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1

Africana Folklore: History and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

When I agreed to edit this special issue of JAF dedicated to Africana folklore, I did so with a commitment to certain ideals: primarily, that no other body of material has had more impact on the development of cultures in the western hemisphere than Africana folk traditions and, consequently, that this should lead to a highly developed field of study

Sw. Anand Prahlad

2005-01-01

2

Africana Digitization Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Digital Content Group at the University of Wisconsin Library, the Africana Digitization Project provides a excellent template for further projects to make works dealing with Africa more accessible to researchers and other interested parties. Currently, there are eight works available for browsing on the site. These important resources include Andre Alvares Almada's _Brief Treatise on the rivers of Guinea_ from 1594, P.E.H. Hair's _Barbot's West African vocabularies of 1680_ from 1992, and Manuel Alvares's account of travels through modern-day Ethiopia from 1615. All of the works here are in English, and can be searched individually using the online search engine provided. For persons doing work in the field of African history, or those interested in reading travel narratives from Europeans, this repository will prove to be a helpful find. [KMG

3

INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN CLAVICEPS AFRICANA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic variability within a global collection of the sorghum ergot pathogen Claviceps africana was analyzed using DNA sequence analysis, RAM analysis, and AFLP analysis. DNA sequence analysis of the beta-tubulin and elongation factor 1 alpha genes allowed distinct groupings of Claviceps species t...

4

Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana).  

PubMed

Social learning is a more efficient method of information acquisition and application than trial and error learning and is prevalent across a variety of animal taxa. Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific's interactions facilitated learning of a novel task. The tasks used feeding apparatus that could be solved in one of two distinct ways. Contrary to our hypothesis, the method the demonstrating animal used did not predict the method used by the observer. However, we did find evidence of social learning: After watching the model, subjects spent a greater percentage of their time interacting with the apparatus than they did in unmodeled trials. These results suggest that the demonstrations of a model may increase the motivation of elephants to explore novel foraging tasks. PMID:23238635

Greco, Brian J; Brown, Tracey K; Andrews, Jeff R M; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Caine, Nancy G

2012-12-14

5

Candida africana and its closest relatives.  

PubMed

Candida africana is a recently described opportunistic yeast pathogen that has been linked to vaginal candidiasis. This yeast was first described, in 1995, as atypical chlamydospore-negative Candida albicans strain, and subsequently proposed as a new Candida species on the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics clearly different from those of typical C. albicans isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on the comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences demonstrated that C. africana and C. albicans isolates are too closely related to draw any conclusions regarding the status of a new species. Therefore, on the basis of these studies, some authors considered C. africana as a biovar of C. albicans even if genetic differences may be found if additional regions of genomic DNA are sequenced. The taxonomic situation of C. africana and its phylogenetic relationship with other Candida species is still controversial and remains, at present, a matter of debate. Our goal is to review the current knowledge about C. africana and highlight the development of rapid and accurate tests for its discrimination from C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea. Furthermore, through the analysis of literature data, we have found that C. africana has a worldwide distribution and a considerable number of features making its study particularly interesting. PMID:20667001

Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

2010-07-28

6

Africana.com: The Digital Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Africana.com was founded in 1999 to present "information and commentary reflecting the diverse concerns of people of African descent." Designed by Harvard Square Netcasting, with Harvard University professors Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah on the its Board of Directors, Africana.com provides a broad spectrum of information from scholarship to lifestyle articles and headline news. Several features boost the interactivity of the site: a free email service for registrants, a quiz (AfriQuest), and Radio Africana, listings of radio stations worldwide webcasting Black music. There are also links to related Web resources, a media center (primarily books and CDs for purchase), and the Adopt-A-School philanthropy program.

1999-01-01

7

VALIDACIÓN DE UN MODELO PARA ESTIMAR LA CONDUCTANCIA ESTOMÁTICA DE HOJAS EN VIDES CV CABERNET SAUVIGNON Model validation for estimating the leaf stomatal conductance in cv Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled model of assimilation and stomatal conductance (A-gs) was evaluated to estimate leaf stomatal conductance of a drip-irrigated vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) located in the Pencahue Valley (35º22' S, 71°47' W, 150 m.a.s.l.), Maule Region, Chile, during the 2003-2004 and the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Aditionally, a calibration of the three parameters mesophyll conductance (gm), maximum specific

Francisco Jara-Rojas; Samuel Ortega-Farías; Héctor Valdés-Gómez; Carlos Poblete; Alejandro del Pozo

8

Studies on the genus Setaria Viborg, 1795 in South Africa. I. Setaria africana (Yeh, 1959).  

PubMed

Setaria africana (Yeh, 1959) is represented by two subspecies, Setaria africana africana Troncy, Graber & Thal, 1976 from giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) from the Central African Republic and Cameroon and Setaria africana farchai Troncy, Graber & Thal, 1976 from bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), also from the Central African Republic. Material collected from nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bushbuck and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from several localities in the eastern region of South Africa was re-examined. Measurements of adult worms confirmed the differences between the two subspecies and scanning electron microscopy showed that the deirids of S. africana africana are single whereas those of S. africana farchaiare double. Setaria africana farchaiis recorded for the first time in South Africa. PMID:11206389

Watermeyer, R; Boomker, J; Putterill, J F

2000-12-01

9

Isolation and molecular characterization of Candida africana from Jos, Nigeria.  

PubMed

During a survey of the prevalence of Candida spp. in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, two atypical C. albicans isolates were recovered. These two yeasts were germ tube positive, chlamydospore-negative and gave a green color on CHROMagar Candida. Molecular analysis performed by amplification of the hwp1 gene showed that these two isolates belonged to C. africana, a newly proposed Candida species closely related to C. albicans. Based on the presence or absence of an intron in DNA sequences encoding rRNA, the two C. africana, including all C. albicans isolates examined, were found to belong to genotype A and no other genotypes or species such as C. dubliniensis were found. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Nigeria. PMID:22380533

Nnadi, Nnaemeka Emmanuel; Ayanbimpe, Grace Mebi; Scordino, Fabio; Okolo, Mark Ojogba; Enweani, Ifeoma Bessy; Criseo, Giuseppe; Romeo, Orazio

2012-03-01

10

Antiulcerogenic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Lasianthera africana.  

PubMed

The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Lasianthera africana on experimentally induced ulcer was studied in rats. The extract (1000 - 3000mg/kg) inhibited ethanol-induced, indomethacin - induced and reserpine -induced ulcer models in a dose dependent fashion. The various degrees of inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.01). The effect of the extract was comparable to that of the standard drugs used. Thus, Lasianthera africana extract demonstrated a good antiulcer activity which supports the antiulcer effect of this plant in traditional medicine. PMID:20209006

Okokon, Jude E; Antia, Bassey S; Umoh, Emem E

2009-03-07

11

Isolation of Candida africana, probable atypical strains of Candida albicans, from a patient with vaginitis.  

PubMed

Identification of unusual fungal isolates is a major challenge for the clinical laboratory. This report describes the isolation of Candida africana from a patient with vaginitis. This is a doubtful species which possibly represents atypical strains of Candida albicans. Candida africana can be separated morphologically and physiologically from C. albicans but not genetically. The analysis of 26S rRNA gene showed near 100% homology between C. africana and C. albicans. PMID:17885960

Alonso-Vargas, Rocío; Elorduy, Luis; Eraso, Elena; Cano, Francisco José; Guarro, Josep; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

2008-03-01

12

A new antimicrobial peptide isolated from Oudneya africana seeds.  

PubMed

Oudneya africana R. Br. (Brassicaceae), a wild-growing plant in the arid region of Tunisia, is used in ethno-medicinal treatment of microbial infections. Validation of ethno-therapeutic claims pertaining to the plant was sought by investigating its antimicrobial activity. A proteinaceous extract of the seeds, called AS-3000, showed activity against various organisms including L. monocytogenes, E. coli, B. subtilis, E. hirae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. Extract AS-3000 exhibited a synergistic effect against L. ivanovii when combined with vancomycin or chloramphenicol. The post-antibiotic inhibitory effect of the ampicillin/AS-3000 combination was 2.3-fold greater than for the antibiotic alone. The mode of action of AS-3000 on Listeria and Escherichia was visible using SEM. These results support the use of O. africana for treating microbial infections. PMID:19954453

Hammami, Riadh; Hamida, Jeannette Ben; Vergoten, Gérard; Lacroix, Jean-Marie; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Mohamed, Neffati; Fliss, Ismail

2009-12-01

13

How to Write a CV  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides suggestions on how to write a CV (curriculum vitae). This resource provides suggestions on how to focus your CV for different positions one may apply to in academia. The resource also provides an example CV.

2011-04-14

14

CV Surgery Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University's HighWire Press has announced the online publication of several journals. CV Surgery Online offers "a fully searchable online compilation of articles pertinent to the cardiothoracic and vascular surgeon from the 5 American Heart Association Journals: Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke, and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Surgery." Published by the American Heart Association in conjunction with HighWire Press, the free trial period for CV Surgery Online ended December 31, 2000.

1999-01-01

15

When and Where I EnterAnna Julia Cooper, Afrocentric Theory, and Africana Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anna Julia Cooper provides an important, though often overlooked, Africana intellectual history and philosophy in the field of Africana Studies generally and Black women’s history particularly. Many of the studies on Anna Julia Cooper’s life and philosophy have been done outside of the discipline of Africology, and as a result, her work has primarily been placed in the feminist and

LaRese C. Hubbard

2009-01-01

16

Observations of Portia Africana, an araneophagic jumping spider, living together and sharing prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instances are documented of finding individuals of Portia africana in the field living aggregated in the webs of other spiders, in the nest complexes of other salticids, around solitary nests of other salticids, and around the nests of oecobiid spiders. Aggregation members included all active juvenile stages of P. africana, as well as adult males and females. More than one

Robert R. Jackson; Simon D. Pollard; Kathryn Salm

2008-01-01

17

Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae) in wound care: an experimental evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The potentials of the leaves of the haemorrhage plant, Aspilia africana C. D Adams (Compositae) in wound care was evaluated using experimental models. A. africana, which is widespread in Africa, is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding from wounds, clean the surfaces of sores, in the treatment of rheumatic pains, bee and scorpion stings and for removal of

CO Okoli; PA Akah; AS Okoli

2007-01-01

18

Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans and its closely related yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana.  

PubMed

We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

2008-11-05

19

Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana?  

PubMed Central

We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples.

Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

20

Uncommon mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana  

PubMed Central

Background Nocardiosis is an unusual infection in companion animals characterized by suppurative to pyogranulomatous lesions, localized or disseminated. Cutaneous-subcutaneous, pulmonary and systemic signs are observed in feline nocardiosis. However, osteomyelitis is a rare clinical manifestation in cats. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (formerly N. asteroides sensu stricto), Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, and Nocardia nova are the most common pathogenic species identified in cats, based on recent molecular classification (16S rRNA gene). The present report is, to our knowledge, the first case of mandibular osteomyelitis in a cat caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of methods, including molecular techniques. Case presentation A one-year-old non-neutered female cat, raised in a rural area, was admitted to the Companion Animal Hospital-PUCPR, São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Brazil, with a history a progressive facial lesion, difficulty apprehending food, loss of appetite, apathy and emaciation. Clinical examination showed fever, submandibular lymphadenitis, and a painless, 8 cm diameter mass, which was irregularly-shaped, of firm consistency, and located in the region of the left mandible. The skin around the lesion was friable, with diffuse inflammation (cellulitis), multiple draining sinuses, and exudation of serosanguinous material containing whitish “sulfur” granules. Diagnosis was based initially in clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological, and histopathological findings, and radiographic images. Molecular sequencing of 16S rRNA of isolate allowed diagnosis of Nocardia africana. Despite supportive care and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing the animal died. Conclusion The present report describes a rare clinical case of feline osteomyelitis caused by Nocardia africana, diagnosed based upon a combination of clinical signs, microbiological culture, cytological and histopathological findings, radiographic images, and molecular methods. The use of modern molecular techniques constitutes a quick and reliable method for Nocardia species identification, and may contribute to identification to new species of Nocardia that are virulent in cats.

2012-01-01

21

Extraction studies of Tabernanthe iboga and Voacanga africana.  

PubMed

The root bark of Tabernanthe iboga contains ibogaine as its predominant alkaloid and has been an important source of it. Ibogaine is used experimentally to interrupt drug addiction and allow therapeutic intervention, but is currently unaffordable to doctors in less economically developed countries. To meet this need, an extraction of alkaloids from T. iboga root bark was optimized and simplified to use only diluted vinegar and ammonia, and was successfully applied to related alkaloids from Voacanga africana bark also. The alkaloids were converted to their hydrochlorides and purified, and the minor alkaloids were recovered. PMID:11942686

Jenks, Christopher W

2002-02-01

22

Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of the first Italian Candida africana isolate.  

PubMed

One atypical isolate of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was isolated from an Italian patient with vulvovaginitis. The strain, germ tube positive and chlamydospore-negative showed white-thin turquoise colonies on Candida ID 2 medium. The yeast was identified as Candida africana by using morphological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the molecular results obtained in this study as well as in other studies, C. africana cannot be yet considered as a new species of Candida. It is possible that C. africana represents a new variant of C. albicans like the well-known Candida stellatoidea. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Italy. PMID:18983430

Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

2008-10-22

23

Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts and compounds from Treculia africana and Treculia acuminata (Moraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crude methanolic extracts from Treculia africana and Treculia acuminata, three compounds isolated from T. africana and identified as, Phyllocoumarin (1), Catechin (2) and 6, 9-dihydroxy-megastigmane-3-one (3), four compounds namely 2, 3, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl-heptadecanoate (4), and Ferulic acid (5) isolated from T. acuminata were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (six species), Gram-negative bacteria (12 species) and three Candida

V. Kuete; R. Metuno; B. Ngameni; A. T. Mbaveng; F. Ngandeu; M. Bezabih; F.-X. Etoa; B. T. Ngadjui; B. M. Abegaz; V. P. Beng

2008-01-01

24

Epidemiology, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Pathogenicity of Candida africana Isolates from the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Candida africana was previously proposed as a new species within the Candida albicans species complex, together with C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, although further phylogenetic analyses better support its status as an unusual variant within C. albicans. Here we show that C. africana can be distinguished from C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by pyrosequencing of a short region of ITS2, and we have evaluated its occurrence in clinical samples by pyrosequencing all presumptive isolates of C. albicans submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 9-month period. The C. albicans complex constituted 826/1,839 (44.9%) of yeast isolates received over the study period and included 783 isolates of C. albicans, 28 isolates of C. dubliniensis, and 15 isolates of C. africana. In agreement with previous reports, C. africana was isolated exclusively from genital specimens, in women in the 18-to-35-year age group. Indeed, C. africana constituted 15/251 (6%) of “C. albicans” isolates from female genital specimens during the study period. C. africana isolates were germ tube positive, grew significantly more slowly than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on conventional mycological media, could be distinguished from the other members of the C. albicans complex by appearance on chromogenic agar, and were incapable of forming chlamydospores. Here we present the detailed evaluation of epidemiological, phenotypic, and clinical features and antifungal susceptibility profiles of United Kingdom isolates of C. africana. Furthermore, we demonstrate that C. africana is significantly less pathogenic than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis in the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model.

Szekely, Adrien; Linton, Chistopher J.; Palmer, Michael D.; Brown, Phillipa; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

25

Epidemiology, antifungal susceptibility, and pathogenicity of Candida africana isolates from the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Candida africana was previously proposed as a new species within the Candida albicans species complex, together with C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, although further phylogenetic analyses better support its status as an unusual variant within C. albicans. Here we show that C. africana can be distinguished from C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by pyrosequencing of a short region of ITS2, and we have evaluated its occurrence in clinical samples by pyrosequencing all presumptive isolates of C. albicans submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 9-month period. The C. albicans complex constituted 826/1,839 (44.9%) of yeast isolates received over the study period and included 783 isolates of C. albicans, 28 isolates of C. dubliniensis, and 15 isolates of C. africana. In agreement with previous reports, C. africana was isolated exclusively from genital specimens, in women in the 18-to-35-year age group. Indeed, C. africana constituted 15/251 (6%) of "C. albicans" isolates from female genital specimens during the study period. C. africana isolates were germ tube positive, grew significantly more slowly than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on conventional mycological media, could be distinguished from the other members of the C. albicans complex by appearance on chromogenic agar, and were incapable of forming chlamydospores. Here we present the detailed evaluation of epidemiological, phenotypic, and clinical features and antifungal susceptibility profiles of United Kingdom isolates of C. africana. Furthermore, we demonstrate that C. africana is significantly less pathogenic than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis in the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model. PMID:23303503

Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Linton, Chistopher J; Palmer, Michael D; Brown, Phillipa; Johnson, Elizabeth M

2013-01-09

26

ABSORÇÃO E NÍVEIS CRÍTICOS DE FÓSFORO NA PARTE AÉREA PARA MANUTENÇÃO DA PRODUTIVIDADE DO CAPIM-ELEF ANTE (Pennisetum purpureum CV. NAPIER) 1 Phosphorus absorption and critical levels in the shoot for the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier) production maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was carried out in the field, during two years, to evaluate the phosphate fertilizing residual effect implantation over the phosphate absorption and critical levels in the plant for the elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Napier) maintenance. The treatments were arranged according to the factorial 2 X 2 X 5, in blocks randomly lined with three repetitions, and

Luciano de Melo Moreira; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Janaina Azevedo Martuscello; Elcivan Bento da Nóbrega

27

First molecular method for discriminating between Candida africana, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis by using hwp1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report here a polymerase chain reaction-based assay using a single primer pair (CR-f\\/CR-r), allowing discrimination between Candida africana and Candida albicans by using the hwp1 gene. The method also identifies Candida dubliniensis because it produces 3 different DNA fragments: approximately 700 bp for C. africana, 941 bp for C. albicans, and 569 for C. dubliniensis.

Orazio Romeo; Giuseppe Criseo

2008-01-01

28

CV 100--Still Going Strong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

Abrahams, A. L.

1976-01-01

29

Adherence ability of Candida africana: a comparative study with Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared the adherence ability to human Hela cells and biofilm formation of three closely related Candida yeast. In our experiments, Candida africana showed poor adhesion ability to human Hela cells and the absence of biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride strips. Conversely, Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis formed mature biofilms and stable attachment to Hela cells. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study reporting data on biofilm formation and adherence to human Hela cells by C. africana. PMID:20202113

Romeo, Orazio; De Leo, Filomena; Criseo, Giuseppe

2010-02-24

30

HOST RANGE OF SORGHUM ERGOT PATHOGENS C. AFRICANA AND C. SORGHI IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Among 20 graminaceous plant species evaluated for their role as collateral hosts for the two sorghum ergot pathogens Claviceps sorghi and C. africana, only five species viz., Sorghum arundinaceum, S. halepense, S. versicolor, S. virgatum, and Pennisetum glaucum were found to be hosts for both the pa...

31

CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, MORPHOLOGY, AND VARIATION WITHIN CLAVICEPS AFRICANA AND C. SORGHI FROM INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighty-nine sorghum ergot isolates were cultured from young sphacelia obtained from infected sorghum panicles collected in India. The isolates differed distinctly in their cultural characteristics and were grouped broadly into two categories- one as the Africana typa and one as the Sorghi type. Is...

32

Evaluation of Nicotiana tabacum Genotypes Possessing Nicotiana africana-derived Genetic Tolerance to Potato Virus Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alleles infl uencing resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) would be valuable for develop- ing resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivars. The fi rst objective of this research was to evaluate materials possessing an intro- gressed genomic region (Nafr) from N. africana Merx. & Buttler for their resistance against an array of nine PVY isolates. Seven near-iso- genic genotypes

R. S. Lewis

33

Histo and cytophysiology of the lactating mammary gland of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactating mammary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) has been studied with a panel of morphological techniques focusing on (1) the functional changes during the secretory process, (2) proliferative process [by application of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry] and apoptotic phenomena [by use of the TUNEL technique] in the individual lobules, and (3) components of milk and

Ulrich Welsch; Friedrich Feuerhake; Rudi van Aarde; Wolfgang Buchheim; Stuart Patton

1998-01-01

34

A review of the status of forest elephants Loxodonta africana in Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of elephants Loxodonta africana in the central African forests in 1989 is reviewed. These elephants accounted for about one-third of the continental total. However, there are few data on numbers, for only one of the six countries in the region has been censused. The estimates for the other countries came from a limited set of dung-counts or a

R. F. W. Barnes; A. Blom; M. P. T. Alers

1995-01-01

35

Phytochemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Prosopis africana Against Some Selected Oral Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out on phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of root and stem of Prosopis africana against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Saponins, tannins and alkaloids were highly concentrated in the stem and root, with the former containing a significantly higher (P<0.05) quantity of these phytochemicals. Phenols and steroids

A. L. Kolapo; M. B. Okunade; M. O. Ogundiya

36

Lack of Candida africana and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal Candida albicans isolates in Turkey using HWP1 gene polymorphisms.  

PubMed

Candida africana differs from the common strains of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis morphologically, physiologically, genetically, and, in particular, clinically. This fungal pathogen is primarily recovered from genital specimens, especially in vaginal specimens. In this investigation, we reexamined 195 vaginal C. albicans isolates for the presence of C. africana and C. dubliniensis by using hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1) gene polymorphisms. All study isolates were confirmed to be C. albicans, and none were verified as either C. africana or C. dubliniensis. In conclusion, the HWP1 gene polymorphisms offer a useful tool in the discrimination of C. africana, C. albicans, and C. dubliniensis. Further studies may highlight the pathogenesis and importance of this yeast in vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:21380767

Gumral, Ramazan; Sancak, Banu; Guzel, Ahmet Bar??; Saraçl?, Mehmet Ali; Ilkit, Macit

2011-03-06

37

Lack of Candida africana and Candida dubliniensis in Vaginal Candida albicans Isolates in Turkey Using HWP1 Gene Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida africana differs from the common strains of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis morphologically, physiologically, genetically, and, in particular, clinically. This fungal pathogen is primarily recovered\\u000a from genital specimens, especially in vaginal specimens. In this investigation, we reexamined 195 vaginal C. albicans isolates for the presence of C. africana and C. dubliniensis by using hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1) gene

Ramazan Gumral; Banu Sancak; Ahmet Bar?? Guzel; Mehmet Ali Saraçl?; Macit Ilkit

38

First molecular method for discriminating between Candida africana, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis by using hwp1 gene.  

PubMed

The authors report here a polymerase chain reaction-based assay using a single primer pair (CR-f/CR-r), allowing discrimination between Candida africana and Candida albicans by using the hwp1 gene. The method also identifies Candida dubliniensis because it produces 3 different DNA fragments: approximately 700 bp for C. africana, 941 bp for C. albicans, and 569 for C. dubliniensis. PMID:18640803

Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

2008-07-21

39

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.  

PubMed Central

Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and 2.5–10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7??g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1??g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds.

Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

2013-01-01

40

Proximate composition, energy content and physiochemical properties of Afzelia africana and Brachystegia eurycoma seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proximate composition, energy content and physiochemical properties ofAfzelia africana andBrachystegia eurycoma seeds were determined. The bulk density, reconstituability, foam properties and emulsification properties of flour samples in water, 1% saline and 1% alkali were studied. There were no significant differences (p=0.05) in the proximate composition of seeds from different agroclimatic zones. The energy content of seeds were comparable to

F. N. Madubuike; P. C. Ojimelukwe; P. O. Ajah

1994-01-01

41

Cytokinin and explant types influence in vitro plant regeneration of Leopard Orchid ( Ansellia africana Lindl.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of explant and cytokinin types on in vitro plant regeneration of Ansellia africana were investigated. The exogenous addition of cytokinins is not required for the proliferation of new protocorms from Trimmed\\u000a protocorm cluster (TPC) explants. To the contrary, nodal and shoot-tip explants produced a single shoot in response to the\\u000a addition of cytokinins. Overall plant growth in terms

Rajeswari Vasudevan; Johannes Van Staden

42

Paratrichodina africana (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) of wild and cultured Nile tilapia in the Northern Brazil.  

PubMed

The present work morphologically characterizes Paratrichodina africana from the gills of wild and farmed Nile tilapia from Northern Brazil (eastern Amazonia). Ninety fish were captured for parasitological analysis in Macapá, State of Amapá, from a wetland area bathed by the Amazon River commonly called 'Ressaca do Zerão' (n = 52), as well as from a local fish farm (n = 38). Wet smears of the skin and gills of the captured fish were air dried at room temperature and impregnated with silver nitrate by Klein's method for posterior examination of the adhesive disc structures. Total prevalence of parasitism was 16.6% (23% in fish from wetland and 7.8% in farmed fish). Characterized as a small-sized trichodinid, it presented the following measures: 33.2 ± 4.7 µm body diameter, 17.5 ± 2.1 µm adhesive disc, 10.0 ± 0.9 µm denticulate ring, and 22.6 ± 2.0 denticles. Paratrichodina africana reported in this study strongly resembles those described for other localities, but it differs by presenting greater body length. This is the fourth report of P. africana parasitizing a host fish. PMID:23802238

Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Marchiori, Natália da Costa; Martins, Maurício Laterça

43

Paratrichodina africana (Ciliophora): A pathogenic gill parasite in farmed Nile tilapia.  

PubMed

Trichodinids are ciliated protozoa that are widely known as one of the main groups of fish parasites. The genus Trichodina presents the greatest species diversity. However, records of Paratrichodina species are scarce, and little is known about their pathogenicity in hosts. The present study provides new records of Paratrichodina africanaKazubski and El-Tantawy (1986) in Nile tilapia from South America and descriptions of pathological changes and seasonality. A total of 304 farmed fish were examined. From gill scraping, parasites were identified using Klein's nitrate impregnation method. Gill samples were fixed for histopathological analysis. Small trichodinid found in this study have a prominent blade apophysis and narrow central part and blade shape that corresponds to the characteristics of P. africanaKazubski and El-Tantawy (1986). Gill lesions were proportional to parasite intensity, in which the gill tissue was compromised in heavy infestation. Proliferative disturbances were found, including epithelial hyperplasia, desquamation, and mononuclear and eosinophilic infiltrate that culminated in necrosis. We did not observe a seasonality effect on the occurrence of P. africana. This ciliated protozoan causes compromised respiratory capacity that leads to severe gill lesions and currently is an important pathogen that afflicts intensive tilapia cultures in Brazil. PMID:23731856

Valladão, G M R; Pádua, S B; Gallani, S U; Menezes-Filho, R N; Dias-Neto, J; Martins, M L; Ishikawa, M M; Pilarski, F

2013-05-01

44

Anti-Quorum Sensing Potential of Crude Kigelia africana Fruit Extracts  

PubMed Central

The increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has stimulated the search for novel anti-virulence compounds. Although many phytochemicals show promising antimicrobial activity, their power lies in their anti-virulence properties. Thus the quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory activity of four crude Kigelia africana fruit extracts was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using the Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens biosensor systems. Inhibition of QS-controlled violacein production in C. violaceum was assayed using the qualitative agar diffusion assay as well as by quantifying violacein inhibition using K. africana extracts ranging from 0.31–8.2 mg/mL. Qualitative modulation of QS activity was investigated using the agar diffusion double ring assay. All four extracts showed varying levels of anti-QS activity with zones of violacein inhibition ranging from 9–10 mm. The effect on violacein inhibition was significant in the following order: hexane > dichloromethane > ethyl acetate > methanol. Inhibition was concentration-dependent, with the ?90% inhibition being obtained with ?1.3 mg/mL of the hexane extract. Both LuxI and LuxR activity were affected by crude extracts suggesting that the phytochemicals target both QS signal and receptor. K. africana extracts with their anti-QS activity, have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents, which might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of drug-resistant bacteria in vivo.

Chenia, Hafizah Y.

2013-01-01

45

An Indigenous Plant Food Used by Lactating Mothers in West Africa: The Nutrient Composition of the Leaves of Kigelia Africana in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the leaves of Kigelia africana are used to make a palm-nut soup which is consumed mainly by lactating women in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the nutrient qualities of this underutilized and underappreciated plant food. Leaves of Kigelia africana, called “sausage tree” in English and “nufuten” in the Twi language of Ghana, were collected in

R. S. Glew; B. Amoako-Atta; G. Ankar-Brewoo; J. M. Presley; Y.-C. Chang; L.-T. Chuang; M. Millson; B. R. Smith; R. H. Glew

2010-01-01

46

The Souls of Black Radical FolkW. E. B. Du Bois, Critical Social Theory, and the State of Africana Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

W. E. B. Du Bois provides an important, though often overlooked, Africana history, culture, and philosophy – informed framework for (a) redeveloping Africana studies and relating it to the crises and conundrums of the 21st century; (b) reconstructing critical social theory, making it more multicultural, transethnic, transgender, and non-Western European–philosophy focused; and (c) reinventing what it means to be an

Reiland Rabaka

2006-01-01

47

Effects of aqueous extract of Aspilia africana on reproductive functions of female Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Effects of Aspilia africana leaf extract on oestrous cycle and ovulation were studied in adult female Wistar strain rats. Cyclic female rats weighing 150 to 200 g were divided into two study groups: the oestrous study and ovulation study group. For the oestrous study, the experimental group received 500 mg kg(-1) b. wt. of the extract for 14 days while the control group received distilled water for the same period. In both groups, vaginal lavage was taken daily from the 5th day to monitor the oestrous cycle. For the ovulation study, there was a control group and two experimental groups. The control group received distilled water while group 1 and 2 received 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1) b.wt. of Aspilia africana leaf extract for 16 days, respectively. The animals were sacrificed on the estrous following the treatment. The results showed a significant decrease in the body weight of the treated rats (p = 0.01) and the oestrous cycle was altered after the commencement of extract. This was indicated by the prolonged proestrous and a reduced dioestrus and estrus. There was a dose-dependent reduction in the ovulation s shown by the reduced number of ova observed in the oviduct from the treated rats compared with control (p<0.05). The extract caused inflammation of the fallopian tube, degeneration in the ovarian cortex in the stroma cells of the ovary and disruption of the endometrium of the uterus. Results suggest that aqueous extract of Aspilia africana leaf has antifertility effect by altering oestrous cycle and causing a dose dependent adverse effect on ovulation in Wistar strain rats. PMID:20437701

Oyesola, T O; Oyesola, O A; Okoye, C S

2010-02-01

48

Nuclear microprobe studies of elemental distributions in dormant seeds of Burkea africana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed nutrient stores are vital post-germination for the establishment of seedlings in harsh and unpredictable environments. Plants of nutrient-poor environments allocate a substantial proportion of total acquired nutrients to reproduction (i.e. seeds). We propose that differential allocation of mineral resources to specific seed tissues is an indication of a species germination and establishment strategy. Burkea africana Hook is a leguminous tree typical of broad-leaved nutrient-poor savannas in southern Africa. Elemental distributions in dormant B. africana seed structures were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3.0 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous BS and PIXE point analyses. Mineral nutrient concentrations varied greatly between seed tissues. Elevated levels of metals known to play an important role as plant enzyme co-factors were found in the seed lens and embryonic axis. Distributions of most of these metals (Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, but not K or Cu) were positively correlated with embryonic P distribution, and probably represent phytin deposits. The distribution of metals within seed structures is 'patchy' due to their complexation with P as electron-dense globoid phytin crystals, which constrains the interpretation of PIXE point analyses.

Witkowski, E. T. F.; Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przyby?owicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przyby?owicz, J.

1997-07-01

49

We look like men of war: Africana male narratives and the Tulsa Race Riot, War and Massacre of 1921  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 31 and June 1, 1921 Tulsa, Oklahoma witnessed one of the worst cases domestic terrorism ever to occur on American soil. A race riot, war and massacre—an ultimate act of racial violence was conducted against the Africana community of Greenwood (popularly known as “Black Wall Street”) by the White Tulsa community and surrounding areas. The Tulsa tragedy stands

Kimberly C Ellis

2002-01-01

50

Nutrient quality of leaf protein concentrates produced from water fern ( Azolla africana Desv) and duckweed ( Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional and some antinutritional components of leaf protein obtained from water fern (A. africana) and duckweed (S. polyrrhiza) were determined. Samples were harvested, minced and the leaf protein concentrates coagulated at 80°C in a water bath and then centrifuged. The leaf protein concentrates (LPC) and the residual pulp fibres were milled and analysed for proximate and antinutritional constituents. Crude

E. A. Fasakin

1999-01-01

51

LABORATORY GREENHOUSE, AND FIELD ASSESSMENT OF FOURTEEN FUNGICIDES FOR ACTIVITY AGAINST CLAVICEPS AFRICANA, CAUSAL AGENT OF SORGHUM ERGOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commericial formulations of 14 fungicides representing seven chemical classes were assessed in vitro and in vivo for activity against Claviceps africana, causal agent of sorghum ergot. All the fungicides markedly reduced spore germination in vitro on water agar, with EC50 values (based on active ing...

52

Environmental and maternal correlates of foetal sex ratios in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species exhibit skewed sex ratios at birth. Here we investigate the relationships between environmental and maternal variables (as surrogates for maternal condition) and foetal sex in African buffalo Syncerus caffer and elephant Loxodonta africana of the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using logistic regression no significant effect was found of year, maternal lactational status, maternal age, rainfall or density

D. R. Visscher; R. J. van Aarde; I. Whyte

2004-01-01

53

Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian ( Elephas maximus) and African ( Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively

M. Dehnhard

2007-01-01

54

Genetic variation in the threatened medicinal tree Prunus africana in Cameroon and Kenya: Implications for current management and evolutionary history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listed as vulnerable under Appendix II of CITES, populations of the commercially valuable African highland medicinal tree Prunus africana are threatened by over-exploitation in a number of countries. Here, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to assess patterns of genetic variation in the species in Cameroon and Kenya, two countries where exploitation has been particularly high and where

A. Muchugi; A. G. Lengkeek; C. A. C. Kadu; G. M. Muluvi; E. N. M. Njagi; I. K. Dawson

2006-01-01

55

Musculature of the crus and pes of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ): insight into semiplantigrade limb architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limbs of elephants are designed to support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal, and they display unique morphological peculiarities among mammals. In this article we provide a new and detailed anatomical description of the muscles of the lower hindlimb in African elephants ( Loxodonta africana), and we place our observations into a comparative anatomical as well as a

G. E. Weissengruber; G. Forstenpointner

2004-01-01

56

Conservation Priorities for Prunus africana Defined with the Aid of Spatial Analysis of Genetic Data and Climatic Variables  

PubMed Central

Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species’ range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts.

Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J.; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Geburek, Thomas

2013-01-01

57

Severe anaemia and death due to the pharyngeal leech Myxobdella africana.  

PubMed

Six cases of pharyngeal leech (identified as Myxobdella africana) are reported from a highland area of North Kenya. Three patients were severely anaemic and one died. There have been sporadic reports of leech infestation of man in East and Central Africa but these reports lack correct identification of the leech. This paper includes a detailed account of the systematics of the leech and of its habitat. The leeches were ingested accidentally by drinking water from two infested water sources. The major symptoms were a feeling of something in the throat, epistaxis and haemoptysis. On examination, pharyngeal blood was a consistent feature although the leech was rarely seen on initial inspection. Examination under anaesthesia was usually successful in locating and removing the leech. Prompt blood transfusion was life-saving in two cases. The water sources were used by both cattle and man; the cattle may also be parasitized by leeches. Methods of improving the water sources were discussed with community leaders. PMID:3603642

Cundall, D B; Whitehead, S M; Hechtel, F O

1986-01-01

58

Candida africana sp. nov., a new human pathogen or a variant of Candida albicans?  

PubMed

Atypical Candida strains were isolated from patients in Madagascar, Angola and Germany. These isolates were slow growing and were unable to produce chlamydospores. They had atypical carbohydrate assimilation profiles. All strains were unable to assimilate the amino sugars N-acteylglucosamine and glucosamine as well as the disaccharide trehalose and the organic acid DL-lactate. They were germ-tube-positive in serum, but only some of these organisms produced pseudohyphae after a long incubation. As shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy the atypical Candida isolates clustered as a monophyletic group different from C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. All strains belonged to C. albicans serotype B. Considering all data presented here, this group of Candida strains differs from any other known member of the genus Candida. Therefore, it is suggested to represent a new species within the genus Candida for which the name Candida africana is proposed. PMID:11820255

Tietz, H J; Hopp, M; Schmalreck, A; Sterry, W; Czaika, V

2001-12-01

59

Anti-inflammatory activity of hexane leaf extract of Aspilia africana C.D. Adams.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of hexane leaf extract of Aspilia africana C.D. Adams (Compositae) was evaluated in rodents using the xylene-induced ear edema, egg albumin- and agar-induced paw edema, formaldehyde-induced arthritis, cotton pellet granuloma, gastric ulcerogenic, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and dextran-induced in vivo leukocyte migration tests. Results showed that the extract (5mg/ear) inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear and at 200 and 400mg/kg (i.p.), it significantly (P<0.05) suppressed the development of egg albumin- and agar-induced paw edema, and the global edematous response to arthritis induced by formaldehyde in rats. Oral administration of the extract (200 or 400mg/kg) evoked a significant (P<0.05) dose-related ulceration of the rat gastric mucosa and inhibition of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) reduced total leukocyte and neutrophils counts in a non-dose-related manner. However, it significantly (P<0.05) increased lymphocyte counts and stimulated the growth of granuloma tissues induced by subcutaneously implanted cotton pellets in rats. Phytochemical tests showed that the extract contained sterols and terpenoids. These findings suggest that the leaves of Aspilia africana possess anti-inflammatory activity in acute and certain aspects of chronic inflammation, which may derive from inhibition of prostaglandins synthesis, inhibition of increased vascular permeability, inhibition of neutrophil migration into inflamed tissues, and stimulation of lymphocyte accumulation, which may enhance tissue repair and healing. The terpenoids present in the leaves may account for the anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:16950582

Okoli, C O; Akah, P A; Nwafor, S V; Anisiobi, A I; Ibegbunam, I N; Erojikwe, O

2006-08-07

60

[Application of Tiantu (CV 22) in emergency].  

