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Sample records for cv africana para

  1. Taking Africana Existential Philosophy of Education Seriously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Dwayne A.

    2008-01-01

    This essay addresses the concerns educators and philosophers of education might have about an Africana existential philosophy of education by first defining Africana existential philosophy. Then, it performs a brief phenomenological investigation of the lived experiences of persons of African descent in the United States. This essay concludes by

  2. Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana).

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Brown, Tracey K; Andrews, Jeff R M; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Caine, Nancy G

    2013-05-01

    Social learning is a more efficient method of information acquisition and application than trial and error learning and is prevalent across a variety of animal taxa. Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific's interactions facilitated learning of a novel task. The tasks used feeding apparatus that could be solved in one of two distinct ways. Contrary to our hypothesis, the method the demonstrating animal used did not predict the method used by the observer. However, we did find evidence of social learning: After watching the model, subjects spent a greater percentage of their time interacting with the apparatus than they did in unmodeled trials. These results suggest that the demonstrations of a model may increase the motivation of elephants to explore novel foraging tasks. PMID:23238635

  3. Cytotoxic glucosphingolipid from Celtis Africana

    PubMed Central

    Perveen, Shagufta; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; El-Shafae, Azza Muhammed; Khan, Afsar; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Literature survey proved the use of the powdered sun-dried bark and roots of Celtis africana for the treatment of cancer in South Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to do further isolation work on the ethyl acetate fraction and to investigate the cytotoxic activities of the various fractions and isolated compound. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and compound 1 were tested on mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y using the microculture tetrazolium assay. Results: One new glucosphingolipid 1 was isolated from the aerial parts of C. africana. The structure of the new compound was determined by extensive analysis by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The ethyl acetate fraction and compound 1 showed strong cytotoxic activity with an EC50 value of 8.3 ?g/mL and 7.8 ?g/mL, respectively, compared with Kahalalide F positive control (6.3 ?g/mL). Conclusion: This is the first report of the occurrence of a cytotoxic glucosphingolipid in family Ulmaceae. PMID:26109753

  4. Candida africana and its closest relatives.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Candida africana is a recently described opportunistic yeast pathogen that has been linked to vaginal candidiasis. This yeast was first described, in 1995, as atypical chlamydospore-negative Candida albicans strain, and subsequently proposed as a new Candida species on the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics clearly different from those of typical C. albicans isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on the comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences demonstrated that C. africana and C. albicans isolates are too closely related to draw any conclusions regarding the status of a new species. Therefore, on the basis of these studies, some authors considered C. africana as a biovar of C. albicans even if genetic differences may be found if additional regions of genomic DNA are sequenced. The taxonomic situation of C. africana and its phylogenetic relationship with other Candida species is still controversial and remains, at present, a matter of debate. Our goal is to review the current knowledge about C. africana and highlight the development of rapid and accurate tests for its discrimination from C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea. Furthermore, through the analysis of literature data, we have found that C. africana has a worldwide distribution and a considerable number of features making its study particularly interesting. PMID:20667001

  5. Africana Librarianship in the United States to 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Ralph D.

    Arguing that Africana librarianship developed in response to changes in the traditional image of Africa and that it influenced that image in turn, this paper focuses on the individuals who shaped Africana librarianship in the United States. The topics discussed include the earliest American examples of Africana librarianship as witnessed in the

  6. Molecular Characterization of Highly Susceptible Candida africana from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Fakhim, Hamed; Shokohi, Tahereh; Haghani, Iman; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gholami, Haniyeh; Ahmadi, Imaneh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic studies highlight Candida africana as an atypical variant within Candida albicans species complex which is dominantly recovered from vaginal specimens. This study aimed to characterize C. africana isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) by molecular methods and in vitro susceptibilities. One hundred and fifty-six (48.44%) Candida strains were collected from 322 patients diagnosed with VVC. Of these, 114 (73.07%) were germ tube positive and presented green color on the chromogenic medium, thus classified as C. albicans species complex. One hundred and nine (95.61%) out of 114 isolates were identified as C. albicans, while five (4.38%) isolates were identical with C. africana based on hwp1 PCR. C. africana appeared to be highly susceptible to the tested antifungals. For all strains of C. africana, fluconazole MIC was 2-log2-dilution steps less active than amphotericin B, which in turn was 2-log2-dilution steps and 3-log2-dilution steps less active than other azoles and echinocandin agents, respectively. In conclusion, among the C. albicans species complex, C. albicans predominantly and C. africana rarely occur in vaginal mucosa. Due to limited information on molecular epidemiology of this novel yeast, more studies using molecular methods are needed to elucidate the inter- and intraspecific genomic variations of C. africana isolates. PMID:26183965

  7. Anti-angiogenic activity of Entada africana root.

    PubMed

    German, Maria Paola; Certo, Giovanna; D'Angelo, Valeria; Sanogo, Rokia; Malafronte, Nicola; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rapisarda, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Entada africana roots are used in African traditional medicine for various diseases including inflammation. This application may be mediated through anti-angiogenic effects. Thus, in this study the anti-angiogenic activity of E. africana root extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform/methanol and methanol) was preliminarily evaluated by the quantitative determination of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in zebrafish embryos. A bioactivity-guided fractionation of chloroform/methanol extract yielded apigenin and robinetin as the main constituents from the most active fractions. In addition, a marked reduction on capillary formation was evidenced in chick chorioallantoic membrane after treatment with the active fractions or isolated compounds. Results obtained in this study suggest that the anti-angiogenic effects of E. africana root may account for its use in inflammatory diseases and other related pathological conditions. PMID:25482106

  8. CLAMS_CV580_CAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-28

    CLAMS_CV580_CAR Project Title: CLAMS Discipline: Field ... Radiance in 14 spectral bands Order Data: ASDC Order Tool: Order Data Relevant Documents: CV580 Flight Tracks CAR Home Page Readme Files: Readme CAR ...

  9. A new antimicrobial peptide isolated from Oudneya africana seeds.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Riadh; Hamida, Jeannette Ben; Vergoten, Gérard; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Mohamed, Neffati; Fliss, Ismail

    2009-12-01

    Oudneya africana R. Br. (Brassicaceae), a wild-growing plant in the arid region of Tunisia, is used in ethno-medicinal treatment of microbial infections. Validation of ethno-therapeutic claims pertaining to the plant was sought by investigating its antimicrobial activity. A proteinaceous extract of the seeds, called AS-3000, showed activity against various organisms including L. monocytogenes, E. coli, B. subtilis, E. hirae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. Extract AS-3000 exhibited a synergistic effect against L. ivanovii when combined with vancomycin or chloramphenicol. The post-antibiotic inhibitory effect of the ampicillin/AS-3000 combination was 2.3-fold greater than for the antibiotic alone. The mode of action of AS-3000 on Listeria and Escherichia was visible using SEM. These results support the use of O. africana for treating microbial infections. PMID:19954453

  10. Real-time PCR detection of sorghum ergot pathogens Claviceps africana, C. sorghi, and C. sorghicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum ergot is a serious disease that has caused major losses in sorghum growing regions worldwide. C. africana is now the most widely distributed species causing ergot in many countries including the U.S., whereas both C. africana and C. sorghi exist in India. A third species (C. sorghicola) ha...

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana?

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  12. Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans and its closely related yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  13. Real-time PCR detection of sorghum ergot pathogens Claviceps africana, C. sorghi, and C. sorghicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum ergot is a serious disease that has caused major losses in sorghum growing regions worldwide. Claviceps africana is now the most widely distributed species causing ergot in many countries including the U.S., whereas both C. africana and C. sorghi exist in India. A third species (C. sorghic...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Candida africana in Genital Specimens in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Yu, Aihua; Chen, Xiangming; Wang, Guojiang; Feng, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Candida africana, an emerging yeast pathogen, is closely related to Candida albicans and most commonly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). However, its prevalence in candidal balanoposthitis is still unclear. In this study, the prevalence of C. africana in both candidal balanoposthitis and VVC in a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Shanghai, China, was analyzed, and the molecular characterization and susceptible profiles of C. africana isolates were investigated. As results, C. africana was only isolated in 5 out of 79 (6.3%) cases of candidal balanoposthitis rather than cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among them, 4 out of 5 isolates share the same genotype of DST 782 with an isolate from vaginal swab in Japan published previously. All C. africana isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:26665002

  15. Uncommon mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nocardiosis is an unusual infection in companion animals characterized by suppurative to pyogranulomatous lesions, localized or disseminated. Cutaneous-subcutaneous, pulmonary and systemic signs are observed in feline nocardiosis. However, osteomyelitis is a rare clinical manifestation in cats. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (formerly N. asteroides sensu stricto), Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, and Nocardia nova are the most common pathogenic species identified in cats, based on recent molecular classification (16S rRNA gene). The present report is, to our knowledge, the first case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of methods, including molecular techniques. Case presentation A one-year-old non-neutered female cat, raised in a rural area, was admitted to the Companion Animal Hospital-PUCPR, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil, with a history a progressive facial lesion, difficulty apprehending food, loss of appetite, apathy and emaciation. Clinical examination showed fever, submandibular lymphadenitis, and a painless, 8 cm diameter mass, which was irregularly-shaped, of firm consistency, and located in the region of the left mandible. The skin around the lesion was friable, with diffuse inflammation (cellulitis), multiple draining sinuses, and exudation of serosanguinous material containing whitish “sulfur” granules. Diagnosis was based initially in clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological, and histopathological findings, and radiographic images. Molecular sequencing of 16S rRNA of isolate allowed diagnosis of Nocardia africana. Despite supportive care and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing the animal died. Conclusion The present report describes a rare clinical case of feline osteomyelitis caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological and histopathological findings, radiographic images, and molecular methods. The use of modern molecular techniques constitutes a quick and reliable method for Nocardia species identification, and may contribute to identification to new species of Nocardia that are virulent in cats. PMID:23216681

  16. CV 100--Still Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

  17. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of the first Italian Candida africana isolate.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    One atypical isolate of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was isolated from an Italian patient with vulvovaginitis. The strain, germ tube positive and chlamydospore-negative showed white-thin turquoise colonies on Candida ID 2 medium. The yeast was identified as Candida africana by using morphological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the molecular results obtained in this study as well as in other studies, C. africana cannot be yet considered as a new species of Candida. It is possible that C. africana represents a new variant of C. albicans like the well-known Candida stellatoidea. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Italy. PMID:18983430

  18. Exploratory rigid laparoscopy in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Julia; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Neiffer, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    In March 2009, a 25-yr-old captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) underwent an exploratory laparoscopy after several weeks of diarrhea, submandibular and ventral edema, and swelling on medial and lateral aspects of all feet. Although there have been recent advances in laparoscopic vasectomies in free-ranging African elephants in South Africa utilizing specially designed rigid laparoscopes and insufflation devices, this was the first attempt at using these same techniques for an exploratory purpose. The elephant was sedated in a static restraint chute and remained standing for the duration of the procedure. Laparoscopy provided visibility of the dorsal abdomen, enabled collection of reproductive tract biopsies and peritoneal fluid samples, and allowed for instillation of antibiotics and crystalloid fluids directly into the abdominal cavity. Abdominal exploration, collection of tissue samples, and local therapy is possible via standing laparoscopy in megavertebrates. PMID:25632688

  19. Bilateral ovarian cystadenoma in a geriatric African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Hoby, Stefan; Aloisio, Fabio; Schumacher, Vanessa L

    2014-06-01

    A 59-yr-old, captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died of a cardiovascular collapse. Necropsy revealed bilateral replacement of the ovarian tissue by multiple cystic formations of up to 10 cm in diameter. The cysts were thin walled and filled with clear watery fluid. Smaller solid masses with an irregular surface projected from the wall of a few of the cysts. Histologically, the cystic structures were characterized by a single layer of well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Occasionally the cysts contained nodular proliferations of single-layered, well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells forming anastomosing tubules and occasional papillary projections. The ovarian neoplasia was diagnosed as a bilateral multilocular serous ovarian cystadenoma. The nulliparous status and the advanced age may have contributed to the ovarian pathology. PMID:25000708

  20. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association. PMID:25830114

  1. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    PubMed

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram (-) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant. PMID:23297689

  2. Adherence ability of Candida africana: a comparative study with Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; De Leo, Filomena; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we compared the adherence ability to human Hela cells and biofilm formation of three closely related Candida yeast. In our experiments, Candida africana showed poor adhesion ability to human Hela cells and the absence of biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride strips. Conversely, Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis formed mature biofilms and stable attachment to Hela cells. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study reporting data on biofilm formation and adherence to human Hela cells by C. africana. PMID:20202113

  3. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda BV; Rocha, Joo Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion. PMID:26417263

  4. Comparative cytogenetics of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Houck, M L; Kumamoto, A T; Gallagher, D S; Benirschke, K

    2001-01-01

    G- and C-banded karyotypes of the two extant species of the mammalian order Proboscidea are presented for the first time. Chromosome complements were 2n = 56 in both Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus. Comparisons between the species demonstrated a high level of chromosome band homology, with 26 conserved autosomal pairs. The normal diploid karyotype of L. africana had 25 acrocentric/telocentric and two metacentric/submetacentric autosomal pairs. E. maximus differed by having one less acrocentric and one additional submetacentric pair due to either a heterochromatic arm addition or deletion involving autosomal pair 27. Several acrocentric autosomes of L. africana exhibited small short arms that were absent in homologous chromosomes of E. maximus. The X chromosomes in both species were large submetacentric elements and were homologous. However, the small acrocentric Y chromosomes differed; in E. maximus it was slightly larger and had more distinct G-bands than its counterpart in L. africana. Extant Elephantidae appear to be relatively conservative in their rates of chromosomal change compared to some other mammalian families. The high-quality banded karyotypes presented here should prove useful as references in future chromosome analyses of elephant populations and in comparative cytogenetic studies with other ungulate orders. PMID:11528120

  5. The Only African Wild Tobacco, Nicotiana africana: Alkaloid Content and the Effect of Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Marlin, Danica; Nicolson, Susan W.; Yusuf, Abdullahi A.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Heyman, Heino M.; Krger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Herbivory in some Nicotiana species is known to induce alkaloid production. This study examined herbivore-induced defenses in the nornicotine-rich African tobacco N. africana, the only Nicotiana species indigenous to Africa. We tested the predictions that: 1) N. africana will have high constitutive levels of leaf, flower and nectar alkaloids; 2) leaf herbivory by the African bollworm Helicoverpa armigera will induce increased alkaloid levels in leaves, flowers and nectar; and 3) increased alkaloid concentrations in herbivore-damaged plants will negatively affect larval growth. We grew N. africana in large pots in a greenhouse and exposed flowering plants to densities of one, three and six fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera, for four days. Leaves, flowers and nectar were analyzed for nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine. The principal leaf alkaloid was nornicotine (mean: 28 g/g dry mass) followed by anabasine (4.9 g/g) and nicotine (0.6 g/g). Nornicotine was found in low quantities in the flowers, but no nicotine or anabasine were recorded. The nectar contained none of the alkaloids measured. Larval growth was reduced when leaves of flowering plants were exposed to six larvae. As predicted by the optimal defense theory, herbivory had a localized effect and caused an increase in nornicotine concentrations in both undamaged top leaves of herbivore damaged plants and herbivore damaged leaves exposed to one and three larvae. The nicotine concentration increased in damaged compared to undamaged middle leaves. The nornicotine concentration was lower in damaged leaves of plants exposed to six compared to three larvae, suggesting that N. africana rather invests in new growth as opposed to protecting older leaves under severe attack. The results indicate that the nornicotine-rich N. africana will be unattractive to herbivores and more so when damaged, but that potential pollinators will be unaffected because the nectar remains alkaloid-free even after herbivory. PMID:25025217

  6. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5 mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5 mg/mL and 2.5–10 mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  7. Medicinal Plants Used in Wound Care: A Study of Prosopis africana (Fabaceae) Stem Bark

    PubMed Central

    Ezike, A. C.; Akah, P. A.; Okoli, C. O.; Udegbunam, S.; Okwume, N.; Okeke, C.; Iloani, O.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (Guill., Perrott. and Rich.) Taubert (Fabaceae) on bleeding/clotting and coagulation time, excision and dead space wounds were studied in rats. Also, the extract was subjected to antibacterial, and acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) tests. The extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced bleeding/clotting and coagulation time in rats. It also reduced epithelialization period of excision wounds in rats and inhibited the growth of laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae to varying extents. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50) test on the extract established an LD50 of 774 mg/kg (i.p) in mice while phytochemical analysis gave positive reactions for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and carbohydrates. The results of this study demonstrate the beneficial effects of the stem bark of P. africana in wound care. PMID:21188042

  8. Interactions of antibiotics and methanolic crude extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) against drug resistance bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 ?g/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds. PMID:21845091

  9. [Chemical and DNA analyses for the products of a psychoactive plant, Voacanga africana].

    PubMed

    Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Maruyama, Takuro; Miyashita, Akinori; Goda, Yukihiro

    2009-08-01

    Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is a small tropical African tree. The root bark and seeds of this tree contain a number of alkaloids, including ibogaine (a hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac compound in bark), tabersonine (a major constituteent of seeds) and other voacanga alkaloids, traditionally used in Africa for religious purposes. Recently, some kinds of products containing this plant (root bark and seeds) have been distributed in the drug market in expectation of its hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac effects. There has been no report that has discussed quantitative analyses of these alkaloids in the products and their botanical origins. In this study, to investigate the trend of such a non-controlled psychotropic plant of abuse, a simultaneous analytical method was developed using LC/MS for the voacanga alkaloids including ibogaine and tabersonine in the commercial products of V. africana. Moreover, the botanical origins of these products were investigated by DNA analyses. As a result of the LC/MS analyses, the products were classified into two chemical types; an ibogaine-type and a tabersonine-type. The samples of the ibogaine-type contain ibogaine (0.05-0.6%) and other voacanga alkaloids; voacamine, voacamidine and voacangine, while those of the tabersonine-type mainly contain tabersonine (0.6-1.6%). The sequence analyses of chloroplast DNA, trnL-F region suggested that most of the products were derived from V. africana or closely related plants. They were classified into four genotypes based on nucleotide sequence of the trnL-F IGS region. The proposed methods of chemical and DNA analyses would be useful for investigating the trend in the distribution of the products of V. africana. PMID:19652504

  10. Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chenia, Hafizah Y.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the search for novel anti-virulence compounds. Although many phytochemicals show promising antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Thus the quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of four crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using the qualitative agar diffusion assay as well as by quantifying violacein inhibition using K. africana extracts ranging from 0.318.2 mg/mL. Qualitative modulation of QS activity was investigated using the agar diffusion double ring assay. All four extracts showed varying levels of anti-QS activity with zones of violacein inhibition ranging from 910 mm. The effect on violacein inhibition was significant in the following order: hexane > dichloromethane > ethyl acetate > methanol. Inhibition was concentration-dependent, with the ?90% inhibition being obtained with ?1.3 mg/mL of the hexane extract. Both LuxI and LuxR activity were affected by crude extracts suggesting that the phytochemicals target both QS signal and receptor. K. africana extracts with their anti-QS activity, have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents, which might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo. PMID:23447012

  11. Paratrichodina africana (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) of wild and cultured Nile tilapia in the Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Marchiori, Natlia da Costa; Martins, Maurcio Latera

    2013-01-01

    The present work morphologically characterizes Paratrichodina africana from the gills of wild and farmed Nile tilapia from Northern Brazil (eastern Amazonia). Ninety fish were captured for parasitological analysis in Macap, State of Amap, from a wetland area bathed by the Amazon River commonly called 'Ressaca do Zero' (n = 52), as well as from a local fish farm (n = 38). Wet smears of the skin and gills of the captured fish were air dried at room temperature and impregnated with silver nitrate by Klein's method for posterior examination of the adhesive disc structures. Total prevalence of parasitism was 16.6% (23% in fish from wetland and 7.8% in farmed fish). Characterized as a small-sized trichodinid, it presented the following measures: 33.2 4.7 m body diameter, 17.5 2.1 m adhesive disc, 10.0 0.9 m denticulate ring, and 22.6 2.0 denticles. Paratrichodina africana reported in this study strongly resembles those described for other localities, but it differs by presenting greater body length. This is the fourth report of P. africana parasitizing a host fish. PMID:23802238

  12. Nor-hopanes from Zanha africana root bark with toxicity to bruchid beetles.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Green, Paul W C; Veitch, Nigel C; Farrell, Iain W; Kusolwa, Paul; Belmain, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Zanha africana (Radlk.) Exell (Sapindaceae) root bark is used by farmers throughout sub-Saharan Africa to protect stored grain from bruchid beetles, such as Callosobruchus maculatus. Chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Z. africana root bark inhibited oviposition and caused significantly higher mortality of C. maculatus at a rate of application equivalent to that applied by farmers compared to control insects. The chloroform extract contained nor-hopanes rarely found in plants of which seven were isolated, one of which was previously known. Two of the most abundant nor-hopanes 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-21αH-24-norhopa-4(23),22(29)-diene and 3β,6β-dihydroxy-7β-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-24-norhopa-4(23),17(21)-diene were toxic to and reduced oviposition of C. maculatus in a dose dependent manner. Z. africana root bark is rich in insecticidal compounds that account for its effective use by smallholder farmers as an alternative to conventional insecticides. PMID:26803395

  13. Heavily-Metamorphosed Clasts in the CV Carbonaceous Chondrite Mokoia: Evidence for Strong Thermal Metamorphism on the CV Parent Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, K.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-03-01

    The mineralogy and O-isotope compositions of heavily-metamorphosed clasts from the Mokoia CV breccia are consistent with those of CV chondrites, suggesting an origin of the clasts in the interior of the CV parent asteroid.

  14. mRNA vaccine CV9103 and CV9104 for the treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Steffen; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Bedke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Among currently available vaccine strategies for cancer, nucleotide-based vaccination is an appealing treatment modality. Curevacs’ mRNA containing vaccines (RNActive®) combine the beneficial properties of sufficient antigen-expression, autologous immune-stimulation and a high flexibility with respect to production and application. CV9103 and CV9104 are novel RNActive®-derived anticancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. After successful phase I/II studies with documentation of good tolerability and favorable immune-activation of CV9103, the vaccine CV9104 is currently undergoing clinical testing in specific clinical settings such as castration resistant prostate cancer and as a neoadjuvant agent in men with high risk prostate cancer prior to surgery. This review discusses the available preclinical and clinical data on the anticancer vaccination treatment with RNActive®-derived anticancer-vaccines CV9103 and CV9104. PMID:25483661

  15. Aqueous alteration in CV carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurice, M.; Trigo-Rodrguez, J. M.; Mestres, N.

    2012-09-01

    Several sections of CV chondrites belonging to the NASA Antarctic collection are being studied by our group in order to better understand the nature and physical processes occurred on the CV parent asteroid. We compare them with several sections of more common representative specimens from historic falls like e.g. Allende and Mokoia to find evidence of impact-induced heating and aqueous alteration. Once identified relevant features, we obtain mineralogical clues by using a Raman spectrometer.

  16. Two jacalin-related lectins from seeds of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana L.).

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Michiko; Nsimba-Lubaki, Shadrack Makuta; Hayashi, Namiko; Minami, Yuji; Yagi, Fumio; Hiemori, Keiko; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) were purified by mannose-agarose and melibiose-agarose from seeds of Treculia africana. One is galactose-recognizing JRL (gJRL), named T. africana agglutinin-G (TAA-G), and another one is mannose-recognizing JRL (mJRL), TAA-M. The yields of the two lectins from the seed flour were approximately 7.0 mg/g for gJRL and 7.2 mg/g for mJRL. The primary structure of TAA-G was determined by protein sequencing of lysyl endopeptic peptides and chymotryptic peptides. The sequence identity of TAA-G to other gJRLs was around 70%. Two-residue insertion was found around the sugar-binding sites, compared with the sequences of other gJRLs. Crystallographic studies on other gJRLs have shown that the primary sugar-binding site of gJRLs can accommodate Gal, GalNAc, and GalNAc residue of T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-). However, hemagglutination inhibition and glycan array showed that TAA-G did not recognize GalNAc itself and T-antigen. TAA-G preferred melibiose and core 3 O-glycan. PMID:25155899

  17. Nuclear microprobe studies of elemental distributions in dormant seeds of Burkea africana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, E. T. F.; Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przyby?owicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przyby?owicz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Seed nutrient stores are vital post-germination for the establishment of seedlings in harsh and unpredictable environments. Plants of nutrient-poor environments allocate a substantial proportion of total acquired nutrients to reproduction (i.e. seeds). We propose that differential allocation of mineral resources to specific seed tissues is an indication of a species germination and establishment strategy. Burkea africana Hook is a leguminous tree typical of broad-leaved nutrient-poor savannas in southern Africa. Elemental distributions in dormant B. africana seed structures were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3.0 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous BS and PIXE point analyses. Mineral nutrient concentrations varied greatly between seed tissues. Elevated levels of metals known to play an important role as plant enzyme co-factors were found in the seed lens and embryonic axis. Distributions of most of these metals (Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, but not K or Cu) were positively correlated with embryonic P distribution, and probably represent phytin deposits. The distribution of metals within seed structures is 'patchy' due to their complexation with P as electron-dense globoid phytin crystals, which constrains the interpretation of PIXE point analyses.

  18. AFLP COMPARISONS AMONG CLAVICEPS AFRICANA ISOLATES CAUSING SORGHUM ERGOT IN THE U.S., AFRICA, INDIA, AND JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty-seven isolates of the sorghum ergot pathogen, C. africana, from diverse geographic locations were analyzed using four different AFLP primer combinations to determine genetic relationships among isolates. Most isolates showed unique AFLP types, indicating that much genetic variation is present...

  19. LABORATORY GREENHOUSE, AND FIELD ASSESSMENT OF FOURTEEN FUNGICIDES FOR ACTIVITY AGAINST CLAVICEPS AFRICANA, CAUSAL AGENT OF SORGHUM ERGOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commericial formulations of 14 fungicides representing seven chemical classes were assessed in vitro and in vivo for activity against Claviceps africana, causal agent of sorghum ergot. All the fungicides markedly reduced spore germination in vitro on water agar, with EC50 values (based on active ing...

  20. Conservation Priorities for Prunus africana Defined with the Aid of Spatial Analysis of Genetic Data and Climatic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J.; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species’ range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. PMID:23544118

  1. Iterative contextual CV model for liver segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel iterative active contour algorithm, i.e. Iterative Contextual CV Model (ICCV), and apply it to automatic liver segmentation from 3D CT images. ICCV is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e. the training stage, given a set of abdominal CT training images and the corresponding manual liver labels, our task is to construct a series of self-correcting classifiers by learning a mapping between automatic segmentations (in each round) and manual reference segmentations via context features. At the second stage, i.e. the segmentation stage, first the basic CV model is used to segment the image and subsequently Contextual CV Model (CCV), which combines the image information and the current shape model, is iteratively performed to improve the segmentation result. The current shape model is obtained by inputting the previous automatic segmentation result into the corresponding self-correcting classifier. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that we obtain more and more accurate segmentation results by the iterative steps and satisfying results are obtained after about six iterations. Also, our method is comparable to the state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

  2. African elephants (Loxodonta africana) recognize visual attention from face and body orientation.

    PubMed

    Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-07-01

    How do animals determine when others are able and disposed to receive their communicative signals? In particular, it is futile to make a silent gesture when the intended audience cannot see it. Some non-human primates use the head and body orientation of their audience to infer visual attentiveness when signalling, but whether species relying less on visual information use such cues when producing visual signals is unknown. Here, we test whether African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are sensitive to the visual perspective of a human experimenter. We examined whether the frequency of gestures of head and trunk, produced to request food, was influenced by indications of an experimenter's visual attention. Elephants signalled significantly more towards the experimenter when her face was oriented towards them, except when her body faced away from them. These results suggest that elephants understand the importance of visual attention for effective communication. PMID:25013015

  3. FATAL ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN AN AFRICAN SAVANNA ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA) IN A FRENCH ZOO.

    PubMed

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Joris, Antoine; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) involving an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) occurred in November 2013 at the Rserve Africaine de Sigean, France. An adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. Gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. Histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular cardiomyocytes with concurrent lymphoplasmocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. An EMCV was isolated from several organs and considered the causative agent of the myocarditis. The same strain of virus was also isolated in rodents captured on zoo premises and considered to be the reservoir of the virus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first EMCV case in a captive African elephant in Europe. PMID:26056902

  4. Parotid salivary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): structure and composition of saliva.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, E J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J; de Vos, V

    1988-12-01

    Specimens from parotid salivary glands of full-grown elephant (Loxodonta africana) a (n=6) and saliva aspirated from their main excretory ducts were examined macroscopically and microscopically and analyzed biochemically. The composition of the saliva was compared to that of the blood. The parotids (n=12; mean = 7.4 kg) are homocrine and of a seromucous nature. Myoepithelial cells are well-developed along intercalated ducts and their processes extend to proximal portions of allied acini. The saliva is hypotonic and contains relatively low concentrations of sodium and glucose and high concentrations of potassium, urea, calcium and phosphorus. Absence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase negates a digestive role and the voluminous secrete evidently aids swallowing by moisturising and lubricating the large mass of ingested leaves, grass and bark. PMID:3210214

  5. Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions. PMID:22448519

  6. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if accretion disks are present or not. Our results suggest that the accretion disk's geometric shape directly affects the disk's precession rate.

  7. Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species. PMID:24143052

  8. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem) of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM) induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant. PMID:21733176

  9. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: the overexploitation of a medicinal plant species and its legal context.

    PubMed

    Bodeker, Gerard; van 't Klooster, Charlotte; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines. PMID:25225776

  10. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: The Overexploitation of a Medicinal Plant Species and Its Legal Context

    PubMed Central

    Bodeker, Gerard; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines. PMID:25225776

  11. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  12. Thermoluminescence and Metamorphism in CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symes, S. J. K.; Guimon, R. K.; Benoit, P. H.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-07-01

    One of the effects of metamorphism in meteorites is the production of feldspar, a thermoluminescence (TL) phosphor, through the devitrification of primary chondrule glass [1]. The 105-fold variation in TL sensitivity among the ordinary chondrites reflects this process and has been used successfully to subdivide the petrographic type 3 meteorites into types 3.0-3.9 [2]. Although less pronounced, the variability exhibited by the CO chondrites has also allowed petrographic subdivision of these meteorites [3]. It is possible that the CV chondrites have also experienced a range of metamorphic intensities, although McSween has warned that their petrography does not indicate a simple sequence [4]. On the other hand, Scott et al. show that the homogeneity of matrix olivine increases along the series Kaba, Mokoia, Vigarano, Grosnaja, Allende, which may indicate progressive thermal metamorphism [5]. Here we report TL sensitivity measurements for 12 whole-rock samples of CV chondrites and we suggest petrographic type assignments and discuss their metamorphic history. Samples of bulk powder were ground, the magnetic fraction removed, and the TL of 4-mg aliquots was measured three times for duplicate splits. Averages are given in Table 1, which appears in the hard copy. The CV chondrites, like the CO chondrites, generally display three peaks in their glow curves; one at 130 degrees C, which is sensitive to metamorphism at temperatures below 650 degrees C [3], one at 250 degrees C, which is metamorphism independent, and one at 350 degrees C, which might be associated with refractory minerals in CAI [6]. The TL sensitivities of these samples show a >100-fold range, the lowest being below detection limits (<0.01) and the highest being greater than the Dhajala H3.8 chondrite, which we use as a standard. Six of the 12 samples have TL sensitivities corresponding to type 3.0 if we apply the criteria proposed by Sears et al. to subdivide the CO chondrites (which are similar to those used for the ordinary chondrites) [3]. All but one of the remainder have sensitivities corresponding to minimal metamorphism (type 3.2-3.3). The exception is Coolidge, whose TL, like many other properties [4], indicates that it is petrographic type 4. Our TL data therefore indicate that, with the exception of Coolidge, the CV chondrites have experienced minimal metamorphism, although evidence for some slight variation is present. Even though Coolidge has been metamorphosed to type-4 levels, like CO chondrites and unlike ordinary chondrites, the temperatures involved were <650 degrees C since the TL peak temperature is still 130 degrees C. Apparently, the most metamorphosed CV and CO chondrites were metamorphosed for longer times than ordinary chondrites, but at lower temperatures. References: [1] Guimon et al. (1985) GCA, 49, 1515-1523. [2] Sears et al. (1980) Nature, 287, 791-795. [3] Sears et al. (1991) Proc. NIPR Symp. Ant. Met., 4, 319-343. [4] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [5] Scott et al. (1988) in Meteorites and the Early Solar System (Kerridge and Matthews, eds.), 718-745. [6] Guimon R. K. and Sears D. W. G. (1986) Meteoritics, 21, 381-382.

  13. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  14. Excess K-41 in CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Goswami, J. N.

    1994-07-01

    Observation of excess K-41 in Efremovka Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) suggests the presence of the short-lived nuclide Ca-41 in the early solar system and an initial Ca-41/Ca-40 ratio of (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10-8 at the time of formation of Efremovka CAIs. The first hint for the presence of Ca-41 in the early solar system came from the work of Hutcheon (1984) who obtained an upper limit of (8 +/- 3) x 10-9 for initial Ca-41/Ca-40 at the time of formation of the Allende CAIs EGG-3 and 3529-Z. We present results of our K isotopic measurements in CAIs from the CV chondrites Efremovka, Allende, and Leoville. The Efremovka CAI E44 analyzed by us is a type B1 inclusion and is described in detail. We have also analyzed a couple of pyroxene grains from the Allende inclusion EGG-3. The sample of the Leoville CAI L-6 is a compact type A inclusion, whose petrographic and mineralogic characteristics suggest the absence of secondary alterations. The present study consolidates earlier conclusions regarding the presence of Ca-41 in the early solar system. A cosmogenic and/or fossil origin of K-41 excess is not compatible with the magnitude of the observed K-41 excess and its correlation with Ca-40. Whether the variation seen in the initial Ca-41/Ca-40 in Efremovka and Allende pyroxenes is real or resulted from movement of K during small-scale perturbation can only be ascertained by further studies. Irrespective of these variations, the presence of excess K-41 in Efremovka and Allende CAIs constrains the time interval between the cessation of nucleosynthetic input into the solar nebula and the formation of CV3 CAIs to about a million years.

  15. The expression of affect in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) rumble vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Joseph; Leighty, Katherine A; Wesolek, Christina M; Savage, Anne

    2009-05-01

    Affective states are thought to be expressed in the mammalian voice, but such investigations are most common in primates. Source and filter features of rumbles were analyzed from 6 adult female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at Disney's Animal Kingdom. Rumbles produced during periods of minimal social interaction ("low affect") were compared to those produced during dominance interactions ("high affect"). Low-ranking females produced rumbles with increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and increased durations and amplitudes during dominance interactions with superiors, compared to the low affect context. This acoustic response is consistent with the expression of affect in mammals and may signal submission to superiors. The 2 highest ranking females were codominant and competed for alpha status. They produced rumbles with decreased and less variable fundamental frequencies, increased durations and amplitudes, and a decrease in formant dispersion during dominance interactions with each other, compared to the low affect context. This response is not generally consistent with the expression of affect, but may signal large body size to competitors. These results suggest that affect can be expressed in the voiced sounds of elephants. PMID:19450029

  16. Assessment of ovarian cycles in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) by measurement of salivary progesterone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Illera, Juan-Carlos; Silvn, Gema; Cceres, Sara; Carbonell, Maria-Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martnez-Fernndez, Leticia; Munro, Coralie; Casares, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring ovarian cycles through hormonal analysis is important in order to improve breeding management of captive elephants, and non-invasive collection techniques are particularly interesting for this purpose. However, there are some practical difficulties in collecting proper samples, and easier and more practical methods may be an advantage for some institutions and/or some animals. This study describes the development and validation of an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progestins in salivary samples of African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Weekly urinary and salivary samples from five non-pregnant elephant cows aged 7-12 years were obtained for 28 weeks and analyzed using EIA. Both techniques correlated positively (r = 0.799; P < 0.001), and the cycle characteristics obtained were identical. The results clearly show that ovarian cycles can be monitored by measuring progestins from salivary samples in the African elephant. This is a simple and non-invasive method that may be a practical alternative to other sampling methods used in the species. PMID:24610639

  17. Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Ortega, Joaqun; Corpa, Juan M; Orden, Jos A; Blanco, Jorge; Carbonell, Mara D; Gerique, Amalia C; Latimer, Erin; Hayward, Gary S; Roemmelt, Andreas; Kraemer, Thomas; Romey, Aurore; Kassimi, Labib B; Casares, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal. PMID:26179092

  18. Organisation and chemical neuroanatomy of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Ayanda; Patzke, Nina; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    The olfactory system of mammals can be divided into a main and accessory olfactory system with initial processing for each system occurring in the olfactory bulb. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs have similar structural features, even though they appear to be functionally independent. In mammals the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is also one of two established sites of lifelong generation of new cells. The present study describes the histological and immunohistochemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The morphology of MOB of the elephant does not differ significantly from that described in other mammals; however, it lacks the internal plexiform layer. In addition, the glomeruli of the glomerular layer are organised in 2-4 "honey-combed" layers, a feature not commonly observed. The cell types and structures revealed with immunohistochemical stains (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, orexin-A, glial fibrillary acidic protein) were similar to other mammals. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic marker doublecortin. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in most layers of the MOB. No accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was observed. Based on the general anatomy and the immunohistochemical observations, it is evident that the morphology of the African elephant MOB is, for the most part, similar to that of all mammals, although very large in absolute size. PMID:21479949

  19. Fetomaternal glycosylation of early placentation events in the African elephant Loxodonta africana.

    PubMed

    Jones, C J P; Wooding, F B P; Mathias, S S; Allen, W R

    2004-04-01

    During implantation in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), fetal trophoblast displaces the surface uterine epithelium and superficially penetrates the uterine glands. This limited invasion is followed by the upgrowth of blunt fingers of endometrial stroma, covered with trophoblast and containing capillaries that subsequently vascularize the growing placenta. We have used lectin histochemistry to compare the glycosylation of maternal endothelial cells in the endometrium with those growing within the trophoblastic processes of a 2 g embryo (approximately 125 days' gestation), and also examine changes in the endometrial glands associated with trophoblastic invasion. Maternal vessels at the apices of the trophoblast-covered stromal upgrowths showed increased expression of terminal N-acetyl galactosamine, N-acetyl glucosamine oligomers, some sialic acids, and tri/tetra-antennate non-bisected complex N-linked glycan, as indicated by increased lectin staining. The areas of increased staining were also more resistant to neuraminidase digestion. Invaded glands had distended walls composed of flattened epithelial cells, some of which showed heavy lectin staining suggestive of intracellular glycan accumulation. The vascular changes suggest that new maternal capillary growth is accompanied by alterations in surface glycosylation. This may be the result of increased glycosyl transferase activity associated with cell proliferation and may also indicate the expression of significantly increased anti-adhesive molecules preventing blood stasis and egress of maternal immunocompetent cells into the fetal compartment. PMID:15028423

  20. Reproductive assessment of male elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Gritz, F; Pratt, N C; Schmitt, D L; Quandt, S; Raath, J; Hofmann, R R

    1998-06-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on five wild and two captive male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and four captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to develop standards for assessment of reproductive health and status. The entire internal urogenital tract was visualized ultrasonographically by using a 3.5 MHz or a 7.5-MHz transducer in combination with a probe extension adapted for elephant anatomy. The findings were verified by postmortem ex situ ultrasound examinations in several individuals of each species. Each part of the internal urogenital tract was sonographically detectable except for the bulbourethral glands and the cranial portion of the ureters and ductus deferentes, which were only observed in situ in the neonate. Each structure visualized was measured and described. The size and morphology of the urogenital structures, especially the accessory glands, were indicative of breeding status, if known. There was a notable difference between African and Asian males in the size and morphology of the prostate gland and a slight difference in the shape of the ampullae. No other structure showed significant species differences. The detection of the location and description of the testes may provide information for modifying present castration procedures. Furthermore, ultrasound examination of the male accessory glands may aid in the identification of potential semen donors for assisted reproduction programs in captive elephants. PMID:9732024

  1. Wild female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit personality traits of leadership and social integration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2012-08-01

    Animal personalities have been demonstrated for almost 200 species, with stable dimensions of responses (aggressive to fearful; shy to bold) across contexts and with a heritable basis to these traits. As a long-lived and highly social species, elephants (Loxodonta africana) were expected to demonstrate complex dimensions to individual characteristics or personalities, which would be obvious to human observers and validated by behavioral observations. We used principal-components analysis of ratings on 26 behavioral adjectives applied to one social unit, coded as the EB family, which has been observed for 38 years. Eleven adult females were rated by four observers and found to have individually variable traits on four dimensions described by principal-components analysis. The first component was associated with effective and confident family leadership. Component 2 was age-related, and defined by playfulness, exploration and high levels of activity, suggesting both an experience and an age-related element to its structure. Component 3 represented gentleness and at its other extreme, aggression, and Component 4 was related to constancy (predictability and popularity), with both of these latter components reflecting social integration. Leadership among elephant females represents the successful negotiation among individual interests, and our components were related to a capacity to affect the behavior of others in the absence of aggressive dominance. The family matriarch, Echo, was high on elements associated with leadership. The importance of the matriarch in this family's success suggests that elements of personality may underlie interfamilial variation in long-term survival and reproduction. PMID:22905995

  2. Physical, physiological, and behavioral correlates of musth in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Ganswindt, Andre; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Although musth in male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is known to be associated with increased aggressiveness, urine dribbling (UD), temporal gland secretion (TGS), and elevated androgens, the temporal relationship between these changes has not been examined. Here, we describe the pattern of musth-related characteristics in 14 captive elephant bulls by combining long-term observations of physical and behavioral changes with physiological data on testicular and adrenal function. The length of musth periods was highly variable but according to our data set not related to age. Our data also confirm that musth is associated with elevated androgens and, in this respect, show that TGS and UD are downstream effects of this elevation, with TGS responding earlier and to lower androgen levels than UD. Because the majority of musth periods were associated with a decrease in glucocorticoid levels, our data also indicate that musth does not represent a physiological stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the occurrence of musth is associated with increased aggression and that this is presumably androgen mediated because aggressive males had higher androgen levels. Collectively, the information generated contributes to a better understanding of what characterizes and initiates musth in captive African elephants and provides a basis for further studies designed to examine in more detail the factors regulating the intensity and duration of musth. PMID:15957105

  3. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana

    PubMed Central

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; Gonzlez-Martnez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Bhning-Gaese, K

    2014-01-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations. PMID:24849171

  4. The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Isbell, Lynne A; Hart, Lynette A

    2009-03-22

    Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments. PMID:19129113

  5. Isolation of a Novel Fusogenic Orthoreovirus from Eucampsipoda africana Bat Flies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Wiley, Michael; Palacios, Gustavo; Storm, Nadia; McCulloch, Stewart; Markotter, Wanda; Birkhead, Monica; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T

    2016-01-01

    We report on the isolation of a novel fusogenic orthoreovirus from bat flies (Eucampsipoda africana) associated with Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) collected in South Africa. Complete sequences of the ten dsRNA genome segments of the virus, tentatively named Mahlapitsi virus (MAHLV), were determined. Phylogenetic analysis places this virus into a distinct clade with Baboon orthoreovirus, Bush viper reovirus and the bat-associated Broome virus. All genome segments of MAHLV contain a 5' terminal sequence (5'-GGUCA) that is unique to all currently described viruses of the genus. The smallest genome segment is bicistronic encoding for a 14 kDa protein similar to p14 membrane fusion protein of Bush viper reovirus and an 18 kDa protein similar to p16 non-structural protein of Baboon orthoreovirus. This is the first report on isolation of an orthoreovirus from an arthropod host associated with bats, and phylogenetic and sequence data suggests that MAHLV constitutes a new species within the Orthoreovirus genus. PMID:27011199

  6. Clostridium perfringens beta2-toxin in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) with ulcerative enteritis.

    PubMed

    Bacciarini, L N; Pagan, O; Frey, J; Grne, A

    2001-11-17

    A 22-year-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) developed diarrhoea of unknown cause which lasted for two days. The animal was euthanased after it remained recumbent and refused to get up. Gross pathological changes were present mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. The intestinal contents were watery and dark brown. Several areas of the mucosa of the small intestine were covered minimally to moderately with fibrin and had a few 0.1 x 10 to 15 cm linear ulcerations. Microscopical lesions consisted of discrete areas of necrosis of the surface and crypt epithelium without overt inflammatory infiltrates. Culture of the small intestinal contents resulted in a moderate growth of Clostridium perfringens. No salmonella were found in the small or large intestine. PCR of the isolate of C. perfringens revealed the presence of the beta2-toxin gene cpb2 and the alpha-toxin gene cpa but no other known toxin genes. The expression of the beta2-toxin gene in vivo was demonstrated by the immunohistochemical localisation of the beta2-toxin to the microscopical lesions in the small intestine. PMID:11761293

  7. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana.

    PubMed

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-11-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations. PMID:24849171

  8. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    PubMed

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree. PMID:14522426

  9. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    PubMed

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantn, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quinds, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ?31 h with ?0.5 ?g/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails. PMID:25703894

  10. Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mth, C; Sznsi, G; Sebestny, A; Blzovics, A; Szentmihlyi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

    2014-08-01

    CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14days (twice 3ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect. PMID:23653282

  11. Pitfalls in the detection of CV2 (CRMP5) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Lidia; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-15

    CV2 antibodies (CV2-ab) associate with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and small-cell lung cancer. This study was designed to assess the sensitivity of two widely used anti-CV2 commercial kits. Fifty three sera with CV2-ab identified by immunohistochemistry on paraformaldehyde-perfused rat brain were tested with two commercial immunoblot kits (Euroimmun AG, and Ravo Diagnostika) and 4 (7.5%) of them were negative with the commercial kits. The 4 samples were positive by immunofluorescence on HEK293 cells transfected with CRMP5 and immunoblot of these cells lysate. A few CV2-ab-positive sera may be missed by commercial immunoblots. Negative samples from patients with high suspicion for PNS should be tested by alternative methods. PMID:26711575

  12. The effects of smoke derivatives on in vitro seed germination and development of the leopard orchid Ansellia africana.

    PubMed

    Papenfus, H B; Naidoo, D; Pošta, M; Finnie, J F; Van Staden, J

    2016-03-01

    Plant-derived smoke and smoke-isolated compounds stimulate germination in seeds from over 80 genera. It has also been reported that smoke affects overall plant vigour and has a stimulatory effect on pollen growth. The effect of smoke on orchid seeds, however, has not been assessed. In South Africa, orchid seeds from several genera may be exposed to smoke when they are released from their seedpods. It is therefore possible that smoke may affect their germination and growth. Therefore, the effects of smoke [applied as smoke-water (SW)] and two smoke-derived compounds, karrikinolide (KAR1 ) and trimethylbutenolide (TMB), were investigated on the germination and growth of orchid seeds in vitro. The effect of SW, KAR1 and TMB were investigated on the endangered epiphytic orchid, Ansellia africana, which is indigenous to tropical areas of Africa. Smoke-water, KAR1 and TMB were infused in half-strength MS medium. The number of germinated seeds and number of seeds and protocorm bodies to reach predetermined developmental stages were recorded on a weekly basis using a dissecting microscope for a 13-week period. Infusing SW 1:250 (v:v) into half-strength MS medium significantly increased the germination rate index (GRI) and the development rate index (DRI) of the A. africana seeds. All the SW treatments significantly increased the number of large protocorm bodies at the final stage of development. Infusing KAR1 into the growing medium had no significant effect on germination or development of the seeds. The TMB treatment, however, significantly reduced the GRI and DRI of A. africana seeds. PMID:26206372

  13. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites.

