared the effects with oral administration. The two studies (with n = 12 subjects each) were performed in a double-blind, randomized fashion with a 1-week cross-over interval. In study 1 volunteers received intradermal infusions with phosphate buffered saline solution of pH 5.2 and received either 800 mg ibuprofen per os and topical placebo, or 4 g of a 5% commercial ibuprofen gel topically applied and oral placebo capsules, respectively. In study 2 the same protocol was applied with painful intramuscular infusion of stronger, isotonic phosphate buffer (pH 5.2). The flow rate of the pH-infusion was individually adjusted to induce pain with a magnitude of 20% on a visual analogue scale (ranging from 'no' (0%) to 'unbearable pain' (100%)). Ibuprofen (S-, R-) plasma levels after oral administrations were measured with HPLC, and after topical applications, by gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy to determine plasma levels in the range of ng/ml. In the cutaneous model pain ratings decreased to zero after topical verum gel within 45 min of the observation period of 55 min. Pain reduction after peroral ibuprofen was of the same magnitude, but was achieved within only 30 min. In the muscle model, the commercial ibuprofen gel did not reduce the pain in the acidic muscle. The peroral ibuprofen was less effective in the muscle compared to the skin pain model, although there was a significant progressive pain reduction within 55 min. Reasons for the differential susceptibility of cutaneous vs muscular acidosis pain to ibuprofen remain to be established. PMID:10957700

  7. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. Material/Methods In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. Results A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1–78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0–20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Conclusions Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection. PMID:26190279

  8. [Non-steroidal antirheumatics: side-effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Felder, M

    1982-08-28

    Side effects of non-steroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAD) may occur in any organ system, since the prostaglandins, the synthesis of which is inhibited by NSAD, play a role in numerous adverse cellular processes throughout the body. Besides these physiologic regulations there are adverse effects of NSAD, such as bone marrow aplasia, of unexplained etiology. The interactions of NSAD are of clinical relevance in drug types such as the salicylates, pyrazolons and fenamic acids (e.g. interactions with cumarin derivatives). The clinically relevant interactions of NSAD are discussed in detail. PMID:6982512

  9. The effect of light touch on the amplitude of cutaneous reflexes in the arms during treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Forero, Juan; Misiaszek, John E

    2014-09-01

    Light touch contact of the tip of one finger can influence the postural control of subjects standing or walking on a treadmill. It is suggested that haptic cues from the finger provide an important sensory cue for the control of posture. In the current study, we used intra-limb cutaneous reflexes in the arms to test the hypothesis that transmission in sensory pathways relevant to the light touch contact would be modulated when light touch is used to increase stability during walking in an unstable environment. Subjects walked on a treadmill and received periodic pulls to the waist. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked from stimulation of the median and radial nerves while the subjects either (a) lightly touched or (b) did not touch a stable contact with the tip of their index finger, while the eyes were either (c) open or (d) closed. The results showed that cutaneous reflexes were modulated by both touch and vision. The effect of touch depended on the nerve being stimulated. The provision of touch in the absence of vision resulted in facilitation of median nerve reflexes evoked in the posterior deltoid and the triceps brachii, but resulted in the suppression of radial nerve reflexes. The nerve-specific influence of touch observed in the responses suggests that cutaneous afferent pathways are facilitated in the presence of touch if they transport sensory information from functionally relevant sensory cues. PMID:24838555

  10. Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

    2013-12-01

    We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742

  11. Glycopyrrolate-induced respiratory arrest: an unusual side effect.

    PubMed

    D'souza, S; Gowler, V

    2015-03-01

    A descriptive case report of a 22-year-old woman, scheduled for elective laparotomy who had a respiratory arrest after premedication with inj glycopyrrolate and ondansetron. Respiratory arrest is an uncommon side effect of glycopyrrolate with very few published reports. Ondansteron can also cause respiratory arrest, however is most often associated with bradycardia. This patient had tachycardia and respiratory arrest and is suggestive of glycopyrrolate-induced respiratory arrest. This case report highlights the importance of strict vigilance by the anaesthesiologist even during premedication. PMID:25557856

  12. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism. PMID:27211356

  13. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy. PMID:25671958

  14. Psychiatric side effects of medications prescribed in internal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande Tango, Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Several pharmacological treatments used in internal medicine can induce psychiatric side effects (PSEs) that mimic diagnoses seen in psychiatry. PSEs may occur upon withdrawal or intoxication, and also at usual therapeutic doses. Drugs that may lead to depressive, anxious, or psychotic syndromes include corticosteroids, isotretinoin, levo-dopar mefloquine, interferon-a, and anabolic steroids, as well as some over-the-counter medications. PSEs are often difficult to diagnose and can be very harmful to patients. PSEs are discussed in this review, as well as diagnostic clues to facilitate their identification. PMID:22034468

  15. Cutaneous protothecosis.

    PubMed

    Hillesheim, Paul B; Bahrami, Soon

    2011-07-01

    Prototheca species are an achlorophyllic algae that cause infections primarily in immunocompromised individuals. At least one-half of infectious cases are cutaneous. Because protothecosis is seldom suspected clinically, patients may be subjected to various treatment modalities for extended periods without satisfactory results. Cutaneous protothecosis shares similar clinical and pathologic findings with deep tissue fungal mycoses. The typical presentation occurs most commonly on the face and extremities as erythematous plaques, nodules, or superficial ulcers. Prototheca spp are spherical, unicellular, nonbudding organisms that are sometimes noted on routine hematoxylin-eosin staining but are best visualized with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori methenamine-silver histochemical stains. Although protothecosis can be diagnosed on biopsy, culture of the organism on a medium such as Sabouraud dextrose agar is required for definitive diagnosis. Treatment may require a combination of surgical excision and antifungal agents. Therefore, cutaneous protothecosis should be considered in a lesion that appears suspicious for the more-common fungal infections. PMID:21732787

  16. Cutaneous Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Wanat, Karolyn A; Rosenbach, Misha

    2015-12-01

    The skin is the second most common organ affected in sarcoidosis, which can affect patients of all ages and races, with African American women having the highest rates of sarcoidosis in the United States. The cutaneous manifestations are protean and can reflect involvement of sarcoidal granulomas within the lesion or represent reactive non-specific inflammation, as seen with erythema nodosum. Systemic work-up is necessary in any patient with cutaneous involvement of sarcoidal granulomas, and treatment depends on other organ involvement and severity of clinical disease. Skin-directed therapies are first line for mild disease, and immunomodulators or immunosuppressants may be necessary. PMID:26593142

  17. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  18. The effects of topical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in canine experimental cutaneous wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Lyoo, Young S; Jung, Dong-In; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult stem cells have been widely investigated in bioengineering approaches for tissue repair therapy. We evaluated the clinical value and safety of the application of cultured bone marrow-derived allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating skin wounds in a canine model. Hypothesis Topical allogenic MSC transplantation can accelerate the closure of experimental full-thickness cutaneous wounds and attenuate local inflammation. Animals Adult healthy beagle dogs (n = 10; 3–6 years old; 7.2–13.1 kg) were studied. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were created on the dorsum of healthy beagles, and allogenic MSCs were injected intradermally. The rate of wound closure and the degree of collagen production were analysed histologically using haematoxylin and eosin staining and trichrome staining. The degree of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using proliferating cell nuclear antigen-, vimentin- and α-smooth muscle actin-specific antibodies. Local mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated wounds, MSC-treated wounds showed more rapid wound closure and increased collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, MSC-treated wounds showed decreased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-2 and interferon-γ) and wound healing-related factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2). Conclusion and clinical importance Topical transplantation of MSCs results in paracrine effects on cellular proliferation and angiogenesis, as well as modulation of local mRNA expression of several factors related to cutaneous wound healing. Résumé Contexte Les cellules souches adultes ont été largement étudiées dans les approches de bio-ingénierie pour la thérapie de réparation tissulaire. Nous évaluons l

  19. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  20. Effect of cutaneous burn injury and resuscitation on the cerebral circulation in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shin, C; Kinsky, M P; Thomas, J A; Traber, D L; Kramer, G C

    1998-02-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of a large cutaneous burn injury on the cerebral circulation. Anesthetized sheep (n = 8) were prepared with vascular catheters, a urinary catheter and a Richmond bolt for intracranial pressure monitoring. A scald injury was inflicted on 70 percent of total body surface area with hot water. Resuscitation was started 30 min after scald with Ringer's lactate to restore and maintain baseline oxygen delivery. Resuscitation maintained blood pressure, cardiac output and urine output at normal levels. Brain blood flow was measured with colored microspheres. During resuscitation intracranial pressure rose slowly from 10.6 +/- 1.5 to 17.0 +/- 4.0 mmHg (P < 0.05) and cerebral perfusion pressure was reduced from 86.4 +/- 6.8 to 64.1 +/- 2.8 mmHg (P < 0.05). During early resuscitation cerebrovascular resistance declined to maintain brain blood flow and oxygen delivery at baseline or better. After 6 h, mean cerebrovascular resistance was inappropriately increased during a period of reduced cerebral perfusion pressure which resulted in brain blood flow reductions of half the baseline levels. These data suggest that autoregulation maintains brain blood flow immediately after burn shock and early resuscitation, but the autoregulation may be less effective as burn resuscitation proceeds. PMID:9601589

  1. Cutaneous tube ureterostomy: a fast and effective method of urinary diversion in emergency situations

    PubMed Central

    Abdin, Tamer; Zamir, Gideon; Pikarsky, Alon; Katz, Ran; Landau, Ezekiel H; Gofrit, Ofer N

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report on a simple and rapid method of urinary diversion. This method was applied successfully in different clinical scenarios when primary reconstruction of the ureters was not possible. Materials and methods The disconnected ureter is catheterized by a feeding tube. The tube is secured with sutures and brought out to the lateral abdominal wall as cutaneous tube ureterostomy (CTU). Results This method was applied in three different clinical scenarios: a 40-year-old man who sustained multiple high-velocity gunshots to the pelvis with combined rectal and bladder trigone injuries and massive bleeding from a comminuted pubic fracture. Damage control included colostomy and bilateral CTUs. A 26-year-old woman had transection of the right lower ureter during abdominal hysterectomy. Diagnosis was delayed for 3 weeks when the patient developed sepsis. The right kidney was diverted with a CTU. A 37-year-old male suffered from bladder perforation and hemorrhagic shock. Emergency cystectomy was done and urinary diversion was accomplished with bilateral CTUs. In all cases, effective drainage of the urinary system was achieved with normalization of kidney function. Conclusion When local or systemic conditions preclude definitive repair and damage control surgery is needed, CTU provides fast and effective urinary diversion. PMID:26090343

  2. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S.; Campos, Bruno L. S.; Jesus, Jéssica A.; Laurenti, Márcia D.; Ribeiro, Susan P.; Kallás, Esper G.; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S.; Sessa, Deborah P.; Lago, João H. G.; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  3. Ocular Side Effect of Tinidazole: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kauser, Hina; Qadir, Maniah; Anwar, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported. PMID:25657970

  4. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kauser, Hina; Qadir, Maniah; Anwar, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported. PMID:25657970

  5. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P.; Sen, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism. PMID:24891713

  6. Cutaneous Horn

    MedlinePlus

    ... fair-skinned individuals with a history of significant sun exposure. Signs and Symptoms A cutaneous horn most often ... radiation therapy. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Skin Conditions MedlinePlus: Sun Exposure References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1715. ...

  7. Effect of dye laser pulse duration on selective cutaneous vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, J.M.; Tan, O.T.; Kerschmann, R.; Boll, J.; Furumoto, H.; Anderson, R.R.; Parrish, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    The pulsed dye laser at 577 nm, a wavelength well absorbed by oxyhemoglobin, causes highly selective thermal injury to cutaneous blood vessels. Confinement of thermal damage to microvessels is, in theory, related to the laser exposure time (pulsewidth) on selective vascular injury. This study investigates the effect of 577 nm dye laser pulsewidth on selective vascular injury. Nine Caucasian, normal volunteers received 577 nm dye laser exposures at pulsewidths of 1.5-350 microseconds to their skin. Clinical purpura threshold exposure doses were determined in each volunteer, and biopsies of threshold and suprathreshold doses were examined in each volunteer. The laser exposure dose required to produce purpura increased as pulsewidth increased in all 9 subjects (p less than 0.001). This finding corresponds to laser pulsewidths equal to or exceeding the thermal relaxation times for dermal blood vessels. Histologically, vessel damage was selectively, but qualitatively, different for short vs long pulsewidths. Pulsewidths shorter than 20 microseconds caused vessel wall fragmentation and hemorrhage, whereas longer pulsewidths caused no significant hemorrhage. The purpura noted clinically appears to be due to a coagulum of intralumenal denatured erythrocytes. At 24 h, there was marked vessel wall necrosis at all pulsewidths. The short pulsewidths may cause erythrocyte vaporization, rapid thermal expansion, and mechanical vessel rupture with hemorrhage. Long pulsewidths appear to cause thermal denaturation with less mechanical vessel damage. The selective, nonhemorrhagic, vascular necrosis caused by the long-pulsewidth dye laser may lead to a more desirable clinical outcome in the therapy of blood vessel disease processes.

  8. Effect of Topical Application of Different Substances on Fibroplasia in Cutaneous Surgical Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Andreza Miranda; Oliveira, Dhelfeson Willya Douglas; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Lima, Nádia Lages; de Miranda, João Luiz; Verli, Flaviana Dornela

    2012-01-01

    Background. Fibroblasts on the edges of a surgical wound are induced to synthesize collagen during the healing process which is known as fibroplasia. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the application of different substances on fibroplasia of cutaneous surgical wounds on rats. Materials and Methods. 48 Wistar rats were divided into three groups. A surgical wound 1 cm in diameter and 1  mm in depth was created on the dorsum of each animal. The surgical wounds were submitted to the topical application of an alcoholic extract of 30% propolis, 70% alcohol, or 0.001% dexamethasone in a cream base every 12 hours. The animals were sacrificed three, seven, 14, and 28 days postoperatively. The specimens were histologically processed and stained with Masson's trichrome. The assessment of fibroplasia was performed using a scoring system: (1) 5 to 25% collagen deposition; (2) 26 to 50% collagen deposition; (3) 51 to 75% collagen deposition; (4) more than 75% collagen deposition. Results. There were statistically significant differences in collagen deposition between the substances at all postoperative evaluation times. Conclusion. Propolis and alcohol promoted greater collagen deposition in surgical wounds than dexamethasone. PMID:22536526

  9. Thermotherapy. An alternative for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pentavalent antimonials (Sb5) and miltefosine are the first-line drugs for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia; however, toxicity and treatment duration negatively impact compliance and cost, justifying an active search for better therapeutic options. We compared the efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Method An open randomized Phase III clinical trial was performed in five military health centres. located in northwestern, central and southern Colombia. Volunteers with parasitological positive diagnosis (Giemsa-stained smears) of cutaneous leishmaniasis were included. A single thermotherapy session involving the application of 50°C at the center and active edge of each lesion. Meglumine antimoniate was administered intramuscularly at a dose of 20 mg Sb5/kg weight/day for 20 days. Results Both groups were comparable. The efficacy of thermotherapy was 64% (86/134 patients) by protocol and 58% (86/149) by intention-to-treat. For the meglumine antimoniate group, efficacy by protocol was 85% (103/121 patients) and 72% (103/143) by intention-to-treat, The efficacy between the treatments was statistically significant (p 0.01 and <0.001) for analysis by intention to treat and by protocol, respectively. There was no difference between the therapeutic response with either treatment regardless of the Leishmania species responsible for infection. The side effects of meglumine antimoniate included myalgia, arthralgia, headache and fever. Regarding thermotherapy, the only side effect was pain at the lesion area four days after the initiation of treatment. Conclusion Although the efficacy rate of meglumine antimoniate was greater than that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, the side effects were also greater. Those factors, added to the increased costs, the treatment adherence problems and the progressive lack of therapeutic response, make us

  10. Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The purpose of this study was to add, to the objective evaluation, an instrumental assessment of the skin damage induced by radiation therapy. Materials and methods A group of 100 patients affected by breast cancer was recruited in the study over one year. Patients were divided into five groups of 20 patients. For each group it was prescribed a different topical treatment. The following products were used: Betaglucan, sodium hyaluronate (Neoviderm®), Vitis vinifera A. s-I-M.t-O.dij (Ixoderm®), Alga Atlantica plus Ethylbisiminomethylguaicolo and Manganese Cloruro (Radioskin1®) and Metal Esculetina plus Ginko Biloba and Aloe vera (Radioskin 2®); Natural triglycerides-fitosterols (Xderit®); Selectiose plus thermal water of Avene (Trixera+®). All hydrating creams were applied twice a day starting 15 days before and one month after treatment with radiations. Before and during treatment patients underwent weekly skin assessments and corneometry to evaluate the symptoms related to skin toxicity and state of hydration. Evaluation of acute cutaneous toxicity was defined according to the RTOG scale. Results All patients completed radiotherapy; 72% of patients presented a G1 cutaneous toxicity, 18% developed a G2 cutaneous toxicity, 10% developed a G3 toxicity, no one presented G4 toxicity. The corneometry study confirmed the protective role of effective creams used in radiation therapy of breast cancer and showed its usefulness to identify radiation-induced dermatitis in a very early stage. Conclusions The preventive use of topic products reduces the incidence of skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer. An instrumental evaluation of skin hydration can help the radiation oncologist to use strategies that prevent the onset of toxicity of high degree. All moisturizing creams used in this study were equally valid in the treatment of skin damage induced by radiotherapy. PMID:23497676

  11. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed. PMID:23771936

  12. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use. PMID:22409453

  13. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects What to do about changes when you urinate “ ... drinking enough each day. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: Changes when you urinate Ask about drinks or ...

  14. Lupus erythematosus: considerations about clinical, cutaneous and therapeutic aspects*

    PubMed Central

    Moura Filho, Jucélio Pereira; Peixoto, Raiza Luna; Martins, Lívia Gomes; de Melo, Sillas Duarte; de Carvalho, Ligiana Leite; Pereira, Ana Karine F. da Trindade C.; Freire, Eutilia Andrade Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic inflammatory disease with multifactorial etiology. Although clinical manifestations are varied, the skin is an important target-organ, which contributes to the inclusion of skin lesions in 4 out of the 17 new criteria for the diagnosis of the disease, according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics. The cutaneous manifestations of lupus are pleomorphic. Depending on their clinical characteristics, they can be classified into Acute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus, Chronic Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus and Intermittent Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus. Treatment is based on preventive measures, reversal of inflammation, prevention of damage to target organs and relief of adverse events due to pharmacological therapy. The most commonly used treatment options are topical, systemic and surgical treatment, as well as phototherapy. The correct handling of the cases depends on a careful evaluation of the morphology of the lesions and the patient's general status, always taking into consideration not only the benefits but also the side effects of each therapeutic proposal. PMID:24626656

  15. [Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: side effect profile of important therapeutic drugs].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R; Runne, U

    1991-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the undesirable effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine allows better exploitation of their therapeutic effects. Retinopathy can be avoided by observing a maximum daily dosage of 3.5-4 mg/kg ideal body weight for chloroquine and 6-6.5 mg/kg for hydroxychloroquine. In this way, both can be used for long-term therapy. The pharmacokinetics of chloroquine (storage in deep compartments with long plasma half-life) means that it can cumulate, especially with higher dosages and in the presence of renal or hepatic insufficiency. A high plasma concentration reinforces the side-effects without reinforcing the therapeutic effects. Besides subjective symptoms (e.g. anorexia, diarrhoea, nausea), the following undesirable reactions are significant. On the skin exanthema, hyperpigmentation and photodynamic reactions can develop. The hair can become white in blonde and red-haired men. In the eye, chloroquine deposits in the cornea and disturbances of accommodation can occur, besides retinopathy. Neuromyopathy and central nervous system disturbances (e.g. psychosis) are rare, as is impairment of auditory function or blood cells. During pregnancy there is a risk of potential fetal damage (hearing loss, abortion). An acute overdose is extremely dangerous: the lethal dose is 1 g for children and 4 g for adults. As death occurs rapidly, chloroquine has to be stored where it is absolutely inaccessible to children. PMID:2055762

  16. Cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a case of localised urticarial vasculitis following anastrozole therapy and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bock, Vanessa L; Friedlander, Michael; Waring, Dale; Kossard, Steven; Wood, Glenda K

    2014-11-01

    Hormonal therapy with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors is commonly used to treat women with breast cancer in both the adjuvant and recurrent disease setting. Cutaneous adverse reactions to these drugs have been rarely reported in the literature. We report an unusual case of urticarial vasculitis following the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole that localised to the unilateral trunk and mastectomy scar, and review the literature on the cutaneous adverse effects of hormonal therapy for breast cancer. PMID:24575835

  17. Glucocorticoid effects on contact hypersensitivity and on the cutaneous response to ultraviolet light in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.M.; Walberg, J.A.; Bradlow, H.L.

    1988-03-01

    A single exposure to 254 nm ultraviolet irradiation (UV) can systemically suppress experimental sensitization to the simple allergen 2,4-dinitro, 1-chlorobenzene (DNCB) in the mouse. We show here that topical application at the site of irradiation of the 21-oic acid methyl ester derivative of the synthetic glucocorticoid triamcinolone acetonide (TAme) prevents UV suppression of sensitization. That is, mice painted with TAme at the site of UV exposure developed normal contact hypersensitivity (CH); mice exposed to UV only, like mice treated with the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), failed to be sensitized by DNCB applied to a distal site. TAme is inactivated rapidly by plasma esterases, so its effect is thought to be confined to the skin. Apparently, TAme blocked the cutaneous signal(s) for systemic suppression of CH. Histologically, irradiated skin exhibited mild inflammation and hyperproliferation, but these effects were greatly exaggerated and prolonged in the UV + TAme-treated skin, independent of sensitization at the distal site. The infiltrate consisted mostly of neutrophils and lacked the round cells characteristic of cell-mediated immunity. Apparently, normal immune suppression by UV prevented this vigorous reaction to irradiated skin. Applied together with DNCB. TAme blocked sensitization. It also prevented response to challenge by DNCB in previously sensitized animals. However, unlike the parent compound triamcinolone acetonide (TA), Budesonide or Beclomethasone diproprionate, each of which can penetrate the epidermis in active form, TAme had no effect on sensitization when applied at a distal site. Likewise, TAme did not affect plasma B (17-desoxycortisol) levels, whereas the other three compounds reduced plasma B tenfold, as expected of compounds causing adrenal-pituitary suppression.

  18. Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis on the face: Effective treatment of a case using thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    FANG, SHENG; SHAN, KUI; CHEN, AI-JUN

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis is an exceedingly rare condition that is identified in Japanese individuals in particular. The present study describes the case of a patient of mainland Chinese origin who manifested with red-brown macules, papules and plaques limited to the face. Identifying a therapy for cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis is quite difficult, however, the present patient showed a good response to low-dose thalidomide. The exact mechanism of action is not yet clear, however, we hypothesize that thalidomide may function through decreasing the secretion of interleukin-6 and affecting the growth of plasma cells. PMID:26998101

  19. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on passive cutaneous anaphylactoid response and compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Ho; Yan, Guang-Hai; Chai, Ok Hee

    2010-01-01

    Mast cells participate in allergies and inflammation by secreting a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators. Curcumin, the active component of turmeric, is a polyphenolic phytochemical with anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-allergic properties. The effects of curcumin on compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation and passive cutaneous anaphylactoid reactions are unknown. In this report, we investigated the influences of curcumin on the passive cutaneous anaphylactoid response in vivo and compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation in vitro. The mechanism of action was examined by calcium uptake measurements and cAMP assays in mast cells. Curcumin significantly attenuated the mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylactoid reaction in an animal model. In agreement with this in vivo activity, curcumin suppressed compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cell (RPMC) degranulation and histamine release from RPMCs. Moreover, compound 48/80-elicited calcium uptake into RPMCs was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by curcumin. Furthermore, curcumin increased the level of intracellular cAMP and significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced reduction of cAMP in RPMCs. These results corroborate the finding that curcumin may have anti-allergic activity. PMID:21190003

  20. Cutaneous Myiasis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Michal; Lachish, Tamar; Schwartz, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Myiasis is defined as the infestation of live vertebrates, either humans or animals, with dipterous larvae. Many organs can be infested by these larvae with cutaneous myiasis being the most common form. Cutaneous myiasis can be divided into three categories: localized furuncular myiasis, migratory myiaisis and wound myiasis, which occurs when fly larvae infest the open wounds of the host. Human myiasis has worldwide distribution, with more species and a heavier burden in tropical and subtropical countries. In recent years with increased travel to the tropics, myiasis has become common in returning travelers from these regions, Furuncular myiasis, mainly Dermatobia homonis becomes the most common form seen among them. Treatment is based on full extraction of the larva and no antibiotic treatment is needed. Understanding the mode of transmission of each type of myiasis may help to prevent the infestation. PMID:27443558

  1. Mood and cognitive side effects of interferon-alpha therapy.

    PubMed

    Valentine, A D; Meyers, C A; Kling, M A; Richelson, E; Hauser, P

    1998-02-01

    The central nervous system side effects associated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy, including depression and cognitive changes, can compromise otherwise effective immunotherapy. The term "depression" has multiple meanings ranging from a feeling of sadness to a neuropsychiatric disorder with defined diagnostic criteria. A syndrome of mood disturbance with memory impairment, cognitive slowing, and impaired executive function is common with IFN-alpha therapy and is consistent with mild subcortical dementia. Cognitive deficits and mood disorder may occur independently, and in some cases depression is a reactive phenomenon. Risk factors for development of IFN-alpha neurotoxicity include duration of treatment, high-dose therapy, and prior cranial irradiation or neurologic illness. Past or current psychiatric illness also may put the patient at risk. Subtypes of major depression are associated with neuroendocrine and neurochemical alterations that are consistent with the observed activities of IFN-alpha. This may provide insight into the etiology of IFN-alpha neurotoxicity, as well as possible interventions. Assessment of the neuropsychiatric status of patients treated with IFN-alpha should be a standard of care. Possible pharmacologic interventions to decrease the neurotoxicity associated with IFN-alpha therapy include antidepressants, psychostimulants, and opioid antagonists. Preliminary clinical and research experience suggests that it is possible to effectively palliate IFN-alpha toxicity. PMID:9482539

  2. Cutaneous Listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Godshall, Casey E.; Suh, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous infections due to Listeria monocytogenes are rare. Typically, infections manifest as nonpainful, nonpruritic, self-limited, localized, papulopustular or vesiculopustular eruptions in healthy persons. Most cases follow direct inoculation of the skin in veterinarians or farmers who have exposure to animal products of conception. Less commonly, skin lesions may arise from hematogenous dissemination in compromised hosts with invasive disease. Here, we report the first case in a gardener that occurred following exposure to soil and vegetation. PMID:23966491

  3. The Side-Effect Effect in Children Is Robust and Not Specific to the Moral Status of Action Effects

    PubMed Central

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Behne, Tanya; Clüver, Annette; Dallmann, Stephanie; Weidner, Sarah; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Adults’ intentionality judgments regarding an action are influenced by their moral evaluation of this action. This is clearly indicated in the so-called side-effect effect: when told about an action (e.g. implementing a business plan) with an intended primary effect (e.g. raise profits) and a foreseen side effect (e.g. harming/helping the environment), subjects tend to interpret the bringing about of the side effect more often as intentional when it is negative (harming the environment) than when it is positive (helping the environment). From a cognitive point of view, it is unclear whether the side-effect effect is driven by the moral status of the side effects specifically, or rather more generally by its normative status. And from a developmental point of view, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the effect. The present study therefore explored the cognitive foundations and the ontogenetic origins of the side-effect effect by testing 4-to 5-year-old children with scenarios in which a side effect was in accordance with/violated a norm. Crucially, the status of the norm was varied to be conventional or moral. Children rated the bringing about of side-effects as more intentional when it broke a norm than when it accorded with a norm irrespective of the type of norm. The side-effect effect is thus an early-developing, more general and pervasive phenomenon, not restricted to morally relevant side effects. PMID:26218422

  4. The Side-Effect Effect in Children Is Robust and Not Specific to the Moral Status of Action Effects.

    PubMed

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Behne, Tanya; Clüver, Annette; Dallmann, Stephanie; Weidner, Sarah; Waldmann, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Adults' intentionality judgments regarding an action are influenced by their moral evaluation of this action. This is clearly indicated in the so-called side-effect effect: when told about an action (e.g. implementing a business plan) with an intended primary effect (e.g. raise profits) and a foreseen side effect (e.g. harming/helping the environment), subjects tend to interpret the bringing about of the side effect more often as intentional when it is negative (harming the environment) than when it is positive (helping the environment). From a cognitive point of view, it is unclear whether the side-effect effect is driven by the moral status of the side effects specifically, or rather more generally by its normative status. And from a developmental point of view, little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the effect. The present study therefore explored the cognitive foundations and the ontogenetic origins of the side-effect effect by testing 4-to 5-year-old children with scenarios in which a side effect was in accordance with/violated a norm. Crucially, the status of the norm was varied to be conventional or moral. Children rated the bringing about of side-effects as more intentional when it broke a norm than when it accorded with a norm irrespective of the type of norm. The side-effect effect is thus an early-developing, more general and pervasive phenomenon, not restricted to morally relevant side effects. PMID:26218422

  5. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  6. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  7. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  8. Cardiovascular side effects of inhaled salbutamol in hypoxic asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Burggraaf, J; Westendorp, R; Veen, J; Schoemaker, R; Sterk, P; Cohen, A; Blauw, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Beta-2 adrenoceptor agonists have been associated with sudden death in asthma patients but the cause and underlying mechanism are unclear. Animal experiments indicate that the combination of hypoxia and β2 agonists may result in detrimental cardiovascular effects. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the systemic vascular effects of salbutamol in patients with asthma who are hypoxic by assessing forearm blood flow (FBF) as a measure of peripheral vasodilatation.
METHODS—Eight men with mild asthma underwent the following treatments: normoxia + placebo (NP), normoxia + salbutamol (NS), hypoxia+ placebo (HP), and hypoxia + salbutamol (HS). The period of mask breathing started at t=0 minutes, lasted for 60 minutes, and at 30 minutes 800 µg salbutamol was inhaled. The experiment was completed 30 minutes after the inhalation (t=60 minutes). For the hypoxia treatment the SpO2 level was 82%. Differences between treatments were sought using factorial ANOVA on percentage change from the pretreatment value.
RESULTS—There were no significant differences in blood pressure and potassium levels between the treatments. After 60 minutes the increase in FBF was 13% (95% CI -12 to 39) more for HP treatment than for NP, 21% (95% CI -5 to 46) more for NS than for NP, and 32% (95% CI 7 to 58) more for HS than for HP (p=0.016). The inhalation of salbutamol during hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in FBF of 45% (95% CI 20 to 71) compared with NP (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION—Patients with asthma who are hypoxic and inhale β2 agonists have serious systemic vascular side effects which may be an additional explanation for the association between asthma treatment and sudden death.

 PMID:11413357

  9. The effect of topical capsaicin-induced sensitization on heat-evoked cutaneous vasomotor responses

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Thomas A; da Silva, Larissa Bittencourt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Brief, localized, cutaneous, non-painful thermal stimuli can evoke a transient vasomotor response, causing increased cutaneous blood flow and elevated skin temperature. The aims of this study were to investigate 1) if cutaneous sensitization by topical application of capsaicin (TRPV1 receptor agonist) can facilitate the size, duration and spatial extent of this vasomotor response and 2) if males and females respond differently. Thermal pulses (43°C for 60 seconds) were applied on left/right volar forearms of 15 age-matched males and females. Skin temperature and cutaneous blood flow were measured 1, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after heat application before and after topical capsaicin (1%, 30 min application) with contralateral arm serving as the control. Recordings were made from the region of interest at distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm from the capsaicin application site. Sensitization significantly enhanced skin temperature for up to 30 min and compared with non-sensitized skin at 10 min. Females showed the strongest response after sensitization, but the response lasted longer and spread more widely in males. The blood flow responses were significantly longer after capsaicin (from 5 to 30 minutes after thermal application). This increased blood flow extended outside the treated area up to 10 min after stimulation. After sensitization, the area under the blood flow response curves showed significantly stronger responses in females, spreading 4 cm outside the stimulation site. Cutaneous sensitizing caused prolonged and spatially expanded vasomotor responses to standardized thermal stimulation with sex specific differences. PMID:24044034

  10. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  11. Urologic medications and ophthalmologic side effects: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Perlis, Nathan; Radomski, Sidney B.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly prescribed urologic medications can have significant ophthalmologic side effects. The existing information can be conflicting. We looked at alpha-blockers and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS), phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and lastly anticholinergic medications and glaucoma. There is no conclusive scientific data on what to do if the risk of urinary retention is low to moderate, however, we recommend that patients having cataract surgery should stop alpha-blocker medications preoperatively. If there is a high risk of urinary retention, the alpha-blocker should not be withheld, with the active involvement of the ophthalmologist. The role of using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) can be considered. There is no convincing evidence that PDE5 inhibitors cause non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), but patients should be advised of the possible risk of visual loss, especially in patients with risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG or closed angle glaucoma) is very rarely caused by anticholinergic medications in patients with narrow angle anterior eye chambers. However, these medications are safe in patients with open angle glaucoma or treated closed angle glaucoma. Urologists should inquire about the patient’s glaucoma history from his/her ophthalmologist before starting an anticholinergic medication. PMID:22396371

  12. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  13. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.; Bruchelt, G.; Feine, U.; Niethammer, D.