PubMed

The operation and application of Tiantu (CV 22) in emergency are discussed in the paper. The stimulating methods at Tiantu (CV 22) are acupuncture and pressing technique. The correct insertion of needle and proper depth and direction of insertion are required during acupuncture. The pressing technique stress the pressing strength and pressing time. Acupuncture or pressing technique is suitable for the emergent measurement of asthma, asthmatic breathing, coma, blockage of phlegm, hiccup, sore throat, etc. It is indicated that Tiantu (CV 22) is the key point in the emergency and phlegm resolving. Based on the characteristics of the point as promoting qi circulation, reducing the reversed qi and resolving phlegm, in light of the proper points combination by different syndromes and in terms of the correct and safe stimulating methods, Tiantu (CV 22) can achieve the immediate therapeutic effects in the emergent situations. PMID:23967641

Zhu, Xian-Min; Huo, Shang-Fei; Lu, Lu; Wang, Xin-Zhi

2013-06-01

61

Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae) stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods: Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day) for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results: M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions: The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dimo, Theophile; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Kamanyi, Albert

2010-01-01

62

Comparisons of State and Likelihood of Performing Chemosensory Event Behaviors in Two Populations of African Elephants ( Loxodonta africana )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration of a species-level chemical signal assumes that the same chemical signal serves a similar purpose across\\u000a the range of the species. Yet, the response to putative chemical signals varies with social setting, environmental conditions,\\u000a age, sex, and reproductive status of the individuals. Through observations and biological assays with African elephants (Loxodonta africana), we evaluated variation in state behaviors

Bruce A. Schulte; Kathryn R. Bagley; Matthew Groover; Helen Loizi; Christen Merte; Jordana M. Meyer; Erek Napora; Lauren Stanley; Dhaval K. Vyas; Kimberly Wollett; Thomas E. Goodwin; L. E. L. Rasmussen

63

Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)  

PubMed Central

Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2–D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species.

Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

2013-01-01

64

Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae).  

PubMed

Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2-D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species. PMID:24143052

Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

2013-09-23

65

Hypoglycemic effect of Treculia africana Decne root bark in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The solvent partitioned purified fractions of the hydro-acetone root bark extract of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana Decne) were evaluated for hypoglycemic activities in normal and diabetic albino rats. Fasting blood glucose levels were estimated by the use of a glucometer at pre-determined intervals after oral administration of the test extracts/fractions. Results revealed that the test fractions have only a slight effect on blood sugar level of normal rats. On short term and chronic administration in diabetic rats however, diethyl ether-soluble (DEF) and the water-soluble (WSF) fractions significantly reduced the fasting blood sugar levels (p<0.05) at differing rates when compared with the control group of animals. The diethyl ether soluble fraction (10 mg kg(-1) dose level) was found to exhibit the highest activity giving 69.4% reduction in blood sugar level (at 240 hours) which was in comparable range with the reference standard glibenclamide (0.5 mg kg(-1)) which reduced blood sugar levels by 65.8% below the initial baseline values. PMID:20161906

Oyelola, O O; Moody, J O; Odeniyi, M A; Fakeye, T O

2007-06-10

66

The relationship between social behaviour and habitat familiarity in African elephants (Loxodonta africana)  

PubMed Central

Social associations with conspecifics can expedite animals' acclimation to novel environments. However, the benefits gained from sociality may change as the habitat becomes familiar. Furthermore, the particular individuals with whom animals associate upon arrival at a new place, familiar conspecifics or knowledgeable unfamiliar residents, may influence the type of information they acquire about their new home. To examine animals' social dynamics in novel habitats, we studied the social behaviour of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) translocated into a novel environment. We found that the translocated elephants' association with conspecifics decreased over time supporting our hypothesis that sociality provides added benefits in novel environments. In addition, we found a positive correlation between body condition and social association, suggesting that elephants gain direct benefits from sociality. Furthermore, the translocated elephants associated significantly less than expected with the local residents and more than expected with familiar, but not necessarily genetically related, translocated elephants. The social segregation between the translocated and resident elephants declined over time, suggesting that elephants can integrate into an existing social setting. Knowledge of the relationship between sociality and habitat familiarity is highly important in our constantly changing world to both conservation practice and our understanding of animals' behaviour in novel environments.

Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Isbell, Lynne A.; Hart, Lynette A.

2008-01-01

67

A Preliminary Analysis of the Immunoglobulin Genes in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

PubMed Central

The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain), Ig? (Immunoglobulin kappa chain), and Ig? (Immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 VH gene segments, 87 DH gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six JH gene segments, a single ?, a ? remnant, and eight ? genes (? and ? genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps). The Ig? locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86), contains a total of 153 V? gene segments, three J? segments, and a single C? gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these V? gene segments. In contrast, the Ig? locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 V? gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream J?-C? cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals.

Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

2011-01-01

68

Reproductive assessment of male elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus) by ultrasonography.  

PubMed

Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on five wild and two captive male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and four captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) to develop standards for assessment of reproductive health and status. The entire internal urogenital tract was visualized ultrasonographically by using a 3.5 MHz or a 7.5-MHz transducer in combination with a probe extension adapted for elephant anatomy. The findings were verified by postmortem ex situ ultrasound examinations in several individuals of each species. Each part of the internal urogenital tract was sonographically detectable except for the bulbourethral glands and the cranial portion of the ureters and ductus deferentes, which were only observed in situ in the neonate. Each structure visualized was measured and described. The size and morphology of the urogenital structures, especially the accessory glands, were indicative of breeding status, if known. There was a notable difference between African and Asian males in the size and morphology of the prostate gland and a slight difference in the shape of the ampullae. No other structure showed significant species differences. The detection of the location and description of the testes may provide information for modifying present castration procedures. Furthermore, ultrasound examination of the male accessory glands may aid in the identification of potential semen donors for assisted reproduction programs in captive elephants. PMID:9732024

Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Pratt, N C; Schmitt, D L; Quandt, S; Raath, J; Hofmann, R R

1998-06-01

69

The relationship between CK and CV chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CK chondrites are highly oxidized meteorites containing abundant magnetite and trace amounts of Fe,Ni metal. Although the group is predominately composed of equilibrated meteorites (types 4-6), in recent years a significant number of new samples have been classified as being either CK3 or CK3-anomalous. These unequilibrated CKs often display a close affinity with members of the CV oxidized subgroup. CKs and CVs (oxidized subgroup) may therefore form a continuum and by implication could be derived from a single common parent body. To investigate the relationship between these two groups a detailed study of the oxygen isotope composition, opaque mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry of a suite of CV and CK chondrites has been undertaken. The results of oxygen isotope analysis confirm the close affinity between CV and CK chondrites, while excluding the possibility of a linkage between the CO and CK groups. Magnetites in both CV and CK chondrites show significant compositional similarities, but high Ti contents are a diagnostic feature of the latter group. The results of major and trace element analysis demonstrate that both CV and CK chondrites show overlapping variation. Supporting evidence for a single common source for both groups comes from their similar cosmic-ray exposure age distributions. Recent reflectance spectral analysis is consistent with both the CVs and CKs being derived from Eos family asteroids, which are believed to have formed by the catastrophic disruption of a single large asteroid. Thus, a range of evidence appears to be consistent with CV and CK chondrites representing samples from a single thermally stratified parent body. In view of the close similarity between CV and CK chondrites some modification of the present classification scheme may be warranted, possibly involving integration of the two groups. One means of achieving this would be to reassigned CK chondrites to a subgroup of the oxidized CVs. It is recognized that a full evaluation of this proposal may require further study of the still poorly understood CK3 chondrites.

Greenwood, R. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Kearsley, A. T.; Alard, O.

2010-03-01

70

Effect of pre-dehulling treatments on the composition of seeds of the legume Afzelia africana and its potential use in pastries.  

PubMed

Flour was prepared from seeds of Afzelia africana dehulled by different treatments and used to replace 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% wheat flour in biscuits and doughnuts. The composition and water and oil absorption properties of the flour blends were evaluated. The biscuits and doughnuts made from each flour blend were evaluated organoleptically. The composite flour containing the highest proportion (50%) of A. africana seed flour contained the highest levels of protein and fat, exhibited the highest water absorption property but the lowest oil absorption capacity. Sensory scores showed high overall acceptability for products with a 10-30% level of substitution. PMID:9373871

Onweluzo, J C; Morakinyo, A O

1997-01-01

71

Somatic hybrids obtained by asymmetric protoplast fusion between Musa Silk cv. Guoshanxiang (AAB) and Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To attempt to introduce genetic information of disease resistance from Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) to Musa silk cv. Guoshanxiang (AAB) and obtain somatic hybrids, we developed an asymmetric protoplast fusion with 20% (w\\/v) polyethylene\\u000a glycol (PEG). The protoplasts derived from embryogenic suspension cultural cells of cv. Guoshanxiang (AAB) and cv. Mas (AA)\\u000a were, respectively treated with 1.5 mM iodoacetamide (IOA)

Wang Xiao; Xia Huang; Qing Gong; Xue-Mei Dai; Jie-Tang Zhao; Yue-Rong Wei; Xue-Lin Huang

2009-01-01

72

EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if accretion disks are present or not. Our results suggest that the accretion disk's geometric shape directly affects the disk's precession rate.

Montgomery, M. M. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

2009-11-01

73

Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T. africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45?days) with fresh or saline water (200?mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T. africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. PMID:22612790

Abou Jaoudé, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

2012-05-22

74

Potential infection of Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] in Mexico and the United States of America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

75

Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.  

PubMed

Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation during one procedure in which 19.7 microg/kg of each drug was administered. On the basis of the procedures that did not require supplementation to initiate treatment and taking into consideration the potential for ataxia at higher doses, a starting dosage range of 14.7-16.2 microg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol in a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis administered i.m. simultaneously is recommended. PMID:17323566

Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W

2005-06-01

76

Chemical signals in the reproduction of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.  

PubMed

Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit polygynous mating that involves female choice of mates and male-male competition for access to females. Chemical signals mediate intersexual and intrasexual interactions associated with reproduction. The need for reliable and honest signals is accentuated by the markedly different social structure of adult males and females. Adult female elephants live in matriarchal herds consisting of a dominant female and several generations of offspring. Adult males are solitary or travel with other males except during breeding periods. Because females have a long 16-week oestrous cycle with a brief 1-week receptive period and a 4-5 year interval between births, a sexually active female is a limited resource. Asian elephant females advertise a forthcoming ovulation by releasing (Z)-7-dodecen-1-yl acetate in their urine during the preovulatory period. African elephants probably produce a sex pheromone as well. Females regularly contact the ano-genital region of other females and show heightened chemosensory responsiveness to urine during the follicular phase. The physiological impacts of this ability to detect reproductive condition (e.g. possible synchronizing or suppressing of oestrus) are uncertain. Males experience an annual period of heightened aggressiveness and highly elevated testosterone concentrations known as musth. Males secrete fluid copiously from their temporal gland and dribble strongly odoriferous urine during musth. Females appear to prefer musth males as mates, and captive Asian females exhibit greater chemosensory responses to urine from males in musth than not. Males in musth are competitively dominant to all other males, even those larger than themselves. Nonmusth males avoid males in musth, and captive Asian bulls show greater interest in musth than nonmusth urine. In captivity subordinate Asian females back away from musth secretions, and females with calves sometimes display protective behaviour. Clearly, chemical signals play an important role in communication by elephants between and within the sexes. Further work is needed to identify more of these chemical messengers and to understand their complete function in mediating reproductive interactions in the elephant social system. PMID:9835364

Rasmussen, L E; Schulte, B A

1998-10-01

77

K-Band Observations of Subgap CV's  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the continuing results of VLT ISAAC K-band spectroscopy of short period cataclysmic variable (CV) systems below the "period gap” between 2 to 3 hours. It is extremely difficult to see the secondary stars in short period systems, since the low luminosity secondaries are swamped by the accretion disks in these objects. We show the infrared spectra for 9 systems below the gap: V2051 Oph, V436 Cen, EX Hya, VW Hyi, Z Cha, WX Hyi, V893 Sco, RZ Leo, and TY PsA. We are able to clearly detect the secondary stars in all but WX Hyi, V893 Sco, and TY PsA. We present the first direct detections of the secondary stars of V2051 Oph and V436 Cen, and present new detections for EX Hya, VW Hyi, Z Cha, and RZ Leo. Previous infrared spectroscopic surveys of CVs above the period gap reveal that these secondaries suffer a universal deficit of C12, enhanced levels of C13, and unusual abundance patterns for other species (e.g., Mg,Si, Al, Ca). Infrared spectroscopy of short period magnetic CVs (polars) have shown that their secondary stars appear completely normal, and the secondaries in a sample of "pre-CVs" have normal carbon abundances. Implications for CV evolution and formation scenarios will be discussed.

Hamilton, Ryan T.; Harrison, T. E.; Tappert, C.; Howell, S. B.

2010-01-01

78

Attenuation of oxidative stress in U937 cells by polyphenolic-rich bark fractions of Burkea africana and Syzygium cordatum.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of various diseases, which may result in the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous supplementation with antioxidants could result in increased protection against oxidative stress. As concerns have been raised regarding synthetic antioxidant usage, the identification of alternative treatments is justified. The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant efficacy of Burkea africana and Syzygium cordatum bark extracts in an in vitro oxidative stress model. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts, as well as polyphenolic-rich fractions, was determined in C2C12 myoblasts, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, normal human dermal fibroblasts and U937 macrophage-like cells using the neutral red uptake assay. Polyphenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium trichloride assays, and antioxidant activity using the Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity and DPPH assays. The extracts efficacy against oxidative stress in AAPH-exposed U937 cells was assessed with regards to reactive oxygen species generation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione depletion. RESULTS: B. africana and S. cordatum showed enrichment of polyphenols from the aqueous extract, to methanolic extract, to polyphenolic-rich fractions. Antioxidant activity followed the same trend, which correlated well with the increased concentration of polyphenols, and was between two- to three-fold stronger than the Trolox antioxidant control. Both plants had superior activity compared to ascorbic acid in the DPPH assay. Polyphenolic-rich fractions were most toxic to the 3T3-L1 (IC50's between 13 and 21 mug/ml) and C2C12 (IC50's approximately 25 mug/ml) cell lines, but were not cytotoxic in the U937 and normal human dermal fibroblasts cultures. Free radical-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (up to 80%), cytotoxicity (up to 20%), lipid peroxidation (up to 200%) and apoptosis (up to 60%) was successfully reduced by crude extracts of B. africana and the polyphenolic-rich fractions of both plants. The crude extracts of S. cordatum were not as effective in reducing cytotoxic parameters. CONCLUSION: Although oxidative stress was attenuated in U937 cells, cytotoxicity was observed in the 3T3-L1 and C2C12 cell lines. Further isolation and purification of polyphenolic-fractions could increase the potential use of these extracts as supplements by decreasing cytotoxicity and maintaining antioxidant quality. PMID:23714009

Cordier, Werner; Gulumian, Mary; Cromarty, Allan Duncan; Steenkamp, Vanessa

2013-05-28

79

Birth statistics for African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in human care: history and implications for elephant welfare.  

PubMed

African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have lived in the care of humans for many years, yet there is no consensus concerning some basic parameters describing their newborn calves. This study provides a broad empirical basis for generalizations about the birth heights, birth weights, birth times and gestation periods of elephant calves born in captivity. I obtained data concerning at least one of these four characteristics for 218 newborn calves from 74 institutions. Over the past 30 years, newborn Asian elephants have been taller and heavier than newborn African elephants. Neonatal African elephants exhibited sex differences in both weight and height, whereas neonatal Asian elephants have exhibited sex differences only in height. Primiparous dams ex situ are at least as old as their in situ counterparts, whereas ex situ sires appear to be younger than sires in range countries. Confirming earlier anecdotal evidence, both African [N=47] and Asian [N=91] dams gave birth most often at night. PMID:20391462

Dale, Robert H I

80

Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences. PMID:23407501

Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

2013-02-13

81

Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect. PMID:23653282

Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

2013-05-01

82

Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift  

PubMed Central

Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was isolated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be published. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project.

Liolos, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Detter, John C.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

2013-01-01

83

Characterization of symptoms of senescence and chilling injury on inflorescences of Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw and cv. Halloween  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate temperatures during the shipping and commercialization of cut tropical flowers may accelerate the senescence process and cause chilling injury, leading to symptoms that have not yet been described for Heliconia bihai. The aim of the present study was to evaluate physiological responses in cut inflorescences of H. bihai cv. Lobster Claw (LC) and cv. Halloween (HW) as well as

Andreza S. Costa; Luis Carlos Nogueira; Venézio F. dos Santos; Fernando Luiz Finger; Terezinha Rangel Camara; Vivian Loges; Lilia Willadino

2011-01-01

84

Effect of the Leaf Drying and Geographic Sources on the Essential Oil Composition of Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana Maire from the Tensift—Al Haouz, Marrakech Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera var. africana from three provenances (Forêt Islane, Ait Lkak and Plateau of Matat) in the Tensift-Al Haouz, Marrakech region, were analyzed by combined capillary gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The oil yields from fresh leaves showed on differences among geographical sources. Air dried leaves appeared to yield more oil at the highest elevation (1.03%, Ait Lkak,

Nadia Achak; Abderrahmane Romane; Mohamed Alifriqui; Robert P. Adams

2008-01-01

85

Personnel Restraint System Study, Cv-2 Dehavilland Caribou.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents detailed suggestions for the improvement of the personnel restraint system in the U. S. Army CV-2 aircraft. The suggestions pertain primarily to strengthening existing restraint system components rather than to a basic change of the sy...

J. L. Haley J. P. Avery

1964-01-01

86

CV characterization of MOS capacitors on high resistivity silicon substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on an investigation of capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors on high resistivity silicon (HRS) used as substrate for radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuits. C-V MOS-capacitor characteristics differ considerably from those on low-resistivity silicon (LRS) due to potential drop in the substrate and large Debye length. Modeling of the substrate by a simple network of parallel resistors

B. Ronga; L. K. Nanver; J. N. Burghartz; A. B. M. Jansman; A. G. R. Evans; B. S. Rejaei

2003-01-01

87

Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.  

PubMed

Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay. PMID:18268901

Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

88

Two cases of atypical mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium szulgai associated with mortality in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Mycobacterium szulgai was associated with mortality in two captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) housed at Lincoln Park Zoo. The first elephant presented with severe, acute lameness of the left rear limb. Despite extensive treatments, the animal collapsed and died 13 mo after initial presentation. Necropsy revealed osteomyelitis with loss of the femoral head and acetabulum and pulmonary granulomas with intralesional M. szulgai. The second elephant collapsed during transport to another institution with no premonitory clinical signs. This animal was euthanized because of prolonged recumbency. Granulomatous pneumonia with intralesional M. szulgai was found at necropsy. Two novel immunoassays performed on banked serum samples detected antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in both infected elephants. It was not possible to determine when the infection was established or how the elephants were infected. When reviewing the epidemiology of this organism in humans, however, transmission between elephants seemed unlikely because human-to-human transmission of this organism has never been reported and a third elephant in the herd was not affected. In addition to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial organisms need to be considered potentially pathogenic in elephants. PMID:17469283

Lacasse, Claude; Terio, Karen; Kinsel, Michael J; Farina, Lisa L; Travis, Dominic A; Greenwald, Rena; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Miller, Michele; Gamble, Kathryn C

2007-03-01

89

Characterisation of the sympathetic nervous system of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants based on urinary catecholamine analyses.  

PubMed

Assessing the welfare status of captive animals using non-invasive measurements of hormones is of growing interest because this can serve as an effective tool to facilitate the optimization of environmental and husbandry conditions. Both the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) exhibit extremely low breeding success in captivity, and because elevated levels of stress may negatively influence reproductive functions, this study sought to establish a method for assessing sympathoadrenal activity in captive female elephants. We found a circadian variation in urinary noradrenaline (norepinephrine, NE), adrenaline (epinephrine, Epi) and dopamine (DA) under short day length. Peak activity of noradrenaline and dopamine was noted at 3 a.m. Adrenaline showed a biphasic pattern with a minor peak recorded at 3 a.m. and a major peak 9 a.m. Under long-day photoperiodic conditions, simultaneous peaks of noradrenaline and adrenaline were again noted at 3 a.m. whereas dopamine does not appear to have a distinct circadian pattern under long-day length. A transfer of two elephant cows resulted in a marked increase in urinary adrenaline and noradrenaline levels, confirming that the transfer represented a stressful event. During the peripartal period, noradrenaline concentrations increased and maximum concentrations were obtained at delivery. Daily measurements of urinary dopamine throughout the follicular phase revealed an increase in dopamine secretion close to ovulation. This increase might indicate a role of dopamine in the ovulatory mechanisms. These results suggest that changes in urinary catecholamine excretion reflect fluctuations in sympathoadrenal activity and may be a useful indicator of stress. PMID:17336981

Dehnhard, M

2007-01-19

90

Electrochemical Etching and CV-Profiling of GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the implementation of a robust and reproducible electrochemical CV (ECV) characterization for the (Al, In)GaN material system. A Schottky-like contact is formed by electrolyte, wetting the area of the semiconductor surface delimited by a sealing ring. In reverse bias with common CV technique the concentration of donors and acceptors can be evaluated. Using a newly developed etch procedure, which we call cyclic oxidation, n- and p-type nitrides can be etched (photo-)electrochemically (PEC) to yield reproducibly etched surfaces with mirror-like surface morphology at high etch rates (3 m/h). This new etch procedure is explained in detail. The influence of the process parameters on the etch rate is discussed. Using this new etch procedure, various MOVPE and HVPE grown samples have been characterized by CV-Profiling.

Wolff, T.; Rapp, M.; Rotter, T.

2004-07-01

91

Endothelium/Nitric Oxide Mediates the Vasorelaxant and Antihypertensive Effects of the Aqueous Extract from the Stem Bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae)  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates the vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects of the aqueous extract from the stem bark of M. africana (AEMA). AEMA was tested in vitro on intact or endothelium-denuded rats' aorta rings precontracted with KCl or norepinephrine in absence or in presence of L-NAME or glibenclamide. The effect of a single concentration (300??g/mL) of AEMA was also examined on the concentration-response curve of KCl. In vivo, the antihypertensive effects of AEMA (200?mg/kg/day) were evaluated in male Wistar rats treated with L-NAME (40?mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. AEMA relaxed aorta rings precontracted with NE or KCl with respective EC50 values of 0.36??g/mL and 197.60??g/mL. The destruction of endothelium or pretreatment of aorta rings with L-NAME shifted the EC50 of AEMA from 0.36??g/mL to 40.65??g/mL and 20.20??g/mL, respectively. The vasorelaxant activity of M. africana was significantly inhibited in presence of glibenclamide. AEMA also significantly inhibited the concentration-response curve of KCl. Administered orally, AEMA induced acute and chronic antihypertensive effects and normalized renal NO level. These results show that the vasorelaxant activity of AEMA might be mediated by the activation of the NO-cGMP-ATP-dependent potassium channels pathway and might predominantly account for its antihypertensive effect.

Nguelefack-Mbuyo, Elvine Pami; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Kamanyi, Albert; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Theophile

2012-01-01

92

Micrografting of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Mateur)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful micrografting technique was developed for Pistacia vera. High levels of graft union were achieved when shoots from Stage II cultures of four-year-old P. vera. cv. Mateur were grafted onto in vitro-raised seedling rootstocks. Light and fluorescence microscopy investigations revealed that vascular continuity was established across grafts by three weeks.

A. Abousalim; S. H. Mantell

1992-01-01

93

The Type Theory of PL\\/CV3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programming logic PL\\/CV3 is based on the notion of a mathematical type. The core of the type theory, from which the full theory for program verification and specification can be derived, is presented. Whereas the full theory was designed to be usable, the core theory was selected to be analyzable. This presentation strives to be succinct, yet thorough. The

Robert L. Constable; Daniel R. Zlatin

1984-01-01

94

Flower development schedule in tomato Lycopersicon esculentum cv. sweet cherry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ontogeny of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. sweet cherry) flowers was subdivided into 20 stages using a series of landmark events. Stamen primordia emergence and carpel initiation occur at stage 4; archesporial and parietal tissue differentiate at stage 6 and meiosis in anthers begins at stage 9. Subepidermal meristematic ovule primordia are formed on the placenta at stage 9; megasporogenesis

Vladimir Brukhin; Michel Hernould; Nathalie Gonzalez; Christian Chevalier; Armand Mouras

2003-01-01

95

Germination stimulants produced by Vigna unguiculata Walp cv Saunders Upright  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germination stimulant, alectrol, for the seeds of the angiospermous root parasites Alectra vogelii Benth. and Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke has been isolated from root exudates of its genuine host plant Vigna unguiculata Walp cv Saunders Upright. Its spectroscopic data lead to a chemical structure closely related to (+)-strigol. The compound is\\u000a more active than strigol in stimulating seeds of

Sigrid Mtiller; Christian Hauck; Hermann Schildknecht

1992-01-01

96

Endocrinology of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephant.  

PubMed

In reviewing the literature, this paper assesses the current level of understanding of the hormonal control of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the elephant. Data are compiled from two genera, Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana, recognizing differences where known to exist. Measurements of various steroid and peptide hormones, but most notably immunoreactive progesterone (iP), indicate an overall cycle length of 15-16 weeks, comprising an 8-11-week luteal phase and a shorter inter-luteal (follicular) period of 4-6 weeks. Oestrogen related phenomena suggest the occurrence of two (possibly more) waves of follicular development with a 3-week periodicity, although oestrogen levels are low and fluctuate without clear pattern. The inter-luteal period is characterized by two discrete LH peaks also 3 weeks apart, but only the second is associated with an iP rise. Ovulation rate is variable and additional luteal structures lacking ovulation points are probably formed each cycle. The post-ovulatory period is associated with elevated progestogen levels, mainly 5alpha-reduced compounds, while progesterone itself is a minor secretory product. A revised model for the elephant ovarian cycle is presented. Detailed information on the endocrinology of pregnancy is lacking. Elevated progestins beyond the normal luteal phase indicate that conception extends the functional lifespan of the CL, with maximum steroidogenic activity between 3-15 months. The nature of the luteotrophic support is not known and placental gonadotrophins have not been conclusively demonstrated. Progestins fluctuate at or slightly above luteal phase values throughout pregnancy. There is a marked increase in prolactin levels after 16-24 weeks and a relationship with oestrogen secretion may exist since circulating and urinary levels show a progressive increase from 6-8 months. A placental contribution to progestin secretion is likely, although direct evidence is lacking. Considerable enlargement of foetal gonads during the second half of pregnancy in African elephants suggests a possible steroidogenic function, but none has been defined. The endocrine events leading to parturition are unknown. In the Asian elephant, a fall in iP precedes parturition; oestrogen levels decline and cortisol increases at the time of birth. The paper concludes with a brief selection of priorities for future research. PMID:9835363

Hodges, J K

1998-10-01

97

Progressive alteration in CV3 chondrites: More evidence for asteroidal alteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidized CV3 chondrites can be divided into two major subgroups or lithologies, Bali-like (CV3oxB) and Allende-like (CV3oxA), in which chondrules, CAIs and matrices show characteristic alteration features (Weisberg et al., 1997; Krot et al., 1997d; Kimura and Ikeda, 1997). The CV3oxB lithology is present in Bali, Kaba, parts of the Mokoia breccia and, possibly, in Grosnaja and ALH85006. It

Alexander N. Krot; Michael I. Petaev; Edward R. D. Scott; Byeon-Gak Choi; Michael E. Zolensky; Klaus Keil

1998-01-01

98

So you want to be a specialist registrar? – What to put in your CV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dentists applying to a specialist training programme often receive conflicting advice over what to put in their curriculum vitae (CV). We conducted a survey of the Training Programme Directors of the dental specialties to determine what aspects of CV content and presentation styles are considered important. This has allowed us to construct guidelines for what to put in a CV.

S G S Ellis; K D O'Brien; R I Joshi; P E Ellis

2002-01-01

99

Axtell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

1995-01-01

100

Characterisation of an anionic peroxidase from horseradish cv. Balady  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anionic peroxidase POIII, molecular weight 56kDa, was purified from the roots of horseradish cv. Balady. The enzyme exhibited high activity towards o-phenylenediamine and guaiacol, while o-dianisidine had moderate peroxidase activity. Pyrogallol and p-aminoantipyrine had low affinity toward POIII. POIII was found to have a temperature optimum at 40°C; the enzyme activity remained stable up to 40°C and retained 87%,

Saleh A. Mohamed; Khalid O. Abulnaja; Atef S. Ads; Jalaluddin A. Khan; Taha A. Kumosani

2011-01-01

101

Batteries and controls for C.V. traction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of electrically powered commercial vehicles (CV) using lead-acid batteries or the sodium-sulfur variety of lead-acid batteries is examined. High battery energy densities and reasonable stop-start driving ranges of the CVs using the batteries are required. Differences between the liquid sodium and liquid sulfur electrodes in alumina solid electrolyte batteries and the common Pb-PbO2 electrode in H2SO4 electrolyte lead-acid

M. G. Pearson

1976-01-01

102

Electrochemical etching and CV-profiling of GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the implementation of a robust and reproducible electrochemical CV (ECV) characterization for the (Al,In)GaN material system. A Schottky-like contact is formed by electrolyte, wetting the area of the semiconductor surface delimited by a sealing ring. In reverse bias with common CV technique the concentration of donors and acceptors can be evaluated. Using a newly developed etch procedure, which we call cyclic oxidation nitrides can be etched (photo-)electrochemically (PEC) to yield reproducibly etched surfaces with mirror-like surface morphology at high etch rates (3 ?m/h). This new etch procedure is not restricted to n-type nitrides, but works also for p-type nitrides. In the first time cycle the nitride semiconductor is electrochemically oxidized: UV illumination and forward voltage is applied to oxidize n-GaN and p-GaN, respectively. During this time cycle the local pH-value of electrolyte at etch area decreases. The established thin oxide film - essential for smooth etching - is dissolved by jet-pumping with fresh electrolyte during the complementary time cycle. The influence of the process parameters on the etch rate is discussed. The application of this new etch procedure to characterize various MOVPE and HVPE grown samples by CV-Profiling is presented.

Wolff, T.; Rapp, M.; Rotter, T.

2005-02-01

103

Phosphate-haemoglobin interaction. The primary structure of the haemoglobin of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana, Proboscidea): asparagine in position 2 of the beta-chain.  

PubMed

The primary structure of the haemoglobin of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) is reported. The sequence was determined by means of a sequenator. The haemoglobin differs in 26 amino acids in the alpha-chains and in 27 in the beta-chains from that of adult human haemoglobin. The haemoglobin of the African Elephant, like that of the Indian Elephant and Ilama, has only 5 binding sites for polyphosphate. This finding explains the low p(O2)50 value in whole blood as a result of the lower 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-haemoglobin interaction. This is discussed in relation to aspects of respiratory physiology; some points are also of interest with regard to the Second Punic War and Hannibal's crossing of the Alps. PMID:6479896

Braunitzer, G; Stangl, A; Schrank, B; Krombach, C; Wiesner, H

1984-07-01

104

Do chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use cleavers and anvils to fracture Treculia africana fruits? Preliminary data on a new form of percussive technology.  

PubMed

Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are renowned for their use of tools in activities ranging from foraging to social interactions. Different populations across Africa vary in their tool use repertoires, giving rise to cultural variation. We report a new type of percussive technology in food processing by chimpanzees in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea: Treculia fracturing. Chimpanzees appear to use stone and wooden "cleavers" as tools, as well as stone outcrop "anvils" as substrate to fracture the large and fibrous fruits of Treculia africana, a rare but prized food source. This newly described form of percussive technology is distinctive, as the apparent aim is not to extract an embedded food item, as is the case in nut cracking, baobab smashing, or pestle pounding, but rather to reduce a large food item to manageably sized pieces. Furthermore, these preliminary data provide the first evidence of chimpanzees using two types of percussive technology for the same purpose. PMID:19967575

Koops, Kathelijne; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2009-12-08

105

[On "the moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female"].  

PubMed

The TCM theory "moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female" is discussed in this article, which provides theoretical instruction on proper clinical application of Shimen (CV 5). Based on literature study, ancient classics concerning contraindication of "moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female" were studied. TCM theory "moxibustion shouldn't be applied at Shimen (CV 5) on female" was explored profoundly through ancient record, physiological relations between Shimen (CV 5) and pregnancy, the relation between the anatomic structure of Shimen (CV 5) and the extra acupoint Jueyun Xue. And the result indicated that as an acupoint with contraindications, Shimen (CV 5) should be attached with great importance in its clinical practice on female patients. Reinforcing manipulation should be given instead of reducing. Moxibustion should be applied with cautiousness on the point, especially during pregnancy. PMID:23885628

Xuan, Da-Ke; Wu, Gui-Hua

2013-05-01

106

Utilização de imagens multiespectrais termais do sensor ASTER para mapeamento remoto de prováveis áreas com feições de impacto em crateras africanas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work approaches the use of ASTER thermal infrared data for spectro-mineralogical characterization of targets of interest in impact crater research, particularly quartz-rich rocks, minerals that favorably register and preserve shock features. The study demonstrated, using the Tin Bider structure (Argelia) as a control, that ASTER emissivity data, when classified through adapted hyperspectral processing techniques (Spectral Angle Mapper and Mixture

Thais Andressa Carrino

107

Circular Dichroism and Spectroscopic Studies of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble Red Wine Liquid Chromatographic Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 * Abstract. Red wines were made with Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble grapes with three different skin contact times and with added acetaldehyde to investigate monoglucoside and diglucoside anthocyanin polymerization. The anthocyanins were extracted from the wines by a low-pressure liquid chromatographic (LC) procedure using a silica\\/PVPP column, producing three to four chromatographic fractions

TONY V. JOHNSTON; JUSTIN R. MORRIS

108

Rooting cuttings of Syringa vulgaris cv. Charles Joly and Corylus avellana cv. Aurea: the influence of stock plant pruning and shoot growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between shoot growth and rooting was examined in two, 'difficult-to root' amenity trees, Syringa vulgaris L. cv. Charles Joly and Corylus avellana L. cv. Aurea. A range of treatments reflecting severity of pruning was imposed on field-grown stock prior to bud break. To minimise variation due to the numbers of buds that developed under different treatments, bud number

Ross Cameron; Richard Harrison-Murray; Michael Fordham; Heather Judd; Yannick Ford; Tim Marks; Rodney Edmondson

2003-01-01

109

Modeling the structure of CV formation and expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Purpose,– The paper aims to form system,dynamics,modeling,in introduced,in conjunction with econometric,analysis and,planned,scenario,analysis,which,will uniquely,structure the process whereby,the ex ante capital values of the prime retail real estate sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach,– The integrated system dynamics,model investigates the structural factors affecting a unique expectation-centered capital value (CV) formation of the prime retail real estate sector, through system dynamics modeling, econometric analysis , and

Kim Hin Ho

110

Electrochemical CV-profiling of GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Schottky-like contact is formed by electrolyte, wetting the area of the semiconductor surface delimited by a sealing ring. In reverse bias with common CV technique the concentration of donors and acceptors can be evaluated. Using a newly developed etch procedure, which we call cyclic oxidation, n- and p-type nitrides can be etched (photo-)electrochemically (PEC) to yield reproducibly etched surfaces with mirror-like surface morphology at high etch rates (3 m/h). Using this new etch procedure, various MOVPE and HVPE grown samples have been characterized by ECV profiling.

Wolff, T.; Rapp, M.; Rotter, T.

2004-09-01

111

Chandra HETG Large Program on the Magnetic CV EX Hya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) the primary is a highly magnetized white dwarf(WD) whose field controls the accretion flow close to the WD, leading to a shock and accretion column that radiate chiefly in X-rays. We present preliminary results from a 500 ks Chandra HETG observation of the brightest magnetic CV EX Hya. From the observational dataset we are able to measure the temperature and density at different points of the accretion column using sensitive line ratios from line-based light curves.

Luna, Gerardo; Brickhouse, N.; Mauche, C.

2008-03-01

112

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2013-09-13

113

Odour-active compounds in banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction, simultaneous distillation-extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 146 compounds, 124 of them were positively identified. Thirty-one odourants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical banana aroma, eleven of them are reported for the first time as odour-active compounds. PMID:23790849

Pino, Jorge A; Febles, Yanet

2013-03-26

114

Sawdust of lam tree ( Cordia africana ) as a low-cost, sustainable and easily available adsorbent for the removal of toxic metals like Pb(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sawdust of lam tree (Cordia africana) has been investigated as an adsorbent for the removal of lead and nickel ions from aqueous solution. Since lam tree is widely\\u000a grown in almost all the eastern, western, central and southern tropical African countries (United States Department of Agriculture,\\u000a GRIN, Maryland), it can be a common most easily available, sustainable, low cost adsorbent for

Syed Muzaffar Ali Andrabi

2011-01-01

115

Some physical, pomological and nutritional properties of kiwifruit cv. Hayward.  

PubMed

In this research, several physical, pomological and nutritional properties that are important for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separation and packaging of kiwifruit cv. Hayward grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey were determined. The fruit characteristics ranged from 72.28 g for average fruit weight, 59.41, 46.28 and 42.87 mm for fruit length, width and thickness, 49.03 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 0.825% for sphericity and 66.52 cm(3) for the volume of fruit, respectively. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 575.27 kg/m(3), 1,093 kg/m(3) and 47.13%. The highest coefficient of static friction was obtained on plywood as 0.190, followed by polyethylene, rubber and galvanized steel sheet as 0.173, 0.163 and 0.158, respectively. The total soluble solid content, acidity, vitamin C, ash and total nitrogen content of kiwifruit cv. Hayward were 7.32%, 1.64%, 108 mg/100g, 0.71 g/100 g and 0.84%, respectively. The fresh fruits have 1.09 mg/100g total chlorophylls and flesh color data represented as L, a and b were 57.18, 17.25 and 37.46, respectively. PMID:17710584

Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Turgut, Nihat

2007-09-01

116

Cloning and sequencing of columbid circovirus (CoCV), a new circovirus from pigeons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The complete nucleotide sequence of columbid circovirus (CoCV) isolated from pigeons is described. CoCV was amplified using\\u000a a consensus primer PCR approach directed against conserved sequences within the rep genes of vertebrate circoviruses. The genome of CoCV is circular and 2037 nt in size. It displays 55% homology to the genome\\u000a of psittacine beak and feather disease virus and is

A. Mankertz; K. Hattermann; B. Ehlers; D. Soike

2000-01-01

117

Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.  

PubMed

Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50<50 µg/ml with MIC values of less than 0.78 mg/ml. Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue. PMID:23785437

Mwitari, Peter G; Ayeka, Peter A; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N; Bii, Christine C

2013-06-13

118

Estudo da ativacao das pecas componentes do ciclotron CV-28. (Study of the activation of the parts components of the CV-28 cyclotron).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CV-17 cyclotron, isochronous, compact, of variable energy is an accelerator of charged particles and is applied in several situations such as: radioisotopes production, neutron production, irradiation damage analysis, activation analysis. During the p...

P. W. Fajardo

1986-01-01

119

Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Nodulation of Pisum sativum L. cv Sparkle.  