    PubMed

    Fries, Marc; Steele, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Graphite whiskers (GWs), an allotrope of carbon that has been proposed to occur in space, have been discovered in three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites via Raman imaging and electron microscopy. The GWs are associated with high-temperature calcium-aluminum inclusion (CAI) rims and interiors, with the rim of a dark inclusion, and within an inclusion inside an unusual chondrule that bears mineralogy and texture indicative of high-temperature processing. Current understanding of CAI formation places their condensation, and that of associated GWs, relatively close to the Sun and early in the condensation sequence of protoplanetary disk materials. If this is the case, then it is a possibility that GWs are expelled from any young solar system early in its history, thus populating interstellar space with diffuse GWs. Graphite whiskers have been postulated to play a role in the near-infrared (near-IR) dimming of type Ia supernovae, as well as in the thermalization of both the cosmic IR and microwave background and in galactic center dimming between 3 and 9 micrometers. Our observations, along with the further possibility that GWs could be manufactured during supernovae, suggest that GWs may have substantial effects in observational astronomy. PMID:18309047

  14. Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in female zoo-kept African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Casares, Miguel; Silvn, Gema; Carbonell, Maria Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martinez-Fernandez, Leticia; Cceres, Sara; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Salivary samples were collected over a 24-hr period from one group of six juvenile (7-12 years) and one group of three adult (24-25 years) African elephant females, Loxodonta africana, and the cortisol concentration was measured in unextracted samples by EIA. Samples were collected during May, June, and November 2012 (n?=?147) using cotton swabs at 4-hr intervals from 20:00 to 20:00 of the next day (seven samples per animal in each trial). The animals are kept under standard zoo management: the herd is maintained in their indoor enclosures until 10:00 and then released into the outdoor enclosures until 21:00-21:30 (May/June) and 18:30-19:00 (November). No adult elephant bull was present at the zoo during this time. The results demonstrate a clear diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion with the lowest concentration observed at 20:00 (2.03??0.08?ng/ml saliva) and the peak concentrations at 08:00 (5.26??0.35?ng/ml saliva). Although the cortisol values were higher in the adult cows compared to the juvenile cows in the May-June period, the differences were not significant. However, the values obtained in November from the juvenile group were significantly higher (P?

  15. Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Siew S.; Giles, Thomas C.; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, William R.; Emes, Richard D.; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P.; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and α linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

  16. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Weissengruber, G E; Egger, G F; Hutchinson, J R; Groenewald, H B; Elssser, L; Famini, D; Forstenpointner, G

    2006-01-01

    The uniquely designed limbs of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal. Besides other morphological peculiarities, the feet are equipped with large subcutaneous cushions which play an important role in distributing forces during weight bearing and in storing or absorbing mechanical forces. Although the cushions have been discussed in the literature and captive elephants, in particular, are frequently affected by foot disorders, precise morphological data are sparse. The cushions in the feet of African elephants were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both the forelimb and the hindlimb a 6th ray, the prepollex or prehallux, is present. These cartilaginous rods support the metacarpal or metatarsal compartment of the cushions. None of the rays touches the ground directly. The cushions consist of sheets or strands of fibrous connective tissue forming larger metacarpal/metatarsal and digital compartments and smaller chambers which were filled with adipose tissue. The compartments are situated between tarsal, metatarsal, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges or other structures of the locomotor apparatus covering the bones palmarly/plantarly and the thick sole skin. Within the cushions, collagen, reticulin and elastic fibres are found. In the main parts, vascular supply is good and numerous nerves course within the entire cushion. VaterPacinian corpuscles are embedded within the collagenous tissue of the cushions and within the dermis. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermal papillae of the foot skin. The micromorphology of elephant feet cushions resembles that of digital cushions in cattle or of the foot pads in humans but not that of digital cushions in horses. Besides their important mechanical properties, foot cushions in elephants seem to be very sensitive structures. PMID:17118065

  17. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, and granules were evaluated for flow properties, compressibility, and compactibility by Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, swelling index, in vitro dissolution studies, etc. It has been observed that granules of all batches showed acceptable flowability. According to Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, granules of PG-containing compacts showed similar and satisfactory compressibility and compactibility compared to granules of other polymers. PG showed significant swelling (P < 0.05) compared to HPMC, and better than CP and XG. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) study showed no interaction between drugs and polymers. From all PG-containing compacts of aforesaid drugs, drug release was sustained for 12 h following anomalous transport. Especially, polyelectrolyte complex formation retarded the release of oppositely charged drug (CPM-PG). However, extended release was noted in both anionic (DS) and nonionic (IB) drugs, maybe due to swollen gel. All compacts were found to be stable for 3-month period during stability study. This concludes that swelling and release retardation of PG has close resemblance to HPMC, so it can be used as extended release polymer for all types of drugs. PMID:25523143

  18. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bob; Lee, Laura; Schall, Matthew; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Kottwitz, Jack J; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-02-01

    Although neocortical neuronal morphology has been documented in the adult giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana), no research has explored the cortical architecture in newborns of these species. To this end, the current study examined the morphology of neurons from several cortical areas in the newborn giraffe and elephant. After cortical neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N = 153), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed by using computer-assisted morphometry. The results showed that newborn elephant neurons were considerably larger in terms of all dendritic and spine measures than newborn giraffe neurons. Qualitatively, neurons in the newborns appeared morphologically comparable to those in their adult counterparts. Neurons in the newborn elephant differed considerably from those observed in other placental mammals, including the giraffe, particularly with regard to the morphology of spiny projection neurons. Projection neurons were observed in both species, with a much larger variety in the elephant (e.g., flattened pyramidal, nonpyramidal multipolar, and inverted pyramidal neurons). Although local circuit neurons (i.e., interneurons, neurogliaform, Cajal-Retzius neurons) resembled those observed in other eutherian mammals, these were usually spiny, which contrasts with their adult, aspiny equivalents. Newborn projection neurons were smaller than the adult equivalents in both species, but newborn interneurons were approximately the same size as their adult counterparts. Cortical neuromorphology in the newborn giraffe is thus generally consistent with what has been observed in other cetartiodactyls, whereas newborn and adult elephant morphology appears to deviate substantially from what is commonly observed in other placental mammals. PMID:26104263

  19. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35C, 22C, or 4C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22C and 4C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22Cor4C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22C or 4C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants. PMID:21127305

  20. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and ? linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

  1. The spatial structure of hunter access determines the local abundance of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis).

    PubMed

    Yackulic, Charles B; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Blake, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    In many previously remote regions in the world, increasing and often unregulated access is leading to dramatic increases in hunting pressure and declines in the densities of prey species, sometimes to the point of local extinction. Not surprisingly, numerous studies have found a correlation between the distance to the closest access point and prey densities. Here we hypothesized that, for many wide-ranging species, local abundances are reduced by hunting associated with multiple access points as opposed to just the closest access points. We also hypothesized that the distribution of hunter access determines both patterns of occupancy and abundance in occupied areas and that these two patterns (occupancy and abundance) respond to access at different spatial scales. Using data on the distribution of abundances of African forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in and around five national parks in Central Africa, we tested these hypotheses using a model comparison framework. We found that models including an index based on the distance to multiple roads outperformed models including other access-based covariates, including a model based on distance to the closest road only. We also found that models that allowed us to model occupancy and abundance separately outperformed simpler models. Occupancy responds to access at the same scale as previous estimates of average maximum displacement in the subspecies, while the scale of the response of abundance is more ambiguous, but appears to be greater. Lastly, we show that incorporating indices based on multiple access points and modeling abundance and occupancy has important practical consequences for our understanding of overall regional abundances and the distribution of abundances within regions. PMID:21774431

  2. Lack of spatial and behavioral responses to immunocontraception application in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Delsink, Audrey K; Kirkpatrick, Jay; van Altena, J J; Bertschinger, Henk J; Ferreira, Sam M; Slotow, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Opinions are divided as to whether human intervention to control elephant (Loxodonta africana) population growth is desirable, partly because of elephant welfare concerns. Female contraception through immunization with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) proteins is viable. The effects of sustained use and application of the PZP vaccine on elephant behavioral and spatial responses were examined by evaluating herd ranging, fission-fusion dynamics, association patterns, and reproductive and sexual behaviors. Minimal change was anticipated as a result of long calf dependence on and association with cows, a reduced but not indefinite 0% growth rate and the known mechanism of action of PZP vaccines, and minimal expected change in resource requirements necessitating behavioral or spatial use adaptations. Although behavioral effects identified in previous hormonal contraceptive trials were evident, it was demonstrated that immunocontraception caused no prolonged behavioral, social, or spatial changes over the 11-yr study period. Individually identified elephants were monitored from 1999 to 2011. Minimal, short-term social disruption, with temporary changes to the herds' core ranges, was observed during the annual treatment events, particularly in the first three treatment years, when vaccinations were conducted exclusively from the ground. Thereafter, when vaccinations were conducted aerially, minor disruptions were confined to the morning of administration only. Despite sustained treatments resulting in demographic changes of fewer calves being born, treatments did not alter spatial range use, and no adverse interherd-intraherd relations were observed. Similarly, resource requirements did not change as calving still occurred, although in fewer numbers. It was concluded that PZP immunocontraception has no detectable behavioral or social consequences in elephants over the course of 11 yr, providing a convincing argument for the use of sustained immunocontraception in the medium to long term as an important tool for elephant management. Behavioral consequences of alternative management approaches should all receive similar scrutiny to enable managers to make informed decisions when weighing management interventions. PMID:24437086

  3. SPECIALISED USE OF WORKING MEMORY BY PORTIA AFRICANA, A SPIDER-EATING SALTICID

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Using expectancy-violation methods, we investigated the role of working memory in the predatory strategy of Portia africana, a salticid spider from Kenya that preys by preference on other spiders. One of this predators tactics is to launch opportunistic leaping attacks on to other spiders in their webs. Focussing on this particular tactic, our experiments began with a test spider on a ramp facing a lure (dead prey-spider mounted on a cork disc) that could be reached by leaping. After the test spider faced the lure for 30 s, we blocked the test spiders view of the lure by lowering an opaque shutter before the spider leapt. When the shutter was raised 90 s later, either the same lure came into view again (control) or a different lure came into view (experimental: different prey type in same orientation or same prey type in different orientation). We recorded attack frequency (number of test spiders that leapt at the lure) and attack latency (time elapsing between shutter being raised and spiders initiating a leap). Attack latencies in control trials were not significantly different from attack latencies in experimental trials, regardless of whether it was prey type or prey orientation that changed in the experimental trials. However, compared with test spiders in the no-change control trials, significantly fewer test spiders leapt when prey type changed. There was no significant effect on attack frequency when prey orientation changed. These findings suggest that this predator represents prey type independently of prey orientation. PMID:23982622

  4. Afritoxinones A and B, dihydrofuropyran-2-ones produced by Diplodia africana the causal agent of branch dieback on Juniperus phoenicea.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Masi, Marco; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Scanu, Bruno; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Motta, Andrea; Maddau, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Two phytotoxic dihydrofuropyran-2-ones, named afritoxinones A and B, were isolated from liquid culture of Diplodia africana, a fungal pathogen responsible for branch dieback of Phoenicean juniper in Italy. Additionally, six others known metabolites were isolated and characterized: oxysporone, sphaeropsidin A, epi-sphaeropsidone, R-(-)-mellein, (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein and (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein. The structures of afritoxinones A and B were established by spectroscopic and optical methods and determined to be as (3aS(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one and (3aR(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one, respectively. The phytotoxic activity of afritoxinones A and B and oxysporone was evaluated on host (Phoenicean juniper) and non-host plant (holm oak, cork oak and tomato) by cutting and leaf puncture assay. Oxysporone proved to be the most phytotoxic compound. This study represents the first report of secondary metabolites produced by D. africana. In addition, the taxonomic implications of secondary metabolites in Botryosphaeriaceae family studies are discussed. PMID:22326509

  5. Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.

    PubMed

    Abou Jaoud, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

    2013-01-01

    In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T.africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45?days) with fresh or saline water (200?mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T.africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. PMID:22612790

  6. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  7. Potential infection of Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  8. Disease severity and susceptibility of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] to infection by Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  9. ANALYSIS OF CLAVICEPS AFRICANA AND C. SORGHI FROM INDIA USING AFLPS, EF-1 ALPHA GENE INTRON 4, AND BETA-TUBULIN GENE INTRON 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum ergot is a serious constraint in the production of F1hybrid seeds, an essential input in productive sorghum cultivation systems. Until 1991, Claviceps sorghi was considered to be the only perfect stage of Sphacelia sorghi McRae found to occur in India. In 1990, Claviceps africana, another p...

  10. A Common Origin for CV and CK Carbonaceous Chondrites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzaiz, M.; Trigo-Rodrguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.

    2014-09-01

    Some mineralogical and petrological features of CV and CK chondrites support the relevance of parent body processing. The proposed link between both groups could be explained by parent body disruption plus impact and aqueous processing.

  11. In vitro studies to assess the antioxidative, radical scavenging and arginase inhibitory potentials of extracts from Artocarpus altilis, Ficus exasperate and Kigelia africana

    PubMed Central

    Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe; Owumi, Solomon Eduviere; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Objective To justify the use of Artocarpus altilis (A. altilis), Ficus exasperata (F. exasperata) and Kigelia africana (K. africana) in ethnomedicine for the treatment of several ailments and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, radical scavenging and arginase inhibitory potentials of these herbs and compared with catechin (Standard). Methods Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging methods. The flavonoids and phenolics content, inhibition of arginase activity, Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reducing power were also determined. Results The A. altilis, F. exasperata and K. africana showed dose-dependent and significant scavenging of DPPH, H2O2 and OH radicals in vitro relative to catechin. The A. altilis and F. exasperata effectively scavenged DPPH radical with IC50 of 593 and 635 µg/mL and, OH radical with IC50 of 487 and 514 µg/mL, respectively. The DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities followed the order A. altilis>F. exasperata>K. africana. In addition, A. altilis and F. exasperata significantly (P<0.05) inhibited LPO in a dose-dependent manner. The A. altilis extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against LPO with 79% relative to catechin (28%) at 750 µg/mL. The reducing power followed the order: A. altilis>Catechin>F. exasperata>K. africana at 1 000 µg/mL. The A. altilis at 500 and 750 µg/mL significantly (P<0.05) inhibited arginase activity by 63% and 67%, respectively. The flavonoids contents were found to be highest in A. altilis. Conclusions Extracts of A. altilis and F. exasperata are potent antioxidative agents with strong radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:25183137

  12. Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2005-06-01

    Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation during one procedure in which 19.7 microg/kg of each drug was administered. On the basis of the procedures that did not require supplementation to initiate treatment and taking into consideration the potential for ataxia at higher doses, a starting dosage range of 14.7-16.2 microg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol in a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis administered i.m. simultaneously is recommended. PMID:17323566

  13. Chemical signals in the reproduction of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L E; Schulte, B A

    1998-10-01

    Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit polygynous mating that involves female choice of mates and male-male competition for access to females. Chemical signals mediate intersexual and intrasexual interactions associated with reproduction. The need for reliable and honest signals is accentuated by the markedly different social structure of adult males and females. Adult female elephants live in matriarchal herds consisting of a dominant female and several generations of offspring. Adult males are solitary or travel with other males except during breeding periods. Because females have a long 16-week oestrous cycle with a brief 1-week receptive period and a 4-5 year interval between births, a sexually active female is a limited resource. Asian elephant females advertise a forthcoming ovulation by releasing (Z)-7-dodecen-1-yl acetate in their urine during the preovulatory period. African elephants probably produce a sex pheromone as well. Females regularly contact the ano-genital region of other females and show heightened chemosensory responsiveness to urine during the follicular phase. The physiological impacts of this ability to detect reproductive condition (e.g. possible synchronizing or suppressing of oestrus) are uncertain. Males experience an annual period of heightened aggressiveness and highly elevated testosterone concentrations known as musth. Males secrete fluid copiously from their temporal gland and dribble strongly odoriferous urine during musth. Females appear to prefer musth males as mates, and captive Asian females exhibit greater chemosensory responses to urine from males in musth than not. Males in musth are competitively dominant to all other males, even those larger than themselves. Nonmusth males avoid males in musth, and captive Asian bulls show greater interest in musth than nonmusth urine. In captivity subordinate Asian females back away from musth secretions, and females with calves sometimes display protective behaviour. Clearly, chemical signals play an important role in communication by elephants between and within the sexes. Further work is needed to identify more of these chemical messengers and to understand their complete function in mediating reproductive interactions in the elephant social system. PMID:9835364

  14. Progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Hodges, J K; van Aarde, R J; Heistermann, M; Hoppen, H O

    1994-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Luteal tissue was collected from nonpregnant and early, mid- and late pregnant elephants (n = 2 per group) shot in the Kruger National Park. Pieces of individual corpora lutea (2-3 per animal; 23 in total) were stored directly in ethanol before hormone analysis. Matching tissue pieces were incubated for 2 h with [3H]pregnenolone (2 x 10(5) c.p.m.), after which tissue plus medium were also stored in ethanol. Progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone immunoreactivity in tissue extracts were determined by enzymeimmunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively, before and after reverse phase HPLC. Progesterone immunoreactivity predominated over that of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in all corpora lutea examined but concentrations of both hormones were very low (73-374 ng g-1 and 3-93 ng g-1, respectively after HPLC). There were no obvious differences in hormone concentrations in corpora lutea from animals at different reproductive stages. Progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone immunoreactivity assayed before HPLC was 10-30 times higher than that measured after chromatographic separation. HPLC consistently revealed two large immunoreactive peaks associated with relatively nonpolar compounds, which together accounted for most (at least 75%) of all progesterone immunoreactivity measured. Large amounts of radioactivity with the same retention times as these peaks were also detected after HPLC in samples incubated with [3H]pregnenolone. Analysis of conversion products from four corpus luteum incubations indicated that between 52% and 84% of [3H]pregnenolone had been converted; 19-33% was accounted for by progesterone, and 12-50% by the two substances represented by the unidentified peaks. Subsequent GCMS analysis identified the two immunoreactive peaks as 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha-ol-20-one and 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone). These results indicate that the major progestins contained within and biosynthesized by corpora lutea of African elephants are 5 alpha-reduced metabolites, and that progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone are quantitatively of minor importance. PMID:7799309

  15. Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Kadu, Caroline A C; Parich, Alexandra; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Vinceti, Barbara; Schumacher, Rainer; Geburek, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Prunus africana--an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests--is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] in increasing order was: lauric acid (18), myristic acid (22), n-docosanol (25), ferulic acid (49), ?-sitostenone (198), ?-sitosterol (490), and ursolic acid (743). The concentrations of many bark constituents were significantly correlated and concentration of n-docosanol was highly significantly correlated with all other analytes. Estimates of variance components revealed the highest variation among populations for ursolic acid (66%) and the lowest for ?-sitosterol (20%). In general, environmental parameters recorded (temperature, precipitation, altitude) for the samples sites were not correlated with the concentration of most constituents; however, concentration of ferulic acid was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Because the concentration of compounds in bark extracts may be affected by tree size, the diameter of sampled plants at 1.3m tree height (as proxy of age) was recorded. The only relationship with tree diameter was a negative correlation with ursolic acid. Under the assumption that genetically less variable populations have less variable concentrations of bark compounds, correlations between variation parameters of the concentration and the respective genetic composition based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers were assessed. Only variation of ?-sitosterol concentration was significantly correlated with haplotypic diversity. The fixation index (F(IS)) was positively correlated with the variation in concentration of ferulic acid. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated a weak geographic pattern. Mantel tests, however, revealed associations between the geographic patterns of bioactive constituents and the phylogenetic relationship among the populations sampled. This suggests an independent evolution of bark metabolism within different phylogeographical lineages, and the molecular phylogeographic pattern is partly reflected in the variation in concentration of bark constituents. The results have important implications for the design of strategies for the sustainable use and conservation of this important African tree species. PMID:22795601

  16. Insights from High Precision Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Reduced CV Meteorite Separates: CV Matrix Homogeneity and Preservation of Nebular Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2011-03-01

    The oxygen-isotopic composition of matrix from reduced CVs Efremovka and Vigarano has been measured and is indistinguishable from Allende. This indicates a similar nebular history and a preservation of different nebular conditions within reduced CV meteorites.

  17. Attenuation of oxidative stress in U937 cells by polyphenolic-rich bark fractions of Burkea africana and Syzygium cordatum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of various diseases, which may result in the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous supplementation with antioxidants could result in increased protection against oxidative stress. As concerns have been raised regarding synthetic antioxidant usage, the identification of alternative treatments is justified. The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant efficacy of Burkea africana and Syzygium cordatum bark extracts in an in vitro oxidative stress model. Methods Cytotoxicity of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts, as well as polyphenolic-rich fractions, was determined in C2C12 myoblasts, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, normal human dermal fibroblasts and U937 macrophage-like cells using the neutral red uptake assay. Polyphenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium trichloride assays, and antioxidant activity using the Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity and DPPH assays. The extracts efficacy against oxidative stress in AAPH-exposed U937 cells was assessed with regards to reactive oxygen species generation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione depletion. Results B. africana and S. cordatum showed enrichment of polyphenols from the aqueous extract, to methanolic extract, to polyphenolic-rich fractions. Antioxidant activity followed the same trend, which correlated well with the increased concentration of polyphenols, and was between two- to three-fold stronger than the Trolox antioxidant control. Both plants had superior activity compared to ascorbic acid in the DPPH assay. Polyphenolic-rich fractions were most toxic to the 3T3-L1 (IC50’s between 13 and 21 μg/ml) and C2C12 (IC50’s approximately 25 μg/ml) cell lines, but were not cytotoxic in the U937 and normal human dermal fibroblasts cultures. Free radical-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (up to 80%), cytotoxicity (up to 20%), lipid peroxidation (up to 200%) and apoptosis (up to 60%) was successfully reduced by crude extracts of B. africana and the polyphenolic-rich fractions of both plants. The crude extracts of S. cordatum were not as effective in reducing cytotoxic parameters. Conclusion Although oxidative stress was attenuated in U937 cells, cytotoxicity was observed in the 3T3-L1 and C2C12 cell lines. Further isolation and purification of polyphenolic-fractions could increase the potential use of these extracts as supplements by decreasing cytotoxicity and maintaining antioxidant quality. PMID:23714009

  18. Metamorphosed Clasts in the CV Carbonaceous Chondrite Breccias Mokoia and Yamato 86009: Evidence for Strong Thermal Metamorphism on the CV Parent Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, K.; Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

    2013-11-01

    We describe the mineralogy, petrography, and O-isotope compositions of the metamorphosed clasts in the CV chondrites. Obtained data suggest that the clasts formed by thermal metamorphism of heavily-altered chondrites on the CV parent asteroid.

  19. Spectral reflectance properties of carbonaceous chondrites: 6. CV chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E. A.; Hudon, P.; Hiroi, T.; Gaffey, M. J.; Mann, P.; Bell, J. F.

    2012-09-01

    Multiple reflectance spectra of 11 CV chondrites have been measured to determine spectral-compositional relationships for this meteorite class and to aid the search for CV parent bodies. The reflectance of CV chondrite spectra is variable, ranging from ∼5% to 13% at 0.56 μm, and ∼5% to 15% at the 0.7 μm region local reflectance maximum. Overall slopes range from slightly blue to red for powders, while slab spectra are strongly blue-sloped. With increasing average grain size and/or removal of the finest fraction, CV spectra generally become more blue-sloped. CV spectra are characterized by ubiquitous absorption features in the 1 and 2 μm regions. The 1 μm region is usually characterized by a band centered near 1.05-1.08 μm and a band or shoulder near 1.3 μm that are characteristic of Fe-rich olivine. Band depths in the 1 μm region for powdered CVs and slabs range from ∼1% to 10%. The 2 μm region is characterized by a region of broad absorption that extends beyond 2 μm and usually includes band minima near 1.95 and 2.1 μm; these features are characteristic of Fe2+-bearing spinel. The sample suite is not comprehensive enough to firmly establish whether spectral differences exist between CVR, CVOxA, and CVOxB subclasses, or as a function of metamorphic grade. However, we believe that the mineralogic and petrologic differences that exist between these classes, and with varying petrologic subtype (CV3.0->3.7), may not be significant enough to result in measurable spectral differences that exceed spectral variations within a subgroup, within an individual meteorite, or as a function of grain size. Terrestrial weathering seems to affect CV spectra most noticeably in the visible region, resulting in more red-sloped spectra for finds as compared to falls. The search for CV parent bodies should focus on the detection of olivine and spinel absorption bands, specifically absorption features near 1.05, 1.3, 1.95, and 2.1 μm, as these are the most commonly seen spectral features of CV chondrites.

  20. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  1. Birth statistics for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare.

    PubMed

    Dale, Robert H I

    2010-01-01

    African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have lived in the care of humans for many years, yet there is no consensus concerning some basic parameters describing their newborn calves. This study provides a broad empirical basis for generalizations about the birth heights, birth weights, birth times and gestation periods of elephant calves born in captivity. I obtained data concerning at least one of these four characteristics for 218 newborn calves from 74 institutions. Over the past 30 years, newborn Asian elephants have been taller and heavier than newborn African elephants. Neonatal African elephants exhibited sex differences in both weight and height, whereas neonatal Asian elephants have exhibited sex differences only in height. Primiparous dams ex situ are at least as old as their in situ counterparts, whereas ex situ sires appear to be younger than sires in range countries. Confirming earlier anecdotal evidence, both African [N=47] and Asian [N=91] dams gave birth most often at night. PMID:20391462

  2. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussire, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences. PMID:23407501

  3. Early primary--rather than primordial follicles constitute the main follicular reserve in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J; Picton, Helen M; Nthling, J O

    2011-01-01

    Information on the ovarian follicle reserve in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is lacking. This study set out to determine the ratios of early preantral follicles and their relative dimensions in the ovaries of 16 African elephant aged 10-34 years. The ovaries were sectioned histologically. Follicles were counted and classified according to expansion of the pre-granulosa cells. Early primary follicles were the most common (75.8%11.8%), followed by true primary follicles (23.8%11.8%), whereas primordial follicles were the most rare (<2%). Measurements made on at least 100 early preantral follicles from each animal (n=1464) indicate that growth in oocyte and nuclear diameters started with transition to the true primary stage P<0.01. This, together with the observed ratios between the three types of early preantral follicles suggest that both classical primordial and early primary follicles contribute to the ovarian reserve in the African elephant. PMID:21126835

  4. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities. PMID:25686854

  5. Divergent pattern of nuclear genetic diversity across the range of the Afromontane Prunus africana mirrors variable climate of African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Konrad, Heino; Schueler, Silvio; Muluvi, Geoffrey M.; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L.; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Afromontane forest ecosystems share a high similarity of plant and animal biodiversity, although they occur mainly on isolated mountain massifs throughout the continent. This resemblance has long provoked questions on former wider distribution of Afromontane forests. In this study Prunus africana (one of the character trees of Afromontane forests) is used as a model for understanding the biogeography of this vegetation zone. Methods Thirty natural populations from nine African countries covering a large part of Afromontane regions were analysed using six nuclear microsatellites. Standard population genetic analysis as well as Bayesian and maximum likelihood models were used to infer genetic diversity, population differentiation, barriers to gene flow, and recent and all migration among populations. Key Results Prunus africana exhibits strong divergence among five main Afromontane regions: West Africa, East Africa west of the Eastern Rift Valley (ERV), East Africa east of the ERV, southern Africa and Madagascar. The strongest divergence was evident between Madagascar and continental Africa. Populations from West Africa showed high similarity with East African populations west of the ERV, whereas populations east of the ERV are closely related to populations of southern Africa, respectively. Conclusions The observed patterns indicate divergent population history across the continent most likely associated to Pleistocene changes in climatic conditions. The high genetic similarity between populations of West Africa with population of East Africa west of the ERV is in agreement with faunistic and floristic patterns and provides further evidence for a historical migration route. Contrasting estimates of recent and historical gene flow indicate a shift of the main barrier to gene flow from the Lake Victoria basin to the ERV, highlighting the dynamic environmental and evolutionary history of the region. PMID:23250908

  6. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M.; Blake, Margaret R.; Leavelle, Stephen E.; Marshall, Jennifer J.; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F.; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants’ behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol concentrations remained baseline for two of the elephants throughout and after the renovation period, while one elephant that was pregnant had elevated cortisol during construction. Cortisol concentrations for the pregnant elephant remained higher than baseline once she was introduced to the new flooring and allowed back into the building, but these values were closer to the cortisol concentrations before renovations than during construction. Our findings demonstrate that individual elephants can vary in their behavioral and physiological responses to exhibit modifications. Given that the elephants walked more during the day, two of the three elephants had an increase in rest behavior during the night, and there were minimal changes in cortisol response after the flooring renovations, we conclude that the flooring renovations overall had a positive impact on animal welfare. PMID:26535582

  7. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 2.1% and 56.6 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol concentrations remained baseline for two of the elephants throughout and after the renovation period, while one elephant that was pregnant had elevated cortisol during construction. Cortisol concentrations for the pregnant elephant remained higher than baseline once she was introduced to the new flooring and allowed back into the building, but these values were closer to the cortisol concentrations before renovations than during construction. Our findings demonstrate that individual elephants can vary in their behavioral and physiological responses to exhibit modifications. Given that the elephants walked more during the day, two of the three elephants had an increase in rest behavior during the night, and there were minimal changes in cortisol response after the flooring renovations, we conclude that the flooring renovations overall had a positive impact on animal welfare. PMID:26535582

  8. Aqueous alteration in the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Results from TEM and SEM examinations of the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite are presented, showing that the chondrules and the matrix of Kaba have undergone pervasive low-temperature aqueous alteration, resulting in the formation of Fe-bearing saponite from glass and enstatite in chondrules, and from anhydrous silicates in matrix. The alteration products in Kaba were found to resemble those in other aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites such as the Mokoia CV3 and in Orgueil CI chondrites and Y-82162 chondrites. However, Kaba lacks the abundant high-Al phyllosilicates, reported for CAIs from Mokoia, and the serpentine and ferrihydrite, found in Orgueil.

  9. Aqueous alteration in the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-07-01

    Results from TEM and SEM examinations of the Kaba CV3 carbonaceous chondrite are presented, showing that the chondrules and the matrix of Kaba have undergone pervasive low-temperature aqueous alteration, resulting in the formation of Fe-bearing saponite from glass and enstatite in chondrules, and from anhydrous silicates in matrix. The alteration products in Kaba were found to resemble those in other aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites such as the Mokoia CV3 and in Orgueil CI chondrites and Y-82162 chondrites. However, Kaba lacks the abundant high-Al phyllosilicates, reported for CAIs from Mokoia, and the serpentine and ferrihydrite, found in Orgueil.

  10. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    PubMed Central

    Liolos, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Detter, John C.; Gker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was isolated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be published. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. PMID:23991249

  11. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Detter, J. Chris; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacte- rium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was iso- lated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be pub- lished. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium violaceum Strain CV017

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hinshaw, Kara C.; Macdonald, Stuart J.

    2016-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence for Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV017, used as a model and tool to understand acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. The assembly consists of 4,774,638-bp contained in 211 scaffolds. PMID:26941151

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Chromobacterium violaceum Strain CV017.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hinshaw, Kara C; Macdonald, Stuart J; Chandler, Josephine R

    2016-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence for Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV017, used as a model and tool to understand acyl-homoserine lactone-dependent quorum sensing. The assembly consists of 4,774,638-bp contained in 211 scaffolds. PMID:26941151

  14. Molecular Characterization of the N-Acetylglucosamine Catabolic Genes in Candida africana, a Natural N-Acetylglucosamine Kinase (HXK1) Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Felice, Maria Rosa; Gulati, Megha; Giuffrè, Letterio; Giosa, Domenico; Di Bella, Luca Marco; Criseo, Giuseppe; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Romeo, Orazio; Scordino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background In this study we report the genetic characterization, including expression analysis, of the genes involved in the uptake (NGT1) and catabolism (HXK1/NAG5, DAC1/NAG2, NAG1) of the aminosugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in Candida africana, a pathogenic biovariant of Candida albicans that is naturally unable to assimilate the GlcNAc. Results DNA sequence analysis of these genes revealed a number of characteristic nucleotide substitutions including a unique and distinctive guanine insertion that shifts the reading frame and generates a premature stop codon (TGA) 154 bp downstream of the ATG start codon of the HXK1 gene encoding the GlcNAc-kinase, a key enzyme of the GlcNAc catabolic pathway. However, all examined genes produced transcripts even though different levels of expression were observed among the Candida isolates examined. In particular, we found an HXK1-idependent relationship of the NGT1 gene and a considerable influence of the GlcNAc-kinase functionality on the transcription of the DAC1 and NAG1 genes. Additional phenotypic analysis revealed that C. africana isolates are hyperfilamentous in the first 24-48h of growth on filament-inducing media and revert to the yeast morphological form after 72h of incubation on these media. Conclusions Our results show that C. africana is a natural HXK1 mutant, displaying a number of phenotypic characteristics distinct from typical C. albicans isolates. PMID:26808192

  15. Evidence from Chondrule Shapes and Modes for Shock Deformation in Reduced CV3 Chondrites Leoville and Efreomovka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, T. J.; Aoki, R.

    2015-07-01

    The reduced CV3 chondrites Efremovka and Leoville are characterized by (1) more elongate chondrules, and (2) lower matrix abundances compared to the oxidized CV3 Allende. Both observations can be explained by shock deformation of reduced CV3s.

  16. An Intensive HST/COS Study of 31 CV WDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, A. F.; Gnsicke, B. T.; Beuermann, K.; Bildsten, L.; De Martino, D.; Godon, P.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Patterson, J.; Schreiber, M. R.; Sion, E. M.; Szkody, P.; Townsley, D.; Zorotovic, M.

    2015-06-01

    Accretion is the key ingredient in the evolution of white dwarfs (WDs) in cataclysmic variables (CVs), with important implications for their potential as progenitors for Type Ia Supernovae. The effective temperature (Teff) gives a direct measure of the average accretion rate and we report here the Teff measurement for 31 CV WDs, observed as a part of a 122 orbit HST program. The HST spectra alone cannot resolve the degeneracy between Teff and the surface gravity log g, and we will use phase-resolved X-Shooter observations to (i) measure the mass ratio of the CVs from the reflex motion of both the WD and the donor star (ii) to establish the spectral energy distribution (SED), which constrains both Teff and log g. Combining the X-Shooter and HST data, we can measure the WD masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV WDs grow in mass.

  17. MMN to natural Arabic CV syllables: 2 - cross language study.

    PubMed

    Zeftawi, M Samir

    2005-12-01

    Mismatch negativity response parameters; latency, amplitude, and duration - to natural Arabic and natural English CV syllables - were obtained from normal-hearing adult Egyptians, in two experiments. In the first experiment, MMN was obtained in response to English CV syllable paradigms (Ba-Wa) and (Ga-Da) differing in formant duration and start of third formant, respectively. In the second experiment, MMN response for Arabic paradigm (Baa-Waa), English paradigm (Ba-Wa), and for Arabic-English paradigm (Waa-Wa) was obtained. Results revealed that the three levels of speech representation; acoustic, phonetic and phonologic could be probed preattentatively by MMN. The acoustic properties of speech signal are processed earlier than the phonetic and phonologic properties. PMID:16055287

  18. K asteroids and CO3/CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Binzel, R. P.; Bus, S. J.; Clark, B. E.

    2001-02-01

    Reflectance spectra from 0.44 to 1.65 lm were obtained for three K asteroids. These objects all have spectra consistent with olivine-dominated assemblages whose absorption bands have been suppressed by opaques. The two observed Eos family members (221 Eos and 653 Berenike) are spectral analogs to the CO3 chondrite Warrenton. The other observed object (599 Luisa) is a spectral analog for CV3 chondrite Mokoia. These asteroids are all located near meteorite-supplying resonances with the Eos family cut by the 9:4 resonance and Luisa is found near the 5:2 resonance. However, K asteroids have been identified throughout the main belt so it is difficult to rule out other possible parent bodies for the CO3 and CV3 chondrites.

  19. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Polyomavirus Isolated from a Fibroma on the Trunk of an African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Hans; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sijmons, Steven; Van Ranst, Marc; Maes, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In this study a novel polyomavirus, the African elephant polyomavirus 1 (AelPyV-1) found in a protruding hyperplastic fibrous lesion on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was characterized. The AelPyV-1 genome is 5722 bp in size and is one of the largest polyomaviruses characterized to date. Analysis of the AelPyV-1 genome reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. In the area preceding the VP2 start codon three putative open-reading frames, possibly coding for an agnoprotein, could be localized. A regulatory, non-coding region separates the 2 coding regions. Unique for polyomaviruses is the presence of a second 854 bp long non-coding region between the end of the early region and the end of the late region. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the AelPyV-1 and 61 other polyomavirus sequences, AelPyV-1 clusters within a heterogeneous group of polyomaviruses that have been isolated from bats, new world primates and rodents. PMID:24205012

  1. Prolactin in the Afrotheria: characterization of genes encoding prolactin in elephant (Loxodonta africana), hyrax (Procavia capensis) and tenrec (Echinops telfairi).

    PubMed

    Wallis, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Pituitary prolactin shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution, with occasional short bursts of rapid change imposed on a generally rather slow evolutionary rate. In mammals, episodes of rapid change occurred in the evolution of primates, cetartiodactyls, rodents and the elephant. The bursts of rapid evolution in cetartiodactyls and rodents were followed by duplications of the prolactin gene that gave rise to large families of prolactin-related proteins including placental lactogens, while in primates the burst was followed by corresponding duplications of the related GH gene. The position in elephant is less clear. Extensive data relating to the genomic sequences of elephant and two additional members of the group Afrotheria are now available, and have been used here to characterize the prolactin genes in these species and explore whether additional prolactin-related genes are present. The results confirm the rapid evolution of elephant (Loxodonta africana) prolactin - the sequence of elephant prolactin is substantially different from that predicted for the ancestral placental mammal. Hyrax (Procavia capensis) prolactin is even more divergent but tenrec (Echinops telfairi) prolactin is strongly conserved. No evidence was obtained from searches of public databases for additional genes encoding prolactin-like proteins in any of these species. Detailed analysis of evolutionary rates, and other factors, indicates that the episode of rapid change in hyrax, and probably elephant, was adaptive, though the nature of the associated biological change(s) is not clear. PMID:19017712

  2. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  3. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Home Ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: A Five-Year Satellite Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D.; Minot, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  4. Phoretic interaction between the kangaroo leech Marsupiobdella africana (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) and the cape river crab Potamonautes perlatus (Decapoda: Potamonautidae)?

    PubMed Central

    Badets, Mathieu; Preez, Louis Du

    2013-01-01

    The South African leech Marsupiobdella africana is a temporary ectoparasite of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, has a phoretic association with a freshwater crab Potamonautes perlatus, and exhibits advanced parental care by incubating its offspring in a brood pouch. Because phoretic associations are usually regarded to favor the phoronts dispersion, its occurrence within the biology of a parasitic species reflects an intimate context of interactions. In addition to phoresy, attachment to the crab may confer other advantages pertaining to offspring development and predator avoidance, dispersion and the parasitic life cycle. Two ponds where amphibian and crab hosts co-occur were sampled twice a month for a period of 1year. The population dynamics of the leeches and their use of specific microhabitats as attachment sites on the crabs were also investigated. Results indicate a direct relationship between intra-specific variation in the sex ratio among captured crab hosts and the number of leeches recruited over time. The attachments to specific microhabitats on the hard surfaces of the host suggest a proximal proximate anti-predatory strategy. Finally, the importance of oxygen accessibility for the offspring development has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed a remarkable network of interactions linking all partners of this system raising the question as to whether the crabs merely act as a vehicle or play a role within the parasitic life cycle. PMID:24918071

  5. Compositional, functional and storage properties of flours from raw and heat processed African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds.

    PubMed

    Giami, S Y; Adindu, M N; Akusu, M O; Emelike, J N

    2000-01-01

    African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) seeds were either boiled or roasted and then milled into flour. Chemical composition, functional properties and storage characteristics of raw and treated flours and the effect of partial proteolysis on selected functional properties of the raw flour were determined. Raw flour contained 20.1% crude protein, 2.5% total ash and 13.7% fat. Heat processing significantly (p < 0.05) improved in vitro protein digestibility, and water and fat absorption capacities but decreased bulk density, nitrogen solubility, emulsion and foaming properties, trypsin inhibitor, and phytic acid and polyphenol contents of the samples. Boiling proved more effective than roasting for improving protein digestibility, emulsion capacity and foam stability and reducing antinutritional factor levels. Partial proteolysis increased nitrogen solubility, bulk density and water and fat absorption capacities but decreased foam capacity at hydrolysis levels greater than 35%. Fatty acid and peroxide values of the samples increased during storage. Compared to raw samples, heat processed samples had significantly (p < 0.05) lower and more acceptable peroxide values and free fatty acid contents and higher and more stable water (3.0 g/g sample) and fat (2.4 g/g sample) absorption capacities. PMID:11086878

  6. Activation and inhibition of thermosensitive TRP channels by voacangine, an alkaloid present in Voacanga africana, an African tree.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuko; Horie, Syunji; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2014-02-28

    Voacangine (1) is an alkaloid found in the root bark of Voacanga africana. Our previous work has suggested that 1 is a novel transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist. In this study, the agonist and antagonist activities of 1 were examined against thermosensitive TRP channels. Channel activity was evaluated mainly using TRP channel-expressing HEK cells and calcium imaging. Herein, it was shown that 1 acts as an antagonist for TRPV1 and TRPM8 but as an agonist for TRPA1 (EC50, 8 μM). The compound competitively blocked capsaicin binding to TRPV1 (IC50, 50 μM). Voacangine (1) competitively inhibited the binding of menthol to TRPM8 (IC50, 9 μM), but it showed noncompetitive inhibition against icilin (IC50, 7 μM). Moreover, the compound selectively abrogated chemical agonist-induced TRPM8 activation and did not affect cold-induced activation. Among these effects, the TRPM8 inhibition profile is unique and noteworthy, because to date no studies have reported a menthol competitive inhibitor of TRPM8 derived from a natural source. Furthermore, this is the first report of a stimulus-selective TRPM8 antagonist. Accordingly, 1 may contribute to the development of a novel class of stimulus-selective TRPM8 blockers. PMID:24484240

  7. [On "the moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female"].

    PubMed

    Xuan, Da-Ke; Wu, Gui-Hua

    2013-05-01

    The TCM theory "moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female" is discussed in this article, which provides theoretical instruction on proper clinical application of Shimen (CV 5). Based on literature study, ancient classics concerning contraindication of "moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female" were studied. TCM theory "moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female" was explored profoundly through ancient record, physiological relations between Shimen (CV 5) and pregnancy, the relation between the anatomic structure of Shimen (CV 5) and the extra acupoint Jueyun Xue. And the result indicated that as an acupoint with contraindications, Shimen (CV 5) should be attached with great importance in its clinical practice on female patients. Reinforcing manipulation should be given instead of reducing. Moxibustion should be applied with cautiousness on the point, especially during pregnancy. PMID:23885628

  8. Odour-active compounds in banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Febles, Yanet

    2013-11-15

    Application of solid-phase microextraction, simultaneous distillation-extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 146 compounds, 124 of them were positively identified. Thirty-one odourants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical banana aroma, eleven of them are reported for the first time as odour-active compounds. PMID:23790849

  9. Binding activity of 5alpha-reduced gestagens to the progestin receptor from African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Meyer, H H; Jewgenow, K; Hodges, J K

    1997-02-01

    Recent findings in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) indicate that the major progestins contained within and biosynthesized by corpora lutea are 5alpha-reduced metabolites and that progesterone is quantitatively of minor importance. The specific gestagenic action within the reproductive tract of elephants was determined by measurement of relative binding affinity of the respective progestins to the gestagen receptor extracted from elephant endometrium. The cytosol was incubated with 40 nmol/liter [3H]ORG-2058 and increasing concentrations of the tested progestin. Progesterone (P4), 5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (DHP), and 5alpha-pregnane-3alpha-ol-20-one (5alpha-P-3OH) were used. The competition for binding sites on the progestin receptor was shown by decreasing counts measured after extraction with scintillation fluid. The progestin concentration which induced a 50% reduction of measured counts was estimated (C50) and relative binding affinity of progesterone to other progestins was calculated (RBA = C50progestin/C50p4). The relative binding affinity of DHP to P4 at the gestagen receptor of elephant endometrium was equivalent. The other 5alpha-reduced progestin (5alpha-P-3OH) showed no competition to the [3H]ORG-2058 receptor binding. We conclude that the biological significance of P4 and DHP at the receptor level is very similar. The higher quantitative levels of DHP in corpus luteum and serum support the hypothesis that this progestin is the major gestagen in the elephants, whereas 5alpha-P-3OH is an inactive metabolite. PMID:9038248

  10. Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses.

    PubMed

    Dehnhard, M

    2007-05-01

    Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method for assessing sympathoadrenal activity in captive female elephants. We found a circadian variation in urinary noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE), adrenaline (epinephrine, Epi) and dopamine (DA) under short day length. Peak activity of noradrenaline and dopamine was noted at 3 a.m. Adrenaline showed a biphasic pattern with a minor peak recorded at 3 a.m. and a major peak 9 a.m. Under long-day photoperiodic conditions, simultaneous peaks of noradrenaline and adrenaline were again noted at 3 a.m. whereas dopamine does not appear to have a distinct circadian pattern under long-day length. A transfer of two elephant cows resulted in a marked increase in urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, confirming that the transfer represented a stressful event. During the peripartal period, noradrenaline concentrations increased and maximum concentrations were obtained at delivery. Daily measurements of urinary dopamine throughout the follicular phase revealed an increase in dopamine secretion close to ovulation. This increase might indicate a role of dopamine in the ovulatory mechanisms. These results suggest that changes in urinary catecholamine excretion reflect fluctuations in sympathoadrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress. PMID:17336981

  11. The Social and Ecological Integration of Captive-Raised Adolescent Male African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a Wild Population

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Methodology/Principal Findings Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. Conclusions/Significance We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be explored further. PMID:23437076

  12. HPLC-Based Activity Profiling for hERG Channel Inhibitors in the South African Medicinal Plant Galenia africana.

    PubMed

    Du, Kun; De Mieri, Maria; Saxena, Priyanka; Phungula, Khanya V; Wilhelm, Anke; Hrubaru, Madalina Marina; van Rensburg, Elmarie; Zietsman, Pieter C; Hering, Steffen; van der Westhuizen, Jan H; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel is a voltage-activated K(+) channel involved in cardiac action potential. Its inhibition can lead to QT prolongation, and eventually to potentially fatal arrhythmia. Therefore, it is considered a primary antitarget in safety pharmacology. To assess the risk of human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition by medicinal plants, 700 extracts from different parts of 142 medicinal plants collected in Southern Africa were screened on Xenopus laevis oocytes. A CH2Cl2 extract from the stems and leaves of Galenia africana (Aizoaceae) reduced the peak tail human ether-a-go-go-related gene current by 50.4??5.5?% (n?=?3) at a concentration of 100?g/mL. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography-based activity profiling, nine flavonoids were identified in the active time windows. However, the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition of isolated compounds was less pronounced than that of extract and active microfractions (human ether-a-go-go-related gene inhibition between 10.1??5 and 14.1??1.6 at 100?M). The two major constituents, 7,8-methylenedioxyflavone (1) and 7,8-dimethoxyflavone (13), were quantified (4.3?% and 9.4?%, respectively, in the extract). Further human ether-a-go-go-related gene inhibition tests for compounds 1 and 13 at 300?M showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity (33.2??12.4 and 30.0??7.4, respectively). In a detailed phytochemical profiling of the active extract, a total of 20 phenolic compounds, including six new natural products, were isolated and identified. PMID:25922911

  13. Epidemiology and genetic characteristics of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Dai, Wei; Wang, Shaohui; Dai, Dingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is one of four viruses in the family Circoviridae that affect young pigeons around the world. We collected 158 serum or tissue samples from six poultry farms in eastern China to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PiCV in Chinese pigeons. We tested for PiCV using a PCR assay and found that PiCV was present in 80.7 % (88/109) of diseased pigeons and 63.3 % (31/49) of healthy pigeons; overall, 75.3 % (119/158) of samples were PiCV positive. One PiCV-positive sample from each poultry farm was randomly chosen for amplification of the complete PiCV genome by inverse primer PCR (IP-PCR). The six genomic PiCV strains were designated as AHBZ (KJ704801), HBLF-E2 (KJ704802), JSJN (KJ704803), NJPK-21 (KJ704804), SDDZ (KJ704805) and SHWH-AB4 (KJ704806). We compared these new PiCV genomes to six publicly available PiCV genomes and found that the Rep and Cap genes had sequence identity ranging from 93.8 % to 100 % and 79.1 % to 100 %, respectively. In a phylogenetic analysis, PiCV and eight other members of the genus Circovirus were sister to chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of genus Gyrovirus. The results of this study provide evidence that PiCV is present in Chinese pigeons at a high rate and that PiCV is a viral lineage that is distinct from CAV. PMID:25348272

  14. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 ?T magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  15. Aqueous Alteration of the Grosnaja CV3 Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    1993-07-01

    Previous petrographic studies have shown that aqueous alteration products are locally well developed in some of the CV3 falls [e.g., 1-3]. In this abstract, we describe our transmission electron microscope (TEM) study of the extent of aqueous alteration in matrix and in chondrules in the Grosnaja CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. Grosnaja is an observed fall and belongs to the oxidized subgroup of the CV chondrites [4]. We obtained fragments of Grosnaja from the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. Regions of interest were extracted from polished thin sections and prepared for TEM observation by ion milling. Quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses were obtained using a JEOL 2000FX TEM equipped with a LINK thin- window EDX detector. Grosnaja has undergone aqueous alteration, which has resulted in the formation of phyllosilicates in matrix and in chondrules. The suprising result from Grosnaja is that three different types of phyllosilicates are intimately intergrown. Serpentine is the most abundant phyllosilicate in matrix and occurs as fine-grained packets along grain boundaries and as fracture-fillings and veinlets that cross cut olivine and pyroxene grains. Mixed with the serpentine are packets of fine-grained phyllosilicates with a distinct 1.4-nm basal spacing that is probably a chlorite group mineral. Rare packets of smectite occur as epitaxial intergrowths with olivine, but are not interstratified with serpentine as observed in the CI chondrites. Phyllosilicates in Grosnaja matrix occur with Mg-rich carbonates, fine-grained magnetite, chromite and pentlandite, and poorly-crystalline FeNi- oxide/hydroxides, which stain the matrix a brownish-red color. Some of the rust may be of terrestrial origin (Grosnaja fell in 1861). Although the matrix phyllosilicates are too small to obtain single-phase chemical analyses in the TEM, quantitative EDX analyses suggest that the serpentine contains significant Fe (Mg/Mg + Fe ~0.5). The serpentine/chlorite forms as an alteration product of matrix olivine. Olivine in matrix is equilibrated (Fa(sub)50). The matrix olivines contain numerous planar defects along (100) planes, which results in strong streaking along a* in electron diffraction patterns. These planar defects in matrix olivines are common in other CV chondrites, including Bali [3] and Mokoia [1]. Chondrule mesostasis is extensively altered to coarse-grained Na-saponite that is coherently interstratified with a 1.4-nm phyllosilicate (as shown by selected-area electron diffraction patterns). The 1.4-nm layers occur individually and in groups up to five layers wide. Serpentine has not been observed in chondrules. The Mg/Mg + Fe (atomic) ratio for the saponite is ~0.9, the same as for the host chondrule olivines. The formation of phyllosilicates in Grosnaja was controlled by local bulk compositions. The abundance of Na and Al in chondrule mesostasis stabilized Na-saponite, while in matrix, the high olivine content resulted in formation of serpentine. Grosnaja is unusual for a CV chondrite in that the dominant phyllosilicates in matrix are serpentine and chlorite, whereas smectite is the dominant phyllosilicate for the other altered CV chondrites [3]. This result suggests that alteration conditions were different for Grosnaja relative to the other CV falls. We believe that the occurrence of chlorite in both matrix and chondrules indicates alteration at temperatures higher than those experienced by the other altered CV chondrites. The heat source for the alteration reactions may be related to the thermal event that equilibrated matrix olivines. Acknowledgements: We thank G. Kurat of the Naturhistorisches Museum for samples of Grosnaja. This work was supported by NASA RTOPs 152-17-40-23 and 199-52-11-02. References: [1] Tomeoka K. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 1745. [2] Keller L. P. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 2113. [3] Keller L. P. and Thomas K. L. (1991) LPS XXII, 705. [4] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777.