    1987-01-01

    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation.

  14. GESSE: Predicting Drug Side Effects from Drug-Target Relationships.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I; Souchet, Michel; Karaboga, Arnaud S; Ritchie, David W

    2015-09-28

    The in silico prediction of unwanted side effects (SEs) caused by the promiscuous behavior of drugs and their targets is highly relevant to the pharmaceutical industry. Considerable effort is now being put into computational and experimental screening of several suspected off-target proteins in the hope that SEs might be identified early, before the cost associated with developing a drug candidate rises steeply. Following this need, we present a new method called GESSE to predict potential SEs of drugs from their physicochemical properties (three-dimensional shape plus chemistry) and to target protein data extracted from predicted drug-target relationships. The GESSE approach uses a canonical correlation analysis of the full drug-target and drug-SE matrices, and it then calculates a probability that each drug in the resulting drug-target matrix will have a given SE using a Bayesian discriminant analysis (DA) technique. The performance of GESSE is quantified using retrospective (external database) analysis and literature examples by means of area under the ROC curve analysis, "top hit rates", misclassification rates, and a χ(2) independence test. Overall, the robust and very promising retrospective statistics obtained and the many SE predictions that have experimental corroboration demonstrate that GESSE can successfully predict potential drug-SE profiles of candidate drug compounds from their predicted drug-target relationships. PMID:26251970

  15. Massive proteinuria: a possible side effect of pyrantel pamoate?

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Pietro; Bersani, Iliana; Bottaro, Giorgia; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; Gatto, Antonio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Romano, Valerio; Stabile, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced renal injury represents a frequent clinical entity. The most common drugs associated with acute tubular necrosis are aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, radiocontrast agents, and cyclosporine, but no data exist about the potential renal toxicity due to anthelmintics administration. Anthelmintics are commonly considered quite safe agents, and side effects such as gastrointestinal, neurologic, hematologic, or hepatic injury have been only rarely described. We report a 4-year-old boy with persistent massive proteinuria without any other symptoms/signs suggesting nephrotic syndrome (NS). The only relevant anamnestic data was the administration of pyrantel pamoate due to oxyuriasis 7 days before the proteinuria development. The patient was affected by NS diagnosed 6 months before and treated with a 12-week course of corticosteroids. During follow-up, carried out at 3 and 6 months after discharge, he did not show further episodes of proteinuria, and no clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a relapse of NS were ever detected. Considering that the proteinuria observed in our patient spontaneously disappeared after 10 days without any treatment, apart from the interruption of the anthelmintic therapy, we would like to alert pediatricians about the possible occurrence of anthelmintics-related renal complications especially among predisposed patients and to perform a watchful waiting not considering the presence of even massive proteinuria as a certain sign of NS relapse. PMID:21500989

  16. Minimising menopausal side effects whilst treating endometriosis and fibroids.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul D; McLaren, James S; Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P

    2015-03-01

    Medical management of endometriosis and fibroids involves manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to alter the balance of sex hormones thereby inhibiting disease progression and ameliorate symptoms. Unfortunately, resultant menopausal symptoms sometimes limit the tolerability and duration of such treatment. The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists to treat these diseases can result in short-term hypoestrogenic and vasomotor side effects as well as long-term impacts on bone health and cardiovascular risk. The routine use of add-back hormone replacement has reduced these risks and increased patient compliance, making this group of drugs more useful as a medium-term treatment option. The estrogen threshold hypothesis highlights the concept of a 'therapeutic window' in which bone loss is minimal but the primary disease is not aggravated. It explains why add-back therapy is appropriate for such patients and helps to explain the basis behind new developments in the treatment of hormonally responsive gynaecological conditions such as gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists and progesterone receptor modulators. PMID:25802141

  17. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians. PMID:20508803

  18. Biostimulative effects of 809 nm diode laser on cutaneous skin wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmaz, Hakan; Gülsoy, Murat; Ülgen, Yekta

    2015-03-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for therapeutic purposes in medicine has become widespread recently. There are many studies in literature supporting the idea of therapeutic effects of laser irradiation on biological tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate the biostimulative effect of 809nm infrared laser irradiation on the healing process of cutaneous incisional skin wounds. 3-4 months old male Wistar Albino rats weighing 300 to 350 gr were used throughout this study. Lowlevel laser therapy was applied through local irradiation of 809nm infrared laser on open skin incisional wounds of 1 cm length. Each animal had six identical incisions on their right and left dorsal region symmetrical to each other. The wounds were separated into three groups of control, 1 J/cm2 and 3 J/cm2 of laser irradiation. Two of these six wounds were kept as control group and did not receive any laser application. Rest of the incisions was irradiated with continuous diode laser of 809nm in wavelength and 20mW power output. Two of them were subjected to laser irradiation of 1 J/cm2 and the other two were subjected to laser light with energy density of 3 J/cm2. Biostimulation effects of irradiation were studied by means of tensile strength tests and histological examinations. Wounded skin samples were morphologically examined and removed for mechanical and histological examinations at days 3, 5 and 7 following the laser applications. Three of the six fragments of skin incisions including a portion of peripheral healthy tissue from each animal were subjected to mechanical tests by means of a universal tensile test machine, whereas the other three samples were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological examinations. The findings of the study show that tissue repair following laser irradiation of 809nm has been accelerated in terms of tissue morphology, strength and cellular content. These results seem to be consistent with the results of many

  19. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  20. Side effects of aesthetic therapy by lasers and IPL source: a dark side of the correct management of the patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarbski, George V.

    2004-09-01

    A medical practice by laser or IPL device means professional experience, reputation, strong economical investment, while a patient needs results for the bill he pays. In front of a publicity of non-invasive solutions for a broad base of clinical applications, the everyday practice offers embarrassing side effects about which it is better to prepare the users. Inefficiency, hypo-hyper-pigmentations, scars show that we need to have clear instructions and experienced studies, before emphasizing good results.

  1. The Role of Systemic Retinoids in the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huen, Auris O; Kim, Ellen J

    2015-10-01

    Retinoids are natural and synthetic vitamin A analogs with effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. They have significant activity in hematologic malignancies and have been studied extensively in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Retinoids bind to nuclear receptors and exert their effects through moderation of gene expression. Retinoic acid receptor and retinoic X receptor exert regulatory activity in vivo, binding to distinct ligands. Studies investigating systemic retinoids as monotherapy and in combination with other agents active against cutaneous lymphoma are reviewed. Side effects associated with retinoids include teratogenicity, dyslipidemias, and hypothyroidism, which should be carefully monitored in patients receiving treatment. PMID:26433844

  2. Effects of interleukin-10 on cutaneous wounds and scars in humans of African continental ancestral origin.

    PubMed

    Kieran, Ingrid; Taylor, Catherine; Bush, Jim; Rance, Mark; So, Karen; Boanas, Adam; Metcalfe, Anthony; Hobson, Rosalind; Goldspink, Nick; Hutchison, John; Ferguson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Scars in humans of African continental ancestry heal with an exaggerated inflammatory response and a generally wider scar. Interleukin-10 is an anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic cytokine. A randomized controlled trial in Caucasians found that exogenous interleukin-10 resulted in improved macroscopic scar appearance and reduced scar redness. We investigated the effects of interleukin-10 on cutaneous scarring in volunteers of African ancestral origin in an exploratory, single-center, within-subject, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-six subjects received two of four potential prerandomized concentrations of interleukin-10 (5, 25, 100, and 250 ng/100 µL) in two full-thickness incisions on the upper inner arms. Anatomically matching incisions on the contralateral arm were treated with placebo. Scars were excised at 1 month for histological analysis and were redosed with the same regimen. Resultant excision scars were followed up for 12 months for scar width measurement and scoring. Scoring was performed by trial doctors, subjects, and a panel. Incisions treated with 100 ng/100 µL interleukin-10 had significantly reduced microscopic scar widths. Incisions treated with 5 and 25 ng/100 µL interleukin-10 were also narrower, but not significantly. There were no differences observed in pro-inflammatory or pro-fibrotic markers between interleukin-10 and placebo treatment. There was no long-term evidence that 100 ng/100 µL interleukin-10 had a therapeutic effect on macroscopic scar width or appearance, as excisions treated with this concentration were significantly wider than placebo between 8 and 12 months of maturation. Doctors showed a trend toward favoring the macroscopic appearance of placebo-treated excisions compared with those treated with 250 ng/100 µL interleukin-10. Panelists scored placebo-treated excisions as significantly better-appearing than those treated with 250 ng/100 µL interleukin-10. Doctors' scores showed a

  3. Thermogenic side effects to migratory predisposition in shorebirds.

    PubMed

    Vézina, François; Jalvingh, Kirsten M; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2007-03-01

    In the calidrine sandpiper red knot (Calidris canutus), the weeks preceding takeoff for long-distance migration are characterized by a rapid increase in body mass, largely made up of fat but also including a significant proportion of lean tissue. Before takeoff, the pectoral muscles are known to hypertrophy in preparation for endurance flight without any specific training. Because birds facing cold environments counterbalance heat loss through shivering thermogenesis, and since pectoral muscles represent a large proportion of avian body mass, we asked the question whether muscle hypertrophy in preparation for long-distance endurance flight would induce improvements in thermogenic capacity. We acclimated red knots to different controlled thermal environments: 26 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and variable conditions tracking outdoor temperatures. We then studied within-individual variations in body mass, pectoral muscle size (measured by ultrasound), and metabolic parameters [basal metabolic rate (BMR) and summit metabolic rate (M(sum))] throughout a 3-mo period enclosing the migratory gain and loss of mass. The gain in body mass during the fattening period was associated with increases in pectoral muscle thickness and thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation. Regardless of their thermal treatment, birds showing the largest increases in body mass also exhibited the largest increases in M(sum). We conclude that migratory fattening is accompanied by thermoregulatory side effects. The gain of body mass and muscle hypertrophy improve thermogenic capacity independent of thermal acclimation in this species. Whether this represents an ecological advantage depends on the ambient temperature at the time of fattening. PMID:17138724

  4. Pseudotumour cerebri as a side effect of leuprorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Boot, J H

    1996-01-01

    Leuprorelin acetate is a synthetic nona-peptide analogue of the naturally occurring gonadotrophin releasing hormone LH-RH (hypothalamus), used in the treatment of sterility, endometriosis or prostatic cancer. In a 35 year old woman, treated with leuprorelin acetate, after 5 months treatment, the side-effects (hot flushes, sweating, sleeping disorders), appeared to be rather unbearable. Medication was ended. The endocrine reversion to the normal physiological balance was association with high fever (38.9 degrees C) during an 8 day period. Increasing scotomas resulted in a gradual loss of eyesight in one eye, associated with a normal visual acuity. Unilateral papilloedema was observed, indicating the possibility of tumor cerebri. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated an intense leakage of the right optic disc. No signs of retinal vascular malformations were seen. The eye pressure was normal. No signs of hemorrhages were observed. Visual field examination showed an enlarged blind spot with a few scotomas above the centre of fixation. CT scan of the brain was normal, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was normal, indicated by IgG production. Six months after ending the leuprorelin acetate treatment, the eyesight was spontaneously 100% recovered. It is most likely that leuprorelin acetate is responsible for the emergence of pseudotumor cerebri. As described by Prof. Sidi et al(1), leuprorelin strongly induces increased liquor pressure, being the intermediate mechanism between hormonal treatment and an ante grade mechanical force, on the optic nervus. Because of the risk of permanent loss of eyesight, it is strongly advised to verify eye parameters conscientiously during leuprorelin treatment. PMID:8867506

  5. [High frequency of cutaneous adverse effects under infliximab. Geneva experience, 1999-2008].

    PubMed

    Seydtaghia, Floriane; De Saussure, Philippe; Hadengue, Antoine

    2011-03-16

    Geneva experience, 1999-2008 Infliximab has been used for 10 years in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in the gastroenterology and hepatology department at the University Hospitals of Geneva. This retrospective study shows the follow-up of these patients treated with infliximab and reveals a high rate of cutaneous adverse events, which, although often mild, can sign a definitive intolerance to treatment. PMID:21510346

  6. Effect of age and caloric restriction on cutaneous wound closure in rats and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Roth, G S; Kowatch, M A; Hengemihle, J; Ingram, D K; Spangler, E L; Johnson, L K; Lane, M A

    1997-03-01

    Cutaneous wounds close more slowly in rats and monkeys as age increases. Caloric restriction of 40% in rats and 30% in monkeys did not significantly affect healing rates, although it did exert a trend toward faster closure. Similarly, voluntary exercise did not significantly alter healing rates in rats. Thus, impaired wound healing appears to be a generalized physiological manifestation of aging, but its possible amelioration by "anti-aging" interventions remains to be established. PMID:9060966

  7. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Bordbar, Aarash; Jensen, Kasper; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Mo, Monica L.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating the relationships between the cellular response to drugs, genetic variation of patients and cell metabolism may help managing side effects by personalizing drug prescriptions and nutritional intervention strategies. PMID:26055627

  8. A pharmacokinetic approach to resolving spinal and systemic contributions to epidural alfentanil analgesia and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Coda, B A; Brown, M C; Schaffer, R L; Donaldson, G; Shen, D D

    1995-09-01

    A pilot study was conducted in 7 normal volunteers to demonstrate the feasibility of employing pharmacokinetic tailoring to achieve matching plasma opioid concentration-time curves after epidural (e.p.) and intravenous (i.v.) alfentanil administration. Each subject participated in 1 pretest and 2 test sessions. Our pain model was cutaneous electrical stimulation of the finger and toe, adjusted to produce a baseline pain report of 5 (strong pain on a 0-5 scale). On test day 1, subjects received e.p. alfentanil (750 micrograms) and an i.v. saline infusion. Serial measurements of analgesia, end tidal CO2, pupil size, subjective side effects, and plasma alfentanil concentrations were conducted before and at various time intervals over a 4-h period after alfentanil administration. On test day 2, subjects received e.p. saline and a pharmacokinetically tailored i.v. infusion (using individual pharmacokinetics determined on the pretest day) designed to achieve a plasma concentration-time profile identical to that observed on the epidural day. The same battery of effect measurements was administered as on the 1st test day. Plasma alfentanil was measured to verify the accuracy of the tailored infusion. Plasma alfentanil concentration profiles were nearly identical on both test days. Peak plasma alfentanil concentrations were near the reported minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC). Overall, analgesia was slightly greater with e.p. administration. Onset of pain relief was rapid, and duration was approximately 1.5 h with e.p. and 1 h with i.v. alfentanil. There were no differences in pupil size, ETCO2, or subjective side effects between e.p. versus i.v. administration. We conclude that systemic redistribution from the epidural space appears to account for most, but not all, of the analgesia. PMID:8657433

  9. Lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia: an anatomical insight.

    PubMed

    Dias Filho, L C; Valença, M M; Guimarães Filho, F A V; Medeiros, R C; Silva, R A M; Morais, M G V; Valente, F P; França, S M L

    2003-07-01

    A detailed anatomic study was carried out on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve to better understand the etiology and treatment of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. As it passed from the pelvis into the thigh, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve ran through an "aponeuroticofascial tunnel," beginning at the iliopubic tract and ending at the inguinal ligament; as it passed through the tunnel, an enlargement in its side-to-side diameter was observed, suggesting that the fascial structures proximal to the inguinal ligament may be implicated in the genesis of lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia. The finding of pseudoneuromas at this location, distant from the inguinal ligament, supports this hypothesis. The anterior superior iliac spine is located approximately 0.7 cm from the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve and serves as the bony landmark for nerve localization. Within the first 3 cm of leaving the pelvis, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve was observed deep to the fascia lata; therefore, surgical dissection within the subcutaneous fascia may be conducted with relative impunity near the anterior superior iliac spine just inferior to the inguinal ligament. In 36% of cases there was no posterior branch of the nerve, which is correlated to lateral femoral cutaneous neuralgia symptoms often being limited to the anterior branch region. An accessory nerve was found in 30% of cases. PMID:12794914

  10. Multisystemic Side Effects of an Indispensable Old Drug: A Case Report of Chronic Lithium Use (A Patient with Multiple Side Effects of Lithium)

    PubMed Central

    Demirtas, Levent; Akbas, Emin Murat; Degirmenci, Husnu; Gurel, Ali; Duzgun, Eren

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is a case of long-term lithium use, with multiple emerging lithium-associated side effects. An 82-year-old woman was brought into the emergency department because of loss of consciousness. According to the physical examination and laboratory analyses, patient was diagnosed with lithium-associated hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), symptomatic sinus bradycardia, and thyroid dysfunction. In the literature, there is a limited number of case reports with lithium induced multiple clinical conditions. Multiple clinical manifestations due to the side effects of chronic lithium use might be seen. Health care professionals should keep in mind that lithium-related side effects might trigger or exacerbate each other. To avoid toxicity, close follow-up and clinical supervision are important for the early diagnosis and treatment of these side effects, due to the narrow therapeutic index and obscure clinical signs and symptoms of toxicity. PMID:26604931

  11. Effect of back-side-coated electrodes on electrochemical performances of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yunju; Son, Bongki; Choi, Jaecheol; Kim, Jong Hun; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the effect of back-side coating of cathodes and anodes upon electrochemical performances of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), four different pouch-type lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2, LCO)/graphite unit cells with different coating conditions are prepared and compared in a systematic manner. Their electrochemical performance, in terms of Coulombic efficiency, capacity realization, capacity retention ability, and rate capabilities, is investigated. From the results, we confirm an opposing relationship existing between back-side-coated cathodes and anodes, in that the coated cathodes provide improved cell performance, while the coated anodes impede it. This is attributed to the fact that, as is generally understood, cathodes act as noble lithium (Li) ion suppliers for LIBs, while anodes consume a large portion of Li ions to form surface layers during the first charging process. Furthermore, we also confirm that the magnitude of the back-side coating effect for LCO and graphite are somewhat different. The double-side-coated cathodes have a notable positive effect on cell performances in contrast to the negative effect seen with the double-side-coated anodes. As a result, unit cells employing double-side-coated cathodes with single-side-coated anodes show the best performance, followed by those based on double-side-coated cathodes with double-side-coated anodes rather than single-side-coated cathodes with single-side coated anodes.

  12. Living with antipsychotic medication side-effects: the experience of Australian mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom; Stomski, Norman Jay

    2015-06-01

    The present study explores people's experience of living with antipsychotic medication side-effects. Qualitative data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 10 mental health consumers in a community care setting in Australia. The interview transcriptions were content analysed, and enhanced by combining manifest and latent content. Important contextual cues were identified through replaying the audio-recordings. Several main themes emerged from the analysis, including the impact of side-effects, attitudes to the use of medication and side-effects, and coping strategies to manage medication side-effects. Each participant reported between six and seven side-effects on average, which were often pronounced and had a major disruptive impact on their lives. Of these effects, the most commonly mentioned was sedation, which the participants described as leaving them in a 'zombie'-like state. Most participants expressed an attitude of acceptance about the side-effects. The participants' most common strategy to manage side-effects was to change the dosage of the medication. Other common side-effect management strategies involved using other medications to control side-effects, and diverse self-help techniques, the most common of which was relaxation/distraction techniques. PMID:25529392

  13. Organization of sensory input to the nociceptive-specific cutaneous trunk muscle reflex in rat, an effective experimental system for examining nociception and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Barker, Darrell F.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Trainer, Robert; Fransen, James W.; Seidman, Peggy A.; Soto, Roy G.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neural circuitries furthers our understanding of how nervous systems perform specific functions and enables the use of those systems to test hypotheses. We have characterized the sensory input to the cutaneous trunk muscle (CTM; also cutaneus trunci (rat) or cutaneus maximus (mouse)) reflex (CTMR), which manifests as a puckering of the dorsal thoracolumbar skin and is selectively driven by noxious stimuli. CTM electromyography (EMG) and neurogram recordings in naïve rats revealed that CTMR responses were elicited by natural stimuli and electrical stimulation of all segments from C4 to L6, a much greater extent of segmental drive to the CTMR than previously described. Stimulation of some subcutaneous paraspinal tissue can also elicit this reflex. Using a selective neurotoxin, we also demonstrate differential drive of the CTMR by trkA-expressing and non-expressing small diameter afferents. These observations highlight aspects of the organization of the CTMR system which make it attractive for studies of nociception and anesthesiology and plasticity of primary afferents, motoneurons, and the propriospinal system. We use the CTMR system to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate that experimental pharmacological treatments can be compared to controls applied either to the contralateral side or to another segment, with the remaining segments providing controls for systemic or other treatment effects. These data indicate the potential for using the CTMR system as both an invasive and non-invasive quantitative assessment tool providing improved statistical power and reduced animal use. PMID:23983104

  14. Cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Laman, S D; Provost, T T

    1994-02-01

    Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that demonstrates cutaneous, systemic, or both cutaneous and systemic manifestations. This article reviews the cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus. PMID:8153399

  15. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-09

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  16. Beliefs about medicines predict non-specific side effects in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Orav, E. John; Liang, Matthew H.; Horne, Robert; Barsky, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examines determinants of patient’s side effects from arthritis medication. Proposed predictors were patient’s beliefs about medications, objective disease activity, treatment regimen, psychiatric and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. Methods In a longitudinal design 100 rheumatoid arthritis outpatients were investigated at baseline and again at 6-months after receiving both pharmacological and psychosocial treatment. Results Multivariate analyses showed no influence of disease status, type of treatment, psychiatric or arthritis symptoms on side effects. Heightened concerns about arthritis medication at baseline predicted side effects at baseline (partial correlation rp = .37, p < .001) and at 6-months (rp = .25, p < .001), after controlling for relevant disease and treatment related variables. In a cross-lagged panel analysis, prior experience with side effects from arthritis medication was ruled out as a cause of heightened concerns, indicating that negative beliefs contribute genuinely to side effects. A comparison of patients who did and did not start new medications showed no difference in side effects in patients with positive beliefs about medications, but led to significantly more side effects in patients with negative beliefs. Conclusions Patient’s beliefs about arthritis medication were stable and consistently associated with side effects. Patients with greater concerns about their arthritis medications are at higher risk for developing side effects, especially when starting new drugs. Identifying those patients is important to avoid premature drug discontinuation. Research into cause and preventability of negative attitudes to prescribed medicines is needed. PMID:20191574

  17. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  18. Metabolic Disturbances, Side Effect Profile and Effectiveness of Clozapine in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13) patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward) 46.2% (6/13) had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100%) followed by sedation (69%). Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population. PMID:27335518

  19. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: prospects for effective compounds with fewer toxic side-effects.

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, W. D.; Mroczkowski, Z.; Agrawal, K. C.

    1978-01-01

    Several radiosensitizing chemicals, including a family of simple nitroimidazoles, were examined in E. coli and compared with misonidazole for toxic side-effects on endpoints such as mutagenesis, cell killing and inhibition of the synthesis of the inducible enzyme beta-galactosidase. While all the compounds were similar to misonidazole or better in radiosensitization, marked differences in the various side effects were found. There results show that for E. coli it is possible to find compounds that sensitize as well as misonidazole but which have decreased mutagenicity and fewer other side-effects. Of the compounds examined, KA121 (2,5-dinitroimidazole) is the most promising for future study because it combines good radiosensitization with low mutagenicity and toxicity. PMID:98175

  20. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  1. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2012-12-01

    The daily nutritional requirement for L-tryptophan (Trp) is modest (5 mg/kg). However, many adults choose to consume much more, up to 4-5 g/d (60-70 mg/kg), typically to improve mood or sleep. Ingesting L-Trp raises brain tryptophan levels and stimulates its conversion to serotonin in neurons, which is thought to mediate its actions. Are there side effects from Trp supplementation? Some consider drowsiness a side effect, but not those who use it to improve sleep. Though the literature is thin, occasional side effects, seen mainly at higher doses (70-200 mg/kg), include tremor, nausea, and dizziness, and may occur when Trp is taken alone or with a drug that enhances serotonin function (e.g., antidepressants). In rare cases, the "serotonin syndrome" occurs, the result of too much serotonin stimulation when Trp is combined with serotonin drugs. Symptoms include delirium, myoclonus, hyperthermia, and coma. In 1989 a new syndrome appeared, dubbed eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), and was quickly linked to supplemental Trp use. Key symptoms included debilitating myalgia (muscle pain) and a high peripheral eosinophil count. The cause was shown not to be Trp but a contaminant in certain production batches. This is not surprising, because side effects long associated with Trp use were not those associated with the EMS. Over 5 decades, Trp has been taken as a supplement and as an adjunct to medications with occasional modest, short-lived side effects. Still, the database is small and largely anecdotal. A thorough, dose-related assessment of side effects remains to be conducted. PMID:23077193

  2. Cost effectiveness of solar DHW systems: results of side-by-side tests of active and passive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Athoe, J.; Beach, C.; Gleman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Four solar domestic hot water systems were assembled at the Florida Solar Energy Systems Test Facility and run side-by-side for 6 months in the Florida sunshine. The systems included (1) a 40 ft/sup 2/, 80 gal pumped direct system with differential control, (2) a 40 ft/sup 2/, 80 gal pumped direct system with snap switch control, (3) a 24 ft/sup 2/, 40 gal thermosiphon system, and (4) a bread-box water heater (originally a Baer-type or horizontal tank system with about 20 ft/sup 2/ aperture and 66 gallon tank, later changed to a tilted tank, 24 ft/sup 2/, 40 gallon system). These systems were run without backup power and under a draw of 63 gallons per day for each system. The installed costs of these systems were estimated on a consistent basis. Results of the tests are presented, including thermal efficiency (heat delivered to load divided by sunshine incident upon collector), water draw temperature, and cost effectiveness (heat per day per dollar system cost) of the system. Based on data for the colder half of the year in Florida, it is concluded: (1) differential and snap switch controls perform about equally well, (2) the thermosiphon is the most cost-effective, (3) the more costly the system, the higher the temperature of the water it delivers, and (4) the less costly systems are adequate for some purposes, and about as cost-effective as the more expensive systems.

  3. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  4. A review of the adverse side effects associated with antipsychotics as related to their efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pakpoor, Jina; Agius, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Since the introduction of antipsychotic medication for the treatment of psychosis, a wide range of different types of antipsychotic drugs have been developed while their side effects have become evident. The side effects of both the typical and atypical generation of antipsychotics have important consequences for the quality of life of recipients, stigma experienced and also the level of care of patients. It is well acknowledged that the side effects of antipsychotics reduce compliance with the medication. In this review the data for an association between typical and atypical antipsychotics and the main side effects that are well-supported in the literature was explored: weight gain and associated metabolic effects; extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia; prolactin elevation and associated sexual effects; QTc elongation; and a group of miscellaneous side effects. It has been demonstrated that the production of adverse effects following the use of antipsychotic medication differs widely both between atypical and typical drugs but also within these subgroups. Considering the wide range of antipsychotics available amongst both groups and the differing effects they have on patients in terms of side effects, there is reason to believe that a more personalised approach to antipsychotic treatment should be considered. Additionally, screening for risk factors, screening for the appearance of side effects, as well as good communication with patients about the side effects and other options available are important tasks for clinicians in order to optimise concordance with medication. PMID:25413553

  5. Enquiry into the Side Effects of School Inspection in a "Low-Stakes" Inspection Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study into the occurrence of the side effects of school inspection through in-depth interviews in five case schools. The study investigates the extent to which strategic activities, disturbing effects and emotional side effects occur in the case schools. The study also aims to understand features that may…

  6. Evaluation of the effects of a combination of Japanese honey and hydrocolloid dressing on cutaneous wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kanae; Koike, Miki; Nakamura, Saki; Kawaguchi, Yuka; Katagiri, Fumika; Nojiri, Saki; Yamada, Yuki; Miyajima, Eri; Matsumoto, Mayuko; Komatsu, Emi; Nakajima, Yukari; Urai, Tamae; Murakado, Naoko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined use of Japanese honey and hydrocolloid dressing (HCD) on cutaneous wound healing. Mice were divided into four groups: the Acacia (Japan) + HCD, Manuka (New Zealand) + HCD, Chinese milk vetch (Japan) + HCD, and HCD (control) groups. The mice received two full-thickness wounds. The wounds of the HCD group were covered with HCD, whereas those of the other groups were treated with 0.1 mL of the relevant type of honey, before being covered with HCD. Wound area was significantly smaller in the HCD group than in the Acacia + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups on day 13 and days 8-14, respectively. Moreover, compared with the HCD group, reepithelialization was delayed in the Acacia + HCD group and reepithelialization and collagen deposition were delayed in the Chinese milk vetch + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups. These results indicate that the combined use of Japanese honey and HCD does not promote cutaneous wound healing compared with the use of HCD alone. Thus, this method is probably not useful for promoting healing. PMID:25945118

  7. The effects of preoperative oral administration of carprofen or tramadol on postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing cutaneous tumor removal

    PubMed Central

    Karrasch, Nicole M.; Lerche, Phillip; Aarnes, Turi K.; Gardner, Heather L.; London, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, blinded, controlled clinical study compared the effects of pre-emptive oral administration of carprofen or tramadol on pain scores and analgesic requirement in dogs undergoing cutaneous tumor removal. Thirty-six client-owned dogs presenting for cutaneous tumor removal were randomly assigned to receive carprofen, tramadol, or no treatment prior to surgery. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), the Modified Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Score (MGCMPS), and algometry at enrollment, prior to premedication, at extubation, then hourly for the first 4 h, and every 4 h for 24 h. Dogs scoring ≥ 7 (MGCMPS), or having a VAS measurement ≥ 40 mm were given rescue analgesia. There were no significant differences in pain VAS, MGCMPS, or algometry. There were no differences in rescue analgesia requirement, or time to rescue analgesia among groups. Carprofen, tramadol, or no pre-emptive analgesia, combined with pre-operative hydromorphone and rescue analgesia, resulted in satisfactory analgesia in the 24-hour postoperative period. PMID:26246627

  8. The effect of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on cutaneous wound healing and pain relief in rats.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Mo; Yong, Min-Sik; Na, Sang-Su

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the impact of low-intensity laser therapy on wound healing and pain control using a rat cutaneous wound model. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 220-240 g, 7 weeks) were used in this study. The rats were anesthetized and a circular fragment of skin was removed from the dorsal region of the back by a punch with an 8-mm diameter. The animals were randomly divided into 6 groups, Groups C 1, C 3, and C 5, control groups, received no laser treatment. Groups T 1, T 3, and T 5 received laser treatment for 20 min per day for 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively. Lumbar spine and dorsal skin were extracted and processed using western blot analysis. [Results] Periodical observation showed increases in NGF expression on the skin, and decreases in c-fos expression by the spinal cord in the treatment groups compared to the control group. [Conclusion] The present findings suggest that low-intensity laser therapy could be used as an effective therapy for wound healing and pain relief, and could be further used as a clinical approach for treating cutaneous wounds. PMID:26696711

  9. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  10. The effective theory of quintessence: the w < -1 side unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Vernizzi, Filippo; D'Amico, Guido; Norena, Jorge E-mail: damico@sissa.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2009-02-15

    We study generic single-field dark energy models, by a parametrization of the most general theory of their perturbations around a given background, including higher derivative terms. In appropriate limits this approach reproduces standard quintessence, k-essence and ghost condensation. We find no general pathology associated to an equation of state w{sub Q} < -1 or in crossing the phantom divide w{sub Q} = -1. Stability requires that the w{sub Q} < -1 side of dark energy behaves, on cosmological scales, as a k-essence fluid with a virtually zero speed of sound. This implies that one should set the speed of sound to zero when comparing with data models with w{sub Q} < -1 or crossing the phantom divide. We summarize the theoretical and stability constraints on the quintessential plane (1+w{sub Q}) vs. speed of sound squared.

  11. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  12. Antitumor effects of the investigational selective MEK inhibitor TAK733 against cutaneous and uveal melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background TAK733 is a novel allosteric, non-ATP-binding, inhibitor of the BRAF substrates MEK-1/2. Methods The growth inhibitory effects of TAK733 were assessed in a panel of 27 cutaneous and five uveal melanoma cell lines genotyped for driver oncogenic mutations. Flow cytometry, Western blots and metabolic tracer uptake assays were used to characterize the changes induced by exposure to TAK733. Results Fourteen cutaneous melanoma cell lines with different driver mutations were sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of TAK733, with a higher proportion of BRAFV600E mutant cell lines being highly sensitive with IC50s below 1 nM. The five uveal melanoma cell lines had GNAQ or GNA11 mutations and were either moderately or highly sensitive to TAK733. The tested cell lines wild type for NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ and GNA11 driver mutations were moderately to highly resistant to TAK733. TAK733 led to a decrease in pERK and G1 arrest in most of these melanoma cell lines regardless of their origin, driver oncogenic mutations and in vitro sensitivity to TAK733. MEK inhibition resulted in increase in pMEK more prominently in NRASQ61L mutant and GNAQ mutant cell lines than in BRAFV600E mutant cell lines. Uptake of the metabolic tracers FDG and FLT was inhibited by TAK733 in a manner that closely paralleled the in vitro sensitivity assays. Conclusions The MEK inhibitor TAK733 has antitumor properties in melanoma cell lines with different oncogenic mutations and these effects could be detectable by differential metabolic tracer uptake. PMID:22515704

  13. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  14. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  15. Deficits in neuronal cytochrome P450 activity attenuate opioid analgesia but not opioid side effects.