PubMed

Exogenous ethylene inhibited nodulation on the primary and lateral roots of pea, Pisum sativum L. cv Sparkle. Ethylene was more inhibitory to nodule formation than to root growth; nodule number was reduced by half with only 0.07 muL/L ethylene applied continually to the roots for 3 weeks. The inhibition was overcome by treating roots with 1 mum Ag(+), an inhibitor of ethylene action. Exogenous ethylene also inhibited nodulation on sweet clover (Melilotus alba) and on pea mutants that are hypernodulating or have ineffective nodules. Exogenous ethylene did not decrease the number of infections per centimeter of lateral pea root, but nearly all of the infections were blocked when the infection thread was in the basal epidermal cell or in the outer cortical cells. PMID:16653194

Lee, K H; Larue, T A

1992-12-01

120

The Elliptic Orbit of the WR Binary System CV Serpentis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a new determination of the orbital parameters of the WC8+08-9 binary system CV Serpentis (HD 168206), through the analysis of spectroscopic observations obtained at CTIO (Chile) and CASLEO (Argentina), together with previously published data. The period that best fits the radial velocity variations of both the Wolf-Rayet emission lines and the O-type absorption lines, is 29.704 days. The curve of the radial velocity variations of the absorption lines shows an eccentricity of 0.19 +/- 0.03, not noticed in previous studies of this binary system. In recent echelle CCD spectrograms obtained at CASLEO, the shape of the absorption line profiles appears complex, suggesting that probably more than one early type star might be present in the system.

Niemela, Virpi S.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Bosch, Guillermo L.

1996-12-01

121

Economic valuation of the Seto Inland Sea by using an Internet CV survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the economic value of the natural environment damaged in the Seto Inland Sea after the introduction of the Law on Temporary Measures for the Environmental Conservation of the Seto Inland Sea (Setouchi Law) and the value of the natural environment that survived, using a Contingent Valuation (CV) survey on an Internet web site. The CV survey contains three

Takahiro Tsuge; Toyoaki Washida

2003-01-01

122

7. Characterization of incomplete resistance to Hemileia vastatrix in Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) varied among genotypes of Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou from near ‘immunity’ to a higher susceptibility than that of C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo. In 4 series of laboratory tests resistance components and reaction type (RT) were observed. Low disease levels in the field were mainly associated with low, or heterogeneous, RT and\\/or

A. B. Eskes

1983-01-01

123

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (CV 777) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are antigenically related  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using gut sections from pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (strain CV 777) and ascitic fluid from cats which had succumbed to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a weak cross reaction was found by immunofluorescence. Its specificity was confirmed when detergent-treated purified CV 777 showed a prominent reaction with FIPV antibodies in ELISA; no reaction was obtained with intact

Zhou Yaling; J. Ederveen; H. Egberink; M. Pensaert; M. C. Horzinek

1988-01-01

124

Colgajo CV y tatuaje: una alternativa para reconstrucción aréola pezón Nipple areeola reconstruction with c-v flap and tatoo. Experience in 18 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background: The reconstruction of the nipple areola complex is the final complement to mammary reconstruction. Its objective is to give a natural look, giving a symmetrical aspect when compared with the opposite complex. Reconstruction techniques combine local flaps, grafting and tattoos. Material and Methods: Report of a series of 16 women who received 18 nipple areola complex reconstructions with

TRABAJOS CIENTÍFICOS

125

A hydrated clast in the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: Evidence for intensive aqueous alteration in the CV parent body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of a highly hydrated clast in the Mokoia CV3 carbonaceous chondrite that contains eight chondrules and one amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI), embedded in a matrix dominated by hydrous phyllosilicates. Anhydrous silicates in the chondrules and AOI were extensively replaced by phyllosilicates. The matrix has a composition intermediate between saponite and serpentine and contains abundant framboidal magnetite, being similar to the matrices of the CI chondrites. The mineralogy and texture indicate that the clast resulted from intensive aqueous alteration of a precursor equivalent to the host Mokoia meteorite, and it can be regarded as the CV2-type lithology. The results indicate that there was in fact an extremely wet region within the Mokoia parent body and that this clast escaped subsequent thermal metamorphism. This clast reveals abundant evidence of progressive and dynamic aqueous alteration processes. The chondrules were replaced inward from their margins, and the alteration products were disaggregated and mixed into the matrix; as a result, the chondrules increasingly became smaller in size and irregular in shape. Some of the chondrules were separated into pieces. The results indicate that a major proportion of the matrix materials were produced by the alteration of chondrules and inclusions and that there was a stage in which the alteration products and the original matrix material were extensively and uniformly mixed together. The presence of the clast supports a previously proposed model, which suggests that hydrated chondrules, inclusions, and the rims surrounding them in the host Mokoia chondrite are clasts produced by brecciation within a wet region of the parent body and that they were subsequently transported and incorporated into the dry matrix.

Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro

2011-10-01

126

Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV  

SciTech Connect

Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

Rittmann, P.D.

1984-08-01

127

Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

2013-09-01

128

Forensic DNA analysis of a foetal histological section and chromosome sample from chorionic villi (CV) in Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the opinion of a plaintiff (Mrs. B) and a co-plaintiff (Mrs. A), two samples had been exchanged during cytogenetic investigation of foetal chorionic villi (CV), because the child of Mrs. A was born with Down syndrome in spite of the negative CV result (46, XY). The CV investigation of Mrs. B had given a positive result (47, XY,

H Pamjav; B Egyed; S Füredi; J Woller; Zs Pádár; E Susa; B Baraczka

2004-01-01

129

Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if available, blood parathyroid hormone levels to adjust the nutritional supplementation for each individual elephant. PMID:24063079

van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

2013-09-01

130

Remote sensing of the link between arable field and elephant ( Loxodonta africana) distribution change along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated whether the proportion of remotely sensed arable fields increased along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Sebungwe region. We also investigated whether and to what extent this increase in arable fields affected the distribution of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) between the 1980s and 1990s. Results showed a relatively higher increase in the proportion of arable fields in the zone cleared of tsetse by 1986 compared to the zone that was still tsetse infested by the same date. Results also showed contrasting patterns in the relationship between the proportion of the habitat under arable fields and elephant distribution between the two periods. Specifically, in the 1980s, when arable field cover was between 0% and 11%, there was a weak ( p > 0.05) positive relationship between elephant presence and the proportion of the habitat under arable fields. In contrast, a significant ( p < 0.05) negative relationship emerged in the 1990s, when arable field cover ranged between 0% and 88%. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the change in the probability of elephant presence between the early 1980s and the early 1990s was significantly ( p < 0.05) related to the change in the proportion arable fields. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the expansion of arable fields in the Sebungwe was greater in areas where tsetse had been eradicated compared with areas that were still tsetse infested. Overall, the results suggest that using remotely sensed data, we can conclude that tsetse eradication led to the redistribution of elephants in response to arable field expansion.

Murwira, Amon; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Huizing, H. J. G.; Prins, H. H. T.

131

Para Agricultores  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... P. ¿Qué pasaría si las granjas se las ven diciles para cumplir con los requerimientos finales? ¿Se puede per- mir empo extra? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

132

Properties of a cationic peroxidase from Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia.  

PubMed

The major pool of peroxidase activity is present in the peel of some Egyptian citrus species and cultivars compared to the juice and pulp. Citrus jambhiri cv. Adalia had the highest peroxidase activity among the examined species. Four anionic and one cationic peroxidase isoenzymes from C. jambhiri were detected using the purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatography on diethylaminoethanol-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, and Sephacryl S-200 columns. Cationic peroxidase POII is proved to be pure, and its molecular weight was 56 kDa. A study of substrate specificity identified the physiological role of POII, which catalyzed the oxidation of some phenolic substrates in the order of o-phenylenediamine > guaiacol > o-dianisidine > pyrogallol > catechol. The kinetic parameters (K (m), V (max), and V (max)/K (m)) of POII for hydrolysis toward H2O2 and electron donor substrates were studied. The enzyme had pH and temperature optima at 5.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. POII was stable at 10-40 degrees C and unstable above 50 degrees C. The thermal inactivation profile of POII is biphasic and characterized by a rapid decline in activity on exposure to heat. The most of POII activity (70-80%) was lost at 50, 60, and 70 degrees C after 15, 10, and 5 min of incubation, respectively. Most of the examined metal ions had a very slight effect on POII except of Li+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, which had partial inhibitory effects. In the present study, the instability of peroxidase above 50 degrees C makes the high temperature short time treatment very efficient for the inactivation of peel peroxidase contaminated in orange juice to avoid the formation of off-flavors. PMID:18633734

Mohamed, Saleh A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Drees, Ehab A; Fahmy, Afaf S

2008-02-15

133

Petrology and mineralogy of the Yamato-86751 CV3 chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Y-86751 chondrite (CV3) consists of fine-grained Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine inclusions (AOIs), spinel-rich inclusions, chondrules with and without dark rims, dark inclusions, isolated minerals, metal-sulfide aggregates, and matrix. Olivines in chondrules without dark rims and AOIs coexist with magnetite and show strong zoning from a magnesian core to a ferroan rim. Spinels in spinel-rich inclusions show similar zoning. This zoning seems to be caused by exchange reaction of olivine and spinel with an oxidized nebular gas prior to the accretion onto the parent body, and the Mg/Fe diffusion in olivines and spinels took place at a temperature of about 830-860 K. At the same time, enstatite in chondrules without dark rims was replaced by ferroan olivine at the grain boundaries. This feature sugests that chondrules without dark rims, fine-grained CAIs, spinel-rich inclusions, and AOIs have experienced oxidation in an oxidizing nebular gas. The oxygen fugacity of the oxidized nebular gas was greater than 10-27.3 bars at about 830 K, being more than 104x larger than that of the canonical nebular gas. Magnetite occurs in the Y-86751 matrix in close association with Ni-rich taenite and Co-rich metal, and it was produced under a condition with the oxygen fugacity of approx. 10-38 bars at a temperature of about 620-650 K. On the other hand, olivines in chondrules with dark rims and dark inclusions are magnesian and rich in MnO. They do not show such strong zoning. Probably they were in equilibrium with a nebular gas under a redox condition different from the oxidized nebular gas that produced the zoned olivines in chondrules without dark rims.

Murakami, Toshio; Ikeda, Yukio

1994-05-01

134

Magnetic characteristics of CV chondrules with paleointensity implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a detailed magnetic study on 45 chondrules from two carbonaceous chondrites of the CV type: (1) Mokoia and (2) Allende. Allende has been previously extensively studied and is thought to have a high potential of retaining an extra-terrestrial paleofield. Few paleomagnetic studies of Mokoia have previously been undertaken. We report a range of magnetic measurements including hysteresis, first-order reversal curve analysis (FORCs), demagnetization characteristics, and isothermal remanent (IRM) acquisition behavior on both Mokoia and Allende chondrules. The Mokoia chondrules displayed more single domain-like behavior than the Allende chondrules, suggesting smaller grain sizes and higher magnetic stability. The Mokoia chondrules also had higher average concentrations of magnetic minerals and a larger range of magnetic characteristics than the Allende chondrules. IRM acquisition analysis found that both sets of chondrules have the same dominant magnetic mineral, likely to be a FeNi phase (taenite, kamacite, and/or awaruite) contributing to 48% of the Mokoia chondrules and 42% of the Allende chondrule characteristics. FORC analysis revealed that generally the Allende chondrules displayed low-field coercivity distributions with little interactions, and the Mokoia chondrules show clear single-domain like distributions. Paleointensity estimates for the two meteorites using the REMc and Preisach methods yielded estimates between 13 and 60 ?T and 3-56 ?T, respectively, for Allende and 3-140 ?T and 1-110 ?T, respectively, for Mokoia. From the data, we suggest that Mokoia chondrules carry a non-primary remagnetization, and while Allende is more likely than Mokoia to retain its primary magnetization, it also displays signs of post accretionary magnetization.

Emmerton, Stacey; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Bland, Philip A.

2011-12-01

135

Diversity Combining in the AN/UCC-1C(V).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The diversity combining in the AN/UCC-1C(V) microelectronic FSK frequency division multiplex equipment is shown to be inadequate under simulated, periodic fading conditions. Long time constants in the limiter circuitry prevent the discriminator output fro...

W. M. Jewett

1967-01-01

136

Oxygen Isotope Microanalysis of Enveloping Compound Chondrules in CV3 and LL3 Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SIMS data for enveloping compound chondrules in CV3 and LL3 chondrites indicate that they were formed by multiple heating events during which the O-isotope compositions of chondrules and nebular gas reservoirs have not changed significantly.

Akaki, T.; Nakamura, T.

2005-03-01

137

Petrological and Mineralogical Study of Compact Type A CAI in the Allende CV Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the petrological and mineralogical characteristics of a compact type A (CTA) CAI in the Allende CV chondrite using SEM and TEM in order to shed light on the details of crystallization process of CTA.

Ohnishi, I.; Suzuki, T.; Yoshitake, M.; Yamashita, K.

2013-09-01

138

Observations on competing mechanisms governing the CV responses of nonlinear ceramic capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic capacitors with nonlinear C-V response find application in power-electronic snubber switching circuits at higher voltages. Here, the AC and in-situ switching C-V responses of commercial multilayer and high-voltage disc capacitors are compared in relation to their postulated ferroelectric grain and p-n junction grain-boundary contributions, with a view to optimizing component performance through an increased understanding of such interrelated mechanisms

C. K. Campbell; Jacobus D. Van Wyk; Max F. K. Holm

1995-01-01

139

Proteins responding to drought and high-temperature stress in Populus × euramericana cv. ‘74\\/76’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteomic analysis provides a powerful method of studying plant responses to stress at the protein level. In order to study\\u000a stress-responsive molecular mechanisms for Populus × euramericana cv. ‘74\\/76’, one of the most important forest plantation tree species in subtropical and temperate regions, we analyzed the\\u000a response of 2-year-old cuttings of P. × euramericana cv. ‘74\\/76’ to drought and high

Caiyun He; Jianguo Zhang; Aiguo Duan; Shuxing Zheng; Honggang Sun; Lihua Fu

2008-01-01

140

Modeling of SOI-MOS capacitors CV behavior: partially- and fully-depleted cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is presented for the C-V characteristics of partially-depleted (PD) and fully-depleted (FD) SOI-MOS capacitors. The proposed model is flexible, allowing introduction of all types of nonidealities typical to MOS type structures. New formulae for the low- and high-frequency capacitances of these structures are derived. Due to the various charges stored in these structures, unusual and more complex C-V

Fawzi A. Ikraiam; Romuald B. Beck; Andrzej Jakubowski

1998-01-01

141

Study of an Optimal Algorithm for Combing TWSTFT and GPS CV Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) and GPS C\\/A code based common view (GPS CV) are the two primary methods for international time and frequency transfer. TWSTFT technique has been made significant improvement in the last several years, and demonstrated to show a higher precision of T&F transfer than that of GPS CV. So it has been utilized for

Li Gun; Hu Yong hui; Zhong Chong-xia; Zhou Wei

2006-01-01

142

Defense response of a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 is induced at temperatures below 24°C.  

PubMed

Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant growth and development. Recent studies imply that plants show various responses to non-extreme ambient temperatures. Previously, we have found that a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 (Capsicum chinense) shows developmental defects at temperatures below 24°C. In this study, to gain new insights into the temperature sensitivity of cv. Sy-2, temperature-sensitive genes were screened using microarray techniques. At restrictive temperature of 20°C, almost one-fourth of the 411 up-regulated genes were defense related or predicted to be defense related. Further expression analyses of several defense-related genes showed that defense-related genes in cv. Sy-2 were constitutively expressed at temperatures below 24°C. Moreover, accumulation of high level of salicylic acid (SA) in cv. Sy-2 grown at 20°C suggests that the defense response is activated in the absence of pathogens. To confirm that the defense response is induced in cv. Sy-2 below 24°C, we evaluated the resistance to biotrophic bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora capsici. Cv. Sy-2 showed enhanced resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, but not to C. capsici. PMID:21424609

Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Tanaka, Chihiro; Choi, Doil; Sano, Satoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

2011-03-20

143

[Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].  

PubMed

Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species. PMID:19238862

Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

2008-11-01

144

Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum.  

PubMed

CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e(-07)) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and (13)C- and (15)N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel ? + ? fold containing two anti-parallel ?-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one ?-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum. PMID:22837698

Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A; Cort, John R; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Kennedy, Michael A

2012-06-14

145

Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

2013-08-01

146

Pneumococcal polysaccharide protein D-conjugate vaccine (Synflorix; PHiD-CV).  

PubMed

The pneumococcal polysaccharide protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix) contains ten capsular polysaccharide serotypes from the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, eight of which are conjugated to a nonlipidated cell-surface liporotein (protein D) of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and two of which are conjugated to either tetanus or diphtheria toxoid. In a three-dose primary vaccination schedule in infants aged <6 months, PHiD-CV elicited high immune responses against all pneumococcal serotypes contained in the vaccine and was noninferior to an approved 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) for eight of the ten serotypes (five of the seven common to both vaccines). Moreover, functional antibodies were elicited against all vaccine serotypes in an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay. A fourth booster dose of PHiD-CV during the second year of life elicited an anamnestic response against all ten pneumococcal serotypes, as determined by both antibody concentrations and OPA titers. There were no clinically relevant changes in the immunogenicity of PHiD-CV when coadministered with meningococcal serogroup C conjugate or pentavalent whole cell pertussis combination vaccines, and polio vaccines using two different primary vaccination schedules. 11Pn-PD, an 11-valent prototype of PHiD-CV, demonstrated protection against episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) caused by S. pneumoniae and NTHi in infants aged <27 months. The first occurrence of an episode of AOM caused by pneumococcal vaccine serotypes was reduced by 52.6% in 11Pn-PD vaccinees compared with recipients of a control vaccine (primary endpoint). The tolerability profile of PHiD-CV was generally similar to that of 7vCRM. PMID:19725600

Croxtall, Jamie D; Keating, Gillian M

2009-01-01

147

Cardiac electrophysiological characteristics of the mdx 5cv mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Cardiomyopathy,\\u000a conduction abnormalities, and ventricular arrhythmias are significant complications of this disease. The mdx\\u000a \\u000a 5cv\\u000a mouse carries a dystrophin mutation and demonstrates a more severe phenotype than the classic mdx mouse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Comprehensive electrophysiological phenotyping was performed in adult mdx\\u000a \\u000a 5cv\\u000a and wildtype mice, including

Dorothy M. Branco; Cordula M. Wolf; Megan Sherwood; Peter E. Hammer; Peter B. Kang; Charles I. Berul

2007-01-01

148

Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"EJAB is a refereed online journal of bibliographies on any aspect of Africa, its peoples, their homes, cities, towns, districts, states, countries, regions, including social, economic sustainable development, creative literature, the arts, and the Diaspora." The site currently has three bibliographies: Guides, Collections and Ancillary Materials to African Archival Resources in the US; Foreign Periodicals on Africa; and Medical/Health Periodicals and Books on Africa. Combined, they contain over 2100 entries. Anyone studying Africa will undoubtedly find numerous important resources.

1997-01-01

149

The chemical composition of suberin in apoplastic barriers affects radial hydraulic conductivity differently in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) and corn (Zea mays L. cv. Helix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoplastic transport barriers in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) and corn (Zea mays L. cv. Helix) were isolated enzymatically. Following chemical degrada- tion (monomerization, derivatization), the amounts of aliphatic and aromatic suberin monomers were ana- lysed quantitatively by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In corn, suberin was determined for isolated endodermal (ECW) and rhizo-hypodermal (RHCW) cell

Lukas Schreiber; Rochus Franke; Klaus-Dieter Hartmann; Kosala Ranathunge; Ernst Steudle

2005-01-01

150

Case 2:06-cv-03877-JFB-MLO Document 1-1 Filed 08/10 ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Case 2:06-cv-03877-JFB-MLO Document 1-1 Filed 08/10/2006 Page 1 of 14 Page 2. Case 2:06-cv-03877-JFB-MLO ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

151

Natural and preservative-treated durability of Populus nigra cv Italica timber grown in Santa Cruz Province, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populus nigra cv Italica (Alamo criollo) is the main species planted for windbreaks in Santa Cruz Province (Argentina). Alamo has been a traditional source of poles for rural constructions in southern Patagonia. The objective of this work was to evaluate the natural and CCA-treated durability of P. nigra cv Italica cultivated in different sites of Santa Cruz. Laboratory decay tests

B. Diaz; M. Murace; P. Peri; G. Keil; L. Luna; M. y Otaño

2003-01-01

152

Modeling the structure of CV formation and expectations : The commercial retail real estate sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to form system dynamics modeling in introduced in conjunction with econometric analysis and planned scenario analysis which will uniquely structure the process whereby the ex ante capital values of the prime retail real estate sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The integrated system dynamics model investigates the structural factors affecting a unique expectation-centered capital value (CV) formation of

2007-01-01

153

Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

2004-01-01

154

Influence of different drying methods on carotenoids and capsaicinoids of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of Refractance Window™ Drying (RWD), a novel contact drying method, on carotenoids, capsaicinoids, Retinol Activity Equivalent (RAE) and Scoville Heat Unit (SHU) of paprika (Cv., Jalapeno) was investigated in comparison with freeze drying (FD), oven drying (OD), and natural convective drying (NCD) methods. Eight carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, capsolutein, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, mutatoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) and five capsaicinoid analogues (capsaicin,

Ayhan Topuz; Cuneyt Dincer; Kubra Sultan Özdemir; Hao Feng; Mosbah Kushad

2011-01-01

155

Quantitation of transcribing native simian virus 40 minichromosomes extracted from CV1 cells late in infection.  

PubMed Central

Simian virus 40 transcriptional complexes could be extracted from CV1 cells late in infection and separated from the bulk of inactive viral chromatin. Sucrose gradient sedimentation, cesium sulfate equilibrium density gradient centrifugation, and electron microscopy indicated that the viral transcriptional complexes corresponded to at least 0.5 to 1% of the viral minichromosomes extracted, about 5,000 copies per cell. Images

Llopis, R; Perrin, F; Bellard, F; Gariglio, P

1981-01-01

156

Substance of green waste compost adding bamboo vinegar as growth stimulator for Calathca rotundifola cv. Fasciata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composting process allows the conversion of green waste into plant substance that can be used in replacing Pindstrup Sphagnum (PS) for Calathca rotundifola cv. Fasciata cultivation. To help address this need, this study used bacterial reagent and bamboo vinegar as additives in composting process, and chosen the best green waste compost (BGWC) with the best Physico-chemical properties forpartly or

Yun Tian; Xiangyang Sun; Jixin Cao; Lu Zhang; Baozhu Zhang

2011-01-01

157

Pruning Terminology Extracted from a Specialized Corpus for CV Ontology Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study for extracting a terminology from a corpus made of Curriculum Vitae (CV). This terminology is to be used for ontology acquisition. The choice of the pruning rate of the terminology is crucial relative to the quality of the ontology acquired. In this paper, we investigate this pruning rate by using several evaluation measures (precision,

Mathieu Roche; Yves Kodratoff

2006-01-01

158

Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

2013-10-01

159

The synthetic potential of immobilised cells of Capsicum frutescens Mill cv. annuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells of Capsicum frutescens Mill. cv. annuum, immobilised in reticulate polyurethane foam, produced higher yields of capsaicin, the pungent principle of Chilli pepper fruits, than did freely-suspended cells, when batch-cultured in a medium conducive to culture growth. In the absence of specific precursors to capsaicin, immobilised cells produced between two and three orders of magnitude higher yields than did suspended

Keith Lindsey; Michael M. Yeoman

1984-01-01

160

SEPARATION OF SUNLIGHT AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE COMPOSITION OF VITIS VINIFERA CV. MERLOT BERRIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanin and phenolic profiles of berry skins from Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot in the Yakima Valley of Washington were influenced by sun exposure and temperature in 1999 and 2000. Total skin monomeric anthocyanin (TSMA) concentrations were higher in 2000 than in 1999 in any given treatment. Berry t...

161

High productivity multiple DUT CV test for MEMS microphone wafer with automatic correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Productivity in MEMS wafer process is getting more and more important as mass production on 200 mm wafer is increasing. Multiple DUT parallel CV test is a high productive way for MEMS Microphone wafer test process, however, in case of the one of two electrodes is connected to the wafer substrate with some contact resistance, interference among DUTs has an

S. Inuzuka

2010-01-01

162

Metabolites in cell suspension cultures, calli, and in vitro regenerated organs of Hypericum perforatum cv. Topas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts from cell suspension cultures, calli, and in vitro regenerated shoots and roots of Hypericum perforatum cv. Topas have been evaluated for their ability to produce active metabolites (hypericins, hyperforins and flavonoids). Biosynthesis of hypericins is connected with the formation of secretory structures (black globules) in regenerated vegetative buds. A further degree of leaf development is necessary to stimulate

Gabriella Pasqua; Pinarosa Avato; Barbara Monacelli; Anna Rita Santamaria; Maria Pia Argentieri

2003-01-01

163

Characterization of a cysteine protease from wheat Triticum aestivum (cv. Giza 164)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes, especially proteases, have become an important and indispensable part of the processes used by the modern food and feed industry to produce a large and diversified range of products for human and animal consumption. A cysteine protease, used extensively in the food industry, was purified from germinated wheat Triticum aestivum (cv. Giza 164) grains through a simple reproducible method

Afaf S. Fahmy; Ahmed A. Ali; Saleh A. Mohamed

2004-01-01

164

Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

165

Shelf life of minimally processed apple (cv. Jonagored) determined by colour changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, chemical and sensory changes of cut apple (cv. Jonagored) stored in the dark at 4 °C were evaluated. Colour was found to be the critical parameter for this product. Apple cubes underwent severe surface browning primarily during the initial days of storage. The shelf-life of cut apple was therefore very limited, to three days maximum.Sensory analyses and objective quality

A. M. C. N Rocha; A. M. M. B Morais

2003-01-01

166

Comparative study of CV active contour model and subdivision for micro algae image segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass of micro algae propagated may produce harmful effects on marine ecological environment and fishery resources. The rapid and accurate identification and classification for micro algae is one of the important research issues in fisheries resource. In this paper, the comparative study of two segmentation methods, which are C-V active contour model based on partial differential equation and the 4-point

Lime Zhang; Bo Wang; Zhongxuan Luo; Jielin Zhang

2011-01-01

167

Freezing, thawing and cooking effects on quality profile assessment of green beans (cv. Win )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of the effect of freezing followed by thawing (air and water immersion, both at environmental temperature) and cooking (traditional boiling in a covered pot) on quality profile (in terms of objective texture, colour, chlorophylls and pheophytins and sensory attributes) and structure of green beans (cv. Win). Freezing was carried out at three different rates by forced convection

Armando Ferreira; Wenceslao Canet; María Dolores Alvarez; María Estrella Tortosa

2006-01-01

168

Are Short Period CV Secondaries Normal?Deconvolving the Evolutionary History of Cataclysmic Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of VLT ISAAC K-band spectroscopy of several short period cataclysmic variable (CV) systems: EX Hya, WX Hyi, V2051 Oph, and Z Cha. Recent studies of CV secondaries in the infrared have cast doubt on the standard paradigm of CV evolution, raising important concerns specifically about the evolution of the secondary star and its initial mass. Previous infrared spectroscopic surveys of CVs above the 2 to 3 hour "period gap" reveal that these secondaries suffer a universal deficit of C12, enhanced levels of C13, and unusual abundance patterns for other species (e.g., Mg,Si, Al, Ca). Infrared spectroscopy of short period magnetic CVs (polars) have shown that their secondary stars appear completely normal, and the secondaries in a sample of "pre-CVs" have normal carbon abundances. Further understanding of the evolutionary history of CVs requires spectroscopy of short period, non-magnetic CVs, which we present in this work. It is extremely difficult to see the secondary stars in short period systems, since the low luminosity secondaries are swamped by the accretion disks in these objects. But by the use of the VLT ISAAC, we have pierced the veil of the short period CVs and present firm detections of the the secondaries in these systems. Implications for CV evolution and formation scenarios will be discussed.

Hamilton, Ryan T.; Harrison, T. E.; Tappert, C.; Howell, S. B.

2009-01-01

169

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOWER ORGANS IN COMMON LILAC (SYRINGA VULGARIS L.) CV. MME FLORENT STEPMAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the development of common lilac cv. Mme Florent Stepman inflorescence buds and flowers were carried out in 2001-2002 in order to observe the development of flower organs before and after winter dormancy during the following phenological phases: inflorescence bud swelling, inflorescence elongation, flower bud whitening, flower bud swelling and flowering anthesis. The hypogynous, actinomorphic and perfect flower conforms

AGATA JE þDRZEJUK

2005-01-01

170

MICROSTRUCTURE OF PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. CV. 'NC 7') COTYLEDONS DURING DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peanut pods (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. 'NC 7') were sampled on a single harvest date. The fresh pods were opened, and the seeds were divided into four developmental categories: (1) very immature, (2) immature, (3) mature, and (4) very mature, according to interior pericarp surfaces, testa color and t...

171

Evidence for a Metallic Core in the CV Chondrite Parent Planetesimal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aggregational texture and bulk chemical composition of chondrites demonstrate that they are not the products of planetary melting processes. As a result, carbonaceous chondrites have traditionally been thought to samples bodies that have not undergone large-scale differentiation. However, it has long been known that the meteorite Allende and other CV carbonaceous chondrites contain a natural remanent magnetization. This record

B. P. Weiss; L. Carporzen; D. S. Ebel; J. Gattacceca; D. L. Shuster

2009-01-01

172

Automatic capacitance--voltage (C--V) plotter for solar cells  

SciTech Connect

An instrument is described which measures the capacitance--voltage (C--V) and conductance--voltage (G--V) characteristics of solar cells in the dark and under illumination and other semiconductor junction devices in the capacitance range of 2--200 000 pF. The instrument is also provided with the facility for DLTS measurements.

Purshotham, M.; Das, S.R.; Mukerjee, A.K.; Chopra, K.L.

1982-11-01

173

Variable inheritance of spinelessness in progenies of a mutant of the red raspberry cv. Willamette  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inheritance of spinelessness in progenies of a spine-free mutant of the red raspberry cv. Willamette was very variable. An hypothesis that the spinelessness is caused by a mutation to a dominant gene remains tentative, because, among progenies expected to segregate, some were entirely spiney, others were entirely spine-free and some segregated for spinelessness. Several possible causes of the variable

D. L. Jennings; E. Brydon

1990-01-01

174

75 FR 54887 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; REPEL-CV  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulatory review period for a medical device will include all...approved for marketing the medical device, REPEL-CV...Trademark Office that this medical device had undergone...of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...must contain sufficient facts to merit an FDA...

2010-09-09

175

Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration.

Lydie Bonal; Eric Quirico; Michèle Bourot-Denise; Gilles Montagnac

2006-01-01

176

Solvent and concentration effects on the visible spectra of tri- para-dialkylamino-substituted triarylmethane dyes in liquid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the spectroscopy properties of crystal violet (CV+) and ethyl violet (EV+) in liquid solutions as a function of the solvent type and dye concentration. The analysis of how solvent properties and dye concentration affects the electronic spectra of these tri-para-dialkylamino substituted tryarylmethane (TAM+) dyes was performed on the basis of two spectroscopic parameters, namely the difference in

Carla S. Oliveira; Kerlley P. Branco; Mauricio S. Baptista; Guilherme L. Indig

2002-01-01

177

Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.  

PubMed

In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 ?g/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

2012-02-27

178

A possible mechanism of high temperature dormancy regulation in seeds of Avena sativa L. (cv. Moyencourt)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryos of Avena sativa L. (cv. Moyencourt) show no ‘high temperature dormancy”. The dormancy is induced by the presence of endosperm-aleurone part of the seed. Germination of isolated embryos at 30°C can be prevented by ABA and the inhibition is reversed by GA. Inhibitors of GA synthesis also inhibit embryo germination. The embryos of dormant and non-dormant seeds vary greatly

A. Poljakoff-Mayber; F. Corbineau; D. Côme

1990-01-01

179

Regeneration of pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. Century) plants by in vitro culture of immature leaflets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro regeneration of plants from immature leaflets of 3 day-old pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Century) seedlings was studied under defined nutritional, hormonal and environmental conditions. Immature leaflets isolated from the second and third apical leaves of aseptically germinated seeds were cultured on MS medium containing vitamins as in B5 medium, 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar and supplemented with 0.1,

L. A. Mroginski; K. K. Kartha

1981-01-01

180

Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from solid olive residues of c.v. Coratina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant profile of extracts from solid olive residue (SOR) of c.v. Coratina, a cultivar widely diffused in the south of Italy, using both cell-free and cell-based experimental models, was investigated. A total hydroalcoholic extract (polyphenols content 19.7%) and a purified extract (Oleaselect™) (polyphenols content 35.1%) were tested for their ability to quench the stable free radical DPPH, the peroxyl

G. Aldini; A. Piccoli; G. Beretta; P. Morazzoni; A. Riva; C. Marinello; R. Maffei Facino

2006-01-01

181

MIRRORCLE-CV The Portable Synchrotron For Precise Non-Destructive Testing And Medical Diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

We are developing the portable synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV series, which provides a high quality x-ray beam for high precision non-destructive testing (NDT). Computer simulations for the magnetic field design and electron dynamics reveal that the outer diameter of the synchrotron magnet can be as small as 30 cm. This synchrotron size approaches that of a conventional x-ray tube.

Hasegawa, Daisuke [Photon Production Laboratory Ltd., 4-2-1 (808) Takagai-cho Minami, Ohmihachiman-city 523-0898, Shiga (Japan); Yamada, Hironari [Synchrotron Light Life Science Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-city 525-8577, Shiga (Japan)

2007-03-30

182

IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors  

SciTech Connect

The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

Maria R. Coluccia et al.

2002-07-16

183

CommOnCV: modelling the competencies underlying a curriculum vitae  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the project CommOnCV, which aims at dealing with the problematics of e---recruitment by considering a new approach based on competency management. The idea consists of allowing a job seeker (respectively a recruiter to identify and formally represent the competencies underlying its Curriculum Vitae (respectively its job offer). These competencies, which allow to make explicit knowledge, skills, abilities,

Mounira Harzallah; Michel Leclère; Francky Trichet

2002-01-01

184

Development of the Portable Synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV for High Precision Non-Destructive Testing  

SciTech Connect

We started the development of the portable synchrotron MIRRORCLE-CV series, which provides a high quality x-ray beam for high precision non-destructive testing (NDT). Computer simulations for the magnetic field design and electron dynamics reveal that the outer diameter of the synchrotron magnet can be as small as 30 cm. This synchrotron size approaches that of a conventional x-ray tube.

Hasegawa, Daisuke; Toyosugi, Norio; Noh, Young Deok; Yamada, Takanori; Morita, Masaki; Mantey, Edward; Masaoka, Sei [Photon Production Laboratory, Ltd., 4-2-1 (808) Takagai-cho Minami, Ohmihachiman-city 523-0898, Shiga (Japan); Yamada, Hironari [Synchrotron Light Life Science Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu-city 525-8577, Shiga (Japan)

2007-01-19

185

Unusual entropy-driven affinity of Chromobacterium violaceum lectin CV-IIL toward fucose and mannose.  