  16. The effect of emphatic stress on CV coarticulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarresi, Golnaz; Sussman, Harvey M.

    2001-05-01

    The effect of emphatic stress on CV coarticulation was investigated in the speech of one male and one female native speaker of American English using locus equation slope as a measure of CV coarticulation. Stressed real word C1V2C2 tokens where C1=/b,d,g/ and V2=/i, I, e, ɛ, æ, u, o, squflg, a/ were put in carrier sentences with the, thirty, or two preceding the test word. Each sentence was read three times in a normal manner and three times with emphasis on the test token. This resulted in a total of 486 tokens per speaker (3 stop consonants * 3 V1 contexts * 9 V2 contexts *2 emphasis patterns *3 repetitions). Locus equation slopes were derived by plotting F2 onset of C1 against V2 F2 mid-vowel frequency and fitting a regression line to data points. Consonant closure duration, V2 duration, F0, and amplitude were also measured. Despite a significant increase in the acoustic correlates of emphasis, locus equation slopes remained constant as a function of emphasis and varied as a function of place of articulation. This study provides further evidence of the stability of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place of articulation. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  18. Effect of UV irradiation, toluidine blue, and environment on maternal haploid frequencies from the cross between Nicotiana tabacum and N. africana

    SciTech Connect

    Chimoyo, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Treating Nicotiana africana Merxm. pollen with three levels UV radiation prior to pollinating four cultivars of flue-cured tobacco (Coker 176, NC95, McN944 and PD4), Nicotiana tabacum produced 1,953 viable seedlings from an estimated total of 170,248 seeds, of which 1,667 were haploid and 286 were hybrids. Drenching N. tabacum flowers with toluidine blue 18 hours after pollination with normal N. africana pollen, yielded 511 viable seedlings from 70,613 seeds, of which 346 were haploid and 165 hybrids. Untreated pollen gave 548 viable seedlings from 56,291 seeds, comprising 341 haploids and 208 hybrids. Contrary to results from a previous histological study, in vivo pollen tube growth rate appears to be similar irrespective of pollen source or treatment, and fertilization seems to occur at about the same time as in the selfed control. From an estimated total of 803,854 seeds sown, 3,014 viable seedlings were obtained. Coker 176 gave significantly higher yields of haploids than the other three cultivars. Field grown plants produced more haploids than greenhouse grown plants. Further evidence was obtained to support selective chromosomal elimination as the mechanism governing the development of maternal haploids from this interspecific cross.

  19. Endothelium/Nitric Oxide Mediates the Vasorelaxant and Antihypertensive Effects of the Aqueous Extract from the Stem Bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae)

    PubMed Central

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Nguelefack, Tlesphore Benot; Kamanyi, Albert; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Thophile

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of the aqueous extract from the stem bark of M. africana (AEMA). AEMA was tested in vitro on intact or endothelium-denuded rats' aorta rings precontracted with KCl or norepinephrine in absence or in presence of L-NAME or glibenclamide. The effect of a single concentration (300??g/mL) of AEMA was also examined on the concentration-response curve of KCl. In vivo, the antihypertensive effects of AEMA (200?mg/kg/day) were evaluated in male Wistar rats treated with L-NAME (40?mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. AEMA relaxed aorta rings precontracted with NE or KCl with respective EC50 values of 0.36??g/mL and 197.60??g/mL. The destruction of endothelium or pretreatment of aorta rings with L-NAME shifted the EC50 of AEMA from 0.36??g/mL to 40.65??g/mL and 20.20??g/mL, respectively. The vasorelaxant activity of M. africana was significantly inhibited in presence of glibenclamide. AEMA also significantly inhibited the concentration-response curve of KCl. Administered orally, AEMA induced acute and chronic antihypertensive effects and normalized renal NO level. These results show that the vasorelaxant activity of AEMA might be mediated by the activation of the NO-cGMP-ATP-dependent potassium channels pathway and might predominantly account for its antihypertensive effect. PMID:23008745

  20. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia and continuation of ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Ball, Ray L; Brown, Janine L

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with reproductive acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and may contribute to the non-self-sustainability of the captive population in North America. It is a common cause of infertility in women and other mammals and can be treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. The objectives of this study were to assess prolactin responses to cabergoline treatment in hyperprolactinemic, acyclic African elephants and to determine the subsequent impact on ovarian cyclic activity. Five elephants, diagnosed as hyperprolactinemic (>11 ng/ml prolactin) and acyclic (maintenance of baseline progestagens for at least 1 yr), were treated with 1-2 mg cabergoline orally twice weekly for 16-82 wk. Cabergoline reduced (P < 0.05) serum prolactin concentrations during the treatment period compared to pretreatment levels in four of five elephants (11.5 +/- 3.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4 ng/ml; 20.3 +/- 16.7 vs. 7.9 +/- 9.8 ng/ml; 26.4 +/- 15.0 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; 42.2 +/- 22.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 8.9 ng/ml). However, none of the females resumed ovarian cyclicity based on serum progestagen analyses up to 1 yr posttreatment. In addition, within 1 to 6 wk after cessation of oral cabergoline, serum prolactin concentrations returned to concentrations that were as high as or higher than before treatment (P < 0.05). One elephant that exhibited the highest pretreatment prolactin concentration (75.2 +/- 10.5 ng/ml) did not respond to cabergoline and maintained elevated levels throughout the study. Thus, oral cabergoline administration reduced prolactin concentrations in elephants with hyperprolactinemia, but there was no resumption of ovarian cyclicity, and a significant prolactin rebound effect was observed. It is possible that higher doses or longer treatment intervals may be required for cabergoline treatment to result in permanent suppression of prolactin secretion and to mitigate associated ovarian cycle problems. PMID:25314824

  1. Endocrinology of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant.

    PubMed

    Hodges, J K

    1998-10-01

    In reviewing the literature, this paper assesses the current level of understanding of the hormonal control of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the elephant. Data are compiled from two genera, Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana, recognizing differences where known to exist. Measurements of various steroid and peptide hormones, but most notably immunoreactive progesterone (iP), indicate an overall cycle length of 15-16 weeks, comprising an 8-11-week luteal phase and a shorter inter-luteal (follicular) period of 4-6 weeks. Oestrogen related phenomena suggest the occurrence of two (possibly more) waves of follicular development with a 3-week periodicity, although oestrogen levels are low and fluctuate without clear pattern. The inter-luteal period is characterized by two discrete LH peaks also 3 weeks apart, but only the second is associated with an iP rise. Ovulation rate is variable and additional luteal structures lacking ovulation points are probably formed each cycle. The post-ovulatory period is associated with elevated progestogen levels, mainly 5alpha-reduced compounds, while progesterone itself is a minor secretory product. A revised model for the elephant ovarian cycle is presented. Detailed information on the endocrinology of pregnancy is lacking. Elevated progestins beyond the normal luteal phase indicate that conception extends the functional lifespan of the CL, with maximum steroidogenic activity between 3-15 months. The nature of the luteotrophic support is not known and placental gonadotrophins have not been conclusively demonstrated. Progestins fluctuate at or slightly above luteal phase values throughout pregnancy. There is a marked increase in prolactin levels after 16-24 weeks and a relationship with oestrogen secretion may exist since circulating and urinary levels show a progressive increase from 6-8 months. A placental contribution to progestin secretion is likely, although direct evidence is lacking. Considerable enlargement of foetal gonads during the second half of pregnancy in African elephants suggests a possible steroidogenic function, but none has been defined. The endocrine events leading to parturition are unknown. In the Asian elephant, a fall in iP precedes parturition; oestrogen levels decline and cortisol increases at the time of birth. The paper concludes with a brief selection of priorities for future research. PMID:9835363

  2. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments. PMID:25938695

  3. A hydrated clast in the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: Evidence for intensive aqueous alteration in the CV parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro

    2011-10-01

    We report the discovery of a highly hydrated clast in the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite that contains eight chondrules and one amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI), embedded in a matrix dominated by hydrous phyllosilicates. Anhydrous silicates in the chondrules and AOI were extensively replaced by phyllosilicates. The matrix has a composition intermediate between saponite and serpentine and contains abundant framboidal magnetite, being similar to the matrices of the CI chondrites. The mineralogy and texture indicate that the clast resulted from intensive aqueous alteration of a precursor equivalent to the host Mokoia meteorite, and it can be regarded as the CV2-type lithology. The results indicate that there was in fact an extremely wet region within the Mokoia parent body and that this clast escaped subsequent thermal metamorphism. This clast reveals abundant evidence of progressive and dynamic aqueous alteration processes. The chondrules were replaced inward from their margins, and the alteration products were disaggregated and mixed into the matrix; as a result, the chondrules increasingly became smaller in size and irregular in shape. Some of the chondrules were separated into pieces. The results indicate that a major proportion of the matrix materials were produced by the alteration of chondrules and inclusions and that there was a stage in which the alteration products and the original matrix material were extensively and uniformly mixed together. The presence of the clast supports a previously proposed model, which suggests that hydrated chondrules, inclusions, and the rims surrounding them in the host Mokoia chondrite are clasts produced by brecciation within a wet region of the parent body and that they were subsequently transported and incorporated into the dry matrix.

  4. Progressive alteration in CV3 chondrites: More evidence for asteroidal alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev, Michael I.; Scott, Edward R. D.; Choi, Byeon-Gak; Zolensky, Michael E.; Keil, Klaus

    1998-09-01

    The oxidized CV3 chondrites can be divided into two major subgroups or lithologies, Bali-like (CV3oxB) and Allende-like (CV3oxA), in which chondrules, CAIs and matrices show characteristic alteration features (Weisberg et al., 1997; Krot et al., 1997d; Kimura and Ikeda, 1997). The CV3oxB lithology is present in Bali, Kaba, parts of the Mokoia breccia and, possibly, in Grosnaja and ALH85006. It is characterized by the presence of low-Ca phyllosilicates (saponite and Na-phlogopite), magnetite, Ni-rich sulfides, fayalite (Fa>90), Ca-Fe-rich pyroxenes (Fs10-50Wo45-50) and andradite. Phyllosilicates replace primary Ca-rich minerals in chondrules and CAIs suggesting mobilization of Ca during aqueous alteration. Magnetite nodules are replaced to various degrees by fayalite, Ca-Fe- rich pyroxenes and minor andradite. Fayalite veins crosscut fine-grained rims around chondrules and extend into the matrix. Thermodynamic analysis of the observed reactions indicates that they could have occurred at relatively low temperatures (<300 C) in the presence of aqueous solutions. Oxygen-isotopic compositions of the coexisting magnetite and fayalite plot close to the terrestrial fractionation line with large (18Ofayalite-magnetite fractionation (~20 (). We infer that phyllosilicates, magnetite, fayalite, Ca-Fe-rich pyroxenes and andradite formed at relatively low temperatures (< 300 C) by fluid-rock interaction in an asteroidal environment. Fayalite and phyllosilicates are virtually absent in the CV3oxA lithology, which is present in Allende and its dark inclusions, Axtell, ALHA81258, ALH84028, LEW86006, and parts of the Mokoia and Vigarano breccias. Instead, nepheline, sodalite, and fayalitic olivine are abundant. Fayalitic olivine replaces low-Ca pyroxenes, rims forsterite grains and forms coarse lath-shaped grains in the matrix. Ca-Fe-rich pyroxenes are abundant. We infer that the CV3oxA lithology experienced alteration at higher temperatures than the CV3oxB lithology. The presence of the reduced and CV3oxA lithologies in the Vigarano breccia and CV3oxA and CV3oxB lithologies in the Mokoia breccia indicates that all CV3 chondrites came from one heterogeneously-altered asteroid. The metamorphosed clasts in Mokoia (Krot and Hutcheon, 1997) may be rare samples of the hotter interior of the CV asteroid. We conclude that the alteration features observed in the oxidized CV3 chondrites resulted from the fluid-rock interaction in an asteroid during progressive metamorphism of a heterogeneous mixture of ices or and anhydrous materials, mineralogically similar to the reduced CV3 chondrites.

  5. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  6. Experimental Aqueous Alteration of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Kojima, T.

    1995-09-01

    Aqueous alteration is an important process that prevailed in the early solar system. In order to better understand the aqueous alteration processes and conditions, we embarked in hydrothermal alteration experiments of the Allende CV3 chondrite. We here present the first results of our experiments. Samples of Allende were sealed in gold tubes with 1-N HCl and heated in a reactor vessel at 450 degrees C and 800 bars for 4 to 6 weeks. Thin sections were made from the run products and were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS spectrometer. Our experiments produced remarkable alteration textures in the Allende chondrite. Parts of internal areas of most of the chondrules are replaced by brownish-to-greenish phyllosilicate, exhibiting an appearance closely similar to the altered ("spinach"-bearing) chondrules in CM chondrites. Fractures and interstices in chondrules and matrix, up to 20 micrometers in width and 1 mm in length, are filled with phyllosilicate, producing remarkable veins similar to those observed in CI chondrites. Mainly two kinds of phyllosilicates were produced. One contains major Mg and Fe and has compositions similar to Fe-rich saponite. This is the most common phyllosilicate that occurs in both chondrules and matrix; it is primarily formed by replacing olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. The other kind of phyllosilicate contains major Mg and Fe and variable Al; it is probably a mixture of two phases, so we tentatively call it high-Al phyllosilicates (HAP). HAP occurs mainly in chondrule mesostasis, where it is formed by replacing mesostasis glass. Chondrules and aggregates are altered from their edges to inward. Olivine in outer areas of chondrules and aggregates are enriched in Fe, and most of individual olivine grains show strong Fe-Mg zoning, indicating substantial Fe was added from matrix to chondrules. Mesostasis in central areas is preferentially replaced by HAP, while that in outer areas is replaced by saponite. There are remarkable differences in degree of alteration by phyllosilicates among the precursor minerals in chondrules. The resistance to alteration increases in the order, glass, low-Ca pyroxene, olivine. Aggregates of Fe-rich saponite ranging in diameter from 10 to 50 micrometers are produced in places in matrix. However, most of small original olivine grains (1 to 10 micrometers in diameter) still remain unaltered. This is surprising to us, taking into account the fact that chondrule internals were altered to the extent up to 200x200 micrometers^2 in area. This indicates that the alteration proceeds much faster in chondrule mesostasis than in the fine-grained matrix. Drastic chemical exchanges took place between chondrules and matrix. Among major elements, Fe was added from matrix to chondrules mainly as an olivine component, whereas Mg, Al, Ca, Na and S were lost from chondrules. In chondrule mesostasis, Ca is almost completely lost, confirming that the mobility of Ca is particularly high. As a result of these elemental exchanges, the meteorite became homogenized as a whole. The texture and the phyllosilicate mineralogy produced in the altered Allende samples are closely similar to those observed in the Mokoia and Kaba CV3 chondrites [1,2]. These similarities suggest that the alteration in Mokoia and Kaba occurred in situ on the CV parent body under conditions somewhat related to the present experimental condition, although the pressure and temperature should have been much lower than those used in our experiments. References: [1] Tomeoka K. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 1745-1754. [2] Keller L. P. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 2113-2120.

  7. Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use cleavers and anvils to fracture Treculia africana fruits? Preliminary data on a new form of percussive technology.

    PubMed

    Koops, Kathelijne; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2010-04-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are renowned for their use of tools in activities ranging from foraging to social interactions. Different populations across Africa vary in their tool use repertoires, giving rise to cultural variation. We report a new type of percussive technology in food processing by chimpanzees in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea: Treculia fracturing. Chimpanzees appear to use stone and wooden "cleavers" as tools, as well as stone outcrop "anvils" as substrate to fracture the large and fibrous fruits of Treculia africana, a rare but prized food source. This newly described form of percussive technology is distinctive, as the apparent aim is not to extract an embedded food item, as is the case in nut cracking, baobab smashing, or pestle pounding, but rather to reduce a large food item to manageably sized pieces. Furthermore, these preliminary data provide the first evidence of chimpanzees using two types of percussive technology for the same purpose. PMID:19967575

  8. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  9. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharides extracted from Zizyphus jujube cv. Huanghetanzao.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangpu; Liu, Xinquan; Zhang, Yongchun; Zhang, Fang; Wei, Ting; Yang, Min; Wang, Kaiming; Wang, Yongjie; Liu, Na; Cheng, Huiling; Zhao, Zhongxi

    2015-05-01

    Jujube polysaccharides have been proved to have various bioactivities. This study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and hepatoprotective function of the polysaccharides extracted from Zizyphus jujube cv. Huanghetanzao (HJP). The composition of HJP was determined as heteropolysaccharides with galactose and arabinose being the main components. The pretreatment of mice with HJP significantly (p<0.01) reduced the activities of serum hepatic AST, ALT, and LDH induced by CCl4 or acetaminophen (APAP) while the commercial liver-injury treatment drug silybin did not show any prevention effects. Mechanistic study results indicate that the administration of the CCl4- or APAP-injured mice with HJP enhanced SOD and GSH-Px and decreased MDA, indicating that anti-oxidation and detoxification could be the pathways for the liver protection observed. In addition, the liver prevention and treatment effects of HJP on the liver damage induced by CCl4 or APAP obtained from the liver enzyme analyses were confirmed by the hepatic histopathology studies in mice. Therefore, HJP could be used as a prevention and treatment agent for liver injury induced by liver toxic chemicals and drugs. PMID:25709018

  11. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  12. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  13. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  14. Processing in a transitional environment of CV and CK chondrites' parent bodies in the light of mineralogical and petrological analysis of NWA 1465 CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Ormandi, Sz.; Jozsa, S.

    2015-05-01

    CV and CK chondrites might came from the same parent body from different depth values. To better constrain the conditions there, the composition, structure and chronology of mineral changes were analyzed in NWA 1465 CV3 chondrite meteorite. This sample represents an interesting part of the proposed ancient parent body where opposite to the generally poor altered state of CV3 chondrites, strong mechanical deformation produced elongated chondrules. All of the ingredients in the sample were flattened and fractured. After the chondrules settled down glass formation, opaque crystallization, fracturing and a second opaque generation followed by carbonate crystallization happened. The lack of fragments along the veins suggests no shearing movement happened, and the small number of weak shock signatures points to S2 level, and the oriented pressure in the parent body might come from burial induced pressure. The meteorite might came from a location in the CV-CK parent body where melting, and weak impact related fracturing and vein filling happened. In this an environment alteration of the primitive material started, possibly from a zone transitional between the shallow, less processed CV, and the deeper, more processed CK chondrites.

  15. Magnetic characteristics of CV chondrules with paleointensity implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerton, Stacey; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Bland, Philip A.

    2011-12-01

    We have conducted a detailed magnetic study on 45 chondrules from two carbonaceous chondrites of the CV type: (1) Mokoia and (2) Allende. Allende has been previously extensively studied and is thought to have a high potential of retaining an extra-terrestrial paleofield. Few paleomagnetic studies of Mokoia have previously been undertaken. We report a range of magnetic measurements including hysteresis, first-order reversal curve analysis (FORCs), demagnetization characteristics, and isothermal remanent (IRM) acquisition behavior on both Mokoia and Allende chondrules. The Mokoia chondrules displayed more single domain-like behavior than the Allende chondrules, suggesting smaller grain sizes and higher magnetic stability. The Mokoia chondrules also had higher average concentrations of magnetic minerals and a larger range of magnetic characteristics than the Allende chondrules. IRM acquisition analysis found that both sets of chondrules have the same dominant magnetic mineral, likely to be a FeNi phase (taenite, kamacite, and/or awaruite) contributing to 48% of the Mokoia chondrules and 42% of the Allende chondrule characteristics. FORC analysis revealed that generally the Allende chondrules displayed low-field coercivity distributions with little interactions, and the Mokoia chondrules show clear single-domain like distributions. Paleointensity estimates for the two meteorites using the REMc and Preisach methods yielded estimates between 13 and 60 ?T and 3-56 ?T, respectively, for Allende and 3-140 ?T and 1-110 ?T, respectively, for Mokoia. From the data, we suggest that Mokoia chondrules carry a non-primary remagnetization, and while Allende is more likely than Mokoia to retain its primary magnetization, it also displays signs of post accretionary magnetization.

  16. Self-assembling of impurity clusters in AlN:(Ga, BV, CV), (BV, CV = P, As; P, Sb; As, Sb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elyukhin, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The self-assembling conditions of arrays of tetrahedral impurity clusters of two types in zinc blende AlN:(Ga, BV, CV), (BV, CV = P, As; P, Sb; As, Sb) are represented. Doping with one cation and two anion isoelectronic impurities transforms AlN into AlN-rich GaxAl1-xBVyCVzN1-y-z alloy of GaBV, GaCV, GaN, AlBV, AlCV and AlN. The cause of self-assembling is the preference of GaBV, GaCV and AlN bonding over that of GaN, AlBV, AlCV. The conditions are considered from 0 C to 1000 C in the dilute and ultra dilute limits for the cation and anion impurities, correspondingly. The temperature ranges between the cluster occurrence and self-assembling completion when the same anion impurities are in clusters are very small. 1P4Ga and 1As4Ga cluster occurrence temperatures are equal, correspondingly, to 797 C and 736 C at Ga content 2% and P and As contents 0.01%. 1P4Ga and 1Sb4Ga cluster occurrence temperatures are equal, correspondingly, to 976 C and 736 C at the same impurity contents. The cluster densities in AlN:(Ga, As, Sb) are close to those in AlN:(Ga, P, Sb). The results demonstrate that studied semiconductors are promising materials to produce arrays of identical ?1 nm low band gap objects of two types embedded in the wide band gap matrix.

  17. Oxygen Isotope Distributions in Type A CAIs from Kaba, CV Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Huss, G. R.; Yurimoto, H.

    2011-03-01

    Oxygen-isotope mapping on melilite-rich CAIs from the least-metamorphosed CV chondrite, Kaba, shows 16O-rich melilites are common and O-isotope distributions in melilites are complex and highly heterogeneous.

  18. Petrologic Type of CV3 Chondrites as Revealed by Raman Spectroscopy of Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, L.; Quirico, E.; Bourot-Denise, M.

    2004-03-01

    Maturation grade of the organic matter, determined by Raman spectrometry and diffusion of iron, evaluated by the zonation of olivines were considered to assign petrologic type of CV3: Allende, Axtell, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Vigarano, Kaba, Leoville, Efremovka.

  19. Cathodoluminescence Microcharacterization of Forsterite from Kaba CV3 Chondrite: Implication for Mineralogy and Petrology of IDPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brczi, Sz.; Gucsik, A.; Okumura, T.; Ninagawa, K.; Nishido, H.; Kereszturi, .; Nagy, Sz.; Hargitai, H.

    2008-03-01

    Cathodoluminescence studies of forsterite from the fine fragment sample of Kaba indicate that mineral fragments from low altered and low thermally metamorphic CV3 chondrite might be potentially useful reference material for the IDPs.

  20. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Giri, Abhishek; Thi Thuy Chinh BKrong, Nguyen; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600?CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease. PMID:24495921

  1. NWA 8186 an Ungrouped Achondrite from the CK/CV Chondrite Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, C. B.; Muttik, N.; Ziegler, K.; McCubbin, F. M.; Sanborn, M. E.; Yin, Q. Z.

    2014-09-01

    We report here on a new ungrouped achondrite, NWA 8186, that has petrologic, geochemical and isotopic characteristics consistent with formation by melting of CK/CV chondrite material on its parent body.

  2. Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite - Evidence for aqueous alteration in an oxidizing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, Kazushige; Buseck, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Most CV chondrites contain little if any phyllosilicate mineralization. A petrographic and transmission electron microscopy study of the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite shows that the matrix, chondrules, aggregates, and inclusions all contain considerable amounts of phyllosilicates. The mineralogy and occurrence of phyllosilicates in Mokoia differ from those in the CI and CM chondrites. The differences suggests that aqueous alteration of the three meteorite groups probably occurred under a variety of conditions.

  3. Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite - Evidence for aqueous alteration in an oxidizing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1990-06-01

    Most CV chondrites contain little if any phyllosilicate mineralization. A petrographic and transmission electron microscopy study of the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite shows that the matrix, chondrules, aggregates, and inclusions all contain considerable amounts of phyllosilicates. The mineralogy and occurrence of phyllosilicates in Mokoia differ from those in the CI and CM chondrites. The differences suggests that aqueous alteration of the three meteorite groups probably occurred under a variety of conditions.

  4. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 ?g/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 ?g/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. PMID:23999063

  5. Characterization of a novel gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain from Cotesia vestalis polydnavirus (CvBV)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Min; Chen Yafeng; Huang Fang; Liu Pengcheng; Zhou Xueping; Chen Xuexin

    2008-06-05

    Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) is an endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae and injects a polydnavirus (CvBV) into its host during oviposition. In this report we describe the characterization of a gene (CvBV805) and its products. CvBV805 is located on the segment S8 of CvBV genome; it has a size of 909 bp and encodes a predicted protein of 125 amino acids. This protein contains an ankyrin repeat domain with a high degree of similarity with I{kappa}B-like genes. Gene transcripts were detected in extracts of the host as early as 2 h post-parasitization (p.p.) and continued to be detected through 24 h. Tissue-specific expression patterns showed that CvBV805 might be involved in early host immunosuppression. CvBV805 was detected in parasitized hosts at 12 h p.p. and in rBac-eGFP-CvBV805-infected Tn-5B1-4 cells at 72 h.p.i. by using western blots analysis. The size of the protein expressed in the host hemocytes and infected Tn-5B1-4 cells was 17 kDa and 56 kDa (including eGFP), respectively, which nearly corresponded with the predicted molecular weight (14.31 kDa) of CvBV805, suggesting that the protein did not undergo extensive post-translational modification. The protein was confirmed to be present within the nuclear region in hemocytes of the parasitized P. xylostella larvae at 48 h p.p. using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  6. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http://wwwflag.wr.usgs.gov/ISIS). References: [1] Torson, J.M., and Becker, K.J., (1997), ISIS - A Software Architecture for Processing Planetary Images, Lunar and Plan. Sci. XXVIII, 387-388, [2] Gaddis, L., (1996), Use of ISIS for Processing and Analysis of Planetary Remote Sensing data, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 28, No. 7, p. A-286.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus

    PubMed Central

    Mwitari, Peter G.; Ayeka, Peter A.; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N.; Bii, Christine C.

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 l of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 g) and fluconazole (25 g) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50<50 g/ml with MIC values of less than 0.78 mg/ml. Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 g/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 g/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue. PMID:23785437

  8. Genetic and Morphological Characterization of Freshwater Shrimps (Caridina africana Kingsley, 1882) Reveals the Presence of Alien Shrimps in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, Luca; Kitchin, Natasha; Impson, Dean N; Clark, Paul F; Richard, Jasmine; Daniels, Savel R; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification and molecular data (mtDNA COI) were used to resolve the taxonomic identity of a non-native freshwater shrimp in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa and to evaluate levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the species' core natural distribution. The species was morphologically and genetically identified as Caridina africana Kingsley, 1882, whose main natural distribution is in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, more than 1200 km from the point of new discovery. Subsequently, sequence data from natural populations occurring in seven rivers throughout KZN showed the presence of nuclear copies of the mtDNA COI gene (NUMTs) in 46 out of 140 individuals. Upon removal of sequences containing NUMTs, levels of genetic diversity were low in the alien population (possibly as a consequence of a bottleneck event), while varying levels of genetic diversity and differentiation were found in natural populations, indicating habitat heterogeneity, fragmentation and restricted gene flow between rivers. Following the present study, the alien shrimp has survived the Western Cape's winter and dispersed into a nearby tributary of the Eerste River System, hence posing an additional potential threat to endangered endemics. Understanding the biology of this alien species will aid detection and eradication procedures. PMID:26297730

  9. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e?07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel ? + ? fold containing two anti-parallel ?-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one ?-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

  10. [Image segmentation in tumor CT based on the improved C-V model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Rongguo; Xue, Fei; Liu, Kun

    2012-04-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings of slow convergence and inaccuracy segmentation in non-homogeneous images, improvements were made on the traditional C-V model in two aspects. Firstly, using a novel model based on local gradient, the initial contour of the C-V model was quickly moved near the target border, greatly reducing the evolution time. Secondly, combining the characteristics of GVF model from two directions to the target border, an adaptive velocity reconciling item was added for velocity equation of the C-V model to make the model converge to the true border. The segmentation experiments for liver tumors in CT showed that the proposed method could be effective. PMID:22616187

  11. Variation amongst protoplast-derived potato plants (Solatium tuberosum cv. 'Maris Bard').

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Bright, S W; Franklin, J; Lancaster, V A; Miflin, B J; Gibson, R

    1982-03-01

    Plants were obtained from protoplasts of shoot cultures of potato (Solarium tuberosum L. cv. 'Maris Bard') and from in situ calluses upon plants of cv. 'Majestic'. None of the protoplast-derived plants resembled each other in all of ten morphological characteristics scored and only one resembled the parental 'Maris Bard' type. As there were a number of plants regenerated from each of ten protoplast-derived calluses it is concluded that variation arose after protoplast isolation during the cell culture phase. Plants regenerated from in situ calluses of cv. 'Majestic' were quite uniform. Reported cases of variation and uniformity from cultured potato tissues are discussed. It is concluded that the variation is not a consequence of using protoplasts and that the expression or induction of variation is controllable. PMID:24270537

  12. Analysis of Positive Superhump Shapes Near Superoutburst Maximum in CV SU UMa-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobertz, Michele; Voloshina, Irina; Goel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Positive superhumps are hump-shaped modulations in light curves of some Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) that have a period that is slightly longer than the orbital period. In CV SU UMa-like systems, the shape of the positive superhump is known to change throughout the superoutburst, which thus slightly changes the published, observed, positive superhump period. In this presentation, we analyze numerical simulations of prograde precession in accretion disks of CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum. We compare the simulated positive superhump shapes with the shapes obtained from observations, using AW Sge as our model. Similarly, we compare associated Fourier Transforms with associated periodograms. We conclude with our analysis of the likely sources that generate the shape of the positive superhump in CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum.

  13. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater. PMID:25700813

  14. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  15. CV-Muzar - The Virtual Community Environment that Uses Multiagent Systems for Formation of Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Moraes, Mrcia Cristina

    The purpose of this chapter is to present two agents' societies responsible for group formation (sub-communities) in CV-Muzar (Augusto Ruschi Zoobotanical Museum Virtual Community of the University of Passo Fundo). These societies are integrated to execute a data mining classification process. The first society is a static society that intends preprocessing data, investigating the information about groups in the CV-Muzar. The second society is a dynamical society that will make a classification process by analyzing the existing groups and look for participants that have common subjects in order to constitute a sub-community. The formation of sub-communities is a new functionality within the CV-Muzar that intends to bring the participants together according to two scopes: interest similarity and knowledge complementarities.

  16. An amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI) in CK3 NWA 1559, comparison to AOIs in CV3 Allende, and the origin of AOIs in CK and CV chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-03-01

    An amoeboid olivine inclusion in CK3 NWA 1559 (0.54 1.3 mm) consists of a diopside-rich interior (approximately 35 vol%) and an olivine-rich rim (approximately 65 vol%). It is the first AOI to be described in CK chondrites; the apparent paucity of these inclusions is due to extensive parent-body recrystallization. The AOI interior contains irregular 3-15 ?m-sized Al-bearing diopside grains (approximately 70 vol%), 2-20 ?m-sized pores (approximately 30 vol%), and traces of approximately 2 ?m plagioclase grains. The 75-160 ?m-thick rim contains 20-130 ?m-sized ferroan olivine grains, some with 120 triple junctions. A few coarse (25-50 ?m-sized) patches of plagioclase with 2-18 ?m-thick diopside rinds occur in several places just beneath the rim. The occurrence of olivine rims around AOI-1 and around many AOIs in CV3 Allende suggests that CK and CV AOIs formed by the acquisition of porous forsteritic rims around fine-grained, rimless CAIs that consisted of diopside, anorthite, melilite, and spinel. Individual AOIs in carbonaceous chondrites may have formed after transient heating events melted their olivine rims as well as portions of the underlying interiors. In AOI-1, coarse plagioclase grains with diopside rinds crystallized immediately below the olivine rim. Secondary parent-body alteration transformed forsterite in the rims of CV and CK AOIs into more-ferroan olivine. Some of the abundant pores in the interior of AOI-1 may have formed during aqueous alteration after fine-grained melilite and anorthite were leached out. Chondrite groups with large chondrules tend to have large AOIs. AOIs that formed in dust-rich nebular regions (where CV and CK chondrites later accreted) tend to be larger than AOIs from less-dusty regions.

  17. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  18. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  19. Remote sensing of the link between arable field and elephant ( Loxodonta africana) distribution change along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murwira, Amon; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Huizing, H. J. G.; Prins, H. H. T.

    We investigated whether the proportion of remotely sensed arable fields increased along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Sebungwe region. We also investigated whether and to what extent this increase in arable fields affected the distribution of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) between the 1980s and 1990s. Results showed a relatively higher increase in the proportion of arable fields in the zone cleared of tsetse by 1986 compared to the zone that was still tsetse infested by the same date. Results also showed contrasting patterns in the relationship between the proportion of the habitat under arable fields and elephant distribution between the two periods. Specifically, in the 1980s, when arable field cover was between 0% and 11%, there was a weak ( p > 0.05) positive relationship between elephant presence and the proportion of the habitat under arable fields. In contrast, a significant ( p < 0.05) negative relationship emerged in the 1990s, when arable field cover ranged between 0% and 88%. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the change in the probability of elephant presence between the early 1980s and the early 1990s was significantly ( p < 0.05) related to the change in the proportion arable fields. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the expansion of arable fields in the Sebungwe was greater in areas where tsetse had been eradicated compared with areas that were still tsetse infested. Overall, the results suggest that using remotely sensed data, we can conclude that tsetse eradication led to the redistribution of elephants in response to arable field expansion.

  20. The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Kharlamova, Anastasia S; Saveliev, Sergei V; Protopopov, Albert V; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of the mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) recovered from the Yakutian permafrost in Siberia, Russia. This unique specimen (from 39,440-38,850 years BP) provides the rare opportunity to compare the brain morphology of this extinct species with a related extant species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). An anatomical description of the preserved brain of the woolly mammoth is provided, along with a series of quantitative analyses of various brain structures. These descriptions are based on visual inspection of the actual specimen as well as qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography imaging data obtained for the woolly mammoth in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging data from three African elephant brains. In general, the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined, estimated to weigh between 4,230 and 4,340 g, showed the typical shape, size, and gross structures observed in extant elephants. Quantitative comparative analyses of various features of the brain, such as the amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and gyrnecephalic index, all indicate that the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined has many similarities with that of modern African elephants. The analysis provided here indicates that a specific brain type representative of the Elephantidae is likely to be a feature of this mammalian family. In addition, the extensive similarities between the woolly mammoth brain and the African elephant brain indicate that the specializations observed in the extant elephant brain are likely to have been present in the woolly mammoth. PMID:26011110

  1. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if available, blood parathyroid hormone levels to adjust the nutritional supplementation for each individual elephant. PMID:24063079

  2. 26Al-26Mg Systematics in Chondrules from Kaba and Yamato 980145 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Komatsu, M.

    2015-07-01

    We measured Al-Mg systematics of plagioclase in chondrules from two of the least metamorphosed CV chondrites, Kaba and Y-980145. Kaba chondrules show resolvable excesses of ?26Mg*, corresponding to initial (26Al/27Al) ratios of ~5 10^-6.

  3. Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

    2014-07-01

    This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management. PMID:24726969

  4. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  5. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  6. EST-SSR MARKERS FROM FRAGARIA VESCA L. CV. YELLOW WONDER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen microsatellite primer pairs were developed from a cDNA library of Fragaria vesca cv. Yellow Wonder. Transferability to 13 species of Fragaria ranged from 71% in diploid species F. gracilis Losinsk., F. iinumae Makino, F. nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J. Gay and F. nipponica Makino to 100% in the...

  7. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the

  8. Automatic capacitance--voltage (C--V) plotter for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Purshotham, M.; Das, S.R.; Mukerjee, A.K.; Chopra, K.L.

    1982-11-01

    An instrument is described which measures the capacitance--voltage (C--V) and conductance--voltage (G--V) characteristics of solar cells in the dark and under illumination and other semiconductor junction devices in the capacitance range of 2--200 000 pF. The instrument is also provided with the facility for DLTS measurements.

  9. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  10. Pre-Accretionary Distribution of Ca and Al Between Matrix and Chondrules in CV Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, D. C.; Palme, H.

    2007-03-01

    Ca/Al-ratios in Y-86751 (CV) chondrules are super- and in matrix sub-chondritic. The opposite is true for Allende and Efremovka. Incorporation of spinel in Allende and Efremovka chondrule precursors in a nebular setting can explain this observation.

  11. Alteration processes in the CV chondrite parent body based on analysis of NWA 2086 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Blumberger, Z.; Jzsa, S.; May, Z.; Mller, A.; Szab, M.; Tth, M.

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of the NWA 2086 CV3 chondrite showed a matrix/chondrule ratio of 52%, similar to Bali, Mokoia, and Grosanaja. Nearly twice as many chondrule fragments as intact ones demonstrate that an early fragmentation phase occurred prior to final accretion. After this event, no substantial mechanical change or redeposition is evident. Rims with double-layered structures were identified around some chondrules, which, in at least one case, is attributed to an accretionary origin. The rim's outer parts with a diffuse appearance were formed by in situ chemical alteration. During this later process, Mg content decreased, Fe content increased, and olivine composition was homogenized, producing a rim composition close to that of the matrix. This alteration occasionally happened along fractures and at confined locations, and was probably produced by fluid interactions. Iron oxides are the best candidate for a small grain-sized alteration product; however, technical limitations in the available equipment did not allow exact phase identification. These results suggest that NWA 2086 came from a location (possible more deeply buried) in the CV parent body than Mokoia or Bali, and suffered less impact effectsalthough there is no evidence of sustained thermal alteration. This meteorite may represent a sample of the CV parent asteroid interior and provide a useful basis for comparison with other CV meteorites in the future.

  12. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. PMID:23040992

  13. THE VALUE OF LUPINUS ALBUS L. CV. AU HOMER AS A WINTER COVER CROP FOR COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management in the southeastern USA with conservation tillage requires the utilization of winter cover crops to increase organic matter in the top 5 cm of the soil. The objective of our research was to test the newly-developed bitter white lupin cv. `AU Home...

  14. Prevalence and natural host range of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1 (HoCV-1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of a potential biological agent, the newly discovered leafhopper-infecting virus, HoCV-1 was examined across the USA. Few biological agents exist for use against leafhopper pests. We examined and compared leafhopper salivary gland and midgut tissues using transmission electron micro...

  15. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (Cv. Purple Majesty) and their impact on antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation parameters of purified anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato (Purple Majesty cv.) heated at high temperatures (100 - 150 °C) was determined. Purified anthocyanins, prepared by removing salts, sugars and colorless non-anthocyanin phenolics from the crude extract, were quantified using H...

  16. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  17. Safe, Effective and Easily Reproducible Fusion Technique for CV Junction Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) refers to a bony enclosure where the occipital bone surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas and the axis vertebrae. Because of the complexity of structures, CVJ instability is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Posterior CV fusion procedures have evolved a lot over the last couple of decades. There has been a lookout for one such surgical procedure which is inherently safe, simple, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound. In our study, we present the initial experience the cases of CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw & rod construct operated by the author. Aims and Objectives: The current study is a descriptive analysis of the cases of CVJ instability treated by us with instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective, analytical study in which cases of CV junction instability operated by the author between January 2010 to March 2014 were analysed using various clinical, radiological and outcome parameters. Conclusion: CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique proved to be safe, effective, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound technique which can be adopted by all surgeons who may be at any stage of their learning curve. PMID:25954660

  18. Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.

    2015-02-01

    Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.

  19. SEPARATION OF SUNLIGHT AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE COMPOSITION OF VITIS VINIFERA CV. MERLOT BERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanin and phenolic profiles of berry skins from Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot in the Yakima Valley of Washington were influenced by sun exposure and temperature in 1999 and 2000. Total skin monomeric anthocyanin (TSMA) concentrations were higher in 2000 than in 1999 in any given treatment. Berry t...

  20. Isolation and Characterization of CvIV4: A Pain Inducing α- Scorpion Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Ashlee H.; Xiao, Yucheng; Scales, Joseph; Linse, Klaus D.; Rowe, Matthew P.; Cummins, Theodore R.; Zakon, Harold H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among scorpion species, the Buthidae produce the most deadly and painful venoms. However, little is known regarding the venom components that cause pain and their mechanism of action. Using a paw-licking assay (Mus musculus), this study compared the pain-inducing capabilities of venoms from two species of New World scorpion (Centruroides vittatus, C. exilicauda) belonging to the neurotoxin-producing family Buthidae with one species of non-neurotoxin producing scorpion (Vaejovis spinigerus) in the family Vaejovidae. A pain-inducing α-toxin (CvIV4) was isolated from the venom of C. vittatus and tested on five Na+ channel isoforms. Principal Findings C. vittatus and C. exilicauda venoms produced significantly more paw licking in Mus than V. spinigerus venom. CvIV4 produced paw licking in Mus equivalent to the effects of whole venom. CvIV4 slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.7, a Na+ channel expressed in peripheral pain-pathway neurons (nociceptors), but did not affect the Nav1.8-based sodium currents of these neurons. CvIV4 also slowed the fast inactivation of Nav1.2, Nav1.3 and Nav1.4. The effects of CvIV4 are similar to Old World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 (AahII, BmK MI, LqhIII, OD1), however the primary structure of CvIV4 is not similar to these toxins. Mutant Nav1.7 channels (D1586A and E1589Q, DIV S3–S4 linker) reduced but did not abolish the effects of CvIV4. Conclusions This study: 1) agrees with anecdotal evidence suggesting that buthid venom is significantly more painful than non-neurotoxic venom; 2) demonstrates that New World buthids inflict painful stings via toxins that modulate Na+ channels expressed in nociceptors; 3) reveals that Old and New World buthids employ similar mechanisms to produce pain. Old and New World α-toxins that target Nav1.7 have diverged in sequence, but the activity of these toxins is similar. Pain-inducing toxins may have evolved in a common ancestor. Alternatively, these toxins may be the product of convergent evolution. PMID:21887265

  1. Modal mineralogy of CV3 chondrites by X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2010-09-01

    Using position sensitive detector X-ray diffraction (PSD-XRD) we determine a complete modal mineralogy for all phases present in abundances greater than 1 wt% in Vigarano, Efremovka, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Kaba and Allende. Reduced CV3 samples are comprised of (vol%): olivine (83-85%); enstatite (6.5-8.1%); anorthite (1.1-1.2%); magnetite (1.4-1.8%); sulphide (2.4-5.1%); Fe, Ni metal (2-2.2%). The oxidized samples are comprised of: olivine (76.3-83.9%); enstatite (4.8-7.8%); anorthite (1.1-1.7%); magnetite (0.3-6.1%); sulphide (2.9-8.1%); Fe, Ni metal (0.2-1.1%); Fe-oxide (0-2.7%) and phyllosilicate (1.9-4.2%). When our modal data is used to calculate a bulk chemistry that is compared to literature data a near 1:1 correlation is observed. PSD-XRD data indicates that olivine compositions may span almost the entire Fe-Mg solid solution series in all CV samples and that these contain a component (4-13%) of fine-grained olivine that is more Fe-rich (>Fa 60) than is typically reported. Modal mineralogy shows that there are mineralogic differences between CV3 samples classified as oxidized and reduced but that these sub-classes are most clearly distinguished by the relative abundance of metal and Ni content of sulphide, rather than abundance of magnetite. The most significant difference in modal mineralogy observed is the relative absence of phyllosilicate in reduced CV that essentially escaped aqueous alteration. Fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite are typically considered secondary alteration products. The abundances of these minerals overlap in oxidized and reduced samples and correlate positively supporting common conditions of formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. The abundances of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite show no relationship to petrographic type and if these abundances were used as a proxy for alteration, Allende would be the least altered CV - contrary to all previous data. The implication is that thermal metamorphism on the parent body was de-coupled from formation of Fe-rich secondary minerals. Low temperature fluid-assisted metamorphism can also not easily explain the origin of fayalite, ferrous olivine and magnetite, since the reduced CVs appear to be largely unaffected by this process. Parent body models require an anhydrous low-temperature mechanism of secondary alteration. The alternative is that these phases formed prior to accretion of the final CV parent body.

  2. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ε182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ε183W anomalies of several ε-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ε182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ∼2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a marked difference compared to previous studies where only chondrules were analysed. Notably, our formation age interval covers previously reported chondrule formation ages determined using 26Al and Pb-Pb chronometry, illustrating that chondrule and matrix formation started contemporaneously with CAI formation and lasted over a time interval of about 2-3 Ma. Our results also corroborate previous models from ordinary chondrites, in that chondrite parent bodies were not the first planetesimals to have formed in the early solar system.