    PubMed

    Hough, Lindsay B; Nalwalk, Julia W; Cleary, Rachel A; Phillips, James G; Fang, Cheng; Yang, Weizhu; Ding, Xinxin

    2014-10-01

    Morphine-like analgesics act on µ opioid receptors in the CNS to produce highly effective pain relief, but the same class of receptors also mediates non-therapeutic side effects. The analgesic properties of morphine were recently shown to require the activity of a brain neuronal cytochrome P450 epoxygenase, but the significance of this pathway for opioid side effects is unknown. Here we show that brain P450 activity is not required for three of morphine׳s major side effects (respiratory depression, constipation, and locomotor stimulation). Following systemic or intracerebroventricular administration of morphine, transgenic mice with brain neuron - specific reductions in P450 activity showed highly attenuated analgesic responses as compared with wild-type (control) mice. However, brain P450-deficient mice showed normal morphine-induced side effects (respiratory depression, locomotor stimulation, and inhibition of intestinal motility). Pretreatment of control mice with the P450 inhibitor CC12 similarly reduced the analgesia, but not these side effects of morphine. Because activation of brain µ opioid receptors produces both opioid analgesia and opioid side effects, dissociation of the mechanisms for the therapeutic and therapy-limiting effects of opioids has important consequences for the development of analgesics with reduced side effects and/or limited addiction liability. PMID:25062792

  16. Side effects and complication of Port-A-Cath.

    PubMed

    Iannarone, Claudio; Sacco, Fabrizio; Micozzi, Marco; Fegiz, Alessandra; Fiorelli, Silvia; Vendittelli, Vincenza; Pinto, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Central venous catheter techniques find at present use for administering of NPT, for the drug injection ( especially chemiotherapeutic drugs) because of the possible damage of a few substances when perfused in a peripheral way. At present port-a-cath find their most extensive use: these are systems which can be set up and tolerated for many months. For the access to subclavian vein must be necessary put in supine decubitus, with light Trendelenburg position, with the opposite arm along the body and the head turned on the opposite side. In this way the clavicle is in perpendicular position with regard to the sternal handlebar, except for patient affected with bpco, kypho-scoliosis, scapular-homeral arthrosis. In these patients the clavicle can put on a particular course, oblique and upper as to the sternal articular face. So there is a serious obstacle to the passage to the metal needle under the clavicle. KEY WORDS: Chemiotherapy, CVC, NPT, Port-a-Cath. PMID:23103553

  17. Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of citalopram-induced side effects in STAR*D.

    PubMed

    Adkins, D E; Clark, S L; Åberg, K; Hettema, J M; Bukszár, J; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-01-01

    Affecting about 1 in 12 Americans annually, depression is a leading cause of the global disease burden. While a range of effective antidepressants are now available, failure and relapse rates remain substantial, with intolerable side effect burden the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Thus, understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side effects will be essential to optimize depression treatment. Here we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variation influencing susceptibility to citalopram-induced side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1762 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Outcomes included five indicators of citalopram side effects: general side effect burden, overall tolerability, sexual side effects, dizziness and vision/hearing side effects. Two SNPs met our genome-wide significance criterion (q<0.1), ensuring that, on average, only 10% of significant findings are false discoveries. In total, 12 additional SNPs demonstrated suggestive associations (q<0.5). The top finding was rs17135437, an intronic SNP within EMID2, mediating the effects of citalopram on vision/hearing side effects (P=3.27 × 10(-8), q=0.026). The second genome-wide significant finding, representing a haplotype spanning ∼30 kb and eight genotyped SNPs in a gene desert on chromosome 13, was associated with general side effect burden (P=3.22 × 10(-7), q=0.096). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs at LAMA1, AOX2P, EGFLAM, FHIT and RTP2. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that potentially mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medications. PMID:22760553

  18. Assessing the Effectiveness and Side-Effects of Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. E.; Ridgwell, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    At present, the potential to decrease atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations by manipulating the carbon cycle (carbon geoengineering) is being considered as a fourth possible option for addressing anthropogenic climate change, alongside emissions reductions, adaptation and solar geoengineering. This study sets out to assess the effectiveness and potential side-effects of ocean alkalinity enhancement, or ';liming the ocean', as a means to slow the current increase in atmospheric CO2. In order to achieve this, an Earth system model (cGENIE) was used to run both individual simulations as well as a number of 934-member ensembles, to assess each surface ocean grid cell individually, for effectiveness and side-effects of ocean alkalinity enhancement. Effectiveness and side-effects were considered both temporally and spatially and under both steady-state scenarios (of 1x, 2x and 4x pre-industrial pCO2), and using RCP scenarios 4.5 and 8.5. Some consideration of the amount of lime potentially required to have a useful impact on atmospheric CO2 concentration and ocean acidification has also been carried out and compared to current mining capabilities, as an initial step towards considering the feasibility of such an intervention. This research aims to inform the emerging debate around geoengineering by providing an initial insight into where, when and how frequently lime could be used to most efficiently contribute to efforts to slow the rate of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, as well as insights into the caveats and side-effects that may accompany ocean alkalinity enhancement interventions.

  19. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells. PMID:26754772

  20. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  1. Effects of Small-Sided Games on Physical Conditioning and Performance in Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05). The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05) while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05). After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05), while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key points Three-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games. In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals

  2. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  3. Patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy: the influence of 5HT3 antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    de Boer-Dennert, M.; de Wit, R.; Schmitz, P. I.; Djontono, J.; v Beurden, V.; Stoter, G.; Verweij, J.

    1997-01-01

    In 1983, Coates conducted a survey that ranked the side-effects perceived by patients receiving chemotherapy in the order of their severity. Vomiting and nausea were found to be the two most distressing side-effects. They have an impact on quality of life and compliance with treatment. The development of 5HT3 antagonists has been a major step forward in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Presently, these antiemetics are routinely used as concomitant therapy in emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 5HT3 antagonists on patient perceptions of the side-effects of chemotherapy. Coates' survey was replicated in patients who received 5HT3 antagonists for acute nausea and vomiting resulting from emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients received the survey to identify those physical and non-physical side-effects that they attributed to chemotherapy and were asked to rank the five most distressing side-effects. Of the 197 patients who consented to take part in the study, 181 were evaluable. Nausea, hair loss and vomiting were described as the three most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy. Eighty per cent of all the patients actually experienced nausea and 57% experienced vomiting. Hair loss appeared to be more distressing to women (P < 0.001) but, in other aspects, gender, age and marital status did not influence the ranking of the three most distressing side-effects. Constipation was ranked as 6th and was not identified as a distressing side-effect in 1983. Nausea and vomiting remain to be the first and third most distressing side-effects of chemotherapy, even though the incidence and severity of acute nausea and vomiting are now significantly reduced. PMID:9376266

  4. Effects of topical erythromycin on ecology of aerobic cutaneous bacterial flora.

    PubMed Central

    Vowels, B R; Feingold, D S; Sloughfy, C; Foglia, A N; Konnikov, N; Ordoukhanian, E; Starkey, P; Leyden, J J

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated previously that application of topical erythromycin, an antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of acne, results in an increased density of cutaneous erythromycin-resistant (Emr) coagulase-negative staphylococci; however, it is unknown if this increase results in an overall higher density of total cutaneous staphylococci or if upon cessation of erythromycin use, Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci remain at an increased density compared with the pretreatment density. To investigate this, 2% erythromycin or vehicle was applied to each subject's forehead (n = 225) twice a day by laboratory personnel for a period of 6 weeks. Samples were obtained for culture from the forehead, anterior nares, and back of the subjects at baseline and at weeks 6, 9, and 12 of the study. Cultures were performed on differential media. Plates into which erythromycin was incorporated (8 micrograms/ml) were used to identify Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci. The species of all Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci were determined, and an antibiogram for 16 antibiotics was obtained. The baseline prevalence of Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci on the forehead and nose was about 80% at the two study sites, whereas that on the back was 50%. The baseline density of Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci on the forehead, nose, and back was approximately 20% of the total flora. Following 6 weeks of erythromycin treatment, the prevalence of Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci on the forehead and nose was nearly 100% and the densities were 73 and 62%, respectively; the prevalence and density for the back were 78 and 42%, respectively. The most prevalent erythromycin resistance gene expressed by the Emr coagulase-negative staphylococci was ermC. There was no increase in the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative rods, or yeasts, nor was there increased resistance to any other antibiotic except clindamycin. The density of total aerobic organisms also remained

  5. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-01-01

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433

  6. Correlation between Serum Level of Antiepileptic Drugs and their Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Abbashar; Abdulgalil, Amira; Omer, Faroug; Eltoum, Hassan; Hamad, Ahmed; El-Adil, Omer; Mubarak, Bedraldin; Malkaldar, Mohmad; Idris, Iway; Alwidaa, Yasin; Mahmoud, Esam

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study is to investigate the relation between serum levels of anticonvulsants and their side effects. Methods This is a prospective cross sectional hospital based study conducted at Al Shaab Teaching Hospital. 120 patients were included in the study. The AEDs used were phenytoin, phenobarbitone, carbamazibine, and sodium valproate. Results The results showed that the side effects among the studied group were not uncommon. Conclusion There was no relationship between serum levels of AEDs and their side effects. PMID:22125692

  7. Anti-prostglandin therapy in prevention of side-effects of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Siljander, M

    1978-08-19

    The efficacy of an anti-prostaglandin, tolfenamic acid (T.A.), in the prevention of side-effects after insertion of a copper-T200 intrauterine contraceptive device (I.U.D.) was evaluated in a double-blind trial in 160 women. T.A. relieved pain and reduced bleeding after insertion and during three subsequent menstruations without serious side-effects. A scoring system for the assessment of I.U.D. side-effects showed that the acceptability of I.U.D. was significantly better in women treated with T.A. than in those given placebo. PMID:79760

  8. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect.

    PubMed

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-05-31

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433

  9. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis. PMID:24629691

  10. Antimalarials in dermatology: mechanism of action, indications, and side effects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Caruncho, C; Bielsa Marsol, I

    2014-04-01

    Antimalarial drugs have been in common use in dermatology since the 1950s. Their mechanism of action is complex, and it is now known that they act through various pathways. We review the indications for antimalarials in dermatology, their adverse effects, and some less well-known effects, such as their antithrombotic and hypolipidemic action. The most recent recommendations concerning ophthalmological screening in patients on antimalarials are also reviewed. PMID:24656224

  11. An unusual side effect of isotretinoin: retinoid dermatitis affecting external urethral meatus.

    PubMed

    Alli, Nuran; Yorulmaz, Ahu

    2015-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Iso) is the most effective drug against severe nodulocystic acne. As a synthetic oral retinoid, Iso exerts its actions by modulating cell growth and differentiation. Targeting all the pathophysiologic processes in acne development, Iso has been considered to be an unique drug, however it has several side effects. While chelitis, xerosis, ocular sicca, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, hyperlipidemia are the most common side effects, teratogenicity and depressive symptoms are the most concerning ones. In addition, Iso has unusual side effects which have been described for the first time in the literature. Here, we report a remarkable side effect of Iso in a 23-years-old male patient with retinoid dermatitis affecting the external uretral meatus. To our knowledge, only few cases of retinoid dermatitis in the urethral mucosa due to Iso have been reported in the literature so far. PMID:24964168

  12. Management of cutaneous erythrasma.

    PubMed

    Holdiness, Mack R

    2002-01-01

    Corynebacterium minutissimum is the bacteria that leads to cutaneous eruptions of erythrasma and is the most common cause of interdigital foot infections. It is found mostly in occluded intertriginous areas such as the axillae, inframammary areas, interspaces of the toes, intergluteal and crural folds, and is more common in individuals with diabetes mellitus than other clinical patients. This organism can be isolated from a cutaneous site along with a concurrent dermatophyte or Candida albicans infection. The differential diagnosis of erythrasma includes psoriasis, dermatophytosis, candidiasis and intertrigo, and methods for differentiating include Wood's light examination and bacterial and mycological cultures. Erythromycin 250mg four times daily for 14 days is the treatment of choice and other antibacterials include tetracycline and chloramphenicol; however, the use of chloramphenicol is limited by bone marrow suppression potentially leading to neutropenia, agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia. Further studies are needed but clarithromycin may be an additional drug for use in the future. Where there is therapeutic failure or intertriginous involvement, topical solutions such as clindamycin, Whitfield's ointment, sodium fusidate ointment and antibacterial soaps may be required for both treatment and prophylaxis. Limited studies on the efficacy of these medications exist, however, systemic erythromycin demonstrates cure rates as high as 100%. Compared with tetracyclines, systemic erythromycin has greater efficacy in patients with involvement of the axillae and groin, and similar efficacy for interdigital infections. Whitfield's ointment has equal efficacy to systemic erythromycin in the axillae and groin, but shows greater efficacy in the interdigital areas and is comparable with 2% sodium fusidate ointment for treatment of all areas. Adverse drug effects and potential drug interactions need to be considered. No cost-effectiveness data are available but there are

  13. Cutaneous reactions to vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Adena E; Stein, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations are important for infectious disease prevention; however, there are adverse effects of vaccines, many of which are cutaneous. Some of these reactions are due to nonspecific inflammation and irritation at the injection site, whereas other reactions are directly related to the live attenuated virus. Rarely, vaccinations have been associated with generalized hypersensitivity reactions, such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. The onset of certain inflammatory dermatologic conditions, such as lichen planus, granuloma annulare, and pemphigoid, were reported to occur shortly after vaccine administration. Allergic contact dermatitis can develop at the injection site, typically due to adjuvant ingredients in the vaccine, such as thimerosal and aluminum. Vaccinations are important to promote development of both individual and herd immunity. Although most vaccinations are considered relatively safe, there may be adverse effects associated with any vaccine. Cutaneous manifestations make up a large portion of the types of reactions associated with vaccines. There are many different reasons for the development of a cutaneous reaction to a vaccination. Some are directly related to the injection of a live attenuated virus, such as varicella or vaccinia (for immunity to smallpox), whereas others cause more nonspecific erythema and swelling at the injection site, as a result of local inflammation or irritation. Vaccinations have also been associated in rare reports with generalized hypersensitivity reactions, such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. There have been case reports associating the administration of a vaccine with the new onset of a dermatologic condition, such as lichen planus, granuloma annulare, and Sweet syndrome. Finally, allergic contact

  14. [Side effects in aesthetic medicine. Spectrum, management and avoidance].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Goldman, A; Naoum, C

    2013-03-01

    Aesthetic medicine has become increasingly popular in the last two decades. The same trend has occurred in dermatology. Aesthetic dermatology prefers minimally invasive procedures. Nevertheless, even these procedures are not free of possible adverse effects. The spectrum of possible adverse effects, their management and prevention are discussed for four popular procedures in aesthetic dermatology, i.e. chemical peels, mesotherapy, botulinum toxin, and dermal fillers. Aesthetic procedures should only be performed by well-educated, well-trained medical doctors with an excellent medical background, never by lay persons. PMID:23430168

  15. Pharmacological profiles of high-concentration (20 microg/g) tacalcitol ointment: effects on cutaneous inflammation, epidermal proliferation, and differentiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroaki; Ogino, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hideko; Hata, Junko; Asano, Satoshi; Ohta, Tomohiro; Komoriya, Keiji

    2003-07-01

    This study focused on the effects of tacalcitol (1,24 (R) (OH)2D3, TV-02) ointment (20 micro g/g) on cutaneous inflammation, epidermal proliferation, and differentiation and compared them with tacalcitol ointment (2 micro g/g) and other anti-psoriatic ointments using hairless mice. Tacalcitol ointment (0, 2 and 20 micro g/g) significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced cutaneous inflammation, histopathologically. The effect of tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) on cutaneous inflammation was much stronger than that of tacalcitol ointment (0, 2 micro g/g), and as effective as calcipotriol ointment (50 micro g/g) or betamethasone valerate ointment (1.2 mg/g). Tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) also significantly inhibited TPA-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as effectively as calcipotriol ointment (50 micro g/g) or betamethasone valerate ointment (1.2 mg/g). The effect of tacalcitol ointment on epidermal proliferation [ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity] and differentiation [transglutaminase (TGase) activity] was dose-dependent from 0 micro g/g to 20 micro g/g. The effect of tacalcitol ointments on epidermal proliferation was significant at the doses of 2 micro g/g and 20 micro g/g, and that on epidermal differentiation was significant at the doses of 0.2 micro g/g or more. The effect of tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) on epidermal differentiation was significantly stronger than tacalcitol ointment (2 micro g/g). In this study, tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) was found to have a marked effect on cutaneous inflammation and improved effect on epidermal differentiation, although tacalcitol ointment (2 micro g/g) also had significant effects on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. These findings support the clinical effectiveness of tacalcitol ointment (20 micro g/g) against psoriasis. PMID:12928540

  16. UPDATE IN THE TREATMENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Sahar H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still a major health problem in many countries including Saudi Arabia. Patients with CL are seen, not only by dermatologists, but also by pediatricians and community physicians. Knowledge of available treatment options is essential. Design: A literature review utilizing PubMed and Cochrane evidence-based library was undertaken in the last five years. Results: Several medications and therapeutic modalities are currently in use, though the gold standard remains systemic antimonials. Drug resistance and serious side effects preclude the use of available medications. Newer therapies like liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine and pentamidine are being used; while it is hoped that other drugs like imiquimod, tamoxifen, PDT and pentamidine structural analogs being tested would offer better efficacy, easier administration and lower toxicity. Conclusion: After decades of little advance in the treatment of leishmaniasis, there are now several options with newer compounds and combinations of these. PMID:23012189

  17. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin". PMID:26887117

  18. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment. PMID:24270203

  19. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. PMID:25293550

  20. Long-term thalidomide use in refractory cutaneous lesions of lupus erythematosus: a 65 series of Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Coelho, A; Souto, M I D; Cardoso, C R L; Salgado, D R; Schmal, T R; Waddington Cruz, M; de Souza Papi, J A

    2005-01-01

    Thalidomide has been reported as efficacious in refractory cutaneous lupus erythematosus (LE). The most fearful side-effects are teratogenicity and neuropathy. We reported clinical efficacy of long-term low-dose use of thalidomide in 65 patients with LE, emphasizing the prevalence of adverse effects, especially of neuropathy and its related factors. Data obtained from medical records included age, sex, disease duration, and the presence of diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the extent and activity of cutaneous lesions and previous treatments. Sixty-three patients (98.9%) presented complete or partial improvement with thalidomide therapy. Drowsiness occurred in 50 patients (77%). Twenty-eight patients (43.2%) presented neuropathy symptoms. Nerve conduction studies were done in 21 (75%) of them and were abnormal in 12 (57%). With the interruption of thalidomide, 24 (82.5%) had complete or partial improvement of neuropathy symptoms and 23 (82%) of them had cutaneous relapse. There were no significant differences between those who developed or not neuropathy in treatment duration, age, total dose and systemic versus cutaneous LE. In conclusion, thalidomide can be used in refractory cutaneous LE with great efficacy and relative security. Controlled studies with schemes with lower doses or intermittent usage or alternative drugs are wanted to reduce the burden of cutaneous morbidity of lupus erythematosus. PMID:16038106

  1. A review of trials investigating efavirenz-induced neuropsychiatric side effects and the implications.

    PubMed

    Gaida, Razia; Truter, Ilse; Grobler, Christoffel; Kotze, Theunis; Godman, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Efavirenz is part of the first-line treatment for HIV patients including those in South Africa with approximately 50% experiencing neuropsychiatric side effects. A systematic review of papers reporting neuropsychiatric side effects with efavirenz published between January 2001 and December 2014 was performed, to provide guidance. 13 articles were reviewed. Patient ages ranged between 37 to 41 years, with a high percentage males. Scales used to measure incidence and severity of side effects were varied; with disease severity or stage not reported. Patients with psychoses were excluded. Most commonly reported side effects were a reduction in sleep quality, depression, dizziness and anxiety. These were generally mild and not warranting discontinuation of efavirenz. It is difficult to directly compare the studies. Standardised methods need to be introduced and all patient groups represented including the elderly, children, patients with active symptomatic illness and more women especially among the African population. PMID:26900637

  2. A second international co-operative investigation into thioacetazone side-effects*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Ferguson, G. C.; Fox, Wallace; Tall, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international, co-operative investigation into the side-effects produced by thioacetazone employed in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of a supplement incorporating vitamins and an antihistamine as a prophylactic. Over a 12-week period of treatment, the additive supplement failed to reduce the over-all frequency of side-effects or the frequency of side-effects leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment. There was also no evidence that the more serious side-effects, particularly rashes, jaundice and agranulocytosis, were reduced by the additives, although the occurrence of vomiting, which was however infrequent, was reduced. In view of this lack of appreciable benefit, as well as the higher cost and impaired keeping properties of tablets containing thioacetazone plus isoniazid when the supplement is added, the use of the supplement as a prophylactic cannot be recommended. PMID:4098113

  3. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children. PMID:26107755

  4. Nasal Symptoms After Radioiodine Therapy: A Rarely Described Side Effect with Similar Frequency to Lacrimal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Salivary and lacrimal side effects of radioiodine therapy have been carefully described. However, nasal side effects are rarely described. The objective of this study was to document the frequency of nasal side effects in comparison to the already well-documented lacrimal side effects and to determine contributing risk factors. Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of 807 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who received care at an academic medical center was conducted. Four hundred eleven patients who received treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) were identified and included in the analysis. The frequency of both nasal and lacrimal side effects was ascertained. Factors that may have contributed to patients sustaining nasal damage after RAI therapy were also documented. These factors included radioactive iodine dose, method of preparation for receiving RAI therapy, and patient characteristics. Results: The mean dose of RAI administered was 109 mCi. Forty-three patients (10.5%) and 40 patients (9.7%) developed nasal and lacrimal side effects, respectively, following RAI treatment. The mean time of onset of nasal symptoms was 11 days, compared with 10 months for lacrimal symptoms. Radioiodine dose and body mass index were significantly positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with sustaining nasal side effects (p values of 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Similarly, both RAI dose and body mass index were significantly correlated, positively and negatively, respectively, with sustaining lacrimal side effects (p values of 0.02 and 0.01). Preparation for treatment using a withdrawal protocol was associated with increased risk of both nasal and lacrimal side effects, compared with a recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) protocol (p values of <0.01 and 0.01). The odds ratios (95% confidence interval [CI]) for nasal and lacrimal side effects with recombinant rhTSH preparation were 0.22 [0.11–0.44] and 0.37 [0.18–0

  5. Intrauterine contraceptives: a review of uses, side effects, and candidates.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Noa'a

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the two intrauterine devices (IUDs) available in the United States: the TCu380A, marketed as ParaGard (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Pomona, NY), and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), marketed as Mirena (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wayne, NJ). The properties of the two devices are detailed, as well as noncontraceptive indications and appropriate candidates for use. Studies consistently demonstrate that the devices are safe, effective, and provide cost savings when compared with other reversible methods. The TCu380A may be used as postcoital contraception with close to 100% effectiveness. Menstrual blood loss is likely to increase with the TCu380A and decrease with the LNG-IUS. Reduction in menstrual blood loss and endometrial suppression make the LNG-IUS an increasingly popular treatment for menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and as an adjunct to estrogen therapy. IUDs may be inserted immediately after a first- or second-trimester abortion, immediately postpartum, and >or=4 weeks postpartum. Candidacy for IUDs has expanded, and includes nulliparous women, adolescents, and women with immunocompromised conditions including HIV. PMID:20352561

  6. The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Pesaresi, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood. We provide evidence that the effects and mechanisms underlying their actions are still confusing due to the use of different estrogens and progestins as well as different doses, duration of exposure, route of administration, baseline hormonal status and age of treated women. We also discuss the emerging issue concerning the relevant increase of these substances in the environment, able to deeply affect aquatic wildlife as well as to exert a possible influence in humans, which may be exposed to these compounds via contaminated drinking water and seafood. Finally, we report literature data showing the neurobiological action of progestins and in particular their importance during neurodegenerative events. This is extremely interesting, since some of the progestins currently used in clinical practice exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the nervous system, opening new promising opportunities for the use of these molecules as therapeutic agents for trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27339142

  7. Effect of acute systemic hypoxia on human cutaneous microcirculation and endothelial, sympathetic and myogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Paparde, Artūrs; Plakane, Līga; Circenis, Kristaps; Aivars, Juris Imants

    2015-11-01

    The regulation of cutaneous vascular tone impacts vascular vasomotion and blood volume distribution as a challenge to hypoxia, but the regulatory mechanisms yet remain poorly understood. A skin has a very compliant circulation, an increase in skin blood flow results in large peripheral displacement of blood volume, which could be controlled by local and systemic regulatory factors. The aim of this study was to determine the acute systemic hypoxia influence on blood flow in skin, local regulatory mechanism fluctuations and changes of systemic hemodynamic parameters. Healthy subjects (n=11; 24.9±3.7years old) participated in this study and procedures were performed in siting position. After 20min of acclimatization 15min of basal resting period in normoxia (pO2=21%) was recorded, followed by 20min in acute systemic hypoxia (pO2=12%), and after 15min of recovery period in normoxia (pO2=21%). HRV was used to evaluate autonomic nervous system activity to heart from systemic hemodynamic parameters which continuously evaluated cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and mean arterial blood pressure. Regional blood flow was evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography and skin blood flow by laser-Doppler flowmetry. To evaluate local factor influences to cutaneous circulation wavelet analysis was used; fluctuations in the frequency intervals of 0.0095-0.021, 0.021-0.052, and 0.052-0.145Hz correspondingly represent endothelial, sympathetic, and myogenic activities. Our results from HRV data suggest that acute systemic hypoxia causes statistically significant increase of sympathetic (LF/HF; N1=0.46±0.25 vs. H=0.67±0.36; P=0.027) and decrease of parasympathetic (RMSSD; 80.0±43.1 vs. H=69.9±40.4, ms; P=0.009) outflow to heart. Acute hypoxia causes statistically significant increase of heart rate (RR interval; N1=960.3±174.5 vs. H=864.7±134.6, ms; P=0.001) and cardiac output (CO; N1=5.4 (5.2; 7.9) vs. H=6.7±1.4, l/min; P=0.020). Regional blood flow and vascular

  8. Effect of hypohydration on hyperthermic hyperpnea and cutaneous vasodilation during exercise in men.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Honda, Yasushi; Hayashi, Keiji; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, in humans, hypohydration attenuates hyperthermic hyperpnea during exercise in the heat. On two separate occasions, thirteen male subjects performed a fluid replacement (FR) and a no-fluid replacement (NFR) trial in random order. The subjects performed two bouts of cycle exercise (Ex1 and Ex2, 30-60 min) at 50% peak oxygen uptake (Vo2 peak) in 35 degrees C separated by a 70- to 80-min rest period, during which they drank water containing 25 mosmol/l sodium in the FR trial but not the NFR trial. The drinking in the FR trial nearly restored the body fluid to the euhydrated condition, so that the body fluid status differed between the trials before Ex2 (the difference in plasma osmolality before Ex2 was 9.4 mosmol/kgH2O; plasma volume was 7.6%, and body weight was 2.5%). The slopes of the linear relationships between ventilatory variables (minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalents for oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, and end-tidal CO2 pressure) and esophageal temperature (Tes) did not significantly differ between Ex1 and Ex2, or between the FR and NFR trials. On the other hand, during Ex2 in the NFR trial, the Tes threshold for the onset of increased forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was higher, and the slope and peak values of the relationship between FVC and Tes were lower than during Ex1 in the NFR trial and during Ex2 in the FR trial. These findings suggest that hypohydration does not affect the hyperthermic hyperpnea during exercise, although it markedly attenuates the cutaneous vasodilatory response. PMID:18787094

  9. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Gary J.; Johnson, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography. Data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure). Pharmacological agents were administered via intradermal microdialysis. We prepared four skin sites: one site was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 34°C (32 ± 10%CVCmax) one site was heated to 39°C (38 ± 11%CVCmax); and two sites were cooled, one to 29°C (22 ± 7%CVCmax) and the other 24°C (16 ± 4%CVCmax). After 20 min at these temperatures to allow stabilization of skin blood flow, isoproterenol was perfused in concentrations of 10, 30, 100, and 300 μM. Each concentration was perfused for 15 min. Relative to the CVC responses to isoproterenol at the thermoneutral skin temperature (34°C) (+21 ± 10%max), low skin temperatures reduced (at 29°C) (+17 ± 6%max) or abolished (at 24°C) (+1 ± 5%max) the vasodilator response, and warm (39°C) skin temperatures enhanced the vasodilator response (+40 ± 9%max) to isoproterenol. These data indicate that β-adrenergic function was influenced by local skin temperature. This finding raises the possibility that a part of the vasoconstrictor response to direct skin cooling could include reduced background β-receptor mediated vasodilation. PMID:25701007

  10. Elevated eating disorder symptoms in women with a history of oral contraceptive side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jessica L; Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2011-08-01

    Previous research suggests a link between gonadal hormones and eating disorder symptomatology. This study examined the role of gonadal hormones and hormonal sensitivity in eating disorder (ED) symptoms by using oral contraceptive (OC) side effect history as an indicator of hormonal sensitivity. A questionnaire containing two scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and an OC side effect scale was completed by 174 healthy women who had used OCs. Histories of emotional and physical OC side effects were evaluated as predictors of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Women with a history of negative OC side effects had higher levels of ED symptoms. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and depression scores, OC side effect history remained a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. The experience of OC side effects may indicate a greater risk for increased eating disorder symptoms. The findings provide further support for a hormonal link to ED symptoms, as women who are more "sensitive" to exogenous gonadal hormones also experience more ED symptoms. PMID:21725835

  11. Evaluation of antimotion sickness drug side effects on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.

  12. Switching effect of the side chain on quantum walks on triple graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Mu; Lu, Li-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We consider a continuous-time quantum walk on a triple graph and investigate the influence of the side chain on propagation in the main chain. Calculating the interchange of the probabilities between the two parts of the main chain, we find that a switching effect appears if there is an odd number of points in the side chain when concrete conditions between the length of the main chain and the position of the side chain are satisfied. However, such an effect does not occur if there is an even number of points in the side chain. We also suggest two proposals for experiments to demonstrate this effect, which may be employed to design a new type of switching device.

  13. Cutaneous abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis compared with non‐inflammatory rheumatic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, K M J; Ladoyanni, E; Treharne, G J; Hale, E D; Erb, N; Kitas, G D

    2006-01-01

    Background Cutaneous abnormalities are common in rheumatoid arthritis, but exact prevalence estimates are yet to be established. Some abnormalities may be independent and coincidental, whereas others may relate to rheumatoid arthritis or its treatment. Objectives To determine the exact nature and point prevalence of cutaneous abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with those in patients with non‐inflammatory rheumatic disease. Methods 349 consecutive outpatients for rheumatology (205 with rheumatoid arthritis and 144 with non‐inflammatory rheumatic conditions) were examined for skin and nail signs by a dermatologist. Histories of rheumatology, dermatology, drugs and allergy were noted in detail. Results Skin abnormalities were reported by more patients with rheumatoid arthritis (61%) than non‐inflammatory controls (47%). More patients with rheumatoid arthritis (39%) than controls (10%) attributed their skin abnormality to drugs. Cutaneous abnormalities observed by the dermatologist were also more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (76%) than in the group with non‐inflammatory disease (60%). Specifically, bruising, athlete's foot, scars, rheumatoid nodules and vasculitic lesions were more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in controls. The presence of bruising was predicted only by current steroid use. The presence of any other specific cutaneous abnormalities was not predicted by any of the variables assessed. In the whole group, current steroid use and having rheumatoid arthritis were the only important predictors of having any cutaneous abnormality. Conclusions Self‐reported and observed cutaneous abnormalities are more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in controls with non‐inflammatory disease. These include cutaneous abnormalities related to side effects of drugs or to rheumatoid arthritis itself and other abnormalities previously believed to be independent but which may be of clinical

  14. Cardiac Side-effects From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C W; Kirby, A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy. When it is known, this risk can then be compared with the absolute benefit of the radiotherapy. At present, many UK cancer centres are already giving radiotherapy with mean heart doses of less than 3 Gy and for most women the benefits of the radiotherapy will probably far outweigh the risks. Technical approaches to minimising heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy include optimisation of beam angles, use of multileaf collimator shielding, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, treatment in a prone position, treatment in deep inspiration (including the use of breath-hold and gating techniques), proton therapy and partial breast irradiation. The multileaf collimator is suitable for many women with upper pole left breast cancers, but for women with central or lower pole cancers, breath-holding techniques are now recommended in national UK guidelines. Ongoing work aims to identify ways of irradiating pan-regional lymph nodes that are effective, involve minimal exposure of organs at risk and are feasible to plan, deliver and verify. These will probably include wide tangent-based field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy or arc radiotherapy techniques in combination with deep inspiratory breath-hold, and proton beam irradiation for women who have a high predicted heart dose from intensity-modulated radiotherapy. PMID:26133462

  15. Central nervous system toxicity associated with liposomal amphotericin B therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Jessie S; Murray, Clinton K

    2011-04-01

    AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) is used for prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections, treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and more recently, treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Although the package insert cites neurologic toxicities in up to 20% of cases, review of the literature did not reveal any specific cases describing this side effect, particularly in a patient without comorbidities. We describe a healthy 38-year-old male treated with liposomal amphotericin B for cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired during military duties in Iraq. Shortly after completion of his treatment course, he reported memory difficulties and confusion. Further evaluation revealed no other source, and his cognitive issues were attributed to liposomal amphotericin B toxicity. These issues resolved over a few weeks, which is consistent with data about the drug's tissue penetration and metabolism available in the literature. This is a potential side effect of liposomal amphotericin B that can be observed in otherwise healthy patients. PMID:21460011

  16. [Recording of possible side effects in the Bureau for Side Effects of Drugs and research activities in 1992].