PubMed

The purple pigmented bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum is a dominant component of tropical soil microbiota that can cause rare but fatal septicaemia in humans. Its sequenced genome provides insight into the abundant potential of this organism for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications and allowed an ORF encoding a protein that is 60% identical to the fucose binding lectin (PA-IIL) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the mannose binding lectin (RS-IIL) from Ralstonia solanacearum to be identified. The lectin, CV-IIL, has recently been purified from C. violaceum [Zinger-Yosovich, K., Sudakevitz, D., Imberty, A., Garber, N. C., and Gilboa-Garber, N. (2006) Microbiology 152, 457-463] and has been confirmed to be a tetramer with subunit size of 11.86 kDa and a binding preference for fucose. We describe here the cloning of CV-IIL and its expression as a recombinant protein. A complete structure-function characterization has been made in an effort to analyze the specificity and affinity of CV-IIL for fucose and mannose. Crystal structures of CV-IIL complexes with monosaccharides have yielded the molecular basis of the specificity. Each monomer contains two close calcium cations that mediate the binding of the monosaccharides, which occurs in different orientations for fucose and mannose. The thermodynamics of binding has been analyzed by titration microcalorimetry, giving dissociation constants of 1.7 and 19 microM for alpha-methyl fucoside and alpha-methyl mannoside, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated a strongly favorable entropy term that is unusual in carbohydrate binding. A comparison with both PA-IIL and RS-IIL, which have binding preferences for fucose and mannose, respectively, yielded insights into the monosaccharide specificity of this important class of soluble bacterial lectins. PMID:16768446

Pokorná, Martina; Cioci, Gianluca; Perret, Stephanie; Rebuffet, Etienne; Kostlánová, Nikola; Adam, Jan; Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Mitchell, Edward P; Imberty, Anne; Wimmerová, Michaela

2006-06-20

186

Effect of Heat Treatment on Green Mold Infection in Tangerine Fruit cv. Sai Num Pung  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of heat treatment on Penicillium digitatum infection which caused green mold rot in tangerine fruit cv. Sai Num Pung was studied. Fungus was dipped in hot water at 45±2, 50±2 and 55±2°C for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 minutes\\/ each treatment. The results showed that hot water dip at 55±2°C for 3 min- utes was the best in

Sirisopha Inkha; Danai Boonyakiat

187

Blanching effects on chemistry, quality and structure of green beans (cv. Moncayo )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green beans (cv. Moncayo) were blanched at 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 97 °C for 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 min. Pectinesterase (PE) activity was highest in cell-wall-bound extracts of beans blanched at 70 °C\\/10 min. The lowest water-soluble pectin fraction, the highest EDTA-soluble pectin fraction and the lowest degree of esterification of the EDTA-soluble fraction were all recorded for the

Wenceslao Canet; María Dolores Alvarez; Pilar Luna; Cristina Fernández; María Estrella Tortosa

2005-01-01

188

Polysubstituted Isochroman Derivatives with Plant Growth Regulating Properties on Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv Klein Escorpion)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of isochroman derivatives 4–9 from \\u0009?-hydroxylactone 3 is reported. These heterocycles, carrying different substituents on C-3, C-4, and C-8, exhibited different degrees of inhibition\\u000a of the vegetative growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Klein Escorpion) plants, whereas plant developmental patterns such as their protein profile, carotenes\\/chlorophylls ratio,\\u000a and weight\\/length relationship were not significantly affected. Microscopic observation of transverse

Darío A. Bianchi; Luciano Brambilla; Martha A. Gattuso; Teodoro S. Kaufman

2006-01-01

189

Genetic transformation of Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. AAA group) cv 'Grand Nain' via microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method has been developed for the stable transformation and regeneration of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv 'Grand Nain' by microprojectile bombardment. Embryogenic cell suspensions were initiated using immature\\u000a male flowers as the explant. Cells were co-bombarded with the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) selectable marker gene under the control of a banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) promoter or

D. K. Becker; B. Dugdale; M. K. Smith; R. M. Harding; J. L. Dale

2000-01-01

190

Control of lethal browning of tissue culture plantlets of Cavendish banana cv. Formosana with ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cavendish banana cv. Formosana is a high yielding commercial cultivar resistant to race 4 of Fusarium\\u000a oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Mass micropropagation of this cultivar has a serious problem of high mortality due to lethal browning of plantlets. The\\u000a mineral contents in leaves and corms of diseased and healthy plantlets were similar. Amendment of culture medium with anion\\u000a exchange resins,

W. H. Ko; C. C. Su; C. L. Chen; C. P. Chao

2009-01-01

191

mdxCv3 Mouse Is a Model for Electroretinography of Duchenne\\/Becker Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To identify an animal model for the abnormal scotopic electroretinogram found in a majority of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Methods. Ganzfeld electroretinograms were recorded in dark-adapted normal C57BL\\/6 mice, and two strains of mice with different X-linked muscular dystrophy mutations {mdx and mdx Cv} ). Responses for the right eye were averaged and the amplitudes and implicit

De-Ann M. Pillers; Richard G. WeleberJtl; Verne M. Chapman; Peter N. Ray; William R. Woodward; Daniel G. Green

192

Thidiazuron-induced plant regeneration from hypocotyl cultures of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum. cv 'Anthos')  

Microsoft Academic Search

St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum. cv 'Anthos') is a medicinal plant with evidence of efficacy as an anti-depressant. The present report describes the development\\u000a of an in vitro regeneration system that utilizes thidiazuron [N-phenyl-N?-(1,2,3-thidiazol-yl)urea] for the induction of de novo shoots on etiolated hypocotyl segments of St. John's wort seedlings. The optimum level of thidiazuron supplementation to\\u000a the culture medium

S. J. Murch; K. L. Choffe; J. M. R. Victor; T. Y. Slimmon; S. KrishnaRaj; P. K. Saxena

2000-01-01

193

Repetitive somatic embryogenesis in Medicago truncatula ssp. Narbonensis and M. truncatula Gaertn cv. Jemalong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicago truncatula ssp Narbonensis and four genotypes of M. truncatula Gaertn cv. Jemalong were tested for their somatic embryogenesis potential using a two-step protocol. In the first step, embryogenic\\u000a callus was induced in folioles isolated from shoots grown in vitro and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented\\u000a with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. In the second step, somatic embryos

L. O. das Neves; S. R. L. Duque; J. S. de Almeida; P. S. Fevereiro

1999-01-01

194

Isolation and culture of Lens culinaris Medik. cv. Eston epicotyl protoplasts to calli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts of Lens culinaris Medik. cv. Eston were isolated from epicotyl tissues of seedlings grown on Murashige & Skoog basal medium. For isolating the protoplasts, epicotyl tissues were digested for 12–14 h at 25°C in an isolation mixture (pH 5.7) containing 1% Cellulase RS, 0.5% Driselase, 0.25% Pectolyase Y23, 0.2M calcium chloride, 10 mM mannitol and 10 mM MES. Protoplasts

Kevin L. Rozwadowski; Praveen K. Saxena; J. King

1990-01-01

195

TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator  

SciTech Connect

Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

Carman, G.J. (Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia))

1989-02-01

196

Reduction of chilling injury symptoms in persimmon fruit cv. ‘Rojo Brillante’ by 1-MCP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) cv. ‘Rojo Brillante’ is sensitive to chilling injury (CI) when exposed to temperatures below 8°C. The most important disorder is the flesh softening that occurs when fruit are transferred from cold storage to shelf-life conditions. To study the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the development of CI symptoms, persimmon fruit were treated with 0 (control), 0.3

Alejandra Salvador; Luc??a Arnal; Adela Monterde; Joaqu??n Cuquerella

2004-01-01

197

Changes in enzyme activities during germination of cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata, cv. California blackeye)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata, cv. California blackeye), steeped at 25°C for 20 min, were germinated at room temperature for 0, 1, 2 and 3 days. The samples were then dried at 60°C for either 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 h. ?-Amylase, ?-amylase and endo-(1,3)(1,4)-?-D-glucanase activities were determined in the cowpea samples. The results obtained showed ?-amylase activity was not present in

Maria G Uriyo

2001-01-01

198

Model Validation for Estimating the Leaf Stomatal Conductance in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon Grapevines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled model of assimilation and stomatal conductance (A-gs) was evaluated to estimate leaf stomatal conductance of a drip-irrigated vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) located in the Pencahue Valley (35º22' S, 71°47' W, 150 m.a.s.l.), Maule Region, Chile, during the 2003-2004 and the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Additionally, a calibration of the three parameters mesophyll conductance (gm), maximum specific

Francisco Jara-Rojas; Samuel Ortega-Farías; Héctor Valdés-Gómez; Carlos Poblete; Alejandro del Pozo

2009-01-01

199

Chelator-Enhanced Lead Accumulation in Agropyron Elongatum cv. Szarvasi-1 in Hydroponic Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroponic culture was applied to compare the efficiency of K2EDTA and citrate in mobilizing Pb for accumulation in Agropyron elongatum cv. Szarvasi-1 and their effects on some physiological characteristics of the plants. The plants were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0, 10, and 100 ?M Pb(NO3)2 combined with chelating agents added to the nutrient solutions after 21 days of growth,

Ildikó Vashegyi; László Lévai; Ferenc Fodor

2011-01-01

200

Plant regeneration in tissue cultures of pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. mathania )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf, stem, hypocotyl, cotyledon, root, shoot tip and embryo explants of Capsicum annuum L. cv. mathania were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) or kinetin (Kin) alone or in\\u000a combination with 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA), 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA), ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D). BAP (5.0 mgl?1) in the medium was found to be the

Sadhana Agrawal; N. Chandra; S. L. Kothari

1989-01-01

201

Nano-silver pulse treatments improve water relations of cut rose cv. Movie Star flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of pulse treatments with nano-silver (NS) particle (2–5nm diam) solutions on the vase life of cut rose cv. Movie Star flowers were investigated. Pulse treatments of NS at 50, 100 and 250mgL?1 were for 1h. Stems were then transferred to deionized water (DI) and evaluated daily for vase life and quality. The 250mgL?1 NS pulse treatment was phytotoxic. However,

Peitao Lü; Jinping Cao; Shenggen He; Jiping Liu; Hongmei Li; Guiping Cheng; Yuelian Ding; Daryl C. Joyce

2010-01-01

202

Identification of long needle crystals and distribution of oxalate salts in Narcissus cv. ‘Garden Giant’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long needle crystals abundantly present in the bulb scales and the shoot sap of Narcissus cv. ‘Garden Giant’ were identified as Ca-oxalate by C-nuclear magnetic resonance and capillary electrophoresis. The Ca-oxalate crystals were distributed in every part of the plant, including tunics, shoot, flowers, basalplate, and roots. A large proportion of water-soluble oxalate was present in the roots, but not

Soraya Ruamrungsri; Sakchai Ruamrungsri; Takashi Sato; Takuji Ohyama; Taro Ikarashi

1997-01-01

203

Reliable extraction of MOS interface traps from low-frequency CV measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved version of the low-frequency capacitance-voltage (LFCV) method for MOS interface trap extraction is presented. The rising edge of the gate-channel capacitance is used as a reliable reference for determining the surface potential, allowing a more accurate calculation of the trap energy. Also, a self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver is employed to obtain a theoretical CV curve, accounting for quantization effects.

A. Pacelli; A. L. Lacaita; S. Villa; L. Perron

1998-01-01

204

Plant regeneration from protoplasts of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for plant regeneration from protoplasts of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via somatic embryogenesis was developed. Viable protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic cell suspensions\\u000a at a yield of 1.2 × 107 protoplasts\\/ml packed cell volume (PCV). Liquid and feeder layer culture systems with medium-A and medium-B were used for\\u000a protoplast culture. In liquid culture system, medium-B was more efficient for

Wang Xiao; Xue-Lin Huang; Xia Huang; Ya-Ping Chen; Xue-Mei Dai; Jie-Tang Zhao

2007-01-01

205

Effect of potassium starvation on the uptake of radiocaesium by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short term experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of internal tissue potassium concentration on the uptake\\u000a of radiocaesium by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic). The results showed that potassium starvation increased Cs influx rates by a factor of 10 compared with non-starved\\u000a plants. Solution to plant tissue transfer factor (TF) values also increased by around an order

Y.-G. Zhu; G. Shaw; A. F. Nisbet; B. T. Wilkins

2000-01-01

206

Highly efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana\\u000a suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A.

Kondeti Subramanyam; Koona Subramanyam; K. V. Sailaja; M. Srinivasulu; K. Lakshmidevi

2011-01-01

207

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation using embryogenic calli in Satsuma mandarin ( Citrus unshiu Marc.) cv. Miyagawa wase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) cv. Miyagawa wase was achieved with reasonable transformation efficiency of about 22%, which was the percentage of\\u000a transgenic plantlets confirmed by genomic PCR (37 plantlets\\/168 hygromycin-resistant calli). Embryogenic calli of Miyagawa\\u000a wase were infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pCAMBIA1300 that contained miraculin gene (a taste-modifying protein) and hygromycin

Seong Beom Jin; Jeong Won Park; Hyeon Jin Sun; Su Hyun Yun; Hyo Yeon Lee; Dong Sun Lee; Quan Chun Hong; Yong Woo Kim; Key Zung Riu; Jae Hoon Kim

2011-01-01

208

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

209

Biochemical Properties of ?-Amylase from Peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. ?-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange,\\u000a and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of ?-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of\\u000a ?-amylase

Saleh Ahmed Mohamed; Ehab A. Drees; Mohamed O. El-Badry; Afaf S. Fahmy

2010-01-01

210

In Vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Jaceosidin from Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a key role in the inflammatory processes of atherosclerosis. Jaceosidin isolated\\u000a from the methanolic extracts of the aerial parts of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal was tested for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Jaceosidin inhibited the Cu2+-mediated LDL oxidation with IC50 values of 10.2 ?M in the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay as well as the

Min-Jung Kim; Jong-Min Han; Yue-Yan Jin; Nam-In Baek; Myun-Ho Bang; Hae-Gon Chung; Myung-Sook Choi; Kyung-Tae Lee; Dai-Eun Sok; Tae-Sook Jeong

2008-01-01

211

Aortic valve segmentation from ultrasound images based on shape constraint CV model.  

PubMed

Image Guided Intervention for valvular heart disease is increasingly making progress in minimally invasive manner, where effective and accurate segmentation of aortic valve (AV) from echocardiography is fundamental to improve the intra operative location accuracy. This paper proposes a shape constraint Chan-Vese (CV) model for segmenting the AV from ultrasound (US) images. Considering the poor quality and speckle noise in AV US images, the problem of the overflow at the weak edge is solved by adding the shape constraint to the CV model. The predefined shape constructed from AV region is applied as an energy constraint to the energy function through a signed distance map, and the AV is detected from the US image by minimizing the energy function. A hundred AV segmentation results are analyzed in the experiment, where the evaluation parameters are 95.38±2.7%, 1.4±0.5 mm, 2.07±1.3 mm in transthoracic AV and 97.21±1.6%, 0.7±0.15 mm, 1.04±0.6 mm in transesophageal AV, which reveal that the shape constraint CV model can segment AV accurately, efficiently and robustly. PMID:24109959

Dong, Bin; Guo, Yiting; Wang, Bing; Gu, Lixu

2013-07-01

212

Using the HP-41CV calculator as a data acquisition system for personal carbon monoxide exposure monitors  

SciTech Connect

The use of small, personal monitors as instruments for air pollution data acquisition, storage, and retrieval presents a new set of monitoring considerations. Portability, ruggedness, power supplies, and data capture are functions to be addressed in designing personal monitoring systems. The emphasis herein is on the data capture function. This paper describes experiences using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV system as a data management system interfaced with personal carbon monoxide monitors (General Electric Carbon Monoxide Detector, Model 15EC53CO3). In general, the HP-41CV proved to be reliable, adaptable, and easy to use. Problems with the monitor power source (battery failure) were more frequent than with the HP-41CV itself. Using the HP-41CV for the specific data collection requirements of the Washington Microenvironment Study is a focal point of this presentation.

Fitz-Simons, T.; Sauls, H.B.

1984-09-01

213

Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

1995-09-01

214

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. cv. Olympicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so far unexplored H. Orientalis cv. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the\\u000a later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the\\u000a seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis cv.

Waseem Shahri; Inayatullah Tahir; Sheikh Tajamul Islam; Mushtaq Ahmad Bhat

2011-01-01

215

Impact of weak Fermi-level pinning on the correct interpretation of III-V MOS CV and GV characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonly encountered frequency dispersion and distorted behavior of GaAs and III-V MOS C-V and G-V is clarified by using MOS interface state theory. The relation of the C-V behavior with Fermi-level pinning of III-V MOS is explained. It is shown why it is difficult to quantify the interface state density using the conductance method for III-V MOS. A qualitative

K. Martens; W. Wang; K. De Keersmaecker; G. Borghs; G. Groeseneken; H. Maes

2007-01-01

216

RAPD analysis of a variant of banana ( Musa sp.) cv. grande naine and its propagation via shoot tip culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A morphological variant obtained from in vitro corm-derived plants of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grande Naine (AAA) was evaluated up to harvest and the genetic basis of variation was confirmed by the random amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The corms formed during the multiplication phase of shoot tip-derived cultures of the cv. Grande Naine\\u000a grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium

K. P. Martin; Suneesh Kumar Pachathundikandi; C.-L. Zhang; A. Slater; Joseph Madassery

2006-01-01

217

Cendron CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 2003 - 2009 Staff Gynecologist and Pediatric Specialist Tufts-New England Medical Center Boston, Massachusetts Page 3. Curriculum vitae ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

218

CV Output  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... in Digital Mammography. 51st Annual AAPM Meeting, 6/2009. Book Chapters Page 4 of 8 Page 5. William R Geiser N/A Books (edited and written) N ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

219

CV Output  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Intensive Training Program, Ethical and Policy Issues at the Cutting ... Joint Commission Readiness Chapter Leader Team, Member, 2008?present ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

220

Lerner CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Lerner NB, Nocka KH, Cole SR, Qiu FH, Strife A, Ashman LK, and Besmer P. Monoclonal antibody YB5.B8 identifies the human c-kit protein product ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

221

[Root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation].  

PubMed

By the methods of layered digging and image scanning analysis, this paper studied the root system spatial distribution of different aged Armeniaca vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation. The root system of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing was mainly constituted by fine roots (d < or = 1 mm), while medium roots (12 mm) only had a small proportion. For the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old, the percentage of fine root length in the total root length was 90.9%, 88.4%, and 79.9% respectively, the root length density increased with tree age, and the length density of the roots with different diameter classes was 15-year old>10-year old>5-year old. In vertical direction, the root length density decreased after an initial decrease, and the root dry mass density had a significant difference between soil layers. The intensive distribution region of the root biomass density for the trees aged 5-year old, 10-year old, and 15-year old was 30-80 cm, 30-100 cm, and 30-100 cm soil depth within the 200 cm range from the trees, respectively. In horizontal direction, the root dry mass density at different distances from the trees had significant difference, i. e., the farther the distance from the tree trunk, the smaller the root dry mass density. In order to decrease the overlap between the tree line and to reduce water and nutrient competition, the row ledge of A. vulgaris cv. Luntaibaixing in arid oasis under irrigation should not be less than 6 m. PMID:23285988

Wang, Shi-Wei; Pan, Cun-De

2012-09-01

222

Long term treatment with CV 205-502 in patients with prolactin-secreting pituitary macroadenomas.  

PubMed

CV 205-502, a new long-acting nonergot dopamine agonist, was given to 15 patients (6 women and 9 men) with PRL-secreting pituitary macroadenomas. The compound was administered in a single daily dose for a period of 6-12 months. The treatment resulted in normalization of plasma PRL levels (less than or equal to 20 micrograms/L) in 5 of 6 women at a mean dose of 135 micrograms (range, 75-300 micrograms) and in 6 of 9 men at a mean dose of 192 micrograms (range, 75-300 micrograms). Among patients for whom computed tomographic scans were available before and after at least 6 months of therapy, definite tumor shrinkage occurred in 6 of 7 patients. Libido was improved in 5 of 6 women and in 6 of 8 men, galactorrhea disappeared in all cases (3 women and 1 man) and menses resumed in 3 of 5 women. Plasma testosterone rose to normal levels in 3 of 6 men who were not receiving testosterone injections. The PRL response to TRH was blunted in 4 of 6 patients with normalized basal PRL. Serum total cholesterol was reduced by CV 205-502 treatment in women from 5.35 +/- 0.49 to 4.63 +/- 0.51 mmol/L (P = 0.031) and in men from 5.93 +/- 0.89 to 5.28 +/- 0.82 mmol/L (P = 0.045). Side-effects included mainly headache, nausea, and dizziness. One side-effect or more occurred transiently and with mild intensity in 14 patients. No patient discontinued the therapy because of side-effects. In conclusion, CV 205-502 appears to be a safe and valuable compound in the treatment of patients with PRL-secreting macroadenomas. PMID:2394774

Serri, O; Beauregard, H; Lesage, J; Pedneault, L; Comtois, R; Jilwan, N; Somma, M; Vachon, L; Brownell, J

1990-09-01

223

New basal media for half-anther culture of Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical  

Microsoft Academic Search

A successful protocol for high frequency callus induction and plant regeneration from Anthurium andreanum Linden ex André cv. Tropical half-anthers is described. Different variables using Winarto and Teixeira and Murashige and\\u000a Skoog basal media supplemented with several plant growth regulators [2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (0.1–1.0 mg\\/l), ?-naphthalene\\u000a acetic acid (0.01–0.2 mg\\/l), thidiazuron (0.5–2.0 mg\\/l), 6-benzylaminopurine (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l), and kinetin (0.5–1.0 mg\\/l)] were\\u000a tested for their ability

Budi Winarto; F. Rachmawati

224

Partial purification and characterization of peroxidase from olives ( Olea europaea cv. Koroneiki)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme peroxidase (POD) activity was extracted from olives (Olea europaea cv. Koroneiki) and was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel permeation chromatography (Sephacryl\\u000a S 300). Further characterization of the POD was performed using the ammonium sulfate purified fraction. POD showed a molecular\\u000a mass of 44 ± 2 kDa and it expressed catalytic activity with 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS),\\u000a N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) and

Evaggelia D. Tzika; Theodore G. Sotiroudis; Vassiliki Papadimitriou; Aristotelis Xenakis

2009-01-01

225

Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana [Four Dimensions, Inc., 3140 Diablo Ave, Hayward, California, 94545 (United States); Timans, Paul [Mattson Technology, Inc. Fremont, California (United States); Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve [Mattson Technology Canada, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke [Mattson Thermal Products GmbH, Dornstadt (Germany); Bolze, Detlef [IHP, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2008-11-03

226

A defensin-like peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'King Pole Bean'.  

PubMed

A 5447 Da antifungal peptide with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to plant defensins was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'King Pole Bean' by anion-exchange chromatography on Q Sepharose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The isolated peptide inhibited growth of a number of fungal species, including Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, with IC(50) values of 3.9, 4.0 and 8.4 ?M, respectively. Using the membrane non-permeable DNA-binding dye SYTOX green, it was found that the peptide increased the cell membrane permeability of M. arachidicola, S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. PMID:22868107

Wong, Jack H; Ip, David C W; Ng, T B; Chan, Y S; Fang, F; Pan, W L

2012-04-30

227

Evidence for a Metallic Core in the CV Chondrite Parent Planetesimal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aggregational texture and bulk chemical composition of chondrites demonstrate that they are not the products of planetary melting processes. As a result, carbonaceous chondrites have traditionally been thought to samples bodies that have not undergone large-scale differentiation. However, it has long been known that the meteorite Allende and other CV carbonaceous chondrites contain a natural remanent magnetization. This record has been difficult to interpret because the age and setting of magnetization acquisition were poorly understood. We have conducted a new paleomagnetic study on the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. This included high resolution demagnetization analyses, the first detailed shock remanent magnetization and low temperature magnetometry studies, and a variety of new rock magnetic measurements. Our goal was to determine the nature and acquisition time for the magnetization in Allende in order to distinguish between core dynamo and external field sources. Drawing on our new paleomagnetic data, abundant previous paleomagnetic studies, and newly published geochemical, petrologic, and isotopic datasets, we demonstrate that the magnetization in Allende must have been acquired following accretion of the parent body, likely over several million years (Ma) during metasomatism on the CV parent planetesimal ˜8-10 Ma after solar system formation. Therefore, the magnetization in Allende is apparently too young and was acquired over too long a time period to have been produced by early external protoplanetary disk or solar magnetic fields. Thermal modeling of early planetesimals heated by 26Al decay indicate that dynamos were likely generated in convecting metallic cores lasting for ?11 Ma after solar system formation. Because such bodies melt from the inside out, some may preserve an unmelted, relict chondritic surface which could be magnetized during metasomatism in the presence of a core dynamo. In fact, Allende’s paleointensities are in the range expected for core dynamos in early planetesimals. A simple interpretation of Allende’s paleomagnetic record is therefore that CV chondrites are derived from the outer, unmelted layer of a differentiated body with a convecting, liquid metallic core and core dynamo.

Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.; Ebel, D. S.; Gattacceca, J.; Shuster, D. L.

2009-12-01

228

Mechanisms of HIV-1 subtype C resistance to GRFT, CV-N and SVN.  

PubMed

We examined the ability of HIV-1 subtype C to develop resistance to the inhibitory lectins, griffithsin (GRFT), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and scytovirin (SVN), which bind multiple mannose-rich glycans on gp120. Four primary HIV-1 strains cultured under escalating concentrations of these lectins became increasingly resistant tolerating 2 to 12 times their 50% inhibitory concentrations. Sequence analysis of gp120 showed that most had deletions of 1 to 5 mannose-rich glycans. Glycosylation sites at positions 230, 234, 241, 289 located in the C2 region and 339, 392 and 448 in the C3-C4 region were affected. Furthermore, deletions and insertions of up to 5 amino acids in the V4 region were observed in 3 of the 4 isolates. These data suggest that loss of glycosylation sites on gp120 as well as rearrangement of glycans in V4 are mechanisms involved in HIV-1 subtype C escape from GRFT, CV-N and SVN. PMID:24074568

Alexandre, Kabamba B; Moore, Penny L; Nonyane, Molati; Gray, Elin S; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng; Chakauya, Ereck; McMahon, James B; O'Keefe, Barry R; Chikwamba, Rachel; Morris, Lynn

2013-08-15

229

Electroacupuncture Stimulation at CV12 Inhibits Gastric Motility via TRPV1 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Gastric dysmotility is one of the major pathophysiological factors in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Acupuncture, as one of the alternative approaches, is efficacious in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders; however, the mechanism underlying its action is unclear. In the present study, we used both capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, and TRPV1 knockout mice. Animals were divided into wild-type group (WT), capsazepine injection group (CZP, 0.5?mg/kg, i.p.), and TRPV1 knockout mice group (TRPV1?/?). Each of these three groups was divided into three subgroups, which were subjected to EA stimulation at acupoint Zhongwan (CV12) at a different intensity (1, 2, or 4?mA). We demonstrated that electroacupuncture at Zhongwan (CV12) markedly inhibited gastric motility at 2 and 4?mA in an intensity-dependent manner in wild-type mice. The inhibitory effect was also observed in capsazepine-injected and TRPV1?/? mice but was no longer intensity dependent, indicating that TRPV1 is partially involved in the electroacupuncture-mediated modulation of gastric motility.

Yu, Zhi; Cao, Xin; Xia, Youbing; Ren, Binbin; Feng, Hong; Wang, Yali; Jiang, Jingfeng; Xu, Bin

2013-01-01

230

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-30

231

Changes in alpha band activity associated with application of the compression of fourth ventricular (CV-4) osteopathic procedure: a qEEG pilot study.  

PubMed

The compression of the fourth ventricle (CV-4) is one of the more well known procedures in the cranial manipulation curriculum and practice. Cranial manipulation has received criticism because of the subtle, difficult to learn techniques, controversy over whether or not cranial bone structures move, and what if any clinical effects have been shown. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of CV-4 in 10 healthy subjects through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG), specifically in alpha band. Participants were randomly distributed in control, sham-CV4 and CV4 conditions using a cross-over design. qEEG activity was recorded for each of the 10 subjects in each of the 3 conditions. There was a significant increase in the alpha absolute power between pre and post in the CV-4 condition. There appears to be potential for understanding the effect of the CV-4 if these finding are replicated in further clinical trials. PMID:23768271

Miana, Luiz; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Almeida, Laís; Ribeiro, Pedro; Machado, Dionis; King, Hollis; Silva, Julio Guilherme

2012-11-16

232

An automated Dengue virus microneutralization plaque assay performed in human Fc{gamma} receptor-expressing CV-1 cells.  

PubMed

We describe microneutralization assays that used automated 96-well enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-SPOT) readout instrumentation to measure human anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies in CV-1 cells that were stably transfected to express human FcgammaRIIA (CD32) using conventional Vero cells as a comparator. Classic plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) end-point titers were determined by probit analysis. Neutralization titers against DENV measured in CV-1 transfectants were expressed in terms of both conventional 50% to 90% PRNT end-point titers and differential infectivity of antibody-treated virus in control and CD32-expressing CV-1 cells. Significantly reduced PRNT titers and strikingly heightened infectivity (up to 100-fold) of antibody-treated DENV was observed in CV-1 CD32 transfectants compared with that observed in control CV-1 or Vero cells. Because DENVs may preferentially replicate in CD32-expressing monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells, in vivo, it is possible that CD32 introduced into a conventional DENV neutralization assay might provide results that better correlate with protection. PMID:19141841

Rodrigo, W W Shanaka I; Alcena, Danielle C; Rose, Robert C; Jin, Xia; Schlesinger, Jacob J

2009-01-01

233

Antibodies to CV2/CRMP5 in neuromyelitis optica-like disease: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in 60-90% of cases. Little is known about the aetiology of NMO in NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab negative patients. Here we report on CV2/CRMP5 antibodies in a 69-year-old male patient with NMO-IgG/AQP4-Ab negative NMO. The association of CV2/CRMP5-Ab with prostate cancer suggests a paraneoplastic aetiology of NMO in our patient. Our report strengthens the case of antibodies other than AQP4-Ab being involved in the immunopathogenesis in a subset of patients with NMO. We conclude that CV2/CRMP5-Ab should be included in the differential diagnosis of NMO, in particular if AQP4-Ab are negative and irrespective of whether a tumour is known or not. We recommend that recombinant tests, which are increasingly used because of their higher sensitivity and specificity, should always be accompanied by standard indirect immunofluorescence employing brain tissue sections in order to avoid CV2/CRMP5-Ab or other paraneoplastic antibodies being overlooked. In addition, we provide a comprehensive review of all patients with CV2/CRMP5-Ab and NMO-like disease published in the English literature so far. PMID:22138095

Jarius, S; Wandinger, K P; Borowski, K; Stoecker, W; Wildemann, B

2011-12-03

234

CvADH1, a Member of Short-Chain Alcohol Dehydrogenase Family, is Inducible by Gibberellin and Sucrose in Developing Watermelon Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

; To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Ara- bidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase

Joonyul Kim; Hong-Gyu Kang; Sung-Hoon Jun; Jinwon Lee; Jieun Yim

2003-01-01

235

Partial Melting of the Aliende (CV3) Meteorite: Implications for Origins of Basaltic Meteorites.  

PubMed

Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity (fo(2)). Melts are eucritic if thefo(2) is below that of the iron-wüstite buffer or angritic if above the fo(2) of that buffer. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wüstite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid >110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting. PMID:17746669

Jurewicz, A J; Mittlefehldt, D W; Jones, J H

1991-05-01

236

Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.  

PubMed

The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits. PMID:19382348

Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

237

Effects of agricultural practices on color, carotenoids composition, and minerals contents of sweet peppers, cv. Almuden.  

PubMed

Consumers demand organic products because they believe they are more flavorful and respectful to the environment and human health. The effects of conventional, integrated, and organic farming, grown in a controlled greenhouse, on color, minerals, and carotenoids of sweet pepper fruits ( Capsicum annuum), cv. Almuden, were studied. Experimental results proved that organic farming provided peppers with the highest (a) intensities of red and yellow colors, (b) contents of minerals, and (c) total carotenoids. Integrated fruits presented intermediate values of the quality parameters under study, and conventional fruits were those with the lowest values of minerals, carotenoids, and color intensity. As an example, the concentrations of total carotenoids were 3231, 2493, and 1829 mg kg (-1) for organic, integrated, and conventional sweet peppers, respectively. Finally, organic red peppers could be considered as those having the highest antioxidant activity of all studied peppers (agricultural farming and development stage). PMID:17822289

Pérez-López, Antonio José; López-Nicolas, José Manuel; Núñez-Delicado, Estrella; Del Amor, Francisco M; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

2007-09-07

238

Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv "White Cloud Bean"  

PubMed Central

A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16?kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6??M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8??M and 21.5??M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100??M.

Sun, Jian; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2010-01-01

239

Changes in color and phenolic compounds during the raisining of grape cv. Pedro Ximenez.  

PubMed

Changes in color parameters and phenolic compounds during the sun-drying grape raisining of cv. Pedro Ximenez to obtain sweet wines are studied. Browning increases during the process as a result of the contribution to a greater extent of the low and medium molecular size polymers than the high molecular size polymers. Raisining decreases hue and lightness and increases chroma, all measured as CIELab parameters, indicating a color change to dark reddish hues that is also preferentially due to low and medium molecular size polymers. Most of the phenols studied increase in concentration during raisining, essentially through the concentration effect resulting from the loss of water in the grapes. The concentration changes, however, are comparatively small for hydroxycinnamic esters and flavan-3-ol derivatives, suggesting that these phenolic fractions undergo predominantly oxidative degradation reactions by enzymatic pathways, contributing strongly to the browning of grapes. PMID:18345634

Serratosa, María P; Lopez-Toledano, Azahara; Merida, Julieta; Medina, Manuel

2008-03-18

240

Complete bi-partite CV entanglement characterization via coveriance matrix measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first complete experimental reconstruction of the covariance matrix (CM) relative to a bi-partite continuous variable (CV) entangled state outing a non degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) below threshold. The covariance matrix CM has been reconstructed following the method reported in V. D'Auria et al., J. Opt. B 7, S750 (2005). The two entangled beams (signal (a) and idler (b)) are produced by a by a continuous wave (CW) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) via type-II (same frequency but with orthogonal polarizations), phase matching and working below threshold. Our experimental setup makes use of a single homodyne detector and of a compact source of entangled beams. The quadratures values and other relevant quantities are reconstructed by quantum tomography, without making any a priori assumption on the state under evalutation.

Porzio, Alberto; D'Auria, Virginia; Fornaro, Stefano; Solimeno, Salvatore

2009-05-01

241

Mundrabilla 012: A New CV2(?) Chondrite Find from the Southwest Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbonaceous chondrite with a total mass of 30.6 g was found in the Mundrabilla area on the Nullarbor Plains in Southwest Australia in 1992. The meteorite contains more than 30 vol% chondrules and is heavily altered. No metal or glassy chondrule mesostasis are preserved. The chondrules vary from spheres with 1 mm diameter to ellipsoids up to 2 mm long with an aspect ratio of 3 that seems to be aligned. The chondrule textures are typically olivine-microporphyritic; one "barred olivine" chondrule contains rosy spinel. Spherical metal grains (now iron-oxide pseudomorphs) are frequently seen at chondrule margins. The olivines have highly magnesian cores (Fa 0.3-6) whereas margins and narrow zones along fractures are strongly Fe-enriched (Fa 20). The altered mesostasis retained its primary chemistry in part, but shows strong local enrichment of K. Hydrothermal alteration has turned some chondrules into "ghosts" that are just barely recognizable. The fine-grained matrix is semitransparent with a reddish-brown color and consists of sheet silicates. The matrix contains diffuse, recrystallized patches that consist of iron-rich olivine (Fa 44), diopside, and calcium carbonate. Iron-sulphide-rich domains are typically associated with magnetite. High-T(?) Inclusions: We found a single, 20-my-sized, green, transparent spinel grain with an irregular surface in the matrix. In addition, we found a 0.5-mm kidney-shaped inclusion with a submicroscopic Ca-Al-silicate-rich matrix with tiny, dispersed grains of ilmenite (hem 8.5). Low totals of the microprobe analyses suggest that the matrix contains carbonates or hydroxides. Secondary Processes: Our observations indicate that the chondrite parent body underwent a long period of pervasive hydrothermal alteration under relatively high-P/lowT conditions where hydrous silicates and calcium carbonate crystallized in the matrix. We believe that oxidation of the metal took place during this event along with the Fe enrichment of the surface and fractures in olivine--terrestrial oxidation of metal would probably have created a rusty crust and vein filllings of goethite instead. The coarse-grained matrix patches were formed by a mild metamorphic event that did not cause any notable equilibration. Because of the predominating hydrothermal imprint, we propose "petrologic type 2" for the meteorite although the metamorphic event probably was in the low part of the "type 3" range or of very brief duration. Classification and Discussion: The size and abundance of chondrules, the abundance of "metal" and the presence of a Ca-Al inclusion are characteristic of the CV chondrite group and inconsistent with the properties of known CI, CO, CM, CR, and CK carbonaceous chondrites. Aligned, elongate chondrules also occur in Leoville (CV3). Most known CV chondrites belong to petrologic type 3 or 4 and hydrothermally altered members are unusual though not unique. Thorough hydrothermal alteration also affected Read Bluff (CV3), which, however, still contains some metal [1]. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation. Our description is based on a polished thin section (150 mm^2) kindly provided by David New. References: [1] Treiman A. H. and DeHart J. M. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 299.

Ulff-Moller, F.; Rasmussen, K. L.; Grundvig, S.

1993-07-01

242

Antineoplastic agents. 587. Isolation and structure of 3-epipancratistatin from Narcissus cv. Ice Follies.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided (cancer cell line) separation of an extract prepared from Narcissus cv. Ice Follies (from The Netherlands) led to the isolation of a new Amaryllidaceae isocarbostiryl, 3-epipancratistatin (1b), as well as narciclasine (2). This Narcissus cultivar was found to be a good source of narciclasine. The structure of 1b was established by high-resolution mass and high-field 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Against a panel of murine and human cancer cell lines, 3-epipancratistatin (1b) led to cell growth inhibition (GI(50) 2.2-0.69 ?g/mL) some 100× less than that found for pancratistatin (1a) and narciclasine (2), thereby revealing an important configurational requirement in 1a for strong cancer cell growth inhibition. PMID:22413911

Pettit, George R; Tan, Rui; Bao, Guan-Hu; Melody, Noeleen; Doubek, Dennis L; Gao, Song; Chapuis, Jean-Charles; Williams, Lee

2012-03-13

243

Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.  

PubMed

Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better. PMID:16493521

De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

2006-02-17

244

Volatiles from leaves, fruits, and virgin oil from Olea europaea Cv. Olivastra Seggianese from Italy.  

PubMed

The volatiles produced by leaves and fruits of Olea europaea cv. Olivastra Seggianese have been analyzed in two different phenological stages. Furthermore, the volatiles of the virgin olive oil obtained from ripe fruits has been characterized. The volatiles were sampled by means of two different techniques: hydrodistillation and SPME. Differences were observed between the two different collection times, the different organs, and sampling techniques. The major constituents were often aldehydes, particularly (E)-2-hexenal (9.8-48.0%); however, also many terpenoids have been identified, mainly (E,E)-alpha-farnesene (0.2-27.0%), linalool (0-3.6%), beta-caryophyllene (0-8.1%), and valencene (0-2.5%). This is the first investigation on this cultivar. PMID:12590485

Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

2003-02-26

245

Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.  

PubMed

The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation. PMID:18484542

Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

2008-03-01

246

Gibberellins in Dormant Embryos of Pyrus malus L. cv Golden delicious.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to search for free gibberellins in dormant embryos of Pyrus malus L. cv Golden delicious using several extraction procedures. Quantitative estimations were made by biotest (lettuce hypocotyle test) and by GLC. Using an ethanolic extraction, only minute quantities of free gibberellins were detected. When extraction was carried out in the Tris buffer pH 7.2, the quantities of gibberellins detected were slightly higher. When the embryos were crushed in Tris buffer and treated with Triton X 100, very large amounts of gibberellins were detected, especially GA1 and GA4. These results indicate that gibberellins are present in dormant embryos before chilling treatment. The form in which the gibberellins exist and the origin of GA4 are discussed. PMID:23195054

Bianco, J; Lasséchère, S; Bulard, C

2012-01-20

247

Metal phase in a B1-type CAI fragment of the CV Efremovka chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from petrographical, mineralogical, and chemical analyses of metal particles in two B1-type CAI fragments obtained from the Efremovka CV chondrite. The fragments were found to have a broken outer border consisting mainly of grains of Ca phosphates and a Fe/Ni phase. Both fragments are associated with V2O3-rich pyroxene. All individual particles and veins of the fragments are made up from high-Ni tenite, sometimes enriched in V. It is suggested that all features of the metal phase of this chondrite are a consequence of oxidation, or of partial evaporation of the metal followed by its oxidation, and that the characteristics of the metal phase of the CAI phase of the Efremovka chondrite may correspond to those of the protomatter of some fremdlings, such as the Allende chondrite.

Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.

1991-09-01

248

Partial melting of the Allende (CV3) meteorite - Implications for origins of basaltic meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity. Melts are eucritic if this variable is below that of the iron-wuestite buffer or angritic if above it. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wuestite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid greater than 110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting.

Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jones, J. H.

1991-05-01

249

Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.  

PubMed

Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

2002-01-30

250

Quantifying key parameters as elicitors for alternate fruit bearing in cv. 'Elstar' apple trees.  