  3. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 ?g/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  4. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerkovi?, Igor; Druli?, Jasmina; Marijanovi?, Zvonimir; Gugi?, Mirko; Joki?, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), ?-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of ?-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  5. [Segmentation of breast tumor ultrasound images based on an improved C-V model].

    PubMed

    Ha, Zhang; Li, Chuan-fu; Wang, Jin-ping; Zhou, Kang-yuan; He, Li

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes an improved C-V model, which can avoid the step of re-initialization and simplify the formation of the initial level set function, thus the speed of segmentation can be accelerated greatly. Furthermore, based on the grayscale distribution characteristics of the breast tumor ultrasound images and on the hypothesis of piecewise constant in the C-V model, a semiautomatic segmentation flow has been presented, in which the rough contour is sketched first, and then a subimage would be obtained for the refined segmentation algorithm. This flow has improved not only the accuracy, but also the efficiency of the segmentation algorithm. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm could extract the contour of the breast tumor from the ultrasound images efficiently and accurately, which is fundamentally important for the following target feature extraction and analysis. PMID:18269034

  6. Hydrous and anhydrous alterations of chondrules in Kaba and Mokoia CV chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, M.; Ikeda, Y.

    1998-09-01

    Chondrules in the Bali-like CV chondrite Kaba and the Allende-like portion of the Mokoia breccia have been studied to explore relationship between hydrous alteration to form phyllosilicates and anhydrous alteration resulted in secondary olivine zonation, replacement of enstatite by ferroan olivine and formation of feldspathoids (nepheline and sodalite). All Kaba chondrules experienced extensive hydrous alteration, whereas anhydrous alteration is minor and resulted only in the olivine zonation. On the other hand, all of the Mokoia chondrules experienced both extensive anhydrous and hydrous alteration. Bronzite rims formed between relic enstatite grains and phyllosilicates in both Kaba and Mokoia during the hydrous alteration. Petrographic observations indicate that phyllosilicates in Mokoia postdate formation of the secondary ferroan olivine and feldspathoids. We conclude that anhydrous alteration in Kaba and Mokoia predated hydrous alteration and took place before accretion of chondrules into the CV parent asteroid.

  7. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  8. Characterization of polyphenols and evaluation of antioxidant capacity in grape pomace of the cv. Malbec.

    PubMed

    Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel R; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2015-07-01

    Low molecular weight polyphenols (LMW-PPs) and anthocyanins, along with the antioxidant capacity, were assessed in grape pomace extract (GPE) of red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec. Twenty-six phenolics (13 LMW-PPs and 13 anthocyanins) were characterized and quantified by HPLC-MWD and UPLC-ESI-MS. The maximum concentrations of LMW-PPs corresponded to the flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas malvidin-3-glucoside was the most abundant anthocyanin. Piceatannol, a stilbene analogue to resveratrol with higher antioxidant activity, was firstly identified and quantified in GPE of the cv. Malbec. The antioxidant activity for Malbec GPE determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was 2,756 μmol TEg(-1) GPE. Therefore, the data reported sustain the use of winemaking by-products as a cheap source of phenolic compounds suitable for biotechnological applications, as a strategy for sustainable oenology. PMID:25704698

  9. The control volume radial basis function method CV-RBF with Richardson extrapolation in geochemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez, W. F.; Portapila, M.; Hill, A. F.; Power, H.; Orsini, P.; Bustamante, C. A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how to implement a control volume approach improved by Hermite radial basis functions (CV-RBF) for geochemical problems. A multi-step strategy based on Richardson extrapolation is proposed as an alternative to the conventional dual step sequential non-iterative approach (SNIA) for coupling the transport equations with the chemical model. Additionally, this paper illustrates how to use PHREEQC to add geochemical reaction capabilities to CV-RBF transport methods. Several problems with different degrees of complexity were solved including cases of cation exchange, dissolution, dissociation, equilibrium and kinetics at different rates for mineral species. The results show that the solution and strategies presented here are effective and in good agreement with other methods presented in the literature for the same cases.

  10. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  11. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  12. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramrez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded. PMID:25952871

  13. Common Presence of 16O-rich Melilite in Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions from the Least Metamorphosed CV Carbonaceous Chondrite Kaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Huss, G. R.; Hua, X.

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to commonly 16O-depleted melilite in CAIs from Allende (CV>3.6), most melilite grains in Kaba (CV3.1) CAIs are 16O-rich, suggesting a correlation between 16O-depletion in melilite of the CV CAIs and petrologic type of a host meteorite.

  14. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  15. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  16. Heavily metamorphosed clasts from the CV chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2012-12-01

    Abstract- Metamorphosed clasts in the CV carbonaceous chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009 (Y-86009) are coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks composed of Ca-bearing (up to 0.6 wt% CaO) ferroan olivine (Fa34-39), ferroan Al-diopside (Fs9-13Wo47-50, approximately 2-7 wt% Al2O3), plagioclase (An37-84Ab63-17), Cr-spinel (Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.19-0.45, Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.60-0.79), nepheline, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, Ca-phosphate, and rare grains of Ni-rich taenite; low-Ca pyroxene is absent. Most clasts have triple junctions between silicate grains, indicative of prolonged thermal annealing. Based on the olivine-spinel and pyroxene thermometry, the estimated metamorphic temperature recorded by the clasts is approximately 1100 K. Few clasts experienced thermal metamorphism to a lower degree and preserved chondrule-like textures. The Mokoia and Y-86009 clasts are mineralogically unique and different from metamorphosed chondrites of known groups (H, L, LL, R, EH, EL, CO, CK) and primitive achondrites (acapulcoites, brachinites, lodranites). On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, compositions of olivine in the clasts plot along carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral line and the Allende mass-fractionation line, and overlap with those of the CV chondrule olivines; the ?17O values of the clasts range from about -4.3 to -3.0. We suggest that the clasts represent fragments of the CV-like material that experienced metasomatic alteration, high-temperature metamorphism, and possibly melting in the interior of the CV parent asteroid. The lack of low-Ca pyroxene in the clasts could be due to its replacement by ferroan olivine during iron-alkali metasomatic alteration or by high-Ca ferroan pyroxene during melting under oxidizing conditions.

  17. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  18. Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Martin R.; Hutchinson, Robert; Graham, Andrew L.

    1996-07-01

    The matrix of Vigarano, a meteorite which belongs to the reduced subgroup of the CV3 chondrites, contains small amounts (<10%) of ferrihydrite and smectite. These hydrous minerals occur together as fine fibrous intergrowths between anhydrous silicate and oxide grains. Coarser crystals of ferrihydrite fill fractures that cut matrix minerals, and smectite also lines narrow channels within olivine grains. These channels may have formed by preferential alteration of olivines along (100)-parallel defects. Formation of ferrihydrite and smectite in the matrix of Vigarano was the result of mild aqueous alteration in a low-temperature (<150 C), oxidising parent body environment. Partial equilibration of matrix olivines indicates that alteration was followed by thermal metamorphism with a peak temperature of 400-500 C. Mineralogically similar alteration products, which also were formed by parent body processes, have previously been described from the matrices of four CV meteorites: Bali, Grosnaja, Kaba and Mokoia, all of which belong to the oxidised subgroup. This discovery of the products of oxidative aqueous alteration in Vigarano has important consequences for understanding the chemical and thermal history of the CV class of meteorites.

  19. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragn, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; Garca-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendn, Alvaro; Martnez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets. PMID:18180614

  20. Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  1. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (−)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

  2. Fayalite in the Vigarano CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: Occurrences, formation age and conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jogo, Kaori; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.

    2009-10-01

    We have performed petrographic characterization, 53Mn- 53Cr age determination and thermodynamic stability evaluations of fayalite in Vigarano meteorite that belongs to the reduced subgroup of CV3 chondrites. Vigarano is a breccia consisting of clasts which are separate chondrules surrounded by olivine-rich fine-grained materials. Four out of twenty three explored clasts contain fayalites that represent materials of the Bali-like oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites. The fayalites (Fa > 80 ) with grain sizes typically < 20 m occurs in veins that extend from chondrules into the fine-grained materials. The fayalite commonly coexists with troilite and/or magnetite. The fayalite-bearing veins terminate at the boundaries of clasts. No evidence of strong impact enough to make melt veins is found in materials adjacent to the veins. These observations suggest that the fayalite-bearing veins in the Bali-like clasts formed through aqueous alteration in an asteroid prior to fragmentation and re-accretion to the Vigarano parent body. In saponite-rich fine-grained materials, we also found troilite-magnetite veins, which are similar to the fayalite-bearing veins in morphology. Morphological evidences and thermochemical equilibrium calculations suggest that fayalite replaced magnetite, and that replacement occurred at temperatures < 200 C and low water/rock mass ratios from 0.07 to 0.18, which represent aqueous to metamorphic transition. Fayalite grains typically show iron-magnesium zoning (fayalite content decreases towards the grain edges). Based on equilibrium models, this zoning may have occurred at increasing temperature. The observed initial ratio of ( 53Mn/ 55Mn) 0 = (2.3 0.5) 10 - 6 suggests that fayalite formed ~ 5 Ma before the timing when the Mn-Cr system was closed in angrite NWA 4801 and has an absolute age of ~ 4563 1 Ma. The age of fayalite is identical within errors to that in Mokoia and Kaba CV3 chondrites, which belong to the Bali-like oxidized subgroup. The identical age implies that aqueous alteration occurred at the same time in parent asteroids of Bali-like subgroup materials. These fayalite-bearing materials may have been derived from a single CV3 asteroid or from separate CV3 asteroids where aqueous alteration simultaneously occurred.

  3. Oxygen isotope heterogeneity in chondrules from the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Leshin, Laurie A.; Guan, Yunbin; Sharp, Zachary D.; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Schilk, Alan J.

    2004-08-01

    We report a study of the oxygen isotope ratios of chondrules and their constituent mineral grains from the Mokoia, oxidized CV3 chondrite. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of 23 individual chondrules were determined by laser ablation fluorination, and oxygen isotope ratios of individual grains, mostly olivine, were obtained in situ on polished mounts using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our results can be compared with data obtained previously for the oxidized CV3 chondrite, Allende. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of Mokoia chondrules form an array on an oxygen three-isotope plot that is subparallel to, and slightly displaced from, the CCAM (carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous minerals) line. The best-fit line for all CV3 chondrite chondrules has a slope of 0.99, and is displaced significantly (by ? 17O -2.5) from the Young and Russell slope-one line for unaltered calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) minerals. Oxygen isotope ratios of many bulk CAIs also lie on the CV-chondrule line, which is the most relevant oxygen isotope array for most CV chondrite components. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of most chondrules in Mokoia have ? 18O values around 0, and olivine grains in these chondrules have similar oxygen isotope ratios to their bulk values. In general, it appears that chondrule mesostases have higher ? 18O values than olivines in the same chondrules. Our bulk chondrule data spread to lower ? 18O values than any ferromagnesian chondrules that have been measured previously. Two chondrules with the lowest bulk ? 18O values (-7.5 and -11.7) contain olivine grains that display an extremely wide range of oxygen isotope ratios, down to ? 17O, ? 18O around -50 in one chondrule. In these chondrules, there are no apparent relict grains, and essentially no relationships between olivine compositions, which are homogeneous, and oxygen isotopic compositions of individual grains. Heterogeneity of oxygen isotope ratios within these chondrules may be the result of incorporation of relict grains from objects such as amoeboid olivine aggregates, followed by solid-state chemical diffusion without concomitant oxygen equilibration. Alternatively, oxygen isotope exchange between an 16O-rich precursor and an 16O-poor gas may have taken place during chondrule formation, and these chondrules may represent partially equilibrated systems in which isotopic heterogeneities became frozen into the crystallizing olivine grains. If this is the case, we can infer that the earliest nebular solids from which chondrules formed had ? 17O and ? 18O values around -50, similar to those observed in refractory inclusions.

  4. Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1995-09-01

    Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

  5. Modal Mineralogy of CV3 Chondrites by PSD-XRD: Mineralogic Insights into a Complex Evolutionary History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, K. T.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.; Cressey, G.

    2009-03-01

    CV3 chondrites Vigarano, Efremovka, Allende, Mokoia, Grosnaja and Kaba are amongst the most studied rocks in existence. By XRD we define the first quantitative modal mineralogy of these samples and explore implications of our data to petrogenesis.

  6. Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Guan, Y.

    2004-03-01

    We have measured oxygen isotope ratios in olivine grains from chondrules in the Allende and Mokoia CV chondrites, using SIMS. We show how microbeam data can be used to address fundamental questions about the early solar system.

  7. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  8. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  9. Potato virus Y CFH, a putative recombinant isolate from Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero.

    PubMed

    Comes, S; Fanigliulo, A; Pacella, R; Parrella, G; Crescenzi, A

    2006-01-01

    Ornamental plants of Chili pepper, Capsicum chinense cv. Habanero, with symptoms of leaf mosaic, necrotic rings on fruits and necrotic stems were observed in June 2003 in a private garden in the province of Naples (Italy). Preliminary serological characterisation allowed the association of these symptoms with infections by Potato virus Y (PVY). The virus was isolated on Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi and characterised by mechanical inoculation on herbaceous hosts and molecular characterisation of the P1 and the coat protein (CP) genes. Symptoms produced on indicator plants were generally consistent with those described for PVY. The identity of PVY was further confirmed by reaction with PVYN, PVYC and PVYO specific monoclonal antibodies: the isolate reacted only with the PVYC specific Mab. Immuno capture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was performed on extracts of PVY-CFH infected N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants, using two couples of primers specifically designed out of the P1 and the CP coding regions of the so far fully sequenced PVY isolates. PCR products were then cloned into pCRII-TOPO vector using TOPO-TA cloning kit (Invitrogen) and sequenced. Sequence analysis suggests that PVY-CFH originated from a recombination event involving a virus of the PVYO type and another parental virus, maybe resembling the PVYNP isolates, given the reasonably high similarity shared by PVY-CFH and, respectively, non potato PVY isolates in the CP coding region, PVYO isolates in the P1 coding region. Evidence for the existence of such a recombination comes, apart from similarity analysis, by the different locations of CFH within phylogenetic trees constructed from P1 and CP genomic regions. PMID:17390887

  10. Stray Light Analyis With The HP-41C/CV Calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Jack A.

    1983-10-01

    A stray radiation analysis program (nicknamed MINI-APART after its namesake: APART) suitable for use on the HP-41C/CV calculator is described. The program is ideally suited for quick estimates of stray light performance in well-baffled optical systems, which are limited by scatter from the first optical element. Critical path models are described, including single scatter, double scatter, diffraction-scatter, and thermal emission-scatter. Program use is illustrated, and several comparisons are made with the results obtained by the large stray radiation programs, GUERAP-3 and APART/PADE.

  11. The light curve of CV Serpentis, the sometimes-eclipsing Wolf-Rayet star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Liller, W.

    1975-01-01

    New photoelectric observations of the B-magnitude of CV Ser made in 1973 and 1974 show no clear evidence of an eclipse, but they establish night-to-night variability of several percent, a systematic brightness change of 0.035 mag during a portion of the single orbit observed in 1973, and irregular flaring in 1974. We made iris photometer measurements of Harvard patrol plates taken between 1905 June and 1953 July, and find no evidence of a very deep eclipse such as observed by Hjellming and Hiltner. We present several new light curves and discuss then in the light of the recent results of Cowley et al.

  12. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1990-01-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  13. Preliminary measurements of aircraft airframe noise with the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. C.; Lasagna, P. L.; Putnam, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted in a CV-990 jet transport with engines at idle power to investigate aircraft airframe noise. Test results showed that airframe noise was measured for the aircraft in the landing configuration. The results agreed well with the expected variation with the fifth power of velocity. For the aircraft in the clean configuraton, it was concluded that airframe noise was measured only at higher airspeeds with engine idle noise present at lower speeds. The data show that landing gear and flaps make a significant contribution to airframe noise.

  14. Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana; Timans, Paul; Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve; Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke; Bolze, Detlef

    2008-11-03

    The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

  15. Flight test results from the CV990 simulated space shuttle during unpowered automatic approaches and landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings with a CV990 aircraft were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle. The flight tests were designed to study from 11,300 m to touchdown the performance of a navigation and guidance concept which utilized blended radio/inertial navigation using VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. In excess of fifty automatic approaches and landings were conducted. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines on a conventional size runway.

  16. Three in one go: consequential angular momentum loss can solve major problems of CV evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. R.; Zorotovic, M.; Wijnen, T. P. G.

    2016-01-01

    The average white dwarf (WD) masses in cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been measured to significantly exceed those of single WDs, which is the opposite of what is theoretically expected. We present the results of binary population synthesis models taking into account consequential angular momentum loss (CAML) that is assumed to increase with decreasing WD mass. This approach cannot only solve the WD mass problem but also brings in agreement theoretical predictions and observations of the orbital period distribution and the space density of CVs. We speculate that frictional angular momentum loss following nova eruptions might cause such CAML and could be the missing ingredient of CV evolution.

  17. The Glycine max cv. Enrei Genome for Improvement of Japanese Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michihiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Setsuko; Namiki, Nobukazu; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kamatsuki, Kaori; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the genome sequence of Glycine max cv. Enrei to provide a reference for characterization of Japanese domestic soybean cultivars. The whole genome sequence obtained using a next-generation sequencer was used for reference mapping into the current genome assembly of G. max cv. Williams 82 obtained by the Soybean Genome Sequencing Consortium in the USA. After sequencing and assembling the whole genome shotgun reads, we obtained a data set with about 928 Mbs total bases and 60,838 gene models. Phylogenetic analysis provided glimpses into the ancestral relationships of both cultivars and their divergence from the complex that include the wild relatives of soybean. The gene models were analyzed in relation to traits associated with anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis and an overall profile of the proteome. The sequence data are made available in DAIZUbase in order to provide a comprehensive informatics resource for comparative genomics of a wide range of soybean cultivars in Japan and a reference tool for improvement of soybean cultivars worldwide. PMID:26199933

  18. Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

    2013-07-01

    An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt. PMID:23898552

  19. Mechanisms of HIV-1 subtype C resistance to GRFT, CV-N and SVN

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Kabamba B.; Moore, Penny L.; Nonyane, Molati; Gray, Elin S.; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng; Chakauya, Ereck; McMahon, James B.; OKeefe, Barry R.; Chikwamba, Rachel; Morris, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    We examined the ability of HIV-1 subtype C to develop resistance to the inhibitory lectins, griffithsin (GRFT), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and scytovirin (SVN), which bind multiple mannose-rich glycans on gp120. Four primary HIV-1 strains cultured under escalating concentrations of these lectins became increasingly resistant tolerating 2 to 12 times their 50% inhibitory concentrations. Sequence analysis of gp120 showed that most had deletions of 1 to 5 mannose-rich glycans. Glycosylation sites at positions 230, 234, 241, 289 located in the C2 region and 339, 392 and 448 in the C3-C4 region were affected. Furthermore, deletions and insertions of up to 5 amino acids in the V4 region were observed in 3 of the 4 isolates. These data suggest that loss of glycosylation sites on gp120 as well as rearrangement of glycans in V4 are mechanisms involved in HIV-1 subtype C escape from GRFT, CV-N and SVN. PMID:24074568

  20. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  1. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    PubMed

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude. PMID:19194724

  2. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (μM trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents. PMID:26665298

  3. Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.

    PubMed

    Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2013-07-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp. PMID:23898551

  4. Health and nutritional status of Wistar rats following subchronic exposure to CV127 soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wandelt, Christine; Contri, Daniela; Dammann, Martina; Groeters, Sibylle; Kaspers, Uwe; Strauss, Volker; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2012-03-01

    This subchronic duration feeding study evaluated the nutritional and health status of rats fed diets containing CV127 at incorporation levels of 11% and 33%. For control comparisons, rats were also exposed to similar incorporation levels of the near isogenic conventional soybean variety (Conquista) and two other conventional soybean varieties (Monsoy, Coodetec). In spite of phenotypic differences among these four soybean varieties, there were no quantitative differences in their respective proximate and other compositional properties, including proteins, amino acids, antinutrients and nutritional cofactors. All diets were prepared by blending the respective processed soybean meal with ground Kliba maintenance meal at high (33%) and low (11%) incorporation levels, and the blended diets were fed to Wistar rats for about 91 days. Although there were some isolated parameters indicating statistically significant changes, these lacked consistency and a plausible mechanism and were thus assessed to be incidental. The totality of results demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are similar with respect to their nutritional value and systemic effects as its near isogenic conventional counterpart, as well as other conventional soybean varieties. Hence, introduction of AHAS gene into soybeans does not substantially alter its compositional properties, nor adversely affect its nutritional or safety status to mammals. PMID:22146086

  5. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chvez-Quintal, Pedro; Gonzlez-Flores, Tania; Rodrguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintor, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625mgml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10mgml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  6. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  7. Antioxidant and anticancer aporphine alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Ming; Kao, Chiu-Li; Wu, Hui-Ming; Li, Wei-Jen; Huang, Cheng-Tsung; Li, Hsing-Tan; Chen, Chung-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Fifteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena. These compounds include liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) cepharadione B (11), β-sitostenone (12), stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one (13) and two chlorophylls: pheophytin-a (14) and aristophyll-C (15). The anti-oxidation activity of the compounds was examined by antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power assays. The results have shown that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the antiproliferation activity of the isolated compounds against human melanoma, prostate and gastric cancer cells. The results shown that 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma, prostate and gastric cancer cells. Together, these findings suggest that leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena are a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances with antioxidant properties. PMID:25372397

  8. In Situ Measurement of Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Magnetite in the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B.-G.; Coath, C. D.; Leshin, L.; Wang, J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Wasson, J. T.

    1995-09-01

    Magnetite is relatively abundant in the oxidized CV chondrites. This study was undertaken to examine possible origins in nebular or in parent-body processes. Magnetite in Allende has several distinct characteristics compared to that of the other CV chondrites. Unlike Mokoia and Vigarano, magnetite in Allende is almost exclusively found in chondrules, where it typically forms spherical nodules often associated with metal and/or sulfides. In addition, the Ni contents of metal in most CV chondrites seldom exceed 50 wt%, while in Allende nearly all of metal grains are Ni rich (64-71 wt% Ni [e.g., 1]), which we designate awaruite even though the Ni range is below that of awaruite. Rare kamacite grains are present in chondrules [2]. A few rare Allende nodules have euhedral to subhedral awaruite grains [e.g., 3]. Nodules of magnetite + sulfides, magnetite + metal, and metal + sulfide exhibit different textures implying that magnetite grains are not simply pseudomorphs of preexisting metal grains. Tiny magnetite grains (< 1 micrometer) are found in Ni-rich metal ; in turn, the host metal is surrounded by magnetite. The textural evidence is not sufficient to distinguish between a high temperature and a low temperature origin for the magnetite. Six magnetite nodules, which had relatively clean areas of ~ 25 micrometers diameter, from 4 Allende PO chondrules were selected for in situ oxygen isotope study using the UCLA Cameca ims 1270, a high resolution - high sensitivity ion microprobe. A ~0.3 nA primary Cs+ beam was defocused to a 20-25 micrometers spot and a field aperture inserted into the secondary ion beam to restrict the analyzed area to the central 10-12 micrometers of each nodule. Negative ions were collected at a mass resolving power of ~6500, sufficient to eliminate hydride interferences. A normal incidence electron gun was employed to compensate possible sample charging. To monitor the instrumental mass fractionation (-11.2+/-0.5 per mil/amu) analyses of terrestrial magnetite LP204a [4] were made interspersed amongst the chondrule analyses. Chondrule data corrected for mass fractionation and normalized to the SMOW scale are shown in Figure 1. Oxygen isotope ratios from inclusion and crack free regions in four magnetite nodules are tightly clustered below the terrestrial mass fractionation (TF) line and are distinct from oxygen isotope fields observed in magnetite from CI and Essebi chondrites [5] and from isolated grains in CI meteorites [6]. The data plot near the ^(16)O mixing line of refractory minerals in Allende (CCAM), but the spread in the ratios is too low relative to the precision of the measurements to define any linear trend for these samples. In 2 chondrules, magnetite nodules with cracks or Ni-Fe metal have very different oxygen compositions; they plot near the TF line at low delta^(18)O (-10 per mil). At this time, it is not clear if this difference could be due to a sputtering artifact, or if it reflects alteration or inclusion of another phase in these "magnetite" nodules. The question of the origin of CV magnetite has not yet been resolved. Data on additional samples including other CV chondrites will help clarify this point. References: [1] McSween H. Y. Jr. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [2] Fuchs L. H. and Olsen E. (1973) EPSL, 18, 379-384. [3] Rubin A. E. (1991) Am. Mineral., 76, 1356-1362. [4] Valley J. W. and Graham G. M. (1991) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 109, 38-52. [5] Rowe M. W. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5341-5347. [6] Hyman M. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 350.

  9. Galectin CvGal2 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Displays Unique Specificity for ABH Blood Group Oligosaccharides and Differentially Recognizes Sympatric Perkinsus Species.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Tasumi, Satoshi; Pasek, Marta; Banerjee, Aditi; Shridhar, Surekha; Wang, Lai-Xi; Bianchet, Mario A; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are highly conserved lectins that are key to multiple biological functions, including pathogen recognition and regulation of immune responses. We previously reported that CvGal1, a galectin expressed in phagocytic cells (hemocytes) of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), is hijacked by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it causes systemic infection and death. Screening of an oyster hemocyte cDNA library revealed a novel galectin, which we designated CvGal2, with four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). Phylogentic analysis of the CvGal2 CRDs suggests close relationships with homologous CRDs from CvGal1. Glycan array analysis, however, revealed that, unlike CvGal1 which preferentially binds to the blood group A tetrasaccharide, CvGal2 recognizes both blood group A and B tetrasaccharides and related structures, suggesting that CvGal2 has broader binding specificity. Furthermore, SPR analysis demonstrated significant differences in the binding kinetics of CvGal1 and CvGal2, and structural modeling revealed substantial differences in their interactions with the oligosaccharide ligands. CvGal2 is homogeneously distributed in the hemocyte cytoplasm, is released to the extracellular space, and binds to the hemocyte surface. CvGal2 binds to P. marinus trophozoites in a dose-dependent and ?-galactoside-specific manner. Strikingly, negligible binding of CvGal2 was observed for Perkinsus chesapeaki, a sympatric parasite species mostly prevalent in the clams Mya arenaria and Macoma balthica. The differential recognition of Perkinsus species by the oyster galectins is consistent with their relative prevalence in oyster and clam species and supports their role in facilitating parasite entry and infectivity in a host-preferential manner. PMID:26158802

  10. Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michle; Montagnac, Gilles

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) 3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) 3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may provide clues on the degree of aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism and on the timing of both processes. In particular, Mokoia experienced significant aqueous alteration after the metamorphism peak, whereas Grosnaja, which has similar metamorphism grade, did not.

  11. The digestion of fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Melle) and white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca) by growing cattle fed indoors.

    PubMed

    Beever, D E; Thomson, D J; Ulyatt, M J; Cammell, S B; Spooner, M C

    1985-11-01

    1. Pure swards of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Melle) or white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca) were harvested daily at three and two stages of growth respectively, and offered to housed cattle. The grass diets comprised primary growth (May) and two later regrowths of contrasting morphology (i.e. leaf: stem values of 1.54 and 2.84 respectively), and were characterized by high contents of water-soluble carbohydrate and neutral-detergent fibre and comparable in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibilities (mean 0.80). Total nitrogen content was higher on primary growth grass (34 g/kg DM) than on regrowths (23 g/kg DM) but lower than values obtained for the two clover diets (38 and 43 g/kg DM, respectively). The clover diets had lower water-soluble carbohydrate contents than the grasses, comparable cellulose, but lower neutral-detergent fibre contents and in vitro DM digestibilities of 0.70 and 0.77 respectively. 2. The experiment lasted from May until August, during which time a total of twenty-one young Friesian steers (initial average live weight 130 kg) were used to determine both nutrient supply to the small intestine (twelve animals) and apparent digestibility (nine animals). Each diet was offered at three levels of DM intake (i.e. 18, 22 and 26 g/kg live weight). A further six steers, all fed at the rate of 22 g DM/kg live weight, were used to determine the metabolizable energy contents of the five diets by means of open-circuit calorimetry. 3. The three grass diets and the later-cut clover had, as intended, quite similar in vivo organic matter digestibilities, but that of the earlier-cut clover was lower, and this was associated with a large number of flower heads in this crop at the time of feeding. 4. On the clover diets, proportionately less of the ingested organic matter appeared to be digested in the rumen (0.40) compared with the grass diets (0.58) (P less than 0.001). On the high-N primary grass and the clover diets, substantial rumen losses of N were detected (P less than 0.01) compared with regrowth grasses. 5. The metabolizable energy content of the primary growth of grass was 12.2 MJ/kg DM, whilst the values for the other two grass diets were lower (11.6 MJ/kg DM), despite no marked decline in overall energy digestibility. Values for the two clover diets (mean 10.5 MJ/kg DM) were considerably lower than all values noted for the grasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3870696

  12. The efficiency of energy utilization in growing cattle consuming fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melle) or white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Blanca).

    PubMed

    Cammell, S B; Thomson, D J; Beever, D E; Haines, M J; Dhanoa, M S; Spooner, M C

    1986-05-01

    1. Twenty Friesian steers (225 kg live weight) were fed on mid- (M) (June-July) and late- (L) (August-September) season crops of either fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melle) (G) or white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Blanca) (C). Each of the forage diets was offered at three restricted planes of nutrition above maintenance to compare the effect of forage species on the efficiency of energy utilization. All diets were harvested daily from swards of regrowth forage of intended equivalent digestibility. 2. Faecal and urine excretions were measured for 7 and 5 d respectively, followed by two consecutive 24 h measurements of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange in open-circuit respiration chambers. 3. The apparent digestibility of the energy in perennial ryegrass (0.759) was marginally higher (P less than 0.01) than that in white clover (0.748); the mid- and late-season forages were of similar (P greater than 0.05) digestibilities. Metabolizable energy (ME): digestible energy (DE) in diet G (0.837) was significantly (P less than 0.001) different from that in diet C (0.812). The partition of energy losses when expressed as MJ/GJ gross energy intake (GEI) indicated that energy lost as methane was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) either between forages (G 62.8, C 63.4) or between seasons (M 63.2, L 63.1). Energy excretion in urine was higher for cattle fed on diet C (77.5) compared with diet G (60.5) (P less than 0.001). Heat production was similar (P greater than 0.05) between forages (G 480, C 478), but lower (P less than 0.01) for L (471) compared with M(486). Energy retention (by difference) was lower (P less than 0.001) for diet C (132) than G (156) and for M (138) than L (149) (P less than 0.05). 4. Parallel-line analysis of unscaled ME intake (MEI) in relation to retained energy (RE; MJ/d) indicated that the efficiency of utilization (kt) was similar (P greater than 0.05) between perennial ryegrass (0.42) and white clover (0.46). Linear extrapolation of the values to zero energy retention indicated that maintenance requirements of ME (Em; MJ/d) were 23.3 for diet G and 28.8 for diet C. The extrapolated Em when expressed in relation to a measured fasting heat production (FHP) of 22.8 (MJ/d) resulted in a derived efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance (km) of 0.97 (G) and 0.79 (C), suggesting an underestimate of Em for diet G.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3676184

  13. Electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via Wnt-β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    FAN, HUAILING; JI, FENG; LIN, YING; ZHANG, MULAN; QIN, WEI; ZHOU, QI; WU, QIANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 (also termed Guanyuan) on femoral osteocalcin also termed bone gla protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanics, as well as the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (4.5-months old) were randomly divided into sham, Ovx, CV4 and mock groups (n=10/group). With the exception of those in the sham group, the rats were ovariectomized to induce postmenopausal osteoporosis. The rats in the CV4 and mock groups were given electroacupuncture at CV4 and non-acupoint, respectively. The rats in the Ovx model and sham groups underwent identical fixing procedures, but did not undergo electroacupuncture. Following treatment, hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe morphological changes in the left femoral trabecular bone, and a three-point-bending test was used to analyze femur biomechanics and determine the BMD. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum levels of ALP/BGP and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used detect the expression levels of Wnt3a, β-catenin and Runx2. In the present study, it was demonstrated that electroacupuncture at CV4 significantly improved the osteoporotic morphological changes that occurred in the ovariectomized rats, increased serum ALP and BGP levels, enhanced the maximum and fracture loads, increased BMD (P<0.01), and activated the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that electroacupuncture stimulation at CV4 affected bone formation and promoted bone metabolism in rats with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by activating the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26846191

  14. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism in the stability field of low feldspar (i.e., less than 800 C) and a metamorphic history similar to that of the CO chondrites but unlike that of the ordinary chondrites.

  15. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 ?T for ALH 84028 and 14-45 ?T for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body magnetic fields existed over an extended period of time. Together, these data present compelling evidence for the presence of a core-generated dynamo on the CV chondrite parent body, persistent for at least 8 Ma.

  16. C-V measurements of micron diameter metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using a scanning-electron-microscope-based nanoprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, T.; Jia, H.; Wallace, R. M.; Gnade, B. E.

    2007-10-15

    The C-V electrical characterization of microstructures on a standard probe station is limited by the magnification of the imaging system and the precision of the probe manipulators. To overcome these limitations, we examine the combination of in situ electrical probing and a dual column scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system. The imaging parameters and probing procedures are carefully chosen to reduce e-beam damage to the metal oxide semiconductor capacitor device under test. Estimation of shunt capacitance is critical when making femtofarad level measurements. C-V measurements of micron size metal-oxide-silicon capacitors are demonstrated.

  17. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  18. Molecular evidence that diploid Stylosanthes humilis and diploid Stylosanthes hamata are progenitors of allotetraploid Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano.

    PubMed

    Curtis, M D; Manners, J M; Cameron, D F

    1995-04-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, using peroxidase, O-methyltransferase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase cDNAs isolated from Stylosanthes humilis, as probes, provided molecular evidence for the genetic origin of the naturally occuring allotetraploid genotype Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano (2n = 4x = 40). Hybridization patterns strongly suggest that the likely progenitors of S. hamata cv. Verano were a diploid S. humilis (2n = 2x = 20) and a diploid S. hamata (2n = 2x = 20) species. PMID:18470174

  19. [Segmentation of vascular intima ultrasound images based on an improved C-V model].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yujie; Jiang, Ling; Song, Haibo; Liu, Qi

    2010-10-01

    In view of the fact that blood vessels can reflect, to a certain degree, the pathologic changes of cardiovascular diseases, research workers count it necessary to take quick and accurate segmentation of neointimal ultrasound images. The segmentation is faster owing to the reconciled signed distance function added into the classical C-V mode, thus avoiding the step of re-initialization. Moreover, the curve evolution is controlled by external energy item. The displacement of boundary points is calculated. The result shows that the improved model can effectively and accurately extract the contour of neointimal ultrasound images. The curve can not only assess the extracted boundary but also reflect the abnormality of vascular or cardiac rhythm. PMID:21089682

  20. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  1. Understanding CV Secondaries and the Energetics of Dwarf Novae Outbursts via Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Osborne, H. L.

    2004-07-01

    We combine HST and ground-based parallaxes for cataclysmic variables (CVs) to examine their outburst energetics, as well as the nature of their secondary stars. Harrison et al. (2004) have recently published parallaxes for WZ Sge, YZ Cnc, and RU Peg, and have reanalyzed the HST parallaxes for U Gem, SS Aur, and SS Cyg. Combined with existing HST parallaxes for RW Tri (McArthur et al. 1999), TV Col (McArthur et al. 2001), EX Hya and V1223 Sgr (Beuermann et al. 2004a,b), ten high-quality parallaxes are available to constrain the various types of outbursts of CVs. In addition, Thorstensen (2003) has published ground-based parallaxes for fourteen CV systems.

  2. Analysis of ultraviolet atmospheric eclipses in the Wolf-Rayet binary CV Serpentis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Khaliullin, Kh. F.

    1985-01-01

    While no eclipses deeper than 0.04 mag are noted in the present UV spectra, covering one-half of an orbital cycle of CV Ser, in the electron scattering continuum at 2400-3200 A or in fine error sensor observations, marked atmospheric eclipses of up to 0.5 mag depth are observed in individual strong lines and over large ranges of the continuum at shorter wavelengths. The flux above the continuum in the C II 1247 A, Si IV 1400 A, and Si IV 1723 lines showed similar phase dependence with emission weakening, as well as with the emission's going into absorption as phase progresses from superior to inferior conjunction of the WC star (primary eclipse). These observations show effects very similar to the behavior of WN stars in the UV.

  3. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of commercial melon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro).

    PubMed

    Vallés, M P; Lasa, J M

    1994-01-01

    Cotyledon explants of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro) seedlings were co-cultivated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 that contained the binary vector plasmid pBI121.1. The T-DNA region of this binary vector contains the Nopaline synthase/neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance and the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S/β-glucuronidase (GUS) chimeric gene. After infection, the cotyledon pieces were placed in induction medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin. Putative transformed shoots were obtained, followed by the development of morphologically normal plantlets. The transgenic nature of regenerants was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction, Southern blot analysis, plant growth on medium selective for the transgene (NPTII) and expression of the co-transformed GUS gene. Factors affecting the transformation procedure are discussed. PMID:24193640

  5. Influence of different drying methods on carotenoids and capsaicinoids of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno).

    PubMed

    Topuz, Ayhan; Dincer, Cuneyt; Ozdemir, Kubra Sultan; Feng, Hao; Kushad, Mosbah

    2011-12-01

    Influence of Refractance Window™ Drying (RWD), a novel contact drying method, on carotenoids, capsaicinoids, Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE) and Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno) was investigated in comparison with freeze drying (FD), oven drying (OD), and natural convective drying (NCD) methods. Eight carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, capsolutein, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) and five capsaicinoid analogues (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, isodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin) were identified in paprika. All these components were significantly (P<0.05) decreased by the RWD, FD and OD methods. However, due to ongoing synthesis, the NCD method resulted in higher carotenoids, except violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin, and capsaicinoids content than those of the others, even puree. Mutatoxanthin, naturally occurring pigment in red pepper, could only be detected in FD paprika. The highest RAE and SHU values, which were derived from the data of carotenoids and capsaicinoids, respectively, were also determined in NCD paprika. PMID:25212310

  6. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation. PMID:18484542

  7. Ectopic expression of Atleafy in Brassica juncea cv. Geeta for early flowering.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sumit; Ganie, Showkat Hussain; Narula, Alka; Srivastava, Prem Shankar; Singh, Hari Bansh

    2013-07-01

    High temperature stress during pod filling severely affects the yield of Brassica juncea. Early flowering can evade the terminal heat stress and result in early maturity of the crop. In this study, a regeneration and transformation protocol has been standardized for B. juncea cv. Geeta. Hypocotyl from 5-day-old seedlings were used as explants. Of the various combinations of auxins and cytokinins tried along with Murashige and Skoog's (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium, MS + IAA (0.2 mg/l) + BA (3 mg/l) proved best for shoot regeneration with 89.9 % regeneration efficiency. To induce early flowering Leafy gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was transformed using Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. After 12 weeks transgenic plants showed flowering in vitro whereas their untransformed counterpart did not flower even after 16 weeks. The maximum transformation frequency was 4 %. PMID:24431514

  8. Petrography and classification of refractory inclusions in the Allende and Mokoia CV3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Cohen, R. E.; Wood, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported for a comprehensive petrographic survey of the refractory inclusions in the Allende and Mokoia CV3 chondrites. More than 600 refractory inclusions in 22 thin sections of the meteorites were studied by optical and scanning-electron microscopy. Olivine-rich inclusions and Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are aggregates of various combinations of three fundamental petrographic constituents: rimmed concentric objects, Ca, Si-rich chaotic material, and mafic inclusion matrix. A new classification system for refractory inclusions is developed that is based on the size and abundance of these three fundamental constituents. The new classification system avoids several problems that are inherent in other classification systems, which use the term 'coarse-grained' too restrictively for many simple CAIs and inaccurately for most mililite-rich complex CAIs.

  9. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  10. YEAST dynamics during the natural fermentation process of table olives (Negrinha de Freixo cv.).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ermelinda L; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Borges, Ana; Pereira, Jos A; Baptista, Paula

    2015-04-01

    Yeast population and dynamics associated to spontaneous fermentation of green table olives Negrinha de Freixo cv. were evaluated. Olives and brine samples were taken at different fermentation times, and yeast were enumerated by standard plate count and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequent, followed by Candida tropicalis, Pichia membranifaciens and Candida boidini, representing together 94.8% of the total isolates. Galactomyces reessii was also identified for the first time in table olives. The highest species diversity was found between 44 and 54 days of fermentation, both in brine and olive pulp. Furthermore, high similarity was observed between brine and olive pulp microbiotas. In conclusion, these results give valuable information to table olive industrials in order to achieve more knowledge on the fermentation process of this important Protected Designation of Origin product. PMID:25475331

  11. Characterization of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Carménère grape and wine proanthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Kennedy, James A; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-05-01

    A formal compositional study of the proanthocyanidins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Carménère was conducted in this work. We first characterized the polymeric proanthocyanidins of Carménère skins, seeds, and wines. In addition, the wine astringency was analyzed and compared with Cabernet Sauvignon. Although Carménère wines had a higher proanthocyanidin concentration and mean degree of polymerization than Cabernet Sauvignon wines, the former wines were perceived as less astringent. The low seed/skin proportion in Carménère wines as compared to other varieties, as evidenced by the reduced number of seeds per berry and the higher amount of epigallocatechin subunits of Carménère wine proanthocyanidins, could explain this apparent paradox. PMID:17407309

  12. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  13. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv White Cloud Bean

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-01-01

    A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv White Cloud Bean. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16?kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6??M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8??M and 21.5??M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100??M. PMID:20617140

  14. Carbon in glass inclusions of Allende, Vigarano, Bali, and Kaba (CV3) olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Maria Eugenia; Metrich, Nicole; Bonnin-Mosbah, Michelle; Kurat, Gero

    2000-11-01

    Carbon contents and distribution have been measured in glass inclusions in olivines of CV3 carbonaceous chondrites by using the 12C(d,p) 13C nuclear reaction. All olivines from the four studied meteorites had low carbon contents (<70 ppm). Conversely, glasses of glass inclusions in the same olivines had highly variable carbon contents, all above 100 ppm. Glass inclusions in olivines from meteorites of the oxidized group (Allende, Kaba, and Bali) had carbon contents that varied from 100 to about 2000 ppm, whereas those from the reduced group member Vigarano were surprisingly poor in C (averaging 300 ppm). These relative abundances of carbon in these glasses of reduced and oxidized CV3 meteorites are in contrast to the abundances of interstellar SiC in these meteorites. This indicates that glass inclusions in olivines could have behaved, with respect to carbon, as closed systems that have escaped elemental exchange processes. The carbon content of the glasses is, therefore, likely to be primary and reflect the physico- chemical conditions during the formation of the host olivine and glass inclusions. The redox conditions prevailing during secondary processing of the olivines (e.g., metasomatic Fe-Mg exchange, Ca-Na exchange) appear not to have influenced the carbon distribution. Carbon could have been trapped initially as a refractory carbon species (e.g., carbide) by clear glass inclusions. Despite the fact that the nature of neither the primary nor that of the secondary C species was established, the commonly heterogeneous distribution of C in glass inclusions in olivines suggests entrapment of a solid C-bearing precursor.

  15. Oxygen-isotopes in magnetite and fayalite in CV chondrites Kaba and Mokoia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byeon-Gak; Krot, Alexander N.; Wasson, John T.

    2000-11-01

    We report in situ measurements of oxygen-isotope compositions of magnetite and primary and secondary olivine in the highly unequilibrated oxidized CV chondrites Kaba and Mokoia. In both meteorites the magnetite and the secondary olivine (fayalite, Fa90-100) have O-isotope compositions near the terrestrial fractionation (TF) line; the mean 17O (=17O-0.5218O) value is -1% In contrast, the compositions of nearby primary (chondrule), low-FeO olivines (Fa1-2) are well below the TF line; 17O values range from -3% to -9% Krot et al. (1998) summarized evidence indicating that the secondary phases in these chondrites formed by aqueous alteration in an asteroidal setting. The compositions of magnetite and fayalite in Kaba and Mokoia imply that the oxygen isotopic composition of the oxidant was near or somewhat above the TF line. In Mokoia the fayalite and magnetite differ in 18O by 20% whereas these same materials in Kaba have virtually identical compositions. The difference between Mokoia magnetite and fayalite may indicate formation in isotopic equilibrium in a water-rich environment at low temperatures, ~300 K. In contrast, the similar compositions of these phases in Kaba may indicate formation of the fayalite by replacement of preexisting magnetite in dry environment, with the O coming entirely from the precursor magnetite and silica. The 17O of the oxidant incorporated into the CV parent body (as phyllosilicates or H2O) appears to have been much (7-8% lower than that in that incorporated into the LL parent body (Choi et al., 1998), suggesting that the O-isotopic composition of the nebular gas was spatially or temporally variable.

  16. Inherited transgene expression of the uidA and bar genes in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of two transgenes, bar and uidA, was studied in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants. ‘Nellie White’ had been transformed using the gene gun to bombard with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that eight ...

  17. Fe-Isotopic Composition of Chondrules, CAIs, Matrix and Bulk Meteorite in Mokoia and Grosnaja CV-Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezel, D. C.; Needham, A. W.; Russell, S. S.

    2008-03-01

    Chondrules and CAIs in CV chondrites range from -1.40 to +0.21 delta 56Fe. Average chondrule delta 56Fe must be close to matrix and bulk chondrite. Modeling shows that a combination of nebula and parent body processes explain the isotopic spread of chondrules.

  18. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  19. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  20. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease).