    PubMed

    Stricker, B H; Ottervanger, J P

    1993-08-28

    In 1992, the Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Adverse Reactions to Drugs received 1248 reports of suspected adverse reactions. The most important reports concerned chest pain to sumatriptan, cholestatic hepatitis to itraconazole and taste loss to terbinafine. Other important reports pertained to confusion and hallucinations in children on deptropine, postasphyctic encephalopathy of a newborn after intrapartum administration of nalbuphine, torsades de pointes to terodiline, fever to neuroleptics, muscle necrosis to intramuscular administration of diclofenac, gout during use of acetylsalicylic acid, psychic effects of vigabatrine and sudden death during fluorescence angiography. It is the policy of the Netherlands centre to publish as many relevant reports as possible in order to facilitate medical practitioners to adapt their pharmacotherapeutic choice. In close collaboration with several universities, the Netherlands centre currently develops systems and methods for postmarketing surveillance. PMID:8371825

  17. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  18. ADVERSE CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTION

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti

    2008-01-01

    In everyday clinical practice, almost all physicians come across many instances of suspected adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR) in different forms. Although such cutaneous reactions are common, comprehensive information regarding their incidence, severity and ultimate health effects are often not available as many cases go unreported. It is also a fact that in the present world, almost everyday a new drug enters market; therefore, a chance of a new drug reaction manifesting somewhere in some form in any corner of world is unknown or unreported. Although many a times, presentation is too trivial and benign, the early identification of the condition and identifying the culprit drug and omit it at earliest holds the keystone in management and prevention of a more severe drug rash. Therefore, not only the dermatologists, but all practicing physicians should be familiar with these conditions to diagnose them early and to be prepared to handle them adequately. However, we all know it is most challenging and practically difficult when patient is on multiple medicines because of myriad clinical symptoms, poorly understood multiple mechanisms of drug-host interaction, relative paucity of laboratory testing that is available for any definitive and confirmatory drug-specific testing. Therefore, in practice, the diagnosis of ACDR is purely based on clinical judgment. In this discussion, we will be primarily focusing on pathomechanism and approach to reach a diagnosis, which is the vital pillar to manage any case of ACDR. PMID:19967009

  19. Occupant kinematics and estimated effectiveness of side airbags in pole side impacts using a human FE model with internal organs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeki; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Kitagawa, Yuichi

    2008-11-01

    When a car collides against a pole-like obstacle, the deformation pattern of the vehicle body-side tends to extend to its upper region. A possible consequence is an increase of loading to the occupant thorax. Many studies have been conducted to understand human thoracic responses to lateral loading, and injury criteria have been developed based on the results. However, injury mechanisms, especially those of internal organs, are not well understood. A human body FE model was used in this study to simulate occupant kinematics in a pole side impact. Internal organ parts were introduced into the torso model, including their geometric features, material properties and connections with other tissues. The mechanical responses of the model were validated against PMHS data in the literature. Although injury criterion for each organ has not been established, pressure level and its changes can be estimated from the organ models. Finite element simulations were conducted assuming a case where a passenger vehicle collides against a pole at 29km/h. Occupant kinematics, force-deformation responses and pressure levels were compared between cases with and without side airbag deployment. The results indicated that strain to the ribs and pressure to the organs was smaller with side airbag deployment. The side airbag widened the contact area at the torso, helping to distribute the force to the shoulder, arm and chest. Such distributed force helped generate relatively smaller deformation in the ribs. Furthermore, the side airbag deployment helped restrict the spine displacement. The smaller displacement contributed to lowering the magnitude of contact force between the torso and the door. The study also examined the correlations between the pressure levels in the internal organs, rib deflection, and V*C of chest. The study found that the V*C(t) peak appeared to be synchronized with the organ pressure peak, suggesting that the pressure level of the internal organs could be one possible

  20. The effect of certain topical medications on healing of cutaneous wounds in the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A; Barker, I K; Allen, O B

    1988-01-01

    The effects of four topical medications on the rate and character of healing of cutaneous wounds were studied in six common garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) held at an ambient temperature of 30 degrees C. Two sets of five 6 to 8 mm round excisional wounds, four test and one control site in each set, were created on the dorsolateral body wall of each snake. Wounds were examined daily and treated for ten days, then the snakes were killed and sections of all wounds were examined by light microscopy. Composite scores, derived by ranking each treatment group in relation to the control group (control score = 0) for each of 22 characteristics associated with wound healing, were used to compare the overall effects of each treatment. Statistical comparisons were made between groups for 20 characteristics. Wounds treated with a polyurethane film merited a score of +12 and had significantly more advanced healing than untreated controls for three characteristics. Wounds treated with an ointment containing scarlet red scored +6 but healing was not significantly greater than controls. Wounds treated with an antibacterial spray powder and an antibacterial ointment healed more slowly than controls and had scores of -6 and -12 respectively. PMID:3349391

  1. The effect of alpha2-adrenergic receptors on cutaneous water evaporation in the rock pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Ophir, Eshel; Arieli, Yehuda; Marder, Jacob

    2004-12-01

    The role of beta-adrenergic receptors in regulating cutaneous water evaporation (CWE) in the rock pigeon (Columba livia) is well documented. Here, we studied the involvement of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors in this cooling mechanism of the heat-acclimated (HAc) pigeon. Systemic alpha2-adrenergic activation [clonidine, 50 microg kg(-1), intramuscular (i.m.)] was found to increase CWE in heat-acclimated pigeons at an ambient temperature (T(a)) of 25 degrees C. Subcutaneous administration of the drug had no significant effect. Preinjection of an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist (yohimbine, 10 mg kg(-1), i.m.) completely prevented clonidine-induced CWE and attenuated propranolol-induced CWE by 53%. Pretreatment with a beta-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol, 4 mg kg(-1), i.m.) abolished the effect of clonidine. None of the above treatments was found to elicit significant CWE in nonacclimated (NAc) pigeons. These findings, in addition to previously reported data, indicate a complex regulatory pathway of CWE in the heat-acclimated pigeon consisting of alpha2- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. The possible hierarchical pattern of these receptors is discussed. PMID:15596385

  2. Concerns about contraceptive side effects among young Latinas: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Melissa L; Warden, Meredith; Goldstein, Chava; Tapia, Beatriz

    2004-10-01

    To identify perceptions and attitudes about contraceptive side effects in young, low-income Latina adolescents through focus-group conversations. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with Latino females in an outpatient clinic and community setting. Qualitative methodology was used to analyze data. Participants were recruited from the outpatient gynecology clinic at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and from the Easter Seals Day Care Center. Women were recruited if they were Latino and between the ages of 18 and 26 years (N = 40). Participants cited both perceptions of side effects as well as personal experience with side effects as reasons for not using or discontinuing the use of contraception. Women also demonstrated incorrect knowledge about contraception, and tended to value anecdotal information over information from health professionals. These factors led to reliance on less-effective methods of contraception, placing participants at risk for unintended pregnancy. Concern about side effects, fear of health consequences and misinformation were identified as barriers to effective contraceptive use in young, low-income Latinas. Providers caring for this population should address potential concerns about side effects of contraception as well as assess patients' understanding in light of cultural and language barriers. PMID:15451334

  3. Enhancing effect of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on cutaneous penetration and activation of ethyl 4-biphenylyl acetate in hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Arima, H; Miyaji, T; Irie, T; Hirayama, F; Uekama, K

    1998-01-01

    The effect of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CyD) on the cutaneous penetration and activation of ethyl 4-biphenylyl acetate (EBA), a prodrug of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug 4-biphenylylacetic acid (BPAA), from hydrophilic ointment was investigated, using hairless mouse skin in vitro. When the hydrophilic ointment containing a complex of EBA with HP-beta-CyD was applied to the full-thickness skin, HP-beta-CyD facilitated the penetration of EBA into the skin, the conversion of EBA to BPAA in the epidermis and the transfer of BPAA to the receptor phase. Under the present condition, pre- and post-application of the ointment containing HP-beta-CyD onto the skin did not affect the cutaneous penetration of EBA and its activation. When the ointment containing the EBA:HP-beta-CyD complex was applied to the skin, the flux of BPAA through the tape-stripped skin was greater than that through the full-thickness skin, while the activation of the prodrug in the skin was slowed down by the tape-stripping. When propylene glycol was used as a vehicle, HP-beta-CyD no longer enhanced the cutaneous permeation of BPAA through the full-thickness skin. These results suggest that the enhancing effect of HP-beta-CyD on the cutaneous penetration of EBA would be ascribable largely to an increase in effective concentration of EBA in the ointment. Furthermore, the slow diffusion of EBA solubilized in HP-beta-CyD through the stratum corneum, together with the vehicle effect, could make the prodrug more susceptible to the metabolic process that is active in the epidermis, eventually leading to the facilitated activation of the prodrug. PMID:16256708

  4. Cutaneous metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Liu, Bai-Long; Liu, Bin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Qiang; Song, Yan-Qiu; Dong, Li-Hua

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of cutaneous metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma by a retrospective analysis of published cases. METHODS: An extensive search was conducted in the English literature within the PubMed database using the following keywords: cutaneous metastasis or skin metastasis and cholangiocarcinoma or bile duct. The data of 30 patients from 21 articles from 1978 to 2014 were analyzed. Patient data retrieved from the articles included the following: age, gender, time cutaneous metastasis occurred, number of cutaneous metastases throughout life, sites of initial cutaneous metastasis, anatomic site, pathology and differentiation of cholangiocarcinoma, and immunohistochemical results of the cutaneous metastasis. The assessment of overall survival after cutaneous metastasis (OSCM) was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma was 60.0 years (range: 35-77). This metastasis showed a predilection towards males, with a male to female ratio of 3.29. In 8 cases (27.6%), skin metastasis was the first sign of cholangiocarcinoma. Additionally, 18 cases (60.0%) manifested single cutaneous metastasis, while 12 cases (40.0%) demonstrated multiple skin metastases. In 50.0% of patients, the metastasis occurred in the drainage region, while 50.0% of patients had distant cutaneous metastases. The scalp was the most frequently involved region of distant skin metastasis, occurring in 36.7% of patients. The median OSCM of cholangiocarcinoma was 4.0 mo. Patient age and cutaneous metastatic sites showed no significant relation with OSCM, while male gender and single metastasis of the skin were associated with a poorer OSCM (hazard ratio: 0.168; P = 0.005, and hazard ratio: 0.296; P = 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSION: The prognosis of cutaneous metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma is dismal. Both male gender and single skin metastasis are associated with a poorer OSCM. PMID

  5. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    PubMed

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer. PMID:8994803

  6. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  7. A clinical communication tool for the assessment of psychotropic medication side effects.

    PubMed

    Ashoorian, Deena; Davidson, Rowan; Rock, Daniel; Dragovic, Milan; Clifford, Rhonda

    2015-12-15

    The primary aim was to assess usability of the My Medicines and Me Questionnaire (M3Q) as a self-reported questionnaire for mental health patients to subjectively express side effects experienced with their psychotropic medications. The secondary aim was to evaluate patients' attitudes towards treatment and psychotropic medications following dialogue with their clinicians about side effects. Questionnaires were administered at six adult mental health facilities. A total of 205 participants were divided into intervention (facilitated dialogue) and non-intervention groups (no facilitated dialogue). The mean completion time for the M3Q was 15min (SD=6.5) with only 11 (5%) patients requiring assistance. The most commonly reported side effect was sedation (77%) and weight gain was ranked as the most bothersome (23%). The previously validated M3Q provided patients with the opportunity to express the impact these effects had on their lives. Side effects were the most common reason given for non-adherence. There were no significant changes in patient attitudes towards treatment and medications in the intervention group, mainly due to the logistical challenges in the clinicians' ability to view the questionnaire for the subsequent meeting with the patient. The M3Q demonstrated its usability in allowing patients to easily express their subjective experiences with side effects. PMID:26518225

  8. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  9. [Hereditary cutaneous leiomyomatosis].

    PubMed

    Braun, S A; Hanneken, S; Reifenberger, J; Helbig, D; Frank, J

    2012-04-01

    The occurrence of multiple cutaneous leiomyomas can be indicative of hereditary cutaneous leiomyomatosis. This autosomal dominant disorder is due to germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Associations with uterine myomas and renal cell carcinomas have been described and are referred to as Multiple Cutaneous and Uterine Leiomyomas (MCUL) or Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC), respectively. A 34-year-old man presented with multiple red-brown papules and nodules. After histopathologic confirmation of piloleiomyomas, we made the diagnosis of hereditary cutaneous leiomyomatosis. Taking into consideration the aforementioned complications, close interdisciplinary management of these patients and regular screening examinations within affected families are mandatory. PMID:22456612

  10. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  11. Cutaneous bacterial species from Lithobates catesbeianus can inhibit pathogenic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

  12. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M.; Pan, Li; Isaac-Márquez, Angelica P.; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Isaac-Márquez, Ricardo; Pech-Dzib, MY; Barbi, Joseph; Calomeni, Edward; Parinandi, Narasimham; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) manifests as localized skin lesions, which lead to significant tissue destruction and disfigurement. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mayan traditional healers use Pentalinon andrieuxii Muell.-Arg. (Apocynaceae) roots for the topical treatment of CL. Here, we studied the effect of P. andrieuxii root hexane extract (PARE) on the parasites and host cells in vitro and examined its efficacy in the topical treatment of CL caused by L. mexicana. PARE exhibited potent antiparasitic activity in vitro against promastigotes as well as amastigotes residing in macrophages. Electron microscopy of PARE-treated parasites revealed direct membrane damage. PARE also activated NF-κB and enhanced IFN-γR and MHC class II expression and TNF-α production in macrophages. In addition, PARE induced production of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells as well as enhanced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86. In vivo studies showed that L. mexicana-infected mice treated by topical application of PARE resulted in the significant reduction in lesion size and parasite burden compared to controls. These findings indicate that PARE could be used as an alternative therapy for the topical treatment of CL. PMID:24347110

  13. Pentalinon andrieuxii root extract is effective in the topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania mexicana.

    PubMed

    Lezama-Dávila, Claudio M; Pan, Li; Isaac-Márquez, Angelica P; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Isaac-Márquez, Ricardo; Pech-Dzib, M Y; Barbi, Joseph; Calomeni, Edward; Parinandi, Narasimham; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) manifests as localized skin lesions, which lead to significant tissue destruction and disfigurement. In the Yucatan Peninsula, Mayan traditional healers use Pentalinon andrieuxii Muell.-Arg. (Apocynaceae) roots for the topical treatment of CL. Here, we studied the effect of P. andrieuxii root hexane extract (PARE) on the parasites and host cells in vitro and examined its efficacy in the topical treatment of CL caused by Leishmania mexicana. PARE exhibited potent antiparasitic activity in vitro against promastigotes as well as amastigotes residing in macrophages. Electron microscopy of PARE-treated parasites revealed direct membrane damage. PARE also activated nuclear factor kappaB and enhanced interferon-γ receptor and MHC class II expression and TNF-α production in macrophages. In addition, PARE induced production of the Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12 in dendritic cells as well as enhanced expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86. In vivo studies showed that L. mexicana-infected mice treated by topical application of PARE resulted in the significant reduction in lesion size and parasite burden compared to controls. These findings indicate that PARE could be used as an alternative therapy for the topical treatment of CL. PMID:24347110

  14. Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Emily S.; Cook, Richard I.; Render, Marta L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. In addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs). Design. Cross-sectional observational study of medication passes before (21 hours of observation of 7 nurses at 1 hospital) and after (60 hours of observation of 26 nurses at 3 hospitals) BCMA implementation. Measurements. Detailed, handwritten field notes of targeted ethnographic observations of in situ nurse–BCMA interactions were iteratively analyzed using process tracing and five conceptual frameworks. Results. Ethnographic observations distilled into 67 nurse–BCMA interactions were classified into 12 categories. We identified five negative side effects after BCMA implementation: (1) nurses confused by automated removal of medications by BCMA, (2) degraded coordination between nurses and physicians, (3) nurses dropping activities to reduce workload during busy periods, (4) increased prioritization of monitored activities during goal conflicts, and (5) decreased ability to deviate from routine sequences. Conclusion. These side effects might create new paths to ADEs. We recommend design revisions, modification of organizational policies, and “best practices” training that could potentially minimize or eliminate these side effects before they contribute to adverse outcomes. PMID:12223506

  15. Drug side-effect prediction based on the integration of chemical and biological spaces.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Pauwels, Edouard; Kotera, Masaaki

    2012-12-21

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern and remain one of the main causes of drug failure and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, the identification of potential severe side-effects is a challenging issue. In this paper, we develop a new method to predict potential side-effect profiles of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures and target protein information on a large scale. We propose several extensions of kernel regression model for multiple responses to deal with heterogeneous data sources. The originality lies in the integration of the chemical space of drug chemical structures and the biological space of drug target proteins in a unified framework. As a result, we demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method on the simultaneous prediction of 969 side-effects for approved drugs from their chemical substructure and target protein profiles and show that the prediction accuracy consistently improves owing to the proposed regression model and integration of chemical and biological information. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank and confirm interesting predictions using independent information sources. The proposed method is expected to be useful at many stages of the drug development process. PMID:23157436

  16. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a patient without narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Calvancanti, Paola Oliveira; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-03-01

    Narcolepsy is a disease in which there is diurnal excessive sleepiness with sleep attacks and a prevalence in the general population of 1/4000 individuals. Classically, it is characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and fragmented sleep. The use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy is the first option of treatment for diurnal excessive sleepiness. Although considered a safe drug for use in patients with narcolepsy, being utilized for more than 20 years, modafinil possesses a series of side effects, some of them still not fully researched or described. Side effects such as headache, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, lumbago, diarrhea, dyspepsia, rhinitis and vertigo are the most frequent. However, the clinical follow-up of patients under treatment with modafinil must be intensive and the side effects ought to be noted and evaluated. The under-response to treatment or the unexpected side effects must always be directed to differential diagnostics. The objective of this article is to describe an unexpected side effect of the use of modafinil in a patient with incorrect diagnosis of narcolepsy. PMID:26483900

  17. Pill side effects, continuation found similar whether self-prescribed or prescribed by doctor.

    PubMed

    1976-09-01

    In developing countries, especially Latin America, women obtain oral contraceptives without a physician's prescription. While these women experience more side effects, they have fewer accidental pregnancies than women who obtain the pills through a physician/prescription. A probability sample of 6692 Colombian women in Bogota were interviewed in 1974. Almost 1 in 20 of all women, and almost 1 in 13 of those married or living in a union, said they began using the pill on their own as their first method of contraception. The characteristics of the women without prescriptions were similar to those with, but self-prescribers were slightly older, had more children, and were less educated. 7 in 10 women of both groups continued pill use for 1 year; about 6 in 10 still used the pill after 2 years. Both groups gave side effects as their reason for discontinuation. The most frequently cited side effect was headache. None of the women reported the more serious complications, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism. Women who did not begin with medical advice were less likely to seek it when they had side effects attributed to the pill. Half as many self-prescribers (24%), as users with a prescription (46%), reported visiting a private physician about side effects. 11% self-prescribers, compared with 25%, sought other professional help. PMID:12299650

  18. Effects of rotational side preferences on immobile behavior of normal mice in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that side preferences in spontaneous rotational behavior are determinant of differences in vulnerability to the effects of the learned helplessness paradigm. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of side preferences of rotational behavior in another animal model of depression, the forced swimming test. Immobility was also investigated upon repeated testing sessions and in interaction with sex. Swiss mice (69 males and 73 females) were submitted to three sessions (test time = 5 min) of forced swimming. Immobile and turning behaviors were measured for each session and within each testing session. Consistency of laterality was defined considering the persistence of the same side turning preference in the three sessions. In general, there was an increase in immobility as test progressed and upon repeated testing sessions. Marked interindividual differences in mice immobile behavior were observed when consistency of laterality was considered. Consistent-right-turners presented greater immobility in the first session and better test-retest reliability, indicating that for this group, the adoption of immobile behavior was faster and more reliable over time. Immobility was higher for side-consistent males than for side-consistent females in the first session. This difference became even greater when consistent-right-turner males were compared to consistent-left-turner females. These results reinforce the idea that side preferences of spontaneous rotational behavior may account for interindividual differences in animal models of depression. PMID:11853109

  19. Treatment of Cutaneous Tumors with Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Sabrina Sisto; Sanches, Jose Antonio; de Oliveira, Walmar Roncalli; Messina, Maria Cristina; de Almeida Pimentel, Eugenio Raul; Neto, Cyro Festa

    2009-01-01

    , the overall cure rate was 73%. For these patients, the cure rates were 85.7% for superficial and nodular BCC, 88% for superficial BCC, 57% for Bowen’s disease, 50% for nodular BCC, and 50% for aggressive BCC. One SCC lesion demonstrated a complete response, and tumors caused by Paget’s disease and erythroplasia of Queyrat presented a partial response. None of the tumors considered as clinically cured recurred. Thirty-seven lesions demonstrated no response to imiquimod. Having a cutaneous comorbidity, high-risk tumors such as mixed aggressive BCC (sclerodermiform or micronodular), nodular BCC, or Bowen’s disease, and presenting no local reaction to imiquimod were considered as risk factors for a worse prognosis. We demonstrate that patients with no response to imiquimod, even when they demonstrated no local reaction, can undergo another cycle of six weeks of imiquimod treatment and show a complete response. The healing pattern led to good cosmetic outcomes, and the side effects were tolerable. CONCLUSIONS Our experience confirms imiquimod as an effective treatment option for several types of cutaneous tumors, especially in patients without the cutaneous comorbidities cited above and with low-risk tumors. Imiquimod has a relatively low cost compared to other therapeutic options and can be delivered via ambulatory care to patients with surgery contraindications, and its side effects are tolerable. PMID:19841702

  20. Exercise for the Management of Side Effects and Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Palesh, Oxana G.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Carroll, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the rehabilitation of cancer survivors during and following treatment. Current research suggests numerous beneficial outcomes are experienced in cancer survivors undergoing exercise interventions during or following cancer treatment. Exercise not only plays a role in managing side effects but also improves functional capacity and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the oncology literature supporting the use of exercise as an effective intervention for improving cancer-related fatigue, other side effects, functional capacity, and quality of life among cancer survivors. PMID:19904073

  1. Release of neuropeptides from a neuro-cutaneous co-culture model: A novel in vitro model for studying sensory effects of ciguatoxins.

    PubMed

    Le Garrec, Raphaele; L'herondelle, Killian; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Leschiera, Raphael; Buhe, Virginie; Talagas, Matthieu; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Misery, Laurent

    2016-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are the major toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, a disease dominated by muco-cutaneous sensory disorders including paresthesiae, cold dysesthesia and pruritus. While the ciguatoxins are well known to target voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), the ensuing molecular mechanisms underlying these sensory disorders remain poorly understood. In this study, we propose a primary sensory neuron-keratinocyte co-culture as an appropriate model to study the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins. Using this model, we show for the first time that nanomolar concentrations of Pacific ciguatoxin-2 (P-CTX-2) induced a VGSC-dependent release of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). As these neuropeptides are known mediators of pain and itch sensations, the ciguatoxin-induced sensory disturbances in ciguatera fish poisoning may involve the release of these neuropeptides. We further determined time- and P-CTX-2 concentration-dependence of the release of SP and CGRP from the co-culture model. Moreover, we highlighted the influence of extracellular calcium on the release of neuropeptides elicited by P-CTX-2. These findings underline the usefulness of this novel in vitro model for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the neuro-cutaneous effects of ciguatoxins, which may assist with identifying potential therapeutics for ciguatera fish poisoning. PMID:26562445

  2. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  3. Dual effects of protoporphyrin and long wave ultraviolet light on histamine release from rat peritoneal and cutaneous mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, A.; Gigli, I.; Barrett, K.E. )

    1990-06-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of long wave ultraviolet light (UVA) and various doses of protoporphyrin (PP) on the release of histamine from rat peritoneal and cutaneous mast cells. We also correlated these results with morphologic characteristics and viability of the cells. PP at a dose of 30 ng/ml plus UVA-induced negligible histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC), but was able to suppress the ability of the cells to release histamine in response to subsequent exposure to the calcium ionophore A23187, compound 48/80, or the combination of Ag and IgE. This functional change was associated with an increase in cell size, and cell lysis that gradually occurred during 24 h in culture. PP at a dose of 3 ng/ml plus UVA also significantly inhibited secretogogue-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, but this dose was not associated with significant changes in morphology or viability. These various effects of PP plus UVA were also observed with mast cell preparations obtained by the enzymatic dispersion of rat skin. The suppression of secretogogue-induced histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells treated with PP (3 ng/ml) and UVA could not be reversed by culturing the cells in the dark for 24 h in the absence of PP. Unlike the direct cytotoxic histamine releasing action of high doses of PP plus UVA, the suppressive effect of low PP doses could not be inhibited by catalase, but could be reduced by the absence of calcium. Our results indicate that PP plus UVA has dual effects on mast cells, apparently involving distinct mechanisms. This implies the possibility that PP and UVA at appropriate doses could be used in photochemotherapy of mast cell-mediated skin diseases.

  4. The effects and side effects of punishing the autistic behaviors of a deviant child1

    PubMed Central

    Risley, Todd R.

    1968-01-01

    Timeout procedures in the home and extinction and reinforcement of incompatible behaviors in the laboratory failed to eliminate the disruptive and dangerous climbing behavior of a deviant child. Punishment with electric shock was used to eliminate this behavior in the laboratory and then in the home. The effects were reversible and were restricted to specific stimulus conditions. A less severe form of punishment was used to eliminate the child's autistic rocking. Other behaviors of the subject were continuously measured in the laboratory to determine the side effects of punishment. No suppression of other behaviors correlated with punishment was noted. However, the rate of some behaviors increased when punishment was used to eliminate deviant behaviors, but these increases were, primarily, desirable. PMID:16795157

  5. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level <2.0nmol/L was considered a hypersensitive response. The neurobehavioral endpoints consisted of questionnaires regarding psychosocial and sleeping problems administered before and during the course of dexamethasone (6mg/m(2)), and dexamethasone trough levels were measured during dexamethasone treatment. Patients with a hypersensitive response to dexamethasone had more behavioral problems (N=11), sleeping problems, and/or somnolence (N=12) (P<0.05 for all three endpoints). The positive predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  6. Brain stem as a target site for the metabolic side effects of olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Imran J; Miyata, Kayoko; Zsombok, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder despite causing undesirable metabolic side effects. A variety of mechanisms and brain sites have been proposed as contributors to the side effects; however, the role of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), which plays a crucial role in the regulation of subdiaphragmatic organs and thus governs energy and glucose homeostasis, is largely unknown. Identifying the effect of olanzapine on the excitability of DMV neurons in both sexes is thus crucial to understanding possible underlying mechanisms. Whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings were conducted in stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons identified with retrograde viral tracers and in random DMV neurons. The effect of olanzapine on the neuronal excitability of DMV neurons both in male and female mice was established. Our data demonstrate that olanzapine hyperpolarizes the DMV neurons in both sexes and this effect is reversible. The hyperpolarization is associated with decreased firing rate and input resistance. Olanzapine also decreases the excitability of a subset of stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons. Our study demonstrates that olanzapine has a powerful effect on DMV neurons in both sexes, indicating its ability to reduce vagal output to the subdiaphragmatic organs, which likely contributes to the metabolic side effects observed in both humans and experimental models. These findings suggest that the metabolic side effects of olanzapine may partially originate in the DMV. PMID:26719086

  7. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  8. [Side effect management of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in urology : Fatigue and hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Sikic, D; Lüdecke, G; Lieb, V; Keck, B

    2016-05-01

    Not only has the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinomas (mRCC) changed the therapeutic options for this disease significantly, but with the occurrence of typical side effects this therapy also poses a challenge for the treating physician. Fatigue und hypothyroidism are two common side effects of TKI therapy that can often appear simultaneously. By reducing the patients' quality of life these side effects often lead to a discontinuation of therapy. With this review we want to give the treating physician an overview of the classification and the specific treatment of TKI-induced fatigue and hypothyroidism in order to maximize patients' compliance and the therapeutic efficacy of TKI therapy. PMID:27119958

  9. Unusual Side Effects of Interferon Beta-1a in Patient with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Maryam; Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof Mostafavi; Naderi, Nafiseh; Dehghan, Abolfazl; Azizi, Sanaz

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive case report of a 30-year-old man with massive epistaxis, echymosis on arms, abnormal CBC and increased plasma urea and creatinine level (i.e. above normal range). Probably, these are as side effects of interferon beta-1a injection. This is the first report according to our literature search (Pub Med, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge, ProQuest, MD consult, Science Direct, and SCOPUS) about interferon beta-1a related abnormal kidney function tests hereafter. Abnormal kidney function tests (i.e. increased plasma urea and creatinie level) is not a known as side effect of interferon beta-1a. This case indicates, likely potential for development of these side effects with this medication. PMID:23922529

  10. Radioprotective agents for the prevention of side effects induced by radioiodine-131 therapy.

    PubMed

    Noaparast, Zohreh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2013-08-01

    Radioiodine 131 ((131)I) has been used worldwide for the ablation of remnant thyroidal tissue after surgery or as the first-line treatment for Graves' disease. Although the use of (131)I is becoming increasingly prevalent, there is evidence suggesting that this treatment is associated with side effects such as salivary gland dysfunction and an increased risk of leukemia. This article aims to review the potential use of radioprotective agents and the side effects induced by (131)I therapy. Several synthetic and natural compounds have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. The protective agents reduced the toxicity of (131)I, mainly in the salivary glands, and mitigated the genetic damage through different mechanisms. There are limited clinical studies evaluating the use of radioprotective agents in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy. However, lemon candies, lemon juice and sugarless chewing gum have been proposed to be beneficial for minimizing the side effects of radioiodine within the salivary glands. PMID:23902246

  11. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-05-15

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research. PMID:24834140

  12. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-01-01

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research. PMID:24834140

  13. Knowledge of Psychiatric Nurses About the Potentially Lethal Side-Effects of Clozapine.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; De Beugher, Annelien; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U; Cohen, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment refractory patients, and has unique anti-suicidal properties and a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects. Despite these advantages, clozapine utilization is low. This can in part be explained by a number of potentially lethal side effects of clozapine. Next to psychiatrists nurses play a crucial role in the long-term management of patients with schizophrenia. It is therefore important that nurses know, inform and monitor patients about the specific side-effects of clozapine. A recent study of psychiatrists published in 2011 has shown that there was a gap in the knowledge about side-effects of clozapine. The knowledge about side-effects of clozapine in nurses has never been studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge base regarding the safety of clozapine, and its potential mediators, of psychiatric nurses in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Belgium with a specifically developed questionnaire based on the literature and expert opinion (3 clozapine experts). A total of 85 nurses completed the questionnaire. The mean total score was 6.1 of a potential maximum score of 18. Only 3 of the 18 multiple choice knowledge questions were answered correctly by more than 50% of nurses. Only 24.9% of participants passed the test (>50% correct answers). Nurses working on psychosis units were more likely to pass the test (xx.y% vs yy.z%, p=0.0124). There was a trend that nurses with a lower nursing diploma were more likely to fail the test (p=0.0561). Our study clearly identifies a large gap in the basic knowledge of psychiatric nurses about clozapine and its side-effects. Knowledge could be increased by more emphasis on the topic in nurse's training curricula as well as targeted onsite training. Only 23.5% of participants indicate that there was sufficient information in their basic nursing training. PMID:26804506

  14. Ciclesonide: A Pro-Soft Drug Approach for Mitigation of Side Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Derendorf, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are used as one of the first-line drug therapy in patients with asthma. However, their long-term use is associated with various oropharyngeal and systemic side and adverse effects. Design of pro-soft drug is one of the strategies, which was adopted in the design of ciclesonide for mitigation of side effects usually observed with the use of inhaled corticosteroids. Ciclesonide, a pro-soft drug, is converted to an active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide in the lungs. The anti-inflammatory effect of desisobutyryl-ciclesonide is much higher than ciclesonide, and therefore, the local effect of the metabolite is higher with lower systemic side effects. Ciclesonide has favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties as inhaled corticosteroid including low oral bioavailability, high plasma protein binding and rapid systemic clearance, high pulmonary deposition and distribution and long pulmonary residence duration. These advantageous properties make ciclesonide a very effective treatment option with low side effects. Various clinical studies support safety and efficacy of ciclesonide use in mild, moderate, and severe asthma patients. PMID:27339407

  15. Focused Study on the Quiet Side Effect in Dwellings Highly Exposed to Road Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Renterghem, Timothy Van; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-01-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high Lden-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade Lden). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers. PMID:23330222

  16. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  17. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  18. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G. S.; Singh, M. M.; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Ingle, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher's Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes. PMID:24616805

  19. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  20. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives. PMID:26535966

  1. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  2. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  3. Assessment of the effects of laser or LED photobiomodulation on hypothyroid rats of cutaneous wound healing: A morphometric study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Castro, Isabele Cardoso Vieira; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; dod Reis Júnior, João Alves; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Rodriguez, Tânia Tavares; Ramalho, Maria José Pedreira; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira

    2012-09-01

    Hypothyroid has been associated to a disruption of the body's metabolism, including the healing process. Laser and LED have been shown to be effective on improving healing in many situations, but their benefit in the improvement of healing on hypothyroidism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess, morphometrically, the influence of Laser (λ660nm, 24 J/cm2, 40mW, CW, spot output= 4mm2;) and LED (λ630nm ± 20, 24 J/cm2, 150mW, CW, spot output= 0.5 cm2) on the wound healing of rats with Hypothyroid. Under general anesthesia, a standard surgical wound (1cm2) was created on the dorsum of 72 male Wistar rats divided into 6 groups of 12 animals each: G1: Euthyroid; G2: Euthyroid + Laser; G3: Euthyroid + LED; G4: Hypothyroid; G5: Hypothyroid + Laser and G6: Hypothyroid + LED. Hypothyroidism was induced in rats with propylthiouracil (0.05g/100mL) administered orally for 4 weeks and maintained until the end of the experiment. Rats were irradiated after surgery each 48h then killed after 7 and 14 days. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. Hypothyroid rats with phototherapy laser or LED showed significant less wound contraction than euthyroid's rats at the 7th day (p<0.05). At the 14th day, the longitudinal measurement was significantly higher in euthyroids (control and irradiated with laser) when compared to the hypothyroid group (p <0.05). This study has shown that hypothyroidism delays wound healing and Laser and LED photobiomodulation using 24 J/cm2 per session improved cutaneous wound healing in hypothyroid rats.

  4. Effects of brief cutaneous JP-8 jet fuel exposures on time course of gene expression in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    McDougal, James N; Garrett, Carol M; Amato, Carol M; Berberich, Steven J

    2007-02-01

    The jet fuel jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) has been shown to cause an inflammatory response in the skin, which is characterized histologically by erythema, edema, and hyperplasia. Studies in laboratory animal skin and cultured keratinocytes have identified a variety of changes in protein levels related to inflammation, oxidative damage, apoptosis, and cellular growth. Most of these studies have focused on prolonged exposures and subsequent effects. In an attempt to understand the earliest responses of the skin to JP-8, we have investigated changes in gene expression in the epidermis for up to 8 h after a 1-h cutaneous exposure in rats. After exposure, we separated the epidermis from the rest of the skin with a cryotome and isolated total mRNA. Gene expression was studied with microarray techniques, and changes from sham treatments were analyzed and characterized. We found consistent twofold increases in gene expression of 27 transcripts at 1, 4, and 8 h after the beginning of the 1-h exposure that were related primarily to structural proteins, cell signaling, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, and enzymes. Analysis of pathways changed showed that several signaling pathways were increased at 1 h and that the most significant changes at 8 h were in metabolic pathways, many of which were downregulated. These results confirm and expand many of the previous molecular studies with JP-8. Based on the 1-h changes in gene expression, we hypothesize that the trigger of the JP-8-induced, epidermal stress response is a physical disruption of osmotic, oxidative, and membrane stability which activates gene expression in the signaling pathways and results in the inflammatory, apoptotic, and growth responses that have been previously identified. PMID:17085751

  5. Effect of vaccination with N-glycolyl GM3/VSSP vaccine by subcutaneous injection in patients with advanced cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Marta; Gracia, Elias; Reigosa, Edmundo; Hernandez, Julio; de la Torre, Ana; Saurez, Giselle; Perez, Kirenia; Viada, Carmen; Cepeda, Meylán; Carr, Adriana; Ávila, Yisel; Rodríguez, Migdalia; Fernandez, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    NeuGc-containing gangliosides have been described in melanoma cells and are an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy because they are minimally or not expressed in normal human tissues. Melanoma patients treated with a vaccine based on N-glycolyl gangliosides have shown benefit in progression free survival and overall survival. We conducted a multicenter Phase I/II clinical trial in patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma treated with the N-gycolyl GM3/very-small-size proteoliposomes vaccine by the subcutaneous route. Selecting the optimal biological dose of the vaccine was the principal objective based on immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety results. Six dose levels were studied and the treatment schedule consisted of five doses administered every 2 weeks and then monthly until 15 doses had been given. Dose levels evaluated were 150, 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 μg with five patients included in each dose level except the 900 μg dose (n = 10). Immunogenicity was determined by antibody titers generated in patients after vaccination. Antitumor effect was measured by response criteria of evaluation in solid tumors and safety was evaluated by common toxicity criteria of adverse events. The vaccine was safe and immunogenic at all doses levels. The most frequent adverse events related to vaccination were mild to moderate injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Vaccination induced specific anti-NeuGcGM3 immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody responses in all patients. Disease control (objective response or stable disease) was obtained in 38.46% of patients. Global median overall survival was 20.20 months. Two patients achieved overall survival duration of about 4 and 5 years, respectively. The 900 μg dose resulted in overall survival duration of 19.40 months and was selected as the biological optimal dose. PMID:23055778

  6. Acute bilateral glaucoma and panuveitis as a side effect of topiramate for weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Yechezkel

    2014-01-01

    A 54-year-old male patient presented to our clinic with acute angle-closure glaucoma and panuveitis in both eyes after being treated with topiramate for binge eating and obesity. This case report emphasises the hazardous side effects of treatment with topiramate with unusual indication and the precaution a caretaker must take when treating a patient. PMID:24744070

  7. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients. PMID:1358128

  8. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  9. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  10. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  11. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  12. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  13. 21 CFR 209.10 - Content and format of the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content and format of the side effects statement. 209.10 Section 209.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE...

  14. 21 CFR 209.11 - Dispensing and distributing the side effects statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL REQUIREMENT FOR AUTHORIZED DISPENSERS AND PHARMACIES TO DISTRIBUTE A...) Each authorized dispenser or pharmacy must distribute the side effects statement with each prescription... distributed with new and refill prescriptions. (b) An authorized dispenser or pharmacy must choose one or...

  15. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  16. Monitoring Metabolic Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics in People with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeluckdharry, Sadira; Sharma, Sujit; O'Rourke, Elizabeth; Tharian, Priyanka; Gondalekar, Anjali; Nainar, Feroz; Roy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    This audit was undertaken prospectively to examine the compliance of a group of psychiatrists against guidelines they developed for monitoring the onset of metabolic syndrome, a potential side effect of antipsychotic medication, especially second generation or atypical ones. Phase 1 of the audit was to set standards by a questionnaire survey of…

  17. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  18. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  19. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  20. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  1. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangning

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs. PMID:25019100

  2. Choroidal and cutaneous metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shoichiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Yoshito; Ezaki, Hisao; Yamada, Takuya; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Miyazaki, Masanori; Nakai, Kei; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Watabe, Kenji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Nishida, Kohji; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Choroidal or cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer is rare. Gastrointestinal cancer was found in only 4% in patients with uveal metastasis. Choroidal metastasis from gastric cancer was reported in two cases in earlier literature. The frequency of gastric cancer as a primary lesion was 6% in cutaneous metastasis of men, and cutaneous metastasis occurs in 0.8% of all gastric cancers. We report a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma who presented with visual disorder in his left eye and skin pain on his head as his initial symptoms. These symptoms were diagnosed to be caused by choroidal and cutaneous metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Two cycles of chemotherapy consisted of oral S-1 and intravenous cisplatin (SPIRITS regimen); this was markedly effective to reduce the primary gastric lesion and almost all the metastatic lesions. PMID:23538460

  3. Effects of Yoga on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Global Side-Effect Burden in Older Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sprod, Lisa K.; Fernandez, Isabel D.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Peppone, Luke J.; Atkins, James N.; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65 years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. Materials and Methods We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥ 60 years of age), between 2 months and 2 years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Results Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (p<0.05). Conclusions YOCAS©® is an effective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. PMID:25449185

  4. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only. PMID:23907603

  5. [Childhood vaccinations anno 2004. II. The real and presumed side effects of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Rümke, H C; Visser, H K

    2004-02-21

    Vaccinations protect to a high degree against infectious diseases, but may cause side effects. In the Netherlands since 1962 the adverse events following immunizations are registered and analysed by the National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM). Since 1983 a permanent Committee of the Dutch Health Council reviews adverse events reported to the RIVM. With the so-called killed vaccines the side effects are mainly local (redness, swelling, pain) or general (fever, listlessness, irritability, sleep and eating problems). They are seen mainly after DPT-IPV vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Some side effects occur rarely (collapse reactions, discoloured legs, persistent screaming and convulsions) and very rarely serious neurological events are reported. After MMR vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella, cases of arthritis, thrombocytopenia and ataxia are reported sporadically. Usually, they have a spontaneous recovery. During recent years a scala of diseases or symptoms have been associated with vaccination (presumed side effects). Careful and extensive investigations have shown that such hypotheses could not be supported. Examples are allergic diseases as asthma, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis (after hepatitis B vaccination), autism and inflammatory bowel disease (after MMR vaccination) and sudden infant death syndrome. The total number of cases where at least a possible relation between side effects and vaccination is observed--apart from local reactions and moderate general symptoms--is very rare (about 0.25 per 1000 vaccinations) and does not balance the benefits from vaccination. There appears increasing doubt about the use and safety of vaccinations. More research is needed about the motives of people to choose for and against vaccination. The education about vaccination for parents and professionals who are involved with vaccination has to be improved. Internet can play an important role. PMID:15032089

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Novel Flavonoid Dimers against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Iris L. K.; Chan, Kin-Fai; Chen, Yun-Fu; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of leishmaniasis by chemotherapy remains a challenge because of limited efficacy, toxic side effects, and drug resistance. We previously reported that synthetic flavonoid dimers have potent antipromastigote and antiamastigote activity against Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Here, we further investigate their leishmanicidal activities against cutaneous Leishmania species. One of the flavonoid dimers (compound 39) has marked antipromastigote (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s], 0.19 to 0.69 μM) and antiamastigote (IC50s, 0.17 to 2.2 μM) activities toward different species of Leishmania that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis, including Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania major. Compound 39 is not toxic to peritoneal elicited macrophages, with IC50 values higher than 88 μM. In the mouse model of cutaneous leishmaniasis induced by subcutaneous inoculation of L. amazonensis in mouse footpads, intralesional administration of 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of compound 39.HCl can reduce footpad thickness by 36%, compared with that of controls values. The amastigote load in the lesions was reduced 20-fold. The present study suggests that flavonoid dimer 39 represents a new class of safe and effective leishmanicidal agent against visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:24687505

  7. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects.

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  8. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Elias G.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K.

    2010-01-01

    A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease. PMID:24281039

  9. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases. PMID:27621348

  10. [Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma].

    PubMed

    Dhouib Sellami, Rym; Sassi, Samia; Mrad, Karima; Abess, Imen; Driss, Maha; Ben Romdhane, Khaled

    2007-04-01

    Primary cutaneous plasmacytoma (PCP) is a rare cutaneous B cell lymphoma. We report a case of PCP in a 64 year old woman presenting with a nodular lesion of the left cheek. Histologically, the lesion was composed predominately of variably maturated plasma cells with monotypic expression of lambda chain. Extracutaneous localizations of the disease had been excluded. The prognosis of PCP is better than that of the metastatic cutaneous lesion of myeloma. The main prognosis factors are the size tumor and clinical presentation (solitary, versus multiple lesions). Solitary lesions of the PCP are treated by surgical excision and sometimes local radiotherapy. PMID:17909472

  11. The cutaneous porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Lim, H W; Cohen, J L

    1999-12-01

    Deficiencies of 7 enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway result in the development of porphyrias. Two of the porphyrias, aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency porphyria and acute intermittent porphyria do not have cutaneous findings. Cutaneous findings in the other porphyrias could be subdivided into acute phototoxicity and subacute phototoxicity. In addition, 2 of the porphyrias, hereditary coproporphyria and variegate porphyria have both cutaneous and neurovisceral findings. Now that chromosomal assignments for all the genes of the defective enzymes have been mode, prenatal diagnosis is possible for congenital erythropoietic porphyria, and in vitro gene therapy has been successfully performed for congenital erythropoietic porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. PMID:10604794

  12. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  13. The association of HIV/AIDS treatment side effects with health status, work productivity, and resource use.

    PubMed

    daCosta DiBonaventura, Marco; Gupta, Shaloo; Cho, Michelle; Mrus, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Due to stable incidence and improved survival rates, there are an increasing number of patients living with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Although highly effective, current antiretroviral therapies are associated with a variety of side effects. The role side effects play on health outcomes has not been fully examined. The current study assessed the association of medication side effects with (1) self-assessed health status; (2) work productivity and activity impairment; and (3) healthcare resource utilization. Data were from a cross-sectional patient-reported survey fielded in the USA using a dual methodology of Internet and paper questionnaires. A total of 953 patients living with HIV/AIDS who were currently taking a medication for their condition were included in the analyses. The most frequent side effects reported by patients were fatigue (70.72%), diarrhea (62.96%), insomnia (58.97%), dizziness (52.78%), neuropathy (52.68%), joint pain (52.36%), nausea (51.63%), and abdominal pain (50.37%). The presence of each side effect was associated with reduced self-assessed health status, increased productivity loss, increased activity impairment, and increased healthcare resource use. Controlling for CD4 cell counts in regression modeling did little to diminish the impact of side effects. Although not all side effects were associated with all outcomes, every side effect was associated with worse health status, some measure of increased work productivity loss, and/or some measure of increased healthcare resource use. Patients are living longer with HIV and, therefore, spending a greater length of time on treatment. The results of the current study suggest that many of these patients are experiencing a wide array of side effects from these therapies. These side effects have demonstrated a profound association with self-assessed health, work productivity, and healthcare resource use. Improved management of these side effects or development of treatments with a better side effect

  14. Effect of chronic aerobic exercise on cutaneous microcirculatory flow response to insulin iontophoresis and to ischemia in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Santoro, G; Ricco, R; Pentimone, F; Carpi, A

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether chronic aerobic exercise can favourably influence the vascular activity of insulin in elderly subjects. We measured in arbitrary units (A. U.) the cutaneous blood flow basally and in response to iontophoresis of insulin, by the means of a Laser Doppler flowmeter, on the right arm of 10 elderly athletes (10 males, aged 65 +/- 6 years) and of 10 sex- and age-matched sedentary subjects. The cutaneous blood flow response to ischemia was also explored in the right leg of the same subjects by means of the same instrument. No significant differences in cutaneous arm and leg blood flow were observed basally between athletes and sedentary subjects (7.25 +/- 2.65 A. U. versus 6.35 +/- 4.04 A. U. and 9.74 +/- 5.11 A. U. versus 9.41 +/- 6.40 A. U., respectively). Cathodal iontophoresis (six poulses of 0.1 mA each for 20 s, with 40-s interval between stimulations) of regular insulin (0.1 ml Humulin R 100 IU/ml diluted 1/10 with 0.9 % saline) induced a significant increase of cutaneous blood flow in both groups (p < 0.01 in athletes, p < 0.01 in sedentary subjects). However the maximal cutaneous blood flow response to insulin was higher in athletes than in sedentary subjects (24.69 +/- 13.34 A. U. versus 14.33 +/- 7.73 A. U., respectively, p < 0.05) as well as the curve of the net blood flux response to insulin iontophoresis (% change from baseline in response to insulin minus % change from baseline in response to saline iontophoresis) (p < 0.001 ANOVA for repeated measures). After ischemia there was a significant increase of leg cutaneous blood flow in both groups (p < 0.001 in athletes and in sedentary subjects) with higher blood flow response in athletes than in sedentary subjects (38.18 +/- 17.08 A. U. versus 26.01 +/- 6.39 A. U., respectively, p < 0.05). The time reached from the release of ischemia to peak-flow was significantly longer in sedentary subjects than in athletes (43.5 +/- 28.5 s versus 20.0 +/- 9.3 s, p < 0

  15. Comparative effectiveness of clinically used light sources for cutaneous protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-04-01

    This report documents the optical characteristics of a number of photodynamic therapy (PDT) light sources of varied types, measured and indexed relative to estimated effectiveness for activation of the PDT chromaphore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PDT sources in use at several clinics, including intense pulsed light (IPL) sources, lasers, and continuous wave (CW) light sources, were spectroradiometrically measured and indexed relative to their overlap to an absorption spectrum of PpIX. The sources were highly disparate, varying in power from irradiance in the mW/cm(2) range for the CW sources up to ∼30 J/cm(2) per flash for the IPL sources. Our PpIX Index ranged by a factor of nearly 100 (0.008-0.630) in estimated PpIX PDT effectiveness following the distinct spectral characteristics of the light sources surveyed. Application of this PpIX Index, tempered with an understanding of the biology of the lesion being treated and effective spectrum of the light source reaching the lesion requiring therapy, provides a rational algorithm to approximate equivalent light doses prior to clinical protocols to establish equivalent patient outcomes employing alternative PDT light sources. PMID:21401379

  16. Side Effects and Efficacy of Neuraxial Opioids in Pregnant Patients at Delivery: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Sarah; Fernando, Roshan

    2016-05-01

    Neuraxial opioids are an integral part of obstetric anaesthesia and have contributed to greatly improved analgesia for labour and caesarean delivery, both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Despite these advantages, neuraxial opioids may be associated with a number of side effects, some of which (such as respiratory depression), although rare, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The risk of respiratory depression appears to be increased with less lipophilic opioids such as morphine but can be reduced with careful patient selection and monitoring. Other side effects such as pruritus and nausea and vomiting appear to be dose-related and so can be limited by choosing the appropriate dose to optimise analgesia whilst limiting the adverse effects. Urinary retention, the potential neurotoxic effects of neuraxial opioids and the postulated effects on the foetus are also considered but currently it is felt there is not enough evidence to make strong recommendations with regard to specific drugs or dosage. This review aims to discuss the mechanism and incidence of these side effects as well as, where possible, their prevention. PMID:26832926

  17. Depo Provera. Position paper on clinical use, effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Bigrigg, A; Evans, M; Gbolade, B; Newton, J; Pollard, L; Szarewski, A; Thomas, C; Walling, M

    1999-07-01

    has an advantage over the combined oral contraceptive pill, and provides a simple, effective alternative for women who cannot use the pill for these reasons. Similarly, it has been suggested that women who suffer from focal migraine and are therefore advised against use of the combined oral contraceptive pill can still use progestogen-only contraceptives. Although the POP is medically safe in these circumstances, in young women it is less effective, and involves strict time keeping, which will be disadvantageous for some women. Side effects, long term use and schedules of administration are also discussed. The use of local protocols to allow nurse administration is to be supported both in general practice and the clinic situation. Perhaps the most important issue surrounding the use of DMPA is that of patient information. The method has had a particularly bad public image, which naturally makes potential users anxious and subject to misinformation from poorly informed or biased sources. Also, it is temporarily irreversible during its three months duration, so the duration of any problems or anxieties resulting from side effects may be longer than for other methods. It is of paramount importance that easily understood, accurate patient information leaflets are available, since biased and inaccurate information is readily available from women's magazines, perpetuating the myths surrounding the method. PMID:10454658

  18. Effect of photodynamic therapy using benzoporphyrin derivative on the cutaneous immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simkin, Guillermo O.; Obochi, Modestus; Hunt, David W. C.; Chan, Agnes H.; Levy, Julia G.

    1995-05-01

    In this study, the effect of transdermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) using benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) on the development of the immunologically mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and on the duration of skin allograft acceptance has been evaluated. In the CHS model it was found that the treatment of hairless strain mice with whole-body transdermal PDT using BPD (1 mg/kg) and LED light (15 J/cm2) resulted in a profound suppression of the CHS reaction if treatment was applied either 48 or 24 hours prior or up to 72 hours after sensitization of abdominal skin with DNFB. Less inhibition of the CHS response was observed if PDT was given one day before the ear challenge with DNFB which was applied 5 days following the initial DNFB sensitization. However, DNFB-exposed, PDT-treated mice retained the capacity to respond maximally to the unrelated contact sensitizer oxazolone. These results are consistent with other models of experimentally induced immune tolerance. allogeneic skin graft studies demonstrated that pretreatment of skin with BPD and light, at levels that did not cause significant tissue damage, significantly enhanced the length of engraftment. Using a separate protocol, photodynamic treatment of recipient mice at various times after transplant had no significant effect on allograft acceptance. Irradiation of skin in the presence of BPD may significantly inhibit the initiation of certain immunological responses within these tissues.

  19. Cutaneous and sensory effects of feminine hygiene pads among women with recent genital infection.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Meyer, Sandy J; Katsarou, Alexandra; Bowtell, Philip; Deliveliotou, Aikaterini; Creatsas, George

    2006-01-01

    We compared the skin compatibility of two menstrual pad technologies in a single-center, parallel, randomized, examiner-blinded study involving adult women. This report presents the results of a subset of 10 participants who had a genital infection within 12 months prior to the start of the study. In a blinded fashion, participants were randomized to receive one of the two pads for use over two menstrual periods. Participants' skin erythema was graded 24-48 hours following cessation of menstrual flow and on day 14 of each menstrual cycle. Participants subjectively reported any sensory effects. Vulvar erythema scores for the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, perineum, buttocks, left medial thigh, and right medial thigh assessed after both menstrual cycles were not statistically different between groups or between the two different products. A low incidence of itching and burning occurred in both groups without statistical significance; none of the participants experienced a recurrent or new genital infection. These preliminary results show that participants with recent genital infections included in clinical studies do not exhibit greater vulvar erythema or sensory effects than participants without recent genital infection. The study showed that the safety profile of the products tested remained acceptable in women with recent genital infection. PMID:16835147

  20. Normal threshold values for a monofilament sensory test in sural and radial cutaneous nerves in Indian and Nepali volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Inge; Brandsma, Wim; Post, Erik; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2014-12-01

    The monofilament test (MFT) is a reliable method to assess sensory nerve function in leprosy and other neuropathies. Assessment of the radial cutaneous and sural nerves, in addition to nerves usually tested, can help improve diagnosis and monitoring of nerve function impairment (NFI). To enable the detection of impairments in leprosy patients, it is essential to know the monofilament threshold of these two nerves in normal subjects. The radial cutaneous, sural, ulnar, median and posterior tibial nerves of 245 volunteers were tested. All nerves were tested at three sites on both left and right sides. Normal monofilament thresholds were calculated per test-site and per nerve. We assessed 490 radial cutaneous and 482 sural nerves. The normal monofilament was 2 g (Filament Index Number (FIN) 4.31) for the radial cutaneous and 4 g (FIN 4.56) for the sural nerve, although heavy manual laborers demonstrated a threshold of 10 g (FIN 5.07) for the sural nerve. For median and ulnar nerves, the 200 mg (FIN 3.61) filament was confirmed as normal while the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filament was normal for the posterior tibial. Age and occupation have an effect on the mean touch sensitivity but do not affect the normal threshold for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves. The normal thresholds for the radial cutaneous and sural nerves are determined as the 2 g (FIN 4.31) and the 4 g (FIN 4.56) filaments, respectively. The addition of the radial cutaneous and sural nerve to sensory nerve assessment may improve the diagnosis of patients with impaired sensory nerve function. PMID:25675652

  1. Cutaneous inflammation and proliferation in vitro: differential effects and mode of action of topical glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Lange, K; Kleuser, B; Gysler, A; Bader, M; Maia, C; Scheidereit, C; Korting, H C; Schäfer-Korting, M

    2000-01-01

    The nonhalogenated double ester of prednisolone, prednicarbate (PC), is the first topical glucocorticoid with an improved benefit/risk ratio verified clinically and in vitro. To evaluate if this is due to unique characteristics of this steroid, a new compound created according to an identical concept, prednisolone 17-ethylcarbonate, 21-phenylacetate (PEP), and the new halogenated monoester desoximetasone 21-cinnamate (DCE) were tested and compared to PC, desoximetasone (DM) and betamethasone 17-valerate (BMV). Isolated foreskin keratinocytes served for in vitro investigations of anti-inflammatory processes in the epidermis, fibroblasts of the same origin were used to investigate the atrophogenic potential. Inflammation was induced by TNFalpha, resulting in an increased interleukin 1alpha (Il-1alpha) synthesis. As quantified by ELISA, all drugs significantly reduced Il-1alpha production. But PC and BMV appeared particularly potent, followed by DM and the two new congeners, which revealed minor anti-inflammatory activity. Glucocorticoid esters including PEP are rapidly degraded in keratinocytes (85% within 12 h). Hence, a ribonuclease protection assay of Il-1alpha mRNA was performed allowing short incubation times and thus minimizing biodegradation. This assay confirmed the anti-inflammatory potency of native PC and BMV. In contrary DCE and PEP did not reduce Il-1alpha mRNA to a significant extent. Therefore PEP acts as a prodrug only. In fibroblasts, Il-1alpha and Il-6 syntheses indicate proliferation and inflammation, respectively. Whereas PC and PEP inhibited Il-1alpha and Il-6 production in fibroblasts only to a minor extent, cytokine synthesis was strongly affected by the conventional glucocorticoids BMV and DM, but also by DCE. The minor unwanted effect of PC and PEP on fibroblasts was also reflected by their low influence on cell proliferation as derived from (3)H-thymidine incorporation. Again, more pronounced antiproliferative features were seen with the

  2. Mastocytosis, diffuse cutaneous (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a picture of diffuse, cutaneous mastocytosis. Abnormal collections of cells in the skin (mast cells) produce this rash. Unlike bullous mastocytosis, rubbing will not lead to formation of blisters ( ...

  3. [Penile sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis].

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Boudaya, S; Bouzid, L; Frigui, F; Meziou, T J; Akrout, F; Turki, H; Zahaf, A

    2005-12-01

    The localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis of L. major at the penis level is rare, we report here a new observation. Mr K. R aged of 41, without known pathological background presented for 20 days a nodular lesion of the anterior face of the neck, 2 juxtaposed ulcerated nodular lesions of the left wrist. He presented also subcutaneous nodules ranged linearly and extended to the root of the penis. Theses lesions were covered by an erythematous or ulcerated skin. The smear made from the genital lesions of the penis confirmed the diagnosis of a cutaneous leishmaniasis. The evolution was favourable after a 21 days treatment by doxycyclin after an interval of one week. Our observation was specific by the localisation of the cutaneous leishmaniasis and by the clinical form. This shows that in our region cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterised by different clinical symptoms. PMID:16425718

  4. Synergistic Effect of Honey and Propolis on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takzaree, Nasrin; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Manayi, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Accelerating wound healing is now considered as a principle clinical treatment and increasing the quality and speed of healing which has always been emphasized by the scientists. Propolis and honey are natural bee products with wide range of biological and medicinal properties. This study was aimed to determine the synergistic effect of honey and propolis in wound healing of rat skin. A total of 75 Wistar rats weighing 200-250 gr were placed under general anesthesia and sterile conditions. Then a square shape wound with 1.5*1.5 mm dimension was made on the back of the neck. Animals were randomly divided into control, honey, propolis, combined honey propolis and phenytoin 1% groups, respectively. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: 4th, 7th and, 14th days of treatment in each period of study. Wound area in the experimental group was covered once daily with a fixed amount of thyme honey, propolis, propolis and honey and phenytoin cream (1%), the control group did not receive any treatment. For histological studies, during the fourth, seventh and fourteenth day's rats were sacrificed and samples were taken from the wound and adjacent skin. After histological staining fibroblast, neutrophils, macrophages and vascular sections were counted in the wound bed. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluations showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in the experimental and control groups were significant (P<0.05). The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation showed that the percentage of wound healing on different days in combined propolis and honey experimental group was significantly different from the control group (Multivariate ANOVA test) (P<0.05). Combined application of propolis and honey on the open wound healing in rats has a synergistic effect. PMID:27309263

  5. Studies of the Effects of Side Walls on VLSI Semiconductor Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin Sheng

    1990-08-01

    Properties and effects of side walls in very large scale integrated (VLSI) devices are explored and studied. Many side wall related properties, such as damage on side walls caused by reactive ion etching (RIE) and ion implantation, impurity diffusion in from side walls, segregation of atoms to side walls, and side wall heat absorption, are investigated and found to be significant. Properties of the side walls are compared to those of a horizontal surface. The wake potential of a fast charged particle is derived for an atomic system using a first-order quantum -mechanical perturbation theory. The atomic Coulomb excitation cross sections of the target atoms by this wake potential are then derived and found to be large. Numerical results for a model system of condensed atomic hydrogen show that the wake potential is important and should be included in calculating the atomic Coulomb excitation cross sections in condensed matter. The wake potential along the path of a fast charged particle is also calculated for the case of hydrogen 1s 2s and 2p transitions without a cutoff parameter. A computer program has been written to simulate the RBS spectrum from stripes that are similar to VLSI device components. The simulation fits experimental data well and can be used to determine diffusion in horizontal directions. It also provides an accurate way of measuring angle of the stripe side walls. The charged particle stopping power change due to the transition to the superconducting state is estimated and measured. The change of stopping power depends on the energy gap of the superconductor, and may be measurable for low energy charged particles. The relative stopping power difference of a 1 MeV proton between the superconducting and normal states of polycrystalline YBa_2 Cu_3O_7 at 77K was measured to be 0.06 +/- 0.14%. The hydrogen concentration in CVD P glass, CVD TEOS oxide, phosphorus doped TEOS oxide, plasma enhanced CVD oxide, low pressure CVD nitride and plasma enhanced

  6. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    PubMed

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways. PMID:17129868

  7. Effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor against cutaneous scar formation in murine full-thickness wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Seok; Lew, Dae Hyun; Tark, Kwan Chul; Rah, Dong Kyun; Hong, Joon Pio

    2010-04-01

    A visible cutaneous scar develops from the excess formation of immature collagen in response to an inflammatory reaction. This study examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the formation of cutaneous scars. Twenty Crl:CD-1 (ICR) mice were used and 2 full-thickness skin wounds were made on the dorsum of each mouse. One of the wounds was treated with recombinant human EGF by local application and the other was treated with saline for control until complete healing was achieved. The EGF-treated group's wounds healed faster than the control group's. The width of the scar was smaller by 30% and the area was smaller by 26% in the EGF-treated group. Inflammatory cell numbers were significantly lower in the EGF-treated group. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in the EGF-treated group was increased. It was observed that the amount of collagen in the EGF-treated group was larger than the control group. In the EGF-treated group, the visible external scars were less noticeable than that in the control group. These results suggest that EGF can reduce cutaneous scars by suppressing inflammatory reactions, decreasing expression of TGF-beta(1), and mediating the formation of collagen. PMID:20358003

  8. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  9. [Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on side effects of CAP therapy in gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Y; Okazaki, T; Okamura, S; Ueki, M; Sugimoto, O

    1989-07-01

    We concomitantly administered a large dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to gynecological malignant tumor patients undergoing CAP therapy (CAP). Hematological changes in the peripheral blood were compared between concomitant MPA patients and those not receiving MPA to examine the effect of MPA in reducing the marrow depression which is the major side effect of CAP. 1) Leukocyte count reached minimum at the second week of CAP in both groups. There was no significant difference in the count between the two groups. At the third week of CAP, the count improved to 84% of the pre-CAP level in patients receiving MPA and to 68% in those not receiving MPA, a significant difference (p less than 0.01). At the fourth week, leukocyte counts were 105% and 96% of pre-CAP levels, respectively. There was no difference between the two groups, but the leukocyte count returned to the pre-CAP level in the patients receiving MPA. 2) Platelet count showed changes similar to those in the leukocyte count. In patients receiving MPA, the count improved more rapidly within three weeks (118%, p less than 0.01), and was significantly higher at the fourth week (107%, p less than 0.05) than in patients not receiving MPA. 3) Reticulocyte count reached minimum in the first week, thereafter improving rapidly in both groups. No differences were noted between the two groups. 4) The periods needed for one course of CAP were 27.7 +/- 3.3 days in the patients receiving MPA and 29.5 +/- 3.7 days in the patients not receiving MPA, making for a significant difference between the two groups (p less than 0.05). These results show that MPA accelerates recovery from marrow depression caused by CAP. It is anticipated, therefore, that MPA will be helpful in the application of various chemotherapies which are expected to be frequently conducted in the future. PMID:2526618

  10. The Role of Bisphosphonates in Multiple Myeloma: Mechanisms, Side Effects, and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Zoledronic acid and pamidronate are two potent anticatabolic nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (BPs) used extensively in diseases with high bone turnover such as multiple myeloma (MM). In this review we focus on their biology and their current and future use in MM, and highlight some of the most common and emerging side effects. Although the primary target cells for BPs are osteoclasts, new insights suggest other cell types of the bone microenvironment as possible targets, including osteoblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, and cancer cells. Here, we focus on the current guidelines for the use of BPs in MM and address side effects such as renal toxicity, osteonecrosis of the jaw, and low-energy fractures. Finally, we approach the future of BP use in MM in the context of other bone-targeted agents, evaluating ongoing clinical trials addressing alternate dosing and schedules of BP administration in MM patients. PMID:21493759

  11. Atypical antipsychotics are not all alike: side effects and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Howland, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs are not all alike with respect to their pharmacologies, therapeutic uses, and side eff ects, although many clinicians lump them together and do not distinguish among them. Risk assessment for the potential use of a drug, such as aripiprazole (Abilify), should not focus on any particular adverse effect, but rather should consider risk assessment in a broader context. Specifically, what are the alternatives, and what are their inherent risk profiles? What is the risk of no treatment? Side eff ects commonly associated with a particular drug or class of drugs can also occur with other drugs. For any drug prescribed for any reason, prescribers should document discussion about common and potentially serious adverse effects, as well as document clinical monitoring. Alternative treatments and their inherent risks, along with the risks of not taking medication for a particular condition, should also be discussed with patients and documented. PMID:25346958

  12. Identifying Tinnitus-Related Genes Based on a Side-Effect Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Elgoyhen, A B; Langguth, B; Nowak, W; Schecklmann, M; De Ridder, D; Vanneste, S

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus, phantom sound perception, is a worldwide highly prevalent disorder for which no clear underlying pathology has been established and for which no approved drug is on the market. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to understand this condition. We used a network pharmacology side-effect analysis to search for genes that are involved in tinnitus generation. We analyzed a network of 1,313 drug–target pairs, based on 275 compounds that elicit tinnitus as side effect and their targets reported in databases, and used a quantitative score to identify emergent significant targets that were more common than expected at random. Cyclooxigenase 1 and 2 were significant, which validates our approach, since salicylate is a known tinnitus generator. More importantly, we predict previously unknown tinnitus-related targets. The present results have important implications toward understanding tinnitus pathophysiology and might pave the way toward the design of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24477090

  13. Construction of Drug Network Based on Side Effects and Its Application for Drug Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Liu, Qi; Wei, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share similar therapeutic properties through related mechanisms of action. In this study, a drug-drug network was constructed based on the similarities between their clinical side effects. The indications of a drug may be inferred by the enriched FDA-approved functions of its neighbouring drugs in the network. We systematically screened new indications for 1234 drugs with more than 2 network neighbours, 36.87% of the drugs achieved a performance score of Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain in the top 5 positions (NDCG@5)≥0.7, which means most of the known FDA-approved indications were well predicted at the top 5 positions. In particular, drugs for diabetes, obesity, laxatives and antimycobacterials had extremely high performance with more than 80% of them achieving NDCG@5≥0.7. Additionally, by manually checking the predicted 1858 drug-indication pairs with Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) score≤10−5 (EASE score is a rigorously modified Fisher exact test p value), we found that 80.73% of such pairs could be verified by preclinical/clinical studies or scientific literature. Furthermore, our method could be extended to predict drugs not covered in the network. We took 98 external drugs not covered in the network as the test sample set. Based on our similarity criteria using side effects, we identified 41 drugs with significant similarities to other drugs in the network. Among them, 36.59% of the drugs achieved NDCG@5≥0.7. In all of the 106 drug-indication pairs with an EASE score≤0.05, 50.94% of them are supported by FDA approval or preclinical/clinical studies. In summary, our method which is based on the indications enriched by network neighbors may provide new clues for drug repositioning using side effects. PMID:24505324

  14. Multiple side effects of penicillamine therapy in one patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Essigman, W K

    1982-01-01

    Skin rashes, proteinuria, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis and myasthenia gravis have all been recorded as complications of penicillamine therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A patient who had developed all 5 is now described. The skin lesion resembled elastosis perforans serpiginosa, which has been reported as a rare side effect in patients with Wilson's disease but not in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with penicillamine. Images PMID:6216862

  15. [Untoward side effects of chemoradiotherapy in children with malignant brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Morozova, S K; Begun, I V; Spivak, L V; Radiuk, K A; Papkevich, I I; Savich, T V; Pershaĭ, E B; Vashkevich, T I; Aleĭnikova, O V

    2002-01-01

    Untoward side-effects of chemoradiotherapy were compared in 48 children treated for brain tumors and those in remission lasting from less than 12 months to 11 years. The investigation concerned disturbances in the neurologic, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, hepatobiliary and psychic systems; neurologic ones proved the most frequent. No cases of heart failure were reported among patients with brain tumors during remission. Hormonal study revealed inhibited thyroid function in brain tumor sufferers. PMID:12455363

  16. Vision related quality of life and topical glaucoma treatment side effects

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Auzanneau, Nadia; Ricard, Séverine; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    Background Local tolerance of topical glaucoma treatment is important to achieve a good compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of local anti-glaucoma drug side effects on the vision-related quality of life (QoL). Methods A mail survey was sent to 20,000 homes of a panel representative of the French population asking whether one member of the family was suffering from ocular hypertension (OHT) or glaucoma. (POAG) A computer-assisted telephone interviewing system was used to confirm self-reported glaucoma, to describe the disease and its treatment, and medical item consumption. Vision-related QoL was assessed with the NEI-VFQ-25 (National Eye Institute Visual – Function Questionnaire) and local tolerance with the COMTOL (Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for TOLerability). Results 13,352 homes (66.7%) answered the mail. 581 people declared they were suffering from glaucoma or OHT. Prevalence was 1.8%, increasing with age. 204 patients were selected at random Their NEI-VFQ-25 global score showed an overall good QoL. Two domain scores showed some deterioration: general health and driving. 62.4% of the patients cited at least one local side effect. 25.4% had burning, 20.8% blurred vision and 20.2% tearing. Poor vision related QoL was associated with the presence of local side effects leading to poor perceived treatment satisfaction. Dissatisfied patients visited their ophthalmologist more frequently. Conclusion Based on a representative French sample, poor vision related QoL was associated with topical drug side effects that also impact patient satisfaction and compliance. Longitudinal data collection should be performed to confirm our findings. PMID:14667241

  17. Is Dysguesia Going to be a Rare or a Common Side-effect of Amlodipine?

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthan, T; Singh, H; Kumar, P; Hariharan, B

    2014-03-01

    A very rare side-effect of amlodipine is dysguesia. A review of the literature produced only one case. We report a case about a female with essential hypertension on drug treatment with amlodipine developed loss of taste sensation. Condition moderately improved on stoppage of the drug for 25 days. We conclude that amlodipine can cause dysguesia. Here, we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on amlodipine and dysguesia. PMID:25031906

  18. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    PubMed

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  19. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dikkers, Frederik G.

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2–3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future. PMID:18458927

  20. [Acetaminophen-induced hypothermia, an AIDS related side-effect? About 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Denes, Eric; Amaniou, Monique; Rogez, Jean-Philippe; Weinbreck, Pierre; Merle, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Hypothermia is an uncommon side effect of acetaminophen. We report 4 cases of HIV-infected patients who developed hypothermia after intravenous injection of propacetamol (the parenteral formulation of acetaminophen). The mechanism of this hypothermia is unknown. AIDS-induced changes in the metabolism of acetaminophen, could be an explanation. AIDS-associated opportunistic diseases may account for part of the mechanism. These hypothermias occur within 6 hours after the injection, are well tolerated and regress spontaneously. PMID:12486392

  1. Effective side length formula for resonant frequency of equilateral triangular microstrip antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guney, Kerim; Kurt, Erhan

    2016-02-01

    A novel and accurate expression is obtained by employing the differential evolution algorithm for the effective side length (ESL) of the equilateral triangular microstrip antenna (ETMA). This useful formula allows the antenna engineers to accurately calculate the ESL of the ETMA. The computed resonant frequencies (RFs) show very good agreement with the experimental RFs when this accurate ESL formula is utilised for the computation of the RFs for the first five modes.

  2. [Myoclonus as a side effect to citalopram treatment in a patient with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Forsberg-Gillving, Mimmi; Bode, Matthias; Sindrup, Søren Hein

    2015-09-21

    Side effects such as myoclonus and tremor are rare when treating with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We present a case where a patient with known liver cirrho-sis and in treatment with citalopram developed myoclonus, tremor and gait difficulties. The symptoms were reduced when the SSRI dose was decreased. In patients with unexplained movement disorders the usage of SSRIs should be considered as a cause. Furthermore, treatment with SSRIs should be carefully assessed in patients with reduced liver function. PMID:26418639

  3. Side effects in the neonate from psychotropic agents excreted through breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Ananth, J

    1978-07-01

    Neuroleptics, antidepressants, lithium, anxiolytics, and hypnotics may be excreted in breast milk. Because of the danger to the neonate, drugs such as diazepam, lithium, bromides, reserpine, and opium alkaloids should not be given to lactating women, and barbiturates, haloperidol, and penfluridol should be administered with caution. The side effects produced as a result of breast-feeding of the infant by mothers consuming psychotropic drugs are reviewed and possible preventive measures are discussed. PMID:665791

  4. Long-Term Side Effects of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Caldemeyer, Lauren; Dugan, Michael; Edwards, John; Akard, Luke

    2016-04-01

    Most patients with chronic myeloid leukemia have deep and durable responses when treated with BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Imatinib (the first approved TKI), nilotinib, and dasatinib are used in newly diagnosed, relapsed or intolerant patients, while bosutinib and ponatinib are used only in relapsed or intolerant patients. Previously the drug of choice was related to the likelihood of response and, to a small extent, patient comorbidities. The long-term toxicities, particularly cardiopulmonary side effects, are now impacting treatment choice, making patient comorbidities of significant concern. About 10 % of patients do not tolerate their initial BCR-ABL1 TKI and an increasing number are developing long-term side effects, particularly with the second generation drugs. Side effects of the five drugs reviewed here highlight the differences between cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and endocrine toxicities, as well as possible second malignancies. There is increasing evidence that patients whose disease is controlled by TKI's will have greater impact on their quality of life from comorbidities or drug adverse events than from the disease itself. Research into management of long-term toxicities is needed. PMID:26922746

  5. Phenotypic side effects prediction by optimizing correlation with chemical and target profiles of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Rakesh; Sharma, Abhinav; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-11-01

    Despite technological progresses and improved understanding of biological systems, discovery of novel drugs is an inefficient, arduous and expensive process. Research and development cost of drugs is unreasonably high, largely attributed to the high attrition rate of candidate drugs due to adverse drug reactions. Computational methods for accurate prediction of drug side effects, rooted in empirical data of drugs, have the potential to enhance the efficacy of the drug discovery process. Identification of features critical for specifying side effects would facilitate efficient computational procedures for their prediction. We devised a generalized ordinary canonical correlation model for prediction of drug side effects based on their chemical properties as well as their target profiles. While the former is based on 2D and 3D chemical features, the latter enumerates a systems-level property of drugs. We find that the model incorporating chemical features outperforms that incorporating target profiles. Furthermore we identified the 2D and 3D chemical properties that yield best results, thereby implying their relevance in specifying adverse drug reactions. PMID:26252576

  6. [Predicting side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A with ribaverin].

    PubMed

    Sarkisiants, N K; Grigorian, É G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the commonest side effects of the treatment of chronic hepatitis with peginterferon alpha-2A (PEG-IFN) and ribaverin (RBV) and the influence of various factors on their development. The work was done in the Department of Infectious Disease, Erevan State Medical University. Monitoring 16 adverse reactions was carried out with the use of special tables within 1, 2, 4 and 6 months after the onset of therapy in patients with genotypes 2 and 3 and in addition after 8, 10 and 12 months in patients with genotype 1. The influence of independent prognostic factors was estimated by logistic regression analysis. The commonest side effects of PEG-IFN plus RBV therapy were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, weight loss, depression, fatigue, and insomnia that occurred at one time or another in more than half of the patients. Weight loss during therapy amounted to 8.36 kg (95% CI 6.7-10) (maximum 21 kg). Myalgia, anorexia, arthralgia, headache, alopecia, and vomiting were documented in 20-50% of the cases. Anemia, pruritis, eruption, erythema, and hair shedding at injection sites occurred in 1/4 of the patients. It is concluded that logistic regression analysis with matching selected prognostic factors permits to estimate the probability of such side effects as weight loss, flu-like syndrome, and myalgia. PMID:24159787

  7. A predictor for side effects in patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with deferoxamine mesylate.

    PubMed

    Kruck, T P; Fisher, E A; McLachlan, D R

    1993-01-01

    In a previously reported clinical trial, patients with Alzheimer's disease were treated with deferoxamine mesylate, which resulted in a 50% reduction in the average rate of deterioration over 2 years. There were five deaths in the untreated group during the trial and no deaths in the treated group, although five of 25 treated patients reported anorexia. Deferoxamine metabolite analysis of urine for 24 hours after deferoxamine injection from sensitive and nonsensitive patients showed marked differences. Occurrence of side effects correlated with increased formation of a monoamine oxidase catalyzed (major) metabolite, MFO1. The metabolite ratio, MFO1/total metabolites, plus parent drug (TOT) showed a bimodal distribution with a mean +/- SD value of 0.68 +/- 0.06 for the nonsensitive and 0.79 +/- 0.04 for sensitive patients. The MFO1/TOT ratio discriminates between sensitive and nonsensitive patients, and we suggest that the half difference mark between the two mean values (0.735) can be used as a predictor of side effects. Patients with a MFO1/TOT ratio of greater than 0.70 would be considered at risk and observed for onset of side effects. Patients with a MFO1/TOT ratio greater than 0.80 would be considered for immediate adjunct treatment with isoniazid or other monoamine oxidase inhibitors. PMID:8422739

  8. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  9. Investigating the Effects of Side Airbag Deployment in Real-World Crashes Using Crash Comparison Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Loftis, Kathryn L.; Weaver, Ashley A.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate side airbag (SAB) deployment in near side crashes and compare injuries and contact points between occupants with and without SAB deployment. Using NASS 2000–2008 and selecting for near side cases, with PDOF ± 20 degrees from 90 or 270, for non-pregnant adult belted occupants, there were 20,253 (weighted) SAB deployments. NASS showed that SABs have been increasing within the fleet, comprising 2% of airbags in 2000 and increasing to 33% of airbags in 2008. To investigate deployed SABs, we developed a three-step methology to pair CIREN cases to study the effects of deployment on occupant outcome. The first step involved extracting near side impacts from CIREN with adult, non-pregnant occupants seated in row 1 (drivers or right front passengers). In the second step, each case was quantitatively compared to FMVSS 214 barrier test standards using a 6 point similarity scoring system. Cases scoring at least 3 points were then qualitatively analyzed and 33 pairs of cases of the same vehicle make/model but opposite SAB status were chosen. Occupants with deployed SAB had reduced occurrences and severity of head and face, neck and cervical spine, and thoracic injuries and fewer injurious contacts to side components including the door, a-pillar, and window sill. SAB deployment was statistically significant for reducing occupant MAIS and ISS and thorax airbags were statistically significant for reducing thoracic and neck/cervical spine injury severity. The average ISS with SAB deployment was 21, while the average ISS of those without was 33. This study establishes methods for performing comparisons between CIREN cases based on regulatory conditions and shows injury reduction in key body regions with SAB deployment. PMID:22105386

  10. The Effects of Cutaneous Fatty Acids on the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Etiological Agent of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS).

    PubMed

    Frank, Craig L; Ingala, Melissa R; Ravenelle, Rebecca E; Dougherty-Howard, Kelsey; Wicks, Samuel O; Herzog, Carl; Rudd, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (Myotis sodalis), northern (Myotis septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats. It is caused by a cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are much more resistant to cutaneous infection with Pd, however. We thus conducted analyses of wing epidermis from hibernating E. fuscus and M. lucifugus to determine their fatty acid compositions, and laboratory Pd culture experiments at 4.0-13.4°C to determine the effects of these fatty acids on Pd growth. Our analyses revealed that the epidermis of both bat species contain the same 7 fatty acid types (14:0, 15:0, 16:0. 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, & 18:2), but the epidermis of M. lucifugus contains: a) more stearic (18:0) acid, b) less palmitoleic (16:1) acid, c) less myristic (14:0) acid, and, d) less oleic (18:1) acid than that of E. fuscus. The growth of Pd was inhibited by: a) myristic and stearic acids at 10.5-13.4°C, but not at 4.0-5.0°C, b) oleic acid at 5.0-10.6°C, c) palmitoleic acid, and, d) linoleic (18:2) acid at 5.0-10.6°C. One set of factors that enables E. fuscus to better resist cutaneous P. destructans infections (and thus WNS) therefore appears to be the relatively higher myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid contents of the epidermis. PMID:27070905

  11. The Effects of Cutaneous Fatty Acids on the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Etiological Agent of White-Nose Syndrome (WNS)

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Craig L.; Ingala, Melissa R.; Ravenelle, Rebecca E.; Dougherty-Howard, Kelsey; Wicks, Samuel O.; Herzog, Carl; Rudd, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    White Nose Syndrome (WNS) greatly increases the over-winter mortality of little brown (Myotis lucifugus), Indiana (Myotis sodalis), northern (Myotis septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats. It is caused by a cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are much more resistant to cutaneous infection with Pd, however. We thus conducted analyses of wing epidermis from hibernating E. fuscus and M. lucifugus to determine their fatty acid compositions, and laboratory Pd culture experiments at 4.0–13.4°C to determine the effects of these fatty acids on Pd growth. Our analyses revealed that the epidermis of both bat species contain the same 7 fatty acid types (14:0, 15:0, 16:0. 16:1, 18:0, 18:1, & 18:2), but the epidermis of M. lucifugus contains: a) more stearic (18:0) acid, b) less palmitoleic (16:1) acid, c) less myristic (14:0) acid, and, d) less oleic (18:1) acid than that of E. fuscus. The growth of Pd was inhibited by: a) myristic and stearic acids at 10.5–13.4°C, but not at 4.0–5.0°C, b) oleic acid at 5.0–10.6°C, c) palmitoleic acid, and, d) linoleic (18:2) acid at 5.0–10.6°C. One set of factors that enables E. fuscus to better resist cutaneous P. destructans infections (and thus WNS) therefore appears to be the relatively higher myristic, palmitoleic, and oleic acid contents of the epidermis. PMID:27070905

  12. Prevalence of Side Effects Treatment with Carbamazepine and Other Antiepileptics in Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Koliqi, Rozafa; Polidori, Carlo; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper reveals the studies of carbamazepine monitoring in the manifestation of side effects during clinical use. It is important to realize that these ranges are derived statistically, with most patients who have high levels suffering side effects and some with poor control having low levels. Broadly, the newer agents have advantages of lower risk of side effects and less drug interaction. At the presence they are more expensive than the, than “older” agents. Current recommendations and practice are to use newer agents as second line drugs, although in some countries there are gaining favour as potential first line agents. Methods: In the study 91 patients with epilepsy were involved from which 53 or 58.2% were female and 38 or 41.8% were male with no great significant difference between two genders (X2=2.47, P=0.116). However, according to the study results female patients had slightly greater prevalence of epilepsy than man. Average age of epileptic patients was 23.2 years (SD ± 16.4 years), in the range 1–66 years. Patient distribution was present within all age-groups, but 59.4% of all patients were up to 20 years old. The highest prevalence of epilepsy was in the group age 6-15 years old: 33.0%. There were also children 1 – 5 years old with 7 or 7.7% of the patients, and the patients older than 60 years with 4 or 4.4% of the patients. Patient distribution according to the age and gender results with no female patient over 60 year old and more female patients in the age group 1-5 years. However statistically this did not produce a highly significant difference (T-test= 0.72, P=0.437) between average age according to the gender. The average age of the female gender was 22.1 year (SD ± 14.2 years), with the range 2-55 years, while the average age of the male patients was 24.6 year (SD ±19.2 years), with the range 1-66 years. Conclusion: Unwanted side effects of antiepileptic drugs analyzed in the study are frequent, but not so severe as

  13. Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin

    2011-09-01

    In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: The Yin and Yang in the Treatment of Cutaneous Wounds and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) play an essential role in wound healing through stimulating epidermal and dermal regeneration. The development of new therapies for enhancing wound healing has included the use of EGF. In addition, EGFR inhibitors (EGFRis) have become a therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Thus, therapies targeting EGF/EGFR are useful for the treatment of both cutaneous wounds and cancer. Recent Advances Identification of EGFR as a regulator of normal and pathological cell function has allowed for the development of EGFRis for the treatment of cancer and topical administration of EGF to enhance wound healing. Critical Issues The use of EGFRi has emerged as an option for metastatic cancers. These drugs induce dermatological toxicity, a papulopustular rash that is pruritic and painful; chronic use may negatively impact wound healing. Currently, there is no standard therapy to alleviate the side effects caused by EGFRi administration except to reduce or eliminate EGFRi usage. Therefore, side effects from these drugs should be taken into consideration on patients prone to develop chronic wounds and with cutaneous injuries. Future Directions There is a need for adjunctive treatment to eliminate dermatological toxicity from EGFRi use. The development of new downstream targets of EGFR may be a rational strategy to reduce potential cutaneous side effects and provide a better strategy for the treatment of cancer. Until then, the topical use of EGF could be used to ameliorate dermatological lesions caused by EGFRi. PMID:24527320

  15. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bartolomeo, A.; Giubileo, F.; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Russo, S.; Unal, S.; Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V.; Cucolo, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO2/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO2 up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  16. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  17. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.; Acosta, L.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Grilj, V.; Jakic, M.; Lattuada, M.; Mijatovic, T.; Milin, M.; Prepolec, L.; Skukan, N.; Soic, N.; Stanko, D.; Tokic, V.; Uroic, M.; Zadro, M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  18. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  19. The effect of phenolic compounds of poplar leaves extract on cutaneous angiogenesis reaction induced in mice by human mononuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Glinkowska, G; Bałan, B; Sommer, E; Demkow, U; Sokolnicka, I; Strzelecka, H; Skopińska-Rózewska, E

    1997-01-01

    The influence of ether fraction of water-soluble extract of poplar leaves (Populus nigra L.) and nine phenolic acids (cinnamic and benzoic acids derivatives) on human mononuclear (MNL) leukocytes angiogenic activity was studied. Ether fraction, containing mainly phenolic acids, increased cutaneous angiogenesis induced in mice by human MNL isolated from the blood of healthy donors. Increase of angiogenic activity was also observed in case of caffeic, gallic, salicylic, ferulic and gentisic acids. Isovanillic, protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids did not influence this parameter. PMID:9415205

  20. Properties of flow near a side-wall of a circular cylinder with tangential blowing - Effects of slot shape at cylinder-side-wall juncture and angular location of a blowing slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waka, R.; Yoshino, F.; Hayashi, T.

    1985-06-01

    An experiment was carried out to understand effects of the slot shape at the cylinder-side-wall juncture and the angular location of a blowing slot on the spanwise distributions of various characteristic values near the side-wall of a circular cylinder with tangential blowing. The range of the side-wall effects and the characteristic values near the side-wall are much influenced by the slot shape and the location of the slot. When the slot shaped like a knife edge, termed 'Edge', is used, the range of the side-wall effects becomes narrower as the angular location of the blowing slot is farther downstream.

  1. Being healthy or looking good? The effectiveness of health versus appearance-focused arguments in two-sided messages.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Erlinde; Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Two experimental studies test the effectiveness of health versus appearance-related arguments in two-sided messages. The first study shows that two-sided messages to discourage suntanning are more effective when using appearance-focused instead of health-focused arguments. Study 2 elaborates on the underlying mechanism and extends the generalization of the results of the first study, by investigating two-sided messages to promote physical exercise. The results show that for health-motivated consumers, a health-focused message is more effective, whereas for appearance-motivated consumers, an appearance-focused message is more effective. This matching effect is mediated by argument relevance. PMID:23682067

  2. Development of Support System for Breast Cancer Patients--Managing Side Effects through an Internet-Based System.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Hiromi; Kato, Yasuhisa; Handa, Satoko; Nara, Tamaki; Sonoda, Masayuki; Baba, Mai; Akahori, Hiromi; Kuroda, Eiji; Nakamura, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy in the outpatient setting is effective in improving patients' quality of life (QOL). However, the increasing availability of targeted molecular agents in addition to conventional anti-cancer medications has placed increased importance on managing adverse events and educating patients about side effects that can affect their QOL. We developed an Internet-based "Patient Support System"to enable patients at home to communicate symptoms of side effects and administration status to a hospital interface that documents and monitors the ongoing side-effect profile. In a trial of 8 patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy before or after surgery, our system enabled medical staff to quantitatively confirm data on side effects recorded daily by the outpatients, demonstrating that it functions effectively in maintaining the patient's QOL. Moreover, it clearly identified significant differences in the occurrence and status of side effects between patients receiving the same anticancer medication. Patients reported that the onset of side effects and recovery status could be confirmed objectively, thus enabling self-management of the disease, which helped greatly in managing side effects and schedules throughout the treatment period. This system has potential as a supportive tool for activities of daily living while maintaining QOL and improving the overall therapeutic effect. PMID:26809531

  3. Effects of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during passive heat stress in females.

    PubMed

    Moyen, Nicole E; Burchfield, Jenna M; Butts, Cory L; Glenn, Jordan M; Tucker, Matthew A; Treece, Keeley; Smith, Amber J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of obesity and mild hypohydration on local sweating (LSR) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) responses during passive heat stress in females. Thirteen obese (age, 24 ± 4 years; 45.4% ± 5.2% body fat) and 12 nonobese (age, 22 ± 2 years; 25.1% ± 3.9% body fat) females were passively heated (1.0 °C rectal temperature increase) while either euhydrated (EUHY) or mildly hypohydrated (HYPO; via fluid restriction). Chest and forearm LSR (ventilated capsule) and CVC (Laser Doppler flowmetry) onset, sensitivity, and plateau/steady state were recorded as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb). Participants began trials EUHY (urine specific gravity, Usg = 1.009 ± 0.006) or HYPO (Usg = 1.025 ± 0.004; p < 0.05), and remained EUHY or HYPO. Independent of obesity, HYPO decreased sweat sensitivity at the chest (HYPO = 0.79 ± 0.35, EUHY = 0.95 ± 0.39 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and forearm (HYPO = 0.82 ± 0.39, EUHY = 1.06 ± 0.34 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb); forearm LSR plateau was also decreased (HYPO = 0.66 ± 0.19, EUHY = 0.78 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); all p < 0.05). Overall, obese females had lower chest-sweat sensitivity (0.72 ± 0.35 vs. 1.01 ± 0.33 Δmg·min(-1)·cm(-2)/°C ΔTb) and plateau (0.55 ± 0.27 vs. 0.80 ± 0.25 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); p < 0.05). While hypohydrated, obese females had a lower chest LSR (p < 0.05) versus nonobese females midway (0.45 ± 0.26 vs. 0.73 ± 0.23 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) and at the end (0.53 ± 0.27 vs. 0.81 ± 0.24 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2)) of heating. Furthermore, HYPO (relative to the EUHY trials) led to a greater decrease in CVC sensitivity in obese (-28 ± 27 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb) versus nonobese females (+9.2 ± 33 Δ% maximal CVC/°C ΔTb; p < 0.05). In conclusion, mild hypohydration impairs females' sweating responses during passive heat stress, and this effect is exacerbated when obese. PMID:27455036

  4. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    PubMed Central

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  5. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  6. Cardiac side effects of trastuzumab in breast cancer patients – single centere experiences

    PubMed Central

    Leś, Dominika; Sarzyczny-Słota, Danuta; Nowara, Elżbieta

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The aim of this study was to present our own experiences concerning risk factors for cardiac side effects in the study group. Material and methods The study was performed in 120 patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer who received immunotherapy in the Clinical and Experimental Oncology Department, between 2006 and 2011. Results LVEF reduction > 10% of the baseline fraction was observed in 10 (8%) patients. Symptomatic heart failure occurred in two individuals. Due to persistent cardiotoxicity five patients (4%) had to discontinue therapy prematurely. Risk factors for cardiac toxicity in the analyzed group included: previous radiotherapy to the left side of the chest (p = 0.05), higher BMI (p = 0.05), negative steroid receptor status (p = 0.045) and low baseline LVEF (p < 0.001). Patients receiving radiotherapy were more likely to develop cardiotoxicity if presenting older age (p = 0.0003). Conclusions Previous radiotherapy to the left side of the chest, negative steroid receptor status, high BMI and low baseline LVEF were associated with increased risk of cardiac dysfunction. There was no difference between patients receiving adjuvant therapy and those treated due to metastatic disease. PMID:23788989

  7. Effects of polymer side chains on the self-assembling of conjugated polymer in thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yunfei; Wang, Yiqing; Bunz, Uvw H. F.; Perahia, Dvora

    2006-03-01

    Conjugated polymers are inherently semi-conducting and optically active materials, with immense potential applications in organic electro-optical devices. The chemical structure of the polymer including the rigidity of the backbone and the nature of substituents affect their association as well as their electro-optical response. The following work reports the effects of different side chains on the structure and fluorescence of highly conjugated polymer, poly(para phenyleneethynylene) (PPE). When substituted by long polylactide side chains they self-assemble into wires with fingerprint-like arrangement, casting from chloroform solutions on oxidized silicon wafer. With increasing content of poor solvent, the dimension of the structures increased and then crystallized area appeared, as showed in AFM studies. The introducing of the long flexible polymer side chains has significantly reduced the stacking between rigid backbones. This in tern results in a frequency shift in their fluoresces response, indication changes in the electronic levels. Direct measurements of the electronic levels using ATM are currently in progress.

  8. Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

    PubMed

    Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hsu, Ching-Yun; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied natural antioxidants can be an effective treatment for inhibiting oxidative damage and photoaging of the skin. Due to the barrier function of the stratum corneum (SC), it is necessary to use an enhancement approach to promote the cutaneous absorption of natural antioxidants. Some factors that should be considered when developing delivery systems for natural antioxidants include increased solubility, enhanced storage stability, improved permeability and bioavailability, skin targeting, and minimal side effects. This review describes the skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade. The antioxidants introduced include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids. Various types of formulations are employed to improve the skin penetration of the antioxidants, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrin, microemulsions, nanoparticles, liposomes and niosomes. This review focuses on the introduction of natural antioxidants used in skin protection, the mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy. PMID:25925121

  9. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis. PMID:26933433

  10. Perphenazine suspension: a new, old treatment, side effects and continuous use.

    PubMed

    Chrisphonte, Pascale; Ostroff, Robert B; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2012-09-01

    A number of innovative delivery systems for acute antipsychotic pharmacotherapy have been developed over the years which include oral suspensions, rapidly dissolving wafers and acute intramuscular preparations. Currently, the availability of first generation antipsychotic (FGA) formulations is limited to two high potency agents: haloperidol and fluphenazine. At Yale New-Haven Psychiatric Hospital, the hospital pharmacy was able to create perphenazine suspension, a mid-potency FGA, with a record of effectiveness and tolerability that was no worse than that of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the CATIE trial. In this study we compare perphenazine suspension to other first and SGAs in the risk of extrapyramidal reactions and whether or not patients were continued on the same antipsychotic they were started with at the time of discharge. Medical records of patients who received acute pharmacotherapy in a unique form while hospitalized at Yale New Haven Psychiatric Hospital from July 2009 to December 2009 were examined. All data were collected thru a chart review using a form that was created to systematically document experiences. A total of 229 patients were included in the study. There were no significant differences between treatment groups on gender, age, race or diagnosis. In the entire samples 1.75% had pseudo-parkonisnism, 1.31% had acute dystonia, 0.04% had tardive dyskinesia, 1.31% akithesia, and 4.8% any neurological side effects. There were no significant differences between agents in the likelihood of any of these side effects or of having any side effect. Higher use of anticholinergics was found in patients treated with FGAs. We also found that 77% were discharged on the same antipsychotic agent they received when they were initially hospitalized. A wide range of acute oral pharmacoptherapy in non-tablet formulations of first and SGAs should be available in psychiatric hospital formularies. FGAs seems to be as well tolerated as SGAs. PMID

  11. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis. PMID:26933433

  12. Cutaneous signs of piety.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Al Aboud, Khalid

    2014-07-01

    It is important for dermatologists to be aware of cutaneous changes related to religious practices to help in their recognition and management. The anatomic location of cutaneous lesions associated with friction from praying varies based on religious practice. Allergic contact dermatitis from products and substances commonly used in worshipping also vary by religion. Some religious practices may render individuals prone to infections that manifest on the skin. Tattoos of godly figures also may adorn the body. Religious practices also have been implicated in cases of urticaria, köbnerization, and leukoderma. This article reviews the clinical presentation of some of the most common cutaneous changes that occur in individuals who practice the following religions: Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, and Sikhism. PMID:25101349

  13. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sasani, F; Javanbakht, J; Samani, R; Shirani, D

    2016-03-01

    Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) is a significant veterinary problem. Infected dogs also serve as parasite reservoirs and contribute to human transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with histiocytic pseudorosettes together with numerous amastigotes within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within clear and intracellular vacuoles. The other inflammatory cells, which were present in the biopsies of the Leishmania-infected dog, were lymphocytes and plasma cells. The histopathology results emphasized the role of dog, particularly asymptomatic dog, as reservoirs for CCL because of the high cutaneous parasite loads. These results may help to explain the maintenance of high transmission rates and numbers of CCL cases in endemic urban regions. PMID:27065598

  14. Update on cutaneous calciphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2013-03-01

    Calciphylaxis is a devastating disorder with a mortality rate of 80% due to sepsis and organ failure. Hallmarks of this rare disease are arteriolar media calcification, thrombotic cutaneous ischemia, and necrotic ulcerations. Different mechanisms of vascular calcification can lead to calciphylaxis. Early diagnosis by deep cutaneous ulcer biopsy is most important for prognosis. Here, dermatologists play a significant role although treatment usually needs an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical procedures had been the cornerstone of treatment in the past including parathyroidectomy, but recently new medical treatments emerged aiming to normalize disturbances of minerals to reduce the serum concentration of sodium phosphate and to prevent precipitation and calcification. Multimodal therapy is warranted but only aggressive surgical debridement of cutaneous ulcers has shown significant outcome improvement. PMID:23716795

  15. Update on Cutaneous Calciphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a devastating disorder with a mortality rate of 80% due to sepsis and organ failure. Hallmarks of this rare disease are arteriolar media calcification, thrombotic cutaneous ischemia, and necrotic ulcerations. Different mechanisms of vascular calcification can lead to calciphylaxis. Early diagnosis by deep cutaneous ulcer biopsy is most important for prognosis. Here, dermatologists play a significant role although treatment usually needs an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical procedures had been the cornerstone of treatment in the past including parathyroidectomy, but recently new medical treatments emerged aiming to normalize disturbances of minerals to reduce the serum concentration of sodium phosphate and to prevent precipitation and calcification. Multimodal therapy is warranted but only aggressive surgical debridement of cutaneous ulcers has shown significant outcome improvement. PMID:23716795

  16. Patient-reported side effects, concerns and adherence to corticosteroid treatment for asthma, and comparison with physician estimates of side-effect prevalence: a UK-wide, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Vanessa; Metcalf, Leanne; Versnel, Jenny; Upton, Jane; Walker, Samantha; Horne, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-adherence to corticosteroid treatment has been shown to reduce treatment efficacy, thus compromising asthma control. Aims: To examine the experiences of treatment side effects, treatment concerns and adherence to inhaled (ICS) and oral corticosteroids (OCS) among people with asthma and to identify the degree of concordance between clinician estimates of side effects and the prevalence reported by patients. Methods: Asthma UK members were sent validated questionnaires assessing treatment concerns, experiences of side effects and adherence. Questionnaires measuring clinicians’ estimates of the prevalence of corticosteroid side effects were completed online. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 1,524 people taking ICS, 233 taking OCS and 244 clinicians (67% of clinicians were primary care nurses). Among people with asthma, 64% of those taking ICS and 88% of those taking OCS reported ⩾1 side effect. People reporting high adherence to ICS (t=−3.09, P<0.005) and those reporting low adherence to OCS (t=1.86, P<0.05; one-tailed test) reported more side effects. There was a disparity between clinicians’ estimates of the frequency of side effects and the frequency reported by people with asthma: e.g., although 46% of people taking ICS reported sore throat, clinicians estimated that this figure would be 10%. Patients who reported side effects had stronger concerns about both ICS (r=0.46, P<0.0001) and OCS (r=0.50, P<0.0001). Concerns about corticosteroids were associated with low adherence to ICS (t=6.90, P<0.0001) and OCS (t=1.71; P<0.05; one-tailed test). Conclusions: An unexpectedly large proportion of people with asthma experienced side effects and had strong concerns about their treatment, which compromised adherence. These findings have implications for the design of interventions to optimise asthma control through improved adherence. PMID:26158805

  17. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available. PMID:24916211

  18. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Liyan; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention. PMID:26989683

  19. Behavioral side effects in rats treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors suggested used as prophylactics against nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Myhrer, Trond; Enger, Siri; Aas, Pål

    2010-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in combination with an anticholinergic, particularly anticholinergics with antiglutamatergic properties, can effectively protect against nerve agent-induced seizures and lethality. The objective of the present study was to examine potential behavioral side effects of the anticholinesterases physostigmine (0.1mg/kg), galantamine (3mg/kg), huperzine (0.5mg/kg), and donepezil (2.5mg/kg) alone or each drug in combination with anticholinergic procyclidine (3mg/kg). The results showed that rats injected intraperitoneally with galantamine displayed a mild cognitive deficit in terms of reduced preference for novelty that was similarly found among animals treated with procyclidine combined with either galantamine or donepezil. Locomotor activity and rearing were radically depressed in all groups treated with anticholinesterases as well as in combination with procyclidine. Reductions in activity were most prominent for rats injected with galantamine alone. Equalizing effects of cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics were absent in the present context. Findings from previous studies that both systemic and local (amygdala) application of physostigmine cause increased fear-motivated freezing response in rats, may explain the marked reductions in activity among the present rats. In view of these findings, use of anticholinesterases (crossing the blood-brain barrier) as prophylactics against nerve agents must be carefully examined to avoid severe side effects. PMID:20184916

  20. Effect of puncture resistant surgical gloves, finger guards, and glove liners on cutaneous sensibility and surgical psychomotor skills.

    PubMed

    Woods, J A; Leslie, L F; Drake, D B; Edlich, R F

    1996-01-01

    New puncture and cut resistant hand protection systems have been developed to enhance the barrier to cuts and needle puncture injuries during surgical procedures. It is important, however, that these new hand protection systems do not reduce tactile sensitivity or dexterity during surgery. Consequently, it was the purpose of this report to compare the cutaneous sensibility and dexterity of physicians' hands covered by these new puncture and cut resistant hand protection systems to that of the standard surgical latex glove. The hide (Medak) portion of the Life Liner and the polyethylene (Spectra) portion of the FingGuard, which offered the greatest resistance to needle puncture, were associated with the greatest reduction in cutaneous sensibility, as determined by moving and static two-point discrimination, aesthesiometer pressure sensation, and discrimination of suture size and configuration. In addition, the physicians believed that the puncture and cut resistant Life Liner glove liner markedly interfered with their handling of surgical instruments. The ultimate benefit of these puncture and cut resistant hand protection systems must be determined in well-controlled clinical trials. PMID:8734074

  1. Effect of targeted mutation in collagen V alpha 2 gene on development of cutaneous hyperplasia in tight skin mice.

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, R. G.; Murai, C.; Saito, S.; Hatakeyama, A.; Andrikopoulos, K.; Kasturi, K. N.; Bona, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Collagen V plays a major regulatory role in the formation of heterotypic fibers of the dermis and cartilaginous tissues as well as in the assembly of extracellular matrix. The pN/pN mouse, which is defective in collagen V alpha 2 gene, exhibits skeletal abnormalities, skin fragility, and alterations in the collagen fiber organization, whereas the TSK/+ mouse, which is defective in fibrillin-1, the major component of microfibrils present in the extracellular matrix, develops cutaneous hyperplasia and autoimmunity. We have studied the role of collagen V in the formation of heterotypic collagen fibers in F1 mice, which are obtained by breeding pN/pN with TSK/+ mice. Our results show that F1 progeny neither develop cutaneous hyperplasia nor produce anti-topoisomerase I autoantibodies, unlike TSK/+ mice. The diameter of the collagen fibrils in the skin is also comparable to that found in control mice. Thus, the phenotypic changes observed in the TSK mouse could be reversed by genetic complementation with a collagen V-defective mouse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:9642685

  2. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086–1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070–1.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598–0.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  3. Multiple cutaneous lipomatous neurofibromas.

    PubMed

    Texeira, M S; Duraes, Smb; Pereira, L A; Pantaleao, L

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lipomatous neurofibroma is a rare variant of neurofibroma with a little known pathogenesis; its presence has never been described in Brazil. A 61- year-old woman complaining scalp papules for one year, presented with skin colored to yellowish papules on the scalp. She noted that they were sometimes itchy and occasionally bled. Dermoscopy showed amorphous material, milky white, with a small poorly delimited yellowish area. Histopathological examination revealed spindle cell proliferation associated with mature adipocytes. Cutaneous lipomatous neurofibroma appears to be an underdiagnosed condition owing to the low index of suspicion and lack of knowledge of its existence. Few cases have been reported in the literature. PMID:27267198

  4. [A BANEFUL CUTANEOUS LESION].

    PubMed

    Defaee, A; Mancini, I; Vandemergel, X

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a patient presenting meningeal carcinomatosis and cutanenous metastasis as first manifestation of gastric adenocarcinoma. A 57-year-old patient was hospitalized because of headache and diplopia. Clinical examination revealed VI cranial nerve paralysis and anterior neck infiltration. Cutaneous biopsy and umbar puncture showed signet ring-cells. Extensive work-up disclosed gastric adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastasis and carcinomatous metastasis are both present exceptionally as first manifestation of gastric adenocarcinoma. We discuss frequency, etiology and treatment of these manifestations. PMID:27295896

  5. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Guan; Lei, Tie-Chi

    2014-11-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare human infection due to ubiquitous soil born gram-positive, filametous aerobic bacteria. First signs are frequently cutaneous either as part of systemic infection disseminated to the skin, or as primary cutaneous inoculation. An 88 years old man presented with a 3-day history of red papules and pustules with pain on his forehead. The combination of the unusual clinical presentation, laboratory examinations, and a favorable response to co-trimoxazole therapy were consistent with a diagnosis of primary cuteneous nocardiosis. Early recognition and treatment of the disease will improve the cure rate. PMID:25518763

  6. The cutaneous porphyrias.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg-Brand, Danja; Katugampola, Ruwani; Anstey, Alexander V; Badminton, Michael N

    2014-07-01

    The porphyrias are a group of mainly inherited disorders of heme biosynthesis where accumulation of porphyrins and/or porphyrin precursors gives rise to 2 types of clinical presentation: cutaneous photosensitivity and/or acute neurovisceral attacks. The cutaneous porphyrias present with either bullous skin fragility or nonbullous acute photosensitivity. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, complications, and current approach to porphyria management. Although focusing mainly on their dermatological aspects, the article also covers the management of acute porphyria, which by virtue of its association with variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria, may become the responsibility of the clinical dermatologist. PMID:24891059

  7. [Side effects and consequences of frequently used antibiotics in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Cerny, A

    1996-03-30

    Oral antimicrobial substances belonging to the beta-lactams, quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination are among the most prescribed classes of drugs in private practice. Knowledge of the potential side effects considered in the light of various patient-associated factors such as genetic makeup, renal and liver function, underlying diseases, drug allergies and coadministered drugs, is important in order to minimize the risk of adverse reactions. This article reviews important side effect patterns and focuses on more recent aspects of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and beta-lactam allergy relevant to the practicing physician. Diarrhea occurring during antibiotic treatment raises the possibility of Clostridium-difficile-associated disease, which may evolve into life-threatening toxic megacolon. Mild cases with resolving symptoms after discontinuation of the antibiotic usually do not require further workup. More severe cases with watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities warrant rapid diagnosis, cessation of antibiotic treatment and specific treatment including oral metronidazole. The use of oral vancomycin as a first line drug is discouraged because of the possibility of selecting vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams are the most important type of side effects which can often be prevented. Patients with a history of beta-lactam associated IgE-mediated hypersensitivity (hives, wheezing or hypotension) should undergo penicillin skin testing. The frequently observed maculopapular rash associated with aminopenicillins without hives is in most cases not caused by an IgE-mediated mechanism. Patients with previous life-threatening penicillin allergy such as anaphylaxis or Lyell's syndrome should not undergo skin testing. Currently available tests do not reliably predict cephalosporin hypersensitivity. More recent data suggest that crossreactivity between

  8. A new early cognitive screening measure to detect cognitive side-effects of electroconvulsive therapy?

    PubMed

    Martin, Donel M; Katalinic, Natalie; Ingram, Anna; Schweitzer, Isaac; Smith, Deidre J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Loo, Colleen K

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive side-effects from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be distressing for patients and early detection may have an important role in guiding treatment decisions over the ECT course. This prospective study examined the utility of an early cognitive screening battery for predicting cognitive side-effects which develop later in the ECT course. The screening battery, together with the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), was administered to 123 patients at baseline and after 3 ECT treatments. A more detailed cognitive battery was administered at baseline, after six treatments (post ECT 6) and after the last ECT treatment (post treatment) to assess cognitive side-effects across several domains: global cognition, anterograde memory, executive function, speed and concentration, and retrograde memory. Multivariate analyses examined the predictive utility of change on items from the screening battery for later cognitive changes at post ECT 6 and post treatment. Results showed that changes on a combination of items from the screening battery were predictive of later cognitive changes at post treatment, particularly for anterograde memory (p < 0.01), after controlling for patient and treatment factors. Change on the MMSE predicted cognitive changes at post ECT 6 but not at post treatment. A scoring method for the new screening battery was tested for discriminative ability in a sub-sample of patients. This study provides preliminary evidence that a simple and easy-to-administer measure may potentially be used to help guide clinical treatment decisions to optimise efficacy and cognitive outcomes. Further development of this measure and validation in a more representative ECT clinical population is required. PMID:24074514

  9. Extrapyramidal side-effects of low-dose aripiprazole in an 11-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Partial agonism of D2 and 5-HT1A receptors accounts for the low incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects of aripiprazole. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with therapeutical doses of aripiprazole have been reported in adults and children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of EPS with low doses (5 mg) have been reported until now. In this article, we present an 11-year-old child who developed EPS on low doses (5 mg) aripiprazole. This case emphasizes the need for careful surveillance for the development of EPS in patients treated even with low doses of aripiprazole. PMID:26933364

  10. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; p<0.001). Longer treatment duration was associated with lower HIV-RNA, higher CD4 counts, and being previously ART naive. cART modifications due to treatment failure became less frequent in recent years (adjusted HR=0.91 per year; p<0.001). Estimated (95% CI) 1 year cumulative probabilities of treatment-limiting side effects were 16.4% (12.0-21.3%), 19.3% (15.6-23.3%), 24.9% (20.3-29.7%), and 21.1% (13.4-29.9%) for the four periods, respectively, with no significant temporal trends. Risk of side effects was lower in nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  11. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage. PMID:25399625

  12. Extrapyramidal side-effects of low-dose aripiprazole in an 11-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Partial agonism of D2 and 5-HT1A receptors accounts for the low incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects of aripiprazole. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with therapeutical doses of aripiprazole have been reported in adults and children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of EPS with low doses (5 mg) have been reported until now. In this article, we present an 11-year-old child who developed EPS on low doses (5 mg) aripiprazole. This case emphasizes the need for careful surveillance for the development of EPS in patients treated even with low doses of aripiprazole. PMID:26933364

  13. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  14. Muscle- and skeletal-related side-effects of statins: tip of the iceberg?

    PubMed

    Auer, Johann; Sinzinger, Helmut; Franklin, Barry; Berent, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of muscle- and skeletal-related side-effects of statins includes varied myalgias and weakness, an asymptomatic increase in the concentration of creatine kinase and other biochemical parameters, myositis and rhabdomyolysis. Currently, there is no consensus on the definition of 'statin myopathy'. Evidence suggests that deleterious effects may also be associated with the volume or dosage of structured exercise and/or the intensity of physical activity. Moreover, non-muscle adverse effects on the joints and tendons are often overlooked and underemphasized. The incidence of myopathy associated with statin treatment typically ranges between 1.5% and 10%. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of muscle- related symptoms associated with different statins and the distribution of affected muscles. Furthermore, discrepancies between clinical trials and daily practice may emanate, in part, because of inconsistent definitions or exclusion criteria.The pathophysiology of statin-related myopathy is incompletely understood. A dose-dependent and proapoptotic effect, direct effects on mitochondria, drug interactions and genetic factors, or combinations thereof, may be involved. Recently, a rare immune-mediated myopathy triggered by statin use has been described. With the increasing number of patients treated with statins and with more patients being prescribed high doses of potent statins to achieve low-density lipoprotein targets, muscle-related side-effects will become more prevalent. Currently, the only effective treatment is the discontinuation of statin use. Further research is needed to develop alternative LDL-lowering drugs when statins are not well tolerated and to establish additional effective strategies to manage lipids and lipoproteins. PMID:25230981

  15. Cutaneous manifestation of silicone dissemination from a PIP implant--a case for prophylactic explantation?

    PubMed

    Cawrse, N H; Pickford, M A

    2011-08-01

    The recent withdrawal of PIP (Poly Implant Prosthese, France) implants for breast augmentation enforced by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) on 31st March 2010 has ignited speculation into possible side effects relating to an unauthorized gel fill content. Local and migratory silicone granulomata and regional lymphadenopathy are well reported in the literature. Gel bleed from high cohesive gel implants with similar effect is also well known. However dissemination to sites distant from the breast manifest as cutaneous abnormalities in a patient implanted with a PIP product raises concern. We report such a case. PMID:21524950

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: cryosurgery using carbon dioxide slush in a resource-poor country.

    PubMed

    Al-Qubati, Yasin; Janniger, Edmund J; Schwartz, Robert A

    2012-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a widespread parasitic disease seen most often in children and young adults, although it may occur at any age. In Yemen, up until now, specific treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been challenging. Available chemotherapy is expensive and replete with significant side effects. Standard cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen is prohibitively expensive and often unavailable. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of cryosurgery with carbon dioxide slush in the treatment of CL in an economically underdeveloped region as a cost-effective, simple, successful, and affordable option. PMID:22994668

  17. Comparison of side effects between buprenorphine and meloxicam used postoperatively in Dutch belted rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Coreen S; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly A; Barat, Christopher E; Cook, Judith A; Scorpio, Diana G

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges facing veterinarians and investigators who use rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a surgical model in biomedical research is choosing an appropriate and efficacious postoperative analgesic without systemic complications and side effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal side effects associated with the postoperative use of buprenorphine in Dutch Belted rabbits. We also evaluated the analgesic meloxicam as an alternative to opioid administration during the postoperative period. Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups during the postoperative period after routine ovariohysterectomy: buprenorphine (n = 10), meloxicam (n = 10), and incisional infiltration with bupivicaine (no treatment control; n = 10). Feed intake, fecal production, weight loss, urine output, and other physiologic parameters were monitored and behavior and pain assessments were performed for 7 d after surgery and compared with baseline values collected before surgery. All rabbits showed decreased pellet consumption, fecal production, and weight on day 1 after surgery. This effect was severe in some rabbits that received bupivicaine; therefore treatment of this entire group with metoclopramide, fluids, and hay was instituted to reverse gut stasis. No significant difference in feed consumption and fecal production was present between the buprenorphine- and meloxicam-treated groups. On the basis of these results, meloxicam appears to be a suitable alternative or adjunct to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus. PMID:19476717

  18. Respiratory dyskinesia--an under-recognized side-effect of neuroleptic medications.

    PubMed

    Bhimanil, Mukesh Mohan; Bhimani, Mukesh; Khan, Murad Moosa; Khan, Muhammad Faheem Ashraf; Waris, Muhammad Shiraz

    2011-09-01

    Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognized side effect of neuroleptic administration. There are only few studies that have addressed the prevalence of respiratory dyskinesia in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Our case report highlights the need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature. Since RD is underrecognized and misdiagnosed, early detection can improve long term prognosis as treatment options are few and usually of only limited effect. A 62-year-old Asian male, retired civil engineer, had more than 20 years history of depressive illness, developed antidepressant induced hypomania, and was given risperidone upto 1 mg per day. He developed extrapyrmidal side effects as tremors, rigidity and later dyskinetic movements of lips with shortness of breathing, dyspnoea, grunting or gasping. He was referred to the pulmonologist who got the neccessary medical work up done, which was normal. A diagnosis of respiratory dyskinesia was made. Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognised and distressing condition that clinicians need to be aware of when treating patients with anti-psychotic medications. And also there is a need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature for early diagnosis and better outcome. This case report also is worth reading for professionals of other specialties also because of the presentation of this patient, it can be easily misdiagnosed and result in poor outcome. PMID:22360044

  19. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. PMID:26996984

  20. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information. PMID:26590979

  1. Immediate inhibitory effect of methylprednisolone suleptanate (U-67590A) on antigen-induced cutaneous and airway anaphylactic responses in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, M.; Shinozaki, Y.; Katori, M.

    1993-01-01

    1. Inhibitory effects of water-soluble glucocorticoids administered intravenously were examined on skin and airway reactions caused by antigen challenge or chemical mediators in guinea-pigs. 2. Methylprednisolone suleptanate (U-67590A) which is an analogue of methylprednisolone, produced immediate inhibition of 3-h and 7-day homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions, but not of histamine- or bradykinin-induced cutaneous vascular permeability, when administered 10 min before antigen challenge. In contrast, methylprednisolone succinate (MP) or dexamethasone (DXM) administered 10 min before antigen challenge failed to show an immediate inhibitory effect on the PCA or mediator-induced reactions. When administered 1 to 5 h before antigen challenge, all the steroids used in this study reduced both PCA and mediator-induced reactions. 3. Pretreatment with cycloheximide almost completely abolished the late inhibition of 3-h PCA and histamine reactions produced by U-67590A or MP, but it did not affect the immediate inhibition of 3-h PCA produced by U-67590A. 4. U-67590A also demonstrated immediate inhibitory effects on antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs actively sensitized with ovalbumin even when administered 10 min before antigen challenge, whereas MP and DXM failed to show the immediate inhibitory effect. When administered 3 h before antigen challenge, all the steroids used in this study reduced the response to antigen. 5. The late inhibitory effect of U-67590A administered 3 h before antigen challenge was almost completely abolished by treatment with cycloheximide or 17 alpha-methyltestosterone, whereas the immediate inhibition produced by U-67590A administered 10 min before challenge was not affected by this treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7682130

  2. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of nitrogen mustard-induced cutaneous effects in SKH-1 hairless and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Orlicky, David J; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-03-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant warfare agent which causes severe skin injuries. Currently, we lack effective antidotes against SM-induced skin injuries, in part due to lack of appropriate animal model(s) that can be used for efficacy studies in laboratory settings to identify effective therapies. Therefore, to develop a relevant mouse skin injury model, we examined the effects of nitrogen mustard (NM), a primary vesicant and a bifunctional alkylating agent that induces toxic effects comparable to SM. Specifically, we conducted histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of several applicable cutaneous pathological lesions following skin NM (3.2mg) exposure for 12-120h in SKH-1 and C57BL/6 mice. NM caused a significant increase in epidermal thickness, incidence of microvesication, cell proliferation, apoptotic cell death, inflammatory cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) and myleoperoxidase activity in the skin of both mouse strains. However, there was a more prominent NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, and macrophages and mast cell infiltration, in SKH-1 mice relative to what was seen in C57BL/6 mice. NM also caused collagen degradation and edema at early time points (12-24h); however, at later time points (72 and 120h), dense collagen staining was observed, indicating either water loss or start of integument repair in both the mouse strains. This study provides quantitative measurement of NM-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical cutaneous lesions in both hairless and haired mouse strains that could serve as useful tools for screening and identification of effective therapies for treatment of skin injuries due to NM and SM. PMID:24373750

  3. Effects of RF side-bands on spectral reproducibility for infrared synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, R.; Ramirez, G.; Williams, G.P.; Zimba, C.

    1994-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of audio side-bands from the main RF of the NSLS VUV storage ring on beam motion and specifically on spectral reproducibility in the infra-red region. For this spectral region it is advantageous to use Michelson interferometers because of their high throughput (Jacquinot advantage). A second advantage is that interferometers inherently give a multiplex or Felgett advantage, since one is always looking at all the wavelengths for all of the measuring time, even though there is only one detector. In such instruments it is beneficial to scan the moving mirror at a fast rate so that any mechanical or other low frequency noise shows up as a slow modulation in the interferogram and disappears altogether in the Fourier transform from the spectral region of interest. However, audio frequency side-bands appear from the RF energy restoring cavity as noise on the beam. These always occur at multiples of 60 Hz and can thus be readily identified. They can also be confirmed by changing the mirror velocity which changes where they appear in the spectra in a predictable way. In the present work, we measured spectra while simultaneously reducing and shifting the side bands in the RF and thus were able to correlate the effects and ultimately eliminate them as a source of noise. Ultimately we were able to achieve reproducibilities of <1% in 15 seconds of scanning time across the entire spectral region from 800 cm{sup {minus}1} to 4000cm{sup {minus}1} with a sample throughput of only l0{sup {minus}10} meter{sup 2} steradians.

  4. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  5. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed. PMID:21869902

  6. Sympathomimetic activity of a Hoodia gordonii product: a possible mechanism of cardiovascular side effects.

    PubMed

    Roza, Orsolya; Lovász, Norbert; Zupkó, István; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2013-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate) have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β -adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant. PMID:24307991

  7. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farias, I. L. G.; Araújo, M. C. S.; Farias, J. G.; Rossato, L. V.; Elsenbach, L. I.; Dalmora, S. L.; Flores, N. M. P.; Durigon, M.; Cruz, I. B. M.; Morsch, V. M.; Schetinger, M. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed. PMID:21869902

  8. Effect of gas puffing from different side on lower hybrid wave-plasma coupling in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, B. J.; Kong, E. H.; Li, M. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wu, J. H.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, M.; Gong, X. Z.; Shan, J. F.; Liu, F. K.; Zhang, T.; Ekedahl, A.; Zhao, H. L.; Collaboration: EAST Team

    2013-10-15

    Effect of gas puffing from electron-side and ion-side on lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma is investigated in experimental advanced superconductive tokamak for the first time. Experimental results with different gas flow rates show that electron density at the grill is higher in the case of gas puffing from electron-side; consequently, a lower reflection coefficient is observed, suggesting better effect of puffing from electron-side on LHW-plasma. The difference in edge density between electron- and ion-side cases suggests that local ionization of puffed gas plays a dominant role in affecting the density at the grill due to different movement direction of ionized electrons and that part of gas has been locally ionized near the gas pipe before diffusing into the grill region. Such difference could be enlarged and important in ITER due to the improvement of plasma parameters and LHW power.

  9. Cutaneous Infections in Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Eugene K.; deWeber, Kevin; Berry, James W.; Wilckens, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Evidence Acquisition: Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Results: The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. Conclusion: For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers. PMID:24427413

  10. Understanding the side effects of emission trading: implications for waste management.

    PubMed

    Braschel, Nina; Posch, Alfred; Pierer, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The trading of emission allowances is an important market instrument in climate policy. However, the inclusion of certain branches of industry in the trading system not only provides incentives for emission reduction, it also entails unwanted side effects. Thus, the objective of the present study is to identify such side effects-positive and negative-by examining the potential impact of waste management inclusion in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Desk research was supplemented with qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis (based on expert interviews and a questionnaire) in order to analyse the related perceptions and expectations of actors and stakeholders. The impact of waste management inclusion in the EU ETS is analysed in terms of the following three areas: (i) costs and cost pass-through, (ii), competitiveness and market position, and (iii) carbon leakage. Concerning expectations in the area of costs, both the interviewed experts and the practitioners surveyed thought that costs were likely to increase or that they could be passed on to customers. However, experts and practitioners differed with respect to the possibility of carbon leakage. Clearly, increased knowledge of the possible impact arising from inclusion of the waste sector in the EU ETS would enable managers to become more proactive and to manage waste streams and treatment options more economically. PMID:24323330

  11. Association of immunological disorders in lethal side effect of NSAIDs on beta-glucan-administered mice.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Ohno, N; Adachi, Y; Yadomae, T

    2001-07-01

    (1-->3)-beta-D-Glucan (beta-glucan) is a biological response modifier that regulates host immune response. We have found that the combination of a beta-glucan and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), indomethacin (IND), induced lethal toxicity in mice [Yoshioka et al. (1998) FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 21, 171-179]. This study was undertaken to analyze the mechanism of the lethal side effect. Combination of a beta-glucan and IND increased the number of leukocytes, especially macrophages and neutrophils, in various organs and these cells were activated. The activated state of these cells was supported by the enhanced production of interferon-gamma in the presence of IND in vitro culture of the peritoneal exudate cells. Intestinal bacterial flora was translocated into the peritoneal cavity in these mice to cause peritonitis. Comparing the toxicity of various NSAIDs, nabumetone, a partially cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID with weaker toxicity to the gastrointestinal tract, did not exhibit a lethal side effect. These facts strongly suggested that gastrointestinal damage by NSAIDs was more severe in beta-glucan-administered mice, resulting in peritonitis by enteric bacteria and leading to death. PMID:11476975

  12. Psychiatric side effects of acute high-dose corticosteroid therapy in neurological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Itay; Fireman, Liora; Benninger, Felix; Weizman, Abraham; Steiner, Israel

    2016-07-01

    It has been implied that high-dose corticosteroids (CSs) commonly cause psychiatric side effects. Here, we examined the rate and risk factors of psychiatric side effects during high-dose CS treatment in patients with neurological disorders. Patients treated with high-dose intravenous CSs for neurological disorders were evaluated for depression, mania, and psychosis using the Beck Depression Inventory, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale before CS treatment, immediately after, and 1 month following treatment. Forty-nine consecutive patients were monitored. There was a reduction in the Beck Depression Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale scores as well as in the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores throughout the study period and a transitory increase in the Young Mania Rating Scale score immediately after CS administration. Thus, a tendency to develop transient mild euphoria during high-dose CS treatment exists, but is reversible at 1 month, whereas a reduction in depressive symptoms tended to persist. Overall, our data indicate that high-dose CS treatment for neurological diseases is relatively safe with respect to psychiatric complications. PMID:26938038

  13. Exploring Motivations, Awareness of Side Effects, and Attitudes among Potential Egg Donors.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Carter, James; White, Melinda

    2016-05-01

    This research study surveyed prospective egg donors at orientation to (a) understand women's motivations to donate eggs, (b) assess awareness and knowledge of egg donation prior to entry into the egg donation program, and (c) explore attitudes toward egg donation. Ninety-two women completed the questionnaire at one fertility clinic located in the Midwest between August 2011 and August 2012. Descriptive and inferential statistics as well as textual analysis were used to analyze the data. Three themes emerged regarding participant motivations: (1) altruistic, (2) financial, and (3) desire to pass on genetic material. The majority of participants were unconcerned with potential physical and psychological side effects; however, differences emerged based on motherhood status and educational level. Although potential donors felt recipients should receive some information about the donor, they tended to value privacy regarding information giving to resultant offspring. This research study has implications for social work practice, policy, and future research. It is crucial that women receive adequate procedural and side effect information prior to engaging in egg donation. PMID:27263197

  14. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  15. SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS IN PEAR ON TWO BENEFICIAL MIRIDAE BUGS.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, K; Belien, T; Bylemans, D

    2015-01-01

    Anthocoris nemoralis, Anthocoris nemorum and Orius spp. are not the only beneficial predatory bugs inhabiting pear orchards in Belgium. Quite often, the Miridae bugs Heterotoma spp. and Pilophorus spp. can be found during spring and summer in these orchards, thereby feeding on several pests such as psyllids, aphids, spider mites, ... . Side-effects are usually assessed on Anthocoris and Orius spp., but due to the potential importance of Miridae bugs in pest reduction, we tested some commonly used crop protection products used in pear cultivation on Heterotoma planicornis and Pilophorus perplexus (residue-based tests in petri-dishes). One day after treatment, mortalities already could be observed for some products. Seven days after treatment, abamectin, deltamethrin and thiacloprid were considered the most toxic products as stated by the IOBC classification. This outcome was then analysed with regard to different treatment schedules, providing insights in potential side-effects on crop protection treatments on the composition of beneficial fauna in pear orchards. PMID:27145577

  16. Scrubbing for cutaneous procedures can be hazardous.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nghi T; Commens, Christopher A

    2002-05-01

    Office-based minor cutaneous surgery is a service provided by many medical practitioners. In New South Wales, Australia, it is a legal requirement for practitioners to surgically scrub before donning sterile gloves for all forms of invasive surgery, including minor cutaneous procedures. Frequent scrubbing causes altered skin barrier function, irritant dermatitis and a potential risk of latex sensitization. These adverse effects are associated with significant morbidity and cost. Better tolerated alternatives, including alcohol-based hand rubs, should be considered in preference to traditional surgical scrubs in order to reduce these occupational risks for minor proceduralists. Well-controlled, prospective studies should explore what extent of hand washing is necessary for donning sterile gloves for minor cutaneous surgery. PMID:11982565

  17. Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new field in medicine and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Csoka, Antonei B; Szyf, Moshe

    2009-11-01

    The term "Epigenetics" refers to DNA and chromatin modifications that persist from one cell division to the next, despite a lack of change in the underlying DNA sequence. The "epigenome" refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell, and serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. The epigenome is dynamic and responsive to environmental signals not only during development, but also throughout life; and it is becoming increasingly apparent that chemicals can cause changes in gene expression that persist long after exposure has ceased. Here we present the hypothesis that commonly-used pharmaceutical drugs can cause such persistent epigenetic changes. Drugs may alter epigenetic homeostasis by direct or indirect mechanisms. Direct effects may be caused by drugs which affect chromatin architecture or DNA methylation. For example the antihypertensive hydralazine inhibits DNA methylation. An example of an indirectly acting drug is isotretinoin, which has transcription factor activity. A two-tier mechanism is postulated for indirect effects in which acute exposure to a drug influences signaling pathways that may lead to an alteration of transcription factor activity at gene promoters. This stimulation results in the altered expression of receptors, signaling molecules, and other proteins necessary to alter genetic regulatory circuits. With more chronic exposure, cells adapt by an unknown hypothetical process that results in more permanent modifications to DNA methylation and chromatin structure, leading to enduring alteration of a given epigenetic network. Therefore, any epigenetic side-effect caused by a drug may persist after the drug is discontinued. It is further proposed that some iatrogenic diseases such as tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced SLE are epigenetic in nature. If this hypothesis is correct the consequences for modern medicine are profound, since it would imply that our current understanding of pharmacology is an oversimplification

  18. The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-06-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  19. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    PubMed

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  20. Overview of clinical use and side effect profile of valsartan in Chinese hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for the efficacy and safety data of valsartan monotherapy or combination therapy in Chinese hypertensive patients. According to the data of ten randomized controlled trials, valsartan monotherapy was as efficacious as another angiotensin receptor blocker or other classes of antihypertensive drugs, excepting the slightly inferior diastolic blood pressure-lowering effect in comparison with calcium channel blockers. According to the data of six randomized controlled trials, valsartan combination, with hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system, was more efficacious than monotherapy of valsartan, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. According to these trials, valsartan had an acceptable tolerability, regardless of whether it was used as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Nonetheless, several rare side effects have been reported, indicating that it should still be used with caution. This is of particular importance given that there are millions of hypertensive patients, worldwide, currently exposed to the drug. PMID:24403822

  1. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26830953

  2. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary L.; Merriam, George R.; Kargi, Atil Y.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity, and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD); beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long-term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality. PMID:23761782

  3. Hysterosalpingocontrast sonography (HyCoSy): evaluation of the pain perception, side effects and complications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tubal and uterine cavity diseases commonly compromise female fertility. At the present time, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy with chromopertubation and RX-Hysterosalpingography (RX-HSG) are widely accepted screening procedures enabling the effective assessment of both tubal patency and uterine cavity. Nevertheless, consistent evidence supports the reliability of Hysterosalpingocontrast sonography (HyCoSy) in uterine cavity and tubal patency investigation, as a part of the standard infertility work-up. This prospective study was aimed at evaluating the tolerability of the technique as well as the incidence of related side effects and complications in a large series of infertile patients. Methods Pain perception of 632 infertile women was measured by means of an 11-point numeric rating scale. Side effects and late complications were also recorded. Results The mean numeric rating scale was 2.15 ± 2.0 SD. Most of the patients (374/632, 59.17%) rated HyCoSy as a non-painful procedure, whereas 24.36% (154/632) women reported mild pelvic pain and 9.96% (63/632) classified the discomfort as “moderate”. Only 6.48% (41/632) of the patient population experienced severe pelvic pain. Fifteen (2.37%) patients required drug administration for pain relief. Twenty-six patients (4.11%) showed mild vaso-vagal reactions that resolved without atropine administration. No severe vaso-vagal reactions or late complications were observed. Conclusions HyCoSy is a well-tolerated examination and the associated vagal effects are unusual and generally mild. Consequently, we support its introduction as a first-line procedure for tubal patency and uterine cavity investigation in infertile women. PMID:23968513

  4. Beneficial and side effects of arginine vasopressin and terlipressin for septic shock.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Yu; Zhen, Danyang; Chen, Xiao Ming; Yue, Wu; Liu, Liangming; Li, Tao

    2015-05-15

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its analog, terlipressin (TP), were all demonstrated beneficial for septic shock. What advantages and disadvantages that AVP and TP have for septic shock as well as the mechanism, however, are not completely known. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock rabbits, we systematically compared the beneficial and side effects of AVP and TP, in septic shock and the sex difference, and investigated their relationship to Rho kinase and calcium sensitivity. The results indicated that low dose of TP (2.6 μg/kg/h) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) improving vascular reactivity and animal survival were superior to a small dose of AVP (0.03 U/kg/h) in septic shock rats and rabbits. This improving effect of AVP and TP on vascular reactivity was closely related to the activation of Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase-mediating vascular calcium sensitization. A small dose of TP did not result in hyponatremia, did not increase blood bilirubin and decrease platelet count, whereas AVP did. Animal survival and vascular reactivity in female rats after TP or AVP administration were slightly better than male rats, while there were no significant differences. It was suggested that a small dose of TP has better beneficial effect and less side effects on septic shock than AVP. AVP and TP improving vascular reactivity is closely related to Rho-kinase activation and calcium sensitivity improvement. TP or plus NE may be more appropriate for early emergency care for severe septic shock than AVP. PMID:25769491

  5. Analysis of differential secondary effects of novel rexinoids: select rexinoid X receptor ligands demonstrate differentiated side effect profiles.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Pamela A; Jurutka, Peter W; Wagner, Carl E; van der Vaart, Arjan; Kaneko, Ichiro; Chavez, Pedro I; Ma, Ning; Bhogal, Jaskaran S; Shahani, Pritika; Swierski, Johnathon C; MacNeill, Mairi

    2015-03-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select rexinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs that we reported previously. We assessed pharmacokinetic profiles, lipid and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in rats, and cell culture activity of rexinoids in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) induction and thyroid hormone inhibition assays. We also performed RNA sequencing of the brain tissues of rats that had been dosed with the compounds. We show here for the first time that potent rexinoid activity can be uncoupled from drastic lipid changes and thyroid axis variations, and we propose that rexinoids can be developed with improved side effect profiles than the parent compound, bexarotene (1). PMID:26038698

  6. Analysis of differential secondary effects of novel rexinoids: select rexinoid X receptor ligands demonstrate differentiated side effect profiles

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Pamela A; Jurutka, Peter W; Wagner, Carl E; van der Vaart, Arjan; Kaneko, Ichiro; Chavez, Pedro I; Ma, Ning; Bhogal, Jaskaran S; Shahani, Pritika; Swierski, Johnathon C; MacNeill, Mairi

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select rexinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs that we reported previously. We assessed pharmacokinetic profiles, lipid and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in rats, and cell culture activity of rexinoids in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) induction and thyroid hormone inhibition assays. We also performed RNA sequencing of the brain tissues of rats that had been dosed with the compounds. We show here for the first time that potent rexinoid activity can be uncoupled from drastic lipid changes and thyroid axis variations, and we propose that rexinoids can be developed with improved side effect profiles than the parent compound, bexarotene (1). PMID:26038698

  7. Phase-dependent reversal of the crossed conditioning effect on the soleus Hoffmann reflex from cutaneous afferents during walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Mezzarane, Rinaldo A; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Ohki, Yukari; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that non-noxious electrical stimulation of the cutaneous nerve innervating the contralateral foot modified the excitability of the Hoffmann (H-) reflex in the soleus muscle (SOL) in a task-dependent manner during standing and walking in humans. To date, however, it remains unclear how the crossed conditioning effect on the SOL H-reflex from the contralateral foot is modified during the various phases of walking. We sought to answer this question in the present study. The SOL H-reflex was evoked in healthy volunteers by an electrical test stimulation (TS) of the right (ipsilateral) posterior tibial nerve at five different phases during treadmill walking (4 km/h). A non-noxious electrical stimulation was delivered to the superficial peroneal nerve of the left (contralateral) ankle ~100 ms before the TS as a conditioning stimulation (CS). This CS significantly suppressed the H-reflex amplitude during the early stance phase, whereas the same CS significantly facilitated the H-reflex amplitude during the late stance phase. The CS alone did not produce detectable changes in the full-wave rectified electromyogram of the SOL. This result indicates that presynaptic mechanisms driven by the activation of low-threshold cutaneous afferents in the contralateral foot play a role in regulating the transmission between the Ia terminal and motoneurons in a phase-dependent manner. The modulation pattern of the crossed conditioning effect on the SOL H-reflex may be functionally relevant for the left-right coordination of leg movements during bipedal walking. PMID:26573576

  8. Increased risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma is associated with variation in pigmentation genes and VDR, and may involve epistatic effects.

    PubMed

    Kosiniak-Kamysz, Agnieszka; Marczakiewicz-Lustig, Anna; Marcińska, Magdalena; Skowron, Małgorzata; Wojas-Pelc, Anna; Pośpiech, Ewelina; Branicki, Wojciech

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is a malicious human skin cancer that primarily affects individuals with light pigmentation and heavy sun exposure, but also has a known familial association. Multiple genes and polymorphisms have been reported as low-penetrance susceptibility loci for CMM. Here, we examined 33 candidate polymorphisms located in 11 pigmentation genes and the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) in a population of 130 cutaneous melanoma patients and 707 healthy controls. The genotypes obtained were evaluated for main association effects and potential gene-gene interactions. MC1R, TYR, VDR and SLC45A2 genes were found to be associated with CMM in our population. The results obtained for major function MC1R mutations were the most significant [with odds ratio (OR)=1.787, confidence interval (CI)=1.320-2.419 and P=1.715(-4)], followed by TYR (rs1393350) (with OR=1.569, CI=1.162-2.118, P=0.003), VDR (GCCC haplotype in rs2238136-rs4516035-rs7139166-rs11568820 block) (with OR=5.653, CI=1.794-17.811, P=0.003) and SLC45A2 (rs16891982) (with OR=0.238, CI=0.057-0.987, P=0.048). The study also detected significant intermolecular epistatic effects between MC1R and TYR, SLC45A2 and VDR, HERC2 and VDR, OCA2 and TPCN2, as well as intramolecular interactions between variants within the genes MC1R and VDR. In the final multivariate logistic regression model for CMM development, only the gene-gene interactions discovered remained significant, showing that epistasis may be an important factor in the risk of melanoma. PMID:24926819

  9. Mechanism study on the effects of side assisting gas velocity during CO{sub 2} laser welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Linjie; Zhang Jianxun; Gong Shuili

    2009-07-15

    An experimental study on the effects of side assisting gas during CO{sub 2} laser welding has been carried out, and it is found that side assisting gas velocity can significantly affect the laser induced plasma and the weld cross-sectional geometry. In order to get better understanding on the associated mechanism, a three dimensional model based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy has been developed to simulate the spatial distributions of plasma temperature under different side assisting gas velocities. Furthermore, ray-tracing method is employed to investigate the variation of bremsstrahlung absorption and power density distribution on keyhole walls at different side assisting gas velocities with the assumption of conical keyhole shape. The results show that the diminishing of refraction and bremsstrahlung absorption due to an increase in side assisting gas velocity results in an increase in heat transfer efficiency, which contributes to the increase of weld cross-sectional area and penetration depth.

  10. Spadin as a new antidepressant: absence of TREK-1-related side effects.

    PubMed

    Moha Ou Maati, H; Veyssiere, J; Labbal, F; Coppola, T; Gandin, C; Widmann, C; Mazella, J; Heurteaux, C; Borsotto, M

    2012-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, current antidepressant (AD) treatments remain of a limited efficacy justifying the need to find new drugs. These drugs have to be more efficacious, more rapid and display lesser side effects. Using rodent models, we recently identified spadin as a new antidepressant molecule that acts more quickly than classical ADs, working within 4 days to get same effects obtained with other ADs after 21 days. Spadin blocks TREK-1 K(2P) potassium channels that are considered as new targets for ADs. Deletion of the TREK-1 channel is known to increase sensitivity to pain, seizures and ischemia. Thus blocking these channels could result in deleterious side effects. In this study we showed that spadin did not interfere with other TREK-1 controlled functions such as pain, epilepsy and ischemia. We also demonstrated that spadin was unable to inhibit currents generated by TREK-2, TRAAK, TASK and TRESK four other K2P channels. More importantly, spadin did not induce cardiac dysfunctions, did not block I(Kr) and I(Ks) and did not modify the systolic pressure or cardiac pulses. After a three week treatment spadin remained an efficacious AD and did not modify the infarct size in brain following focal ischemia. Finally, we showed that kainate induced seizures and glycemia were not modified by spadin treatments. These data, together with those previously published reinforce the idea that spadin represents a good candidate for a new generation of ADs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21807005

  11. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages. PMID:26842914

  12. Heteropterys tomentosa (A. Juss.) infusion counteracts Cyclosporin a side effects on the ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug widely used in treatment of auto-immune diseases or after organ transplants. However, several side effects are commonly associated with CsA long term intake, some regarding to loss of reproductive organ function due to oxidative damage. Considering that phytotherapy is an important tool often used against oxidative stress, we would like to describe the beneficial effects of Heteropterys tomentosa intake to minimize the damage caused by CsA to the ventral prostate tissue of Wistar rats under laboratorial conditions. Methods Thirty adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were divided into: control group (water); CsA group (Cyclosporin A); Ht group (H. tomentosa infusion) and CsA + Ht group (CsA and H. tomentosa infusion). Plasmic levels of hepatotoxicity markers, triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose were quantified. The ventral prostate tissue was analyzed under light microscopy, using stereological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical techniques. Results H. tomentosa did not cause any alterations either of the plasmic parameters or of the ventral prostate structure. CsA caused alterations of GOT, total and indirect bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels in the plasma; CsA-treated rats showed alterations of the ventral prostate tissue. There were no alterations regarding the plasma levels of GOT, triglycerides and glucose of CsA + Ht animals. The same group also showed normalization of most of the parameters analyzed on the ventral prostate tissue when compared to the CsA group. The treatments did not alter the pattern of AR expression or the apoptotic index of the ventral prostate epithelium. Conclusions The results suggest a protective action of the H. tomentosa infusion against the side effects of CsA on the ventral prostate tissue, which could also be observed with plasmic biochemical parameters. PMID:23406403

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Side Effect Impacted on Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptomatology: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Simoni, Jane M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, karen I; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Zhao, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known for its side effects. In this paper, we describe ART side effects as experienced by Chinese HIV+ individuals. This study presents two stages of a research project, combining qualitative in-depth interviews (29 HIV+ participants) with quantitative statistical data analysis (N = 120). All data was collected between July 2005 to March 2008 at Beijing's Ditan Hospital. Consent was obtained from each participant for the qualitative interview and again for the quantitative survey. During in-depth interviews, Chinese HIV+ patients reported experiencing digestive discomfort, skin rashes, numbness, memory loss, nightmares, and dizziness, which not only brought them physical discomfort, but also interrupted different dimensions of their social lives. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that those who reported more severe side effects also experienced greater depressive mood after controlling for other clinical and psychosocial factors. ART side effects are one of the primary reasons causing HIV+ individuals to delay or stop taking life-saving medication; therefore, clinical interventions are critically needed to assist HIV+ individuals in managing ART side effects. ART side effects reinforced existing negative attitudes toward ART and lead to lower ART adherence. Future research should focus on developing culturally sensitive interventions to enhance HIV+ self-management, to alleviate physical and psychological burden from ART and HIV. PMID:24083060

  14. Thalidomide treatment in cutaneous lesions of systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Chen, Haifeng; Wang, Shiying; Zou, Yaohong; Li, Jing; Pan, Jieping; Wang, Xiangdang; Ren, Tianli; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Zhiwei; Feng, Xuebing; Sun, Lingyun

    2016-06-01

    Thalidomide is effective for treating severe cutaneous lupus patients. The aim of this study was to observe the optimum effective and maintenance doses of thalidomide to maximize clinical benefit and minimize side effects for patients with cutaneous lupus in China. Sixty-nine patients with lupus rash from eight hospitals in China were enrolled and treated with different doses of thalidomide. We started the dose of thalidomide at 25 mg daily and gradually increased administration dose once a week until erythema was markedly improved. The effective and maintenance doses were documented. The size of skin lesions was noted once a week. Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score, levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum TNF-α were measured before and after treatment. The remission rates were evaluated weekly until 8 weeks. Sixty-eight percent of patients showed an effective dose of 50 mg daily; another 13, 10, and 9 % of patients had an effective dose of 100, 75, and 25 mg daily, respectively. The maintenance dose was 50 mg daily for 71 % of the patients, and 100, 75, and 25 mg daily for 9, 14, and 6 % of the patients. SLEDAI score and serum ESR levels significantly decreased 4 weeks after thalidomide treatment. At the end of the fourth week, the rates of complete remission, partial remission, and no response were 56 % (n = 39), 41 % (n = 28), and 3 % (n = 2). At the eighth week, the rate of total remission rose up to 100 %. The most common side effects were drowsiness and constipation. No peripheral neuropathy was observed in these patients. Thalidomide at a dose of 50 mg daily may offer a better benefit to risk ratio in the treatment of Chinese cutaneous lupus patients. PMID:27097914

  15. Toxicity interactions and ways of reducing side effects of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Gola, A; Orzechowska-Juzwenko, K

    1982-01-01

    Side effects of cytostatics commonly used in the Haematology Clinic are analysed. The toxic action on the host's organs is discussed in L-asparaginase, azathioprine, bleomycine, busulfan, cyclophosphamide, cytosin-arabinoside, daunorubicine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, dichlorplatinum, procarbazine and the vinca alkaloids. In addition to toxic symptoms arising from single organs the most important 21 anticancer drugs are gathered in a table. Metabolism of activation and inactivation are mentioned to interprete symptoms of toxicity. Furthermore, the interactions between commonly administered drugs and carcinostatics which may enhance or suppress their carcinostatic efficacy are exposed. A final survey of possible pharmacological rescue measures, which may improve the tolerance of anticancer drugs by diminishing their toxicity is presented. PMID:6184274

  16. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  17. Modeling and Simulating of Single Side Short Stator Linear Induction Motor with the End Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzehbahmani, Hamed

    2011-09-01

    Linear induction motors are under development for a variety of demanding applications including high speed ground transportation and specific industrial applications. These applications require machines that can produce large forces, operate at high speeds, and can be controlled precisely to meet performance requirements. The design and implementation of these systems require fast and accurate techniques for performing system simulation and control system design. In this paper, a mathematical model for a single side short stator linear induction motor with a consideration of the end effects is presented; and to study the dynamic performance of this linear motor, MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulations are carried out, and finally, the experimental results are compared to simulation results.

  18. [Hair-like hyperkeratoses in patients with kidney transplants. A new cyclosporin side-effect].

    PubMed

    Izakovic, J; Büchner, S A; Düggelin, M; Guggenheim, R; Itin, P H

    1995-12-01

    We report a 31-year-old renal transplant patient treated with cyclosporin A who developed an unusual sebaceous gland hyperplasia accompanied by a disseminated follicular spiny hyperkeratosis. Those alterations were most evident on his face and limbs. In some locations hairy hyperkeratosis with authentic hair neogenesis was found. The histology of these alterations showed a marked hyperkeratosis of the hair follicles with formation of hair-like spikes either alone or in connection with hairs. The presence of true hairs distinguishes our case from the morphologically similar disseminated spiked hyperkeratosis and other spiny keratinization disorders. Scanning electron microscopy helped to demonstrate the hair-like structure of these keratoses. Some of the sebaceous glands showed cystic widening of their lumina, which were filled with abundant amorphous eosinophilic material, a finding similar to earlier observations. Our case demonstrates that these skin alterations should be classified as side effects of cyclosporin A and that they are apparently dose-dependent. PMID:8567267

  19. The effect of yield strength on side-bonding upset welds

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Perkins, M.A.

    1991-09-24

    During the course of 9{degree} tapered side-bonding resistance upset weld development at Mound, various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of yield strength on welds in 304L stainless steel. The results of these studies have concluded that at high yield strengths there may be a minor reduction in the length of Class 2 or better bond. Satisfactory welds have been produced with materials having yield strengths ranging from 36.0 to 141.0 ksi. However, when body yield strengths exceed 80.0 ksi a minor decrease in bond lengths begins. A significant inverse relationship between stem yield strength and bond length was shown to exist. 8 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. [Risks and side effects of periodontitis therapy. Focus on restorative possibilities for improving esthetic defects].

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the prophylaxis and therapy of periodontitis is the establishment and the preservation of the secondary oral health. Thereby, the main expected outcomes are the reduction of inflammation and probing pocket depths. During the healing process, some tissue shrinkage during the reparative process and healing is inevitable in most cases and leads to more or less pronounced recession. The latter can cause subsequent secondary side effects due to dentin exposure, which appear - in most cases - unwanted and negative, i. e. hypersensitivity, increased caries risk, erosion and abrasion of the exposed dentin. These pathologic conditions may also encounter esthetic and functional impairments. The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss these potential clinical pitfalls and their minimal-invasive management, especially when using adhesive strategies using composite resin materials. PMID:22684997

  1. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  2. Investigation of side wall effects on an inward scramjet inlet at Mach number 8.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolim, Tiago Cavalcanti

    Experimental and computational studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a scramjet inlet as the side cowl length is changed. A slender inward turning inlet of a total length of 304.8 mm, a span of 50.8 mm with the compression at 11.54 deg and CR = 4.79 was used. The side cowl lengths were of 0, 50.8 and 76.2 mm. The UTA Hypersonic Shock Tunnel facility was used in the reflected mode. The model was instrumented with nine piezoelectric pressure transducers, for static and total pressure measurements. A wedge was mounted at the rear of the inlet in order to accommodate a Pitot pressure rake. The driven tube was instrumented with three pressure transducers. Two of them were used to measure the incident shock wave speed, and a third one was used for stagnation pressure measurements during a test. Furthermore, a Pitot probe was installed below the model in order to measure the impact pressure on each run, this reading along with the driven sensor readings, allowed us for the calculation of freestream properties. During the experiments, nominal stagnation enthalpy of 0.67 MJ/kg and stagnation pressure of 3.67 MPa were achieved. Freestream conditions were Mach number 8.6 and Reynolds number of 1.94 million per m. Test times were 300 - 500 microseconds. Numerical simulations using RANS with the Wilcox K-w turbulence model were performed using ANSYS Fluent. The results from the static pressure measurements presented a good agreement with CFD predictions. Moreover, the uniformity at the inlet exit was achieved within the experimental precision. The experiments showed that the cowl length has a pronounced effect in the pressure distribution on the inlet and a minor effect in the exit flow Mach number. The numerical results confirmed these trends and showed that a complex flow structure is formed in the cowl-ramp corners; a non-uniform transverse shock structure was found to be related to the cowl leading edge position. Cross flow due to the side expansion

  3. Do SSRI Antidepressants Increase The Risk of Extrapyramidal Side Effects In Patients Taking Antipsychotics?

    PubMed Central

    Allsbrook, Matthew; Fries, Brant E.; Szafara, Kristina L.; Regal, Randolph E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among antidepressants, selective serotonin reup-take inhibitors (SSRIs) have enjoyed great popularity among clinicians as well as generally wide acceptance and tolerance among patients. A potentially overlooked side effect of SSRIs is the occasional occurrence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), which could be a concern when SSRIs are used with antipsychotics. This study was designed to explore the possible association between SSRI antidepressant use and the incidence of EPS side effects in patients who take concomitant antipsychotic medications. Methods: The University of Michigan conducted a study at the four Michigan state mental health hospitals between May 2010 and October 2010. The Michigan Public Health Institute collected data using the InterRAI Mental Health Assessment (InterRAI MH). The present study is a retrospective cohort analysis of the cross-sectional data that were collected. Within these institutions, 693 residents were using antipsychotics. We measured the observed frequency of seven EPS recorded in the InterRAI MH within three groups of patients: 1) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking an SSRI antidepressant; 2) those on antipsychotic drugs who were not taking an antidepressant; and 3) those on antipsychotic drugs who were taking a non-SSRI antidepressant. Differences in the prevalence of EPS were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Results: There were no significant differences in the observed EPS frequencies among the three groups (F2,18 = 0.01; P < 0.9901). Conclusion: In this study, SSRIs did not appear to potentiate the occurrence of EPS in patients using antipsychotics. PMID:26909002

  4. Erectile dysfunction as rare side effect in the simultaneous intrathecal application of morphine and clonidine.

    PubMed

    Koman, Gershom; Alfieri, Alex; Rachingter, Jens; Strauss, Christian; Scheller, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We report on the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a history of chronic neuropathic pain treated with intrathecal application of morphine for many years. In spite of significant dose escalation, considerable pain relief had not been achieved. Ziconotide had been tried but not only did it not provide pain relief, but it also caused severe side effects in this patient. A combination of morphine and clonidine was delivered by a programmable pump, slowly increasing the clonidine rate over several weeks. For ease of transition and minimization of hospitalization, which was a special concern to this patient, combining clonidine and morphine was chosen over monotherapy with hydromorphone, with both possibilities being described as equal alternatives in the literature. Considerable pain relief was achieved during week 2 at a clonidine dose of 0.040 mg/d, thereby decreasing the visual analog score (VAS) from 10 to 4. Yet, after developing erectile dysfunction and relative hypotension soon after beginning clonidine treatment, the patient decided not to continue with the combined application of morphine and clonidine. Treatment was therefore switched back to the former monotherapy with morphine. Thereafter, erectile dysfunction disappeared and blood pressure returned to habitual high levels. Although common in systemic application, erectile dysfunction caused by the intrathecal application of clonidine has not been described yet in the literature. In this patient, this rare side effect decisively impaired life quality, subjectively outweighing the considerable pain relief which could be achieved after formerly inefficacious treatment. Further and prospective investigation might be needed to estimate the connection of erectile dysfunction to intrathecal application of clonidine. PMID:22828698

  5. Update on cutaneous tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; do Nascimento, Leninha Valério; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Azulay, David Rubem

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis continues to draw special attention from health care professionals and society in general. Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infection caused by M. tuberculosis complex, M. bovis and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Depending on individual immunity, environmental factors and the type of inoculum, it may present varied clinical and evolutionary aspects. Patients with HIV and those using immunobiological drugs are more prone to infection, which is a great concern in centers where the disease is considered endemic. This paper aims to review the current situation of cutaneous tuberculosis in light of this new scenario, highlighting the emergence of new and more specific methods of diagnosis, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the parasite-host interaction. PMID:25387498

  6. Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy: a rare cause of generalised cutaneous telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Toda-Brito, Helena; Resende, Cristina; Catorze, Goreti; Viana, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy is a rare cutaneous microangiopathy of unknown aetiology with only 27 cases reported to date. It is characterised clinically by generalised cutaneous telangiectasias and microscopically by dilation and marked thickening of the walls of superficial dermal blood vessels. Differential diagnosis should be performed with other causes of disseminated telangiectasias, including generalised essential telangiectasia, from which it is clinically indistinguishable. We report a new case of cutaneous collagenous vasculopathy in a 61-year-old woman presenting with a 5-year history of asymptomatic telangiectasias distributed symmetrically on her upper and lower limbs and highlight the importance of clinicopathological correlation for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:26156838

  7. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  8. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B R; Sousa, Gustavo F M; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL(-1)), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL(-1)), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  9. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  10. Cutaneous Infections and Infestations

    PubMed Central

    Tomecki, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Directed and preventive therapies for cutaneous infectious disease and infestation continue to evolve, providing physicians with new options for care. Common infectious diseases (e.g., genital herpes, herpes zoster, and head lice) occur in the outpatient and inpatient setting. This review of the literature highlights new therapies, including those still in development, such as novel drugs and vaccines, all of which should help to decrease the frequency and severity of common infectious diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. PMID:22191004

  11. A case of cutaneous protothecosis mimics eczema.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Li; Yuli, Kang; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Junhao; Zhu, Min

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of cutaneous protothecosis due to Prototheca wickerhamii in an immunocompetent man presented with a specific eczema-like lesions. Dermatological examination revealed erythematous plaques, dark red papules with some coalescence, and a few superficial ulcerations, covered with less scales on his right side chest and neck. Fungal culture, histopathological examination and molecular identification confirmed the organism. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed strain sensitive to amphotericin B, Fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The patient was cured by oral itraconazole capsules and topical cream ketoconazole 2%. PMID:25200680

  12. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasias.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, A C; Wood, G S

    2000-06-01

    Benign hyperplastic lymphoid infiltrates of the skin (pseudolymphoma, older term) simulate lymphoma clinically and histologically. They can be divided into B-cell predominant (typical cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH), angiolymphoid hyperplasia, Kimura's disease, and Castleman's disease) and T-cell predominant (T-cell CLH, lymphomatoid contact dermatitis, and lymphomatoid drug eruption). Both types may represent exaggerated reactions to diverse external antigens (insect bite, tattoo, zoster, trauma, among others). A composite assessment of clinical presentation and behavior, routine histology, immunophenotyping, and molecular studies is essential for the diagnosis of benign cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. Treatment includes antibiotics, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, excision, radiotherapy, and immunosuppressants. Treatment depends on the assessment and biologic behavior, which is usually benign. Molecular biologic analysis has shown that a significant proportion of cases harbor occult B- or T-cell clones (clonal CLH). Progression to overt cutaneous lymphoma has been observed in a minority of cases. Patients with clonal populations of B or T cells and persistent lesions should be closely observed for emergence of a lymphoma. PMID:10892716

  13. Shortening or Abolishing Shift Report as the Effect of ENR and EMR Implementation, and Its Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Asami; Nakajima, Anna; Fukuju, Yuri; Mori, Natsumi; Shimoda, Mariko; Kurihara, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the shortening or abolishing shift report as the effect of implementing electronic nursing and medical records and its side effects at 10 Japanese hospitals. The majority of staff nurses accepted this change, but both directors and staff nurses recognized the risk of insufficient collection and communication of patient information, difficulties of understanding the risks and matters of patients not under care and an increase in time to collect information from the computer before starting patient care. Directors should carefully evaluate and reduce the negative influences associated with changing or eliminating the traditional shift report. PMID:27577330

  14. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. PMID:25817969

  15. Efficacy of Topical Liposomal Amphotericin B versus Intralesional Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime) in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Layegh, Pouran; Rajabi, Omid; Jafari, Mahmoud Reza; Emamgholi Tabar Malekshah, Parisa; Moghiman, Toktam; Ashraf, Hami; Salari, Roshanak

    2011-01-01

    Background. Topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is an attractive alternative avoiding toxicities of parenteral therapy while being administered through a simple painless route. Recently liposomal formulations of amphotericin B have been increasingly used in the treatment of several types of leishmaniasis. Aims. The efficacy of a topical liposomal amphotericin B formulation was compared with intralesional glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods. From 110 patients, the randomly selected 50 received a topical liposomal formulation of amphotericin B into each lesion, 3–7 drops twice daily, according to the lesion's size and for 8 weeks. The other group of 60 patients received intralesional glucantime injection of 1-2 mL once a week for the same period. The clinical responses and side effects of both groups were evaluated weekly during the treatment course. Results. Per-protocol analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.317, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.610 (0.632–4.101)). Moreover, after intention-to-treat analysis, the same results were seen (P = 0.650, 95% CI = 0.1.91 (0.560–2.530)). Serious post treatment side effects were not observed in either group. Conclusions. Topical liposomal amphotericin B has the same efficacy as intralesional glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:22174993

  16. The effect of heating rate on the cutaneous vasomotion responses of forearm and leg skin in humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozzi, Andrew T; Miller, James T; Hodges, Gary J

    2016-05-01

    We examined skin blood flow (SkBF) and vasomotion in the forearm and leg using laser-Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) and spectral analysis to investigate endothelial, sympathetic, and myogenic activities in response to slow (0.1°C·10s(-1)) and fast (0.5°C·10s(-1)) local heating. At 33°C (thermoneutral) endothelial activity was higher in the legs than the forearms (P≤0.02). Fast-heating increased SkBF more than slow heating (P=0.037 forearm; P=0.002 leg). At onset of 42°C, endothelial (P=0.043 forearm; P=0.48 leg) activity increased in both regions during the fast-heating protocol. Following prolonged heating (42°C) endothelial activity was higher in both the forearm (P=0.002) and leg (P<0.001) following fast-heating. These results confirm regional differences in the response to local heating and suggest that the greater increase in SkBF in response to fast local heating is initially due to increased endothelial and sympathetic activity. Furthermore, with sustained local skin heating, greater vasodilatation was observed with fast heating compared to slow heating. These data indicate that this difference is due to greater endothelial activity following fast heating compared to slow heating, suggesting that the rate of skin heating may alter the mechanisms contributing to cutaneous vasodilatation. PMID:26808211

  17. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0–1.4 m·s-1; 1.4–3.4 m·s-1; 3.4–5.2 m·s-1; >5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  18. Health sector demand-side financial incentives in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review on demand- and supply-side effects.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Saji S; Mutasa, Ronald; Friedman, Jed; Das, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Demand-side financial incentive (DSF) is an emerging strategy to improve health seeking behavior and health status in many low- and middle-income countries. This narrative synthesis assessed the demand- and supply-side effects of DSF. Forty one electronic data bases were searched to screen relevant experimental and quasi-experimental study designs. Out of the 64 selected papers, 28 were eligible for this review and they described 19 DSF initiatives across Asia, Africa and Latin America. There were three categories of initiatives, namely long-run multi-sectoral programs or LMPs (governmental); long-run health-exclusive programs (governmental); and short-run health-exclusive initiatives (both governmental and non-governmental). Irrespective of the nature of incentives and initiatives, all DSF programs could achieve their expected behavioral outcomes on healthcare seeking and utilization substantially. However, there existed a few negative and perverse outcomes on health seeking behavior and DSF's impact on continuous health seeking choices (e.g. bed net use and routine adult health check-ups) was mixed. Their effects on maternal health status, diarrhea, malaria and out-of-pocket expenditure were under-explored; while chronic non-communicable diseases were not directly covered by any DSF programs. DSF could reduce HIV prevalence and child deaths, and enhance nutritional and growth status of children. The direction and magnitude of their effects on health status was elastic to the evaluation design employed. On health system benefits, despite prioritizing on vulnerable groups, DSF's substantial effect on the poorest of the poor was mixed compared to that on the relatively richer groups. Though DSF initiatives intended to improve service delivery status, many could not optimally do so, especially to meet the additionally generated demand for care. Causal pathways of DSF's effects should be explored in-depth for mid-course corrections and cross-country learning on their

  19. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  20. [Fenofibrate: animal toxicology in relation to side-effects in man (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blane, G F; Pinaroli, F

    1980-12-22

    Chronic toxicity studies of fenofibrate were carried out in rats (3 months), dogs (7 et 24 months) and Rhesus monkeys (12 months). The results in the last named species (78 animals) were of particular interest, since the treated monkeys had normal size liver without histological abnormalities. Electron microscopy showed no increase in the number of hepatic peroxisomes. Long-term toxicity studies in rats failed to show any increase in the incidence of altered hepatocytes or of neoplastic tumours in treated animals. However, a few peroxisomes were found in animals receiving the highest doses of fenofibrate. In reproduction studies there was no evidence of teratogenic effects in rats with doses 45 times higher than the human dose, nor in rabbits with doses of 300 mg/kg/day. In mutagenicity studies fenofibrate proved unable to bind with DNA and could not, therefore, have any effect on genes. The side-effects encountered in clinical practice (e.g. digestive disorders, sexual fatigue, myalgia, alopecia) were rare and obliged to discontinue treatment in very few cases. Long-term clinical trials failed to demonstrate any fenofibrate-induced pathology, such as malignant or benign tumours, or biliary or urinary lithiasis. Serum transaminases were increased in 10 to 20% of the patients, but the rise was transient and never reached pathological levels. Electron microscope study of liver biopsies from patients treated with fenofibrate showed no proliferation of peroxisomes. PMID:7208340