PubMed

The commonly known alternate bearing, i.e. year-to-year change of large and small yields of fruit tree crops worldwide, is often induced by abiotic stress such as late frost, which will eliminate flowers or fruitlets. This study presents an alternative form, biotic biennial bearing, i.e. change of large and small yields of the same trees within the same tree row in the same year. Three methods were developed or modified for the analysis of the number of flower clusters and yield of 2086 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. 'Elstar' trees. The first method, i.e., based on intersect between yield in year x and year x+1 and flower clusters in year x, yielded 91-106 flower clusters, whereas the second method, i.e., mean yield in year x and year x+1, resulted in a range of 72-133 flower clusters, or 9.6kg/tree necessary for sustainable cultivation of apple cv. 'Elstar'. The third 'biennial bearing index' (BBI), was calculated in three ways as the ratio of differences in tree yields to cumulative tree yield, for individual trees (rather than orchard average) to demonstrate the tree-to-tree alternation. A scheme for the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms was developed, which includes potential elicitors such as light deprivation and subsequent lack of flower initiation, are discussed as a possible result of polar basipetal GA7 transport, cytokinin level in the xylem and phloem and down-regulation of the gene expression of the flowering gene. Suggested countermeasures included early chemical or mechanical thinning. PMID:24094049

Krasniqi, Anne-Lena; Damerow, Lutz; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

2013-08-03

251

Chondritic ingredients: I. Usual suspects and some oddballs in the Leoville CV3 meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced CV3 chondrites are relatively pristine rocks and prime candidates for studies exploring processes that predated planet formation. We closely examined the petrographic features and trace elemental composition of different CV3 constituents in the accretionary breccia Leoville. The petrographic results are presented here. Our sample (2.2 cm2) is not brecciated. The main ingredient—about 65 area%—is fine- to coarse-grained ferromagnesian type I chondrules. Minor constituents (in order of 2-D abundance) include refractory inclusions, Al-rich chondrules, and very fine-crystalline clasts of moderately volatile composition. Type II chondrules and metal nuggets occur sporadically. The chondrule-matrix ratio is approximately 3:1. Medium- and coarse-grained chondrules exhibit porphyritic textures, probably caused by incomplete melting, and frequent, partial or continuous, recrystallized dust rims. The fine-grained population most likely represents randomly sectioned dust rims. The rim material and some of the medium-grained objects are relatively troilite-rich. Iron-nickel metal is rare. In addition, almost all constituents show strikingly ragged or convoluted outlines. Only a few, rim-less components exhibit smooth contours. Evidence for incomplete melting and the formation of recrystallized or igneous rims in carbonaceous chondrites is well established, suggesting that both processes were widespread events. The observed features in Leoville support this conclusion. In addition, our findings indicate that surface abrasion in a turbulent dust-filled regime may have taken place after the consolidation of dust rims. Alternatively, the irregular, convoluted nature of at least the rimmed chondrules may have been inherent to the dust accretion event and was not erased by subsequent heating.

Patzer, Andrea; Hezel, Dominik C.; Bendel, Verena; Pack, Andreas

2012-01-01

252

Paloma (RX J0524+42): the missing link in magnetic CV evolution?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decent optical photometry of the canditate magnetic CV Paloma has uncovered three persistent periods at 157, 146, and 136 min, which we interpret as the manifestation of the orbital motion of the system, the white dwarf's spin, and a related side-band frequency of the other two. All three periodicities are caused by a double-humped modulation of about 1 mag appearing only at certain fractions of the beat cycle, and it probably originates from one or two accretion spots. Our data is consistent with two plausible solutions, with the spin period being either 146 or 136 min. The appearance of a corresponding spin-folded light curve suggests two different scenarios, for which either pole switching between two diametrically opposed accretion regions (for P_spin = 146 min) or pole migration of one single spot (with P_spin = 136 min) is the preferred accretion mode. Complementary ROSAT X-ray observations and low-resolution spectroscopy provide supporting evidence of the magnetic nature of the object. Depending on the choice of the spin period, the degree of asynchronism with respect to the orbital period is 7% or 14%, implying a beat period of 0.7 or 1.4 days. Thus, the source populates the gap between the near-synchronous polars (<2%) and the DQ Herculis stars with long spin periods (e.g. EX Hya, V1025 Cen, DW Cnc). With an orbital period right within the period gap, Paloma is a key object for magnetic CV evolution: it might be the first bona fide transition object between the DQ Her and AM Her system with a white dwarf currently in the process of synchronisation. Based in part on observations made at Observatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France.

Schwarz, R.; Schwope, A. D.; Staude, A.; Rau, A.; Hasinger, G.; Urrutia, T.; Motch, C.

2007-10-01

253

INFLUÊNCIA DO MANEJO FITOTÉCNICO NA QUALIDADE SENSORIAL DE PÊSSEGOS (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) CV. MACIEL INFLUENCE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE SENSORY QUALITY OF PEACHES (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) CV. MACIEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attributes as color of epidermis, fruit size, taste and flavor are important references to the consumer, since they have direct impact on quality perception. This work aimed to evaluate fruit quality through the sensory analysis of peaches (cv. Maciel) submitted to different cultural practices. The following treatments were studied: control; green prunning; raffia plastic and summer prunning; metallized plastic and

Renato Trevisan; Rosa de Oliveira Treptow; Emerson Dias Gonçalves; Flávio Gilberto Herter

254

INTERVALO DE COR TE NA PRODUÇÃO DE MASSA SECA E COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICO-BROMATOLÓGICA DA Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG5 1 Effect of cutting periods on Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG5 dry mass production and bromatologic-chemical composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was carried out in a green house, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. It aimed to evaluate the offect of cutting period on dry mass production and bromatologic- chemical composition of Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-5. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replications. The treatments were constituted by four cutting intervals (15, 20, 30 and 60 days). After

Kátia Aparecida de Pinho; Itamar Pereira de Oliveira; Valdemar Faquin; Belmiro Pereira

255

The Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV): A Measure of Behavioral Change for Young Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Parent Interview for Autism-Clinical Version (PIA-CV) for 58 children (ages 2-5). Results support the utility of the PIA-CV for obtaining ecologically valid information from parents and for measuring behavioral change in young children with autism. (Contains references.)…

Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Turner, Lauren M.

2003-01-01

256

Alternating magnetic field effects on yield and plant nutrient element composition of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. camarosa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic field is an inescapable environmental factor for plants in the soil. However, its impact on plant growth is not well understood. In order to learn how magnetic fields affect plants, the effects of alternating the magnetic field (MF) on the yield and ion accumulation in the leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) was studied. Short day strawberry cv.

Ahmet E?itken; Metin Turan

2004-01-01

257

Ultrastructural localization of Kunitz inhibitor on thin sections of Glycine max (soybean) cv. Maple Arrow by the gold method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI, Kunitz type) was localized by immunofluorescence and, at the ultrastructural level, by the protein A gold method on thin sections of Glycine max (soybean) cv. Maple Arrow. SBTI was localized in cell walls, protein bodies, the cytoplasm between the lipid-containing spherosomes, and the nucleus of the cotyledon and embryonic axis. In the nucleus, SBTI was

M. Horisberger; M. Tacchini-Vonlanthen

1983-01-01

258

Effect of transport vibration levels on mechanical damage and physiological responses of Huanghua pears ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Huanghua)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of transport vibration on the quality of Huanghua pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, cv. Huanghua) during commercialization (room temperature) after transport was tested. Different vibration levels on the front and rear floors in a 2-tonne truck with leaf-spring suspensions were evaluated for their effect on mechanical damage to fruit during transport. Changes in color and cell membrane permeability of

Ran Zhou; Shuqiang Su; Liping Yan; Yunfei Li

2007-01-01

259

EFFECT OF COLD HARDENING ON SOME PHOTOSYNTHETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PEA (Pisum sativum L., CV. RAN 1) PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The effect of 96 h cold acclimation of pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Ran 1) plants on their photosynthetic capacity was investigated. It was found that pea plants were able to modulate their photosynthetic rate dur- ing growth at low temperature and adjust it to needs for survival. The ad- vantages of hardening to low temperature were very clearly

Ivan Yordanov; Katya Georgieva; Tsonko Tsonev; Violeta Velikova

260

Analysis of SSR and AFLP Markers to Detect Genetic Diversity Among Selected Clones of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Keshmeshi  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the genetic differences between clones of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Keshmeshi, ten selected clones from a clonal selection programme were analysed by 23 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) and seven AFLP primer combinations. No intra-varietal differences between the clones could be detected by SSRs, whereas eight out of the 499 AFLP fragments generated by the seven primer combinations

H. Doulati Baneh; S. A. Mohammadi; H. Mahmoudzadeh; F. de Mattia; M. Labra

261

Measuring and assessing researcher mobility from CV analysis: the case of the Ramón y Cajal programme in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relying on the international literature on CV-based indicators, we select a sample of CVs from researchers applying to the Spanish Ramón y Cajal programme to assess mobility patterns and look for evidence of links between mobility and research performance. Evidence is found that mobility patterns vary across disciplines and that most internationally mobile researchers seem to have better access to

Carolina Cañibano; Javier Otamendi; Inés Andújar

2008-01-01

262

Variation in structure and plant regeneration of Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed and control roots of the potato cv. Bintje  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed and control roots of the tetraploid potato cv. Bintje were compared. Transformed roots were obtained after infection by A. rhizogenes 15834 or 1855. Both in leaf and stem segments, more roots were formed at the basal side of the segments, indicative for a polarity in root formation. As compared to control roots the transformed roots are characterized

M. P. Ottaviani; J. H. N. Schel; Ch. H. Hänisch ten Cate

1990-01-01

263

Efeito da Hidrólise Enzimática na Redução do Tamanho de Partículas em Suco de Limão (Citrus limon, L.), cv. Tahiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to evaluate particle size reduction in lemon juice (Citrus limon, L.), cv. Tahiti, after enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial pectinase. The assays were carried out on a laboratory scale, following a random experimental design with five treatments, combining two levels of enzyme concentration (0.1% and 0.5%) with two incubation times (20 and 60

Lucia Maria Jaeger de CARVALHO; Renata BORCHETTA; Érika Madeira Moreira da SILVA; Carlos Wanderlei; Piler CARVALHO; Ricardo Motta; Alberto Bento da SILVA

264

Complete NMR spectral assignments of two new iridoid diastereoisomers from the flowers of Plumeria rubra L. cv. acutifolia.  

PubMed

Two new iridoid diastereoisomers (1, 2), together with five known compounds, were isolated from the flowers of Plumerian rubra L. cv. acutifolia. Their structures were elucidated by the means of in-depth spectroscopic and mass-spectrometric analyses, particularly 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:18802971

Ye, Guan; Yang, Yan-ling; Xia, Guang-xin; Fan, Ming-song; Huang, Cheng-gang

2008-12-01

265

The influence of fruit ripening on the phytochemical content and biological activity of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv Habanero  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, it has been reported that the consumption of certain foods and spices such as pepper may have a positive effect on health. The present study evaluates the influence of fruit ripening on total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids and capsaicinoids content and antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and anticholinesterase activities of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv Habanero. The chemical investigation showed a

Federica Menichini; Rosa Tundis; Marco Bonesi; Monica R. Loizzo; Filomena Conforti; Giancarlo Statti; Bruno De Cindio; Peter J. Houghton; Francesco Menichini

2009-01-01

266

Changes of defense proteins in the extracellular proteome of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures in response to elicitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plant cells, elicitors induce defense responses that resemble those triggered by pathogen attack, such as the synthesis of phytoalexins and pathogen-related proteins which accumulate in the extracellular space. In the search for the particular proteins involved in defense responses, we investigated the changes in the extracellular proteome of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell suspension in response to

M. J. Martinez-Esteso; S. Sellés-Marchart; J. C. Vera-Urbina; M. A. Pedreño; R. Bru-Martinez

2009-01-01

267

Effect of Cold Storage and Removal Astringency on Quality of Persimmon Fruit (Diospyros kaki, L.) cv. Rojo Brillante  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold storage and removal of astringency effects on quality of persimmon fruit cv. Rojo brillante were determined. Persimmon fruit were stored at 1, 8, 11 and 15 ºC (85–90% RH) and after 6, 13, 20, 27 and 34 days of storage at these temperatures, astringency was removed. Fruit quality was assessed after the removal of the astringency and after a

L. Arnal; M. A. Del RÌo

2004-01-01

268

Influence of Ripening Stage at Harvest on Chilling Injury Symptoms of Persimmon cv. Rojo Brillante Stored at Different Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the quality during storage of persimmon fruits cv. Rojo Brillante harvested at two different maturity stages were studied. Early and late harvested fruit were stored at 1°C or 15°C for different periods of time. Harvest time had a relevant influence on chilling injury (CI) sensitiveness, since CI symptoms were found in fruits stored at 1°C only when they

A. Salvador; L. Arnal; A. Monterde; J. M. Martínez-Jávega

2005-01-01

269

Non-hydraulic regulation of fruit growth in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Solairo) growing in drying soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Solairo) fruit growth, fruit mesocarp and leaf epidermal cell turgor, and fruit and leaf sub-epidermal apoplastic pH were monitored as plants were allowed to dry the soil in which they were rooted. Soil drying regimes involved splitting the root system of plants between two halves of a single pot separated by a solid impervi- ous membrane

Darren M. Mingo; Mark A. Bacon; William J. Davies

2003-01-01

270

Inherited transgene expression of the uidA and bar genes in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expression of two transgenes, bar and uidA, was studied in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants. ‘Nellie White’ had been transformed using the gene gun to bombard with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that eight ...

271

Some observations of the effects of applied magnetic fields on growth of Avena coleoptiles. [Avena sativa cv. Garry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applied magnetic fields (5000-18,000 Gauss) disrupt the pattern of cellulose microfibril deposition in cells of Avena sativa cv. Garry coleoptiles. Freeze fracture reveals the microfibrils of the innermost wall layers to be randomly oriented, rather than parallel and transverse to the elongation axis as seen in control plants. Whole plants exposed to the magnetic field at any field intensity tested

D. S. Brown; M. Gretz; R. M. Jr. Brown

1986-01-01

272

Effect of Cutting Heights on Productivity and Quality of King Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King Grass) under Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: An experiment to study the effect of cutting heights on yield and nutritive values of King napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass) was conducted on sandy loam, Korat soil series (Oxic Paleustults) under irrigation during June 2006 to November 2007 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Development Research Center, Thailand. Four treatments of cutting height at 0 (T1),

Sumran Wijitphan; Pornchai Lorwilai; Chutipong Arkaseang

2009-01-01

273

The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) binds to blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface.  

PubMed

The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is "hijacked" by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified ?-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 "self"-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to ?-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A; Bianchet, Mario A; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B H; Vasta, Gerardo R

2013-07-03

274

Unusual Dark Clasts in the Vigarano CV3 Chondrite: Record of Parent Body Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of dark lithic clasts have been reported from CV3 chondrites and are commonly called "dark inclusions" (DIs). The DIs widely range in texture from chondritic with chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) embedded in a matrix (similar to host meteorites), to fine-grained aggregates of Fe-rich olivine free of coarse-grained components [1,2]. The DIs have been interpreted to represent (1) primary aggregates of materials in the solar nebula [3-5] and (2) materials that were affected by thermal metamorphism on their parent bodies [6]. We present the results of petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of two unusual clasts found in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. The two unusual clasts, which we will call CL1 and CL2, are approximately 1.2 x 1.0 mm^2 (CLl) and 0.8 x 0.6 mm^2 (CL2) and occur within one of the large clasts (2.8 x 1.0 mm^2). CL1 and CL2 have very similar mineralogies and textures; they contain irregular to oval-shaped inclusions consisting mostly of fine grains of Fe-rich olivine embedded in the matrix of the clasts, and are free of distinct chondrules, CAIs, and coarse mineral fragments. Thus, they resemble the fine-grained variety of DIs. Under the optical microscope, most inclusions resemble chondrules or chondrule fragments in shape and size. However, they are brownish-translucent in transmitted light and are clearly distinct from chondrules in the Vigarano host. The inclusions are characteristically flattened in direction, exhibiting apparent foliation. Our SEM observations reveal the following unusual characteristics: (1) the inclusions are not mere random aggregates of olivine grains but have peculiar internal textures, i.e., assemblies of round or oval-shaped outlines, which are suggestive of pseudomorphs after porphyritic or granular olivine chondrules; (2) one of the thick inclusion rims contains a network of vein-like strings of elongated olivine grains, (3) an Fe-Ni metal aggregate in CL1 has an Fe-, Ni-, S-rich halo, suggesting a reaction between its precursor and the surrounding matrix; and (4) olivine in the clasts commonly shows a swirly, fibrous texture similar to that of phyllosilicate. These characteristics are not reconciled with a primary (unprocessed) origin for the clasts but suggest that they were involved in a secondary process such as aqueous alteration. The fine grains of olivine in these clasts were presumably produced by thermal transformation of phyllosilicate. Serpentine is known to start transforming to olivine at >300 degrees C [7]. The inclusions in CL1 and CL2 resemble chondrules: Some of them are surrounded by distinctive rims similar to chondrule rims commonly seen in the carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, we believe that the precursor material of the clasts would have been related to some types of chondrites, possibly the Vigarano host itself, and that aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism occurred in the meteorite parent body. We suggest that some of the dark inclusions and clasts previously reported from CV3 chondrites and other types of meteorites may have origins common to these clasts in Vigarano. References: [1] Fruland R. M. et al. (1978) Proc. LPSC 9th, 1305-1329. [2] Johnson C. A. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 819-830. [3] Bischoff A. et al. (1988) LPSC XIX, 88-89. [4] Kurat G. (1989) Z. Naturforsch., 44a, 988-1004. [5] Palme H. (1989) Z. Naturforsch., 44a, 1005-1014. [6] Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1983) LPSC XIV, 75-76. [7] Akai J. (1992) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 5, 120-135.

Kojima, T.; Tomeoka, K.; Takeda, H.

1993-07-01

275

Using MOST to reveal the secrets of the mischievous Wolf-Rayet binary CV Ser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary CV Serpentis (= WR113, WC8d + O8-9IV) has been a source of mystery since it was shown that its atmospheric eclipses change with time over decades, in addition to its sporadic dust production. The first high-precision time-dependent photometric observations obtained with the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) space telescope in 2009 show two consecutive eclipses over the 29-d orbit, with varying depths. A subsequent MOST run in 2010 showed a seemingly asymmetric eclipse profile. In order to help make sense of these observations, parallel optical spectroscopy was obtained from the Mont Megantic Observatory (2009, 2010) and from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (2009). Assuming these depth variations are entirely due to electron scattering in a ?-law wind, an unprecedented 62 per cent increase in M? is observed over one orbital period. Alternatively, no change in mass-loss rate would be required if a relatively small fraction of the carbon ions in the wind globally recombined and coaggulated to form carbon dust grains. However, it remains a mystery as to how this could occur. There also seems to be evidence for the presence of corotating interaction regions (CIR) in the WR wind: a CIR-like signature is found in the light curves, implying a potential rotation period for the WR star of 1.6 d. Finally, a new circular orbit is derived, along with constraints for the wind collision.

David-Uraz, Alexandre; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Chené, André-Nicolas; Rowe, Jason F.; Lange, Nicholas; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

2012-11-01

276

Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Reactions during Senescence of Excised Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv IB 65) Leaves.  

PubMed Central

The chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthetic reactions were monitored during senescence of dark-incubated excised barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv IB 65) leaves floated in double-distilled water or kinetin solution. Kinetin abolished the degradation of Chl but failed to check the net degradation of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), suggesting that different sets of enzymes, i.e. kinetin sensitive and insensitive, are responsible for the degradation of Chl and Pchlide, respectively. Upon exposure of the leaves to light, the dark-accumulated Pchlide was efficiently phototransformed to chorophyllide (Chlide), even on the 7th d of dark incubation, demonstrating that the activity of Pchlide reductase, one of the late enzymes of the Chl biosynthetic pathway, is not substantially affected during senescence. The senescing leaves continued to synthesize Pchlide and Chlide until the 7th d, although at a reduced rate (20% of the 1st d). The decline of the rate of synthesis of Pchlide and Chlide is due to the loss of activity of two early enzymes of the Chl biosynthetic pathway, i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase. Kinetin substantially checked the loss of activity of these two enzymes.

Hukmani, P.; Tripathy, B. C.

1994-01-01

277

Demonstration of REE fractionation among individual chondrules from the allende (CV3) chondrite  

SciTech Connect

Abundances of REE, Ba, Sr, Rb, K, Mg and Ca were determined by precise mass spectrometric isotope dilution techniques for 24 chondrules from the Allende (CV3) chondrite. The REE abundances are 2.5-10 {times} CI for barred olivine chondrules, 2-8 {times} CI for porphyritic and nonporphyritic pyroxene chondrules, 0.15-4 {times} CI for porphyritic olivine and porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrules and are more or less similarly fractionated. General REE fractionations and large (up to 170%) anomalies of Ce, Eu and Yb occur in all chondrule types, particularly for barred olivine and pyroxene-rich chondrules. Positive correlations of REE with the moderately volatile elements, K and Rb, as well as other refractory elements, Ca, Sr and Ba, are independent of textural type and major chemical compositions. Each type of chondrule has large and systematic abundance variations of K and Rb, but shows a constant K/Rb ratio close to that of CIs. From the these results, the following constraints on the chemical characteristics of precursors and chondrule-forming events are suggested: (1) vaporization loss of alkalis accompanied by K/Rb fractionation did not occur during chondrule-formation melting events, (2) elemental abundances were basically established prior to melting events by accretion of alkali-free component(s) and alkali-bearing refractory precursors with fractionated REE, (3) gas/solid (or liquid) processes yielding REE fractionations took place during the formation of refractory precursors.

Misawa, K; Nakamura, N. (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

1988-06-01

278

Risk assessment on irrigation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Malbec with Hg contaminated waters.  

PubMed

Concerns regard watering crops with Hg contaminated waters have arisen worldwide recently. In these sense Hg uptake by Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec was evaluated under greenhouse conditions by the administration of Hg(2+) for 4 days through irrigation water (short-term administration). Vines uptake Hg translocating it from roots through stems to leaves. Roots accumulated the higher Hg concentration. Hg in stems and leaves was accumulated mostly as organic Hg, bind to different moieties. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ion pair chromatography (IPC) were employed to reach insights into these ligands. Hg is distributed mainly in high molecular weight fractions of 669 kDa in vine plants. In stems and leaves, Hg-S associations were found in 669 and 66 kDa fractions. Hg-S association at 66 kDa suggests a possible protein or peptide binding affecting vines normal physiology. Since Hg contamination through organomercurials is more harmful than Hg(2+) itself, methyl mercury, dimethyl mercury, and phenyl mercury, more toxic Hg species were evaluated with negative results. PMID:23679130

Spisso, Adrián; Pacheco, Pablo H; Gómez, Federico J V; Silva, M Fernanda; Martinez, Luis D

2013-05-28

279

Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum cv  

SciTech Connect

Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum cv. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.

Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

1986-04-01

280

Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils cv. Leccino.  

PubMed

Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938

Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo

2007-07-18

281

Stable MSAP Markers for the Distinction of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Clones.  

PubMed

Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops. Molecular markers have been used to study grapevine diversity. For instance, simple sequence repeats are a powerful tool for identification of grapevine cultivars, while amplified fragment length polymorphisms have shown their usefulness in intra-varietal diversity studies. Other techniques such as sequence-specific amplified polymorphism are based on the presence of mobile elements in the genome, but their detection lies upon their activity. Relevant attention has been drawn toward epigenetic sources of variation. In this study, a set of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones were analyzed using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique with isoschizomers MspI and HpaII. Nine out of fourteen selective primer combinations were informative and generated two types of polymorphic fragments which were categorized as "stable" and "unstable." In total, 23 stable fragments were detected and they discriminated 92.5 % of the studied clones. Detected stable polymorphisms were either common to several clones, restricted to a few clones or unique to a single clone. The identification of these stable epigenetic markers will be useful in clonal diversity studies. We highlight the relevance of stable epigenetic variation in V. vinifera clones and analyze at which level these markers could be applicable for the development of forthright techniques for clonal distinction. PMID:23723045

Ocaña, Juan; Walter, Bernard; Schellenbaum, Paul

2013-05-31

282

Influence of climatic conditions on the phenolic composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano.  

PubMed

The influence of different climatic conditions on the phenolic composition of grape skins and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano - an autochthonous cultivar from Rioja and Navarra regions (Spain) - was evaluated during ripening in a separate way. Graciano grapes from two different vineyards with different climatic conditions and from two different vintages (2008 and 2009) were analysed. Clear differences between phenolic maturity pattern of grape skins and seeds were observed. In this context, it may be important to evaluate the phenolic maturity of seeds and skins in a separate way in order to decide the optimal harvest time. It was also noticeable that the effect of vintage (mainly due to changes in climatic conditions) may affect the changes in the phenolic composition of both grape skins and seeds. Although in a lesser extent, the effect of the vineyard was also observable, and it was especially relevant in vintages with irregular climatic conditions such as 2008 vintage. In a second strand, results obtained from the phenolic composition of grape seeds and skins at harvest, oenological parameters at harvest and climate conditions during vegetative stage were evaluated and relationships among the aforementioned variables were revealed. PMID:22688036

Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

2012-01-11

283

Effects of seismic stress on the vegetative growth of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Wells II.  

PubMed

Vegetative plants of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Wells II] grown in a greenhouse and agitated periodically on a gyratory shaker had shorter stems, less leaf area, and lower leaf and plant dry weight than did undisturbed greenhouse-grown (GG) plants after 16 d of treatment. Outdoor-grown (OG) plants, which were subject to additional environmental stresses including ultraviolet radiation, wind loading, and uncontrolled temperature and humidity fluctuations, were smaller and had less dry weight than GG controls, but growth was not inhibited further by gyratory shaking. Periodic shaking of GG soybeans resulted in the same plant and leaf dry weight as for the OG soybeans. Response of GG plants to mechanical stress depended on light intensity, with minimum growth reduction occurring under full light (FL) level, and maximum growth reduction occurring under lower light levels (24-45% FL). Reduction in dry weight gain due to mechanical stress corresponded to a decrease in relative growth rate (RGR). Decreases in net assimilation rate and leaf area ratio contributed equally to the lower RGR of shaken plants, indicating that seismic stress inhibits dry weight accumulation by decreasing both the photosynthetic efficiency and the assimilatory surface of soybean. PMID:11540819

Pappas, T; Mitchell, C A

1985-01-01

284

Folate Levels and Polyglutamylation Profiles of Papaya ( Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during Fruit Development and Ripening.  

PubMed

Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development. PMID:23574547

Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

2013-04-11

285

Life-Cycle-Management of CV Cables based on Degradation Diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the usability of life-cycle management (LCM) of CV cables based on degradation diagnosis, focusing on the application in small-scale facility. Because the failure in small-scale facility should be evaluated as a discrete event, we developed the model for estimating both the mean value and the variation of the life-cycle cost (LCC). When the failure loss cost is large, the short replacement cycle is the most cost-effective in a time-based maintenance (TBM), although many cables are replaced. Therefore, the reduction in LCC by taking a condition-based maintenance (CBM) is realized mainly due to the reduction in replaced cables by diagnosis. On the other hand, when the failure loss cost is small, LCC of each cable by taking TBM can be smaller than LCC by CBM in many cables due to the longer replacement cycle without diagnosis. However, the mean value of LCC among 100 cables is still small in CBM, because the total number of failure cables is much smaller in CBM due to the diagnosis. Consequently, LCC can be reduced by CBM, while the reason for the reduction in LCC by CBM, in other words the usability of CBM, depends on the relation between cost for diagnosis, cable replacement and failure loss. The results would be useful in the decision making to take CBM in small scale application.

Kato, Takeyoshi; Koyama, Yutaka; Suzuoki, Yasuo

286

Stable transformation of Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong for gene analysis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed

Medicago truncatula is a model legume that has all the genomic resources to be suitable as a model for functional genomics. Transformation to produce transgenic plants is part of this toolkit, enabling a spectrum of approaches to study gene function: including knockdown, overexpression, reporter genes for gene expression, and proteins tagged with fluorescent proteins such as GFP. A special genetic line is necessary for transformation and Jemalong 2HA derived from cv. Jemalong is used in the methods described. Leaf explants can be used for the transformation of the embryonic stem cells to produce the transgenic somatic embryos for regeneration. An auxin and a cytokinin are the key hormone requirements for regeneration by somatic embryogenesis but other hormones such as abscisic acid can be used to augment the system. As the explants used in this system are from leaves, rather than immature embryos or meristematic tissues often used in other species, it is a quite straightforward system. Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing a binary vector suitable for the particular objectives is used to deliver the transgene of interest. PMID:23996317

Song, Youhong; Nolan, Kim E; Rose, Ray J

2013-01-01

287

The effects of Pierce's disease on leaf and petiole hydraulic conductance in Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay.  

PubMed

In this study, we test the hypothesis that the symptoms of Pierce's Disease (PD) result from the occlusion of xylem conduits by the bacteria Xylella fastidiosa (Xf ). Four treatments were imposed on greenhouse-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay: well-watered and deficit-irrigated plants with and without petiole inoculation with Xf. The hydraulic conductance of the stem-petiole junction (k(jun)) and leaves (k(leaf)) were measured, and Xf concentrations were established by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Leaf hydraulic conductance decreased with increasing leaf scorch symptoms in both irrigation treatments. The positive relationship between Xf concentration and symptom formation in deficit-irrigated plants suggests that water-stress increases susceptibility to PD. In field-grown vines, water relations of symptomatic leaves were similar to naturally senescing leaves but differed from green control leaves. Overall, these results suggest that the development of PD symptoms represents a form of accelerated senescence as part of a systemic response of the plant to Xf infection. PMID:19470095

Choat, Brendan; Gambetta, Greg A; Wada, Hiroshi; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

2009-05-11

288

Occurrence of metaxenia and false hybrids in Brassica juncea L. cv. Kikarashina x B. napus  

PubMed Central

Imported genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus) is approved by Japanese law. Some GM canola varieties have been found around importation sites, and there is public concern that these may have any harmful effects on related species such as reduction of wild relatives. Because B. juncea is distributed throughout Japan and is known to be high crossability with B. napus, it is assumed to be a recipient of B. napus. However, there are few reports for introgression of cross-combination in B. juncea × B. napus. To assess crossability, we artificially pollinated B. juncea with B. napus. After harvesting a large number of progeny seeds, we observed false hybrids and metaxenia of seed coats. Seed coat color was classified into four categories and false hybrids were confirmed by morphological characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Furthermore, the occurrence of false hybrids was affected by varietal differences in B. napus, whereas that of metaxenia was related to hybridity. Therefore, we suggest that metaxenia can be used as a marker for hybrid identification in B. juncea L. cv. Kikarashina × B. napus. Our results suggest that hybrid productivity in B. juncea × B. napus should not be evaluated by only seed productivity, crossability ought to be assessed the detection of true hybrids.

Tsuda, Mai; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Kaneko, Yukio; Tabei, Yutaka

2011-01-01

289

Effect of preservative agents on the respiration rate of minimally processed potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Monalisa).  

PubMed

The shelf life of minimally processed potatoes (MPP) is limited by enzyme-catalyzed browning reactions, with the increase in respiration being another factor that affects quality retention of this product. Sulfites are commonly used as effective preservative agents in minimally processing potatoes, but ascorbic acid and citric acid are considered natural sulfite substitutes and more accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to study the effect of combinations of the preservative agents cited above (sodium metabisulfite 0.1% and 0.5%; citric acid 0.1% and 0.5%; ascorbic acid 0.5%) on the respiration rate of MPP (cv. Monalisa) processed at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. The results have revealed that there is a significant effect of dipping treatment and temperature on respiration rate of MPP. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) reduces respiratory activity up to 0.8 mL/kg/h. The addition of either citric or ascorbic acid enhanced the effect of SM on the reduction of the respiration rate of MPP. The strongest effect (up to 3.3 mL/kg/h) was observed when a combination of all 3 agents at the higher concentrations was employed at a temperature of 18 degrees C. PMID:18387087

Petri, E; Arroqui, C; Angós, I; Vírseda, P

2008-04-01

290

Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers  

SciTech Connect

The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1991-05-01

291

Visualisation and quantification of CV chondrite petrography using micro-tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-computed tomography is a non-destructive technique that allows the study of 3D meteorite petrography. The technique produces a unique and instructive visualisation of the meteorite for quantifying its components. We studied the overall petrography of the two CV chondrites Allende and Mokoia to constrain their formation histories. A set of movies and stereographic images detail the 3D petrography. Component modal abundances agree with previous reports and modal abundance differences between Allende and Mokoia support the chondrule–matrix complementarity and that chondrules and matrix formed from the same chemical reservoir. We identified two types of chondrules, a normal type and one where a normal type I or II chondrule is almost completely encapsulated by an opaque-rich layer. This layer was probably acquired during a late stage condensation process. The appearance of opaques in chondrules and matrix is different, not supporting a genetic relationships between these. Low abundances of compound chondrules (1.75 vol% in Allende and 2.50 vol% in Mokoia) indicate low chondrule densities and/or low relative component velocities in chondrule formation regions. Porosities on a scale <10–20 ?m allowed for only local aqueous alteration processes on the meteorite parent bodies.

Hezel, Dominik C.; Elangovan, Premkumar; Viehmann, Sebastian; Howard, Lauren; Abel, Richard L.; Armstrong, Robin

2013-09-01

292

7-Polyacylated delphinidin 3,7-diglucosides from the blue flowers of Leschenaultia cv. Violet Lena.  

PubMed

The triacyl anthocyanins, Leschenaultia blue anthocyanins 1 and 2 (LBAs 1 and 2) were isolated from the blue flowers of Leschenaultia R. Br. cv. Violet Lena (Goodeniaceae), in which LBA 1 was present as a dominant pigment. The structure of LBA 1 was elucidated to be delphinidin 3-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside]-7-O-[6-O-(4-O-(6-O-(4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] by application of chemical and spectroscopic methods. Since LAB 2 was isolated in small amount, its structure was tentatively assigned as either delphinidin 3-(malonylglucoside)-7-[(glucosyl-p-coumaroyl)-(glucosylcaffeoyl)-glucoside] or delphinidin 3-(malonyl-glucoside)-7-[(glucosyl-caffeoyl)(glucosyl-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside]. This is the first report of the occurrence of 7-polyacylated anthocyanins in the family of Goodeniaceae, although others have been found in the families of the Ranunculaceae, Campanulaceae, and Compositae. Moreover, delphinidin 3-glycoside-7-di-(glucosylcaffeoyl)-glucoside has been reported only in the flowers of Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae). From a chemotaxonomical viewpoint, the Goodeniaceae may be closely related to the Campanulaceae. PMID:17174991

Saito, Norio; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

2006-12-18

293

Highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via sonication and vacuum infiltration.  

PubMed

A reproducible and efficient transformation method was developed for the banana cv. Rasthali (AAB) via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of suckers. Three-month-old banana suckers were used as explant and three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (EHA105, EHA101, and LBA4404) harboring the binary vector pCAMBIA1301 were used in the co-cultivation. The banana suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered with each of the three A. tumefaciens strains and co-cultivated in the medium containing different concentrations of acetosyringone for 3 days. The transformed shoots were selected in 30 mg/l hygromycin-containing selection medium and rooted in rooting medium containing 1 mg/l IBA and 30 mg/l hygromycin. The presence and integration of the hpt II and gus genes into the banana genome were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, polymerase chain reaction, and southern hybridization. Among the different combinations tested, high transformation efficiency (39.4 ± 0.5% GUS positive shoots) was obtained when suckers were sonicated and vacuum infiltered for 6 min with A. tumefaciens EHA105 in presence of 50 ?M acetosyringone followed by co-cultivation in 50 ?M acetosyringone-containing medium for 3 days. These results suggest that an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for stable integration of foreign genes into banana has been developed and that this transformation system could be useful for future studies on transferring economically important genes into banana. PMID:21212957

Subramanyam, Kondeti; Subramanyam, Koona; Sailaja, K V; Srinivasulu, M; Lakshmidevi, K

2011-01-07

294

Purification and modes of antifungal action by Vicia faba cv. Egypt trypsin inhibitor.  

PubMed

A new 15 kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-E1) from fava beans (Vicia faba cv. Egypt 1) was isolated using liquid chromatography. Though it exhibited substantial homology in N-terminal amino acid sequence to other protease inhibitors, VFTI-E1 showed antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (K(i) 11.9 × 10(-9) M) but hardly any activity against chymotrypsin. It demonstrated antifungal activity toward the filamentous fungus Valsa mali with an IC(50) of 20 ?M. The mechanism of its antifungal action toward V. mali included (1) induction of alteration of hyphal morphology, (2) growth inhibition by chitin deposition at hyphal tips, and (3) permeabilization of fungal membrane. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 was dependent on the ambient ionic strength as increasing concentrations of NaCl, CaCl(2), and MgCl(2) diminished the activity. The membranolytic action of VFTI-E1 was confined to fungus, but not exerted on human and rabbit erythrocytes. This study sheds light on the mode of hyphal growth inhibitory activity of protease inhibitors with antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of VFTI-E1 amplifies the scope of its potential applications. PMID:20836498

Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun

2010-10-13

295

Occurrence of metaxenia and false hybrids in Brassica juncea L. cv. Kikarashina × B. napus.  

PubMed

Imported genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus) is approved by Japanese law. Some GM canola varieties have been found around importation sites, and there is public concern that these may have any harmful effects on related species such as reduction of wild relatives. Because B. juncea is distributed throughout Japan and is known to be high crossability with B. napus, it is assumed to be a recipient of B. napus. However, there are few reports for introgression of cross-combination in B. juncea × B. napus. To assess crossability, we artificially pollinated B. juncea with B. napus. After harvesting a large number of progeny seeds, we observed false hybrids and metaxenia of seed coats. Seed coat color was classified into four categories and false hybrids were confirmed by morphological characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Furthermore, the occurrence of false hybrids was affected by varietal differences in B. napus, whereas that of metaxenia was related to hybridity. Therefore, we suggest that metaxenia can be used as a marker for hybrid identification in B. juncea L. cv. Kikarashina × B. napus. Our results suggest that hybrid productivity in B. juncea × B. napus should not be evaluated by only seed productivity, crossability ought to be assessed the detection of true hybrids. PMID:23136472

Tsuda, Mai; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Kaneko, Yukio; Tabei, Yutaka

2011-12-15

296

Role of Ethylene in Lactuca sativa cv `Grand Rapids' Seed Germination  

PubMed Central

Promotion of thermoinhibited (30°C) lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv `Grand Rapids') seed germination by ethylene is similar to the action of the gas in other hormonal systems. Ethylene was more active than propylene and ethane was inactive. An inhibitor of ethylene production, aminoethoxy-vinylglycine, reduced ethylene evolution and germination. Inhibitors of ethylene action such as, 5-methyl-7-chloro-4-ethoxycarbonylmethoxy-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-norbornadiene, and silver thiosulfate inhibited germination and the effect was reversed by the addition of ethylene to the gas phase. The action of ethylene appears to be due to the promotion of radial cell expansion in the embryonic hypocotyl. The action of N6-benzyladenine and fusiccocin, which also overcome thermoinhibition, appears to be due to a promotion of hypocotyl elongation. None of the germination promoters studied appeared to function by lowering the mechanical resistance of the endosperm to embryonic growth. Data presented here are consistent with the view that ethylene plays a role in lettuce seed germination under thermoinhibited and normal conditions.