    PubMed

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C; Nelson, David R

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  2. The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

  3. Synchronizing the Absolute and Relative Clocks: Pb-Pb and Al-Mg Systematics in CAIs from the Allende and NWA 2364 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvier, A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2009-03-01

    A Pb-Pb internal isochron of a type-B CAI from the NWA 2364 CV3 chondrite gives an absolute age of 4568.6 0.2 Ma which contrasts with previous internal Pb-Pb ages of CAIs from Allende and Efremovka. Al-Mg systematics are also reported for CV3 CAIs.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312, the Causative Agent of Roseovarius Oyster Disease (Formerly Juvenile Oyster Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Linda; Spinard, Edward; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Rowley, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Aliiroseovarius crassostreae CV919-312 is a marine alphaproteobacterium and the causative agent of Roseovarius oyster disease. We announce here the draft genome sequence of A. crassostreae CV919-312 and identify potential virulence genes involved in pathogenicity. PMID:26988054

  5. A hepatocellular carcinoma-specific adenovirus variant, CV890, eliminates distant human liver tumors in combination with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Yu, D C; Chen, Y; Amin, P; Zhang, H; Nguyen, N; Henderson, D R

    2001-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. Tumor resection remains the only curative treatment but is often not possible because of advanced stage and frequently unsuccessful because of intrahepatic or distant tumor recurrence. alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker currently used for the diagnosis and management of HCC, is an oncofetal protein expressed in a majority of HCCs but rarely in normal hepatocytes. Because AFP gene expression is tightly regulated at the level of transcription, AFP transcriptional regulatory elements (TRE) are excellent candidates for generating HCC-specific oncolytic adenoviruses. We devised a new strategy for the AFP TRE to control an artificial E1A-IRES-E1B bicistronic cassette in an adenovirus 5 vector (Ad5) and constructed an HCC-specific oncolytic virus, CV890. In vitro, CV890 expression of the E1A and E1B genes, virus replication, and cytopathic effects were examined by Northern blot, Western blot, virus yield assay, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in AFP-producing cell lines (HepG2, Huh7, Hep3B, PLC/PRF/5, and SNU449), non-AFP-producing cell lines (Sk-Hep-1, Chang liver cell, LNCaP, HBL-100, PA-1, UM-UC-3, SW 780, Colo 201, and U118 MG), and non-AFP-producing human primary cells (lung fibroblast, bladder smooth muscle, and mammary epithelial). CV890 efficiently replicates in and destroys AFP-producing HCC cells as well as wild-type Ad5, but replication is highly attenuated in non-AFP-producing HCC cells or non-HCC cells. CV890 produced 5,000-100,000-fold less virus than wild-type Ad5 in non-AFP-producing cells. CV890 was attenuated 100-fold more than CV732, a virus containing the AFP TRE driving the E1A gene alone, in non-AFP-producing cells. These studies demonstrated that expression of both E1A and E1B genes under the control of a bicistronic AFP-E1A-IRES-E1B cassette yielded improvements in virus specificity equivalent to driving the E1A and E1B genes with two independent TREs yet requires only one TRE thereby conserving genomic space within the virus. Significantly, CV890 produced nearly the same yield of virus in cells that produced AFP over a 75-fold range, from a low of 60 ng AFP/10(6) cells/10 days to as high as 4585 ng AFP/10(6) cells/10 days. In vivo, antitumor efficacy of CV890 was examined in BALB/c-nu/nu mice containing large s.c. HepG2 or Hep3B tumor xenografts. Tumor volume of distant xenografts dropped below baseline 4 weeks after a single i.v. injection. Combination of CV890 with doxorubicin demonstrated synergistic antitumor efficacy, yielding complete elimination of distant Hep3B tumors 4 weeks after a single i.v. administration of both compounds. Our results support the clinical development of CV890 as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of localized or metastatic HCC. PMID:11522637

  6. Abundance, major element composition and size of components and matrix in CV, CO and Acfer 094 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Brunner, Chelsea; Konrad, Kevin; Leftwich, Kristin; Erb, Isabelle; Lu, Muzhou; Rodriguez, Hugo; Crapster-Pregont, Ellen J.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The relative abundances and chemical compositions of the macroscopic components or "inclusions" (chondrules and refractory inclusions) and fine-grained mineral matrix in chondritic meteorites provide constraints on astrophysical theories of inclusion formation and chondrite accretion. We present new techniques for analysis of low count/pixel Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and Fe X-ray intensity maps of rock sections, and apply them to large areas of CO and CV chondrites, and the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. For many thousands of manually segmented and type-identified inclusions, we are able to assess, pixel-by-pixel, the major element content of each inclusion. We quantify the total fraction of refractory elements accounted for by various types of inclusion and matrix. Among CO chondrites, both matrix and inclusion Mg/Si ratios approach the solar (and bulk CO) ratio with increasing petrologic grade, but Si remains enriched in inclusions relative to matrix. The oxidized CV chondrites with higher matrix/inclusion ratios exhibit more severe aqueous alteration (oxidation), and their excess matrix accounts for their higher porosity relative to reduced CV chondrites. Porosity could accommodate an original ice component of matrix as the direct cause of local alteration of oxidized CV chondrites. We confirm that major element abundances among inclusions differ greatly, across a wide range of CO and CV chondrites. These abundances in all cases add up to near-chondritic (solar) bulk abundance ratios in these chondrites, despite wide variations in matrix/inclusion ratios and inclusion sizes: chondrite components are complementary. This complementarity provides a robust meteoritic constraint for astrophysical disk models.

  7. Relationship of superficial scald development and alpha-farnesene oxidation to reactions of diphenylamine and diphenylamine derivatives in Cv. Granny Smith apple peel.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Fellman, John K

    2005-10-19

    Cv. Granny Smith apple fruit, treated at harvest with aqueous emulsions containing diphenylamine (DPA) and DPA derivatives, were evaluated for the peel disorder superficial scald (scald) after 6 months of cold storage at 1 degrees C plus 0 or 7 days at 20 degrees C. Metabolism of these derivatives and alpha-farnesene oxidation were also evaluated after 6 months. Derivatives substituted at the para position prevented scald, but scald developed on fruit treated with derivatives substituted in the amino, ortho, or meta positions. The extent of scald control was also dependent on the chemical nature of the functional group used to derivatize DPA. Hydroxylation of DPA and DPA derivatives during storage was not associated with scald control. Methoxylated DPA derivatives produced during storage resulted from O-methylation of C-hydroxylated derivatives rather than C-methoxylation of DPA. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine provided partial scald control, possibly resulting from its degradation to DPA, indicating that the amino hydrogen of DPA may be crucial for scald control. Results suggest that functional group position and chemical properties both contribute to the efficacy of DPA derivatives for scald control. PMID:16218691

  8. Microtextures of Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV Chondrite: Evidence for Aqueous Alteration Prior to Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomeoka, K.

    1993-07-01

    The CV and CO chondrites were less affected by aqueous alteration than the CI and CM chondrites; thus they may serve as important indicators of the earliest stages of carbonaceous chondrite formation. Mokoia is one of the rare CV chondrites that contains considerable amounts of phyllosilicates [1,2]. They occur in CAIs, some chondrules, and matrix; they also occur abundantly in some chondrule rims. Tomeoka and Buseck [2] showed that the phyllosilicates in Mokoia are saponite and Na-rich phlogopite and were formed by aqueous alteration of olivine, pyroxene, anorthite, and glass. However, the mineralogy and occurrence of phyllosilicates in Mokoia are different from those in CI and CM chondrites, suggesting that the alteration of Mokoia occurred in a condition distinct from those for CI and CM chondrites. Most phyllosilicates in CI and CM chondrites probably resulted from alteration of olivine and pyroxene by the activity of liquid water on the meteorite parent bodies (e.g., [3]). Major questions are (1) What were the conditions responsible for the alteration in Mokoia? (2) Were these conditions different from those experienced by the CI and CM chondrites? (3) Where did the aqueous alteration in Mokoia occur? To address these questions, I performed extensive observations of the Mokoia CV chondrite by using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS analysis system. The Mokoia chondrite is a breccia composed of submillimeter to millimeter clasts. Its matrix consists largely of fine grains (<0.1 to 10 micrometers in diameter) of Fe-rich olivine. Phyllosilicates occur in narrow interstices (<1 micrometer) between the olivine grains. The abundance of phyllosilicates in matrix differs within a clast and among clasts. Some clasts that are rich in phyllosilicates are adjacent to phyllosilicate-poor or -free clasts; the evidence suggests that aqueous alteration of the matrix preceded some of the brecciation events that produced the clasts from earlier matrix. Phyllosilicates are much more abundant in some chondrules and CAIs than in matrix in Mokoia; in some chondrules, phyllosilicates extend over an area of 100 x 100 micrometers. Chondrules and inclusions that were altered in various degrees occur together with those that remain unaltered within the same clasts Because of small sizes, olivines in the Mokoia matrix are more permeable to fluids and thus more reactive to aqueous alteration than the coarser olivines and pyroxenes in chondrules. Therefore, if alteration.of chondrules occurred in situ in the parent body (after consolidation), the matrix olivines should have been altered preferentially to those in chondrules, which is just the opposite of what I observe. These observations suggest that some chondrules and inclusions experienced a distinct environment in terms of hydration from that of the matrix materials. Mineralogy itself does not provide precise constraints on whether the alteration occurred via a solar nebular gas or aqueous solutions. However, based on the present observations, it is likely that some chondrules, inclusions, and portions of matrix in Mokoia have experienced aqueous alteration prior to consolidation into the present configuration. References: [1] Cohen R. E. et al. (1983) GCA, 47, 1739-1757. [2] Tomeoka K. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 1745-1754. [3] Tomeoka K. (1990) Nature, 345, 138-140.

  9. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernndez-Robledo, Jos A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is hijacked by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified ?-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 self-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to ?-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  10. Chondrules in CK carbonaceous chondrites and thermal history of the CV-CK parent body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumard, NoëL.; Devouard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    CK chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites with petrologic types ranging from 3 to 6. It is commonly reported than ~15 vol% of CK4-6 samples are composed of chondrules. The modal abundance of chondrules estimated here for 18 CK3-6 (including five CK3s) ranges from zero (totally recrystallized) to 50.5%. Although almost all chemically re-equilibrated with the host matrix, we recognized in CK3s and Tanezrouft (Tnz) 057 (CK4) up to 85% of chondrules as former type I chondrules. Mean diameters of chondrules range from 0.22 to 1.05 mm for Karoonda (CK4) and Tnz 057 (CK4), respectively. Up to ~60% of chondrules in CK3-4 are surrounded by igneous rims (from ~20 μm to 2 mm width). Zoned olivines were found in unequilibrated chondrules from DaG 431 (CK3-an), NWA 4724 (CK3.8), NWA 4423 (CK3.9), and Tnz 057 (CK4). We modeled Fe/Mg interdiffusion profiles measured in zoned olivines to evaluate the peak metamorphic temperatures and time scales of the CK parent body metamorphism, and proposed a two-stage diffusion process in order to account for the position of inflection points situated within chondrules. Time scales inferred from Fe/Mg interdiffusion in olivine from unequilibrated chondrules are on the order of tens to a hundred thousand years (from 50 to 70,000 years for peak metamorphic temperatures of 1140 and 920 K, respectively). These durations are longer than what is commonly accepted for shock metamorphism and shorter than what is required for nuclide decay. Using the concept of a continuous CV-CK metamorphic series, which is reinforced by this study, we estimated peak metamorphic temperatures <850 K for CV, 850-920 K for CK3, and 920-1140 K for CK4-6 chondrites considering a duration of 70,000 years.