Abeles, Fred B.

1986-01-01

297

Acid and Neutral Invertases in the Mesocarp of Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv Prince) Fruit  

PubMed Central

Acid and neutral invertases were found in the mesocarp of developing muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv Prince) fruit and the activities of these enzymes declined with maturation of the fruit, concomitantly with the accumulation of sucrose. Neutral invertase was only present in the soluble fraction and acid invertase was present in both the soluble and cell-wall fractions. The cell-wall fraction contained three types of acid invertase: a NaCl-released invertase; an EDTA-released invertase, and a tightly bound invertase that still remained on the cell wall after treatment with NaCl and EDTA. The soluble acid and neutral invertases could be separated from one another by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and they exhibited clear differences in their properties, namely, in their pH optima, substrate specificity, Km values for sucrose, and inhibition by metal ions. The EDTA-released invertase and the soluble acid invertase were similar with regard to their chromatographic behavior on DEAE-cellulose, but the NaCl-released invertase was different because it was adsorbed to a column of CM-cellulose. The soluble acid invertase and two cell-wall bound invertases had very similar characteristics with regard to optimal pH and temperature, Km value for sucrose, and substrate specificity.

Ranwala, Anil P.; Iwanami, Shun-Suke; Masuda, Hiroshi

1991-01-01

298

Germination and plantlet regeneration of encapsulated microshoots of aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. MRQ 74).  

PubMed

Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3-5 mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. Cv. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1 mg/L BAP, and 0.1 mg/L ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15-30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1 mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338

Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh

2012-08-02

299

Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-03-06

300

Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.  

PubMed

Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458

Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

2013-01-10

301

In vitro antioxidant activity of banana (Musa spp. ABB cv. Pisang Awak).  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Musa ABB cv Pisang Awak was investigated for the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the fruit extract were found to be 120 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 440 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g of sample dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the Pisang Awak methanol extract (PAME) (20-500 microg/ml) was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, 2-2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolourization and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (OH*). The EC50 values of DPPH, ABTS and OH* activities of the PAME and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) were found to be 65 and 9 microg/ml, 29 and 6 microg/ml, 36 and 42 microg/ml respectively. The reducing capacity increased with increasing concentration (31.5-1000 mg/ml) of the fruit extract and the activity was comparable with the standard BHT. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols. The strong and positive correlations were obtained between total phenol/flavonoid contents (R2 = 0.693-1.0) and free radical scavenging ability was attributed to the polyphenols as the major antioxidants. PMID:22650010

Darsini, D Teepica Priya; Maheshu, V; Vishnupriya, M; Sasikumar, J M

2012-04-01

302

Regulation of Fructan Metabolism in Leaves of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Gerbel)  

PubMed Central

Excised primary leaf blades of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Gerbel) rapidly synthesized large quantities of fructan in the light and, upon transfer to the dark, they rapidly degraded it again. In the course of such a light/dark cycle the activities of sucrose-sucrose-fructosyltransferase (SST), fructan hydrolase, and invertase were measured in cell-free extracts of the blades. SST activity increased 20-fold within 24 hours in the light and disappeared again upon transfer to the dark during a similar period of time. Cycloheximide inhibited the increase of SST activity in the light indicating de novo synthesis. The loss of SST activity in the dark, however, was unaffected by cycloheximide. No SST activity appeared in the light if photosynthesis was inhibited by lowering the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. However, SST activity and fructan synthesis were induced even in the dark and at a low CO2 concentration when the leaf blades were immersed in a solution of sucrose. Several other sugars, maltose and fructose in particular, had the same effect. Trehalose induced SST activity but no fructan synthesis occurred. The activities of fructan hydrolase and invertase changed little during the light/dark cycle. It is suggested that the control of SST activity in conjunction with the supply of photosynthates plays a key role in the regulation of fructan metabolism.

Wagner, Walter; Wiemken, Andres; Matile, Philippe

1986-01-01

303

CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.  

PubMed

To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development. PMID:12552151

Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

2003-01-01

304

Safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Chilean children.  

PubMed

The safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™) were assessed in 240 healthy Chilean children randomized to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV (PHiD-CV group) or hepatitis A vaccine (HAV control group) at 2-4-6 months of age. All were offered 1 HAV dose at 12 months (outside study). The PHiD-CV group received a second HAV dose at 18-21 months and PHiD-CV booster at 20-23 months. The HAV control group received 2 PHiD-CV catch-up doses at 18-21 and 20-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and pneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured. Both PHiD-CV vaccination schedules were well tolerated and immunogenic against the pneumococcal vaccine serotypes and protein D. The reactogenicity of PHiD-CV primary, booster and catch-up doses was in line with previous PHiD-CV studies, although generally higher than with HAV. For each vaccine serotype, the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations ?0.2 µg/ml (GSK's 22F-inhibition ELISA) was at least 93.2% following 3 PHiD-CV primary doses and at least 97.4% post-booster; percentages with OPA titers ?8 were at least 91.7% post-booster. After 2-dose catch-up, at least 94.3% of children had antibody concentrations ?0.2 µg/ml against each serotype except 6B (84.3%); at least 95.2% had OPA titers ?8 except against serotypes 1, 5 and 6B. In conclusion, the safety profiles of 2 PHiD-CV vaccination schedules (3-dose primary plus booster and 2-dose catch-up) were in line with previous studies and PHiD-CV was immunogenic for all 10 vaccine serotypes and protein D. PMID:21441782

Lagos, Rosanna E; Muñoz, Alma E; Levine, Myron M; Lepetic, Alejandro; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Schuerman, Lode

2011-05-01

305

Organization of initial stages of somatic embryogenesis in tissue culture of Citrus sinensis cv. Tarocco at the organismal level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-step protocol was established for the in vitro regeneration of Citrus sinensis cv. Tarocco somatic embryos that were morphologically similar to small somatic embryos in vivo. The regeneration procedure\\u000a comprises a mechanical destruction of embryogenic culture to obtain proembryogenic cell masses (PEMs) (step 1) followed by\\u000a culturing on three different media (steps 2–4). The approach developed allows in vitro simulating

N. A. Moiseeva; V. N. Serebryakova; L. Nardi; S. Lucretti; R. G. Butenko

2006-01-01

306

CV and GV Measurements Showing Single Electron Trapping in Nanocrystalline Silicon Dot Embedded in MOS Memory Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared a SiO2\\/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si)\\/SiO2 sandwich structure. A clear positive shift in C-V and G-V curves due to electrons trapped in nc-Si dots has been observed at room temperature. The peak in conductance around flat band condition indicates that a trap event had occurred where an electron is stored per nc-Si dot. A logarithmic charge loss function is found

Shaoyun Huang; Souri Banerjee; Shunri Oda

2002-01-01

307

Modelling stomatal responses of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Turbo) to ozone and different levels of water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Turbo) was exposed to different levels of ozone and water supply in open-top chambers in 1991. Air was charcoal filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF) and CF plus proportional addition of ambient or twice ambient ozone (CF1, CF2). Seasonal means of O3, taken over 24 h, were 2·3, 20·6, 17·3, and 34·5 nl litre?1 for CF,

U. Grüters; A. Fangmeier; H.-J. Jäger

1995-01-01

308

Effects of culture density, conditioned medium and feeder cultures on microspore embryogenesis in Brassica napus L. cv. Topas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In microspore cultures of Brassica napus L. cv. Topas, embryo yield increases with culture density up to about 40,000 microspores per ml. A much higher density (100,000 per ml) appears inhibitory to embryogenesis. A relatively high culture density (30,000 or 40,000 per ml) for the first 2–4 days of culture is crucial for embryogenesis, after which cultures may be diluted

Bin Huang; Sharon Bird; Roger Kemble; Daina Simmonds; Wilf Keller; Brian Miki

1990-01-01

309

Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in Consolida ajacis Nieuwl cv. Violet blue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower development of Consolida ajacis cv. Violet blue growing in the Kashmir University Botanic Garden (KUBG) was divided into six stages (I–VI) from the tight\\u000a bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 4 days. Membrane\\u000a permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased

Shahri Waseem; Tahir Inayatullah

2011-01-01

310

Gibberellins in developing fruits of Pisum sativum cv. Alaska: Studies on their role in pod growth and seed development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellins A1, A8, A20 and A29 were identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the pods and seeds from 5-d-old pollinated ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum cv. Alaska). These gibberellins were also identified in 4-d-old non-developing, parthenocarpic and pollinated ovaries. The level of gibberellin A1 within these ovary types was correlated with pod size. Gibberellin A1, applied to emasculated ovaries

J. L. Garcia-Martinez; V. M. Sponsel; P. Gaskin

1987-01-01

311

Indicators of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the CV parent body: Microtextures of a dark inclusion from Allende  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual dark clast in the Allende CV3 chondrite (termed Allende-AF), which was previously interpreted as a primary aggregate formed in the solar nebula (Kurat et al., 1989; Palme et al., 1989), was re-examined. Our study reveals abundant evidence suggesting that it probably experienced extensive aqueous alteration and subsequent thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent body. Allende-AF contains numerous rounded

Tomoko Kojima; Kazushige Tomeoka

1996-01-01

312

Significant changes in cell and chloroplast development in young wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) grown in elevated COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 μL L⁻¹) or at elevated (650 μL L⁻¹) COâ. In elevated COâ, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated COâ did not affect

Elizabeth J. Robertson; R. M. Leech

1995-01-01

313

The influence of storage on aroma, soluble solids, acid and colour of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) cv. Stevnsbær  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study involved a laboratory scale experiment where the impact of post-harvest storage on the quality of sour\\u000a cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) cv Stevnsb?r was investigated. Cherries were stored for 7 days at temperatures of 2???C, 10???C, 20???C, and 30???C,\\u000a and at 20???C in combination with a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Cherry quality was assessed by analysis of soluble solids,

M. B. Petersen; L. Poll

1999-01-01

314

Solar light effects on growth, net photosynthesis, and leaf morphology of in vitro kiwifruit ( Actinidia deliciosa ) CV hayward  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Proliferating axillary shoots of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev., C. F. Liang and A. R. Ferguson), var.deliciosa, cv. ‘Hayward’ were grown under solar (SL), white (WL), and blue (BL) light regimens to determine the accumulation of fresh\\u000a and dry weight, proliferation rate, shoot growth (length), and the net leaf photosynthetic capacity at the CO2 concentration ranges of 200 to 350,

Rodrigo Infante; Annalisa Rotondi; Grazia Marino; Francesca Fasolo

1994-01-01

315

Increase in total protein following infection of CV1 cells with SV40 virus as assayed by flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The changes in cell size and total protein were determined for G1-arrested, contact-inhibited CV-1 cells infected with Simian\\u000a virus 40 (SV40). The assays used were the Biorad total protein assays (Bradford and DC protein assays) on a standard number\\u000a of cells, total protein as assayed by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and SR101 by flow cytometry, orthoganol (90°) light\\u000a scatter by flow

John M. Lehman; Emilee Dickerson; Thomas Friedrich; Judith Laffin

1995-01-01

316

The role of sucrose and different cytokinins in the in vitro floral morphogenesis of rose (hybrid tea) cv. “First Prize”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoots of rose (hybrid tea) cv. “First Prize” were induced to flower in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing various sucrose concentrations (15, 30 or 45 g l?1) and different phytohormone combinations of different cytokinins [N6-benzyladenine (BA); thidiazuron (TDZ) and zeatin] with ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Results indicate that sucrose is the key factor in floral morphogenesis while cytokinin increases the

Nguyen Hong Vu; Phan Hoang Anh; Duong Tan Nhut

2006-01-01

317

Preventive mechanisms of gibberellin 4+7 and light on low-temperature-induced leaf senescence in Lilium cv. Stargazer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lilium cv. Stargazer plants were held for 2 weeks at 4°C, either in darkness or in light (40 ?mol m?2 s?1). Another series of plants was held in darkness after pre-treatment with 100 mg l?1 GA4+7. Changes in major senescence parameters were determined during storage at 4°C and during 6 days after transferring the plants to 22°C. Foliar sprays of

Anil P Ranwala; William B Miller

2000-01-01

318

The effect of calcium on microbial quality and consistency of chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum cv. Mesilla Cayenne) mash during fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum cv. Mesilla Cayenne) is dependent on several factors: temperature, acidity, salt concentration, dissolved air, microbial flora, carbohydrate and enzymes. This study measured the effect of two levels (8 or 15g\\/100g) of calcium citrate (CaCit, [Ca3(C6H5O7)2]), calcium chloride (CaCl2) or sodium chloride (NaCl) added to 24h after pepper was mashed. Viscosity, pH, alcohol, soluble

Nancy C. Flores; Dawn VanLeeuwen; Roy D. Pennock

2007-01-01

319

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation and regeneration of fertile transgenic plants of chinese cabbage ( brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis cv. ‘spring flavor’)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the regeneration of fertile transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis cv. Spring Flavor) is presented in this report. The protocol is based on infection of cotyledon explants of 5-d-old seedlings with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying a disarmed binary vector pTOK\\/BKS-1. The T-DNA region of this binary vector contains the nopaline synthase\\/neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII)

Se Jun; Seok Yoon Kwon; Kee Yoeup Pack; Kyung-Hee Paek

1995-01-01

320

Respiration and nitrogen fixation of hydroponically cultured Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. OAC Rico and a supernodulating mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole plants of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Rico and the supernodulating genotype RBS15 were incubated in 13CO2 during vegetative or reproductive development, thus permitting an evaluation under steady-state conditions of the respiration and partitioning of recently fixed carbon (RFC) among plant organs, and its incorporation into sucrose and starch. Irrespective of developmental stage and treatment, symbiotic activity of RBS15 nodules

Alexander P. Hansen; Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Hiroshi Kouchi; Kiyoshi Hiraoka

1993-01-01

321

Role of manganese in low-pH-induced root hair formation in Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hair formation is induced by low pH in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) seedlings cultured in mineral medium. The role of mineral concentrations in this phenomenon was investigated,\\u000a especially for manganese. When lettuce seedlings were cultured in media that were deficient in calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn),\\u000a boron (B) or molybdenum (Mo), morphological changes were induced in roots.

Masae Konno; Machiko Ooishi; Yasunori Inoue

2003-01-01

322

Biotransformation of C 13 -norisoprenoids and monoterpenes by a cell suspension culture of cv. Gamay ( Vitis vinifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cell suspension culture of cv. Gamay was studied for its ability to metabolize two different C13-norisoprenoidic volatiles, ?-ionone and dehydrovomifoliol, together with monoterpenes, geraniol and linalool, biogenetically\\u000a common pathways sharing compounds. ?-Ionone was totally metabolized leading to fourteen norisoprenoidic volatiles oxygenated\\u000a mainly at carbons 3 or 4 of the cyclohexane ring or reduced at side chain. The biotransformation of

Sandrine Mathieu; Jérémie Wirth; François-Xavier Sauvage; Jean-Paul Lepoutre; Raymond Baumes; Ziya Gunata

2009-01-01

323

An interspecific somatic hybrid between upland cotton ( G. hirsutum L. cv. ZDM-3) and wild diploid cotton ( G. klotzschianum A.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic hybrids were produced through protoplast electrofusion between the tetraploid cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. ZDM-3 and the wild diploid cotton G. klotzschianum. Hybrid plants were generated from 3 out of 24 callus lines that were derived from fused protoplasts. Hybrid plants were\\u000a initially identified as somatic hybrids by ploidy analysis: the plants from the 3 callus lines had chromosome

Yuqiang SunShoumei; Shoumei Liu; Yu Wang; Brian Joseph Jones; Huizhong Wang; Shuijin Zhu

2011-01-01

324

Recently fallen Bukhara (CV3) and Kilabo (LL6) chondrites: A parallel study of luminescence, tracks, and cosmogenic radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoluminescence, tracks of VH nuclei, and cosmogenic radionuclides with various half-lives were studied of the recently fallen Bukhara CV3 and Kilabo LL6\\u000a chondrites. The obtained experimental information and theoretical modeling were utilized to examine the thermal impact and\\u000a exposure histories of these chondrites, estimate the sizes and masses they had before entering the atmosphere, extent of their\\u000a ablation, the circumferences

V. A. Alexeev; V. D. Gorin; A. I. Ivliev; L. L. Kashkarov; G. K. Ustinova

2008-01-01

325

In vitro morphogenetic responses and plant regeneration from pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Early California Wonder) seedling explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explants from 13-d old pepper (Capsicum annuum, L. cv. Early California Wonder) seedlings were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different levels\\u000a of 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzylamino purine (BAP). Multiple shoot-buds proliferated from the cut surfaces\\u000a of cotyledon, shoot-tip and hypocotyl explants in one month. The best NAA to BAP combinations (mg\\/l: mg\\/l) for multiple

Aly I. A. Ebida; Ching-yeh Hu

1993-01-01

326

Quantum CV modeling in depletion and inversion: accurate extraction of electrical thickness of gate oxide in deep submicron MOSFETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented in this paper is a quantum capacitance-voltage (C-V) modeling in depletion and inversion, incorporating the gate-depletion effect. The model enables fast and accurate extraction of the electrical thickness of gate oxide in deep submicron MOSFETs. The main quantum effect consists of the inversion capacitance of two-dimensional (2-D) electrons masking the true gate-oxide thickness, tOX. The quantum mechanical and gate

Wuyun Quan; Dae M. Kim; Hi-Deok Lee

2002-01-01

327

Effect of Paclobutrazol on Inducing Off-season Flowering and Fruit Products of Wax Apple (Eugenia javanica) cv. Taiwan ??????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-year-old wax apple trees cv. Taiwan were treated with paclobutrazol by drenching at the rate of 0, 1, 2 and 4 g.ai\\/tree or by spraying at 0, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg\\/L 40 and 90 days after pruning. The experiment was conducted at a private orchard in Warin Chamrap district, Ubon Ratchathani province during July 2002 to October 2003. The

Satit Pasuwityakoul

328

Acyl–acyl carrier protein (ACP)-thioesterase from developing seeds of Brassica campestris cv. B54 (Agrani)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage triacylglycerol in field-grown mature Brassica campestris cv. B-54 (Agrani) seeds were composed of approximately 51% erucic (C22:1) acid, 14% oleic (C18:1) acid, 14% linoleic (C18:2) acid, 10% eicosenoic (C20:1) acid, 6% linolenic (C18:3) and 3% palmitic (C16:0) acid. To investigate the developmental regulation of the seed fatty acid synthesis (FAS), the fatty acid composition of the seed lipid along

Manas K Pathak; Ashish Bhattacharjee; Dolly Ghosh; Sudhamoy Ghosh

2004-01-01

329

Aroma active compounds during the drying of grapes cv. Pedro Ximenez destined to the production of sweet Sherry wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in odorant compounds of musts from cv. Pedro Ximenez grapes sun-dried for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 days, as well as dried in chamber after 5 days at controlled conditions were studied.\\u000a The compounds were analyzed by GC–MS and classified into two groups according to a named production factor (PF), it calculated\\u000a as ratio between the average concentration of each compound

Maria J. Ruiz; Luis Zea; Lourdes Moyano; Manuel Medina

2010-01-01

330

In vitro clonal propagation of bael ( Aegle marmelos Corr.) CV. CISH-B1 through enhanced axillary branching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid clonal micropropagation protocol of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. cv. CISH-B1 was achieved by nodal stem segment of mature bearing tree. Three centimeter long shoots having one\\u000a axillary bud excised from 10–15th nodal region of shoots during September gave quick in vitro bud burst (5.33 days) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP, 8.84 ?M + IAA 5.7 ?M.

Rajesh Pati; Ramesh Chandra; Ugam Kumari Chauhan; Maneesh Mishra; Navin Srivastava

2008-01-01

331

Transgenic tea [ Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cv. Kangra Jat] plants obtained by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol for the production of transgenic tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze cv. Kangra Jat] was developed via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of somatic embryos. Two disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, EHA 105 and LBA 4404, both carrying the binary plasmid p35SGUSINT with the nptII gene and gus-intron were evaluated as vector systems. A number of parameters were tested with respect

T. K. Mondal; A. Bhattacharya; P. S. Ahuja; P. K. Chand

2001-01-01

332

Phloem-specific expression of the wound-inducible ribonuclease LE from tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Lukullus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribonuclease LE (RNaseLE) from tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Lukullus) belongs to the widespread RNase T 2 family of ribonucleases. With the exception of S-RNases of the solanaceous self-incompatibility system the functions of other members of the RNase T 2 family are only barely understood. Using a 2.6-kbp putative promoter sequence of RNaseLE in front of the uidA reporter gene,

Margret Köck; Nadine Groß; Irene Stenzel; Gerd Hause

2004-01-01

333

Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280-315 nm) is a natural component of sunlight, which has numerous regulatory effects on plant physiology. The nature of the response to UV-B is dependent on fluence rate, dose, duration and wavelength of the UV-B treatment. Some reports have analyzed the changes in gene expression caused by UV-B light on several plant species using microarray technology. However, there is no information on the transcriptome response triggered by UV-B in grapevine. In this paper we investigate the gene expression responses of leaves from in vitro cultured Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants subjected to the same dose of biologically effective UV-B radiation (4.75 kJ m-2 d-1) administered at two different fluence rates (16 h at ? 8.25 ?W cm-2, 4 h at ? 33 ?W cm-2) using a new custom made GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip®. Results The number of genes modulated by high fluence rate UV-B doubled the number of genes modulated by low fluence UV-B. Their functional analyses revealed several functional categories commonly regulated by both UV-B treatments as well as categories more specifically modulated depending on UV-B fluence rate. General protective responses, namely the induction of pathways regulating synthesis of UV-B absorbing compounds such as the Phenylpropanoid pathway, the induction of different antioxidant defense systems and the activation of pathways commonly associated with pathogen defense and abiotic stress responses seem to play critical roles in grapevine responses against UV-B radiation. Furthermore, high fluence rate UV-B seemed to specifically modulate additional pathways and processes in order to protect grapevine plantlets against UV-B-induced oxidative stress, stop the cell cycle progression, and control protein degradation. On the other hand, low fluence rate UV-B regulated the expression of specific responses in the metabolism of auxin and abscisic acid as well as in the modification of cell walls that could be involved in UV-B acclimation-like processes. Conclusion Our results show the UV-B radiation effects on the leaf transcriptome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec) plantlets. Functional categories commonly modulated under both UV-B treatments as well as transcripts specifically regulated in an UV-B-intensity dependent way were identified. While high fluence rate UV-B had regulatory effects mainly on defense or general multiple-stress responses pathways, low fluence rate UV-B promoted the expression of genes that could be involved in UV-B protection or the amelioration of the UV-B-induced damage. This study also provides an extensive list of genes regulating multiple metabolic pathways involved in the response of grapevine to UV-B that can be used for future researches.

2010-01-01

334

A chemical and petrographic study of refractory inclusions from Kaba (CV3) chondrite  

SciTech Connect

Refractory inclusions from Kaba (CV3) chondrite were studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The inclusions observed cover a wide range of chemical patterns, mineral assemblages and textures, indicating the complexity of early solar nebular conditions. The elemental abundances normalized by C1 chondritic abundances vary smoothly as a function of their volatilities, suggesting these inclusions were formed by condensation/evaporization processes in the primeval solar nebula. The average REE pattern of Group Ill inclusions has an enrichment of 31 {times} Cq with approximately equal depletions of Eu and Yb (Eu/Eu{sup *} {equals} 0.33, Yb/Yb{sup *} {equals} 0.29). Group 11 inclusions are irregularlyshaped aggregates of rounded or sub-rounded melilite-rich nodules rimmed with mono-mineralic layers of high-Al phase, Ti-Al pyroxene and hedenbergite. The lower enrichment of Al, Ti and Ca is interpreted by the partial vaporization of the inclusion by a transient event in an oxidizing environment near the nebular midplane. This process caused the partial lose of Al, Ti, Ca and more volatile elements. The rim is the resultant vaporization residue. This model combines the modification of refractory elemental pattem and the rim formation in one event. The partial evaporization of a precursor inclusion with an unfractionated REE pattern would form a rim where Yb and Eu are strongly depleted in different degrees, and the interior is not effected. The similarities between Kaba and Allende in whole-rock composition and their inclusion mineralogies and textures suggest they were formed in a generally similar nebular region.

Liu, Y.

1989-01-01

335

Immunomodulatory activity of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea alata cv. Tainong No. 1) tuber.  

PubMed

The purified dioscorin from yam (Dioscorea alata L. cv. Tainong 1) tuber was previously reported (Hsu et al., 2002. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50, 6109-6113). In this report, we evaluated its immunomodulatory ability in vitro in the presence of polymyxin B (50 microg/ml) to eliminate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was able to stimulate nitric oxide production (expressed as nitrite concentrations) in RAW264.7 cells. The stimulation index on the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells against E. coli and the oxidative burst (determined by the intensity of rhodamine fluorescence) of RAW264.7 cells were both enhanced by different concentrations of dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml). The cytokine production, including IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in dioscorin-treated RAW264.7 cells or human monocytes, was measured in the cultured medium. Dioscorin (5-100 microg/ml) was found able to induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta production in RAW264.7 cells and human monocytes. To evaluate the effects of dioscorin on the proliferation of spleen cells from BALB/c mice, phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 2 microg/ml) alone or PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml) was used to treat spleen cells for 24h. The stimulated proliferation index of splenic cells ranged from 1.38- to 1.48-fold of PHA alone for PHA mixed with different concentrations of dioscorin (10, 25, and 50 microg/ml). We suggest that the tuber storage protein of yam dioscorin functions as an immunomodulatory substance. PMID:17637490

Liu, Yen-Wenn; Shang, Huey-Fang; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Wen-Chi

2007-06-14

336

Culture treatments for enhancing post-thaw recovery of cryopreserved suspension cells of potato cv. Desiree.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for the cryopreservation of cell suspension cultures of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Desiree. An evaluation was made of the effectiveness of different pre-culture and post-thaw treatments on cell growth, as measured by changes in biomass. Cell suspensions were cultured in UM medium supplemented with 0.25, 0.5, 0.625, 0.75 or 1.0 M sucrose prior to cryopreservation. Sucrose-treated cells were harvested from suspension and 0.75 ml packed cell volumes placed in 2 ml capacity polypropylene vials with 0.5 ml of chilled cryoprotectant (glycerol 46.0 g 1(-1), dimethylsulphoxide 39.0 g 1(-1), sucrose 342.0 g 1(-1) proline 5.0 g 1(-1); pH 5.8). Cells were frozen at -0.5 degrees C min(-1) from 0 to -35 degrees C, held at -35 degrees C for 35 min and stored, for 10 days, in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). The most effective pre-treatment, in terms of subsequent post-thaw cell viability as assessed by fluorescein diacetate uptake or triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction, was culture with 0.75 M sucrose. For this treatment, the mean absorbance (490 nm) following triphenyltetrazolium chloride reduction was 88% greater (p < 0.05) than control and 59% greater (p < 0.05) for thawed cells also cultured on supporting filter paper discs. PMID:14668921

Sadia, Bushra; Anthony, Paul; Lowe, Kenneth C; Power, J Brian; Davey, Michael R

2003-01-01

337

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

PubMed

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2009-11-26

338

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

2012-08-01

339

Erwinia amylovora affects the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in mature leaves of Pyrus communis cv. Conférence.  

PubMed

Flavonoids, which are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway, not only contribute to fruit colour and photoprotection, they also may provide antimicrobial and structural components during interaction with micro-organisms. A possible response of this pathway was assessed in both mature and immature leaves of shoots of 2-year-old pear trees cv. Conférence, which were inoculated with the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora strain SGB 225/12, were mock-inoculated or were left untreated. The phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway was analysed by histological studies, by gene expression using RT-qPCR and by HPLC analyses of the metabolites at different time intervals after infection. Transcription patterns of two key genes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and chalcone synthase (CHS) related to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway showed differences between control, mock-inoculated and E. amylovora-inoculated mature leaves, with the strongest reaction 48 h after inoculation. The impact of E. amylovora was also visualised in histological sections, and confirmed by HPLC, as epicatechin -which is produced via ANR- augmented 72 h after inoculation in infected leaf tissue. Besides the effect of treatments, ontogenesis-related differences were found as well. The increase of certain key genes, the rise in epicatechin and the visualisation in several histological sections in this study suggest a non-negligible impact on the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in Pyrus communis due to inoculation with E. amylovora. In this study, we propose a potential role of this pathway in defence mechanisms, providing a detailed analysis of the response of this system attributable to inoculation with E. amylovora. PMID:23582642

Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Treutter, D; Valcke, R

2013-03-23

340

Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

1990-04-01

341

Rapidly Induced Wound Ethylene from Excised Segments of Etiolated Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska  

PubMed Central

Wound-induced ethylene synthesis by subapical stem sections of etiolated Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska seedlings, as described by Saltveit and Dilley (Plant Physiol 1978 61: 447-450), was half-saturated at 3.6% (v/v) O2 and saturated at about 10% O2. Corresponding values for CO2 production during the same period were 1.1% and 10% O2, respectively. Anaerobiosis stopped all ethylene evolution and delayed the characteristic pattern of wound ethylene synthesis. Exposing tissue to 3.5% CO2 in air in a flow-through system reduced wound ethylene synthesis by 30%. Enhancing gas diffusivity by reducing the total pressure to 130 mm Hg almost doubled the rate of wound ethylene synthesis and this effect was negated by exposure to 250 ?l liter?1 propylene. Applied ethylene or propylene stopped wound ethylene synthesis during the period of application, but unlike N2, no lag period was observed upon flushing with air. It is concluded that the characteristic pattern of wound-induced ethylene synthesis resulted from negative feedback control by endogenous ethylene. No wound ethylene was produced for 2 hours after excision at 10 or 38 C. Low temperatures prolonged the lag period, but did not prevent induction of the wound response, since tissue held for 2 hours at 10 C produced wound ethylene immediately when warmed to 30 C. In contrast, temperatures above 36 C prevented induction of wound ethylene synthesis, since tissue cooled to 30 C after 1 hour at 40 C required 2 hours before ethylene production returned to normal levels. The activation energy between 15 and 36 C was 12.1 mole kilocalories degree?1.

Saltveit, Mikal E.; Dilley, David R.

1978-01-01

342

Application of closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP\\/CV) air-preheater for reduced relative-humidity in drying systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to design, construct, and test the CLOHP\\/CV air-preheater for reduced relative humidity in drying systems for recovering the waste heat from the drying cycle. The CLOHP\\/CV heat-exchanger consisted of 3.58m long copper tubes, with an internal diameter of 0.002m. The evaporator and condenser sections were 0.19m long, the adiabatic sections were 0.08m long, the hot-air velocities were

P. Meena; S. Rittidech; N. Poomsa-ad

2007-01-01

343

Modeling Effects of Interface Trap States on the Gate CV Characteristics of MOS Devices with Ultrathin High-K Gate Dielectrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physically based, quantum mechanical model is presented for C-V characteristics of MOS devices with ultrathin high-K gate dielectrics including interface trap and wave function penetration effects. Numerical results show that C-V curves are rather sensitive to the details of the interface trap distributions. The proposed model may be used for accurately extracting profiles of interface trap states from low

M. M. Satter; M. A. Haque

2007-01-01

344

Effect of a vacuum-deposited metal film on the CV of the Li insertion\\/extraction reaction at a graphitized carbon fiber electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

A metal film of silver, copper, or gold was vacuum-deposited on the surface of mesophase pitch-based carbon fiber prepared at 3100°C, and the Li insertion\\/extraction behaviour was examined by measuring the cyclic voltammogram (CV) for various film thicknesses in a non-aqueous electrolyte containing 1 M LiClO4. The peak height of the CV was examined in detail for the deposited silver

Junji Suzuki; Masaomi Yoshida; Yoichiro Nishijima; Kyoichi Sekine; Tsutomu Takamura

2002-01-01

345

A secondary origin of chondrule magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a key role in the radial transport of angular momentum and mass during the early accretional phase of the solar system. Chondrules and many calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), millimeter sized silicate objects found in most chondritic meteorites, were heated to high temperatures and cooled in the nebula and therefore may have recorded a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) from the nebula field. Additionally, primitive magnetization in chondrules and CAIs may yield constraints about their mode of formation. However, any such primary magnetization may have been significantly altered during subsequent metamorphism and aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. We performed two tests to determine the nebular origins of remanent magnetization in chondrules and refractory inclusions in the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: 1) a classic paleomagnetic conglomerate test to identify post-accretional remagnetization events and 2) a unidirectionality test of subsamples taken from individual chondrules and CAIs. We conducted individual measurements of mutually oriented chondrules, CAIs, and matrix as well as SQUID microscope maps of the magnetic fields of 30 ?m thin sections. All samples and thin sections were mutually oriented to within 5°. Our results confirm previous findings that all subsamples of the meteorite carry a unidirectional overprint blocked up to 260°-290°C (MT component). Chondrules and CAIs also carry a higher temperature (HT) remanence oriented in scattered directions unrelated to the direction of the MT overprint. We have confirmed that this HT magnetization is not an artifact of the demagnetization procedure but is a preterrestrial component. Measurements of subsamples of single chondrules and CAIs show that the HT magnetization is not unidirectional within each inclusion. Petrographic data suggests that most magnetic minerals in Allende were the product of parent body alteration. These facts suggest that the magnetization in Allende chondrules and CAIs is not a preaccretional TRM and is unlikely to record the nebular field. We suggest that preaccretional remanence in Allende material was destroyed by aqueous alteration and metasomatism, which was followed or coincident with metamorphism that introduced the MT overprint. The HT component we detect may represent a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired during aqueous alteration.

Carporzen, L.; Fu, R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.

2011-12-01

346

Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN  

PubMed Central

Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions, indicating that the use of the beneficial bacterial endophytes may boost switchgrass growth on marginal lands and significantly contribute to the development of a low input and sustainable feedstock production system.

2012-01-01

347

High-susceptibility of photosynthesis to photoinhibition in the tropical plant Ficus microcarpa L. f. cv. Golden Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The tropical plant Ficus microcarpa L. f. cv. Golden Leaves (GL) is a high-light sensitive tropical fig tree in which sun-leaves are yellow and shade-leaves\\u000a are green. We compared the response of photosynthetic activities to strong light between GL and its wild-type (WT, Ficus microcarpa L. f.).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Field measurements of maximum photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (F\\u000a v\\/F\\u000a m) of intact

Shunichi Takahashi; Ayumu Tamashiro; Yasuko Sakihama; Yasusi Yamamoto; Yoshinobu Kawamitsu; Hideo Yamasaki

2002-01-01

348

ABA enhances plant regeneration of somatic embryos derived from cell suspension cultures of plantain cv. Spambia ( Musa sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creamy friable calli were induced from meristems (scalps) of proliferating shoots of plantain (Musa sp.) cv. Spambia (genome AAB) incubated on a semi-solid modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.5 ?M\\u000a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1.0 ?M zeatin. About 25% of shoot-tip explants formed scalps, and about 98% of\\u000a scalps developed embryogenic calli. Small dense aggregates of cells, were obtained

Nasser J. Y. Sholi; Anjana Chaurasia; Anuradha Agrawal; Neera Bhalla Sarin

2009-01-01

349

The effect of the orientation of stem segments of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera ) cv. Chardonnay on callus development in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus induction and formation were successfully achieved using stem segments of grapevine cv. Chardonnay. Nodal stem segments\\u000a from in vitro plantlets and internodal segments from field-grown plants of grapevine were used. The segments were placed in\\u000a an inverted and upright position in hormone-free medium or in medium supplemented with 1.1 mg\\/l naphthalene acetic acid and\\u000a 0.45 mg\\/l benzyladenine. Firm, compact callus with

Vered Naor; Meira Ziv; Tirtza Zahavi

2011-01-01

350

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Gogu valley) protein as a novel antimicrobial agent in weanling pigs.  

PubMed

A total of 280 weaned pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) were used in a 28-d growth study to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of potato proteins on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune response, small intestinal morphology, and bacterial populations in feces and large intestine. Pigs (initially 6.42 +/- 0.74 kg of BW and 23 +/- 3 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW, each treatment composed of 4 pens, each pen having 14 pigs. Dietary treatments included positive control (PC; basal diet + 150 mg/kg apramycin and 10 mg/ kg colistin sulfate); and potato protein (PP), consisting of the basal diet with 0, 0.25, 0.50, or 0.75% of potato protein. Diets were fed in 2 phases: phase I (d 0 to 14 postweaning) and phase 2 (d 14 to 28 postweaning). Potato protein was extracted from a value-added type of the new potato variety, Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Gogu valley, and was shown to have a minimum inhibitory concentration of 300 to 500 mug/mL. Performance of PC was compared with 0.25 to 0.75% PP, whereas linear and quadratic trends of increasing PP (0 to 0.75% PP) were tested. Over the 28-d trial, pigs fed the PC diets showed improved overall ADG (P < 0.05) and G:F (P = 0.090) compared with pigs fed PP, whereas increasing levels of PP linearly improved ADG (P < 0.05), ADFI (P = 0.052), and G:F (P = 0.098). The digestibility of DM and CP in both the phases was greater in PC than PP, and feeding of PP linearly improved the DM digestibility (P < 0.05) in phase II. The bacterial populations in the feces of pigs fed PC and PP were comparable, except for total bacteria and coliform bacteria in the feces at d 14 and 28, which were decreased in PC; and feeding of PP was effective in linearly reducing the populations of microbes in feces and contents of cecum, colon, and rectum. There was linear increase (P < 0.10) in skin-fold thickness in response to phytohemagglutinin with an increase in PP levels. Haemagglutinin titers on d 21 were greater (P = 0.054) in PC, and at d 28 the haemagglutinin titers were quadratically affected in pigs fed PP (P = 0.070). There was a trend toward a decrease in crypt depth (P = 0.068) and a greater villus height:crypt depth ratio (P = 0.082) of ileum in PC compared with PP. These results suggest that PP may be an alternative to medicated feed with antibiotics because it showed antimicrobial activity by effectively reducing the population of coliform bacteria and also improved the performance of weanling pigs. PMID:18344303

Jin, Z; Yang, Y X; Choi, J Y; Shinde, P L; Yoon, S Y; Hahn, T-W; Lim, H T; Park, Y; Hahm, K-S; Joo, J W; Chae, B J

2008-03-14

351

Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

2013-05-01

352

Micro-Probe CV and IV Characterization of Thin Dielectric Films on Product-Wafer Scribe-Line Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 50 ?m metal probe has been combined with pattern recognition optics and a 3-directional precision stage for automated CV and IV testing of dielectric layers in scribe-line test structures on IC product wafers. Highly repeatable contact conditions are obtained though the use of a MEMS-based torsion balance spring mounting which provides capacitance measurements within 0.1% for repeated landings of the probe. High repeatability capacitance measurements provide for correspondingly high quality determination of dielectric characteristics, EOT, Vfb, Dit, Na and Qeff, from CV analysis. Dielectric leakage and breakdown characteristics, including Vbd, Qbd and TTBD, can be obtained for positive and negative ramped bias conditions. Measurement of capacitor structures provides CET and electrode work function values which can be followed throughout the process history of the wafer and directly compared to final test results. Examples of measured dielectrics include thin (~1 nm) SiO2, Al-oxides, nitrided Si-oxides and Hf-based oxides as bare films and incorporated in capacitor structures. Applications examples include discussion of systematic trends on EOT, Qeff and Dit increasing for nitrogen content in nitrided Si-oxides and related characteristics of Hf-rich HfSiON films.

Feng, A.; Souchkov, V. V.; Wong, T. M. H.; Faifer, V. N.; Current, M. I.

2007-09-01

353

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Induces Actin Stress-Fiber Formation and Inhibits Membrane Ruffling in Cv1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) is widely implicated in cytoskeleton regulation, but the mechanisms by which PIP2 effect cytoskeletal changes are not defined. We used recombinant adenovirus to infect CV1 cells with the mouse type I phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinase ? (PIP5KI), and identified the players that modulate the cytoskeleton in response to PIP2 signaling. PIP5KI overexpression increased PIP2 and reduced phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate (PI4P) levels. It promoted robust stress-fiber formation in CV1 cells and blocked PDGF-induced membrane ruffling and nucleated actin assembly. Y-27632, a Rho-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, blocked stress-fiber formation and inhibited PIP2 and PI4P synthesis in cells. However, Y-27632 had no effect on PIP2 synthesis in lysates, although it inhibited PI4P synthesis. Thus, ROCK may regulate PIP2 synthesis by controlling PI4P availability. PIP5KI overexpression decreased gelsolin, profilin, and capping protein binding to actin and increased that of ezrin. These changes can potentially account for the increased stress fiber and nonruffling phenotype. Our results establish the physiological role of PIP2 in cytoskeletal regulation, clarify the relation between Rho, ROCK, and PIP2 in the activation of stress-fiber formation, and identify the key players that modulate the actin cytoskeleton in response to PIP2.

Yamamoto, Masaya; Hilgemann, Donald H.; Feng, Siyi; Bito, Haruhiko; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Shibasaki, Yoshikazu; Yin, Helen L.

2001-01-01

354

[Transformation of embryogenic Calli of Siberian wildrye grass (Elymus sibiricus L. cv. Chuancao No.2) mediated by agrobacterium].  

PubMed

Formation of embryogenic calli of Siberian wildrye grass (Elymus sibiricus L. cv. Chuancao No.2) was induced from mature seeds as explants, and proliferated on MS medium containing 2,4-D 5.0 mg/L and KT 0.05 mg/L. An effective and stable callus regeneration system was established by optimizing the culture conditions (Tables 1, 2 and Fig.2). After the calli were subcultured 8 weeks, selected the whitish-yellow-coloured compact nodular calli that transformed with plasmid pCAMBIA1304 carrying hygromycin resistance gene (hptII) and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes insecticidal protein gene (ppIP), which was mediated by an Agrobacterium strain EHA105. Resistant plants were obtained after hygromycin selection (Figs.3, 4). Some important factors that affect the transformation efficiency were studied, which included selection pressure, time of embryogenic calli proliferation, OD value of Agrobacterium suspension, temperature, medium and time of co-cultivation, and concentration of antibiotics used for suppressing the overgrowth of Agrobacterium in the course of transformation plant regeneration. This research is the first successful genetic transformation of Elymus sibiricus L. cv. Chuancao No.2 mediated by Agrobacterium. PMID:16477130

Li, Da-Xu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Li, Li; Liu, Su-Jun; Chen, Fei; Yang, Zhi-Rong

2006-02-01

355

The Anatomy and Bulk Composition of CAI Rims in the Vigarano (CV3) Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A striking feature of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites is the presence of mineralogical layers that typically form rim sequences up to 50 micrometers thick [1]. Many ideas regarding the origin of CAI rims have been proposed, but none are entirely satisfactory. The detailed mineralogy and bulk compositions of relatively unaltered CAI rims in the Vigarano (CV3) chondrite described here provide constraints on hypotheses of rim formation. Rim Mineralogy: CAIs in Vigarano consist of melilite (mel)- and spinel (sp)- rich varieties, both of which are rimmed [2]. Around mel-rich objects, the layer sequence is CAI interior --> sp-rich layer (sometimes absent) --> mel/anorthite (anor) layer --> Ti-Al-rich clinopyroxene (Tpx) layer --> Al- diopside (Al-diop) layer --> olivine (ol) +/- Al-diop layer --> host matrix. The sequence around sp-rich objects differs from this in that the mel/anor layer is absent. Both the sp-rich layer around mel-cored CAIs and the cores of sp-rich CAIs in Vigarano are largely comprised of a fine-grained (<=1 micrometer) intergrowth of sp, Tpx, and minor mel and perovskite. These intergrowths are typically so fine grained that little internal texture is discernible. Mixing calculations suggest the presence of ~10 vol% Tpx in the sp-rich layer of two mel-cored CAIs, and the presence of ~35 vol% Tpx within one sp-cored CAI. The mel/anor layer is sometimes monomineralic, consisting of mel alone, or bimineralic, consisting of both mel and anor. Where bimineralic, anor typically occurs in the outer part of the layer. In places, anor (An(sub)99-100) has partially altered to nepheline and voids. Rim mel is systematically less gehlenitic than mel in the CAI interiors, especially compared to mel in the interior adjacent to the rims. The Tpx layer (>2 and up to 15 wt% TiO2) and Al-diop layer (<2 wt% TiO2) are monomineralic and show chemical zoning trends radial to the CAIs. Moving outward, TiO2 and Al2O3 generally decrease, while SiO2 and MgO increase, although Al2O3 shows a small concentration maximum in the Al-diop layer. High-quality EMPA data suggest that Ti^3+/Ti^4+ decreases outward in the Tpx layer, and that Fe^3+ is present in the Al-diop layer, implying that a steep gradient in oxidation state occurs across these two layers. The ol layer is comprised of individually zoned grains (<=5 micrometers across) that have forsteritic cores and thin (<=1 micrometer) rims of more ferrous ol. The ol grains often form triple-grain junctions and occasionally form clusters that are enclosed by Al-diop. The texture of this polycrystalline layer suggests that it formed by the attachment of preexisting ol grains onto the surfaces of CAIs, and the triple-junctions and steep zoning profiles of the ol grains suggest that they were annealed in a short-lived heating event. Bulk Rim Composition: Bulk rim compositions for several mel-rich CAIs were determined by using EMPA traverses across representative portions of the rims. These compositions plot within the sp + forsterite (fo) field of the gehlenite-anorthite-forsterite ternary diagram of Stolper [3], and are unattainable by the igneous crystallization of a mel-rich CAI composition. Moreover, a hypothetical melt with the composition of the rims has a predicted crystallization sequence (sp --> sp + fo --> sp + fo + anor or mel or Tpx) that does not correspond to observed rim sequences. It thus appears that (1) the rim region did not form through crystallization of molten CAIs; and (2) rim layers did not originate solely by the crystallization of a melt layer present on a solid CAI core [4,5]. References: [1] Wark D. A. and Lovering J. F. (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 95-112. [2] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 390-391. [3] Stolper E. (1982) GCA, 46, 2159-2180. [4] Korina M. I. et al. (1982) LPS XIII, 399- 400. [5] Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1980) Meteoritics, 15, 270- 271.

Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

1993-07-01

356

Normal photoresponses and altered b-wave responses to APB in the mdxCv3 mouse isolated retina ERG supports role for dystrophin in synaptic transmission  

PubMed Central

The mdxCv3 mouse is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is an X-linked disorder with defective expression of the protein dystrophin, and which is associated with a reduced b-wave and has other electroretinogram (ERG) abnormalities. To assess potential causes for the abnormalities, we recorded ERGs from pieces of isolated C57BL/6J and mdxCv3 mouse retinas, including measurements of transretinal and intraretinal potentials. The ERGs from the isolated mdxCv3 retina differ from those of control retinas in that they show reduced b-wave amplitudes and increased b-wave implicit times. Photovoltages obtained by recording across the photoreceptor outer segments of the retinas did not differ from normal, suggesting that the likely causes of the reduced b-wave are localized to the photoreceptor to ON-bipolar synapse. At a concentration of 50 ?M, the glutamate analog DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (APB) blocks the b-wave component of the ERG, by binding to sites on the postsynaptic membrane. The On-bipolar cell contribution to the ERG was inferred by extracting the component that was blocked by APB. We found that this component was smaller in amplitude and had longer response latencies in the mdxCv3 mice, but was of similar overall time course. To assess the sensitivity of sites on the postsynaptic membrane to glutamate, the concentration of APB in the media was systematically varied, and the magnitude of blockage of the light response was quantified. We found that the mdxCv3 retina was 5-fold more sensitive to APB than control retinas. The ability of lower concentrations of APB to block the b-wave in mdxCv3 suggests that the ERG abnormalities may reflect alterations in either glutamate release, the glutamate postsynaptic binding sites, or in other proteins that modulate glutamate function in ON-bipolar cells.

GREEN, DANIEL G.; GUO, HAO

2005-01-01

357

Mechanism of the anti-tumour effect of 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(3-pyridylmethyl) 1,4-benzoquinone (CV-6504).  

PubMed Central

2,3,5-Trimethyl-6-(3-pyridylmethyl) 1,4-benzoquinone (CV-6504), an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, effectively suppressed growth of the MAC16 tumour in vivo and prevented the accompanying cachexia, when administered daily at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). There was a reduction in the tumour concentration of linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), oleic, stearic and palmitic acid. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the anti-tumour action, the effect of CV-6504 on the metabolism of AA through the 5-, 12- and 15-lipoxygenase pathways has been determined in cell lines sensitive (MAC16, MAC13, MAC26 and Caco-2) and resistant (A549 and DU-145) to CV-6504. Incubation of all cell lines with [3H]AA led to the appearance of [3H]5-, 12- and 15-HETE. Preincubation of MAC16, MAC13, MAC26 and Caco-2 with 10 microM CV-6504 inhibited the conversion of AA to 5-, 12- and 15-HETE, while in A549 and DU-145 cells there was no effect on metabolism through any lipoxygenase pathway. Two other cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and PC-3, sensitive to growth inhibition by CV-6504, are known to require LA for growth, while DU-145, which was insensitive to growth inhibition by CV-6504, showed no growth response to LA. These results suggest that some tumours are dependent on lipoxygenase metabolites of LA and AA for their continual growth, and interference with this pathway produces a specific growth inhibition.

Hussey, H. J.; Tisdale, M. J.

1997-01-01

358

Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Seguridad alimentaria para futuras mamás: Seguridad alimentaria para toda la vida. Seguridad alimentaria para futuras ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

359

Level of Abscisic Acid in Integuments, Nucellus, Endosperm, and Embryo of Peach Seeds (Prunus persica L. cv Springcrest) during Development  

PubMed Central

Free abscisic acid (ABA) in integuments, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo was determined throughout seed development of peach (Prunus persica L. cv Springcrest). Quantification of ABA was performed using combined high performance liquid chromatography-radioimmunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody raised against free (S)-ABA. In the integuments and endosperm, ABA concentration remained constant during the first 100 days after anthesis and rose in the following days when fresh weight was rapidly decreasing. In the nucellus, the ABA concentration variation pattern paralleled that of tissue growth. ABA concentration in the embryo increased constantly with the growth of the tissues to reach a maximum at the last growth stage. The role of ABA in peach seeds is discussed in relation to the development of the different seed tissues.

Piaggesi, Alberto; Perata, Pierdomenico; Vitagliano, Claudio; Alpi, Amedeo

1991-01-01

360

Petrography and classification of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a detailed, systematic petrographic survey of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite are reported, and a new classification system based on clearly defined and readily applied petrographic criteria is presented. Most Allende inclusions are aggregates containing one or more of three distinct constituents: (1) rimmed concentric objects enriched in Al- and Ti-rich oxide minerals and various amounts of Ca-rich silicates; (2) porous, 'fine-grained' chaotic material enriched in Ca-rich silicates, especially clinopyroxenes and garnets; and (3) porous, 'fine-grained', mafic inclusion matrix, enriched in olivine, pyroxene, and feldspathoids. Two texturally distinct varieties of inclusions consist primarily of inclusion matrix: unrimmed olivine aggregates and rimmed olivine aggregates. Ca, Al-rich inclusions are classified on the basis of the size and abundance of their constituent concentric objects. Some fundamental relationships among Allende inclusions that previusly have not been emphasized are discussed.

Kornacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

1984-02-01

361

Effect of Different Production Systems on Chemical Profiles of Dwarf French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Top Crop) Pods.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Top Crop was compared among five production systems: conventional, integrated, organic, and biodynamic production systems and the control. Determination of sugars and organic acids was performed with a HPLC system, and identification of individual phenolic compounds using HPLC-MS. The chemical composition of the beans was unaffected by the production systems; however, the content levels of individual compounds were changed. The pods from integrated production contained the lowest levels of glucose and sucrose and the highest levels of catechin, procyanidin dimers, and a vanillic acid derivative. The control treatment, as well as organic and biodynamic productions, positively affected the levels of sugar content and caused a lower content of catechin and trans-p-coumaroylaldaric acids. Beans from the conventional production system contained the lowest levels of fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, and many phenolics from various groups. PMID:23398279

Jakopic, Jerneja; Slatnar, Ana; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Bavec, Franci; Bavec, Martina

2013-02-27

362

Anatalline and other methyl jasmonate-inducible nicotine alkaloids from Nicotiana tabacum cv. By-2 cell cultures.  

PubMed

Anatalline [2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine] accumulation was shown to be induced by methyl jasmonate in Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-2 cell cultures. Beside anatabine, anatalline represented the most abundant alkaloid, moreover, it was always present in two isomeric forms occurring always in similar concentrations. Both isomers could be completely separated by GC-MS. For structural analysis, the isolation of both isomers was performed using a semi-preparative HPLC system. The structures of anatalline [cis-2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine] and its stereoisomer trans-2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine were confirmed by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. The biosynthetic origin of anatalline was studied by feeding alkaloid precursors to BY-2 cell cultures. PMID:15490322

Häkkinen, Suvi T; Rischer, Heiko; Laakso, Into; Maaheimo, Hannu; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

2004-10-01

363

CvManGO, a method for leveraging computational predictions to improve literature-based Gene Ontology annotations.  

PubMed

The set of annotations at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) that classifies the cellular function of S. cerevisiae gene products using Gene Ontology (GO) terms has become an important resource for facilitating experimental analysis. In addition to capturing and summarizing experimental results, the structured nature of GO annotations allows for functional comparison across organisms as well as propagation of functional predictions between related gene products. Due to their relevance to many areas of research, ensuring the accuracy and quality of these annotations is a priority at SGD. GO annotations are assigned either manually, by biocurators extracting experimental evidence from the scientific literature, or through automated methods that leverage computational algorithms to predict functional information. Here, we discuss the relationship between literature-based and computationally predicted GO annotations in SGD and extend a strategy whereby comparison of these two types of annotation identifies genes whose annotations need review. Our method, CvManGO (Computational versus Manual GO annotations), pairs literature-based GO annotations with computational GO predictions and evaluates the relationship of the two terms within GO, looking for instances of discrepancy. We found that this method will identify genes that require annotation updates, taking an important step towards finding ways to prioritize literature review. Additionally, we explored factors that may influence the effectiveness of CvManGO in identifying relevant gene targets to find in particular those genes that are missing literature-supported annotations, but our survey found that there are no immediately identifiable criteria by which one could enrich for these under-annotated genes. Finally, we discuss possible ways to improve this strategy, and the applicability of this method to other projects that use the GO for curation. DATABASE URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org. PMID:22434836

Park, Julie; Costanzo, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Rama; Cherry, J Michael; Hong, Eurie L

2012-03-20

364

Identification and Characterization of an Adeno-Associated Virus Integration Site in CV-1 Cells from the African Green Monkey  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a classification given to a group of nonpathogenic, single-stranded DNA viruses known to reside latently in primates. During latency in humans, AAV type 2 (AAV2) preferentially integrates at a site on chromosome 19q13.3ter by targeting a sequence composed of an AAV Rep binding element (RBE), a spacer, and a nicking site. Here, we report the DNA sequence of an African green monkey AAV integration site isolated from CV-1 cells. Overall, it has 98% homology to the analogous human site, including identical spacer and nicking sequences. However, the simian RBE is expanded, having five perfect directly repeated GAGC tetramers. We carried out a number of in vitro and in vivo assays to determine the effect of this expanded RBE sequence on the Rep-RBE interaction and AAV targeted integration. Using electromobility shift assays it was demonstrated that AAV4 Rep68 bound the expanded RBE with a sixfold-greater affinity than the human RBE. To determine the basis for the affinity increase, DNase I protection and methylation interference (MI) assays were performed. Comparison of footprints on both the human and simian RBEs revealed nearly identical protection; however, MI analysis suggested greater interaction with the guanine nucleotides of the expanded RBE, thus providing a biochemical basis for the increased binding activity. In vivo, integration targeted to the simian RBE was demonstrated by PCR analysis of latently infected Cos-7 cells. Interestingly, the frequency of site-specific integration was twofold greater in Cos-7 cells than in HeLa cells. Overall, these experiments establish that the simian RBE, identified in CV-1 cells, functions analogously to the human RBE and provide further evidence for a developing model that proposes individual roles for the RBE and the spacer and nicking site elements.

Amiss, Terry J.; McCarty, Doug M.; Skulimowski, Anna; Samulski, R. Jude

2003-01-01

365

Identification and characterization of an adeno-associated virus integration site in CV-1 cells from the African green monkey.  

PubMed

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a classification given to a group of nonpathogenic, single-stranded DNA viruses known to reside latently in primates. During latency in humans, AAV type 2 (AAV2) preferentially integrates at a site on chromosome 19q13.3ter by targeting a sequence composed of an AAV Rep binding element (RBE), a spacer, and a nicking site. Here, we report the DNA sequence of an African green monkey AAV integration site isolated from CV-1 cells. Overall, it has 98% homology to the analogous human site, including identical spacer and nicking sequences. However, the simian RBE is expanded, having five perfect directly repeated GAGC tetramers. We carried out a number of in vitro and in vivo assays to determine the effect of this expanded RBE sequence on the Rep-RBE interaction and AAV targeted integration. Using electromobility shift assays it was demonstrated that AAV4 Rep68 bound the expanded RBE with a sixfold-greater affinity than the human RBE. To determine the basis for the affinity increase, DNase I protection and methylation interference (MI) assays were performed. Comparison of footprints on both the human and simian RBEs revealed nearly identical protection; however, MI analysis suggested greater interaction with the guanine nucleotides of the expanded RBE, thus providing a biochemical basis for the increased binding activity. In vivo, integration targeted to the simian RBE was demonstrated by PCR analysis of latently infected Cos-7 cells. Interestingly, the frequency of site-specific integration was twofold greater in Cos-7 cells than in HeLa cells. Overall, these experiments establish that the simian RBE, identified in CV-1 cells, functions analogously to the human RBE and provide further evidence for a developing model that proposes individual roles for the RBE and the spacer and nicking site elements. PMID:12525625

Amiss, Terry J; McCarty, Doug M; Skulimowski, Anna; Samulski, R Jude

2003-02-01

366

Proton and copper adsorption to maize and soybean root cell walls. [Zea mays L. Glycine max (L. ) Merr. cv Dare  

SciTech Connect

A surface complexation model which has been used to describe inner-sphere complexation on metal oxide surfaces was applied to the adsorption of Cu by isolated cell walls of 4-day and 28-day-old maize (Zea mays L. cv WF9 {times} Mo17) and 21-day-old soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Dare) roots. Concentration dependence of the titration data prevented the determination of unique pK and capacitance values for the 4-day maize cell walls, though mean values obtained for the intrinsic pK of the titratable carboxyl groups were 3.0 (4-day maize), 3.6 (28-day maize), and 3.0 (21-day soybean)as determined by potentiometric titration with either NaOH or HCl in 20 millimolar NaCl. The constant capacitance model was applied to Cu sorption data from rapid batch equilibrium experiments in an ionic medium of 20 millimolar NaClO{sub 4}. Speciation calculations indicated that the formation of bidentate surface complex was sufficient to describe the experimental data for all three types of plant material, with only one value for the pK and capacitance density. The intrinsic constants of Cu complexation by a neutral site are: log K = -0.3 {plus minus} 0.1, -0.2 {plus minus} 0.3, and 0.9 {plus minus} 0.1 for 4-day and 28-day maize, and 21-say soybean, respectively. The integral capacitance density parameter, which describes the relationship between surface charge density and electrical potential, is several times larger than for crystalline mineral surfaces.

Allan, D.L.; Jarrell, W.M. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1989-03-01

367

Whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of amoeboid olivine aggregates from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on mineralogy, petrography, and whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of eight amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from the oxidized CV chondrite Allende. The AOAs consist of forsteritic olivine, opaque nodules, and variable amounts of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) of different types, and show evidence for alteration to varying degrees. Melilite and anorthite are replaced by nepheline, sodalite, and grossular; spinel is enriched in FeO; opaque nodules are replaced by Fe,Ni-sulfides, ferroan olivine and Ca,Fe-rich pyroxenes; forsteritic olivine is enriched in FeO and often overgrown by ferroan olivine. The AOAs are surrounded by fine-grained, matrix-like rims composed mainly of ferroan olivine and by a discontinuous layer of Ca,Fe-rich silicates. These observations indicate that AOAs experienced in situ elemental open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration during which Fe, Na, Cl, and Si were introduced, whereas Ca was removed from AOAs and used to form the Ca,Fe-rich silicate rims around AOAs. The whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of the Allende AOAs plot above the isochron of the whole-rock Allende CAIs with a slope of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 reported by Jacobsen et al. (2008). In contrast, whole-rock 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics of CAIs and AOAs from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka define a single isochron with a slope of (5.25± 0.01) × 10-5 (Larsen et al. 2011). We infer that the excesses in 26Mg* present in Allende AOAs are due to their late-stage open-system metasomatic alteration. Thus, the 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics of Allende CAIs and AOAs are disturbed by parent body alteration processes, and may not be suitable for high-precision chronology of the early solar system events and processes.

Olsen, M. B.; Krot, A. N.; Larsen, K.; Paton, C.; Wielandt, D.; Schiller, M.; Bizzarro, M.

2011-11-01

368

Ward CV redaction 9- 2012 cv  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... In Comprehensive Neonatal Nursing Care: A ... November, 1980; Neonatal Nurses Critical Care ... June, 1989; Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Course ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

369

Improving the french fry quality of russeted potatoes through transformation with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the Chipping cv. Snowden  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microtubers of two dual-purpose russeted potatoes were transformed with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the cv. Snowden using well know Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation system. Seventy-two and twenty-four distinct transformants of AOND95292-3Russ and ND7882b-7Russ, respectivel...

370

Effect of potassium on drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Leprechaun: Plant growth, leaf macro- and micronutrient content and root longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition for the limited water supply available for irrigation of horticultural crops increases, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance, plant water-use efficiency and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cv.

Jonathan N. Egilla; Fred T. Davies; Malcolm C. Drew

2001-01-01

371

Tissue culture in synthetic atmospheres: diffusion rate effects on cytokinin-induced callus growth and isoflavonoid production in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Acme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration is one factor that is known to determine how metabolic gases influence the growth and secondary metabolism of plant tissues in culture. How actual gas bioavailability influences these processes has not been studied despite its potential importance in specialized applications. A simple model system, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Acme] callus culture, was selected for experiments because exogenous

Lindsey K. Tuominen; Mary E. Musgrave

2006-01-01

372

HPLC determination of organic acids, sugars, phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacity of orange juice and orange wine made from a Turkish cv. Kozan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids, sugars, phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities of orange juice and orange wine obtained from the cv. Kozan of Turkey were determined. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds. Three organic acids (citric, malic and ascorbic acids) and three sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) were determined. The major organic acid was found as

Hasim Kelebek; Serkan Selli; Ahmet Canbas; Turgut Cabaroglu

2009-01-01

373

A Slide Rule for Computing Uf and the Bulk Doping from Mis-Capacitor High-Frequency C-V Curves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A slide rule has been developed for the rapid and accurate calculation of the normalized doping parameter UF and the bulk doping of silicon substrate from high-frequency MIS-capacitor C-V data. The slide rule can be employed for ambient temperatures from ...

R. F. Pierret T. L. Chiu C. T. Sah

1968-01-01

374

Application and comparison of four selected procedures for the isolation of cell-wall material from the skin of grapes cv. Monastrell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to choose an appropriate cell-wall material (CWM) isolation procedure in grapes cv. Monastrell, four different standard procedures have been tested, and a comparison made of the amount of cell-wall material obtained, its composition and morphology. The CWM was isolated as the 70% ethanol insoluble residue (de Vries method), as the absolute ethanol insoluble residue filtered sequentially through nylon

R. Apolinar-Valiente; I. Romero-Cascales; J. M. López-Roca; E. Gómez-Plaza; J. M. Ros-García

2010-01-01

375

The effects of fertilizer rate on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality, with special respect to pigments, in black chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa) cv. `Viking'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fertilizer rate on fruit quality parameters in the black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa [Michx] Ell.) cv. `Viking' was studied over three years. A combined N–P–K fertilizer was applied in different rates. Plant height, yield, berry weight, anthocyanin content, content of brown compounds, content of soluble solids, anthocyanin composition and total acidity were recorded for the different treatments. Increased

Niklas Jeppsson

2000-01-01

376

Comparison of postharvest changes in mango (cv Cogshall) using a Ripening class index (Rci) for different carbon supplies and harvest dates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The length of time between harvest and the onset of the climacteric rise in fruit respiration depends both on the harvest stage and the storage conditions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica cv Cogshall). We therefore propose classifying fruit according to a Ripening class index (Rci) that takes both storage time and climacteric stage into account. Batches of fruit thus obtained

Jacques Joas; Yanis Caro; Mathieu Lechaudel

2009-01-01

377

Calculating inverse cv, skew and pwm functions for pearson3, log-normal, extreme-value and log-logistic distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations are presented to calculate inverse CV, skew and PWM functions for the Pearson-3, log-normal, extreme-value and log-logistic distributions. Such inverse functions are used for moment and PWM estimates. Close numerical approximations are derived for the inverse functions that do not exist explicitly. This is intended to overcome the intractable nature of moment and PWM estimates.

R. W. Donaldson

1996-01-01

378

The effect of nitrate and plant size on nitrate uptake and in vitro nitrate reductase activity in strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa cv. Selva)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen plays a major role in the growth and yield of strawberry. For optimizing nitrogen fertilizer application, it is necessary to understand the response of strawberry to nitrogen supply. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nitrate supply and plant size on strawberry nitrate uptake and nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Strawberry plants cv. Selva were grown

Toktam Sadat Taghavi; Mesbah Babalar

2007-01-01

379

Callus initiation and plant regeneration from inflorescence primordia of the intergeneric hybrid Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.x Bromus inermis Leyss. cv. nanus on a modified nutritive medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant regeneration from callus of intergeneric hybrid Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. x Bromus inermis Leyss cv. nanus (AGROMUS) was carried out on a new culture medium designated medium-F. Within 21 days of the plating of inflorescence primordia the initiated callus showed globular structures. From the 21st day of culture, one step plant regeneration occurred on the callus without subculture. The

G. Gyulai; J. Janovszky; E. Kiss; L. Lelik; A. Csillag; L. E. Heszky

1992-01-01

380

Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of orange ( Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) juice produced under organic and integrated farming system in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organically and integrated produced orange (Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) fruits were assayed in terms of fruit characteristics and juice phytochemicals over a period of two years. Fruit size and juice volume were higher under organic farming system. There were not any significant differences concerning either the carbohydrates’ or organic acids’ concentrations of the juice. Similar results were obtained

Peter A. Roussos

2011-01-01

381

Ultrastructural localization of bowman-birk inhibitor on thin sections of Glycine max (Soybean) cv. Maple Arrow by the gold method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), a polypeptide of MW 8,000, has a specificity directed against trypsin and chymotrypsin. BBI was localized at the ultrastructural level by the protein A gold method on thin sections of Glycine max (soybean) cv. Maple Arrow. In cotyledon and embryonic axis, BBI was found in all protein bodies, the nucleus and, to a lesser extent,

M. Horisberger; M. Tacchini-Vonlanthen

1983-01-01

382

Draft Genome Sequence of Flavobacterium sp. Strain F52, Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi)  

PubMed Central

Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain.

Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J.; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal

2012-01-01

383

Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).  

PubMed

Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain. PMID:22965088

Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

2012-10-01

384

Long-Term Fungal Inhibitory Activity of Water-Soluble Extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto and Sourdough Lactic Acid Bacteria during Bread Storage?  

PubMed Central

The antifungal activity of proteinaceous compounds from different food matrices was investigated. In initial experiments, water-soluble extracts of wheat sourdoughs, cheeses, and vegetables were screened by agar diffusion assays with Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. Water-soluble extracts of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus brevis AM7 and Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Pinto were selected for further study. The crude water-soluble extracts of L. brevis AM7 sourdough and P. vulgaris cv. Pinto had a MIC of 40 mg of peptide/ml and 30.9 mg of protein/ml, respectively. MICs were markedly lower when chemically synthesized peptides or partially purified protein fractions were used. The water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto showed inhibition toward a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Phaseolin alpha-type precursor, phaseolin, and erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin precursor were identified in the water-soluble extract of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. When the antifungal activity was assayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, all three proteins were inhibitory. A mixture of eight peptides was identified from the water-soluble extract of sourdough L. brevis AM7, and five of these exhibited inhibitory activity. Bread was made at the pilot plant scale by sourdough fermentation with L. brevis AM7 and addition of the water-soluble extract (27%, vol/wt; 5 mg of protein/ml) of P. vulgaris cv. Pinto. Slices of bread packed in polyethylene bags did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage at room temperature, a level of protection comparable to that afforded by 0.3% (wt/wt) calcium propionate.

Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G.; Nigro, Franco; De Angelis, Maria; Arnault, Philip; Gobbetti, Marco

2008-01-01

385

CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more than 100 PM10 samples, addressing mainly their mass concentrations and the chemical composition of water soluble ions and carbon species (carbonates and organic and elemental carbon). Different PM10 samplers worked simultaneously in order to collect enough mass to make the aerosol characterization through the different methodologies and to collect aerosols in different filter matrixes, which have to be appropriated to the chemical and mineralogical analysis. The sampling site was located at Santiago Island, in the surroundings of Praia City (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level). High concentrations, up to more than 400 ?g m-3, are connected to north-east and north-northeast winds, and it was identified several dust events characteristic of "bruma seca", whose duration is on average of two to four days. Backward trajectories analysis confirms that the high concentrations in Cape Verde are associated with air masses passing over the Sahara. During dust events the percentage of inorganic water soluble ions for the total PM10 mass concentration decreased significantly to values lower than 10% in comparison with remainder data that range around 45±10%. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the project PTDD/AAC-CLI/100331/2008 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008646 (CV-Dust). J. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH-BD-6105-2009 from FCT.

Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

2012-04-01

386

Highly oxidized and metamorphosed chondritic or igneous (?) clasts in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Mokoia - Excavated material from the interior of the CV3 asteroid or previously unsampled asteroid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mokoia clasts are fragments of coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks which consist of Ca-rich fayalitic olivine. Nepheline typically replaces plagioclase. The textures and mineralogy of the clasts indicate that they were extensively metamorphosed above 750-800 C prior to excavation from their parent asteroid and subsequently added to the Mokoia breccia; the last event postdates aqueous alteration of the host meteorite. The coexisting Al-diopside, anorthitic plagioclase and Cr-spinel in the clasts and high CaO contents in olivine suggest that precursor materials for the clasts were rich in Ca and Al; Fe-rich compositions of olivine, diopside, and mineralogy of the opaque assemblage suggest a high degree of oxidation. The mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Mokoia clasts are unique among known metamorphosed ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites and achondrites and may represent material from a previously unsampled asteroid. Alternatively, the Mokoia clasts may have been excavated from the oxidized and metamorphosed interior of the CV3 asteroid.

Krot, A. N.; Hutcheon, I. D.

1997-03-01

387

Some observations of the effects of applied magnetic fields on growth of Avena coleoptiles. [Avena sativa cv. Garry  

SciTech Connect

Applied magnetic fields (5000-18,000 Gauss) disrupt the pattern of cellulose microfibril deposition in cells of Avena sativa cv. Garry coleoptiles. Freeze fracture reveals the microfibrils of the innermost wall layers to be randomly oriented, rather than parallel and transverse to the elongation axis as seen in control plants. Whole plants exposed to the magnetic field at any field intensity tested (5000-18,000 Gauss) displayed inhibited elongation growth. After two hours in a 5000 G field, plants show some recovery of elongation growth while maintained in the field, with elongation rates of 0.2 + 0.06 mm/hr as compared to control plants with 0.9 + 0.12 mm/hr elongation. Avena seeds which were germinated directly between pole pieces of a 5000 Gauss magnet produced slow-growing seedlings whose roots and coleoptiles grew toward opposite magnetic poles. Audus (1960) coined the phrase magnetotropism to describe a similar phenomenon in pollen tubes growing in magnetic fields.

Brown, D.S.; Gretz, M.; Brown, R.M. Jr.

1986-04-01

388

Saline water irrigation effects on fruit development, quality, and phenolic composition of virgin olive oils, cv. Chemlali.  

PubMed

Field-grown olive trees (cv. Chemlali) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of different saline water irrigation levels on fruit development characteristics, yield, and virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. The plants were irrigated with fresh water (FW; ECe=1.2 dS m(-1)) and saline water (SS; ECe=7.5 dS m(-1)). Fruit weight, olive, and oil content decreased under irrigation with saline water. Total oil contents were 27.85 and 25.7% fresh weight (fw) during 2005 in FW and SS irrigated plants, respectively. However, major phenolic compounds (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic,...) and total phenol concentrations in VOO increased under saline water irrigation. In 2005, total phenol contents were 198 and 223 mg/kg of oil in FW and SS treatments, respectively. Furthermore, VOO from SS treated plants showed higher contents of oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and heptadecanoic acids than FW ones, and oil samples of both treatments were classified as "extra virgin". PMID:19334757

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Sensoy, Serhat; Boukhriss, Mekki

2009-04-01

389

Significant Changes in Cell and Chloroplast Development in Young Wheat Leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) Grown in Elevated CO2.  

PubMed Central

Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 [mu]L L-1) or at elevated (650 [mu]L L-1) CO2. In elevated CO2, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated CO2 did not affect the number of chloroplasts in relation to mesophyll cell size or the linear relationship between chloroplast number or size and mesophyll cell size. No major changes in leaf anatomy or in chloroplast ultrastructure were detected as a result of growth in elevated CO2, but there was a marked reduction in starch accumulation. In leaf sections fluorescently tagged antisera were used to visualize and quantitate the amount of cytochrome f, the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the coupling factor 1 in ATP synthase, D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center, the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex, subunit II of photosystem I, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. A significant finding was that in 10 to 20% of the mesophyll cells grown in elevated CO2 the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and cytochrome f were deficient by 75%, but the other proteins accumulated normally.

Robertson, E. J.; Leech, R. M.

1995-01-01

390

Dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka - Evidence for various degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the petrography, mineralogy, and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of three Efremovka dark inclusions. These DIs consist of chondrules, CAIs and mineral grains embedded in opaque matrices rich in metal; magnetite is absent and sulfides are either absent or rare. All coarse-grained components are replaced to various degrees by an Fe-rich phase with olivine composition, but rich in Al, Ca, Na, Cr, Mn, Na, and S. TEM studies show that the Fe-rich phase consists of abundant fine-grained (below 0.2 micron) fayalitic olivine with minor interstitial poorly-crystalline Si-Al-rich material and chlorite. The fayalitic olivines are heavily strained and contain abundant voids. We infer that Efremovka DIs experienced various degrees of aqueous alteration and were subsequently metamorphosed resulting in incomplete dehydration, growth of fayalitic olivine and secondary Ca-rich phases. These observations confirm the model of aqueous alteration and dehydration of the oxidized CV3s and their DIs.

Krot, A. N.; Brearley, A. J.; Biryukov, V. V.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Keil, K.; Swindle, T. D.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

1997-03-01

391

Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance of energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1) grown in hydroponic culture.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a plant based, cost effective technology to detoxify or stabilise contaminated soils. Fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants may be used not only in phytoremediation but also in energy production. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus cv. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this combined application, was grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn accumulation and tolerance. Its shoot metal accumulation showed the order Pb < Ni < Cu ? Cd < Zn. In parallel with this, Pb and Ni had no or very little influence on the growth, dry matter content, chlorophyll concentration and transpiration of the plants. Cu and Cd treatment resulted in significant decreases in all these parameters that can be attributed to Fe plaque formation in the roots suggested by markedly increased Fe and Cu accumulation. This came together with decreased shoot and root Mn concentrations in both treatments while shoot Cu and Zn concentrations decreased under Cd and Cu exposure, respectively. Zn treatment had no effect or even slightly stimulated the plants. This may be due to a slight stimulation of Fe translocation and a very efficient detoxification mechanism. Based on the average 300 mg kg?¹ (dry mass) Zn concentration which is 0.03% of the shoot dry mass the variety is suggested to be classified as Zn accumulator. PMID:23669138

Sipos, Gyula; Solti, Adám; Czech, Viktória; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Tóth, Brigitta; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc

2013-04-23

392

Early inhibition of photosynthesis during development of Mn toxicity in tobacco. [Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY14  

SciTech Connect

Early physiological effects of developing Mn toxicity in young leaves of burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY 14) were examined in glass-house/water cultured plants grown at high (summer) and low (winter) photon flux. Following transfer of plants to solutions containing 1 millimolar Mn{sup 2+}, sequential samplings were made at various times for the following 9 days, during which Mn accumulation by leaves increased rapidly from {approx} 70 on day 0 to {approx} 1700 and {approx} 5000 microgram per gram dry matter after 1 and 9 days, respectively. In plants grown at high photon flux, net photosynthesis declined by {approx} 20 and {approx} 60% after 1 and 9 days, respectively, and the onset of this decline preceded appearance (after 3 to 4 days) of visible foliar symptoms of Mn toxicity. Intercellular CO{sub 2} concentrations and rates of transpiration were not significantly affected. Though the activity of latent or activated polyphenol oxidase increased in parallel with Mn accumulation, neither leaf respiration nor the activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.10.1.7) were greatly affected. These effects from Mn toxicity could not be explained by any changes in protein or chlorophyll abundance. Additionally, they were not a consequence of Mn induced Fe deficiency. Therefore, inhibition of net photosynthesis and enhancement of polyphenol oxidase activity are early indicators of excess Mn accumulation in tobacco leaves.