  11. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), 3N from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) CAI and UR CAI 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (?17O approximately -2 to -5). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB CAI are 16O-rich (?17O approximately -23 2). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (?17O approximately -2 to -5) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA CAI and spinel (?17O approximately -23 2), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (?17O approximately -7 to -19). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain unclear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.5854J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.5854J"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemistry, petrology and bulk oxygen isotope compositions of chondrules from the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, R. H.; Schilk, A. J.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>We report bulk chemical compositions and physical properties for a suite of 94 objects, mostly chondrules, separated from the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 ox carbonaceous chondrite. We also describe mineralogical and petrologic information for a selected subset of the same suite of chondrules. The data are used to examine the range of chondrule bulk compositions, and to investigate the relationships between chondrule mineralogy, texture and bulk compositions, as well as oxygen isotopic properties that we reported previously. Most of the chondrules show minimal metamorphism, corresponding to petrologic subtype <3.2. In general, elemental fractionations observed in chondrule bulk compositions are reflected in the compositions of constituent minerals. For chondrules, mean bulk compositions and compositional ranges are very similar for large (>2 mg) and small (<2 mg) size fractions. Two of the objects studied are described as matrix-rich clasts. These have similar bulk compositions to the chondrule mean, and are potential chondrule precursors. One of these clasts has a similar bulk oxygen isotopic composition to Mokoia chondrules, but the other has an anomalously high value of ? 17O (+3.60). Chondrules are diverse in bulk chemical composition, with factor of 10 variations in most major element abundances that cannot be attributed to secondary processes. The chondrules examined show evidence for extensive secondary oxidation, and possible sulfidization, as expected for an oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite, but minimal aqueous alteration. Some of the bulk chondrule compositional variation might be the result of chemical (e.g. volatilization or condensation) or physical (e.g. metal loss) processes during chondrule formation. However, we suggest that it is mainly the result of significant variations in the assembly of particles that constituted chondrule precursors. Precursor material likely included a refractory component, possibly inherited from disaggregated CAIs, an FeO-poor ferromagnesian component such as olivine or pyroxene, an oxidized ferromagnesian component, and a metal component. Bulk oxygen isotope ratios of chondrules can be explained if refractory and ferromagnesian precursor materials initially shared similar oxygen isotopic compositions of ? 17O, ? 18O around -50, and then significant exchange occurred between the chondrule and surrounding 16O-poor gas during melting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..547C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..547C"><span id="translatedtitle">Chondrules in CK carbonaceous chondrites and thermal history of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-CK parent body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaumard, NoëL.; Devouard, Bertrand</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>CK chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites with petrologic types ranging from 3 to 6. It is commonly reported than ~15 vol% of CK4-6 samples are composed of chondrules. The modal abundance of chondrules estimated here for 18 CK3-6 (including five CK3s) ranges from zero (totally recrystallized) to 50.5%. Although almost all chemically re-equilibrated with the host matrix, we recognized in CK3s and Tanezrouft (Tnz) 057 (CK4) up to 85% of chondrules as former type I chondrules. Mean diameters of chondrules range from 0.22 to 1.05 mm for Karoonda (CK4) and Tnz 057 (CK4), respectively. Up to ~60% of chondrules in CK3-4 are surrounded by igneous rims (from ~20 μm to 2 mm width). Zoned olivines were found in unequilibrated chondrules from DaG 431 (CK3-an), NWA 4724 (CK3.8), NWA 4423 (CK3.9), and Tnz 057 (CK4). We modeled Fe/Mg interdiffusion profiles measured in zoned olivines to evaluate the peak metamorphic temperatures and time scales of the CK parent body metamorphism, and proposed a two-stage diffusion process in order to account for the position of inflection points situated within chondrules. Time scales inferred from Fe/Mg interdiffusion in olivine from unequilibrated chondrules are on the order of tens to a hundred thousand years (from 50 to 70,000 years for peak metamorphic temperatures of 1140 and 920 K, respectively). These durations are longer than what is commonly accepted for shock metamorphism and shorter than what is required for nuclide decay. Using the concept of a continuous <span class="hlt">CV</span>-CK metamorphic series, which is reinforced by this study, we estimated peak metamorphic temperatures <850 K for <span class="hlt">CV</span>, 850-920 K for CK3, and 920-1140 K for CK4-6 chondrites considering a duration of 70,000 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147423','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17147423"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular properties and activities of tuber proteins from starch potato <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kuras.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jrgensen, Malene; Bauw, Guy; Welinder, Karen G</p> <p>2006-12-13</p> <p>Potato starch production leaves behind a huge amount of juice. This juice is rich in protein, which might be exploited for food, biotechnological, and pharmaceutical applications. In northern Europe <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kuras is dominant for industrial starch production, and juice protein of freshly harvested mature tubers was fractionated by Superdex 200 gel filtration. The fractions were subjected to selected activity assays (patatin, peroxidase, glyoxalases I and II, alpha-mannosidase, inhibition of trypsin, Fusarium protease, and alcalase) and protein subunit size determination by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Proteins present in SDS-PAGE bands were identified by tryptic peptide mass fingerprinting. Protein complexes such as ribosomes and proteasomes eluted with the void volume of the gel filtration. Large proteins were enzymes of starch synthesis dominated by starch phosphorylase L-1 (ca. 4% of total protein). Five identified dimeric patatin variants (25%) coeluted with four monomeric lipoxygenase variants (10%) at 97 kDa. Protease inhibitor I variants (4%) at 46 kDa (hexamer) inhibited alcalase. Fourteen Kunitz protease inhibitor variants (30%) at 19 kDa inhibited trypsin and Fusarium protease. Carboxypeptidase inhibitor variants (5%) and defensins (5%) coeluted with phenolics. The native sizes and molecular properties were determined for 43 different potato tuber proteins, several for the first time. PMID:17147423</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073"><span id="translatedtitle">Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span> Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 0.7) 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 10(5), 0.3 10(5) and 1.6 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance. PMID:25053073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22650010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22650010"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro antioxidant activity of banana (Musa spp. ABB <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pisang Awak).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Darsini, D Teepica Priya; Maheshu, V; Vishnupriya, M; Sasikumar, J M</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The methanolic extract of Musa ABB <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pisang Awak was investigated for the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the fruit extract were found to be 120 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 440 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g of sample dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the Pisang Awak methanol extract (PAME) (20-500 microg/ml) was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, 2-2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolourization and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (OH*). The EC50 values of DPPH, ABTS and OH* activities of the PAME and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) were found to be 65 and 9 microg/ml, 29 and 6 microg/ml, 36 and 42 microg/ml respectively. The reducing capacity increased with increasing concentration (31.5-1000 mg/ml) of the fruit extract and the activity was comparable with the standard BHT. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols. The strong and positive correlations were obtained between total phenol/flavonoid contents (R2 = 0.693-1.0) and free radical scavenging ability was attributed to the polyphenols as the major antioxidants. PMID:22650010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25160909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25160909"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Fusarium wilt resistant somaclonal variants of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali by cDNA-RAPD.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is counted among the most destructive diseases of crop plants in India. In the absence of any credible control measure to manage this disease, development of resistant cultivars is the best option. Somaclonal variations arising out of long term in vitro culture of plant tissues is an important source of genetic variability and the selection of somaclones having desired characteristics is a promising strategy to develop plants with improved characters. In the present study, we isolated a group of somaclonal variants of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Rasthali which showed efficient resistance towards Foc race 1 infection in repeated bioassays. cDNA-RAPD methodology using 96 decamer primers was used to characterize these somaclonal variants. Among the four differentially amplified bands obtained, one mapping to the coding region of a lipoxygenase gene was confirmed to be down regulated in the somaclones as compared to controls by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results correlated well with earlier studies with lipoxygenase mutants in maize wherein reduced expression of lipoxygenase led to enhanced resistance towards Fusarium infection. PMID:25160909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) Peel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25945643"><span id="translatedtitle">Priming and temperature limits for germination of dispersal units of Urochloa brizantha (Stapf) Webster <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakao, E A; Cardoso, V J M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of priming treatments on the upper and lower thermal limits for germination of Urochloa brizantha <span class="hlt">cv</span>. basilisk, and testing the hypothesis that pré-imbibition affect thermal parameters of the germination. Pre-imbibed seeds both in distilled water (0 MPa) and PEG 6000 solution (-0.5 MPa) were put to germinate in different temperatures. It is suggested that U. brizantha seeds have low response to priming when they were placed to germinate in medium where water is not limiting. The response of U. brizantha seeds to priming is dependent on the temperature and water potential conditions at which the seeds are pre-imbibed, as well as on the germination temperature. The optimum temperature for germination of U. brizantha shift toward warmer temperatures in primed seeds. Priming effect was more pronounced at temperatures closer to the upper and lower limit for germination, but probably that response cannot be accounted for changes in the thermal time constant (θT(g)) and ceiling temperature (Tc(g)). Otherwise, a decrease in the base temperature (Tb) was observed in primed seeds, suggesting that the Tb distribution in U. brizantha seeds is influenced by priming. PMID:25945643</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...33H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...33H"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualisation and quantification of <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite petrography using micro-tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hezel, Dominik C.; Elangovan, Premkumar; Viehmann, Sebastian; Howard, Lauren; Abel, Richard L.; Armstrong, Robin</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Micro-computed tomography is a non-destructive technique that allows the study of 3D meteorite petrography. The technique produces a unique and instructive visualisation of the meteorite for quantifying its components. We studied the overall petrography of the two <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites Allende and Mokoia to constrain their formation histories. A set of movies and stereographic images detail the 3D petrography. Component modal abundances agree with previous reports and modal abundance differences between Allende and Mokoia support the chondrule-matrix complementarity and that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir. We identified two types of chondrules, a normal type and one where a normal type I or II chondrule is almost completely encapsulated by an opaque-rich layer. This layer was probably acquired during a late stage condensation process. The appearance of opaques in chondrules and matrix is different, not supporting a genetic relationships between these. Low abundances of compound chondrules (1.75 vol% in Allende and 2.50 vol% in Mokoia) indicate low chondrule densities and/or low relative component velocities in chondrule formation regions. Porosities on a scale <10-20 ?m allowed for only local aqueous alteration processes on the meteorite parent bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Encapsulated Microshoots of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 35?mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5?mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1?mg/L BAP, and 0.1?mg/L ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (1530 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1?mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840038496&hterms=CLEAN+air&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCLEAN%2Bair','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840038496&hterms=CLEAN+air&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCLEAN%2Bair"><span id="translatedtitle">Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA <span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA <span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16604461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16604461"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants. PMID:16604461</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.426.1720D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.426.1720D"><span id="translatedtitle">Using MOST to reveal the secrets of the mischievous Wolf-Rayet binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Ser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>David-Uraz, Alexandre; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Chen, Andr-Nicolas; Rowe, Jason F.; Lange, Nicholas; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Serpentis (= WR113, WC8d + O8-9IV) has been a source of mystery since it was shown that its atmospheric eclipses change with time over decades, in addition to its sporadic dust production. The first high-precision time-dependent photometric observations obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) space telescope in 2009 show two consecutive eclipses over the 29-d orbit, with varying depths. A subsequent MOST run in 2010 showed a seemingly asymmetric eclipse profile. In order to help make sense of these observations, parallel optical spectroscopy was obtained from the Mont Megantic Observatory (2009, 2010) and from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (2009). Assuming these depth variations are entirely due to electron scattering in a ?-law wind, an unprecedented 62 per cent increase in M? is observed over one orbital period. Alternatively, no change in mass-loss rate would be required if a relatively small fraction of the carbon ions in the wind globally recombined and coaggulated to form carbon dust grains. However, it remains a mystery as to how this could occur. There also seems to be evidence for the presence of corotating interaction regions (CIR) in the WR wind: a CIR-like signature is found in the light curves, implying a potential rotation period for the WR star of 1.6 d. Finally, a new circular orbit is derived, along with constraints for the wind collision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190888"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of chemical pretreatment on dehulling parameters of flaxseed (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Garima).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mridula, D; Barnwal, P; Gurumayum, Sushma; Singh, K K</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In the present study, effects of chemical (ethanol, HCl and sulphuric acid) pretreatment on various dehulling parameters of flaxseed (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Garima) including yield, hull, hullability, extraction rate and embryo (dehulled flaxseed) recovery were studied. Pretreated flaxseed, at 3.1 to 3.6 % moisture range (p > 0.05) were dehulled for 60 s in a laboratory model rice polisher/dehulling machine at 2,000 rpm followed by aspiration (hull separation) using a laboratory model aspirator. The study revealed that chemical pre-dehulling treatment of flaxseed plays a significant role in the embryo recovery of flaxseed. Both ethanol and HCl pre-dehulling treatment enhanced but sulphuric acid pretreatment reduced the embryo recovery of flaxseed. Moreover, HCL and Sulphuric acid deteriorated the quality of hull obtained during dehulling, hence may not be considered for flaxseed dehulling. The study showed the maximum embryo recovery from ethanol pretreated flaxseed, hence ethanol pre-dehulling treatment with 2 h tempering time may be considered for effective flaxseed dehulling. PMID:25190888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2822216','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2822216"><span id="translatedtitle">Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Suguna leaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and plasma free fatty acids by 50, 6, 31 and 22% respectively in STZ- diabetic rats compared to diabetic control rats which had significantly (P<0.01) raised levels of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and free fatty acids than the normal control rats. A marked increase in fecal bile acids (154%) was observed in mulberry treated diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group indicating conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. In addition, mulberry supplementation significantly lowered LDL-C (67%) and VLDL-C (44%) levels and increased HDL-C (53%) and also decreased atherogenic index (58%) significantly when compared to the diabetic control group. CONCLUSION: Besides the diabetic rats, mulberry leaves affected lipid profile in normal rats also indicating hypolipidemic effect as a result of the synergistic action of bioactive compounds. PMID:20165649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22919338','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22919338"><span id="translatedtitle">Germination and plantlet regeneration of encapsulated microshoots of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3-5 mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 0.1 mg/L ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15-30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1 mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636938"><span id="translatedtitle">Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Leccino.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677i0013H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1677i0013H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Ciherang</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21500071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21500071"><span id="translatedtitle">The determination of mercury in mushrooms by <span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS and ICP-AES techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jarzynska, Grazyna; Falandysz, Jerzy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This research presents an example of an excellent applied study on analytical problems due to hazardous mercury determination in environmental materials and validity of published results on content of this element in wild growing mushrooms. The total mercury content has been analyzed in a several species of wild-grown mushrooms and some herbal origin certified reference materials, using two analytical methods. One method was commonly known and well validated the cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS) after a direct sample pyrolysis coupled to the gold wool trap, which was a reference method. A second method was a procedure that involved a final mercury measurement using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) at ? 194.163 nm, which was used by some authors to report on a high mercury content of a large sets of wild-grown mushrooms. We found that the method using the ICP-AES at ? 194.163 nm gave inaccurate and imprecise results. The results of this study imply that because of unsuitability of total mercury determination using the ICP-AES at ? 194.163 nm, the reports on great concentrations of this metal in a large sets of wild-grown mushrooms, when examined using this method, have to be studied with caution, since data are highly biased. PMID:21500071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436"><span id="translatedtitle">Biomonitoring of air pollution with mercury in Croatia by using moss species and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spiri?, Zdravko; Vu?kovi?, Ivana; Stafilov, Traj?e; Kuan, Vladimir; Ba?eva, Katerina</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Moss samples from four dominant species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Homalothecium sericeum and Brachythecium rutabulum) were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010 from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the territory of Croatia. Samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion system, whilst mercury was analysed by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS). Descriptive statistics were done from analyses of mercury in all moss samples. The content of mercury ranged from 0.010 to 0.145mgkg(-1) with a median value of 0.043mgkg(-1). Hg distribution map shows the sites of the country with higher levels of this element. High contents of Hg were found in moss samples collected from the regions of Podravina and Istria as a result of anthropogenic pollution. Comparison of median values and ranges with those found in moss samples in 2006 shows slight reduction of mercury air pollution. When compared to the results obtained from recent studies conducted in Slovenia, Macedonia and especially in Norway-which serves as a reference considering the fact that it is a pristine area-mercury air pollution in Croatia is insignificant. PMID:24733436</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...785...83A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...785...83A"><span id="translatedtitle">The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michal; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of ?p = -52 6 and ?s = 3 7 for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ?65, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700"><span id="translatedtitle">Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. )</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598794"><span id="translatedtitle">Chelator-enhanced lead accumulation in Agropyron elongatum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Szarvasi-1 in hydroponic culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vashegyi, Ildik; Cseh, Edit; Lvai, Lszl; Fodor, Ferenc</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Hydroponic culture was applied to compare the efficiency of K2EDTA and citrate in mobilizing Pb for accumulation in Agropyron elongatum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Szarvasi-1 and their effects on some physiological characteristics of the plants. The plants were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0, 10, and 100 microM Pb(NO3)2 combined with chelating agents added to the nutrient solutions after 21 days of growth, in 3 concentrations (0, 100, and 500 microM). The effects were measured after eight days. The energy grass proved to be greatly resistant to the treatments, as was reflected in the slight inhibition of growth, the resistance of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the chlorophyll composition and the lack of change in the malone-dialdehyde content. Fundamental differences can be identified between the effects of EDTA and citrate. Citrate had only a little effect on the physiological parameters, which may be due to the strongly increasing lead accumulation with increasing concentration of Pb in the nutrient solution. Additionally, citrate ensured a higher biomass yield with higher shoot Pb accumulation compared to EDTA in almost all treatments. Concerning biomass reduction, 10 microM Pb applied together with K2EDTA has the most deleterious effects on energy grass. The effects correlated with the concentration of EDTA. PMID:21598794</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10552519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10552519"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbohydrate content and metabolism as related to maturity and chilling sensitivity of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fortune mandarins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holland, N; Sala, J M; Menezes, H C; Lafuente, M T</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Fruits of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fortune mandarin were periodically harvested throughout the ripening period to evaluate changes in carbohydrate content and metabolism in flavedo tissue and to determine the potential role of carbohydrates in the tolerance of citrus fruit to chilling injury (CI). Sucrose showed little change in the flavedo during the season, but fructose and glucose increased, in nearly equal amounts, throughout the fall and winter, reaching a maximum in January. Starch levels were less abundant than soluble carbohydrates and rose continuously until March. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 4.1.14) activity decreased from December throughout ripening. Changes in sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) and acid and alkaline invertase (Inv; EC 3.2.1.26) activities correlated with changes in the reducing sugars, but acid invertase was less active than the other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes. Carbohydrate changes in the flavedo of Fortune mandarins with fruit maturity appear not to be related to the chilling tolerance of fruits during cold storage. PMID:10552519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5004684','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5004684"><span id="translatedtitle">Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.</p> <p>1986-04-01</p> <p>Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004M%26PS...39.1387W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004M%26PS...39.1387W"><span id="translatedtitle">I-Xe measurements of CAIs and chondrules from the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of CAIs in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030934&hterms=mokoia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmokoia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840030934&hterms=mokoia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmokoia"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and petrology of chondrules and inclusions in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cohen, R. E.; Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The inclusions and chondrules of the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite are studied systematically and compared with those in the Allende meteorite. Five polished thin sections of Mokoia were examined by optical microscopy, backscattered scanning electron microscopy, and electronprobe microanalysis, and objects greater than about 100 microns in apparent diameter were measured and classified petrographically. Three major types of olivine chondrules are distinguished: igneous chondrules, which evidently crystallized from droplets of silicate melt; recrystallized chondrules, apparently metamorphosed at relatively high temperatures; and accretional aggregates, which are probably fragments of igneous chondrules. Refractory inclusions in Mokoia are generally similar to those found in Allende, although Mokoia inclusions include phyllosilicates rather than feldspathoids and melilite-rich Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are more abundant in Allende. The small, fine-grained CAIs, which are more abundant than coarse-grained CAIs in both meteorites, are observed to represent aggregates of three distinct constituents: concentric objects, chaotic material and inclusion matrix. It is concluded that most of the CAIs probably formed during metamorphism, partial melting, and incomplete distillation of primitive dust aggregates heated in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135182','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6135182"><span id="translatedtitle">Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume III. Dynamic analysis of the <span class="hlt">cv</span>-3600. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>This volume summarizes the results of a thorough analysis of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-3600 dynamic model that was discussed in Volume II. The purpose of this effort was to determine general engineering details and specifications for coal-fired propulsion systems based on a detailed analysis of a specific propulsion system design. The basis for these specifications included the sensitivity of ship propulsion system response to component parameter and control variations such as grate travel speed and controls, spreader and distributor feed and controls, fan speed and damper controls, steam dump (sizing, control valve characteristics and controls), feedwater pump controls (drum level controls), throttle control, and desuperheater steam attemperation controls. To develop greater insight into the effects of these variations, both open-loop (without control) and closed-loop (with control) versions of the propulsion system were studied. The open and closed-loop responses were further analyzed through the use of linear models and eigenvalue analyses. Specific conclusions regarding desirable trends in component specification are provided as part of the conclusions in this volume.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=Tire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTire','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=Tire&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DTire"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the <span class="hlt">CV</span>990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12297033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12297033"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes from leaves of Lupinus albus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Estoril.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Maria Luisa Louro; Mourato, Miguel Pedro de Freitas Barbosa; de Varennes e Mendona, Amarilis Paula Alberti</p> <p>2002-03-31</p> <p>Two aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1) isoenzymes (AAT-1 and AAT-2) from Lupinus albus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Estoril were separated, purified, and characterized. The molecular weight, pI value, optimum pH, optimum temperature, and thermodynamic parameters for thermal inactivation of both isoenzymes were obtained. Studies of the kinetic mechanism, and the kinetics of product inhibition and high substrate concentration inhibition, were performed. The effect of some divalent ions and irreversible inhibitors on both AAT isoenzymes was also studied. Native PAGE showed a higher molecular weight for AAT-2 compared with AAT-1. AAT-1 appears to be more anionic than AAT- 2, which was suggested by the anion exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE showed a similar sub-unit molecular weight for both isoenzymes. The optimum pH (between 8.0 and 9.0) and temperature (60-65 degrees C) were similar for both isoenzymes. In the temperature range of 45-65 degrees C, AAT-2 has higher thermostability than AAT-1. Both isoenzymes showed a high affinity for keto-acid substrates, as well as a higher affinity to aspartate than glutamate. Manganese ions induced an increase in both AAT isoenzymes activities, but no cooperative effect was detected. Among the inhibitors tested, hydroxylamine affected both isoenzymes activity by an irreversible inhibition mechanism. PMID:12297033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4566059"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23961134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23961134"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of sowing dates and vernalization on Beta vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Univers C-leaf structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakr, Mohammed M; Almaghrabi, Omar A</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This research was conducted to study the effect of three different sowing dates (15th October, 15th November and 15th December) and two vernalization treatments (5C and -20C) on leaf structure of Beta vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Univers. The obtained data are summarized as follows: The maximum values of the most studied parameters; lower epidermis+spongy tissue thickness, midrib, mesophyll tissue, vascular bundle, collenchymatous tissue and number of xylem vessels per arm were found as a result of 15th October sowing date treatment compared with the two other sowing dates. Furthermore, effect of the cooling treatments varied according to the recorded character, sowing date and cooling degree. Most of the vernalization treatments at early sowing dates increased the mesophyll tissue, midrib, number of vascular bundles per transverse section, vascular bundle thickness and number of xylem arms per transverse section. The two studied cooling treatments at 15th October sowing date increased both stomatal index and average number of stomata: average number of epidermis cells compared with the control. Furthermore, 15th October under -20C treatment led to small epidermal cells and stomata formation, straight epidermal cell walls and closed stomata in comparison to the control. PMID:23961134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26358178','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26358178"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural Insight into Cell Wall Architecture of Micanthus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. using Correlative Microscopy Approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Jianfeng; Lv, Xunli; Yang, Shumin; Tian, Genlin; Liu, Xing'e</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Structural organization of the plant cell wall is a key parameter for understanding anisotropic plant growth and mechanical behavior. Four imaging platforms were used to investigate the cell wall architecture of Miscanthus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. internode tissue. Using transmission electron microscopy with potassium permanganate, we found a great degree of inhomogeneity in the layering structure (4-9 layers) of the sclerenchymatic fiber (Sf). However, the xylem vessel showed a single layer. Atomic force microscopy images revealed that the cellulose microfibrils (Mfs) deposited in the primary wall of the protoxylem vessel (Pxv) were disordered, while the secondary wall was composed of Mfs oriented in parallel in the cross and longitudinal section. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy images indicated no variation in the Mf orientation of Pxv and the Mfs in Pxv were oriented more perpendicular to the cell axis than that of Sfs. Based on the integrated results, we have proposed an architectural model of Pxv composed of two layers: an outermost primary wall composed of a meshwork of Mfs and inner secondary wall containing parallel Mfs. This proposed model will support future ultrastructural analysis of plant cell walls in heterogeneous tissues, an area of increasing scientific interest particularly for liquid biofuel processing. PMID:26358178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848316','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848316"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greer, Dennis H.; Weedon, Mark M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate of ripening by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly threefold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimize the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality. PMID:24348494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23312458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23312458"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz) latex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A</p> <p>2005-07-13</p> <p>The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower. PMID:15998151</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22489134"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471628"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenolics from strawberry <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi and their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Dan; Xie, Haihui; Jiang, Yueming; Wei, Xiaoyi</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Three new phenolic glucosides, falandiosides A (1), B (2), and C (6) were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Falandi fruit, together with three flavone glucuronides (3-5), eleven lignan glycosides (12-22), and five others. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All the known phenolics were reported from strawberry for the first time. They were evaluated for antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three new and fifteen known phenolics showed potent 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity with IC50 values of 22.50-4.28μM in comparison to l-ascorbic acid (14.21μM). Quercetin 3-(6-methylglucuronide) (4), (+)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (12), and (-)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (13) were active in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Moreover, compounds 12 and 13 had moderate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Further, two new and seven known phenolics exhibited more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 537.43-25.39μM than acarbose (619.94μM). PMID:26471628</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075355','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075355"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of Fructan Metabolism in Leaves of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Gerbel)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wagner, Walter; Wiemken, Andres; Matile, Philippe</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Excised primary leaf blades of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Gerbel) rapidly synthesized large quantities of fructan in the light and, upon transfer to the dark, they rapidly degraded it again. In the course of such a light/dark cycle the activities of sucrose-sucrose-fructosyltransferase (SST), fructan hydrolase, and invertase were measured in cell-free extracts of the blades. SST activity increased 20-fold within 24 hours in the light and disappeared again upon transfer to the dark during a similar period of time. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase of SST activity in the light indicating de novo synthesis. The loss of SST activity in the dark, however, was unaffected by cycloheximide. No SST activity appeared in the light if photosynthesis was inhibited by lowering the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, SST activity and fructan synthesis were induced even in the dark and at a low CO2 concentration when the leaf blades were immersed in a solution of sucrose. Several other sugars, maltose and fructose in particular, had the same effect. Trehalose induced SST activity but no fructan synthesis occurred. The activities of fructan hydrolase and invertase changed little during the light/dark cycle. It is suggested that the control of SST activity in conjunction with the supply of photosynthates plays a key role in the regulation of fructan metabolism. PMID:16664835</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4652765"><span id="translatedtitle">G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> fluorescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the WatsonCrick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23195047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23195047"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrolysis of Conjugated Gibberellins by ?-Glucosidases from Dwarf Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tan-ginbozu).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schliemann, W</p> <p>1984-09-01</p> <p>Dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tan-ginbozu) is widely used for gibberellin conjugate bioassay. Soluble and particulate fractions from seeds and seedlings of this variety showed hydrolytic activity toward [(3)H]GA-O-Glc. The soluble fraction from mature seeds exhibited the highest [(3)H]GA-O-Glc/pNP-?-Glc hydrolysis ratio which decreased during the early germination phase. The soluble ?-glucosidases from mature seeds were efficiently separated by CMSephadex C-50 column chromatography. It was found that the most active ?-glucosidase CM 1 from seeds hydrolyses GA(8)-O-2-Glc 8 times faster than GA(3)-O-3-Glc and GA(3) Glc ester. In shoots of 4-d-old etiolated seedlings a soluble ?-glucosidase (CM 4) is present which showed a 200 times faster hydrolysis of GA(8)-O-2-Glc as compared to GA(3)-O-3-Glc. Both the ?-glucosidase CM 4 and the main ?-glucosidase component CM 5 possessed relatively high GA(3) Glc ester hydrolysing activity. Our enzymatic findings demonstrate that in dwarf rice bioassay (leaf application) the GA-OGlc with equatorially arranged glucosyl residues (O-2-glucosides of GA(8), GA(26), GA(27), and GA(29)) and GA Glc esters are hydrolysed by the concerted action of the endogenous a-glucosidases CM 4 and CM 5 from shoots. PMID:23195047</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16943076','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16943076"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in volatile compounds and related biochemical profile during controlled fermentation of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Conservolea green olives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panagou, Efstathios Z; Tassou, Chrysoula C</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The effect of controlled fermentation processes on the profile of volatile and other biochemical compounds of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Conservolea green olives processed by the Spanish method was studied. The different treatments included: (a) inoculation with a commercial starter culture of Lactobacillus pentosus, (b) inoculation with a wild strain of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a previous fermentation, (c) uninoculated spontaneous process (control). Microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, organic acids and volatile compounds were monitored. Starter cultures were effective in establishing an accelerated fermentation process. Both were able to reduce the survival period of Enterobacteria by 7 days, minimizing thus the likelihood of spoilage. Higher acidification of the brines and faster pH drop was observed in inoculated processes, with L. pentosus presenting better performance than the wild strain of L. plantarum. Lactic and acetic were the major organic acids detected by HPLC, the concentration of which increased in the course of fermentation. Citric and malic acids were also present in the brines but they were degraded completely within the first 2 weeks of fermentation. Ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isobutyric acid were the major volatile compounds identified by GC. Their concentration varied greatly among the fermentation processes, reflecting varying degrees of microbial activity in the brines. PMID:16943076</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5640533"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919033','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919033"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura</p> <p>2009-12-23</p> <p>Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed. PMID:19919033</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz) latex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161167','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=161167"><span id="translatedtitle">TE7, An Inefficient Symbiotic Mutant of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Jemalong.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benaben, V.; Duc, G.; Lefebvre, V.; Huguet, T.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A mutagenesis program using ethylmethane sulfonate on Medicago truncatula Gaertn <span class="hlt">cv</span> Jemalong, an annual, autogamous and diploid lucerne, permitted the isolation of a mutant (TE7) unable to establish an effective nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, [Nod+Fix-], with Rhizobium meliloti wild-type strains. The mutant phenotype is characterized by an altered infection process that leads to the formation of two kinds of inefficient nodules on the same root system. A certain proportion of the nodules are small, round, and uninfected, with infection threads limited to the outer root cortical cells. Others develop to a normal elongated shape and are infected; bacterial release occurs but the bacteria do not differentiate into bacteroids. The ratio of invaded to uninvaded nodules depends on the bacterial strain used. Throughout the infection process, certain events correlated with the plant defense response against pathogens can be observed: (a) the presence of polyphenolic compounds associated with the walls of infected cells and also with some parts of infection threads in the root cortex; (b) appositions on infection thread walls during the early stage of infection and also within the central tissue of infected nodules; and (c) autophagy of the plant cells that contain released bacteria. Genetic data suggest that the phenotype of TE7 is under monogenic and recessive control; this gene has been designated Mtsym1. PMID:12228341</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357129"><span id="translatedtitle">The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter</p> <p>2014-04-20</p> <p>As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and β{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2661133"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. (Anasazi Beans)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Anasazi beans using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 114 and the temperature range of 080C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 ?M, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 ?M. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763832','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763832"><span id="translatedtitle">Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sari?, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusi?, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragovi?-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosi?, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4748781','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4748781"><span id="translatedtitle">Paraneoplastic Choreoathetosis in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Anti-CRMP5/<span class="hlt">CV</span>2: A Case Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aydin, Dogu; Somnier, Finn; Lassen, Lisbeth H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction The occurrence of more or less monosymptomatic paraneoplastic choreoathetosis associated with anti-CRMP5/<span class="hlt">CV</span>2 antibodies is rare. Typically, such autoantibodies are associated with a more classical syndrome paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. Frequently, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is the related neoplastic finding. Case Report We present a 71-year-old woman who developed visual symptoms with papilledema and chorea. Anti-CRMP5/<span class="hlt">CV</span>2 antibodies were a feature of both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Although SCLC was suspected already at the time of the initial examinations, no signs of primary or metastatic tumors were revealed on chest X-ray, MRI or whole-body PET scan. EEG and bronchoscopy were also unremarkable. However, 6 months after the onset, a repeated PET scan and subsequent bronchoscopic biopsy revealed SCLC. In spite of chemotherapy, the SCLC progressed, and the patient died 14 months after the onset of the symptoms. Conclusion We report paraneoplastic choreoathetosis associated with anti-CRMP5/<span class="hlt">CV</span>2 antibodies. Such published case histories are rare. Although expected, we did not find any reduced signal intensity at the basal ganglia on the T1-weighted or increased intensity on the T2-weighted MRI scans. PMID:26889151</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943313"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanistic pathways differences between P25-TiO(2) and Pt-TiO(2) mediated <span class="hlt">CV</span> photodegradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Huan-Jung; Lu, Chung-Shin; Lee, Wen-Lian William; Chiou, Mei-Rung; Chen, Chiing-Chang</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>The Crystal Violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) dye represented one of the major triphenylmethane dyes used in textile-processing and some other industrial processes. Various metals doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) photocatalysts have been studied intensively for the photodegradation of dye in wastewater treatment. In order to understand the mechanistic detail of the metal dosage on the activities enhancement of the TiO(2) based photocatalyst, this study investigated the <span class="hlt">CV</span> photodegradation reactions under UV light irradiation using a Pt modified TiO(2) photocatalyst. The results showed that Pt-TiO(2) with 5.8% (W/W) Pt dosage yielded optimum photocatalytic activity. Also the effect of pH value on the <span class="hlt">CV</span> degradation was well assessed for their product distributions. The degradation products and intermediates were separated and characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS techniques. The results indicated that both the N-de-methylation reaction and the oxidative cleavage reaction of conjugated chromophore structure occurred, but with significantly different intermediates distribution implying that Pt doped TiO(2) facilitate different degradation pathways compared to the P25-TiO(2) system. PMID:20943313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26317404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26317404"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) in Chilean Children and Adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martnez-Gonzlez, Agustn E; Rodrguez-Jimnez, Tscar; Piqueras, Jos A; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10-18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552748','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552748"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) in Chilean Children and Adolescents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-<span class="hlt">CV</span> is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25911477"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prasertsincharoen, Noppadol; Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey; Elliman, Jennifer</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. PMID:25911477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475882','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4475882"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. PMID:25911477</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5759025','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5759025"><span id="translatedtitle">A chemical and petrographic study of refractory inclusions from Kaba (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions from Kaba (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) chondrite were studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The inclusions observed cover a wide range of chemical patterns, mineral assemblages and textures, indicating the complexity of early solar nebular conditions. The elemental abundances normalized by C1 chondritic abundances vary smoothly as a function of their volatilities, suggesting these inclusions were formed by condensation/evaporization processes in the primeval solar nebula. The average REE pattern of Group Ill inclusions has an enrichment of 31 {times} Cq with approximately equal depletions of Eu and Yb (Eu/Eu{sup *} {equals} 0.33, Yb/Yb{sup *} {equals} 0.29). Group 11 inclusions are irregularlyshaped aggregates of rounded or sub-rounded melilite-rich nodules rimmed with mono-mineralic layers of high-Al phase, Ti-Al pyroxene and hedenbergite. The lower enrichment of Al, Ti and Ca is interpreted by the partial vaporization of the inclusion by a transient event in an oxidizing environment near the nebular midplane. This process caused the partial lose of Al, Ti, Ca and more volatile elements. The rim is the resultant vaporization residue. This model combines the modification of refractory elemental pattem and the rim formation in one event. The partial evaporization of a precursor inclusion with an unfractionated REE pattern would form a rim where Yb and Eu are strongly depleted in different degrees, and the interior is not effected. The similarities between Kaba and Allende in whole-rock composition and their inclusion mineralogies and textures suggest they were formed in a generally similar nebular region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018265&hterms=stem+eels&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstem%2Beels','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018265&hterms=stem+eels&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstem%2Beels"><span id="translatedtitle">Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 meteorite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067123','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067123"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology of Movements in Stems of Seedling Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska 12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Britz, Steven J.; Galston, Arthur W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Gravitropism and nutation in the stems of dark-grown, seedling peas (Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska) were recorded on time-lapse photographs made with photomorphogenetically inactive light. Although gravitropism and nutation have been connected by several different theories in the past, our experiments indicate that the two processes are in fact dissociable. The evidence is as follows: (a) Nutational patterns are asymmetric. There is much greater amplitude of oscillation in the plane parallel (?) to the plane of the apical hook than in the plane perpendicular (?), yet the average gravitropic response is equal in these two planes. (b) Brief red light irradiation given 16 to 24 hours before observation greatly increases the amplitude of nutation in the ?-plane, but has no influence on the kinetics of gravitropic response. (c) An inhibitor of auxin transport, ?-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly inhibits nutation at 5 micromolar but affects gravitropism only at higher concentrations. (d) Nutation is also strongly inhibited by removal of the apical bud, but gravitropism is unaffected. (e) The period of nutation does not exhibit a constant relationship to the response time of gravitropism. The above evidence is inconsistent with theories that gravitropism is an asymmetrically modified nutation or, alternatively, that nutational oscillations result in a simple fashion from gravitropic overshoots. The evidence is consistent with, although not proof of, autonomous factors such as an endogenous rhythm of growth as the cause of nutation in pea stems. However, gravity and nutation do interact. Nutation in a population of seedlings can be synchronized and brought into phase by a single gravitropic induction. Furthermore, the response time and initial rate of gravitropic curvature depend to some extent on the phase of nutational curvature at which gravitropic induction is begun. PMID:16662458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21447755"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zufferey, V; Cochard, H; Ameglio, T; Spring, J-L; Viret, O</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (g(s)), petiole hydraulic conductance (K(petiole)), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (?(x)) of -0.95?MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a ?(x) of -1.5?MPa. K(petiole) described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's K(petiole) levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70-90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a 'hydraulic fuse', thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in K(petiole) and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81.1059C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RaPC...81.1059C"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tommy Atkins)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786733"><span id="translatedtitle">How will climate change influence grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo photosynthesis under different soil textures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Unamunzaga, Olatz; Pascual, Inmaculada; Morales, Fermín</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>While photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2, elevated temperature, or water availability have previously been reported for grapevine as responses to single stress factors, reports on the combined effect of multiple stress factors are scarce. In the present work, we evaluated effects of simulated climate change [CC; 700 ppm CO2, 28/18 °C, and 33/53% relative humidity (RH), day/night] versus current conditions (375 ppm CO2, 24/14 °C, and 45/65% RH), water availability (well-irrigated vs. water deficit), and different types of soil textures (41, 19, and 8% of soil clay contents) on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo) photosynthesis. Plants were grown using the fruit-bearing cutting model. CC increased the photosynthetic activity of grapevine plants grown under well-watered conditions, but such beneficial effects of elevated CO2, elevated temperature, and low RH were abolished by water deficit. Under water-deficit conditions, plants subjected to CC conditions had similar photosynthetic rates as those grown under current conditions, despite their higher sub-stomatal CO2 concentrations. As expected, water deficit reduced photosynthetic activity in association with inducing stomatal closure that prevents water loss. Evidence for photosynthetic downregulation under elevated CO2 was observed, with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content and increases in the C/N ratio in plants subjected to CC conditions. Soil texture had no marked effects on photosynthesis and did not modify the photosynthetic response to CC and water-deficit conditions. However, in mature well-irrigated plants grown in the soils with the highest sand content, an important decrease in stomatal conductance was observed as well as a slight decrease in the utilization of absorbed light in photosynthetic electron transport (measured as photochemical quenching), possibly related to a low water-retention capacity of these soils even under well-watered conditions. PMID:25786733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22179191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22179191"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishment of regeneration and transformation system in Egyptian sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span> Sohag 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Shafeay, Amal F; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Nesiem, Mohamed R; Tawfik, Mohamed S</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oil crop in many tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, yet has received little attention in applying modern biotechnology in its improvement due to regeneration and transformation difficulties. Here within, we report the successful production of transgenic fertile plants of sesame (<span class="hlt">cv</span> Sohag 1), after screening several cultivars. Agrobacterium tumefaciens- carrying the pBI121 plasmid {neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPTII) and a ?-glucuronidase gene (GUS)} was used in all experiments. Recovery of transgenic sesame shoots was achieved using shoot induction medium (Murashige and Skoog MS basal salt mixture + Gamborg's B5 vitamins + 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 + 30.0 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l agar + 200 mg/l cefotaxime and 25 mg/l kanamycin) and shoots were rooted on MS medium + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 10.0 g/l sucrose and 7.0 g/l agar. Rooted shoots were transplanted into soil and grown to maturity in greenhouse. Incorporation and expression of the GUS gene into T0 sesame plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and GUS histochemical assay. Several factors were found to be important for regeneration and transformation in sesame. The most effective were plant genotype and the addition of AgNO3 for successful recovery of sesame shoots. Co-cultivation time and optical density of the Agrobacterium were also critical for sesame transformation. This work is an attempt to open the door for further genetic improvement of sesame using important agronomic traits. PMID:22179191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885851"><span id="translatedtitle">Langlie Test Method Program for use with the HP-41<span class="hlt">CV</span>/X calculator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kopczewski, M.R.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>Explosive component designers need to test the sensitivity of some unit response as a function level of stress, for example, the sensitivity of a detonator or ignitor bridgewire to input current. There exists a threshold level, above which the detonator will function and below which it will not. Statistical testing of explosive components often requires destructive testing of expensive hardware. If the unit functions, it is destroyed; and if it doesn't fire, the results from any further testing cannot be relied on because the initial test affects the detonator. In order to obtain meaningful results and not expend a large number of units, the Langlie ''One-Shot'' Method of testing is employed. Typical component attributes that require Langlie testing include ''all-fire'' and ''no-fire'' tests to determine threshold levels of performance. Generally, any sensitivity testing lends itself to the Langlie method. This method has also been shown to be insensitive to design. Typically, support test groups and venders implement the test method with their own computers. The method is subject to some interpretation which may lead to inconsistency in results from facility to facility. Another concern is that an error made in choosing a stimulus level will affect subsequent levels, resulting in an analysis that is not a true Langlie. A program has been written for the HP-41<span class="hlt">CV</span>/X calculator in order to standardize the Langlie test procedures at the various facilities, and to minimize the possibilities of introducing errors in the test method. A distinct advantage of using the calculator is the ability to hand carry it in the field and perform the Langlie test method at remote locations. 2 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721320C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4721320C"><span id="translatedtitle">Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Asphaug, Erik; Garvie, Laurence; Morris, Melissa; Rai, Ashwin; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chawla, Nikhilesh</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth’s atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4223431','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4223431"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospective Study of Surgical Treatment of Acromegaly: Effects on Ghrelin, Weight, Adiposity, and Markers of <span class="hlt">CV</span> Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Reyes-Vidal, Carlos; Fernandez, Jean Carlos; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Crisman, Celina; Conwell, Irene M.; Kostadinov, Jane; Geer, Eliza B.; Post, Kalmon D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Context: Although epidemiological studies have found that GH and IGF-1 normalization reduce the excess mortality of active acromegaly to expected rates, cross-sectional data report some cardiovascular (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) risk markers to be less favorable in remission than active acromegaly. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that remission of acromegaly after surgical therapy increases weight and adiposity and some <span class="hlt">CV</span> risk markers and these changes are paralleled by a rise in ghrelin. Design: Forty-two adults with untreated, active acromegaly were studied prospectively. Changes in outcome measures from before to after surgery were assessed in 26 subjects achieving remission (normal IGF-1) and 16 with persistent active acromegaly (elevated IGF-1) after surgery. Setting: The study was conducted at tertiary referral centers for pituitary tumors. Main Outcome Measures: Endocrine, metabolic, and <span class="hlt">CV</span> risk parameters, anthropometrics, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Results: Remission increased total ghrelin, body weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, high-density lipoprotein, and leptin and reduced systolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment score, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a) by 6 months and for 32 ± 4 months after surgery. The ghrelin rise correlated with the fall in the levels of GH, IGF-1, and insulin and insulin resistance. Weight, waist circumference, and ghrelin did not increase significantly in the persistent active acromegaly group. Total body fat, trunk fat, and perentage total body fat increased by 1 year after surgery in 15 remission subjects: the increase in body fat correlated with the rise in total ghrelin. Conclusions: Although most markers of <span class="hlt">CV</span> risk improve with acromegaly remission after surgery, some markers and adiposity increase and are paralleled by a rise in total ghrelin, suggesting that these changes may be related. Understanding the mechanisms and long-term implications of the changes that accompany treatment of acromegaly is important to optimizing management because some aspects of the postoperative profile associate with the increased metabolic and <span class="hlt">CV</span> risk in other populations. PMID:25137427</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LPICo1856.5112A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LPICo1856.5112A"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the Deformation of Leoville Chondrules in 3D: Implications for the Post-Accretional History of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Parent Body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Almeida, N. V.; Smith, C. L.; Sykes, D.; Downes, H.; Ahmed, F.; Russell, S. S.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Micro-CT scanning allows for the three-dimensional analysis of both degree of deformation and direction of preferred orientation of chondrules in the Leoville <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 meteorite, indicating post-accretional impact as the cause for the foliation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPBu...40...12H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPBu...40...12H"><span id="translatedtitle">Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 <span class="hlt">CV</span> 26.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hills, Kevin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 <span class="hlt">CV</span>26.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26800776"><span id="translatedtitle">Construction of a subgenomic <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon expressing emerald green fluorescent protein to assess viral replication of a cardiotropic enterovirus strain in cultured human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehbe, Michel; Huguenin, Antoine; Leveque, Nicolas; Semler, Bert L; Hamze, Monzer; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bouin, Alexis</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Coxsackieviruses B (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-B) (Picornaviridae) are a common infectious cause of acute myocarditis in children and young adults, a disease, which is a precursor to 10-20% of chronic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cases. The mechanisms involved in the disease progression from acute to chronic myocarditis phase and toward the DCM clinical stage are not fully understood but are influenced by both viral and host factors. Subgenomic replicons of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms in human cardiac cells and evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replication activities. Our objectives were to generate a reporter replicon from a cardiotropic prototype <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 strain and to characterize its replication properties into human cardiac primary cells. To obtain this replicon, a cDNA plasmid containing the full <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 genome flanked by a hammerhead ribozyme sequence and an MluI restriction site was generated and used as a platform for the insertion of sequences encoding emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) in place of those encoding VP3. In vitro transcribed RNA from this plasmid was transfected into HeLa cells and human primary cardiac cells and was able to produce EmGFP and VP1-containing polypeptides. Moreover, non-structural protein biological activity was assessed by the specific cleavage of eIF4G1 by viral 2A(pro). Viral RNA replication was indirectly demonstrated by inhibition assays, fluoxetine was added to cell culture and prevented the EmGFP synthesis. Our results indicated that the EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon was able to replicate and translate as well as the <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3/28 prototype strain. Our EmGFP <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replicon will be a valuable tool to readily investigate <span class="hlt">CV</span>-B3 replication activities in human target cell models. PMID:26800776</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1000C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1000C"><span id="translatedtitle">A secondary origin of chondrule magnetization in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span> carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carporzen, L.; Fu, R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a key role in the radial transport of angular momentum and mass during the early accretional phase of the solar system. Chondrules and many calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), millimeter sized silicate objects found in most chondritic meteorites, were heated to high temperatures and cooled in the nebula and therefore may have recorded a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) from the nebula field. Additionally, primitive magnetization in chondrules and CAIs may yield constraints about their mode of formation. However, any such primary magnetization may have been significantly altered during subsequent metamorphism and aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. We performed two tests to determine the nebular origins of remanent magnetization in chondrules and refractory inclusions in the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite: 1) a classic paleomagnetic conglomerate test to identify post-accretional remagnetization events and 2) a unidirectionality test of subsamples taken from individual chondrules and CAIs. We conducted individual measurements of mutually oriented chondrules, CAIs, and matrix as well as SQUID microscope maps of the magnetic fields of 30 ?m thin sections. All samples and thin sections were mutually oriented to within 5. Our results confirm previous findings that all subsamples of the meteorite carry a unidirectional overprint blocked up to 260-290C (MT component). Chondrules and CAIs also carry a higher temperature (HT) remanence oriented in scattered directions unrelated to the direction of the MT overprint. We have confirmed that this HT magnetization is not an artifact of the demagnetization procedure but is a preterrestrial component. Measurements of subsamples of single chondrules and CAIs show that the HT magnetization is not unidirectional within each inclusion. Petrographic data suggests that most magnetic minerals in Allende were the product of parent body alteration. These facts suggest that the magnetization in Allende chondrules and CAIs is not a preaccretional TRM and is unlikely to record the nebular field. We suggest that preaccretional remanence in Allende material was destroyed by aqueous alteration and metasomatism, which was followed or coincident with metamorphism that introduced the MT overprint. The HT component we detect may represent a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired during aqueous alteration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=Icp-ms+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DIcp-ms%2Banalysis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=Icp-ms+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DIcp-ms%2Banalysis"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>)Carbonaceous Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation suggests that Hg is associated with S-bearing phases and, thus, that HgS is a major Hg-bearing phase in both meteorites. The Hg peak at 225 C for Allende is similar to release patterns of physically adsorbed Hg on silicate and metal grains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26824474"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in "Cell part" 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin Resistant 2 has single up-regulated transcript in second developmental stage, although 3 were down-regulated at lateral growth stages (3A and 4A). In the present study, 489 secondary metabolic pathways related genes were identified during leaf growth, which mainly includes alkaloid (40), anthocyanins (21), Diterpenoid (144), Monoterpenoid (90) and Flavonoids (93). Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to validate 10 differentially expressed transcripts patterns from flower, leaf and fruit metabolic pathways at different growth stages. PMID:26824474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732810','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4732810"><span id="translatedtitle">Transcriptomic Analysis of Grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black) Leaf, Using the Illumina Platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pervaiz, Tariq; Haifeng, Jia; Salman Haider, Muhammad; Cheng, Zhang; Cui, Mengjie; Wang, Mengqi; Cui, Liwen; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Proceeding to illumina sequencing, determining RNA integrity numbers for poly RNA were separated from each of the four developmental stages of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Summer Black leaves by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000. The sums of 272,941,656 reads were generated from vitis vinifera leaf at four different developmental stages, with more than 27 billion nucleotides of the sequence data. At each growth stage, RNA samples were indexed through unique nucleic acid identifiers and sequenced. KEGG annotation results depicted that the highest number of transcripts in 2,963 (2Avs4A) followed by 1Avs4A (2,920), and 3Avs4A (2,294) out of 15,614 (71%) transcripts were recorded. In comparison, a total of 1,532 transcripts were annotated in GOs, including Cellular component, with the highest number in “Cell part” 251 out of 353 transcripts (71.1%), followed by intracellular organelle 163 out of 353 transcripts (46.2%), while in molecular function and metabolic process 375 out of 525 (71.4%) transcripts, multicellular organism process 40 out of 525 (7.6%) transcripts in biological process were most common in 1Avs2A. While in case of 1Avs3A, cell part 476 out of 662 transcripts (71.9%), and membrane-bounded organelle 263 out of 662 transcripts (39.7%) were recorded in Cellular component. In the grapevine transcriptome, during the initial stages of leaf development 1Avs2A showed single transcript was down-regulated and none of them were up-regulated. While in comparison of 1A to 3A showed one up-regulated (photosystem II reaction center protein C) and one down regulated (conserved gene of unknown function) transcripts, during the hormone regulating pathway namely SAUR-like auxin-responsive protein family having 2 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated transcripts, phytochrome-associated protein showed 1 up-regulated and 9 down-regulated transcripts, whereas genes associated with the Leucine-rich repeat protein kinase family protein showed 7 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated transcript, meanwhile Auxin Resistant 2 has single up-regulated transcript in second developmental stage, although 3 were down-regulated at lateral growth stages (3A and 4A). In the present study, 489 secondary metabolic pathways related genes were identified during leaf growth, which mainly includes alkaloid (40), anthocyanins (21), Diterpenoid (144), Monoterpenoid (90) and Flavonoids (93). Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to validate 10 differentially expressed transcripts patterns from flower, leaf and fruit metabolic pathways at different growth stages. PMID:26824474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008947"><span id="translatedtitle">First results of a physicochemical survey of <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions: The refractory trace elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Friedrich, J.M.; Jochum, K.P.; Ebel, D.S.</p> <p>2005-02-04</p> <p>We have physically, mineralogically, and chemically characterized 20 <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 CAIs. We investigate the Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and their relationships with other refractory trace elements within our suite of CAIs and among the minerals contained in them. Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) offer glimpses into the earliest chemical and physical processes during solar system formation. We have begun a study of the trace element distribution(s) within <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 CAIs and their constituent minerals to help constrain the chemical environment(s) of their formation and evolution. We have physically, mineralogically, and chemically characterized 20 individual CAIs in thick sections of 3 different <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites using 3D tomography, qualitative x-ray mapping, quantitative electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) techniques. The combination of these techniques on individual CAIs will expand our knowledge of the physical and chemical formation conditions of these enigmatic objects. For our initial report, we will focus on the content(s) of the refractory trace elements Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Previous investigations of suites of these elements in bulk Allende refractory inclusions have shown that while there seems to be little Zr/Hf variation from the currently accepted chondritic value of {approx}35, there exist considerable Nb/Ta variations within the same samples. As a whole, this variation is consistent with condensation within in a small temperature range, because Nb oxides are predicted to condense at temperatures very similar (14-40 C) to Tb oxides: suggested that the effect can be explained by efficient condensation of Ta atoms from a gas leaving it enriched in Nb atoms. Here, we investigate the distribution(s) of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and their relationships with other refractory trace elements within our suite of 20 CAIs and among the minerals contained in them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002M%26PS...37.1843O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002M%26PS...37.1843O"><span id="translatedtitle">Dark inclusions in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite: Evidence for aqueous alteration and subsequent thermal and shock metamorphism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohnishi, Ichiro; Tomeoka, Kazushige</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Mokoia is a <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite that contains abundant phyllosilicate mineralization. We present a detailed petrographic and scanning electron microscopic study of 24 dark inclusions (DIs) that we found in Mokoia. The overall texture and constituent minerals of the DIs resemble those in the host meteorite. Fe-bearing saponite and Na-rich phlogopite, the same phyllosilicates as in the host meteorite, occur in the DIs, which strongly suggests that the DIs have a similar alteration history to the host meteorite. However, the DIs show several distinct differences from the host meteorite. Olivine grains in the DI matrices are more homogeneous in Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio than those in the host meteorite matrix. Phyllosilicates in the DIs are less abundant than in the host meteorite, and they have been dehydrated to various extents. These characteristics suggest that the DIs have experienced higher degree of thermal metamorphism than the host meteorite. In addition, the matrices in the DIs are more compacted than those in the host meteorite. Most olivine grains in the DIs show undulatory extinction in transmitted crossed-polarized light and some show planar fractures, while such olivine grains are rare in the host meteorite. Two of the DIs contain Si-, Mg-, Fe- and O-rich melt veins. These characteristics indicate that most DIs have been shocked to shock stage S3-S4, while the host meteorite is shock stage S1 (virtually unshocked). Thermal metamorphism of the DIs was likely caused by shock heating. These results are consistent with the contention previously proposed for the DIs in <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites (i.e., the DIs have experienced aqueous alteration and subsequent dehydration on the <span class="hlt">CV</span> parent body). We suggest that thermal and shock metamorphism occurred locally to various extents after pervasive aqueous alteration in the Mokoia parent body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344303"><span id="translatedtitle">Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Gogu valley) protein as a novel antimicrobial agent in weanling pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Z; Yang, Y X; Choi, J Y; Shinde, P L; Yoon, S Y; Hahn, T-W; Lim, H T; Park, Y; Hahm, K-S; Joo, J W; Chae, B J</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>A total of 280 weaned pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) were used in a 28-d growth study to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of potato proteins on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune response, small intestinal morphology, and bacterial populations in feces and large intestine. Pigs (initially 6.42 +/- 0.74 kg of BW and 23 +/- 3 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW, each treatment composed of 4 pens, each pen having 14 pigs. Dietary treatments included positive control (PC; basal diet + 150 mg/kg apramycin and 10 mg/ kg colistin sulfate); and potato protein (PP), consisting of the basal diet with 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75% of potato protein. Diets were fed in 2 phases: phase I (d 0 to 14 postweaning) and phase 2 (d 14 to 28 postweaning). Potato protein was extracted from a value-added type of the new potato variety, Solanum tuberosum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Gogu valley, and was shown to have a minimum inhibitory concentration of 300 to 500 mug/mL. Performance of PC was compared with 0.25 to 0.75% PP, whereas linear and quadratic trends of increasing PP (0 to 0.75% PP) were tested. Over the 28-d trial, pigs fed the PC diets showed improved overall ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P = 0.090) compared with pigs fed PP, whereas increasing levels of PP linearly improved ADG (P < 0.05), ADFI (P = 0.052), and G:F (P = 0.098). The digestibility of DM and CP in both the phases was greater in PC than PP, and feeding of PP linearly improved the DM digestibility (P < 0.05) in phase II. The bacterial populations in the feces of pigs fed PC and PP were comparable, except for total bacteria and coliform bacteria in the feces at d 14 and 28, which were decreased in PC; and feeding of PP was effective in linearly reducing the populations of microbes in feces and contents of cecum, colon, and rectum. There was linear increase (P < 0.10) in skin-fold thickness in response to phytohemagglutinin with an increase in PP levels. Haemagglutinin titers on d 21 were greater (P = 0.054) in PC, and at d 28 the haemagglutinin titers were quadratically affected in pigs fed PP (P = 0.070). There was a trend toward a decrease in crypt depth (P = 0.068) and a greater villus height:crypt depth ratio (P = 0.082) of ileum in PC compared with PP. These results suggest that PP may be an alternative to medicated feed with antibiotics because it showed antimicrobial activity by effectively reducing the population of coliform bacteria and also improved the performance of weanling pigs. PMID:18344303</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..116W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016M%26PS...51..116W"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrology, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of aluminum-rich chondrules from <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ying; Hsu, Weibiao; Li, Xianhua; Li, Qiuli; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guoqiang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Bulk major element composition, petrography, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of twenty Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) from five <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites (Northwest Africa [NWA] 989, NWA 2086, NWA 2140, NWA 2697, NWA 3118) and the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite were studied and compared with those of ferromagnesian chondrules and refractory inclusions. Most ARCs are marginally Al-richer than ferromagnesian chondrules with bulk Al2O3 of 10-15 wt%. ARCs are texturally similar to ferromagnesian chondrules, composed primarily of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, spinel, Al-rich glass, and metallic phases. Minerals in ARCs have intermediate compositions. Low-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.6-8.8Wo0.7-9.3) has much higher Al2O3 and TiO2 contents (up to 12.5 and 2.3 wt%, respectively) than that in ferromagnesian chondrules. High-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.3-2.0Wo33-54) contains less Al2O3 and TiO2 than that in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Plagioclase (An77-99Ab1-23) is much more sodic than that in CAIs. Spinel is enriched in moderately volatile element Cr (up to 6.7 wt%) compared to that in CAIs. Al-rich enstatite coexists with anorthite and spinel in a glass-free chondrule, implying that the formation of Al-enstatite was not due to kinetic reasons but is likely due to the high Al2O3/CaO ratio (7.4) of the bulk chondrule. Three ARCs contain relict CAIs. Oxygen isotope compositions of ARCs are also intermediate between those of ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs. They vary from -39.4‰ to 13.9‰ in δ18O and yield a best fit line (slope = 0.88) close to the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line. Chondrules with 5-10 wt% bulk Al2O3 have a slightly more narrow range in δ18O (-32.5 to 5.9‰) along the CCAM line. Except for the ARCs with relict phases, however, most ARCs have oxygen isotope compositions (>-20‰ in δ18O) similar to those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules. ARCs are genetically related to both ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs, but the relationship between ARCs and ferromagnesian chondrules is closer. Most ARCs were formed during flash heating and rapid cooling processes like normal chondrules, only from chemically evolved precursors. ARCs extremely enriched in Al and those with relict phases could have had a hybrid origin (Krot et al. 2002) which incorporated refractory inclusions as part of the precursors in addition to ferromagnesian materials. The occurrence of melilite in ARCs indicates that melilite-rich CAIs might be present in the precursor materials of ARCs. The absence of melilite in most ARCs is possibly due to high-temperature interactions between a chondrule melt and the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS..tmp..262W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS..tmp..262W"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrology, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of aluminum-rich chondrules from <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Ying; Hsu, Weibiao; Li, Xianhua; Li, Qiuli; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guoqiang</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Bulk major element composition, petrography, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of twenty Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) from five <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites (Northwest Africa [NWA] 989, NWA 2086, NWA 2140, NWA 2697, NWA 3118) and the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite were studied and compared with those of ferromagnesian chondrules and refractory inclusions. Most ARCs are marginally Al-richer than ferromagnesian chondrules with bulk Al2O3 of 10-15 wt%. ARCs are texturally similar to ferromagnesian chondrules, composed primarily of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, spinel, Al-rich glass, and metallic phases. Minerals in ARCs have intermediate compositions. Low-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.6-8.8Wo0.7-9.3) has much higher Al2O3 and TiO2 contents (up to 12.5 and 2.3 wt%, respectively) than that in ferromagnesian chondrules. High-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.3-2.0Wo33-54) contains less Al2O3 and TiO2 than that in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Plagioclase (An77-99Ab1-23) is much more sodic than that in CAIs. Spinel is enriched in moderately volatile element Cr (up to 6.7 wt%) compared to that in CAIs. Al-rich enstatite coexists with anorthite and spinel in a glass-free chondrule, implying that the formation of Al-enstatite was not due to kinetic reasons but is likely due to the high Al2O3/CaO ratio (7.4) of the bulk chondrule. Three ARCs contain relict CAIs. Oxygen isotope compositions of ARCs are also intermediate between those of ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs. They vary from -39.4 to 13.9 in ?18O and yield a best fit line (slope = 0.88) close to the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line. Chondrules with 5-10 wt% bulk Al2O3 have a slightly more narrow range in ?18O (-32.5 to 5.9) along the CCAM line. Except for the ARCs with relict phases, however, most ARCs have oxygen isotope compositions (>-20 in ?18O) similar to those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules. ARCs are genetically related to both ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs, but the relationship between ARCs and ferromagnesian chondrules is closer. Most ARCs were formed during flash heating and rapid cooling processes like normal chondrules, only from chemically evolved precursors. ARCs extremely enriched in Al and those with relict phases could have had a hybrid origin (Krot et al. 2002) which incorporated refractory inclusions as part of the precursors in addition to ferromagnesian materials. The occurrence of melilite in ARCs indicates that melilite-rich CAIs might be present in the precursor materials of ARCs. The absence of melilite in most ARCs is possibly due to high-temperature interactions between a chondrule melt and the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24506015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24506015"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span>) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span>) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin National Park. PMID:24506015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895266"><span id="translatedtitle">Studies on quality and vase life of cut Gerbera jamesonii <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Balance' flowers by silver nanoparticles and chlorophenol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Safa, Zakieh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Kaviani, Behzad; Nikchi, Narges; Zarchini, Mohammad</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Cut gerbera flowers are sensitive to microbial contamination and have a short vase life. Silver nanoparticles are used in various applications as an antimicrobial agent. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of SNP and chlorophenol to extend the vase life and postharvest quality of gerbera (Gerberajamesonii <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Balance') cut flowers. Cut gerbera flowers were kept in solutions containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) SNP and/or 0, 5 and 10 mM chlorophenol for 24 hr; then held in vase solution containing 250 mg l(-1) 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate and 3% sucrose. The maximum vase life (16.33 days) was observed in flowers held in solution containing 10 mg l(-1) SNP. The 5 mg l(-1) SNP plus 10 mM chlorophenol and 10 mg l(-1) SNP plus 5 mM chlorophenol inhibited bacterial growth in the vase solution. The minimum fresh weight loss (6.48 gr) during the vase period was observed for flowers kept in solution containing 20 mg l(-1)1 SNP. The results revealed that SNP and chlorophenol have the potential to extend vase life and enhanc the postharvest quality of cut gerbera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Balance' flowers. PMID:25895266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21339152','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21339152"><span id="translatedtitle">Summer pruning: an ecological alternative to postharvest calcium treatment to improve storability of high quality apple <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Reinette du Canada'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerra, M; Casquero, P A</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Two strategies, summer pruning and postharvest Ca treatment, were studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Reinette du Canada' in order to analyze its effect on the fruit quality during storage. Summer pruning and Ca treatment reduced external and internal bitter-pits; so after 180 days of storage, both treatments decreased external bitter-pit by 10.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Summer pruning influenced color, firmness, total soluble solids and titratable acidity (TA) of fruit during storage, whereas Ca treatment only affected firmness and TA. Fruit from pruned trees had significant lower K and Mg than those from unpruned trees and Ca treatment increased Ca content. Orchard management, by means of summer pruning, combined with Ca postharvest application would be useful to prevent losses due to bitter-pit during storage in commercial orchards. However, in organic orchards, summer pruning would be the ecological alternative to decrease bitter-pit incidence during storage in high quality apple <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Reinette du Canada'. K/Ca ratio, on the peel at harvest, turned out to be the best parameter to correlate with external and internal bitter-pits during storage; so this ratio would be useful to predict bitter-pit on long-term storage. PMID:21339152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8764E..0YG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8764E..0YG"><span id="translatedtitle">Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> Gaussian mixture model algorithm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASMS..25.1610A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASMS..25.1610A"><span id="translatedtitle">Description of Gas-Phase Ion/Neutral Interactions in Differential Ion Mobility Spectrometry: <span class="hlt">CV</span> Prediction Using Calibration Runs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auerbach, David; Aspenleiter, Julia; Volmer, Dietrich A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled to mass spectrometry is increasingly used in both quantitative analyses of biological samples and as a means of removing background interferences for enhanced selectivity and improved quality of mass spectra. However, DMS separation efficiency using dry inert gases often lacks the required selectivity to achieve baseline separation. Polar gas-phase modifiers such as alcohols are therefore frequently employed to improve selectivity via clustering/declustering processes. The choice of an optimal modifier currently relies on trial and error experiments, making method development a tedious activity. It was the goal of this study to establish a means of <span class="hlt">CV</span> prediction for compounds using a homologous series of alcohols as gas-phase modifiers. This prediction was based on linear regression of compensation voltages of two calibration runs for the alcohols with the lowest and the highest molecular weights and readily available descriptors such as proton affinity and gas phase acidity of the modifier molecules. All experiments were performed on a commercial quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a DMS device between electrospray ionization source and entrance quadrupole lens. We evaluated our approach using a homologous series of 4-alkylbenzoic acids and a selection of 23 small molecules of high chemical diversity. Predicted <span class="hlt">CV</span> values typically deviated from the experimentally determined values by less than 0.5 V. Several test compounds changed their ion mobility behavior for the investigated gas phase modifiers (e.g., from type B to type A) and thus could thus not be evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..931..255F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..931..255F"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro-Probe <span class="hlt">CV</span> and IV Characterization of Thin Dielectric Films on Product-Wafer Scribe-Line Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, A.; Souchkov, V. V.; Wong, T. M. H.; Faifer, V. N.; Current, M. I.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>A 50 ?m metal probe has been combined with pattern recognition optics and a 3-directional precision stage for automated <span class="hlt">CV</span> and IV testing of dielectric layers in scribe-line test structures on IC product wafers. Highly repeatable contact conditions are obtained though the use of a MEMS-based torsion balance spring mounting which provides capacitance measurements within 0.1% for repeated landings of the probe. High repeatability capacitance measurements provide for correspondingly high quality determination of dielectric characteristics, EOT, Vfb, Dit, Na and Qeff, from <span class="hlt">CV</span> analysis. Dielectric leakage and breakdown characteristics, including Vbd, Qbd and TTBD, can be obtained for positive and negative ramped bias conditions. Measurement of capacitor structures provides CET and electrode work function values which can be followed throughout the process history of the wafer and directly compared to final test results. Examples of measured dielectrics include thin (1 nm) SiO2, Al-oxides, nitrided Si-oxides and Hf-based oxides as bare films and incorporated in capacitor structures. Applications examples include discussion of systematic trends on EOT, Qeff and Dit increasing for nitrogen content in nitrided Si-oxides and related characteristics of Hf-rich HfSiON films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1169040','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1169040"><span id="translatedtitle">Anaerobic n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Grossi, Vincent; Raphel, Danielle; Matheron, Robert; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon atoms (C even) when it was grown on a C-even alkane (hexadecane). Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry allowed us to identify saturated 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-methyl- and monounsaturated 6-methyl-branched fatty acids, with chain lengths that specifically correlated with those of the alkane. Growth of D. aliphaticivorans on perdeuterated hexadecane demonstrated that those methyl-branched fatty acids were directly derived from the substrate. In addition, cultures on pentadecane and hexadecane produced (1-methyltetradecyl)succinate and (1-methylpentadecyl)succinate, respectively. These results indicate that D. aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T oxidizes n-alkanes into fatty acids anaerobically, via the addition of fumarate at C-2. Based on our observations and on literature data, a pathway for anaerobic n-alkane metabolism by D. aliphaticivorans is proposed. This involves the transformation of the initial alkylsuccinate into a 4-methyl-branched fatty acid which, in addition to catabolic reactions, can alternatively undergo chain elongation and desaturation to form storage fatty acids. PMID:16000749</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018744','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890018744"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of F106B and <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 in-flight lightning data and form factor determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudolph, T.; Horembala, J.; Eriksen, F. J.; Weigel, H. S.; Elliott, J. R.; Parker, S. L.; Perala, R. A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Two topics of in-flight aircraft/lightning interaction are addressed. The first is the analysis of measured data from the NASA F106B Thunderstorm Research Aircraft and the <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 research program run by the FAA and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 data was investigated in a mostly qualitative sense, while the F106B data was subjected to both statistical and quantitative analysis using linear triggered lightning finite difference models. The second main topic is the analysis of field mill data and the calibration of the field mill systems. The calibration of the F106B field mill system was investigated using an improved finite difference model of the aircraft having a spatial resolution of one-quarter meter. The calibration was applied to measured field mill data acquired during the 1985 thunderstorm season. The experimental determination of form factors useful for field mill calibration was also investigated both experimentally and analytically. The experimental effort involved the use of conducting scale models and an electrolytic tank. An analytic technique was developed to aid in the understanding of the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23573031"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro regeneration through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in pigeon pea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishna, Gaurav; Reddy, P Sairam; Ramteke, Pramod W; Rambabu, Pogiri; Sohrab, Sayed S; Rana, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Parthasarathi</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>In vitro regeneration of pigeon pea through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis was demonstrated with pigeon pea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105. Embryonic axes explants of pigeon pea showed greater regeneration of shoot buds on 2.5mgL(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the medium, followed by further elongation at lower concentrations. Rooting of shoots was observed on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2% sucrose and 0.5mgL(-1) 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA). On the other hand, the regeneration of globular embryos from cotyledon explant was faster and greater with thidiazuron (TDZ) than BAP with sucrose as carbohydrate source. These globular embryos were maturated on MS medium with abscisic acid (ABA) and finally germinated on half-strength MS medium at lower concentrations of BAP. Comparison of regeneration pathways in pigeon pea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. JKR105 showed that the turnover of successful establishment of plants achieved through organogenesis was more compared to somatic embryogenesis, despite the production of more embryos than shoot buds. PMID:23573031</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28R.426R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28R.426R"><span id="translatedtitle">The Anatomy and Bulk Composition of CAI Rims in the Vigarano (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) Chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A striking feature of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites is the presence of mineralogical layers that typically form rim sequences up to 50 micrometers thick [1]. Many ideas regarding the origin of CAI rims have been proposed, but none are entirely satisfactory. The detailed mineralogy and bulk compositions of relatively unaltered CAI rims in the Vigarano (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) chondrite described here provide constraints on hypotheses of rim formation. Rim Mineralogy: CAIs in Vigarano consist of melilite (mel)- and spinel (sp)- rich varieties, both of which are rimmed [2]. Around mel-rich objects, the layer sequence is CAI interior --> sp-rich layer (sometimes absent) --> mel/anorthite (anor) layer --> Ti-Al-rich clinopyroxene (Tpx) layer --> Al- diopside (Al-diop) layer --> olivine (ol) +/- Al-diop layer --> host matrix. The sequence around sp-rich objects differs from this in that the mel/anor layer is absent. Both the sp-rich layer around mel-cored CAIs and the cores of sp-rich CAIs in Vigarano are largely comprised of a fine-grained (<=1 micrometer) intergrowth of sp, Tpx, and minor mel and perovskite. These intergrowths are typically so fine grained that little internal texture is discernible. Mixing calculations suggest the presence of ~10 vol% Tpx in the sp-rich layer of two mel-cored CAIs, and the presence of ~35 vol% Tpx within one sp-cored CAI. The mel/anor layer is sometimes monomineralic, consisting of mel alone, or bimineralic, consisting of both mel and anor. Where bimineralic, anor typically occurs in the outer part of the layer. In places, anor (An(sub)99-100) has partially altered to nepheline and voids. Rim mel is systematically less gehlenitic than mel in the CAI interiors, especially compared to mel in the interior adjacent to the rims. The Tpx layer (>2 and up to 15 wt% TiO2) and Al-diop layer (<2 wt% TiO2) are monomineralic and show chemical zoning trends radial to the CAIs. Moving outward, TiO2 and Al2O3 generally decrease, while SiO2 and MgO increase, although Al2O3 shows a small concentration maximum in the Al-diop layer. High-quality EMPA data suggest that Ti^3+/Ti^4+ decreases outward in the Tpx layer, and that Fe^3+ is present in the Al-diop layer, implying that a steep gradient in oxidation state occurs across these two layers. The ol layer is comprised of individually zoned grains (<=5 micrometers across) that have forsteritic cores and thin (<=1 micrometer) rims of more ferrous ol. The ol grains often form triple-grain junctions and occasionally form clusters that are enclosed by Al-diop. The texture of this polycrystalline layer suggests that it formed by the attachment of preexisting ol grains onto the surfaces of CAIs, and the triple-junctions and steep zoning profiles of the ol grains suggest that they were annealed in a short-lived heating event. Bulk Rim Composition: Bulk rim compositions for several mel-rich CAIs were determined by using EMPA traverses across representative portions of the rims. These compositions plot within the sp + forsterite (fo) field of the gehlenite-anorthite-forsterite ternary diagram of Stolper [3], and are unattainable by the igneous crystallization of a mel-rich CAI composition. Moreover, a hypothetical melt with the composition of the rims has a predicted crystallization sequence (sp --> sp + fo --> sp + fo + anor or mel or Tpx) that does not correspond to observed rim sequences. It thus appears that (1) the rim region did not form through crystallization of molten CAIs; and (2) rim layers did not originate solely by the crystallization of a melt layer present on a solid CAI core [4,5]. References: [1] Wark D. A. and Lovering J. F. (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 95-112. [2] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 390-391. [3] Stolper E. (1982) GCA, 46, 2159-2180. [4] Korina M. I. et al. (1982) LPS XIII, 399- 400. [5] Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1980) Meteoritics, 15, 270- 271.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30..570S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30..570S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Correlated 41Ca and 26Al in <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Hibonites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sahijpal, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Goswami, J. N.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The demonstration of the presence of ^41Ca in the early solar system, based on the observation of excess ^41K in Efremovka CAIs [1,2] has led to several attempts that sought to identify plausible stellar sites and processes that could have produced and subsequently injected a host of short-lived radionuclides(e.g. ^41Ca, ^26Al, ^60Fe, ^53Mn and ^107Pd) into the proto-solar cloud [3,4,5]. Radiogenic excess of ^26Mg (from ^26Al decay) was also found in the Efremovka CAIs where excess ^41K was present [6,7]. This association suggests possible co-production and subsequent injection of these two short-lived nuclides to the solar nebula. We have measured K and Mg isotopic composition in a single mineral phase (hibonite) having contrasting ^26Mg excesses to further substantiate this hypothesis. We have chosen hibonites from two <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 meteorites, Efremovka and Allende for the present study. The Efremovka hibonite is from a CAI (E50) having a well-behaved Mg-Al isotopic systematics with initial ^26Al/^27Al of (4.87 +/-0.87)x10^-5 [6]. The Allende sample (HAL hibonite) on the other hand has a very low initial ^26Al/^27Al of (5.2 +/-1.7)x10^-8 [8]. We have carried out K and Mg isotopic studies of E50 hibonite and K isotopic study of HAL hibonite using procedures described previously [1,2,6]. Because of the small size of E50 hibonites, K isotopic composition could be measured in only a few hibonite grains, where the contribution from neighbouring K-rich phase(melilite) towards the measured K signal was negligible. In the case of HAL hibonite there is a large variation in K content, and the signal at ^39K is often close to the system background, while the signal at mass 41 is dominated by the [^40Ca^42Ca]6++ interference. The magnitude of this interference was estimated by measuring the [^40Ca^43Ca]^++/^43Ca^+ ratio in terrestrial (Madagascar) hibonite as well as in the HAL hibonite. We obtained a value of (7.3 +/-0.6)x10^-6 which is about four times lower than the corresponding value for pyroxene [1,2]. Definite excess of ^41K has been found in E50 hibonites with Ca/K ratio exceeding 5x10^5. A forced linear fit of the data through the solar system ^41K/^39K ratio (0.072) yields an initial ^41Ca/^40Ca of about 1.4x10^-8, which is close to the value reported for Efremovka pyroxene [1]. The Al-Mg isotopic data for the E50 hibonites reveal ^26Mg excess in them, consistent with the results reported earlier [6]. In contrast, no excess 41K was found (within the limits of our experimental uncertainties) in HAL hibonite even though its Ca/K ratio is much higher than in Efremovka hibonite. Our data provide an upper limit of 3x10^-9 for initial ^41Ca/^40Ca in HAL hibonite. These results and data obtained from studies of other Efremovka CAIs [1,2,6,7] show that : (i) ^41Ca and ^26Al are present at the same level (^41Ca/^40Ca about 1.4x10^-8 and ^26Al/^27Al about 5x10^-5) in several Efremovka CAIs and (ii) ^41Ca is very low or absent when ^26Al is at very low level (HAL hibonite). It therefore appears that ^41Ca and ^26Al are coupled either in their original stellar source(s) or were well mixed in some parcels of interstellar material before they were injected to the solar nebula. The lower initials in HAL hibonite may reflect either a heterogeneity of ^26Al and ^41Ca in the solar nebula (due to variable mixing of the source material with nebular material) or processing of material and/or redistribution of Mg and K isotopes at a later time. Although our data cannot decide between these alternatives, extensive studies of HAL and other refractory objects indicate that many CAIs evolved through multiple events in the early solar system spreading over a significant time interval [e.g. 9-12]. References: [1] Srinivasan G. et al. (1994) Astrophys. J. Lett., 431, L67-L70. [2] Srinivasan G. et al. (1995) GCA, submitted. [3] Wasserburg G. J. et al. (1995) Astrophys. J. Lett., 440, L101-L104. [4] Cameron A. G. W. et al. (1995) Astrophys. J. Lett., in press. [5] Ramaty R et al. (1995) Astrophys. J., submitted. [6] Goswami J. N. and Srinivasan G. (1994) Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (EPS), 103, 57-82. [7] Goswami J. N. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 431-447. [8] Fahey A. et al. (1987) GCA, 51, 329-350. [9] Lee T. et al. (1980) GRL, 7, 493-496. [10] Brigham C. A. (1990) Ph.D. thesis, Caltech. [11] Sheng Y. J. et al. (1991) GCA, 55, 581-599. [12] Ireland T. R. et al. (1992) GCA, 56, 2503-2520.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344818"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and cellular fatty-acid composition of a sulphate-reducing bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T, grown on n-alkenes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Hirschler-Ra, Agns; Matheron, Robert; Grossi, Vincent</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>The anaerobic degradation of n-alkenes by a sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T was investigated. Results suggest that enzymes required for alkene degradation are inducible. Moreover, total cellular fatty acids of strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T were predominantly C-odd when the strain was grown on C-odd substrates and C-even when grown on C-even substrates. In addition to classical bacterial fatty acids, unusual 4-Me-17:1delta11 and 4-Me-18:1delta11 fatty acids and their saturated homologues were detected when strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T was grown on 1-pentadecene and 1-hexadecene, respectively. These methyl-branched monounsaturated fatty acids could constitute specific metabolites of n-alkene degradation by sulphate-reducing bacteria. PMID:15344818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832179"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Five Light-Response Models in the Photosynthesis of Populus Euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46' Leaves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Lidong; Zhang, Shuyong; Zhang, Guangcan; Liu, Xia; Xia, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Songsong; Xing, Wei; Fang, Xiaochen</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The light-response curve of photosynthesis is an important tool used to study plant ecophysiology and can provide a scientific basis for the response of plant photosynthetic characteristics to environmental factors. At present, there are five common light-response models of photosynthesis. To gain deeper insight into the applicability of different light-response models of photosynthesis and the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Populus euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46', two typical light-response curves of photosynthesis in P. euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46' leaves, one under drought stress and the other under control conditions, were measured using a CIRAS-2 portable photosynthesis system. The light-response data were divided into two groups: one set of data was used to fit light-response curves, and the other set of data was used to test them. The accuracy of the fitting and the predictions of the different models were evaluated by mean square error and mean absolute error. The results showed that the light-response curves of P. euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Zhonglin46' under drought stress matched the light-saturated inhibition type and that those under the control condition matched the approaching light-saturation type. The two new models (i.e., the modified rectangular hyperbola model and modified exponential model) fit the two light-response curves and their characteristic parameters well, and the fitting results of the two models were similar. Conversely, the three traditional models (i.e., the rectangular hyperbola model, nonrectangular hyperbola model, and exponential model) did not fit the two light-response curves well; in particular, they overestimated the maximum net photosynthetic rate, underestimated the light saturation point (LSP), and did not fit the net photosynthetic rate during the light-saturated stage. The LSP calculated by the "linear method" combined with the traditional models was significantly lower than the measured values; additionally, the appropriate value of the proportional coefficient was difficult to determine, and the assumed value (empirical value) could easily lead to unreliable results by the "coefficient method". The "estimation method" based on the measured light-response data was still a relatively accurate, simple, and practical way to determine LSP. In addition, the nonrectangular hyperbolic model also had good accuracy and applicability in fitting the approaching light saturation curve on the basis of the "estimation method" to determine LSP. PMID:25832179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24152340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24152340"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of hepatitis C virus by the cyanobacterial protein Microcystis viridis lectin: mechanistic differences between the high-mannose specific lectins MVL, <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N, and GNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kachko, Alla; Loesgen, Sandra; Shahzad-Ul-Hussan, Syed; Tan, Wendy; Zubkova, Iryna; Takeda, Kazuyo; Wells, Frances; Rubin, Steven; Bewley, Carole A; Major, Marian E</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Plant or microbial lectins are known to exhibit potent antiviral activities against viruses with glycosylated surface proteins, yet the mechanism(s) by which these carbohydrate-binding proteins exert their antiviral activities is not fully understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to possess glycosylated envelope proteins (gpE1E2) and to be potently inhibited by lectins. Here, we tested in detail the antiviral properties of the newly discovered Microcystis viridis lectin (MVL) along with cyanovirin-N (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-N) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) against cell culture HCV, as well as their binding properties toward viral particles, target cells, and recombinant HCV glycoproteins. Using infectivity assays, <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N, MVL, and GNA inhibited HCV with IC50 values of 0.6 nM, 30.4 nM, and 11.1 nM, respectively. Biolayer interferometry analysis demonstrated a higher affinity of GNA to immobilized recombinant HCV glycoproteins compared to <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N and MVL. Complementary studies, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, confocal microscopy, and pre- and post-virus binding assays, showed a complex mechanism of inhibition for <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N and MVL that includes both viral and cell association, while GNA functions by binding directly to the viral particle. Combinations of GNA with <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N or MVL in HCV infection studies revealed synergistic inhibitory effects, which can be explained by different glycan recognition profiles of the mainly high-mannoside specific lectins, and supports the hypothesis that these lectins inhibit through different and complex modes of action. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanisms by which lectins inhibit HCV infection. Overall, the data suggest MVL and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N have the potential for toxicity due to interactions with cellular proteins while GNA may be a better therapeutic agent due to specificity for the HCV gpE1E2. PMID:24152340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535146','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4535146"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and Expression of Two Novel Cytochrome P450 Genes, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38, in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Jun; Li, Chuan; Yang, Zhifan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée can cause severe losses in rice. Cytochrome P450s play crucial roles in the metabolism of allelochemicals in herbivorous insects. Two novel P450 cDNAs, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38, were cloned from the midgut of C. medinalis. CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 encodes a protein of 500 amino acid residues, while CYP9A38-predicted protein has 531 amino acid residues. Both cDNA-predicted proteins contain the conserved functional domains for all P450s. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 is grouped in the cluster containing CYP6B members, while CYP9A38 is in the cluster including CYP9 members. However, both clusters are contained in the same higher lineage. Homologous analysis revealed that CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 is most similar to CYP6B8, CYP6B7, CYP6B6, CYP6B2, and CYP6B4 with the highest amino acid identity of 41%. CYP9A38 is closest to CYP9A17, CYP9A21, CYP9A20, and CYP9A19 with the highest amino acid identity of 66%. Studies of temporal expression profiles revealed that CYP9A38 showed a steady increase in mRNA level during the five instar stages, but a low-expression level in pupae, and then presented at a high-expression level again in adults. Similar expression patterns were obtained with CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1. In the fifth instar larvae, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 was mainly expressed in midgut and fat bodies, whereas CYP9A38 was mainly expressed in midgut. Expression studies also revealed a 3.20-fold over-expression of CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and 3.54-fold over-expression of CYP9A38 after larval exposure to host rice resistance. Our results suggest that both CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38 may be involved in detoxification of rice phytochemicals. PMID:25896119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896119"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and expression of two novel cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38, in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jun; Li, Chuan; Yang, Zhifan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée can cause severe losses in rice. Cytochrome P450s play crucial roles in the metabolism of allelochemicals in herbivorous insects. Two novel P450 cDNAs, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38, were cloned from the midgut of C. medinalis. CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 encodes a protein of 500 amino acid residues, while CYP9A38-predicted protein has 531 amino acid residues. Both cDNA-predicted proteins contain the conserved functional domains for all P450s. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 is grouped in the cluster containing CYP6B members, while CYP9A38 is in the cluster including CYP9 members. However, both clusters are contained in the same higher lineage. Homologous analysis revealed that CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 is most similar to CYP6B8, CYP6B7, CYP6B6, CYP6B2, and CYP6B4 with the highest amino acid identity of 41%. CYP9A38 is closest to CYP9A17, CYP9A21, CYP9A20, and CYP9A19 with the highest amino acid identity of 66%. Studies of temporal expression profiles revealed that CYP9A38 showed a steady increase in mRNA level during the five instar stages, but a low-expression level in pupae, and then presented at a high-expression level again in adults. Similar expression patterns were obtained with CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1. In the fifth instar larvae, CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 was mainly expressed in midgut and fat bodies, whereas CYP9A38 was mainly expressed in midgut. Expression studies also revealed a 3.20-fold over-expression of CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and 3.54-fold over-expression of CYP9A38 after larval exposure to host rice resistance. Our results suggest that both CYP6<span class="hlt">CV</span>1 and CYP9A38 may be involved in detoxification of rice phytochemicals. PMID:25896119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398279"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of different production systems on chemical profiles of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Top Crop) pods.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina</p> <p>2013-03-13</p> <p>The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups. PMID:23398279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623448','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4623448"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of ethrel in causation of floral malformation in mango <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Amrapali: A scanning electron microscopy study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Bains, Gurdeep</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Floral malformation is a main constraint to reduce fruit yield in mango plants. Recently, we report on the role of putrescine in normalizing the functional morphology of mango flower by reducing various adverse effects of ethylene. Here, ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound, was exogenously applied to mango plant <span class="hlt">cv</span> Amrapali to evaluate the response of flower development under high level of ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that ethrel treated flowers were observed to progressively be deformed and remain unbloom. The flower buds were not distinguishable and flower parts such as petals, sepals, anther and stigma were not properly developed. The stamen showed fused anther lobes and carpel depicted curved style with pointed stigma. The findings of present study suggest the involvement of ethylene to abort the functional morphology of flower and thereby development of malformation. PMID:25751309</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12904947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12904947"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of solid-phase extraction to eliminate interferences in the determination of mercury by flow-injection <span class="hlt">CV</span> AAS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krata, Agnieszka; Pyrzy?ska, Krystyna; Bulska, Ewa</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>Solid-phase extraction with two-step elution has been developed for effective elimination of copper and iron interference with mercury determination by flow-injection cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span> AAS). Sodium tetrahydroborate(III) was used as reducing agent. Cation-exchanger Dowex 50Wx4 was applied for the sorption of mercury and both interfering ions. In the first step elution of Cu(II) and Fe(III) was performed using 0.5 mol L(-1) KF solution. Then mercury was eluted with 0.1% thiourea in 8% HCl. The detection limit (3 delta) for Hg(II) was 27 ng L(-1). The expanded uncertainty estimated for the whole procedure was about 6%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by determination of the recovery of known amount of mercury added to mineral, spring, and tap waters, and by analysis of a certified reference material BCR-144R (sewage sludge). PMID:12904947</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049284&hterms=rare+earth+element&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Drare%2Bearth%2Belement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049284&hterms=rare+earth+element&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Drare%2Bearth%2Belement"><span id="translatedtitle">Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran in India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate. PMID:22134527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeCoA..75.3155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeCoA..75.3155S"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic study of impurities and associated defects in nanodiamonds from Efremovka (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) and Orgueil (CI) meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiryaev, A. A.; Fisenko, A. V.; Vlasov, I. I.; Semjonova, L. F.; Nagel, P.; Schuppler, S.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The results of spectroscopic and structural studies of phase composition and defects in nanodiamonds from Efremovka (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) and Orgueil (CI) chondrites indicate that nitrogen atomic environment in meteoritic nanodiamonds (MND) is similar to that observed in synthetic counterparts produced by detonation and by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)-process. Most of the nitrogen in MND appears to be confined to lattice imperfections, such as crystallite/twin boundaries and other extended defects, while the concentration of nitrogen in the MND lattice is low. It is suggested that the N-rich sub-population of MND grains may have been formed with high growth rates in environments rich in accessible N (i.e., N in atomic form or as weakly bonded compounds). For the first time the silicon-vacancy complex (the "silicon" defect) is observed in MND by photoluminescence spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836631"><span id="translatedtitle">53Mn-53Cr dating of fayalite formation in the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite Mokoia: evidence for asteroidal alteration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Keil, K; Phinney, D L; Scott, E R</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>Fayalite grains in chondrules in the oxidized, aqueously altered <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite Mokoia have large excesses of radiogenic chromium-53. These excesses indicate the in situ decay of short-lived manganese-53 (half-life = 3.7 million years) and define an initial 53Mn/55Mn ratio of 2.32 (+/-0.18) x 10(-6). This ratio is comparable to values for carbonates in CI and CM chondrites and for several classes of differentiated meteorites. Mokoia fayalites formed 7 to 16 million years after Allende calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, during hydrothermal activity on a geologically active asteroid after chondritic components had ceased forming in the solar nebula. PMID:9836631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586329"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a strain of Actinidia virus X detected in Ribes nigrum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baldwin showing unusual symptoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>James, Delano; Phelan, James</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A Ribes-infecting strain of the potexvirus Actinidia virus X (AVX-RV3124) was isolated from black currant plants (Ribes nigrum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Baldwin, accession 3124-03D1) showing symptoms of leaf chlorosis and deformity. This is the first description of the complete genome sequence of an isolate of this virus and the first detection of a potexvirus in Ribes. The genome of AVX-RV3124 consists of 6,888 nucleotides (nt) excluding the poly(A) tail at the 3' terminus. When AVX-RV3124 was compared to the available sequence of the AVX isolate in GenBank (accession no. KC568202), two large indel events (72 nt and 33 nt) were identified in the replicase coding region of RV3124. Evidence of recombination was detected upstream of the 3' terminus of the replicase gene of both virus isolates, providing further evidence of a common origin. PMID:26586329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15490322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15490322"><span id="translatedtitle">Anatalline and other methyl jasmonate-inducible nicotine alkaloids from Nicotiana tabacum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. By-2 cell cultures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hkkinen, Suvi T; Rischer, Heiko; Laakso, Into; Maaheimo, Hannu; Seppnen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Anatalline [2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine] accumulation was shown to be induced by methyl jasmonate in Nicotiana tabacum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. BY-2 cell cultures. Beside anatabine, anatalline represented the most abundant alkaloid, moreover, it was always present in two isomeric forms occurring always in similar concentrations. Both isomers could be completely separated by GC-MS. For structural analysis, the isolation of both isomers was performed using a semi-preparative HPLC system. The structures of anatalline [cis-2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine] and its stereoisomer trans-2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine were confirmed by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. The biosynthetic origin of anatalline was studied by feeding alkaloid precursors to BY-2 cell cultures. PMID:15490322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19070012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19070012"><span id="translatedtitle">The growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Ife Brown (Leguminosae) in a cement site rich in heavy metals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ade-Ademilua, O E; Umebese, C E</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Ife Brown sown in the site at close proximity to a cement factory (polluted), produced sprawling plants with their life span shortened by 28 days, a low pod yield, few and small sized seeds. The time of flower initiation, pod formation to pod ripening was markedly reduced. These plants accumulated a significantly high (17.01 micromol mol(-1)) concentration of aluminium (a constituent of cement) in the leaves and copper (13.68 micromol mol(-1)) in the seeds. Furthermore, the plants showed a low uptake of iron (a prominent constituent of cement) from the iron-rich polluted site. The heavy metals present in cement dust also induced a deficiency in phosphorus, magnesium and ammonia; and synergistically attracted the presence of other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, lead, nickel, chromium, silver and cadmium in significantly high quantities (p = 0.05). PMID:19070012</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20309495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20309495"><span id="translatedtitle">Morpho-histological study of banana (Musa spp. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grande Naine [AAA]) cell suspensions during cryopreservation and regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Georget, Frédéric; Engelmann, Florent; Domergue, Régis; Cote, François</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this work, a morpho-histological study of banana (Musa spp. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grande Naine [AAA]) embryogenic cell suspensions during cryopreservation and regeneration was performed. It was demonstrated that the regeneration process of somatic embryos originating from cryopreserved cell suspensions was different from that of control cell suspensions. Somatic embryos originating from cryopreserved cell suspensions had a unicellular origin. The regeneration process was modified not only by freezing in liquid nitrogen but also by the plasmolyzing effect of the 0.5 M sucrose solution employed during pretreatment. This result explained the high number of embryonic structures formed on M3 medium, compared with the control. Proembryos blocked at the globular stage could pursue their development when they were plated on new culture medium at a lower density after 30 days of culture on M3 medium. The unicellular origin of somatic embryos produced from cryopreserved cell suspensions offers the prospect of using cryopreservation to select non-chimeral transformed plants. PMID:20309495</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927778"><span id="translatedtitle">Description of gas-phase ion/neutral interactions in differential ion mobility spectrometry: <span class="hlt">CV</span> prediction using calibration runs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Auerbach, David; Aspenleiter, Julia; Volmer, Dietrich A</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled to mass spectrometry is increasingly used in both quantitative analyses of biological samples and as a means of removing background interferences for enhanced selectivity and improved quality of mass spectra. However, DMS separation efficiency using dry inert gases often lacks the required selectivity to achieve baseline separation. Polar gas-phase modifiers such as alcohols are therefore frequently employed to improve selectivity via clustering/declustering processes. The choice of an optimal modifier currently relies on trial and error experiments, making method development a tedious activity. It was the goal of this study to establish a means of <span class="hlt">CV</span> prediction for compounds using a homologous series of alcohols as gas-phase modifiers. This prediction was based on linear regression of compensation voltages of two calibration runs for the alcohols with the lowest and the highest molecular weights and readily available descriptors such as proton affinity and gas phase acidity of the modifier molecules. All experiments were performed on a commercial quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a DMS device between electrospray ionization source and entrance quadrupole lens. We evaluated our approach using a homologous series of 4-alkylbenzoic acids and a selection of 23 small molecules of high chemical diversity. Predicted <span class="hlt">CV</span> values typically deviated from the experimentally determined values by less than 0.5V. Several test compounds changed their ion mobility behavior for the investigated gas phase modifiers (e.g., from type B to type A) and thus could thus not be evaluated. PMID:24927778</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1688O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1688O"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of amoeboid olivine aggregates from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olsen, M. B.; Krot, A. N.; Larsen, K.; Paton, C.; Wielandt, D.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We report on mineralogy, petrography, and whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of eight amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende. The AOAs consist of forsteritic olivine, opaque nodules, and variable amounts of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) of different types, and show evidence for alteration to varying degrees. Melilite and anorthite are replaced by nepheline, sodalite, and grossular; spinel is enriched in FeO; opaque nodules are replaced by Fe,Ni-sulfides, ferroan olivine and Ca,Fe-rich pyroxenes; forsteritic olivine is enriched in FeO and often overgrown by ferroan olivine. The AOAs are surrounded by fine-grained, matrix-like rims composed mainly of ferroan olivine and by a discontinuous layer of Ca,Fe-rich silicates. These observations indicate that AOAs experienced in situ elemental open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration during which Fe, Na, Cl, and Si were introduced, whereas Ca was removed from AOAs and used to form the Ca,Fe-rich silicate rims around AOAs. The whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of the Allende AOAs plot above the isochron of the whole-rock Allende CAIs with a slope of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 reported by Jacobsen et al. (2008). In contrast, whole-rock 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics of CAIs and AOAs from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Efremovka define a single isochron with a slope of (5.25± 0.01) × 10-5 (Larsen et al. 2011). We infer that the excesses in 26Mg* present in Allende AOAs are due to their late-stage open-system metasomatic alteration. Thus, the 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics of Allende CAIs and AOAs are disturbed by parent body alteration processes, and may not be suitable for high-precision chronology of the early solar system events and processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705290','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4705290"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L−1) and NAA (2 mg L−1) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5–1.5 mg L−1), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L−1 of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L−1), Kin (1.5 mg L−1), NAA (0.5 mg L−1) and TDZ (0.5 mg L−1) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots. PMID:26858569</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222501"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana. PMID:24222501</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26858569"><span id="translatedtitle">Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3mgL(-1)) and NAA (2mgL(-1)) after 6weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5mgL(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5mgL(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5mgL(-1)), Kin (1.5mgL(-1)), NAA (0.5mgL(-1)) and TDZ (0.5mgL(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots. PMID:26858569</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=246977','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=246977"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Chardonnay’</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=208901','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=208901"><span id="translatedtitle">High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x <span class="hlt">cv</span> ‘Starburst’)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x <span class="hlt">cv</span> ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=186104&keyword=euthanasia+NOT+legal&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55712438&CFTOKEN=36884622','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=186104&keyword=euthanasia+NOT+legal&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55712438&CFTOKEN=36884622"><span id="translatedtitle">USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) DISEASE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse <span class="hlt">CV</span> consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236103','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=236103"><span id="translatedtitle">Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis <span class="hlt">cv</span> ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis <span class="hlt">cv</span> ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=207063','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=207063"><span id="translatedtitle">Omega Gliadin Genes Expressed in Triticum Aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Butte 86: Effects of Post-anthesis Fertilizer on Transcript Accumulation During Grain Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The partial coding sequences of omega gliadin genes expressed in developing wheat kernels Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Butte 86 were identified in EST databases. Three gene assemblies encode proteins with PQQPFP as the predominant repetitive motif. Of these, two encode proteins with at least one cysteine an...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=306490','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=306490"><span id="translatedtitle">First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia fulgida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Goldsturm’) in Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The North American perennial black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Goldsturm’) is an important nursery crop, prized by gardeners and landscapers for its persistent bloom and ease of cultivation. In September 2013 disease symptoms characteristic of downy mildew were observed from multiple plants a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=258963','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=258963"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving the french fry quality of russeted potatoes through transformation with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the Chipping <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Snowden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microtubers of two dual-purpose russeted potatoes were transformed with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Snowden using well know Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation system. Seventy-two and twenty-four distinct transformants of AOND95292-3Russ and ND7882b-7Russ, respectivel...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965088"><span id="translatedtitle">Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maccabi).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain. PMID:22965088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767774"><span id="translatedtitle">A new immuno- dystrophin-deficient model, the NSG-mdx4<span class="hlt">Cv</span> mouse, provides evidence for functional improvement following allogeneic satellite cell transplantation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arpke, Robert W.; Darabi, Radbod; Mader, Tara L.; Zhang, Yu; Toyama, Akira; Lonetree, Cara-lin; Nash, Nardina; Lowe, Dawn A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C.R.; Kyba, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Transplantation of a myogenic cell population into an immunodeficient recipient is an excellent way of assessing the in vivo muscle-generating capacity of that cell population. To facilitate both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantations of muscle-forming cells in mice we have developed a novel immunodeficient muscular dystrophy model, the NSG-mdx4<span class="hlt">Cv</span> mouse. The IL2Rg mutation, which is linked to the Dmd gene on the X chromosome, simultaneously depletes NK cells and suppresses thymic lymphomas, issues that limit the utility of the SCID/mdx model. The NSG-mdx4<span class="hlt">Cv</span> mouse presents a muscular dystrophy of similar severity to the conventional mdx mouse. We show that this animal supports robust engraftment of both pig and dog muscle mononuclear cells. The question of whether satellite cells prospectively isolated by flow cytometry can confer a functional benefit upon transplantation has been controversial. Using allogeneic Pax7-ZsGreen donors and NSG-mdx4<span class="hlt">Cv</span> recipients, we demonstrate definitively that as few as 900 FACS-isolated satellite cells can provide functional regeneration in vivo, in the form of an increased mean maximal force-generation capacity in cell-transplanted muscles, compared to a sham-injected control group. These studies highlight the potency of satellite cells to improve muscle function, and the utility of the NSG-mdx4<span class="hlt">Cv</span> model for studies on muscle regeneration and Duchenne muscular dystrophy therapy. PMID:23606600</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=260766','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=260766"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in red clover (Trifolium pratense <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kenland)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Several extraction parameters were tested to determine optimal conditions for extracting phenolics from red clover (Trifolium pratense L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kenland). HPLC-UV profiles were compared before and after partitioning a methanolic extract of soluble phenolics with ethyl acetate-ether (1:1, v/v). The e...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238005','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=238005"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Blanco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=210961','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=210961"><span id="translatedtitle">Survey of 42,000 Gossypium hirsutum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maxxa BAC-End Sequences and Frequency, Type, and Annotation of BAC-derived SSRs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The quest for more molecular markers is a major initiative in cotton, which lags behind crops such as soybean, maize, and rice in this type of research. In an effort to increase the number of microsatellite markers in Gossypium, BAC-end sequences from a publicly available Gossypium hirsutum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maxx...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-03/pdf/2012-2332.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-03/pdf/2012-2332.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 5574 - United States v. Grupo Bimbo, S.A.B. de <span class="hlt">C.V</span>., et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-03</p> <p>.... de <span class="hlt">C.V</span>., BBU, Inc., and Sara Lee Corporation to enjoin Grupo Bimbo and BBU's proposed acquisition of Sara Lee's North American Fresh Bakery business. The Complaint alleged that the acquisition would... proposed Final Judgment and Stipulation signed by the United States, Grupo Bimbo, BBU, and Sara...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4471099','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4471099"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434672','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19434672"><span id="translatedtitle">Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soltis, Joseph</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental frequencies in the infrasonic range. Additionally, resonant frequencies of rumbles implicate the trunk in addition to the oral cavity in shaping the acoustic structure of rumbles. Long-distance communication is thought possible because low-frequency sounds propagate more faithfully than high-frequency sounds, and elephants respond to rumbles at distances of up to 2.5 km. Elephant ear anatomy appears designed for detecting low frequencies, and experiments demonstrate that elephants can detect infrasonic tones and discriminate small frequency differences. Two vocal communication functions in the African elephant now have reasonable empirical support. First, closely bonded but spatially separated females engage in rumble exchanges, or "contact calls," that function to coordinate movement or reunite animals. Second, both males and females produce "mate attraction" rumbles that may advertise reproductive states to the opposite sex. Additionally, there is evidence that the structural variation in rumbles reflects the individual identity, reproductive state, and emotional state of callers. Growth in knowledge about the communication system of the African elephant has occurred from a rich combination of research on wild elephants in national parks and captive elephants in zoological parks. PMID:19434672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15809280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15809280"><span id="translatedtitle">The chemical composition of suberin in apoplastic barriers affects radial hydraulic conductivity differently in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. IR64) and corn (Zea mays L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Helix).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Hartmann, Klaus-Dieter; Ranathunge, Kosala; Steudle, Ernst</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Apoplastic transport barriers in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. IR64) and corn (Zea mays L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Helix) were isolated enzymatically. Following chemical degradation (monomerization, derivatization), the amounts of aliphatic and aromatic suberin monomers were analysed quantitatively by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In corn, suberin was determined for isolated endodermal (ECW) and rhizo-hypodermal (RHCW) cell walls. In rice, the strong lignification of the central cylinder (CC), did not allow the isolation of endodermal cell walls. Similarly, exodermal walls could not be separated from the rhizodermal and sclerenchyma cell layers. Suberin analyses of ECW and RHCW of rice, thus, refer to either the entire CC or to the entire outer part of the root (OPR), the latter lacking the inner cortical cell layer. In both species, aromatic suberin was mainly composed of coumaric and ferulic acids. Aliphatic suberin monomers released from rice and corn belonged to five substance classes: primary fatty acids, primary alcohols, diacids, omega-hydroxy fatty acids, and 2-hydroxy fatty acids, with omega-hydroxy fatty acids being the most prominent substance class. Qualitative composition of aliphatic suberin of rice was different from that of corn; (i) it was much less diverse, and (ii) besides monomers with chain lengths of C(16), a second maximum of C(28) was evident. In corn, C(24) monomers represented the most prominent class of chain lengths. When suberin quantities were related to surface areas of the respective tissues of interest (hypodermis and/or exodermis and endodermis), exodermal cell walls of rice contained, on average, six-times more aliphatic suberin than those of corn. In endodermal cell walls, amounts were 34 times greater in rice than in corn. Significantly higher amounts of suberin detected in the apoplastic barriers of rice corresponded with a substantially lower root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) compared with corn, when water flow was driven by hydrostatic pressure gradients across the apoplast. As the OPR of rice is highly porous and permeable to water, it is argued that this holds true only for the endodermis. The results imply that some caution is required when discussing the role of suberin in terms of an efficient transport barrier for water. The simple view that only the quantity of suberin present is important, may not hold. A more detailed consideration of both the chemical nature of suberins and of the microstructure of deposits is required, i.e. how suberins impregnate wall pores. PMID:15809280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18849463','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18849463"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinto and sourdough lactic acid bacteria during bread storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate. PMID:18849463</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3907190','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3907190"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus by the Cyanobacterial Protein MVL: mechanistic differences between the high-mannose specific lectins MVL, <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N, and GNA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed; Tan, Wendy; Zubkova, Iryna; Takeda, Kazuyo; Wells, Frances; Rubin, Steven; Bewley, Carole A.; Major, Marian E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant or microbial lectins are known to exhibit potent antiviral activities against viruses with glycosylated surface proteins, yet the mechanism(s) by which these carbohydrate-binding proteins exert their antiviral activities is not fully understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to possess glycosylated envelope proteins (gpE1E2), and to be potently inhibited by lectins. Here, we tested in detail the antiviral properties of the newly discovered Microcystis viridis lectin (MVL) along with cyanovirin N (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-N) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) against cell culture HCV, as well as their binding properties towards viral particles, target cells, and recombinant HCV glycoproteins. Using infectivity assays, <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N, MVL and GNA inhibited HCV with IC50 values of 0.6 nM, 30.4 nM, and 11.1 nM, respectively. Biolayer interferometry analysis demonstrated a higher affinity of GNA to immobilized recombinant HCV glycoproteins compared to CV–N and MVL. Complementary studies, including FACS analysis, confocal microscopy and pre and post virus binding assays, showed a complex mechanism of inhibition for <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N and MVL that includes both viral and cell association; while GNA functions by binding directly to the viral particle. Combinations of GNA with <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N or MVL in HCV infection studies revealed synergistic inhibitory effects, which can be explained by different glycan recognition profiles of the mainly high-mannoside specific lectins, and supports the hypothesis that these lectins inhibit through different and complex modes of action. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanisms by which lectins inhibit HCV infection. Overall, the data suggest MVL and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-N have the potential for toxicity due to interactions with cellular proteins while GNA may be a better therapeutic agent due to specificity for the HCV gpE1E2. PMID:24152340</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413543P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413543P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span>-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. <span class="hlt">CV</span>-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more than 100 PM10 samples, addressing mainly their mass concentrations and the chemical composition of water soluble ions and carbon species (carbonates and organic and elemental carbon). Different PM10 samplers worked simultaneously in order to collect enough mass to make the aerosol characterization through the different methodologies and to collect aerosols in different filter matrixes, which have to be appropriated to the chemical and mineralogical analysis. The sampling site was located at Santiago Island, in the surroundings of Praia City (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level). High concentrations, up to more than 400 μg m-3, are connected to north-east and north-northeast winds, and it was identified several dust events characteristic of "bruma seca", whose duration is on average of two to four days. Backward trajectories analysis confirms that the high concentrations in Cape Verde are associated with air masses passing over the Sahara. During dust events the percentage of inorganic water soluble ions for the total PM10 mass concentration decreased significantly to values lower than 10% in comparison with remainder data that range around 45±10%. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the project PTDD/AAC-CLI/100331/2008 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008646 (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-Dust). J. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH-BD-6105-2009 from FCT.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.cancer.gov/espanol/cancer/tratamiento/efectos-secundarios/insomnio','NCI'); return false;" href="http://www.cancer.gov/espanol/cancer/tratamiento/efectos-secundarios/insomnio"><span id="translatedtitle">Problemas <span class="hlt">para</span> dormir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Dormir bien es importante <span class="hlt">para</span> su salud fsica y mental. Un buen sueo en la noche no solo le ayuda a pensar claramente, tambin le baja su presin arterial, ayuda su apetito y fortalece su sistema inmunitario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572014','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26572014"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of fertilization method and nitrogen application rate on soil nitrogen vertical migration in a Populus xeuramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Guariento' plantation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, Teng-fei; Xi, Ben-ye; Yan, Xiao-li; Jia, Li-ming</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization methods, i.e., drip (DF) and furrow fertilization (GF), and nitrogen (N) application rates (25, 50, 75 g N plant(-1) time(-1)) on the dynamics of soil N vertical migration in a Populus x euramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Guariento' plantation. The results showed that soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents decreased with the increasing soil depth under different fertilization methods and N application rates. In the DF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-40 cm soil layer, and their contents ascended firstly and then descended, reaching their maximum values at the 5th day (211.1 mg kg(-1)) and 10th day (128.8 mg kg(-1)) after fertilization, respectively. In the GF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm layer, and the content of soil NO3(-)-N rose gradually and reached its maximum at the 20th day (175.7 mg kg(-1)) after fertilization, while the NH4(+)-N content did not change significantly after fertilization. Overall, N fertilizer had an effect within 20 days in the DF treatment, and more than 20 days in the GF treatment. In the DF treatment, the content and migration depth of soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N increased with the N application rate. In the GF treatment, the NO3(-)-N content increased with the N application rate, but the NH4(+)-N content was not influenced. Under the DF treatment, the hydrolysis rate, nitrification rate and migration depth of urea were higher or larger than that under the GF treatment, and more N accumulated in deep soil as the N application rate increased. Considering the distribution characteristics of fine roots and soil N, DF would be a better fertilization method in P. xeuramericana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Guariento' plantation, since it could supply N to larger distribution area of fine roots. When the N application rate was 50 g tree(-1) each time, nitrogen mainly distributed in the zone of fine roots and had no risk of deep leaching, consequently improving the fertilizer utilization efficiency. PMID:26572014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997LPI....28..767K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997LPI....28..767K"><span id="translatedtitle">Highly oxidized and metamorphosed chondritic or igneous (?) clasts in the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite Mokoia - Excavated material from the interior of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 asteroid or previously unsampled asteroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, A. N.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>The Mokoia clasts are fragments of coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks which consist of Ca-rich fayalitic olivine. Nepheline typically replaces plagioclase. The textures and mineralogy of the clasts indicate that they were extensively metamorphosed above 750-800 C prior to excavation from their parent asteroid and subsequently added to the Mokoia breccia; the last event postdates aqueous alteration of the host meteorite. The coexisting Al-diopside, anorthitic plagioclase and Cr-spinel in the clasts and high CaO contents in olivine suggest that precursor materials for the clasts were rich in Ca and Al; Fe-rich compositions of olivine, diopside, and mineralogy of the opaque assemblage suggest a high degree of oxidation. The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Mokoia clasts are unique among known metamorphosed ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and achondrites and may represent material from a previously unsampled asteroid. Alternatively, the Mokoia clasts may have been excavated from the oxidized and metamorphosed interior of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 asteroid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452918','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452918"><span id="translatedtitle">Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.; Díaz-Pendón, Juan A.; Fonseca, Maria Esther N.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Resende, Renato O.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL), a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread. PMID:26008699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6537936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6537936"><span id="translatedtitle">Safety evaluation of sweet lupine (Lupinus albus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Multolupa). II. Nine-month feeding and multigeneration study in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ballester, D R; Brunser, O; Saita, M T; Egaa, J I; Yez, E O; Owen, D F</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Sweet lupine Lupinus albus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Multolupa) flour containing 41.7% protein and 0.025% lupanine was fed for 9 months to two generations of rats (F1 and F2) at a level that provided 20% dietary protein. The diets were supplemented with 0.2% DL-methionine. The control diet provided the same dietary protein level from defatted soya-bean flour, fish meal and dried skimmed milk. The lupine diet had no effect on the general condition, mortality or behaviour of the animals. The growth rate of males fed sweet lupine was significantly higher than that of the controls. Haematological parameters and tests of liver function were normal in all treatment groups. At autopsy there were no significant changes in the weight of the heart, kidney, spleen, brain and gonads. However, the relative weight of the liver of lupine-fed rats was significantly lower than that in the controls. The histology of the liver, like that of the other organs examined, was normal. The reproduction study did not reveal any adverse effect on fertility or lactation that could be attributed to ingestion of sweet lupine. This investigation did not disclose any deleterious effects through two generations of rats that were fed sweet lupine at a level that provided 20% dietary protein for 9 months. PMID:6537936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25398618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25398618"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of a cystatin transgene can confer resistance to root lesion nematodes in Lilium longiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Nellie White'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vieira, Paulo; Wantoch, Sarah; Lilley, Catherine J; Chitwood, David J; Atkinson, Howard J; Kamo, Kathryn</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Lilium longiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Nellie White' assumes a great economic importance as cut flowers, being one of the most valuable species (annual pot plants value above $20,000,000) in terms of wholesales in the US. The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans (RLN) constitutes one of the main pests for lily producers due to the significant root damage it causes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of soybean hairy roots (as a transient test model) and stable transgenic lilies overexpressing a modified rice cystatin (Oc-I?D86) transgene and challenged with root lesion nematodes. Lily transformation was achieved by gene gun co-bombardment using both a pBluescript-based vector containing the cystatin gene and pDM307 that contains a bar gene for phosphinothricin selection. Both soybean hairy roots and lilies overexpressing the OcI?D86 transgene exhibited enhanced resistance to RLN infection by means of nematode reduction up to 75 5% on the total number of nematodes. In addition, lily plants overexpressing OcI?D86 displayed an increase of plant mass and better growth performance in comparison to wild-type plants, thereby demonstrating an alternative strategy for increasing the yield and reducing nematode damage to this important floral crop. PMID:25398618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12554706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12554706"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloning and characterization of two ripening-related strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chandler) pectate lyase genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bentez-Burraco, Antonio; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Redondo-Nevado, Jos; Bellido, M Luz; Moyano, Enriqueta; Caballero, Jos-L; Muoz-Blanco, Juan</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>Two genomic clones corresponding to putative pectate lyase genes (plA and plB) were isolated and characterized in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chandler). The corresponding ORFs for the plA and plB genes revealed deduced proteins of 451 and 439 amino acids, respectively, that differ from that of the previously isolated strawberry plC gene. Southern blot analysis has shown that while the plB gene is a single copy gene, the plA gene is probably encoded by a small multigene family. By using specific probes corresponding to the untranslated 3' terminal region of the pl genes, and QRT-PCR methodology, the spatio-temporal expression pattern of both strawberry pl genes have been compared with that of the plC gene. The three transcripts were specifically expressed only in fruit and mainly during the ripening stages. Moreover, the expression of the plA and plB genes was induced in green de-achened fruit, but this increase was reduced by the external application of auxins as was the expression of plC. The expression of both pl genes was also strongly reduced in harvested fruit kept in controlled atmosphere (CA) containing high CO(2) levels. Immunolocalization studies using antibodies raised against the strawberry PL proteins placed the proteins in the cell wall of parenchymatic cells of the fruit receptacle. The role of pl genes in cell-wall disassembly and fruit ripening softening is discussed. PMID:12554706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1712c0012B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1712c0012B"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MS%26E...46a2040R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MS%26E...46a2040R"><span id="translatedtitle">5S program to reduce change-over time on forming department (case study on <span class="hlt">CV</span> Piranti Works temanggung)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosiana Dewi, Septika; Setiawan, Budi; P, Susatyo Nugroho W.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Productivity is one aspect that determines the success of a company in the competitive world of business. There are seven main types of activities that do not have value-added in manufacturing processes such as overproduction, waiting time, transportation, excess inventory, unnecessary motion and defects. The whole activity is a waste (waste) that can cause harm to the Company. Therefore, in production activities is important to pay attention so that the objectives of production productivity can be achieved. Problems experienced by <span class="hlt">CV</span> Piranti Works is a production target is not achieved resulting in a lost sale raises the cost of which can cause harm to the Company. From the analysis conducted major known cause of the problem is the length of time required for changeover. This is supported by the high non-value added activity in the changeover activities. Lean Manufacturing is an approach to make system more efficient by reducing waste. This study refers to the book compiled by Takashi Osada (2004) and several other references. In this research used method 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) for the of forming departement. The purpose of this research is to design a work environment using the 5S method (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) and make arrangement of equipment and working tool cabinet design with TRIZ methods. From these results, is expected to eliminate or reduce of non-value added activity and improved the changeover time so as to meet production targets completion of the company.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001296','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150001296"><span id="translatedtitle">James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) Test at GSFC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yew, Calinda M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>JWST ISIM has entered into its system-level testing program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In December 2013, ISIM successfully completed the first in a series of three cryo-vacuum tests, which included two flight science instruments. Since then, there have been full-fledged efforts towards the <span class="hlt">CV</span>2 test scheduled to finish at the end of 2014. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. In order to satisfy the program requirements, GSFC had to develop unique structural and thermal hardware to test ISIM. Most noteworthy is a helium shroud structure and cooling system built in order to achieve operational temperatures below 20K (-253C). This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) communicates the performance and challenges of the SES during the first ISIM test, and (3) summarizes the action plan to improve the system prior to the next test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15161211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15161211"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of harvest date and crop yield on the fatty acid composition of virgin olive oils from <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beltrn, Gabriel; Del Rio, Carmen; Snchez, Sebastin; Martnez, Leopoldo</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>In this study was analyzed the effect of crop year and harvesting time on the fatty acid composition of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual virgin olive oil. The study was carried out during the fruit ripening period for three crop seasons. The mean fatty acid composition of Picual oils was determined. The oils contained palmitic acid (11.9%), oleic acid (79.3%), and linoleic acid (2.95%). The content of palmitic acid and saturated fatty acids decreased during fruit ripening while oleic and linoleic acids increased. The amount of stearic and linolenic acids decreased. The amount of saturated acids, palmitic and stearic, and the polyunsaturated acids linoleic and linolenic was dependent on the time of harvest, whereas the amount of oleic acid varied with the crop year. The differences observed between crop years for both palmitic and linoleic acid may be explained by the differences in the temperature during oil biosynthesis and by the amount of summer rainfall for oleic acid content. A significant relationship was observed between the MUFA/PUFA ratio and the oxidative stability measured by the Rancimat method. PMID:15161211</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22733494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22733494"><span id="translatedtitle">Cotton gene expression profiles in resistant Gossypium hirsutum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Zhongzhimian KV1 responding to Verticillium dahliae strain V991 infection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wen-Wei; Jian, Gui-Liang; Jiang, Teng-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Zheng; Qi, Fang-Jun; Xu, Shi-Chang</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Verticillium wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a widespread and destructive disease that is caused by the soil-borne fungus pathogen Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To study the molecular mechanism in wilt tolerance, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and dot blot techniques were used to identify the specifically expressed genes in a superior wilt-resistant cotton cultivar (G. hirsutum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Zhongzhimian KV1) after inoculation with pathogen. cDNAs from the root tissues of Zhongzhimian KV1 inoculated with V. dahliae strain V991 or water mock were used to construct the libraries that contain 4800 clones. Based on the results from dot blot analysis, 147 clones were clearly induced by V. dahliae and selected from the SSH libraries for sequencing. A total of 92 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated non-redundant expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were identified as disease responsive genes and classified into 9 functional groups. Two important clues regarding wilt-resistant G. hirsutum were obtained from this study. One was Bet v 1 family; the other was UbI gene family that may play an important role in the defense reaction against Verticillium wilt. The result from real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were activated quickly and transiently after inoculation with V. dahliae. PMID:22733494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24262064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24262064"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum morifolium <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hang-ju.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shan; Hao, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Song, Xiao-mei</p> <p>2014-04-15</p> <p>The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MS(n). Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p<0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. PMID:24262064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572819"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of different maturity stages of sapota (Manilkara achras Mill.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kallipatti to in-package ethylene absorbent.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bhutia, Wangdup; Pal, R K; Sen, Sangita; Jha, S K</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Sapota fruits are highly perishable due to their climacteric nature. The rapid softening of fruits is primarily due to high activity of many oxidative enzymes and liberation of ethylene. Harvest maturity plays a crucial role in deciding the marketability of climacteric fruits in general. Attempt has been made to evaluate the response of ethylene absorbent on variable maturity groups of harvested Sapota <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kallipatti with the objective to delay the ripening during transit and extend its marketability during storage at ambient condition (27-32 °C & 65-75% R.H.). Harvested fruits having three different degree of ripeness (as maturity indices viz. mature, half-ripe and ripe) were packed with or without ethylene absorbent sachets (Bioconservación, France) in 10 kg CFB boxes and transported from Dahnu to Delhi covering a distant of approximately 2500 KM by truck on road along with conventional packaging as control. The fruits were evaluated immediately on arrival at Delhi and subsequently during storage for various physical, physiological, biochemical and decay parameters. Mature fruits with ethylene absorbent exhibited maximum delay in ripening, low ethylene liberation, weight loss and high fruit firmness. The response of ethylene absorbent to extend the marketability of ripe fruit was not significant. PMID:23572819</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26503745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26503745"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of Methanol Spray and Water-Deficit Stress on Photosynthesis and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sadry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Armand, Nezam; Amiri, Hamzeh; Ismaili, Ahmad</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study was a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and three replications. The four levels of methanol spraying were used. Spraying was carried out three times during the growing season at 10-day intervals beginning at 4weeks after sowing. The spraying of solution continued until saturation of droplets on the leaves was achieved. The levels of water-deficit stress applied were nonstress, moderate water stress and severe water stress. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P?0.05) between the methanol and water-deficit stress treatments for chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b, carotenoid, total chlorophyll, net photosynthesis (PN ), intercellular CO2 (Ci ), maximal quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv /Fm ), leaf moisture, water use efficiency and relative water content. The application of foliar methanol at all levels of water-deficit stress significantly decreased the catalase activity of the roots. Under all levels of water-deficit stress, the 30% (v/v) methanol treatment significantly decreased peroxidase activity in the roots over that for the control. The results suggest that foliar application of methanol can decrease the negative effects of water-deficit stress on Phaseolus vulgaris L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sadry. PMID:26503745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18259818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18259818"><span id="translatedtitle">Altitudinal variation of phenolic contents in flowering heads of Arnica montana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ARBO: a 3-year comparison.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spitaler, Renate; Winkler, Andrea; Lins, Isabella; Yanar, Sema; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>In continuation of our studies of altitudinal effects on secondary metabolite profile of flowering heads from taxa of the Asteraceae, we investigated phenolic contents and radical scavenging potential from cultivated plants of Arnica montana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ARBO during the growing seasons 2003, 2004, and 2005. By conducting experiments on potted plants, we excluded that differences in phenolic contents from plants grown at different altitudes were related primarily to differences in soil composition at these sites. To assess altitudinal and interseasonal variation, plants of A. montana cultivar ARBO were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck, Austria. In all growing seasons and regardless of the soil the plants were grown in, the proportion of flavonoids with vicinal-free hydroxy groups in ring B to flavonoids lacking this feature, and the total amount of caffeic acid derivatives, significantly increased with elevation. These increases of antioxidant phenolics corresponded to an increase of the radical scavenging potential of extracts from plants grown at different altitudes. The results are discussed in regard to previous studies that suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation and decreased temperatures trigger augmented biosynthesis of UV-absorbing and antioxidant phenolics in higher plants. PMID:18259818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669138"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance of energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Szarvasi-1) grown in hydroponic culture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sipos, Gyula; Solti, Adm; Czech, Viktria; Vashegyi, Ildik; Tth, Brigitta; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Phytoremediation is a plant based, cost effective technology to detoxify or stabilise contaminated soils. Fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants may be used not only in phytoremediation but also in energy production. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this combined application, was grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn accumulation and tolerance. Its shoot metal accumulation showed the order Pb < Ni < Cu ? Cd < Zn. In parallel with this, Pb and Ni had no or very little influence on the growth, dry matter content, chlorophyll concentration and transpiration of the plants. Cu and Cd treatment resulted in significant decreases in all these parameters that can be attributed to Fe plaque formation in the roots suggested by markedly increased Fe and Cu accumulation. This came together with decreased shoot and root Mn concentrations in both treatments while shoot Cu and Zn concentrations decreased under Cd and Cu exposure, respectively. Zn treatment had no effect or even slightly stimulated the plants. This may be due to a slight stimulation of Fe translocation and a very efficient detoxification mechanism. Based on the average 300 mg kg? (dry mass) Zn concentration which is 0.03% of the shoot dry mass the variety is suggested to be classified as Zn accumulator. PMID:23669138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22480709"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in Salix viminalis L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Cannabina' morphology and physiology in response to nickel ions--hydroponic investigations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Drzewiecka, Kinga; Mleczek, Miros?aw; G?secka, Monika; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goli?ski, Piotr</p> <p>2012-05-30</p> <p>The aim of the study was to assess the ability of 'basket willow' to bioaccumulate nickel with simultaneous analysis of biomass parameters and biomarkers of plants physiological reaction to the metal. Cuttings of Salix viminalis L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Cannabina' were cultivated in Knop's medium containing nickel at 0-3mM stabilized with quartz sand. Higher nickel contents were observed in Salix rods and roots (~15), and lower for leaves and shoots (~3 mg kg(-1)DW) after 14 days at 3 mM Ni. The strongest inhibition was observed for root biomass, weaker for shoot, root and leaf elongation, and the weakest for the photosynthetic area (4, 24, 36, 55 and 70% of control, respectively). Soluble carbohydrates in leaves reached 340% of control at 3.0mM Ni. Phenolics content increased four-fold at 3mM Ni versus control, while salicylic acid content at 2.5 mM Ni was nearly 68 times higher than for Ni-untreated plants. The exudation of low molecular weight organic acids increased from ~40 to 130 ?M kg(-1)DW at 3 mM. The investigated cultivar exhibits sufficient resistance to nickel and can be cultivated at heavily contaminated sites. Nevertheless, strong inhibition of plant growth was observed resulting probably from Ni-induced disturbances in nutrient uptake accompanied by oxidative stress. PMID:22480709</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617319','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617319"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martnez-Lscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Snchez-Daz, M; Goms, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. PMID:25617319</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11785974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11785974"><span id="translatedtitle">A new antifungal protein and a chitinase with prominent macrophage-stimulating activity from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. pinto.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, X Y; Ng, T B</p> <p>2002-01-18</p> <p>From the seeds of the pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris <span class="hlt">cv</span>. pinto), a chitinase and a novel antifungal protein, both with the ability of markedly augmenting nitrite production by murine peritoneal macrophages, were isolated. The antifungal proteins, designated phasein A and phasein B, exhibited molecular weights of 28 and 32 kDa, respectively. Phaseins A and B were adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and were eluted as adjacent peaks from CM-Sepharose. Phasein A demonstrated potent antifungal activity toward Fusarium oxysporum and Physalospora piricola. Phasein B was more potent than phasein A toward P. piricola but less potent than phasein A toward F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Both antifungal proteins inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, with phasein B being more potent. Nitrite production by mouse macrophages was greatly boosted in the presence of both phaseins A and B, although the effect of phasein A was more prominent. The bioactivities of phaseins were in general potent compared with those of other antifungal proteins. PMID:11785974</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323399"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>zelam, H; K?rkp?nar, F; Tan, K</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JAP....54.1383K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983JAP....54.1383K"><span id="translatedtitle">I-V and <span class="hlt">C-V</span> studies of evaporated amorphous arsenic telluride film on crystalline silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krupanidhi, S. B.; Srivastava, R. K.; Srinivas, K.; Bhattacharya, D. K.; Mansingh, Abhai</p> <p>1983-03-01</p> <p>The I-V characteristics of amorphous arsenic telluride (As2Te3) thin film on single-crystalline silicon substrates exhibit similarity with the characteristics of a heterojunction formed between crystalline semiconductors and the carrier transport, which involves more than one conduction mechanism at the interface. The recombination, tunnelling, and space-charge-limited carrier transport takes place at the interface successively, depending on the magnitude of the applied voltage. The heterojunction properties dominate at lower voltages (below 1 V), while at the higher voltages, the I-V characteristic is determined by the As2Te3 film. The temperature-dependent I-V characteristics confirm the formation of a heterojunction at the silicon-As2Te3 (film) interface. The built-in potential evaluated from the I-V characteristics (0.2 V) agrees well with the observed open-circuit photovoltage Voc. Contrary to the I-V characteristics, the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics resemble the characteristics of a conventional metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure. This can be qualitatively explained by assuming the heterojunction to have a low breakdown potential (1.0 V), and the junction barrier capacitance in the breakdown region to be higher than either the film or the depletion capacitance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GeCoA..60.4265H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996GeCoA..60.4265H"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrography and chemistry of fine-grained dark rims in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite: Evidence for an accretionary origin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hua, Xin; Zinner, Ernst K.; Buseck, Peter R.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>The matrix and fine-grained dark rims (FGDRs) around a type-A Ca-, Al-rich inclusion (CAI) and a silicate aggregate in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite differ in their major, minor, and trace element abundances. The matrix contains more Nb, Sr, Ba, and V but less Ca than average CI chondrite and has an unfractionated rare earth element (REE) pattern. The two FGDRs are enriched in Na, Al, K, and Ti and depleted in Fe and Mn compared to the matrix. The rim surrounding the CAI is enriched in Hf, Y, and Sc relative to the matrix and has a REE pattern that reflects a complex history. The rim surrounding the silicate aggregate has a REE pattern that suggests a different history and, additionally, is complementary to those of the enclosed enstatite and mesostasis glass. The trace element abundances indicate that Mokoia FGDRs are a mixture of components derived from both high- and low-temperature processes, while the matrix consists of only relatively low-temperature materials. These FGDRs in Mokoia have an accretionary origin and were derived from multiple dust reservoirs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088899&hterms=ambient&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dambient','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088899&hterms=ambient&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dambient"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen balance for wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Veery 10) grown under elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Bloom, A. J.; Bugbee, B. B.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We examined the hypothesis that elevated CO2 concentration would increase NO3- absorption and assimilation using intact wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Veery 10). Nitrate consumption, the sum of plant absorption and nitrogen loss, was continuously monitored for 23 d following germination under two CO2 concentrations (360 and 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2) and two root zone NO3- concentrations (100 and 1000 mmol m3 NO3-). The plants were grown at high density (1780 m-2) in a 28 m3 controlled environment chamber using solution culture techniques. Wheat responded to 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 by increasing carbon allocation to root biomass production. Elevated CO2 also increased root zone NO3- consumption, but most of this increase did not result in higher biomass nitrogen. Rather, nitrogen loss accounted for the greatest part of the difference in NO3- consumption between the elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. The total amount of NO3(-)-N absorbed by roots or the amount of NO3(-)-N assimilated per unit area did not significantly differ between elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. Instead, specific leaf organic nitrogen content declined, and NO3- accumulated in canopies growing under 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2. Our results indicated that 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 diminished NO3- assimilation. If NO3- assimilation were impaired by high [CO2], then this offers an explanation for why organic nitrogen contents are often observed to decline in elevated [CO2] environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726943','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726943"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of silver nanoparticles on rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. KDML 105) seed germination and seedling growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thuesombat, Pakvirun; Hannongbua, Supot; Akasit, Sanong; Chadchawan, Supachitra</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>With the advances in nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been applied in many industries, increasing their potential exposure level in the environment, yet their environmental safety remains poorly evaluated. The possible effects of different sized AgNPs (20, 30-60, 70-120 and 150nm diameter) on jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. KDML 105, were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000mg/L) upon seed germination and seedling growth. The results revealed that the level of seed germination and subsequent growth of those seedlings that germinated were both decreased with increasing sizes and concentrations of AgNPs. Based on the analysis of AgNPs accumulation in plant tissues, it implied that the higher uptake was found when the seeds were treated with the smaller AgNPs, 20nm diameter AgNPs, but it was trapped in the roots rather than transported to the leaves. These resulted in the less negative effects on seedling growth, when compared to the seed soaking with the larger AgNPs with 150nm diameter. The negative effects of AgNPs were supported by leaf cell deformation when rice seeds were treated with 150-nm-diameter AgNP at the concentration of 10 or 100mg/L during seed germination. These results further strengthen our understanding of environmental safety information with respect to nanomaterials. PMID:24726943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26447635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26447635"><span id="translatedtitle">Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata <span class="hlt">cv</span>. chachiensis) Juice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090132&hterms=embryo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dembryo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090132&hterms=embryo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dembryo"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Waldmann's Green seeds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26008699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26008699"><span id="translatedtitle">Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C; Daz-Pendn, Juan A; Fonseca, Maria Esther N; Boiteux, Leonardo S; Fernndez-Muoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Resende, Renato O</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL), a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread. PMID:26008699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624261','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624261"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual <span class="hlt">cv</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reboredo-Rodrguez, P; Gonzlez-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gndara, J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual <span class="hlt">cv</span>.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio. PMID:25624261</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596559"><span id="translatedtitle">Empiric mathematical model for predicting the content of alpha-acids in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aurora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sre?ec, Sinia; Ceh, Barbara; Ciler, Tanja Savi?; Rus, Alenka Ferle</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this research is to find a simple mathematical model due to sum of effective temperatures and rainfalls from second germination after spring pruning till the technological maturity of hop cones, in order to achieve reliable prognosis of alpha-acids content in hop <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aurora. After mathematical analyses of experimental data by Eurequa Formulize 0.96 Beta software 17 equations were offered, and after substituting the values of dependent and independent variables in all equations only one equation was chosen with p?=?0.034 (p<0.05). This equation is not reliable in extremely drought year if crop evapotranspiration ET0 in July is higher than 4.5, primarily because of negative influence on formation and development of hop glandular trichomes. Considering achieved results it is possible to suggest following general equation for alpha-acids accumulation in hop: y?=?[(k 1w)?-?k 2?-?(k 3w (2))/x]??(-10)???ET 0July ???4.5. Where y is alpha acids content in dry matter (%), x?=?sum of effective temperatures and w?=?sum of rainfals, both from second germination after spring pruning till technological maturity of hop cones. Coefficients k 1 , k 2 and k 3 are determined for cultivar Aurora (53.8, 453 and 1.33, respectively). PMID:23596559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6936497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6936497"><span id="translatedtitle">Early inhibition of photosynthesis during development of Mn toxicity in tobacco. [Nicotiana tabacum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> KY14</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nable, R.O.; Houtz, R.L.; Cheniae, G.M. )</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>Early physiological effects of developing Mn toxicity in young leaves of burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> KY 14) were examined in glass-house/water cultured plants grown at high (summer) and low (winter) photon flux. Following transfer of plants to solutions containing 1 millimolar Mn{sup 2+}, sequential samplings were made at various times for the following 9 days, during which Mn accumulation by leaves increased rapidly from {approx} 70 on day 0 to {approx} 1700 and {approx} 5000 microgram per gram dry matter after 1 and 9 days, respectively. In plants grown at high photon flux, net photosynthesis declined by {approx} 20 and {approx} 60% after 1 and 9 days, respectively, and the onset of this decline preceded appearance (after 3 to 4 days) of visible foliar symptoms of Mn toxicity. Intercellular CO{sub 2} concentrations and rates of transpiration were not significantly affected. Though the activity of latent or activated polyphenol oxidase increased in parallel with Mn accumulation, neither leaf respiration nor the activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.10.1.7) were greatly affected. These effects from Mn toxicity could not be explained by any changes in protein or chlorophyll abundance. Additionally, they were not a consequence of Mn induced Fe deficiency. Therefore, inhibition of net photosynthesis and enhancement of polyphenol oxidase activity are early indicators of excess Mn accumulation in tobacco leaves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19822229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19822229"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes of defense proteins in the extracellular proteome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Gamay) cell cultures in response to elicitors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martinez-Esteso, M J; Sellés-Marchart, S; Vera-Urbina, J C; Pedreño, M A; Bru-Martinez, R</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>In plant cells, elicitors induce defense responses that resemble those triggered by pathogen attack, such as the synthesis of phytoalexins and pathogen-related proteins which accumulate in the extracellular space. In the search for the particular proteins involved in defense responses, we investigated the changes in the extracellular proteome of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Gamay) cell suspension in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Twenty-five of the 39 spots differentially expressed in 2-D gels were identified and found to be encoded by 10 different genes: three secretory peroxidases, chitinase-III, beta-1,3-glucanase, thaumatin-like, SGNH plant lipase-like, NtPR27-like, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase and subtilisin-like protease. Most of them belong to the pathogenesis-related type proteins. A new class III secretory basic peroxidase and chitinase III were strongly induced in cultures treated with MBCD alone or combined with MeJA, while cultures treated with MeJA alone displayed a general repression of most of the extracellular proteins. Some of the proteins induced in grapevine cell cultures by MBCD are induced in other species by activators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a form of plant immunity. Collectively, the results suggest that treatment with MBCD resembles the effect of SAR induction agents in cell cultures. PMID:19822229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12231811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12231811"><span id="translatedtitle">Purification and Characterization of Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase from Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Muscat de Frontignan Cell Cultures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clastre, M.; Bantignies, B.; Feron, G.; Soler, E.; Ambid, C.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>A geranyl diphosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.1), which catalyzes the formation of geranyl diphosphate from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, was isolated from Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Muscat de Frontignan cell cultures. Purification of the enzyme was achieved successively by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxylapatite, Mono Q, Phenyl Superose, Superose 12, and preparative nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme formed only geranyl diphosphate as a product. In all cases, neither neryl diphosphate, the cis isomer, nor farnesyl diphosphate was detected. The enzyme showed a native molecular mass of 68 [plus or minus] 5 kD as determined by gel permeation. On sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, geranyl diphosphate synthase purified to electrophoretic homogeneity migrated with a molecular mass of 66 [plus or minus] 2 kD. Michaelis constants for isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate were 8.5 and 56.8 [mu]M, respectively. The enzyme required Mn2+ and Mg2+ as cofactors and its activity was enhanced by Triton X-100. Inorganic pyrophosphate, aminophenylethyl diphosphate, and geranyl diphosphate had inhibitory effects on the enzyme. PMID:12231811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429238"><span id="translatedtitle">Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>.'Tropic Sun').</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Joy, Robert J; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E</p> <p>2012-04-11</p> <p>Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Tropic Sun') is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of 'Tropic Sun' were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems, and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid contents of the roots, stems, and leaves of immature plants were estimated to be 0.05, 0.12, and 0.01% w/w, respectively, whereas seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w. PMID:22429238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3366594','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3366594"><span id="translatedtitle">Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids, Including Monoesters with an Unusual Esterifying Acid, from Cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>.Tropic Sun)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Colegate, Steven M.; Gardner, Dale R.; Joy, Robert J.; Betz, Joseph M.; Panter, Kip E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tropic Sun) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves and seeds of Tropic Sun were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid content of the roots, stems, leaves of immature plants was estimated to be 0.05, 0.12 and 0.01% w/w respectively while seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w. PMID:22429238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4554849','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4554849"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Özelçam, H.; Kırkpınar, F.; Tan, K.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Msngr..48Q..55.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Msngr..48Q..55."><span id="translatedtitle">Tiempo <span class="hlt">para</span> un cambio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woltjer, L.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo <span class="hlt">para</span> otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria <span class="hlt">para</span> el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha <span class="hlt">para</span> que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26471557"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck <span class="hlt">cv</span> «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JAP....61..643R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JAP....61..643R"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of valence and conduction-band discontinuities at the (Ga,In) P/GaAs heterojunction by <span class="hlt">C-V</span> profiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rao, M. A.; Caine, E. J.; Kroemer, H.; Long, S. I.; Babic, D. I.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The valence and conduction band discontinuities for the lattice matched (Ga,In)P/GaAs heterojunction have been determined by capacitance-voltage (<span class="hlt">C-V</span>) profiling. Both p-p and n-n heterojunctions were profiled, in order to obtain separate and independent values for both the valence-band-edge discontinuity (?Ev) and the conduction-band discontinuity (?Ec). The band lineup is found to be of the straddling type with the valence- and conduction-band discontinuities 0.24 and 0.22 eV, respectively, with an estimated accuracy of 10 meV. Computer reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> profiles was used to check the consistency of the data. The band offset data indicate that the (Ga,In)P/(Al,Ga)As system should be staggered for a certain range of Al compositions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236983','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236983"><span id="translatedtitle">The CC-V Flap: A Novel Technique for Augmenting a <span class="hlt">C-V</span> Nipple Reconstruction Using a Free Dermal Graft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elizabeth Clark, Sarah; Turton, EPL</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND We present a novel method for augmenting the standard <span class="hlt">C-V</span> flap used for nipple reconstruction with a free dermal graft which aims to improve the appearance of the nipple reconstruction, decrease loss of projection and improve patient satisfaction overall. METHODS The surgical technique for performing a free dermal graft augmentation of a <span class="hlt">CV</span> flap is described. All patients who underwent this technique between February 2009 and January 2012 at our unit were contacted by telephone, questioned about any complications and asked to rate their satisfaction with the technique. RESULTS In a series of 18 nipple reconstructions, there were no immediate post-operative complications and long term follow up shows that that this technique achieves high patient satisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS The CC-V flap is a safe technique which scores highly with patients for cosmetic appearance after long term follow up. PMID:25489517</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1399..377N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1399..377N"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of thermal annealing on <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics of GaAs/AlAs Schottky diodes with embedded Al particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noda, T.; Mitsuishi, K.; Mano, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We investigated effects of thermal annealing on the capacitance-voltage (<span class="hlt">C-V</span>) characteristics of GaAs/AlAs Schottky diodes in which Al particles had been embedded in the GaAs layers. Annealing was performed at temperatures ranging from 620 to 750 C. It was found that the plateau and hysteresis observed in an as-grown sample gradually smeared with an increase in annealing temperature, implying that the trapping effect of electrons disappeared due to thermal annealing. Energy-filtered images of the sample annealed at 750 C showed that an arsenic signal was detected in the layer that contained the Al particles. Thus, the change of <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics was presumably due to a structural change of Al, probably the formation of an Al and As compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJP..130...80O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJP..130...80O"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of series and parallel resistances on the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omar, Rejaiba; Mohamed, Ben Amar; Adel, Matoussi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the electrical behavior of the Al/SiO2/Si MOS structure. We have used the complex admittance method to develop an analytical model of total capacitance applied to our proposed equivalent circuit. The charge density, surface potential, semiconductor capacitance, flatband and threshold voltages have been determined by resolving the Poisson transport equations. This modeling is used to predict in particular the effects of frequency, parallel and series resistance on the capacitance-voltage characteristic. Results show that the variation of both frequency and parallel resistance causes strong dispersion of the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> curves in the inversion regime. It also reveals that the series resistance influences the shape of <span class="hlt">C-V</span> curves essentially in accumulation and inversion modes. A significant decrease of the accumulation capacitance is observed when R s increases in the range 200-50000 ?. The degradation of the <span class="hlt">C-V</span> magnitude is found to be more pronounced when the series resistance depends on the substrate doping density. When R s varies in the range 100 ?-50 k?, it shows a decrease in the flatband voltage from -1.40 to -1.26 V and an increase in the threshold voltage negatively from -0.28 to -0.74 V, respectively. Good agreement has been observed between simulated and measured <span class="hlt">C-V</span> curves obtained at high frequency. This study is necessary to control the adverse effects that disrupt the operation of the MOS structure in different regimes and optimizes the efficiency of such electronic device before manufacturing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HMT....51.1219B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HMT....51.1219B"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of silver nanoparticles contained in ethanol as a working fluid in an oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (CLOHP/<span class="hlt">CV</span>): a thermodynamic behaviour study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This research focused on the thermal behaviour of oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (CLOHP/<span class="hlt">CV</span>). The CLOHP/<span class="hlt">CV</span> was made from a copper capillary tube with an internal diameter of 2.03 mm, 40 turns, and 2 check valves. The CLOHP/<span class="hlt">CV</span> had three sections: the evaporator and adiabatic condenser of a length of 50, 100, and 150 mm. The angles of inclinations were 90, 80, 60, 40, 20 and 0 at normal operating conditions. The two working fluids were an ethanol and silver nanoparticles concentration of 0.5 wt% contained in the ethanol ( NE). The filling ratio was 50 % with respect to the total volume of the tube. The operating temperature ( T w ) was 45, 65, 85, 105, 125 and 150 C. The results of the study showed that the heat flux increased significantly when the operating temperature increased, and the heat flux increased when the L e decreased from 150 to 50 mm. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of CLOHP/<span class="hlt">CV</span> showed the highest heat flux of 2,012.63 W/m2 at L e of 50, with an angle of inclination of 90 and operating temperature of 150 C with NE. The behaviour of 0.5 wt% of silver nanoparticles contained in the ethanol produced a good contact angle. The 0.5 wt% of silver nanoparticles decreased the wet ability, thus increasing the thermal behaviour. The optimum concentration for the addition of silver nanoparticles in the working fluid was 0.5 wt%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325002"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of an LC-MS/MS method for malachite green (MG), leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in fish and shrimp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ascari, Jociani; Dracz, Sérgio; Santos, Flávio A; Lima, J A; Diniz, Maria Helena G; Vargas, Eugênia A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analyses of malachite green (MG), crystal violet (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) and its major metabolites, leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in fish and shrimp samples has been validated. Fish and shrimp samples were extracted with citrate buffer/acetonitrile, and the extracts were purified on strong cation-exchange (SCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. After conversion of LMG into MG using a post column oxidation reactor containing lead (IV) oxide (PbO(2)), the effluents were analysed. Residues were analysed using positive-ion electrospray ionisation (ESI). Identification and quantification of analytes were based on the ion transitions monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Validation of the method was carried out in accordance with the Decision 2002/657/EC, which establishes criteria and procedures for the validation of methods. The following parameters were determined: decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, specificity and matrix effect. The decision limits (CCα) for MG, LMG, <span class="hlt">CV</span> and LCV were 0.164, 0.161, 0.248 and 0.860 µg kg(-1). The respective detection capabilities (CCβ) were 0.222, 0.218, 0.355 and 1.162 µg kg(-1). Typical recoveries (intermediate precision) in shrimp, for MG, <span class="hlt">CV</span>, LMG and LCV for 2.0 µg kg(-1) level fortified samples using the optimised procedure were in the range 69%, 97%, 80.3% and 71.8%, respectively. The findings demonstrate the suitability of the method to detect simultaneously MG, <span class="hlt">CV</span> and its metabolite (LMG and LCV) in fish and shrimp. PMID:22325002</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36..629K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001M%26PS...36..629K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineralogy and petrography of amoeboid olivine aggregates from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites Efremovka, Leoville and Vigarano: Products of nebular condensation, accretion and annealing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Komatsu, Mutsumi; Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev, Mikhail I.; Ulyanov, Alexander A.; Keil, Klaus; Miyamoto, Masamichi</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites Efremovka, Leoville and Vigarano are irregularly-shaped objects, up to 5 mm in size, composed of forsteritic olivine (Fa<10) and a refractory, Ca,Al-rich component. The AOAs are depleted in moderately volatile elements (Mn, Cr, Na, K), Fe,Ni-metal and sulfides and contain no low-Ca pyroxene. The refractory component consists of fine-grained Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) composed of Al-diopside, anorthite (An100), and magnesium-rich spinel (~1 wt% FeO) or fine-grained intergrowths of these minerals; secondary nepheline and sodalite are very minor. This indicates that AOAs from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites are more pristine than those from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites Allende and Mokoia. Although AOAs from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites show evidence for high temperature nebular annealing (e.g., forsterite grain boundaries form 120 deg triple junctions) and possibly a minor degree of melting of Al-diopside-anorthite materials, none of the AOAs studied appear to have experienced extensive (>50%) melting. We infer that AOAs are aggregates of high temperature nebular condensates, which formed in CAI-forming regions, and that they were absent from chondrule-forming regions at the time of chondrule formation. The absence of low-Ca pyroxene and depletion in moderately volatile elements (Mn, Cr, Na, K) suggest that AOAs were either removed from CAI-forming regions prior to condensation of these elements and low-Ca pyroxene or gas-solid condensation of low-Ca-pyroxene was kinetically inhibited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657624','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4657624"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrography, stable isotope compositions, microRaman spectroscopy, and presolar components of Roberts Massif 04133: A reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davidson, Jemma; Schrader, Devin L; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Lauretta, Dante S; Busemann, Henner; Franchi, Ian A; Greenwood, Richard C; Connolly, Harold C; Domanik, Kenneth J; Verchovsky, Alexander</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Here, we report the mineralogy, petrography, C-N-O-stable isotope compositions, degree of disorder of organic matter, and abundances of presolar components of the chondrite Roberts Massif (RBT) 04133 using a coordinated, multitechnique approach. The results of this study are inconsistent with its initial classification as a Renazzo-like carbonaceous chondrite, and strongly support RBT 04133 being a brecciated, reduced petrologic type >3.3 Vigarano-like carbonaceous (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) chondrite. RBT 04133 shows no evidence for aqueous alteration. However, it is mildly thermally altered (up to approximately 440 °C); which is apparent in its whole-rock C and N isotopic compositions, the degree of disorder of C in insoluble organic matter, low presolar grain abundances, minor element compositions of Fe,Ni metal, chromite compositions and morphologies, and the presence of unequilibrated silicates. Sulfides within type I chondrules from RBT 04133 appear to be pre-accretionary (i.e., did not form via aqueous alteration), providing further evidence that some sulfide minerals formed prior to accretion of the <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite parent body. The thin section studied contains two reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 lithologies, one of which appears to be more thermally metamorphosed, indicating that RBT 04133, like several other <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites, is a breccia and thus experienced impact processing. Linear foliation of chondrules was not observed implying that RBT 04133 did not experience high velocity impacts that could lead to extensive thermal metamorphism. Presolar silicates are still present in RBT 04133, although presolar SiC grain abundances are very low, indicating that the progressive destruction or modification of presolar SiC grains begins before presolar silicate grains are completely unidentifiable. PMID:26640360</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhL..30g7306Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhL..30g7306Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">CV</span> and G/?V Electrical Characteristics of 60Co ?-Ray Irradiated Al/Si3N4/p-Si (MIS) Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeyrek, S.; Turan, A.; M. Blbl, M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The influence of 60Co (?-ray) irradiation on the electrical characteristics of Al/Si3N4/p-Si (MIS) structures is investigated using capacitance-voltage (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) and conductance-voltage (G/?V) measurements. The MIS structures are exposed to a 60Co ? radiation source at a dose of 0.7 kGy/h, with a total dose range of 0-100 kGy. The <span class="hlt">CV</span> and G/?V properties are measured before and after 60Co ?-ray irradiation at 500 kHz and room temperature. It is found that the capacitance and conductance values decrease with the increase in the total dose due to the irradiation-induced defects at the interface. The results also indicate that ? radiation causes an increase in the barrier height ?B, Fermi energy EF and depletion layer width WD. The interface state density (Nss), using the Hill-Coleman method and dependent on radiation dose, is determined from the <span class="hlt">CV</span> and G/?V measurements and decreases with an increase in the radiation dose. The decrease in the interface states can be attributed to the decrease in the recombination centers and the passivation of the Si surface due to the deposition insulator layer (Si3N4). In addition, it is clear that the acceptor concentration NA decreases with increasing radiation dose. The profile of series resistance Rs for various radiation doses is obtained from forward and reverse-biased <span class="hlt">CV</span> and G/?V measurements, and its values decrease with increasing radiation dose, while it increases with increasing voltage in the accumulation region</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630410"><span id="translatedtitle">ICP OES and <span class="hlt">CV</span> AAS in determination of mercury in an unusual fatal case of long-term exposure to elemental mercury in a teenager.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lech, Teresa</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In this work, a case of deliberate self-poisoning is presented. A 14-year-old girl suddenly died during one of the several hospitalizations. Abdominal computer tomography showed a large number of metallic particles in the large intestine. Analysis of blood and internal organs for mercury and other toxic metals carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) revealed high concentrations of mercury in kidneys and liver (64,200 and 2470ng/g, respectively), less in stomach (90ng/g), and none in blood. Using cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span> AAS), high levels of mercury were confirmed in all examined materials, including blood (87ng/g), and additionally in hair. The results of analysis obtained by two techniques revealed that the exposure to mercury was considerable (some time later, it was stated that the mercury originated from thermometers that had been broken over the course of about 1 year, because of Mnchausen syndrome). <span class="hlt">CV</span> AAS is a more sensitive technique, particularly for blood samples (negative results using ICP OES), and tissue samples - with LOQ: 0.63ng/g of Hg (<span class="hlt">CV</span> AAS) vis--vis 70ng/g of Hg (ICP OES). However, ICP OES may be used as a screening technique for autopsy material in acute poisoning by a heavy metal, even one as volatile as mercury. PMID:24630410</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110893&hterms=PGC&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPGC','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110893&hterms=PGC&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPGC"><span id="translatedtitle">HRTEM and EFTEM Observations of Matrix in the Oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Chondrite ALH 84028: Implications for the Origins of Matrix Olivines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abreu, Neyda M.; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The determination of the nature, distribution, and origin of organic material in carbonaceous chondrites is fundamental to understanding early solar nebular conditions and the origin of life. Using a variety of extraction techniques, followed by detailed chemical analysis, an extensive suite of organic compounds has been identified in carbonaceous chondrites. These data have provided key information on the diversity and isotopic composition of the organic component in chondrites. However, one disadvantage of extraction techniques is that all information regarding the spatial distribution of the organics on a fine scale is lost. This is especially important for the insoluble macromolecular carbon, which constitutes approximately 70% of the carbon in carbonaceous chondrites such as Murchison. The distribution and mineralogical associations may provide important constraints on the possible origins of the carbonaceous material. Our previous studies of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites Allende and Vigarano have demonstrated that energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), combined with high resolution TEM (HRTEM) are powerful tools for the in situ characterization of insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites. In this study, we have used SEM and TEM techniques to characterize the matrix mineralogy of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite ALH 84028 and examine the distribution and mineralogical associations of carbon. We are especially interested in establishing whether the occurrence of poorly graphitized carbon (PGC), observed in Allende matrix olivines, is common to all oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites or is a unique feature of Allende.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhA.108..629A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhA.108..629A"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative analysis of the energy levels of planar and core-twisted perylene bisimides in solution and solid state by UV/VIS, <span class="hlt">CV</span>, and UPS/IPES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arantes, C.; Scholz, M.; Schmidt, R.; Dehm, V.; Rocco, M. L. M.; Schll, A.; Reinert, F.; Wrthner, F.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The frontier orbital energies of four different functionalized perylene bisimide derivatives, PBI-Ph(iPr)2, PBI-H4, PBI-F2 and PBI-Cl4, were directly determined by UV-photo electron spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photo electron spectroscopy (IPES) and are compared to the results from cyclic voltammetry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) and optical absorption spectroscopy (UV/VIS). The optical spectra reveal significant differences between monomeric species in solution and assembled molecules in the condensed state for the nearly planar PBI-H4 and PBI-F2, which are attributed to significant ?- ? stacking interactions in the condensed phase. In contrast, for PBIs with bulky substituents or twisted core, i.e. 2,6-isopropylphenyl substituents at the imide positions (PBI-Ph(iPr)2) or four chlorine substituents at perylene bay positions (PBI-Cl4), similar spectra are observed in solution and in the condensed state, which suggests the absence of strong intermolecular ?- ? stacking interactions. An entirely different result is obtained for the HOMO/LUMO energy values obtained from UPS/IPES and <span class="hlt">CV</span> measurements which do not reveal a significant impact of intermolecular ?- ? stacking interactions. When comparing <span class="hlt">CV</span> and UPS/IPES results, an accentuated deviation was observed for the perylene bisimide derivatives as compared to correlations found in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23584021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23584021"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteins involved in distinct phases of cold hardening process in frost resistant winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span> Luxor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hlav?kov, Iva; Vtmvs, Pavel; Santr??ek, Ji?; Kosov, Klra; Zelenkov, Sylva; Pril, Ilja Tom; Ovesn, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kod?ek, Milan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600-700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and "enhanced disease susceptibility 1" in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley. PMID:23584021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ThApC..72..245E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002ThApC..72..245E"><span id="translatedtitle">Microclimatological characteristics of a miscanthus (Miscanthus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. giganteus) stand during stable conditionsat night in the nonvegetative winter period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eitzinger, J.; Kössler, Ch.</p> <p></p> <p>Microclimatological data obtained during a field experiment in the nongrowing winter period were used to study the microclimatologically stable night conditions of a 200×150m miscanthus (Miscanthus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. giganteus) stand and compared to open field conditions. The microclimatological pattern within the miscanthus canopy was characterized by long-wave radiative cooling of the plant stand and by an established temperature inversion within the canopy at calm nights. The results show that there are significant differences in air temperature and energy balance components between the open field and the miscanthus field during calm and clear nights. In general, net radiation difference during the cold and calm nights was relatively constant and about 20Wm-2 less negative in miscanthus (because of lower surface temperatures) than at the open field. Air temperature differences also remained fairly constant and were up to 3°C lower than at the open field (at the height of 1m). Through thermal inversion cold air accumulated in the lower parts of the canopy as shown by the vertical air temperature profiles. They showed a greater amplitude within the diurnal cycle in the miscanthus stand than in the open field. Through the onset of wind, temperature profiles changed rapidly and differences diminished. Vertical katabatic air drainage into the canopy layers was estimated indirectly by using the energy balance approach. It was calculated from the significant energy balance closure gap and showed a mean air exchange rate of up to 22m3m-2h-1, related to a stand volume of 1m2 area and 4m height, during the mostly calm and clear nights, depending on the canopy net radiation and turbulent heat exchange forced by slight wind spells. Quantitative uncertainties in calculated cold air drainage which are introduced by the measurement method and certain assumptions in the calculations, were considered in a sensitivity analysis. In spite of these uncertainties evidence of katabatic cold air flow is given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852660','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852660"><span id="translatedtitle">Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Stewart) with improved efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>He, Y.; Jones, H. D.; Chen, S.; Chen, X. M.; Wang, D. W.; Li, K. X.; Wang, D. S.; Xia, L. Q.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated durum wheat transformation system has been developed for the production of 121 independent transgenic lines. This improved system used Agrobacterium strain AGL1 containing the superbinary pGreen/pSoup vector system and durum wheat <span class="hlt">cv</span> Stewart as the recipient plant. Acetosyringone at 400??M was added to both the inoculation and cultivation medium, and picloram at 10?mg l?1 and 2?mg l?1 was used in the cultivation and induction medium, respectively. Compared with 200??M in the inoculation and cultivation media, the increased acetosyringone concentration led to significantly higher GUS (?-glucuronidase) transient expression and T-DNA delivery efficiency. However, no evident effects of acetosyringone concentration on regeneration frequency were observed. The higher acetosyringone concentration led to an improvement in average final transformation efficiency from 4.7% to 6.3%. Furthermore, the concentration of picloram in the co-cultivation medium had significant effects on callus induction and regeneration. Compared with 2?mg l?1 picloram in the co-cultivation medium, increasing the concentration to 10?mg l?1 picloram resulted in improved final transformation frequency from 2.8% to 6.3%, with the highest frequency of 12.3% reached in one particular experiment, although statistical analysis showed that this difference in final transformation efficiency had a low level of significance. Stable integration of foreign genes, their expression, and inheritance were confirmed by Southern blot analyses, GUS assay, and genetic analysis. Analysis of T1 progeny showed that, of the 31 transgenic lines randomly selected, nearly one-third had a segregation ratio of 3:1, while the remainder had ratios typical of two or three independently segregating loci. PMID:20202997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20190040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20190040"><span id="translatedtitle">A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Camps, Cline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Lon, Cline; Goms, Eric; Coutos-Thvenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14,500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S(+)R(+)), infected asymptomatic plants (S(-)R(+)), and healthy plants (S(-)R(-)). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S(+)R(+) plants compared with S(-)R(-) plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471475','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471475"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthesis and growth responses of mustard (Brassica juncea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pusa Bold) plants to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruhil, Kamal; Sheeba; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tripathy, Baishnab C</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Increased atmospheric [CO2] is likely to affect photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield potential of plants. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is an important oil seed crop that is widely grown in India. Therefore, the impact of elevated [CO2] (585 μmol mol(-1)) on pigment and protein content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic electron transport reactions, CO2 assimilation, biomass production, and seed yield potential was measured in B. juncea <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pusa Bold, grown inside free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) rings installed on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Plants were grown for three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013), in ambient (385 μmol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2], in field conditions. Elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on the minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (F 0), while the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, measured as variable fluorescence (F v = F m-F 0) to maximum fluoresence (F m), increased by 3 %. Electron transport rate, photosystem I, photosystem II, and whole chain electron transport rates increased by 8 % in elevated [CO2]. However, the net photosynthesis rate increased by ≈50 % in three growing seasons under elevated [CO2] condition. The stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. The photosynthesizing surface, i.e., leaf area index substantially increased leading to higher biomass and seed yield under elevated [CO2] condition. Acclimatory downregulation of photosynthesis and plant productivity was not observed in three consecutive growing years suggesting that in the absence of nutrient limitation, B. juncea is highly responsive to elevated CO2 whose yield potential shall increase in changing climatic conditions. PMID:25471475</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3549954','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3549954"><span id="translatedtitle">A Lectin with Highly Potent Inhibitory Activity toward Breast Cancer Cells from Edible Tubers of Dioscorea opposita <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nagaimo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita <span class="hlt">cv</span>. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC50 values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901204','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901204"><span id="translatedtitle">Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tizian) as affected by different soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26635304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26635304"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of fifteen NtabSPL genes in Nicotiana tabacum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Qinyan95.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Yao-Yao; Ma, Yan-Qin; Li, Dian-Zhen; Yao, Jing-Wen; Xu, Zi-Qin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Fifteen SPL (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) genes were identified and characterized in Nicotiana tabacum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Qinyan95. The exon-intron structures of these genes were determined according to the coding sequences confirmed by RT-PCR and the genomic DNA sequences downloaded from the databases in Sol Genomics Network, and thirteen of them were found to carry the response element of miR156. To elucidate the origin of the validated NtabSPL genes, multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences encompassing the open reading frames were conducted by using the orthologs in N. tabacum, Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, and Nicotiana otophora. The results showed that six NtabSPL genes were derived from a progenitor of N. sylvestris, and nine NtabSPL genes were derived from a progenitor of N. tomentosiformis, further corroborating that N. tabacum came from the interspecific hybridization between the ancestors of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. In contrast to previous statements about highly repetitive sequences, the genome of N. tabacum mainly retained the paternal-derived SPL genes in diploidization process. Phylogenetic analyses based on the highly conserved SBP (SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN) domains and the full-length amino acid sequences reveal that the SPL proteins of tobacco, tomato, and Arabidopsis can be categorized into eight groups. It is worth noting that N. tabacum contains seven NtabSPL6 genes originated from two parental genomes and NtabSPL6-2 possesses a GC-AG intron. In addition, transgenic tobacco plants harboring Arabidopsis Pri-miR156A were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method, and the constitutive expression of miR156 could obviously inhibit the activity of the NtabSPL genes containing its target site, suggesting the function of miR156 is conservative in tobacco and Arabidopsis. PMID:26635304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.137...18T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.137...18T"><span id="translatedtitle">Olivine-rich rims surrounding chondrules in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite: Further evidence for parent-body processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Fine-grained rims surrounding chondrules and inclusions in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite can be divided into phyllosilicate-rich and olivine-rich types. We present a petrographic and electron microscopic study of the olivine-rich rims and their host objects (referred to as chondrules/olivine-rich rims). The olivine-rich rims consist mainly of Fe-rich olivine and very minor phyllosilicate (saponite). Their host chondrules contain minor saponite and phlogopite, which resulted from aqueous alteration of anhydrous silicates. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of the chondrules/olivine-rich rims suggest that they experienced mild thermal metamorphic effects. The rims commonly contain veins of coarse-grained Fe-rich olivine, magnetite, and Fe-(Ni) sulfides. The chondrules show abundant evidence of alteration along their peripheries, and the alteration textures suggest a mechanism for rim formation by replacement of the chondrules. Initially, enstatite and opaque nodules preferentially reacted to form coarse, platy, Fe-rich olivine crystals, which were subsequently divided into finer grains. Forsterite was also replaced by Fe-rich olivine. As the alteration advanced, these Fe-rich olivines were disaggregated, mixed with simultaneously produced saponite, and formed rims. In contrast, the surrounding matrix shows no evidence of such alteration and metamorphism. These observations indicate that the chondrules/olivine-rich rims did not experience these secondary processes in their present setting. The results suggest that the chondrules/olivine-rich rims experienced extensive replacement reactions in an environment in which aqueous fluids existed but only in minor amounts. They have probably also undergone simultaneous and/or subsequent mild thermal metamorphism. We suggest that the chondrules/olivine-rich rims are actually clasts transported from a relatively dry region in the parent body that was different from the region where Mokoia was finally lithified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9633H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9633H"><span id="translatedtitle">FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 / ESA mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332321','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4332321"><span id="translatedtitle">Mango (Mangifera indica L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A.; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A.; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Kent” was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like “cell wall,” “carbohydrate catabolic process” and “starch and sucrose metabolic process” among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25102361"><span id="translatedtitle">Antioxidant activity and chemical components as potential anticancer agents in the olive leaf (Olea europaea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Leccino.) decoction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Nini, Antonella; Antenucci, Lina; Raimo, Gennaro; Iorizzi, Maria</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have shown that a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is correlated with a regular consumption of fruits and vegetable, many of which are rich in polyphenols. The additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in human body. Olea europaea L. leaf are rich in phenolic components, which have been proposed to play a role in cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the main components in the Olea europaea L. leaf (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Leccino) preserved during the decoction preparation, in order to delineate the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and its isolated compounds by using different in vitro assays including DPPH radicalscavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effect and the ability to delay the linoleic acid peroxidation process (ALP). The aqueous decoction was partitioned obtaining four extracts and the n-butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. Phytochemical investigation leads to the isolation of thirteen secondary metabolites including simple phenolics, flavonoids, secoiridoids whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. A significant free radical scavenging effect against DPPH has been evidenced in fraxamoside (1) (EC50 62.6 M) and taxifolin (5) (EC50 50.0 M), isolated for the first time from the water decoction. The most active compound in the TAC evaluation, was the 3,4 dihydro-phenyl glycol (8) (0.90 caffeic acid equiv.) while taxifolin and fraxamoside resulted as the most efficient inhibitors of XO activity (IC50 2.7 and 5.2 M, respectively). Secoxyloganin (4), oleuropein (2) and tyrosol (6) showed the highest ALP activity. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. PMID:25102361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741352','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25741352"><span id="translatedtitle">Mango (Mangifera indica L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp <span class="hlt">cv</span>. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ? 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26775737"><span id="translatedtitle">Anti-inflammatory coumarins with short- and long-chain hydrophobic groups from roots of Angelica dahurica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hangbaizhi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Wei; Wu, Xiu-Wen; Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The (1)H NMR-guided fractionation of a cyclohexane soluble portion of the 75% ethanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hangbaizhi led to the isolation of two coumarins, namely, 5-(3?-hydroxy-3?-methylbutyl)-8-hydroxyfuranocoumarin, and isobyakangelicin hydrate-3?-ethyl ether, and ten coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups, namely, andafocoumarins A-J. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of the C-2? secondary alcohols in ten of these compounds were deduced via the circular dichroism data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex, and oxidation reactions were utilized to determine location of the double bonds in the lipid chain of andafocoumarins H and I, respectively. The long-chain hydrophobic group of andafocoumarin J was determined by the method of chemical degradation and GC-MS analysis. It was the first time that coumarins with short- or long-chain hydrophobic groups in this plant had been comprehensively investigated. All isolates were assayed for their inhibitory effect against nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, among which andafocoumarins A and B exhibited a potent inhibition on LPS-activated NO production with IC50 values of 19.7 and 13.9?M, respectively, indicating their stronger inhibitory activity than l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (IC50=23.7?M), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:26775737</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5081085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5081085"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma membrane lipid alterations associated with cold acclimation of winter rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lynch, D.V.; Steponkus, P.L. )</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted > 50 mole % of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole % of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole %, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole % and 4 to 1 mole %, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free {beta}-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole % (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing {beta}-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h) were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815009','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815009"><span id="translatedtitle">PhDAHP1 is required for floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Petunia hybrida <span class="hlt">cv</span> 'Mitchell Diploid'.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Langer, Kelly M; Jones, Correy R; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Rushing, Gabrielle V; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis consists of numerous enzymatic and regulatory processes. The initial enzymatic step bridging primary metabolism to secondary metabolism is the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) carried out via 3-DEOXY-D-ARABINO-HEPTULOSONATE-7-PHOSPHATE (DAHP) synthase. Here, identified, cloned, localized, and functionally characterized were two DAHP synthases from the model plant species Petunia hybrida <span class="hlt">cv</span> 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD). Full-length transcript sequences for PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 were identified and cloned using cDNA SMART libraries constructed from pooled MD corolla and leaf total RNA. Predicted amino acid sequence of PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins were 76% and 80% identical to AtDAHP1 and AtDAHP2 from Arabidopsis, respectively. PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to relatively highest levels in petal limb and tube tissues, while PhDAHP2 accumulated to highest levels in leaf and stem tissues. Through floral development, PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to highest levels during open flower stages, and PhDAHP2 transcript remained constitutive throughout. Radiolabeled PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins localized to plastids, however, PhDAHP2 localization appeared less efficient. PhDAHP1 RNAi knockdown petunia lines were reduced in total FVBP emission compared to MD, while PhDAHP2 RNAi lines emitted 'wildtype' FVBP levels. These results demonstrate that PhDAHP1 is the principal DAHP synthase protein responsible for the coupling of metabolites from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism, and the ultimate biosynthesis of FVBPs in the MD flower. PMID:24815009</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18206777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18206777"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbiological and biochemical profile of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Conservolea naturally black olives during controlled fermentation with selected strains of lactic acid bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Panagou, Efstathios Z; Schillinger, Ulrich; Franz, Charles M A P; Nychas, George-John E</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The effect of controlled fermentation processes on the microbial association and biochemical profile of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Conservolea naturally black olives processed by the traditional anaerobic method was studied. The different treatments included (a) inoculation with a commercial starter culture of Lactobacillus pentosus, (b) inoculation with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a fermented cassava product and (c) uninoculated spontaneous process. Microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity, organic acids and volatile compounds were monitored throughout the fermentation. The initial microbiota consisted of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria was evident in all processes. Both starter cultures were effective in establishing an accelerated fermentation process and reduced the survival period of Gram-negative bacteria by 5 days compared with the spontaneous process, minimizing thus the likelihood of spoilage. Higher acidification of the brines was observed in inoculated processes without any significant difference between the two selected starter cultures (113.5 and 117.6mM for L. plantarum and L. pentosus, respectively). L. pentosus was also determined as the major species present during the whole process of spontaneous olive fermentation. It is characteristic that lactic acid fermentation was also initiated rapidly in the spontaneous process, as the conditions of fermentation, mainly the low salt level (6%, w/v) favored the dominance of lactic acid bacteria over yeasts. Lactic, acetic and propionic were the organic acids detected by HPLC in considerable amounts, whereas citric and malic acids were also present at low levels and degraded completely during the processes. Ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate were the major volatile compounds identified by GC. Their concentrations varied among the different treatments, reflecting varying degrees of microbial activity in the brines. The results obtained from this study could help the Greek table olive industry to improve the existing processing schemes in order to increase product consistency and quality expanding the international market for naturally black olives. PMID:18206777</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852663','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852663"><span id="translatedtitle">A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14 500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056446','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056446"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasma Membrane Lipid Alterations Associated with Cold Acclimation of Winter Rye Seedlings (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lynch, Daniel V.; Steponkus, Peter L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted >50 mole% of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole% of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole%, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole% and 4 to 1 mole%, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free ?-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole% (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing ?-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole% of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h), were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole% of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species (18:2/18:2, 18:2/18:3, 18:3/18:3) of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. PMID:16665335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3645728','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3645728"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span> Luxor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hlav?kov, Iva; Vtmvs, Pavel; antr??ek, Ji?; Kosov, Klra; Zelenkov, Sylva; Pril, Ilja Tom; Ovesn, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kod?ek, Milan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley. PMID:23584021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24193929','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24193929"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification, quantitation and distribution of gibberellins in fruits of Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska during pod development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garca-Martinez, J L; Santes, C; Croker, S J; Hedden, P</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>In addition to the previously-reported gibberellins: GA1; GA8, GA20 and GA29 (Garca-Martnez et al., 1987, Planta 170, 130-137), GA3 and GA19 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in pods and ovules of 4-d-old pollinated pea (Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska) ovaries. Pods contained additionally GA17, GA81 (2?-hydroxy GA20) and GA29-catabolite. The concentrations of GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20 and GA29 were higher in the ovules than in the pod, although, with the exception of GA3, the total content of these GAs in the pod exceeded that in the seeds. About 80% of the GA3 content of the ovary was present in the seeds. The concentrations of GA19 and GA20 in pollinated ovaries remained fairly constant for the first 12 ds after an thesis, after which they increased sharply. In contrast, GA1 and GA3 concentrations were maximal at 7 d and 4-6 d, respectively, after anthesis, at about the time of maximum pod growth rate, and declined thereafter. Emasculated ovaries at anthesis contained GA8, GA19 and GA20 at concentrations comparable with pollinated fruit, but they decreased rapidly. Gibberellins a1 and A3 were present in only trace amounts in emasculated ovaries at any stage. Parthenocarpic fruit, produced by decapitating plants immediately above an emasculated flower, or by treating such flowers with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or GA7, contained GA19 and GA20 at similar concentrations to seeded fruit, but very low amounts of GA1 and GA3 Thus, it appears that the presence of fertilised ovules is necessary for the synthesis of these last two GAs. Mature leaves and leaf diffusates contained GA1, GA8, GA19 and GA20 as determined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring. This provides further evidence that vegetative tissues are a possible alternative source of GAs for fruit-set, particularly in decapitated plants. PMID:24193929</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.4438T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GeCoA..74.4438T"><span id="translatedtitle">Indicators of parent-body processes: Hydrated chondrules and fine-grained rims in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>A petrographic and electron microscopic study of the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite shows that all of the chondrules and inclusions (>400 ?m in diameter) and most of their fine-grained rims studied (referred to as chondrules/rims) contain various amounts of hydrous phyllosilicates (mostly saponite) formed by aqueous alteration of anhydrous silicates. The rims mainly consist of fine-grained olivine and saponite in varying proportions and contain crosscutting veins of Fe-rich olivine. The boundaries between the chondrules and their rims are irregular and show abundant evidence of aqueous alteration interactions between them. In contrast, the host matrix contains very minor amounts of saponite and shows no evidence of such extensive aqueous alteration. The boundaries between the chondrules/rims and the matrix are sharp and show no traces of the matrix having been involved in the alteration of the chondrules/rims. These observations indicate that the aqueous alteration in the chondrules/rims did not occur in the present setting. We suggest that the chondrules/rims are actually clasts transported from a location on the meteorite parent body different from where the Mokoia meteorite was from. The aqueous alteration of the chondrules/rims probably occurred there. The veins in the rims were originally fractures produced in an interchondrule matrix by impacts; these were later filled by Fe-rich olivine during aqueous activity. This location was then involved in impact brecciation, and individual chondrules were ejected as clasts with remnants of the matrix surrounding them. During the continuing brecciation, those chondrule/rim clasts were transported, mixed with anhydrous matrix grains, and finally lithified to the present meteorite. Therefore, the rims are fragmented remnants of a former matrix. Textures characterized by fine-grained rims surrounding chondrules in chondrites have been widely thought to have formed in the solar nebula before they accreted into their parent bodies. However, our results suggest that some textures may not be explained by such an accretionary model; instead, the multi-stage parent-body process modeled for the Mokoia rim formation may be a more plausible explanation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24213693','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24213693"><span id="translatedtitle">Proline status of genetically stable salt-tolerant Brassica juncea L. somaclones and their parent <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Prakash.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jain, S; Nainawatee, H S; Jain, R K; Chowdhury, J B</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>Three Brassica juncea L. somaclones (SR-1, -2 and -3) selected in vitro for NaCl-tolerance, non-selected somacone (CP-5) and parent <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Prakash' were characterized for their free proline contents in the absence of stress and as a function of increasing salt stress. In the R0 generation, 'SR-3' somaclone had ca. three times higher free proline as compared to parent 'Prakash' and other somaclones. Somaclone, SR-1, turned out to be sterile. The other somaclones were carried forward to the R2 generation after making selections for yield and yield components in the R1 generation. 'SR-3' bred true for its high proline accumulating characteristic. The somaclone 'SR-3' thus had a stable genetic variation for proline overproduction. Free proline content in 7-day-old whole seedlings and 6-week-old plant leaf tissue, increased with the increase in salt stress in all the lines but at differential rates. The magnitude of increase in free proline was much higher in 'SR-3' lines as compared to parent 'Prakash' and 'SR-2' salt-tolerant somaclones. Under salt stress, in leaf tissue, one of the 'SR-3' derived lines (SR3P6-2) accumulated as much as 269 ?moles of free proline as compared to ca. 20 ?moles per g dry weight in parent 'Prakash' and 'SR-2' line. It was interesting to note that there was a 'critical point' concentration of NaCl beyond which the endogenous level of free proline rose sharply. Somaclonal lines (SR3P6-2, SR2P1-2 and CP5-2) which were found to have higher salt-tolerance indices, also had higher 'critical points' as compared to the other relatively salt sensitive genotypes. The relationship between relative water content and osmotic potential of leaves under saltstress also showed a relatively higher degree of osmotic adjustment in the selected somaclones, the maximum being in SR-3 derived lines. PMID:24213693</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970428"><span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span> <span class="hlt">Africana</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stansfield, Fiona J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4430523','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4430523"><span id="translatedtitle">A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span> <span class="hlt">Africana</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stansfield, Fiona J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These ‘Age Reference Lines’ were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70–75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...306..711N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPS...306..711N"><span id="translatedtitle">High performance hybrid supercapacitors by using <span class="hlt">para</span>-Benzoquinone ionic liquid redox electrolyte</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navalpotro, Paula; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A solution of 0.4M <span class="hlt">para</span>-Benzoquinone (p-BQ) in the ionic liquid N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR14TFSI) was used as a redox electrolyte in hybrid supercapacitors. Two carbons with very different textural properties, Pica carbon and Vulcan carbon, were used as electrode material. Electrochemical performance of these energy storage systems was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD). Unlike SCs with pure IL electrolyte, new battery-like features appeared in the <span class="hlt">CV</span> curves and CD profiles. This electrochemical performance, associated with the faradaic contribution of the redox electrolyte, results in a significant improvement of the electrochemical performance of the hybrid system. For Vulcan carbon with low specific surface area (SBET = 240 m2 g-1), specific capacitance (Cs) and specific real energy (Ereal) values as high as 70 Fg-1 and 10.3 WhKg-1 were obtained at 5 mAcm-2 with hybrid SC operating at 3 V. This represents an increment of 300% in Cs and Ereal with respect to the SC based on pure PYR14TFSI. For high surface area carbon such as Pica (SBET = 2410 m2g-1), the addition of the redox quinone molecule resulted in a moderate enhancement reaching values of 156 Fg-1 and 30 WhKg-1 under the same experimental conditions (36% and 10% increment, respectively).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4043495','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4043495"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sez-Llorens, Xavier; Lpez, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Psleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitio, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejn, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiaz, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barra, Eduardo; Yarzbal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccineinduced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 g/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 1518 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organizationdefined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 2830 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25277445"><span id="translatedtitle">Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cavendish).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:25277445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515267','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515267"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Different Local Moxibustion-Like Stimuli at Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (<span class="hlt">CV</span>12) on Gastric Motility and Its Underlying Receptor Mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Su, Yang-Shuai; Xin, Juan-Juan; Yang, Zhao-Kun; He, Wei; Shi, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Hu, Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Zhu, Bing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to explore the “intensity-response” relationship in local moxibustion-like stimuli- (LMS-) modulated gastric motility and its underlying receptor mechanism. Based on the thermal pain threshold (43°C), 41°C, 43°C, and 45°C LMS were separately applied to ST36 or <span class="hlt">CV</span>12 for 180 s among ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3−/−) mice, TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1−/−) mice, and their homologous wild-type C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 in each group). Gastric motility was continuously measured by an intrapyloric balloon, and the amplitude, integral, and frequency of gastric motility during LMS were compared with those of initial activities. We found that both 43°C and 45°C LMS at ST36 induced significantly facilitated effect of gastric motility (P < 0.05), while LMS at <span class="hlt">CV</span>12 induced inhibited effects (P < 0.05). 41°C LMS had no significant impact on gastric motility. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, the facilitatory effect at ST36 and inhibitive effect of LMS at <span class="hlt">CV</span>12 were decreased significantly in TRPV1−/− mice (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) but not changed markedly in ASIC3−/− mice (P > 0.05). These results suggest that there existed an “intensity-response” relationship between temperature in LMS and its effects on gastric motility. TRPV1 receptor played a crucial role in the LMS-modulated gastric motility. PMID:26246837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25845628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25845628"><span id="translatedtitle">10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muema, D M; Nduati, E W; Uyoga, M; Bashraheil, M; Scott, J A G; Hammitt, L L; Urban, B C</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12-23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3-45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21-66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13-36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24-42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21-40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time-points (day 30: non-carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non-carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. 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