Nable, R.O.; Houtz, R.L.; Cheniae, G.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1988-04-01

393

Identification of Proteins Correlated with Increased Freezing Tolerance in Bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss. cv Manchar) Cell Cultures  

PubMed Central

Cellular and extracellular protein profiles from Bromus inermis Leyss. cv Manchar cell suspension cultures cold hardened by low temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment were analyzed by one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cellular proteins (25, 165, 190, and 200 kilodaltons) increased by low temperature growth and cellular proteins (20, 25, 28, 30, 32, 37, 40, 45, 200 kilodaltons) increased by exogenous ABA treatment were identified. Low temperature treatment inhibited the synthesis of a 22 kilodalton protein and ABA treatment resulted in the synthesis of two extracellular proteins (17 and 21 kilodaltons). Low temperature and ABA-induced hardening conditions increased or induced a 25 and a 200 kilodalton protein. The 25 and a 30 kilodalton protein previously shown to be enriched by ABA-induced hardening conditions at both 3 and 23°C temperatures co-fractionated with the crude membrane fraction (30,000g sediment). The 200 kilodalton protein was detected in the 30,000g supernatant. Two-dimensional analysis of the crude membrane fraction resolved the 30 kilodalton protein band into a major polypeptide with an apparent isoelectric point of 6.85. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Robertson, Albert J.; Gusta, Lawrence V.; Reaney, Martin J. T.; Ishikawa, Masaya

1988-01-01

394

Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv.'Tropic Sun').  

PubMed

Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun') is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of 'Tropic Sun' were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems, and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid contents of the roots, stems, and leaves of immature plants were estimated to be 0.05, 0.12, and 0.01% w/w, respectively, whereas seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w. PMID:22429238

Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Joy, Robert J; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E

2012-04-02

395

Isolation and Purification of a Novel Deca-Antifungal Peptide from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Jopung) Against Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, an antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. L Jopung) and by gel filtration and HPLC. In this study, the functional peptide was characterized by partial acid digestion using HCl and HPLC. We obtained three peaks from the AFP-J, the first and third peaks were not active in the tested fungal strain. However, the second peak, which was named Potide-J, was active (MIC; 6.25 ?g/mL) against Candida albicans. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by automated Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequence of Potide-J was determined to be Ala-Val-Cys-Glu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Asn-Cys-Cys. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 1083.1 Da. Finally, we confirmed that a disulfide bond was present between Cys3 and Cys9 or Cys10. Using this structure, Potide-J was synthesized via solid-phase methods. In these experiments, only the linear sequence was shown to display strong activity against Candida albicans. These results suggest that Potide-J may be an excellent candidate compound for the development of commercially applicable antibiotic agents.

Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung

2012-01-01

396

Isolation of a new trypsin inhibitor from the Faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Giza 843) with potential medicinal applications.  

PubMed

A new 15-kDa Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (termed VFTI-G1) was isolated from the seeds of Faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Giza 843) using cation exchange chromatography on an SP-Sepharose column, anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q columns, and finally size exclusion chromatography on a Superdex 75 column. VFTI-G1 manifested significant antiproteolytic activity against trypsin (5761 BAEE units/mg, K(i) 20.4 × 10(-9) M), but only a slight chymotrypsin inhibitory activity (< 10 BTEE units/mg). The suitable environment to sustain its trypsin inhibitory activity was at temperatures below 60 °C and at pH 7. Its trypsin inhibitory activity was inhibited by the reducing agent dithiothreitol in a dose-dependent manner, indicating the significance of intact disulfide bonds to the trypsin inhibitory activity. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity with an IC(50) of about 0.76 µM. Furthermore, VFTI-G1 showed specific antiproliferative activity toward HepG2 hepatoma cells by inducing chromatin condensation and cell apoptosis. The HIV-1 RT inhibitory activity of VFTI-G1 and its specific antiproliferative activity toward Hep G2 cells may find medical applications. PMID:20955169

Fang, Evandro Fei; Hassanien, Abdallah Abd Elazeem; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Soliman, Saeed Saad; Ng, Tzi Bun

2011-01-01

397

Effect of organic matter additions on uptake of weathered DDT by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden.  

PubMed

Greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the impact of organic matter additions on plant uptake of DDT [2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane] from weathered soil. Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden pumpkins were grown in 100 g of DDT contaminated soil ([DDT] - 1100 ng/g) mixed with equal volumes of either clean soil, perlite, vermiculite, peat, potting soil, or granular activated carbon (GAC) to give total organic carbon contents of 2.4%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 11.5%, 12.2%, and 27.3%, respectively. As in other studies, root DDT concentrations were significantly lower in soils with high organic matter. Root bioaccumulation factors (BAF = [DDT]root/[DDT]soil) approximated this trend. Root concentrations correlated with organic matter concentrations and not with soil DDT concentrations. Conversely, shoot DDT concentrations, shoot BAFs and translocation factors (TLF = BAF(shoot)/BAF(root)) were not significantly different between treatment groups, except for plants grown in GAC/DDT soil. This suggests that amendments with a range of organic matter contents may be added to improve soil conditions at industrial sites without significant adverse effects on phytoextraction potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. PMID:20734916

Lunney, Alissa I; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

398

Analysis of crude protein and allergen abundance in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea cv. Walter) from three growing regions in Australia.  

PubMed

The effects of plant growth conditions on concentrations of proteins, including allergens, in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) kernels are largely unknown. Peanuts (cv. Walter) were grown at five sites (Taabinga, Redvale, Childers, Bundaberg, and Kairi) covering three commercial growing regions in Queensland, Australia. Differences in temperature, rainfall, and solar radiation during the growing season were evaluated. Kernel yield varied from 2.3 t/ha (Kairi) to 3.9 t/ha (Childers), probably due to differences in solar radiation. Crude protein appeared to vary only between Kairi and Childers, whereas Ara h 1 and 2 concentrations were similar in all locations. 2D-DIGE revealed significant differences in spot volumes for only two minor protein spots from peanuts grown in the five locations. Western blotting using peanut-allergic serum revealed no qualitative differences in recognition of antigens. It was concluded that peanuts grown in different growing regions in Queensland, Australia, had similar protein compositions and therefore were unlikely to show differences in allergenicity. PMID:23495786

Walczyk, Nicole E; Smith, Penelope M C; Tovey, Euan; Wright, Graeme C; Fleischfresser, Dayle B; Roberts, Thomas H

2013-04-08

399

Comparison of several models for calculating ozone stomatal fluxes on a Mediterranean wheat cultivar (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Camacho).  

PubMed

Ozone stomatal fluxes were modeled for a 3-year period following different approaches for a commercial variety of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Camacho) at the phenological stage of anthesis. All models performed in the same range, although not all of them afforded equally significant results. Nevertheless, all of them suggest that stomatal conductance would account for the main percentage of ozone deposition fluxes. A new modeling approach was tested, based on a 3-D architectural model of the wheat canopy, and fairly accurate results were obtained. Plant species-specific measurements, as well as measurements of stomatal conductance and environmental parameters, were required. The method proposed for calculating ozone stomatal fluxes (FO(3_3-D)) from experimental gs data and modeling them as a function of certain environmental parameters in conjunction with the use of the YPLANT model seems to be adequate, providing realistic estimates of the canopy FO(3_3-D), integrating and not neglecting the contribution of the lower leaves with respect to the flag leaf, although a further development of this model is needed. PMID:17982606

de la Torre Llorente, Daniel

2007-10-05

400

Forsterite-bearing type B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites: From aggregates to volatilized melt droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed petrologic and oxygen isotopic analysis of six forsterite-bearing Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (FoBs) from CV3 chondrites indicates that they formed by varying degrees of melting of primitive precursor material that resembled amoeboid olivine aggregates. A continuous evolutionary sequence exists between those objects that experienced only slight partial melting or sintering through objects that underwent prolonged melting episodes. In most cases, melting was accompanied by surface evaporative loss of magnesium and silicon. This loss resulted in outer margins that are very different in composition from the cores, so much so that in some cases, the mantles contain mineral assemblages that are petrologically incompatible with those in the cores. The precursor objects for these FoBs had a range of bulk compositions and must therefore have formed under varying conditions if they condensed from a solar composition gas. Five of the six objects show small degrees of mass-dependent oxygen isotopic fractionation in pyroxene, spinel, and olivine, consistent with the inferred melt evaporation, but there are no consistent differences among the three phases. Forsterite, spinel, and pyroxene are 16O-rich with ?17O ˜ -24‰ in all FoBs. Melilite and anorthite show a range of ?17O from -17‰ to -1‰.

Bullock, Emma S.; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Ulyanov, Alexander A.

2012-12-01

401

Pectins as possible source of the copper involved in the green staining alteration of cv. Gordal table olives.  

PubMed

The pectic and pigment compositions and Ca and Cu contents of the alcohol-insoluble solid (AIS) residues were determined in cv. Gordal olives treated with NaOH solution and kept at different constant pH values (3.5-6.5). The same controls were made in table olives presenting green staining alteration. The ratio between the various pectin fractions of the more acid pH experiment samples remained similar in fruits not showing green staining. In altered fruits, the protopectin fraction was lower, and the calcium pectate or EDTA soluble pectins were higher. Regarding the presence of Ca and Cu in the AIS, it was observed that, whereas Ca levels fell at the most acid pH values, those of Cu increased. The concentration of Ca was higher in the AIS of altered olives than in nonaltered ones. The same trend was seen for the zone with or without green staining of an altered fruit. In the case of Cu, the relationship was the opposite: a decrease in the levels of AIS Cu in fruits and zones of fruits with green staining. This result was correlated with the highest concentration of Cu-chlorophyll complexes found in such samples and suggested that pectins might act as a reservoir of Cu involved in the alteration. PMID:12405770

Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, M Isabel

2002-11-01

402

Orientação para o Setor Hortifrutícola Guia para Minimização ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Significa a aplicação cumulativa de calor ou produtos químicos em superfícies de contato com alimento limpas, que é suficiente para reduzir as ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

403

Proteasome inhibitor (MG132) rescues Nav1.5 protein content and the cardiac sodium current in dystrophin-deficient mdx5cv mice  

PubMed Central

The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.5, plays a central role in cardiac excitability and impulse propagation and associates with the dystrophin multiprotein complex at the lateral membrane of cardiomyocytes. It was previously shown that Nav1.5 protein content and the sodium current (lNa) were both decreased in cardiomyocytes of dystrophin-deficient mdx5cv mice. In this study, wild-type and mdx5cv mice were treated for 7 days with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 ?g/Kg/24 h) using implanted osmotic mini pumps. MG132 rescued both the total amount of Nav1.5 protein and lNa but, unlike in previous studies, de novo expression of dystrophin was not observed in skeletal or cardiac muscle. This study suggests that the reduced expression of Nav1.5 in dystrophin-deficient cells is dependent on proteasomal degradation.

Rougier, Jean-Sebastien; Gavillet, Bruno; Abriel, Hugues

2013-01-01

404

Construction of SnO2/SiO2/Si Heterojunction and its Lineup Using I-V and C-V Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-ideal n-SnO2/n-Si heterojunction band edge lineup has been investigated with aid of I-V and C-V measurements. The heterojunction was manufactured by rapid thermal oxidation of Sn metal films prepared by thermal evaporation technique on monocrystalline n-type silicon. The experimental data of the conduction band offset ?Ec and valence band offset ?Ec were compared with theoretical values. The band offset ?Ec = 0.55 eV and ?Ev = 1.8 eV obtained at 300 K. The energy band diagram of n-SnO2/n-Si HJ was constructed. C-V measurements depict that the junction was an abrupt type and the built-in voltage was determined from 1/C2-V plot.

Salem, Evan T.; Agool, Ibrahim R.; Hassan, Marwa A.

405

The lipid composition, fluidity, and Mg 2+ ATPase activity of rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. Bahia) shoot plasma membranes: effects of ABA and GA 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six-day-old rice plants (Oryza sativa L., cv Bahia) were grown for 5 days more in nutrient solution culture containing 10?5 M abscisic acid (ABA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) (treated plants). Plasma membrane (PM) vesicles were isolated from the shoots of treated or control plants, and ATPase hydrolytic\\u000a and proton-pumping activity, fluidity, and free sterol and phospholipid composition were determined. Both

C. Martínez-Cortina; R. Ros; D. T. Cooke; C. S. James; A. Sanz

1992-01-01

406

Effect of Intranasal Administration of CV11974, a Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, on Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Airway Inflammation Induced by Antigen Inhalation in Guinea Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Angiotensin II is a putative mediator in asthma, but the effect of topical administration of type 1 angiotensin II (AT1) receptor antagonists on allergic airway reactions is not known. Objective: To investigate the effect of intranasal administration of CV-11974, an AT1 receptor antagonist, and of PD123319, a type 2 angiotensin II (AT2) receptor antagonist, on antigen-induced airway reactions in

Shigeharu Myou; Masaki Fujimura; Toshiyuki Kita; Kazuyoshi Watanabe; Tatsuki Hirose; Hideki Tachibana; Yoshihisa Ishiura; Shinji Nakao

2002-01-01

407

Changes in water relations, photosynthetic activity and proline accumulation in one-year-old olive trees ( Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) in response to NaCl salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative responses of young olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv “Chemlali”) to different NaCl salinity levels were investigated over 11 months. One-year-old own rooted plants were\\u000a grown in 10-L pots containing sand and perlite mixture (1:3 v\\/v). Trees were subjected to three irrigation treatments: CP\\u000a (control plants that were irrigated with fresh water); SS1 (salt stressed plants irrigated with water

C. Ben Ahmed; B. Ben Rouina; M. Boukhris

2008-01-01

408

Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using ¹⁵Nâ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (¹⁵N)xanthine from ¹⁵Nâ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in

C. A. Atkins; P. J. Storer; J. S. Pate

1988-01-01

409

Photosynthetic characteristics and growth responses of dwarf apple ( Malus domesti ca Borkh. cv. Fuji) saplings after 3 years of exposure to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and photosynthetic responses of dwarf apple saplings (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) acclimated to 3 years of exposure to contrasting atmospheric CO2 concentrations (360 and 650 µmol mol-1) in combination with current ambient or elevated (ambient +5°C) temperature patterns were determined. Four 1-year-old apple saplings grafted onto M.9 rootstocks were each enclosed in late fall 1997 in a controlled

Hee-Myong Ro; Pan-Gi Kim; In-Bog Lee; Myoung-Soon Yiem; Su-Young Woo

2001-01-01

410

Chemical composition and bioactivity of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of Citrus medica L. cv. Diamante peel obtained by hydrodistillation, cold-pressing and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction techniques was determined by GC\\/MS analysis. Forty-six components were fully characterised. Limonene and ?-terpinene were the major components of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), while citropten was the major constituent in the oil

Federica Menichini; Rosa Tundis; Marco Bonesi; Bruno de Cindio; Monica R. Loizzo; Filomena Conforti; Giancarlo A. Statti; Roberta Menabeni; Ruggero Bettini; Francesco Menichini

2011-01-01

411

Postharvest decay control and quality retention in litchi (cv. McLean's Red) by combined application of modified atmosphere packaging and antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) [bioriented polypropylene (BOPP-1 or BOPP-2)] in combination with antimicrobial agents Bacillus subtilis, 107colony-forming units (cfu)ml?1; ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, calcium disodium salt hydrate (EDTA) (0.1%); or 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) (0.15%) on postharvest decay control and quality retention of litchi cv. McLean's Red were assessed as possible replacements for commercial SO2 fumigation. Fruits dipped in B.

Dharini Sivakumar; Eva Arrebola; Lise Korsten

2008-01-01

412

Production of plants resistant to Alternaria carthami via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of safflower cv. NARI-6 treated with fungal culture filtrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes a system for efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of safflower\\u000a (Carthamus\\u000a tinctorius L.) cv. NARI-6 in fungal culture filtrates (FCF)-treated cultures. FCF was prepared by culturing Alternaria carthami fungal mycelia in selection medium for host-specific toxin production. Cotyledon explants cultured on callus induction medium\\u000a with different levels of FCF (10–50%) produced embryogenic callus.

J. Vijaya Kumar; B. D. Ranjitha Kumari; G. Sujatha; Enrique Castaño

2008-01-01

413

Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector\\/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter

E. Ortiz-Vázquez; D. Kaemmer; H. B. Zhang; J. Muth; M. Rodríguez-Mendiola; C. Arias-Castro; Andrew James

2005-01-01

414

Eradication of Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) and Banana Mosaic Virus (BMV) from Infected Plant of Banana cv. Amritasagar Through Meristem Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment on virus free in vitro banana plantlets production by the meristem cultured from virus infected four month old banana suckers cv. Amritasagar were used as explants. Four levels of BAP (0, 3, 4 and 5 mg\\/l), 5 levels of NAA (0.0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg\\/l) were used as treatment for shoot proliferation in experiment-I and Four

M. H. Kabir SHIRAGI; M. A. BAQUE; K. M. NASIRUDDIN

415

DIGE analysis of proteome changes accompanying large resveratrol production by grapevine ( Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay) cell cultures in response to methyl-?-cyclodextrin and methyl jasmonate elicitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We had previously shown that Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cell suspension accumulates extracellularly large amounts of the phytoalexin trans-resveratrol (tR) in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD), which can be triplicated when the elicitor is combined with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). In parallel, new pathogenesis-related proteins accumulated in the apoplast-like extracellular space. The aim of this study was to investigate

M. J. Martinez-Esteso; S. Sellés-Marchart; J. C. Vera-Urbina; M. A. Pedreño; R. Bru-Martinez

2011-01-01

416

Does nitrogen supply affect the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Hanno) to the combination of elevated CO2 and O3?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Hanno) was grown at ambient (350 mmol mol? 1) or elevated CO2 (700 mmol mol? 1) in charcoaluPurafil1-filtered air (CFA - 5n mol mol ? 1) or ozone (CFA q75 nmol mol? 1 7h d? 1) at three levels of N supply (1.5, 4 and 14 mM NO?3 ), to test the hypothesis that the

Joao Cardoso-Vilhena; Jeremy Barnes

2001-01-01

417

Root storage of nitrogen applied in autumn and its remobilization to new growth in spring of persimmon trees ( Diospyros kaki cv. Fuyu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to understand the effect of N supply in autumn on its uptake and distribution in tree parts and the utilization of reserve N the following year in persimmon trees (Diospyros kaki cv. Fuyu). The treated trees received 22.5-g N each for two successive years as a 3.5% urea solution from September 18 at 5-day intervals. Trees

Young Kee Kim; Chae Shin Lim; Seong Mo Kang; Jeong Lai Cho

2009-01-01

418

Metabolism of [ 13 C 1 ]gibberellin A 29 to [ 13 C 1 ]gibberellin-catabolite in maturing seeds of Pisum sativum cv. Progress No. 9  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of GA29 during seed maturation in Pisum sativum cv. Progress No. 9 was further investigated. [17-13C1]GA29 was metabolised to a GA-catabolite (structure 3), with incorporation of the [13C] label from the GA29 substrate into the GA-catabolite being demonstrated by GC-MS. Quantitation of the GA-catabolite using GC-MS was achieved by adding GA-catabolite, labelled with [18O], to seed extracts as

Valerie M. Sponsel; Jake MacMillan

1980-01-01

419

Differential antioxidative response of ascorbate glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites to chromium speciation stress in green gram ( Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek. cv CO 4) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the antioxidant enzymes and metabolites of the ascorbate glutathione pathway to oxidative stress caused by equal concentration (50?M) of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was studied in 15-day-old seedlings of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek. cv CO 4) for 5 days after imposition of stress. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation was seen 5h after stress

Arun K Shanker; M Djanaguiraman; R Sudhagar; C. N Chandrashekar; G Pathmanabhan

2004-01-01

420

The Study of Stem Recutting and Aluminum-sulphate Application on the Some Morphophysiologic Traits in Rosa (Rosa hybrida cv.illona)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reasearch was conducted in agricultural faculty of Tehran University in 2005 for evaluation the effect of application aluminum-sulphate levels in preservation solution with stem recutting on longevity of rosa hybrida cv.Illona cut flower.Cut stems of rosa that produced in greenhouse from biennial mother stocks was placed under treatment of aluminum-sulphate solution with concentrations (100- 150- 200 ppm) and stem

S. N. Mortazavi; R. Naderi; M. Moradi Gharakhloo

421

CV model of the MOS structures with a shallow p-n junction for the electro-physical parameters and profile of the doping determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

When threshold voltage of CMOS-cell is corrected by low-dose ion- implantation method a shallow p-n junction is formed near oxide- semiconductor interface with junction depth approximately equal to Debye length. Known methods of electro-physical parameters control by C-V characteristic cannot be applied for these MOS structures directly. So, for the task of the determination of electro-physical parameters and doping profile

Mikhail G. Kuznetsov; Alexander A. Kokin; Sergey A. Kokin

1995-01-01

422

Preservation of hermaphrodite and female papaya fruits (Carica papaya L?., Cv Sunrise, Solo group) by freezing: physical, physico-chemical and sensorial aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical, physico-chemical and sensorial changes that occur during the freezing and frozen storage of hermaphrodite and\\u000a female papaya slices (Carica papaya L., cv Sunrise, Solo group) were studied. Samples were evaluated by panellists throughout a 1-year period of storage at –24°C;\\u000a the panellists described the fruit in terms of physico-chemical measurements of texture (firnmess and total pectins content),\\u000a colour

M. Gloria Lobo; M. Pilar Cano

1998-01-01

423

An Efficient Transformation Method to Regenerate a High Number of Transgenic Plants Using a New Embryogenic Line of Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient regeneration–transformation method was established to obtain transgenic plants of the model legume Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong. This method takes advantage of a new highly embryogenic line (M9-10a) isolated in our laboratory. Leaflets of in vitro grown M9-10a plants were co-cultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Plasmid constructs containing the oat arginine decarboxylase gene, Adc and the GUS

Susana de Sousa Araújo; Ana Sofia Roldão Lopes Amaral Duque; Dulce Maria Metelo Fernandes dos Santos; Manuel Pedro Salema Fevereiro

2004-01-01

424

Highly efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of embryogenic cell suspensions of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA) via a liquid co-cultivation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high efficient protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Musa acuminata cv. Mas (AA), a major banana variety of the South East Asia region, was developed in this study. Male-flower-derived embryogenic\\u000a cell suspensions (ECS) were co-cultivated in liquid medium with Agrobacterium strain EHA105 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 carrying nptII and gusA gene in the T-DNA. Depending upon conditions and duration

Xia Huang; Xue-Lin Huang; Wang Xiao; Jie-Tang Zhao; Xue-Mei Dai; Yun-Feng Chen; Xiao-Ju Li

2007-01-01

425

Susceptibility of green leaves and green flower petals of CAM orchid Dendrobium cv. Burana Jade to high irradiance under natural tropical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic rates of green leaves (GL) and green flower petals (GFP) of the CAM plant Dendrobium cv. Burana Jade and their sensitivities to different growth irradiances were studied in shade-grown plants over a period\\u000a of 4 weeks. Maximal photosynthetic O2 evolution rates and CAM acidities [dawn\\/dusk fluctuations in titratable acidity] were higher in leaves exposed to intermediate\\u000a sunlight [a maximal

J. He; L. C. D. Teo

2007-01-01

426

iNOS Ablation Does Not Improve Specific Force of the Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle in Dystrophin-Deficient mdx4cv Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrosative stress compromises force generation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and delocalized neuronal NOS (nNOS) have been implicated. We recently demonstrated that genetic elimination of nNOS significantly enhanced specific muscle forces of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of dystrophin-null mdx4cv mice (Li D et al J. Path. 223:88–98, 2011). To determine the contribution

Dejia Li; Jin-Hong Shin; Dongsheng Duan; Carlo Gaetano

2011-01-01

427

Induction of systemic resistance in Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) against Cucumber mosaic virus by UV-B irradiation on calli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were done to evaluate the effect of UV-B irradiation on calli to induce resistance in the regenerated Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plantlets against Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-induced diseases. Plantlets regenerated from the UV-B (TL, TM, TH) treated calli are referred to as TL, TM and TH plantlets respectively, and they hold remarkably increased soluble phenolics, salicylic acid and

N. Sudhakar; K. Murugesan

2011-01-01

428

Isolation of disease-tolerant cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2) plants by screening somatic embryos with fungal culture filtrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an in vitro selection method that has led to isolation of Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot disease-tolerant plantlets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR2). Embryogenic callus was isolated from hypocotyl explants of cotton cultured on 5–50% Fusarium oxysporum culture filtrate-fortified callus induction medium. Somatic embryos tolerant to fungal culture filtrate (FCF) were isolated from this embryogenic

M. Ganesan; N. Jayabalan

2006-01-01

429

Alteration of mitochondrial genomes containing atpA genes in the sexual progeny of cybrids between Raphanus sativus cms line and Brassica napus cv. Westar  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the fate of the mitochondrial genomes of cybrids derived from “donor-recipient” protoplast fusion between X-irradiated Raphanus sativus (cms line) and iodoacetamide-treated Brassica napus cv. Westar. Two out of ten fusion products were male-sterile with the diploid chromosome number of B. napus. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the cybrids and their progeny were further analyzed by DNA-DNA hybridizaion

Takako Sakai; Jun Imamura

1992-01-01

430

Produce para-xylene economically  

SciTech Connect

During the last three years, some startling changes have occurred in the para-xylene market. Faced with a steady growth in demand and a shortfall in supply, the market saw spot and contract prices rise from $400/MT to historically high levels of $2,000 and $800/MT, respectively. This increase propelled the installation of a significant amount of new capacity in the form of grassroots units and expansions of existing facilities. In the first half of 1996, destocking downstream in the polyester chain began to soften the demand for para-xylene. This destocking, coupled with more aggressive positions being taken by buyers in anticipation of new capacity coming on-stream, caused para-xylene prices to fall almost as precipitously as they rose. Although the fundamental drivers for para-xylene demand remain strong, para-xylene producers are again in the position of having to compete for market share on the basis of product quality, low cost of production, and economics of scale. This situation is exacerbated by tight feedstock supply and the changing demand for some of the key byproducts of para-xylene production.

D`Auria, J.H.; Stoodt, T.J. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

1997-04-01

431

Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.

432

TOLERANCIA A SEQUÍA EN LÍNEAS RECOMBINANTES CON SUSTITUCIÓN DE CROMOSOMAS (RCSLs) OBTENIDAS DE LA CRUZA Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (CAESAREA 26-24) × Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare CV. HARRINGTON Drought tolerance in recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) derived from the cross Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (Caesarea 26-24) × Hordeum. vulgare subsp. vulgare cv. Harrington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Grain yield (RG) and drought tolerance of recombinant chromosome substitution lines (RCSLs) derived from the cross between Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell. and H. vulgare L. subsp. vulgare cv. Harrington, were studied in two contrasting environments, one with water stress (CEH) and other without water stress (SEH), during three

Luis Inostroza; Alejandro del Pozo; Iván Matus; Patrick Hayes

433

A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata.  

PubMed

Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14,500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S(+)R(+)), infected asymptomatic plants (S(-)R(+)), and healthy plants (S(-)R(-)). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S(+)R(+) plants compared with S(-)R(-) plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

2010-02-26

434

Gelation in protein extracts from cold acclimated and non-acclimated winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer).  

PubMed

A protein gel is a three-dimensional network consisting of molecular interactions between biopolymers that entrap a significant volume of a continuous liquid phase (water). Molecular interactions in gels occur at junction zones within and between protein molecules through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic associations (van der Waals attractions) and covalent bonding. Gels have the physicochemical properties of both solids and liquids, and are extremely important in the production and stability of a variety of foods, bioproducts and pharmaceuticals. In this study, gelation was induced in phenol extracted protein fractions from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) leaf tissue after repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Gel formation only occurred at high pH (pH 12.0) and a minimum of 3-4 freeze-thaw cycles were required. The gel was thermally stable and only a specific combination of chemical treatments could disrupt the gel network. SDS-PAGE analysis identified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as the major protein component in the gel, although Rubisco itself did not appear to be a factor in gelation. Raman spectroscopy suggested changes in protein secondary structure during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, the NA and CA gels were similar in composition and structure, with the exception that the CA gel appeared to be amyloidic in nature based on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Protein gelation, particularly in the apoplast, may confer protection against freeze-induced dehydration and potentially have a commercial application to improve frozen food quality. PMID:23348601

Lim, Ze Long; Low, Nicholas H; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R

2013-01-21

435

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor  

PubMed Central

Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600–700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and “enhanced disease susceptibility 1” in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley.

Hlavackova, Iva; Vitamvas, Pavel; Santrucek, Jiri; Kosova, Klara; Zelenkova, Sylva; Prasil, Ilja Tom; Ovesna, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kodicek, Milan

2013-01-01

436

Effects of nitrogen dioxide on growth and yield of black turtle bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. 'Domino'.  

PubMed

Twenty-six-day-old black turtle bean cv. 'Domino' plants were exposed to nitrogen dioxide (0.0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.10 microl liter(-1)), 7 h per day for 5 days per week for 3 weeks, under controlled environment. Data were collected on net photosynthesis rate (PN), stomatal resistance (SR), and dark respiration rate (DR), immediately after exposure, 24 h after the termination of exposure and at maturity (when the leaves had just started turning yellow), using a LICOR 6000 Portable Photosynthesis System. Chlorophyll-a (Ch-a), chlorophyll-b (Ch-b), total chlorophyll (tot-Ch) and leaf nitrogen were measured immediately after exposure and at maturity. Growth characteristics-relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and root: shoot ratio (RSR)-were computed for treated plants. Net photosynthesis rate increased by 53% in 0.10 microl liter(-1) NO2 treated plants immediately after exposure compared to control plants. Dark respiration rates were also higher in treated plants. Ch-a, Ch-b and tot-Ch showed significant increases with 0.1 microl liter(-1) NO2 treatment immediately after exposure. Foliar nitrogen content showed an increase in treated plants both immediately after exposure and at maturity. Increases were also seen in RGR and NAR. Plant yield increased by 86% (number of pods), 29% (number of seeds) and 46% (weight of seeds), respectively. Nitrogen dioxide stimulated the overall plant growth and crop yield. PMID:15092401

Sandhu, R; Gupta, G

1989-01-01

437

FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.

Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.

2012-04-01

438

Plasma membrane lipid alterations associated with cold acclimation of winter rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. cv Puma)  

SciTech Connect

Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted > 50 mole % of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole % of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole %, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole % and 4 to 1 mole %, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free {beta}-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole % (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing {beta}-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h) were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.

Lynch, D.V.; Steponkus, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1987-01-01

439

Calcium isotopic ratios and rare earth element abundances in refractory inclusions from the Allende CV3 chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refractory inclusions in primitive meteorites are the oldest objects formed in the Solar System. They exhibit large mass-dependent isotopic effects in many elements, including Si, Mg and Ca, indicative of their complex origin. We report data for both mass-dependent (?) and mass-independent (?) Ca isotopic effects, and rare earth element (REE) abundances in six refractory inclusions from the Allende CV3 meteorite. Our data reveal large mass-dependent Ca isotopic effects in these refractory inclusions, with ? 44/40Ca ranging from -5.60 to +0.35 (relative to NIST SRM 915a), which are significantly lower than that of the bulk silicate Earth (? 44/40Ca = 1.05 ± 0.04). Importantly, ? 44/40Ca is correlated with REE patterns: refractory inclusions with Group II REE patterns have lighter Ca isotope compositions compared to those with Group I REE patterns. Specifically, the studied refractory inclusions form negative 44Ca/ 40Ca-Tm/Er and 44Ca/ 40Ca-Nd/Er trends, implying segregation of up to 3% of an ultrarefractory evaporation residue from a chondritic reservoir prior to the formation of refractory inclusions. This residue would have to be characterized by high 44Ca/ 40Ca and low Tm/Er and Nd/Er. At 2 ? levels of ±0.5 and ±1.5 for ? 40/44Ca and ? 43/44Ca, respectively, the six refractory inclusions studied show no detectable 40Ca or 43Ca anomalies relative to the terrestrial standards. However, five out of the six refractory inclusions do show a 48Ca excess of several ?-units, clearly resolvable from the terrestrial standards.

Huang, Shichun; Farkaš, Juraj; Yu, Gang; Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

2012-01-01

440

Proteins Involved in Distinct Phases of Cold Hardening Process in Frost Resistant Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv Luxor.  

PubMed

Winter barley is an economically important cereal crop grown in higher latitudes and altitudes where low temperatures represent an important environmental constraint limiting crop productivity. In this study changes in proteome of leaves and crowns in a frost tolerant winter barley cv. Luxor in relation to short and long term periods of cold followed by a brief frost treatment were studied in order to disclose proteins responsible for the cold hardening process in distinct plant tissues. The mentioned changes have been monitored using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with subsequent peptide-mapping protein identification. Regarding approximately 600-700 distinct protein spots detected on 2D gels, there has been found at least a two-fold change after exposure to low temperatures in about 10% of proteins in leaves and 13% of proteins in crowns. Protein and nitrogen metabolic processes have been influenced by low temperature to a similar extent in both tissues while catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and proteins involved in stress response have been more affected in crowns than in leaves. The range of changes in protein abundance was generally higher in leaves and chloroplast proteins were frequently affected which suggests a priority to protect photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, our data proved existence of slightly different response strategies to low temperature stress in crowns and leaves, i.e., tissues with different biological role. Moreover, there have been found several proteins with large increase in accumulation, e.g., 33 kDa oxygen evolving protein of photosystem II in leaves and "enhanced disease susceptibility 1" in crowns; these proteins might have potential to indicate an enhanced level of frost tolerance in barley. PMID:23584021

Hlavá?ková, Iva; Vítámvás, Pavel; Santr??ek, Ji?í; Kosová, Klára; Zelenková, Sylva; Prášil, Ilja Tom; Ovesná, Jaroslava; Hynek, Radovan; Kodí?ek, Milan

2013-04-12

441

Isochoric p–?–T and Heat Capacity Cv Measurements for Ternary Refrigerant Mixtures Containing Difluoromethane (R32), Pentafluoroethane (R125), and 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) from 200 to 400 K at Pressures to 35 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The p–?–T relationships and constant volume heat capacity Cv were measured for ternary refrigerant mixtures by isochoric methods with gravimetric determinations of the amount of substance. Temperatures ranged from 200 to 400 K for p–?–T and from 203 to 345 K for Cv, while for both data types pressures extended to 35 MPa. Measurements of p–?–T were carried out on

J. W. Magee

2000-01-01

442

Diane Cappelletty CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone against Staphylococcus aureus and ?-lactamase producing strains of Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

443

Marder-Ellen CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1966 University of New Mexico School of Medicine Albuquerque, New Mexico 1975-1979 MD University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

444

Amanda Corbett CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual ... therapy management of depression in human ... 2005 - present American College of Clinical ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

445

William D. Bugbee CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Methods for Fresh Human Osteochondral Allografts Used for Cartilage Repair Procedures. ... TNF-A on MMP-2 and –9 Activities in ACL/MCL Under ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

446

Farber Neil CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Page 7. Weiner JL, Boyer EG, Farber NJ. The practice of medicine: trouble in the global village. Presented ... 1999. Farber NJ, Urban SY. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

447

Stephanie Christner CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... January 2005 Consumer Advocacy I am the founder of an allergy free, non-GMO, preservative free food business. I personally ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

448

Demetre Daskalakis CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Health and Hospitals Corporation New York City ... Vincent's Hospital New York City ... of HIV Testing at NYC Commercial Sex Venues Catering to MSM ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

449

Keith Gordon CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Ultrasound Imaging of reproductive tract in cynomolgus ... nuclear antigen) can monitor sex steroid-modulated ... the monkey model: effect of coculture ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

450

Greenberger - Paul CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 27. Katzenstein AL, Sale SR, Greenberger PA. ... Aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis - State of the Art: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus ... 252. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

451

Daniel Raymond CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Managed a Needle Exchange and HIV prevention and education program reaching injection drug users, street youth, and homeless persons. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

452

Peter Kaboli CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... The Joint Commissions Journal of Quality and Patient ... at the SGIM Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, 2008 ... contributions – in a few sentences): Federal ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

453

Parker-Ruth CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... J, Parker R, Arnold R, Bosk C, Sparr L. Medical ethics, cultural values, and capital punishment by lethal injection. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

454

Thomas P. Giordano CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... u. Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning and Implementation for Metropolitan Statistical Areas Most Affected by HIV/AIDS i. Source ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

455

Druce Howard CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Rutledge JL, Druce HM, Salzmann JK, McNutt B. A specific H1-antagonist, terfenadine, inhibits symptoms of nasal histamine provocation challenge ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

456

Neil-Richard CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1996-1997 Master Teacher Award, University of ... Neill, RA, Matheny, SC : "Teaching Conferences in ... Avenues for Innovation" Academic Medicine 71 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

457

Curt Hagedorn CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1996 IRBM Workshop on Molecular Mechanisms of RNA Replication ... and fibrogenesis" 2002 XXV International Congress of the World Federation of ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

458

Peter Terry CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1977 - 1981 Director, Sarcoidosis Clinic, The Johns Hopkins Hospital ... The longitudinal study of chronic sarcoidosis. Trans Am. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

459

Sancy Leachman CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Melanoma, CML and Breast Cancer, Cancun, Mexico ... Melanoma,” Utah Cancer Registry, LDS ... Cons of Melanoma Genetic Testing,” Myriad Genetics ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

460

Robin Isaacs CV  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Tortell S, Cutrell A, Thorbon D, Isaacs R, Hetherington S, Steel H, Spreen ... DuPont HL, Harris ED, Hazzard WR, Holmes ED, Hudson, LD, Humes HD ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials