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1

Africana Folklore: History and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

When I agreed to edit this special issue of JAF dedicated to Africana folklore, I did so with a commitment to certain ideals: primarily, that no other body of material has had more impact on the development of cultures in the western hemisphere than Africana folk traditions and, consequently, that this should lead to a highly developed field of study

Sw. Anand Prahlad

2005-01-01

2

Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana).  

PubMed

Social learning is a more efficient method of information acquisition and application than trial and error learning and is prevalent across a variety of animal taxa. Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific's interactions facilitated learning of a novel task. The tasks used feeding apparatus that could be solved in one of two distinct ways. Contrary to our hypothesis, the method the demonstrating animal used did not predict the method used by the observer. However, we did find evidence of social learning: After watching the model, subjects spent a greater percentage of their time interacting with the apparatus than they did in unmodeled trials. These results suggest that the demonstrations of a model may increase the motivation of elephants to explore novel foraging tasks. PMID:23238635

Greco, Brian J; Brown, Tracey K; Andrews, Jeff R M; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Caine, Nancy G

2013-05-01

3

Characterization of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the African Savannah Elephant (Loxodonta africana africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) populations are isolated and thus threatened by a loss of genetic diversity. As a consequence, genetic analysis of African ele- phant populations will play an increasing role in their conservation, and microsatellite loci will be an important tool in these analyses. Previously published sets of polymorphic micro- satellites developed for African elephants are all

E. A. Archie; C. J. Moss; S. C. Alberts

2003-01-01

4

Africana.com: The Digital Bridge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Africana.com was founded in 1999 to present "information and commentary reflecting the diverse concerns of people of African descent." Designed by Harvard Square Netcasting, with Harvard University professors Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah on the its Board of Directors, Africana.com provides a broad spectrum of information from scholarship to lifestyle articles and headline news. Several features boost the interactivity of the site: a free email service for registrants, a quiz (AfriQuest), and Radio Africana, listings of radio stations worldwide webcasting Black music. There are also links to related Web resources, a media center (primarily books and CDs for purchase), and the Adopt-A-School philanthropy program.

1999-01-01

5

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. — An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our world harbours a rich source of medicinal plants which are used in treatment of wide range of diseases. The present review highlights the traditional uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. syn. K. pinnata (Jacq.) DC. This plant has great potential to be developed as drug by pharmaceutical industries but before recommending its use in

Sangita Saini; Harmeet Kaur; Bharat Verma; S K Singh

2009-01-01

6

The Portrayal of Africana Males in Achebe, Marshall, Morrison, and Wideman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Hudson-Weems' book, "Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves," which highlights 18 qualities of Africana women and briefly addresses 18 characteristics of Africana males. This article takes these 18 characteristics for men and applies them to male characters from four novels, which together chronicle the decline of the Africana people and…

Beckmann, Felicia

2002-01-01

7

Antibacterial activities and cytotoxicity of terpenoids isolated from Spirostachys africana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirostachys africana Sond. stem bark is used traditionally for the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanolic extract from bark of Spirostachys africana led to the isolation of four known compounds, two triterpenoids, compound 1 [d-Friedoolean-14-en-oic acid (3-acetyl aleuritolic acid)] and compound 2 (Lupeol), and two diterpenes, compound 3 [ent-2,6?-dihydroxy-norbeyer-1,4,15-trien-3-one (diosphenol 2)

Matlakala Christina Mathabe; Ahmed A. Hussein; Roumiana V. Nikolova; Adriaan E. Basson; J. J. Marion Meyer; Namrita Lall

2008-01-01

8

Transfer of resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) from Nicotiana africana to Nicotiana tabacum: possible influence of tissue culture on the rate of introgression.  

PubMed

A disomic chromosome addition line of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L., was established previously that possesses a single chromosome pair from N. africana [Merxm. and Buttler]. This addition chromosome carries a gene that confers increased resistance to severe strains of potato virus Y (PVY). Methods to increase the probability of gene transfer from alien chromosomes to tobacco (2n=48) are desired. In the research described here, the PVY resistance gene was transferred to a tobacco chromosome from the N. africana addition chromosome in seven independent cases. One introgression event was obtained using conventional backcrossing of the disomic addition line to N. tabacum cv. Petite Havana, while the remaining six events were obtained using a scheme that involved exposure of explants of the addition line to tissue culture. Twenty-six derived 2n=48 individuals heterozygous for PVY resistance were found to exhibit 24 bivalents or 23 bivalents + 2 univalents at metaphase I. Ovular transmission rates for the PVY resistance factor ranged from 25% to 52%, while pollen transmission rates were much lower, ranging from 0 to 39%. Fifty-one random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers specific for the intact addition chromosome were identified and used to characterize derived 2n=48/PVY-resistant genotypes. Variability was observed among these plants with respect to the total number of N. africana RAPD markers that were present, which is an indication that crossing over was occurring within each of the seven introgressed chromosome segments. A limited molecular marker-assisted backcrossing experiment allowed for selection of a 2n=48/PVY-resistant individual that possessed only 6 of the 51 original N. africana RAPD markers. In vitro culture is potentially a valuable system for increasing the rate of alien gene transfer in tobacco, and the successful transfer of PVY resistance from N. africana may allow for an increased level and range of resistance to this virus in tobacco. PMID:15723274

Lewis, R S

2005-02-01

9

Antidiarrheal Activity of Kigelia africana in Experimental Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana was screened for antidiarrheal activity using experimental animal models. Evidence for antidiarrheal activity was provided by the reduced fecal output and protection from castor oil-induced diarrhea in the extract-treated animals. The extract remarkably decreased the propulsive movement of the gastrointestinal contents. On the isolated guineapig ileum, the extract did not appreciably affect acetylcholine and

Peter A. Akah

1996-01-01

10

CV Surgery Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford University's HighWire Press has announced the online publication of several journals. CV Surgery Online offers "a fully searchable online compilation of articles pertinent to the cardiothoracic and vascular surgeon from the 5 American Heart Association Journals: Circulation, Circulation Research, Hypertension, Stroke, and Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Surgery." Published by the American Heart Association in conjunction with HighWire Press, the free trial period for CV Surgery Online ended December 31, 2000.

1999-01-01

11

Germination and storage characteristics of Prunus africana seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prunus africana, from the moist highlands of sub-Saharan Africa, is subject to great exploitation because its bark is used in the treatment of prostate-related diseases. A better understanding of the biology of its seed could help the ex situ and in situ conservation of the species. Fifty per cent of fresh seeds (46.8% MC) from mature purple fruits harvested in

M. Sacandé; H. W. Pritchard; A. E. Dudley

2004-01-01

12

Prevalence of Candida albicans-closely related yeasts, Candida africana and Candida dubliniensis, in vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

PubMed

Isolates of Candida africana and C. dubliniensis were recovered from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The isolates were initially identified as C. albicans through use of the API Candida System. We retrospectively reexamined 1014 vaginal isolates presumptively determined to be C. albicans at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012. Our objective was to determine, via detection of the HWP1 gene, if any of the isolates were C. africana or C. dubliniensis. One and a half percent of these isolates (15/1014) were found to be C. africana, whereas C. dubliniensis was not detected. The 15 C. africana isolates were susceptible to nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. Candida africana could not be recovered from clinical vaginal specimens from the 15 patients at follow-up on days 7-14 and days 30-35 when treated with different antifungal agents. We conclude that C. africana, but not C. dubliniensis, was present in the vaginal samples of patients with VVC. The C. africana isolates were susceptible to the tested antifungal agents. VVC caused by C. africana appears to respond well to current therapies. PMID:25023482

Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Jianling

2014-08-01

13

Structure and function of a mating-type gene from the homothallic species Neurospora africana.  

PubMed

The homothallic Neurospora species, N. africana, contains sequences that hybridize to the A but not to a mating-type sequences of the heterothallic species N. crassa. In this study, the N. africana mating-type gene, mt A-1, was cloned, sequenced and its function analyzed in N. crassa. Although N. africana does not mate in a heterothallic manner, its mt A-1 gene functions as a mating activator in N. crassa. In addition, the N. africana mt A-1 gene confers mating type-associated vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa. DNA sequence analysis shows that the N. africana mt A-1 open reading frame (ORF) is 93% identical to that of N. crassa mt A-1. The mt A-1 ORF of N. africana contains no stop codons and was detected as a cDNA which is processed in a similar manner to mt A-1 of N. crassa. By DNA blot and orthogonal field agarose gel electrophoretic analysis, it is shown that the composition and location of the mating-type locus and the organization of the mating-type chromosome of N. africana are similar to that of N. crassa. PMID:8078466

Glass, N L; Smith, M L

1994-08-15

14

CV 100--Still Going Strong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes results of a study that used CV 100, a fuel additive for use in oil-fired heating systems, on a trial basis in 12 Ontario schools. The test showed an average 12 percent reduction in fuel costs in the schools using CV 100. (JG)

Abrahams, A. L.

1976-01-01

15

Gut microflora of two saltmarsh detritivore thalassinid prawns, Upogebia africana and Callianassa kraussi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and digestive capabilities of bacteria associated with the digestive systems and habitats of two saltmarsh-burrowing\\u000a detritivore thalassinid prawns (Upogebia africana andCallianassa kraussi) was examined.U. africana is a filter-feeding prawn inhabiting muddy deposits, whereasC. kraussi, a deposit feeder, inhabits coarser more sandy deposits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the gut lining\\u000a and associated microflora and the nature

Jean M. Harris; Lindsay J. Seiderer; Michael I. Lucas

1991-01-01

16

Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana : influence of amino-acid supplementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing\\u000a the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared

Juan Octavio Valle-Rodríguez; Guillermo Hernández-Cortés; Jesús Córdova; Mirna Estarrón-Espinosa; Dulce María Díaz-Montaño

17

Epidemiology, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Pathogenicity of Candida africana Isolates from the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Candida africana was previously proposed as a new species within the Candida albicans species complex, together with C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, although further phylogenetic analyses better support its status as an unusual variant within C. albicans. Here we show that C. africana can be distinguished from C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by pyrosequencing of a short region of ITS2, and we have evaluated its occurrence in clinical samples by pyrosequencing all presumptive isolates of C. albicans submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 9-month period. The C. albicans complex constituted 826/1,839 (44.9%) of yeast isolates received over the study period and included 783 isolates of C. albicans, 28 isolates of C. dubliniensis, and 15 isolates of C. africana. In agreement with previous reports, C. africana was isolated exclusively from genital specimens, in women in the 18-to-35-year age group. Indeed, C. africana constituted 15/251 (6%) of “C. albicans” isolates from female genital specimens during the study period. C. africana isolates were germ tube positive, grew significantly more slowly than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on conventional mycological media, could be distinguished from the other members of the C. albicans complex by appearance on chromogenic agar, and were incapable of forming chlamydospores. Here we present the detailed evaluation of epidemiological, phenotypic, and clinical features and antifungal susceptibility profiles of United Kingdom isolates of C. africana. Furthermore, we demonstrate that C. africana is significantly less pathogenic than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis in the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model.

Szekely, Adrien; Linton, Chistopher J.; Palmer, Michael D.; Brown, Phillipa; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

18

PERA (CV) Project Risk Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the application of TRANSIM IV, a probabilistic network analysis technique, to planning, scheduling and allocation of PERA (Planning and Engineering for Repair and Alterations) (CV) resources in connection with aircraft carrier overha...

A. M. Feiler G. Jurges

1974-01-01

19

Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.  

PubMed

This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant. PMID:23297689

Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

2013-01-01

20

Central nervous system stimulant effect of the ethanolic extract of Kigelia africana  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNS stimulant effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Kigelia africana was studied in mice using the barbiturate induced sleeping time and the Rota rod bar to check the extract's effect on muscle coordination. The results showed that the extract at all doses tested reduced the duration of sleeping time when compared to the control group that received distilled

Owolabi O. j; F. C Amaechina; A. B Eledan

21

DEVELOPMENT OF VASCULAR CAMBIUM IN THE LEAF RACHIS OF KIGELIA AFRICANA (LAM.) BENTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural changes during the vascular cambium development from procambium in the leaf rachis of Kigelia africana bearing leaflets of different developmental stages (young, mature and old rachis) were investigated. The different regions from the internodes of rachis bearing young, copper brown coloured leaves revealed the sequential stages of cambial development. Terminal region of the rachis showed developing procambium along

Vinay R. Patel; Rekha B. Rohit; Pramod Sivan; Sushil S. Kajal; K. S. Rao; B. R. Doshi

2010-01-01

22

Phytochemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Prosopis africana Against Some Selected Oral Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out on phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanol extract of root and stem of Prosopis africana against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Saponins, tannins and alkaloids were highly concentrated in the stem and root, with the former containing a significantly higher (P<0.05) quantity of these phytochemicals. Phenols and steroids

A. L. Kolapo; M. B. Okunade; M. O. Ogundiya

23

Male African elephants (Loxodonta africana) queue when the stakes are high  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear dominance hierarchies are thought to form within groups of social animals to minimize conflict over access to resources. Dominance in both male and female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is based mostly on intrinsic factors relating to age, and dominance hierarchies have been described within and between family groups of females. Very little is reported about male elephant social structure

C. E. OConnell-Rodwell; J. D. Wood; C. Kinzley; T. C. Rodwell; C. Alarcon; S. K. Wasser; R. Sapolsky

2011-01-01

24

A review of the status of forest elephants Loxodonta africana in Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of elephants Loxodonta africana in the central African forests in 1989 is reviewed. These elephants accounted for about one-third of the continental total. However, there are few data on numbers, for only one of the six countries in the region has been censused. The estimates for the other countries came from a limited set of dung-counts or a

R. F. W. Barnes; A. Blom; M. P. T. Alers

1995-01-01

25

COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION AND CONSERVATION OF PRUNUS AFRICANA IN CAMEROON'S AFROMONTANE FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prunus africana, a multipurpose and highly medicinal afromontane tree has been exploited for its bark for over two decades now in afromontane Cameroon by commercial exploiters under licences from government. This has resulted in over-exploitation and the death of most of the trees in the Kilum forest. Over a period of about 11 years (1982–1992) only one company had exploited

Labode Popoola; G. W. Tangwa; M. O. Adedire

2002-01-01

26

Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial profile of Treculia africana Decne bark extract on gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treculia africana Decne (Fam. Moraceae) is a highly valued economic plant, as well as an important medicinal plant widely used in the traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments of both microbial and non-microbial origins. It was, therefore, investigated for activity in vitro on pathogenic bacterial isolates of gastrointestinal tract. Fresh plant materials were collected from the Forestry

S. O. Ogbonnia; N. V. Enwuru; E. U. Onyemenem; G. A. Oyedele; C. A. Enwuru

27

The Only African Wild Tobacco, Nicotiana africana: Alkaloid Content and the Effect of Herbivory  

PubMed Central

Herbivory in some Nicotiana species is known to induce alkaloid production. This study examined herbivore-induced defenses in the nornicotine-rich African tobacco N. africana, the only Nicotiana species indigenous to Africa. We tested the predictions that: 1) N. africana will have high constitutive levels of leaf, flower and nectar alkaloids; 2) leaf herbivory by the African bollworm Helicoverpa armigera will induce increased alkaloid levels in leaves, flowers and nectar; and 3) increased alkaloid concentrations in herbivore-damaged plants will negatively affect larval growth. We grew N. africana in large pots in a greenhouse and exposed flowering plants to densities of one, three and six fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera, for four days. Leaves, flowers and nectar were analyzed for nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine. The principal leaf alkaloid was nornicotine (mean: 28 µg/g dry mass) followed by anabasine (4.9 µg/g) and nicotine (0.6 µg/g). Nornicotine was found in low quantities in the flowers, but no nicotine or anabasine were recorded. The nectar contained none of the alkaloids measured. Larval growth was reduced when leaves of flowering plants were exposed to six larvae. As predicted by the optimal defense theory, herbivory had a localized effect and caused an increase in nornicotine concentrations in both undamaged top leaves of herbivore damaged plants and herbivore damaged leaves exposed to one and three larvae. The nicotine concentration increased in damaged compared to undamaged middle leaves. The nornicotine concentration was lower in damaged leaves of plants exposed to six compared to three larvae, suggesting that N. africana rather invests in new growth as opposed to protecting older leaves under severe attack. The results indicate that the nornicotine-rich N. africana will be unattractive to herbivores and more so when damaged, but that potential pollinators will be unaffected because the nectar remains alkaloid-free even after herbivory.

Marlin, Danica; Nicolson, Susan W.; Yusuf, Abdullahi A.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Heyman, Heino M.; Kruger, Kerstin

2014-01-01

28

The Only African Wild Tobacco, Nicotiana africana: Alkaloid Content and the Effect of Herbivory.  

PubMed

Herbivory in some Nicotiana species is known to induce alkaloid production. This study examined herbivore-induced defenses in the nornicotine-rich African tobacco N. africana, the only Nicotiana species indigenous to Africa. We tested the predictions that: 1) N. africana will have high constitutive levels of leaf, flower and nectar alkaloids; 2) leaf herbivory by the African bollworm Helicoverpa armigera will induce increased alkaloid levels in leaves, flowers and nectar; and 3) increased alkaloid concentrations in herbivore-damaged plants will negatively affect larval growth. We grew N. africana in large pots in a greenhouse and exposed flowering plants to densities of one, three and six fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera, for four days. Leaves, flowers and nectar were analyzed for nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine. The principal leaf alkaloid was nornicotine (mean: 28 µg/g dry mass) followed by anabasine (4.9 µg/g) and nicotine (0.6 µg/g). Nornicotine was found in low quantities in the flowers, but no nicotine or anabasine were recorded. The nectar contained none of the alkaloids measured. Larval growth was reduced when leaves of flowering plants were exposed to six larvae. As predicted by the optimal defense theory, herbivory had a localized effect and caused an increase in nornicotine concentrations in both undamaged top leaves of herbivore damaged plants and herbivore damaged leaves exposed to one and three larvae. The nicotine concentration increased in damaged compared to undamaged middle leaves. The nornicotine concentration was lower in damaged leaves of plants exposed to six compared to three larvae, suggesting that N. africana rather invests in new growth as opposed to protecting older leaves under severe attack. The results indicate that the nornicotine-rich N. africana will be unattractive to herbivores and more so when damaged, but that potential pollinators will be unaffected because the nectar remains alkaloid-free even after herbivory. PMID:25025217

Marlin, Danica; Nicolson, Susan W; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Stevenson, Philip C; Heyman, Heino M; Krüger, Kerstin

2014-01-01

29

Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.  

PubMed

Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5-7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25-7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5-7.5?mg/mL and 2.5-10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7? ? g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1? ? g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

2013-01-01

30

Human disturbance reduces genetic diversity of an endangered tropical tree, Prunus africana (Rosaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities such as fragmentation and selective logging of forests can threaten population viability by modification\\u000a of ecological and genetic processes. Using six microsatellite markers, we examined the effects of forest fragmentation and\\u000a local disturbance on the genetic diversity and structure of adult trees (N = 110) and seedlings (N = 110) of Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, western Kenya. Taking samples of adults

Nina Farwig; Carsten Braun; Katrin Böhning-Gaese

2008-01-01

31

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of inflorescence of Ormenis Africana in vitro and in cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The antioxidant potency of the hydroethanolic extract of Ormenis Africana (HEOA), Asteraceae was evaluated with regards to total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanins content. Antioxidant activity\\u000a has been assessed chemically and biologically. First, the free radical scavenging ability of HEOA was evaluated using two\\u000a commonly in vitro tests: ABTS and DPPH radicals. Then, the protection effect of this extract against oxidative

Riadh Ben Mansour; Bochra Gargouri; Mohamed Bouaziz; Nésrine Elloumi; Imtinène Belhadj Jilani; Zaineb Ghrabi; Saloua Lassoued

2011-01-01

32

Cytokinin and explant types influence in vitro plant regeneration of Leopard Orchid ( Ansellia africana Lindl.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of explant and cytokinin types on in vitro plant regeneration of Ansellia africana were investigated. The exogenous addition of cytokinins is not required for the proliferation of new protocorms from Trimmed\\u000a protocorm cluster (TPC) explants. To the contrary, nodal and shoot-tip explants produced a single shoot in response to the\\u000a addition of cytokinins. Overall plant growth in terms

Rajeswari Vasudevan; Johannes Van Staden

33

Microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpiye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Okpiye is a food condiment prepared by the fermentation ofProsopis africana seeds. The traditional process for the production and microbiological characteristics of the condiment were investigated. During laboratory fermentation that lasted 96h, the mesquite seeds underwent a natural fermentation that was characterised by the growth of microorganisms to 106–108 cfu\\/g. Several species of bacteria especiallyB. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium,

O. K. Achi

1992-01-01

34

[Chemical and DNA analyses for the products of a psychoactive plant, Voacanga africana].  

PubMed

Voacanga africana (Apocynaceae) is a small tropical African tree. The root bark and seeds of this tree contain a number of alkaloids, including ibogaine (a hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac compound in bark), tabersonine (a major constituteent of seeds) and other voacanga alkaloids, traditionally used in Africa for religious purposes. Recently, some kinds of products containing this plant (root bark and seeds) have been distributed in the drug market in expectation of its hallucinogenic/aphrodisiac effects. There has been no report that has discussed quantitative analyses of these alkaloids in the products and their botanical origins. In this study, to investigate the trend of such a non-controlled psychotropic plant of abuse, a simultaneous analytical method was developed using LC/MS for the voacanga alkaloids including ibogaine and tabersonine in the commercial products of V. africana. Moreover, the botanical origins of these products were investigated by DNA analyses. As a result of the LC/MS analyses, the products were classified into two chemical types; an ibogaine-type and a tabersonine-type. The samples of the ibogaine-type contain ibogaine (0.05-0.6%) and other voacanga alkaloids; voacamine, voacamidine and voacangine, while those of the tabersonine-type mainly contain tabersonine (0.6-1.6%). The sequence analyses of chloroplast DNA, trnL-F region suggested that most of the products were derived from V. africana or closely related plants. They were classified into four genotypes based on nucleotide sequence of the trnL-F IGS region. The proposed methods of chemical and DNA analyses would be useful for investigating the trend in the distribution of the products of V. africana. PMID:19652504

Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Maruyama, Takuro; Miyashita, Akinori; Goda, Yukihiro

2009-08-01

35

Interactions of Antibiotics and Methanolic Crude Extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) Against Drug Resistance Bacterial Isolates  

PubMed Central

Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 ?g/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds.

Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony

2011-01-01

36

An African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in a savannah ecosystem within Kruger National Park, South Africa.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

African elephants (Loxodonta Africana) have an important impact on that ecosystem type, influencing its structure, function, and composition. In Kruger National Park, South Africa, park scientists, academics, and managers work synergistically within a strategic adaptive management framework to understand and manage elephant populations as an integral component of ecosystem structure, function, and composition. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:1) in January of 2004.

Rogers, Kevin

2010-02-12

37

Paratrichodina africana (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) of wild and cultured Nile tilapia in the Northern Brazil.  

PubMed

The present work morphologically characterizes Paratrichodina africana from the gills of wild and farmed Nile tilapia from Northern Brazil (eastern Amazonia). Ninety fish were captured for parasitological analysis in Macapá, State of Amapá, from a wetland area bathed by the Amazon River commonly called 'Ressaca do Zerão' (n = 52), as well as from a local fish farm (n = 38). Wet smears of the skin and gills of the captured fish were air dried at room temperature and impregnated with silver nitrate by Klein's method for posterior examination of the adhesive disc structures. Total prevalence of parasitism was 16.6% (23% in fish from wetland and 7.8% in farmed fish). Characterized as a small-sized trichodinid, it presented the following measures: 33.2 ± 4.7 µm body diameter, 17.5 ± 2.1 µm adhesive disc, 10.0 ± 0.9 µm denticulate ring, and 22.6 ± 2.0 denticles. Paratrichodina africana reported in this study strongly resembles those described for other localities, but it differs by presenting greater body length. This is the fourth report of P. africana parasitizing a host fish. PMID:23802238

Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Marchiori, Natália da Costa; Martins, Maurício Laterça

2013-01-01

38

Genetic identification of five strongyle nematode parasites in wild african elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) are an ecologically and economically important species in many African habitats. However, despite the importance of elephants, research on their parasites is limited, especially in wild populations. Currently, we lack genetic tools to identify elephant parasites. We present genetic markers from ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to identify five elephant-specific nematode parasites in the family Strongylidae: Murshidia linstowi, Murshidia longicaudata, Murshidia africana, Quilonia africana, and Khalilia sameera. We collected adult nematodes from feces deposited by wild elephants living in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Using both morphologic and genetic techniques, we found that the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rDNA provides a reliable marker to distinguish these species of strongyles. We found no evidence for cryptic genetic species within these morphologic species according to the cox-1 region of mtDNA. Levels of genetic diversity in strongyles from elephants were consistent with the genetic diversity seen within other strongyle species. We anticipate that these results will be a useful tool for identifying gastrointestinal nematode parasites in elephants. PMID:22740536

McLean, E R; Kinsella, J M; Chiyo, P; Obanda, V; Moss, C; Archie, E A

2012-07-01

39

Paratrichodina africana (Ciliophora): a pathogenic gill parasite in farmed Nile tilapia.  

PubMed

Trichodinids are ciliated protozoa that are widely known as one of the main groups of fish parasites. The genus Trichodina presents the greatest species diversity. However, records of Paratrichodina species are scarce, and little is known about their pathogenicity in hosts. The present study provides new records of Paratrichodina africana Kazubski and El-Tantawy (1986) in Nile tilapia from South America and descriptions of pathological changes and seasonality. A total of 304 farmed fish were examined. From gill scraping, parasites were identified using Klein's nitrate impregnation method. Gill samples were fixed for histopathological analysis. Small trichodinid found in this study have a prominent blade apophysis and narrow central part and blade shape that corresponds to the characteristics of P. africana Kazubski and El-Tantawy (1986). Gill lesions were proportional to parasite intensity, in which the gill tissue was compromised in heavy infestation. Proliferative disturbances were found, including epithelial hyperplasia, desquamation, and mononuclear and eosinophilic infiltrate that culminated in necrosis. We did not observe a seasonality effect on the occurrence of P. africana. This ciliated protozoan causes compromised respiratory capacity that leads to severe gill lesions and currently is an important pathogen that afflicts intensive tilapia cultures in Brazil. PMID:23731856

Valladão, G M R; Pádua, S B; Gallani, S U; Menezes-Filho, R N; Dias-Neto, J; Martins, M L; Ishikawa, M M; Pilarski, F

2013-11-01

40

An Indigenous Plant Food Used by Lactating Mothers in West Africa: The Nutrient Composition of the Leaves of Kigelia Africana in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the leaves of Kigelia africana are used to make a palm-nut soup which is consumed mainly by lactating women in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the nutrient qualities of this underutilized and underappreciated plant food. Leaves of Kigelia africana, called “sausage tree” in English and “nufuten” in the Twi language of Ghana, were collected in

R. S. Glew; B. Amoako-Atta; G. Ankar-Brewoo; J. M. Presley; Y.-C. Chang; L.-T. Chuang; M. Millson; B. R. Smith; R. H. Glew

2010-01-01

41

Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. and their mixture on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plants Treculia africana and Bryophyllum pinnatum are ethnobotanically used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes and heart diseases. Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycaemia, and hyperlipidaemia which leads to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The effects of aqueous ethanol (80%) extracts of T. africana leaves and B. pinnatum plants and their

42

Stop place coding: an acoustic study of CV, VC#, and C#V sequences.  

PubMed

This study investigated stop + vowel coarticulation as a coding mechanism for differentiation of stop place categories in an F2-defined stimulus space. Locus equations (LEs) were used to index the extent of coarticulation in three contexts: (1) onset stop + vowel utterances [.CV]; (2) within-syllable vowel + coda stop utterances [VC#], and (3) across-syllable/word coda stop + vowel utterances [C#V]. Five speakers of American English and 2 speakers of Persian produced [CV1.CV2] (English and Persian), [tV1C#V2t] (English) and [dV1C#V2t] (Persian) tokens with voiced labial, alveolar/dental, and velar stops surrounded by a variety of vowels. In the across-syllable/word boundary condition [C#V2] the extent of anticipatory coarticulation was much reduced relative to traditionally measured onset [CV2] syllables. LE slopes derived across the syllable/word boundary, however, still differed between stop places in the same order as onset CVs. LE slopes derived from within-syllable [V1C#] sequences, however, did not differ between stop places. PMID:15258455

Modarresi, Golnaz; Sussman, Harvey; Lindblom, Bjorn; Burlingame, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

43

Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.  

PubMed

Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. PMID:23544118

Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

2013-01-01

44

Kinetic study of the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity during germination of Vigna radiata cv. emmerald, Glycine max cv. jutro and Glycine max cv. merit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity and the content of antioxidant compounds in raw mung bean seeds and sprouts (Vigna radiata cv. emmerald) germinated for 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 days and of soybean seeds of Glycine max cv. jutro germinated for 2, 3 and 4 days and of Glycine max cv. merit germinated

Rebeca Fernandez-Orozco; Juana Frias; Henryk Zielinski; Mariusz K. Piskula; Halina Kozlowska; Concepción Vidal-Valverde

2008-01-01

45

Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light

M. M. Montgomery

2009-01-01

46

African elephants (Loxodonta africana) recognize visual attention from face and body orientation.  

PubMed

How do animals determine when others are able and disposed to receive their communicative signals? In particular, it is futile to make a silent gesture when the intended audience cannot see it. Some non-human primates use the head and body orientation of their audience to infer visual attentiveness when signalling, but whether species relying less on visual information use such cues when producing visual signals is unknown. Here, we test whether African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are sensitive to the visual perspective of a human experimenter. We examined whether the frequency of gestures of head and trunk, produced to request food, was influenced by indications of an experimenter's visual attention. Elephants signalled significantly more towards the experimenter when her face was oriented towards them, except when her body faced away from them. These results suggest that elephants understand the importance of visual attention for effective communication. PMID:25013015

Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W

2014-07-01

47

Strangulating intestinal obstructions in four captive elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Three captive-born (5-day-old, 8-day-old, and 4-yr-old) Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and one captive-born 22-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) from three private elephant facilities and one zoo in the United States presented with depression, anorexia, and tachycardia as well as gastrointestinal signs of disease including abdominal distention, decreased borborygmi, tenesmus, hematochezia, or diarrhea. All elephants showed some evidence of discomfort including agitation, vocalization, or postural changes. One animal had abnormal rectal findings. Nonmotile bowel loops were seen on transabdominal ultrasound in another case. Duration of signs ranged from 6 to 36 hr. All elephants received analgesics and were given oral or rectal fluids. Other treatments included warm-water enemas or walking. One elephant underwent exploratory celiotomy. Three animals died, and the elephant taken to surgery was euthanized prior to anesthetic recovery. At necropsy, all animals had severe, strangulating intestinal lesions. PMID:22448519

Wiedner, Ellen B; Peddie, James; Peddie, Linda Reeve; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Doyle, Charles; Lindsay, William A; Isaza, Ramiro; Terrell, Scott; Lynch, Tim M; Johnson, Kari; Johnson, Gary; Sammut, Charlie; Daft, Barbara; Uzal, Francisco

2012-03-01

48

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of inflorescence of Ormenis Africana in vitro and in cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Background The antioxidant potency of the hydroethanolic extract of Ormenis Africana (HEOA), Asteraceae was evaluated with regards to total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanins content. Antioxidant activity has been assessed chemically and biologically. First, the free radical scavenging ability of HEOA was evaluated using two commonly in vitro tests: ABTS and DPPH radicals. Then, the protection effect of this extract against oxidative stress was conducted in HeLa cells treated with Fe2+ or H2O2. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the lipid peroxidation levels (TBARs and DC) and the antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase and Superoxide dismutase). Cytotoxic effect of HEOA was prealably determined against HeLa cell line by MTT assay. Results HEOA contain considerable levels of antioxidant compound as evidenced by high amount of polyphenols (312.07 mg GAE/g dray matter), flavonoids (73.72 ± 1.98 mg QE/g dray matterl) and anthocyanins (0.28 ± 0.09 mg Cy-3-glu E/g dray matter). DPPH and ABTS assays showed a high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 24 ?g/ml; TEAC = 2.137 mM) which was comparable to BHT. In biological system, HEOA exhibited a 50% cytotoxic concentration evaluated as 16.52 ?g/ml. Incubation of HeLa cell line with no cytotoxic concentrations resulted in a remarkable protection from oxidative stress induced by Fe2+ or H2O2 which was evidenced by a decrease of MDA and CD levels as well as a diminution of antioxidant enzymes activities (Catalase and SOD) as compared to cells treated with Fe2+ or H2O2 alone. Conclusion The hydroethanolic extract of O. Africana could thus be considered as a source of potential antioxidants. The results of this study will promote the reasonable usage of this plant in food and pharmacy industries as well as in alternative medicine and natural therapy.

2011-01-01

49

Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the\\u000anet tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the\\u000aspinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde\\u000aprecession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae\\u000asystems that show negative superhumps in their light curves.

M. M. Montgomery

2009-01-01

50

Iterative contextual CV model for liver segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel iterative active contour algorithm, i.e. Iterative Contextual CV Model (ICCV), and apply it to automatic liver segmentation from 3D CT images. ICCV is a learning-based method and can be divided into two stages. At the first stage, i.e. the training stage, given a set of abdominal CT training images and the corresponding manual liver labels, our task is to construct a series of self-correcting classifiers by learning a mapping between automatic segmentations (in each round) and manual reference segmentations via context features. At the second stage, i.e. the segmentation stage, first the basic CV model is used to segment the image and subsequently Contextual CV Model (CCV), which combines the image information and the current shape model, is iteratively performed to improve the segmentation result. The current shape model is obtained by inputting the previous automatic segmentation result into the corresponding self-correcting classifier. The proposed method is evaluated on the datasets of MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge. The experimental results show that we obtain more and more accurate segmentation results by the iterative steps and satisfying results are obtained after about six iterations. Also, our method is comparable to the state-of-the-art work on liver segmentation.

Ji, Hongwei; He, Jiangping; Yang, Xin

2014-01-01

51

EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS  

SciTech Connect

Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if accretion disks are present or not. Our results suggest that the accretion disk's geometric shape directly affects the disk's precession rate.

Montgomery, M. M. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

2009-11-01

52

Bioactive terpenoids from sunflower leaves cv. Peredovick.  

PubMed

The CH(2)Cl(2) extract of dried leaves of Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovick(R) has yielded, in addition to the known sesquiterpene lactones annuolide E and leptocarpin, and the sesquiterpenes heliannuols A, C, D, F, G, H, I, the new bisnorsesquiterpene, annuionone E, and the new sesquiterpenes heliannuol L, helibisabonol A and helibisabonol B. Structural elucidation was based on extensive spectral (one and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and theoretical studies. The sesquiterpenes heliannuol A and helibisabonol A and the sesquiterpene lactone leptocarpin inhibited the growth of etiolated wheat coleoptiles. PMID:12423890

Macías, Francisco A; Torres, Ascensión; Galindo, José L G; Varela, Rosa M; Alvarez, José A; Molinillo, José M G

2002-11-01

53

Assessment of ovarian cycles in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) by measurement of salivary progesterone metabolites.  

PubMed

Monitoring ovarian cycles through hormonal analysis is important in order to improve breeding management of captive elephants, and non-invasive collection techniques are particularly interesting for this purpose. However, there are some practical difficulties in collecting proper samples, and easier and more practical methods may be an advantage for some institutions and/or some animals. This study describes the development and validation of an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progestins in salivary samples of African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Weekly urinary and salivary samples from five non-pregnant elephant cows aged 7-12 years were obtained for 28 weeks and analyzed using EIA. Both techniques correlated positively (r = 0.799; P < 0.001), and the cycle characteristics obtained were identical. The results clearly show that ovarian cycles can be monitored by measuring progestins from salivary samples in the African elephant. This is a simple and non-invasive method that may be a practical alternative to other sampling methods used in the species. PMID:24610639

Illera, Juan-Carlos; Silván, Gema; Cáceres, Sara; Carbonell, Maria-Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Munro, Coralie; Casares, Miguel

2014-01-01

54

Wild female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) exhibit personality traits of leadership and social integration.  

PubMed

Animal personalities have been demonstrated for almost 200 species, with stable dimensions of responses (aggressive to fearful; shy to bold) across contexts and with a heritable basis to these traits. As a long-lived and highly social species, elephants (Loxodonta africana) were expected to demonstrate complex dimensions to individual characteristics or personalities, which would be obvious to human observers and validated by behavioral observations. We used principal-components analysis of ratings on 26 behavioral adjectives applied to one social unit, coded as the EB family, which has been observed for 38 years. Eleven adult females were rated by four observers and found to have individually variable traits on four dimensions described by principal-components analysis. The first component was associated with effective and confident family leadership. Component 2 was age-related, and defined by playfulness, exploration and high levels of activity, suggesting both an experience and an age-related element to its structure. Component 3 represented gentleness and at its other extreme, aggression, and Component 4 was related to constancy (predictability and popularity), with both of these latter components reflecting social integration. Leadership among elephant females represents the successful negotiation among individual interests, and our components were related to a capacity to affect the behavior of others in the absence of aggressive dominance. The family matriarch, Echo, was high on elements associated with leadership. The importance of the matriarch in this family's success suggests that elements of personality may underlie interfamilial variation in long-term survival and reproduction. PMID:22905995

Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

2012-08-01

55

A preliminary analysis of the immunoglobulin genes in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain), Ig? (Immunoglobulin kappa chain), and Ig? (Immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 V(H) gene segments, 87 D(H) gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six J(H) gene segments, a single ?, a ? remnant, and eight ? genes (? and ? genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps). The Ig? locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86), contains a total of 153 V(?) gene segments, three J(?) segments, and a single C(?) gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these V(?) gene segments. In contrast, the Ig? locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 V(?) gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream J(?)-C(?) cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals. PMID:21364892

Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

2011-01-01

56

Organisation and chemical neuroanatomy of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

The olfactory system of mammals can be divided into a main and accessory olfactory system with initial processing for each system occurring in the olfactory bulb. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs have similar structural features, even though they appear to be functionally independent. In mammals the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is also one of two established sites of lifelong generation of new cells. The present study describes the histological and immunohistochemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The morphology of MOB of the elephant does not differ significantly from that described in other mammals; however, it lacks the internal plexiform layer. In addition, the glomeruli of the glomerular layer are organised in 2-4 "honey-combed" layers, a feature not commonly observed. The cell types and structures revealed with immunohistochemical stains (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, orexin-A, glial fibrillary acidic protein) were similar to other mammals. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic marker doublecortin. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in most layers of the MOB. No accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was observed. Based on the general anatomy and the immunohistochemical observations, it is evident that the morphology of the African elephant MOB is, for the most part, similar to that of all mammals, although very large in absolute size. PMID:21479949

Ngwenya, Ayanda; Patzke, Nina; Ihunwo, Amadi O; Manger, Paul R

2011-11-01

57

Dilated ureters, renal dysplasia, and chronic renal failure in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

An ultrasonographic reproductive health examination of a 26-yr-old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) revealed bilateral ureteral wall thickening and dilatation. On ultrasonographic examination, the bladder and both ureters were normal near the trigone; however, the cranial-most aspect of each ureter was dilated and thickened for a length of 30-50 cm. The same month, elevated blood creatinine (3.0 mg/dl), and urine protein-creatinine ratio (4.0) were observed. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed based on these abnormalities, and the persistent ureteral dilatation was seen on subsequent ultrasound examinations. Complete blood cell counts, serum chemistries, and urinalyses remained relatively unchanged until 24 mo after diagnosis, at which time azotemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypercalcemia (including elevated ionized calcium) developed. Hydronephrosis of both kidneys and prominent sacculation of the left ureter were noted on ultrasonographic examination. Lethargy, ventral edema, and oral mucosal ulceration acutely developed 30 mo after diagnosis. Although blood urea nitrogen remained elevated, creatinine, total calcium, and ionized calcium returned to within reference ranges at that time. Due to rapid clinical decline and grave prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Bilateral ureteral dilatation, dysplasia of the right kidney, and chronic nephritis of the left kidney were identified postmortem. PMID:22448523

Jankowski, Gwen; Langan, Jennifer N; Adkesson, Michael J; Terio, Karen A; Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Meehan, Tom; Schmitt, Dennis

2012-03-01

58

A Preliminary Analysis of the Immunoglobulin Genes in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

PubMed Central

The genomic organization of the IgH (Immunoglobulin heavy chain), Ig? (Immunoglobulin kappa chain), and Ig? (Immunoglobulin lambda chain) loci in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was annotated using available genome data. The elephant IgH locus on scaffold 57 spans over 2,974 kb, and consists of at least 112 VH gene segments, 87 DH gene segments (the largest number in mammals examined so far), six JH gene segments, a single ?, a ? remnant, and eight ? genes (? and ? genes are missing, most likely due to sequence gaps). The Ig? locus, found on three scaffolds (202, 50 and 86), contains a total of 153 V? gene segments, three J? segments, and a single C? gene. Two different transcriptional orientations were determined for these V? gene segments. In contrast, the Ig? locus on scaffold 68 includes 15 V? gene segments, all with the same transcriptional polarity as the downstream J?-C? cluster. These data suggest that the elephant immunoglobulin gene repertoire is highly diverse and complex. Our results provide insights into the immunoglobulin genes in a placental mammal that is evolutionarily distant from humans, mice, and domestic animals.

Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhao, Zhihui; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

2011-01-01

59

MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

1985-01-01

60

Physicochemical characterization of a new pineapple hybrid (FLHORAN41 Cv.).  

PubMed

The physicochemical characteristics (pH, total and soluble solids, and titratable acidity), sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, volatile compounds, and cell wall polysaccharides of a new pineapple hybrid (FLHORAN41 cultivar) were measured throughout maturation and compared with the Smooth Cayenne cv. At full maturity, the FLHORAN41 cv. has a higher titratable acidity and soluble solids content than the Smooth Cayenne cv. The golden yellow flesh and red-orange to scarlet shell of ripe FLHORAN41 cv. fruits are due to carotenoid and anthocyanin levels that are, respectively, 2.5 and 1.5 times higher than those of the flesh and shell of the ripe Smooth Cayenne cv., respectively. During maturation of the FLHORAN41 cv., there was an increase in all classes of aroma compounds (mainly terpene hydrocarbons and esters), although their relative proportions were similar in both cultivars at full maturity. Cell wall polysaccharides undergo little change during maturation. PMID:15453683

Brat, Pierre; Hoang, Lan Nguyen Thi; Soler, Alain; Reynes, Max; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

2004-10-01

61

Zanhasaponins A and B, antiphospholipase A2 saponins from an antiinflammatory extract of Zanha africana root bark.  

PubMed

A MeOH extract from Z. africana was examined for topical antiinflammatory activity and proved to be active against arachidonic acid (AA) acute edema, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced chronic inflammation, and oxazolone delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice. The extract also showed significant inhibitory activity of Naja naja phospholipase A2 when a polarographic method was used. Two oleanane-type triterpene saponins, zanhasaponins A (1) and B (2), and the cyclitol pinitol (4), isolated from the extract, were active as inhibitors of PLA2. A further saponin, zanhasaponin C (3) was inactive in this assay. PMID:9392883

Cuéllar, M J; Giner, R M; Recio, M C; Just, M J; Máñez, S; Cerdá, M; Hostettmann, K; Ríos, J L

1997-11-01

62

Lack of spatial and behavioral responses to immunocontraception application in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Opinions are divided as to whether human intervention to control elephant (Loxodonta africana) population growth is desirable, partly because of elephant welfare concerns. Female contraception through immunization with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) proteins is viable. The effects of sustained use and application of the PZP vaccine on elephant behavioral and spatial responses were examined by evaluating herd ranging, fission-fusion dynamics, association patterns, and reproductive and sexual behaviors. Minimal change was anticipated as a result of long calf dependence on and association with cows, a reduced but not indefinite 0% growth rate and the known mechanism of action of PZP vaccines, and minimal expected change in resource requirements necessitating behavioral or spatial use adaptations. Although behavioral effects identified in previous hormonal contraceptive trials were evident, it was demonstrated that immunocontraception caused no prolonged behavioral, social, or spatial changes over the 11-yr study period. Individually identified elephants were monitored from 1999 to 2011. Minimal, short-term social disruption, with temporary changes to the herds' core ranges, was observed during the annual treatment events, particularly in the first three treatment years, when vaccinations were conducted exclusively from the ground. Thereafter, when vaccinations were conducted aerially, minor disruptions were confined to the morning of administration only. Despite sustained treatments resulting in demographic changes of fewer calves being born, treatments did not alter spatial range use, and no adverse interherd-intraherd relations were observed. Similarly, resource requirements did not change as calving still occurred, although in fewer numbers. It was concluded that PZP immunocontraception has no detectable behavioral or social consequences in elephants over the course of 11 yr, providing a convincing argument for the use of sustained immunocontraception in the medium to long term as an important tool for elephant management. Behavioral consequences of alternative management approaches should all receive similar scrutiny to enable managers to make informed decisions when weighing management interventions. PMID:24437086

Delsink, Audrey K; Kirkpatrick, Jay; van Altena, J J; Bertschinger, Henk J; Ferreira, Sam M; Slotow, Robert

2013-12-01

63

Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and ? linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

2014-01-01

64

Eradication of elephant ear mites (Loxoanoetus bassoni) in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects. PMID:22448521

Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis

2012-03-01

65

The spatial structure of hunter access determines the local abundance of forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis).  

PubMed

In many previously remote regions in the world, increasing and often unregulated access is leading to dramatic increases in hunting pressure and declines in the densities of prey species, sometimes to the point of local extinction. Not surprisingly, numerous studies have found a correlation between the distance to the closest access point and prey densities. Here we hypothesized that, for many wide-ranging species, local abundances are reduced by hunting associated with multiple access points as opposed to just the closest access points. We also hypothesized that the distribution of hunter access determines both patterns of occupancy and abundance in occupied areas and that these two patterns (occupancy and abundance) respond to access at different spatial scales. Using data on the distribution of abundances of African forest elephant (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in and around five national parks in Central Africa, we tested these hypotheses using a model comparison framework. We found that models including an index based on the distance to multiple roads outperformed models including other access-based covariates, including a model based on distance to the closest road only. We also found that models that allowed us to model occupancy and abundance separately outperformed simpler models. Occupancy responds to access at the same scale as previous estimates of average maximum displacement in the subspecies, while the scale of the response of abundance is more ambiguous, but appears to be greater. Lastly, we show that incorporating indices based on multiple access points and modeling abundance and occupancy has important practical consequences for our understanding of overall regional abundances and the distribution of abundances within regions. PMID:21774431

Yackulic, Charles B; Strindberg, Samantha; Maisels, Fiona; Blake, Stephen

2011-06-01

66

Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.  

PubMed

Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants. PMID:21127305

Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

2011-01-01

67

Protective effect of CV247 against cisplatin nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

CV247 (CV), an aqueous mixture of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) gluconates, vitamin C and sodium salicylate increased the antitumour effects of cisplatin (CDPP; cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) in vitro. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2; prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) inhibitory components of CV can protect the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity in rats. CDPP (6.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) slightly elevated serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 12 days after treatment. Kidney histology demonstrated extensive tubular epithelial damage and COX-2 immunoreactivity increased 14 days after treatment. A large amount of platinum (Pt) accumulated in the kidney of CDPP-treated rats. Furthermore, CDPP decreased renal iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), Cu and Mn concentrations and increased plasma Fe and Cu concentrations. CDPP elevated plasma free radical concentration. Treatment with CV alone for 14 days (twice 3 ml/kg/day orally) did not influence these parameters. Chronic CV administration after CDPP reduced renal histological damage and slightly decreased COX-2 immunoreactivity, while failed to prevent the increase in Crea and BUN levels. Blood free radical concentration was reduced, that is, CV improved redox homeostasis. CV restored plasma Fe and renal Fe, Mo and Zn, while decreased Pt and elevated Cu and Mn concentrations in the kidney. Besides the known synergistic antitumour effects with CDPP, CV partially protected the kidneys from CDPP nephrotoxicity probably through its antioxidant effect. PMID:23653282

Máthé, C; Szénási, G; Sebestény, A; Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Hamar, P; Albert, M

2013-05-01

68

Microbial Studies and Biochemical Characteristics of Controlled Fermented Afiyo- a Nigerian Fermented Food Condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr.) Taub  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: One hundred and fifteen bacterial strains isolated from fermenting Prosopis africana during a controlled production of okpehe, a Nigerian food-seasoning condiment most popular among the middle belt states of Nigeria were characterized as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, non-sporing Staphylococcus species and Escherichia coli according to their differences in morphological, microscopic and biochemical characteristics using

Adenike A. O. Ogunshe; Mopelola O. Omotosho; A. D. V. Ayansina

2007-01-01

69

VARIATION AND CORRELATIONS IN TRAITS OF PROSOPIS AFRICANA AND BALANITES AEGYPTIACA IN THE WEST AFRICAN SAHEL: IMPLICATIONS FOR TREE DOMESTICATION PROGRAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural communities in the West African Sahel use Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca for construction wood, fuel and other needs. Provenance\\/progeny tests were established at one site in Niger, and evaluated after 11 (growth, survival) and 13 years (wood basic density, calorific value). Based on analysis of variance, growth and wood density varied significantly among provenances and families of P.

CARMEN SOTELO MONTES; ROSILEI A. GARCIA; DIMAS AGOSTINHO DA SILVA; GRACIELA INÊS BOLZÓN DE MUÑIZ; JOHN C. WEBER

2010-01-01

70

Calorific value of Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca wood: Relationships with tree growth, wood density and rainfall gradients in the West African Sahel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca are native tree species in the West African Sahel and provide wood for fuel, construction and other essential products. A provenance\\/progeny test of each species was established at one relatively dry site in Niger, and evaluated at 13 years. Gross calorific value of the wood was determined for a random sample of trees in each

Carmen Sotelo Montes; Dimas Agostinho da Silva; Rosilei A. Garcia; Graciela Inês Bolzón de Muñiz; John C. Weber

2011-01-01

71

In vitro studies to assess the antioxidative, radical scavenging and arginase inhibitory potentials of extracts from Artocarpus altilis, Ficus exasperate and Kigelia africana  

PubMed Central

Objective To justify the use of Artocarpus altilis (A. altilis), Ficus exasperata (F. exasperata) and Kigelia africana (K. africana) in ethnomedicine for the treatment of several ailments and to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, radical scavenging and arginase inhibitory potentials of these herbs and compared with catechin (Standard). Methods Antioxidant activities were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals scavenging methods. The flavonoids and phenolics content, inhibition of arginase activity, Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reducing power were also determined. Results The A. altilis, F. exasperata and K. africana showed dose-dependent and significant scavenging of DPPH, H2O2 and OH radicals in vitro relative to catechin. The A. altilis and F. exasperata effectively scavenged DPPH radical with IC50 of 593 and 635 µg/mL and, OH radical with IC50 of 487 and 514 µg/mL, respectively. The DPPH and OH radicals scavenging activities followed the order A. altilis>F. exasperata>K. africana. In addition, A. altilis and F. exasperata significantly (P<0.05) inhibited LPO in a dose-dependent manner. The A. altilis extract had the most potent inhibitory activity against LPO with 79% relative to catechin (28%) at 750 µg/mL. The reducing power followed the order: A. altilis>Catechin>F. exasperata>K. africana at 1?000 µg/mL. The A. altilis at 500 and 750 µg/mL significantly (P<0.05) inhibited arginase activity by 63% and 67%, respectively. The flavonoids contents were found to be highest in A. altilis. Conclusions Extracts of A. altilis and F. exasperata are potent antioxidative agents with strong radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe; Owumi, Solomon Eduviere; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

2014-01-01

72

The early-stage ectomycorrhizal Thelephoroid fungal sp. is competitive and effective on Afzelia africana Sm. in nursery conditions in Senegal.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the competitiveness and effectiveness of Thelephoroid fungal sp. ORS.XM002 against native ectomycorrhizal fungal species colonizing potted Afzelia africana seedlings during 3 months of growth in different forest soils collected from under mature trees. Using morphotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), we were able to distinguish the introduced Thelephoroid fungal sp. ORS.XM002 among native ectomycorrhizal fungal species that form ectomycorrhizae in A. africana seedlings. The morphotype (MT) of the introduced fungus showed some color variation, with a shift from light- to dark-brown observed from younger to older mycorrhizal tips. We were able to differentiate the ITS type xm002 of the introduced fungus from the 14 ITS-RFLP types characterizing the 9 native MT that occurred in forest soils. The frequency of ITS type xm002 ranged from 40% to 49% depending on the forest soil used, and was always higher than those of ITS types from native dark-brown MT that occurred in inoculated seedlings 3 months after inoculation. We considered Thelephoroid fungal sp. ORS.XM002 to be responsible for stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization of inoculated A. africana seedlings when compared with control seedlings in forest soils. This fungus appeared to be more effective in increasing the root dry weight of A. africana seedlings. To identify the unknown introduced fungal species and native MT, we sequenced the ML5/ML6 region of the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA. Sequence analysis showed that these fungi belong to three ML5/ML6 groups closely related to the Cortinarioid, Thelephoroid, and Sclerodermataceous taxa. The molecular evidence for the persistence of Thelephoroid fungal sp. ORS.XM002 despite competition from native fungi argues in favor of using this fungus with A. africana in nursery soil conditions in Senegal. PMID:14634857

Diédhiou, A G; Bâ, A M; Sylla, S Nd; Dreyfus, B; Neyra, M; Ndoye, I

2004-10-01

73

Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.  

PubMed

Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation during one procedure in which 19.7 microg/kg of each drug was administered. On the basis of the procedures that did not require supplementation to initiate treatment and taking into consideration the potential for ataxia at higher doses, a starting dosage range of 14.7-16.2 microg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol in a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis administered i.m. simultaneously is recommended. PMID:17323566

Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W

2005-06-01

74

Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters.  

PubMed

Prunus africana--an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests--is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] in increasing order was: lauric acid (18), myristic acid (22), n-docosanol (25), ferulic acid (49), ?-sitostenone (198), ?-sitosterol (490), and ursolic acid (743). The concentrations of many bark constituents were significantly correlated and concentration of n-docosanol was highly significantly correlated with all other analytes. Estimates of variance components revealed the highest variation among populations for ursolic acid (66%) and the lowest for ?-sitosterol (20%). In general, environmental parameters recorded (temperature, precipitation, altitude) for the samples sites were not correlated with the concentration of most constituents; however, concentration of ferulic acid was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Because the concentration of compounds in bark extracts may be affected by tree size, the diameter of sampled plants at 1.3m tree height (as proxy of age) was recorded. The only relationship with tree diameter was a negative correlation with ursolic acid. Under the assumption that genetically less variable populations have less variable concentrations of bark compounds, correlations between variation parameters of the concentration and the respective genetic composition based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers were assessed. Only variation of ?-sitosterol concentration was significantly correlated with haplotypic diversity. The fixation index (F(IS)) was positively correlated with the variation in concentration of ferulic acid. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated a weak geographic pattern. Mantel tests, however, revealed associations between the geographic patterns of bioactive constituents and the phylogenetic relationship among the populations sampled. This suggests an independent evolution of bark metabolism within different phylogeographical lineages, and the molecular phylogeographic pattern is partly reflected in the variation in concentration of bark constituents. The results have important implications for the design of strategies for the sustainable use and conservation of this important African tree species. PMID:22795601

Kadu, Caroline A C; Parich, Alexandra; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Vinceti, Barbara; Schumacher, Rainer; Geburek, Thomas

2012-11-01

75

CV-Muzar Using a Multiagent System for Group Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to present two agents’ societies responsible for group formation (sub-communities) in CV-Muzar (Augusto Ruschi Zoobotanical Museum Virtual Community of the University of Passo Fundo). The first is a static society that intends to investigate the groups in the CV-Muzar. The second is a dynamical society that will analyze the existing groups and look for participants that have common subjects in order to constitute a sub-community. The formation of sub-communities is a new module within the CV-Muzar that intends to bring the participants together according to two scopes: similarity of interests and knowledge complementarities.

de Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Moraes, Márcia Cristina; Testa, Cristiane Durigon

76

Attenuation of oxidative stress in U937 cells by polyphenolic-rich bark fractions of Burkea africana and Syzygium cordatum.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of various diseases, which may result in the depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous supplementation with antioxidants could result in increased protection against oxidative stress. As concerns have been raised regarding synthetic antioxidant usage, the identification of alternative treatments is justified. The aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant efficacy of Burkea africana and Syzygium cordatum bark extracts in an in vitro oxidative stress model. METHODS: Cytotoxicity of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts, as well as polyphenolic-rich fractions, was determined in C2C12 myoblasts, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, normal human dermal fibroblasts and U937 macrophage-like cells using the neutral red uptake assay. Polyphenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminium trichloride assays, and antioxidant activity using the Trolox Equivalence Antioxidant Capacity and DPPH assays. The extracts efficacy against oxidative stress in AAPH-exposed U937 cells was assessed with regards to reactive oxygen species generation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione depletion. RESULTS: B. africana and S. cordatum showed enrichment of polyphenols from the aqueous extract, to methanolic extract, to polyphenolic-rich fractions. Antioxidant activity followed the same trend, which correlated well with the increased concentration of polyphenols, and was between two- to three-fold stronger than the Trolox antioxidant control. Both plants had superior activity compared to ascorbic acid in the DPPH assay. Polyphenolic-rich fractions were most toxic to the 3T3-L1 (IC50's between 13 and 21 mug/ml) and C2C12 (IC50's approximately 25 mug/ml) cell lines, but were not cytotoxic in the U937 and normal human dermal fibroblasts cultures. Free radical-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (up to 80%), cytotoxicity (up to 20%), lipid peroxidation (up to 200%) and apoptosis (up to 60%) was successfully reduced by crude extracts of B. africana and the polyphenolic-rich fractions of both plants. The crude extracts of S. cordatum were not as effective in reducing cytotoxic parameters. CONCLUSION: Although oxidative stress was attenuated in U937 cells, cytotoxicity was observed in the 3T3-L1 and C2C12 cell lines. Further isolation and purification of polyphenolic-fractions could increase the potential use of these extracts as supplements by decreasing cytotoxicity and maintaining antioxidant quality. PMID:23714009

Cordier, Werner; Gulumian, Mary; Cromarty, Allan Duncan; Steenkamp, Vanessa

2013-05-28

77

Fusarium inhibition by wild populations of the medicinal plant Salvia africana-lutea L. linked to metabolomic profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Salvia africana-lutea L., an important medicinal sage used in the Western Cape (South Africa), can be termed a ‘broad-spectrum remedy’ suggesting the presence of a multiplicity of bioactive metabolites. This study aimed at assessing wild S. africana-lutea populations for chemotypic variation and anti-Fusarium properties. Methods Samples were collected from four wild growing population sites (Yzerfontein, Silwerstroomstrand, Koeberg and Brackenfell) and one garden growing location in Stellenbosch. Their antifungal activities against Fusarium verticillioides (strains: MRC 826 and MRC 8267) and F. proliferatum (strains: MRC 6908 and MRC 7140) that are aggressive mycotoxigenic phytopathogens were compared using an in vitro microdilution assay. To correlate antifungal activity to chemical profiles, three techniques viz. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were employed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the NMR data. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to integrate LC-MS and NMR data sets. All statistics were performed with the SIMCA-P?+?12.0 software. Results The dichloromethane:methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts of the plant species collected from Stellenbosch demonstrated the strongest inhibition of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.031 mg ml-1 and 0.063 mg ml-1 respectively. GC-MS showed four compounds which were unique to the Stellenbosch extracts. By integrating LC-MS and 1H NMR analyses, large chemotype differences leading to samples grouping by site when a multivariate analysis was performed, suggested strong plant-environment interactions as factors influencing metabolite composition. Signals distinguishing the Stellenbosch profile were in the aromatic part of the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusions This study shows the potential of chemotypes of Salvia africana-lutea in controlling fungal growth and consequently mycotoxin production. Products for use in the agricultural sector may be developed from such chemotypes.

2014-01-01

78

Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana)  

PubMed Central

Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences.

Lee, Phyllis C.; Bussiere, Luc F.; Webber, C. Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H.; Moss, Cynthia J.

2013-01-01

79

Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996?nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains

K. Hattermann; C. Schmitt; D. Soike; A. Mankertz

2003-01-01

80

Discovery of the heavily obscured supernova 2002cv  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the 13th of May 2002, supernova 2002cv was discovered using a near-infrared camera working at the AZT-24 1.1 m telescope at Campo Imperatore (AQ-Italy). After the infrared detection a simultaneous photometric follow-up was started at optical wavelengths. The preliminary results confirm a heavily obscured object with a V-K color not lower than 6 mag, making SN 2002cv the most

A. Di Paola; V. Larionov; A. Arkharov; F. Bernardi; A. Caratti o Garatti; M. Dolci; E. Di Carlo; G. Valentini

2002-01-01

81

Divergent pattern of nuclear genetic diversity across the range of the Afromontane Prunus africana mirrors variable climate of African highlands  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Afromontane forest ecosystems share a high similarity of plant and animal biodiversity, although they occur mainly on isolated mountain massifs throughout the continent. This resemblance has long provoked questions on former wider distribution of Afromontane forests. In this study Prunus africana (one of the character trees of Afromontane forests) is used as a model for understanding the biogeography of this vegetation zone. Methods Thirty natural populations from nine African countries covering a large part of Afromontane regions were analysed using six nuclear microsatellites. Standard population genetic analysis as well as Bayesian and maximum likelihood models were used to infer genetic diversity, population differentiation, barriers to gene flow, and recent and all migration among populations. Key Results Prunus africana exhibits strong divergence among five main Afromontane regions: West Africa, East Africa west of the Eastern Rift Valley (ERV), East Africa east of the ERV, southern Africa and Madagascar. The strongest divergence was evident between Madagascar and continental Africa. Populations from West Africa showed high similarity with East African populations west of the ERV, whereas populations east of the ERV are closely related to populations of southern Africa, respectively. Conclusions The observed patterns indicate divergent population history across the continent most likely associated to Pleistocene changes in climatic conditions. The high genetic similarity between populations of West Africa with population of East Africa west of the ERV is in agreement with faunistic and floristic patterns and provides further evidence for a historical migration route. Contrasting estimates of recent and historical gene flow indicate a shift of the main barrier to gene flow from the Lake Victoria basin to the ERV, highlighting the dynamic environmental and evolutionary history of the region.

Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Konrad, Heino; Schueler, Silvio; Muluvi, Geoffrey M.; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L.; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Geburek, Thomas

2013-01-01

82

Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift  

PubMed Central

Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was isolated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be published. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project.

Liolos, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Detter, John C.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

2013-01-01

83

In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated\\u000a from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for

Denis Zofou; Archile Bernabe Ouambo Kengne; Mathieu Tene; Moses N. Ngemenya; Pierre Tane; Vincent P. K. Titanji

2011-01-01

84

The early-stage ectomycorrhizal Thelephoroid fungal sp. is competitive and effective on Afzelia africana Sm. in nursery conditions in Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the competitiveness and effectiveness of Thelephoroid fungal sp. ORS.XM002 against native ectomycorrhizal fungal species colonizing potted Afzelia africana seedlings during 3 months of growth in different forest soils collected from under mature trees. Using morphotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), we were able to distinguish

A. G. Diédhiou; A. M. Bâ; S. Nd. Sylla; B. Dreyfus; M. Neyra; I. Ndoye

2004-01-01

85

Antiplasmodial Activity of the Mixed Stem Bark Extracts of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Prosopis africana and in vitro Evaluation of Its Tablet Dosage Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antinociceptive, immunostimulatory, and antiplasmodial properties of Anogeissus leiocarpus and Prosopis africana combined aqueous extract (AA1) and its single tablet formulation were evaluated. Results showed that AA1 suppressed parasitaemia in early infection by 50% and 69% at 200 and 400 mg.kg body weight (b.w) respectively. In established infection, AA1 reduced parasitaemia by 55% to 78% at 100 to 400 mg.kg

Christiana Isimi; Ifeoma Obidike; Mercy Aboh; Martins Emeje

2011-01-01

86

Diel vertical migrations and feeding behavior of the mysid Rhopalophthalmus africana (Crustacea: Mysidacea) in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-series sampling, gut content analysis, gut fluorescence measurements, and experiments on feeding, respiration and ammonia excretion were performed at a fixed station (4.5 m depth) on four occasions (from 1990 to 1997) to evaluate the impact of mysids on phytoplankton and zooplankton in a tropical brackish lagoon. Rhopalophthalmus africana, the dominant species, exhibited marked upward migrations at night. Grazing experiments showed that R. africana did not consume sestonic particles in most cases. Predation experiments showed that R. africana actively consumed zooplankton and selected prey according to their size and/or their abundance. The predation rate increased linearly with increasing prey concentration and did not taper at highest prey concentration. A low metabolic oxygen to nitrogen ratio (O/N, 5-13 at:at) reinforced the assumption of a relatively permanent carnivory. Nocturnal increase in gut fullness suggests night-time feeding, but relatively high gut fluorescence during the day, resulting mainly from a fluorimetric tracing of animal prey, suggested also a diurnal ingestion of zooplankton items concentrated near the bottom. The daily grazing impact of R. africana on phytoplankton was very low (0.14% of the in situ chlorophyll concentration), whereas its daily nutrient recycling through excretion (8-15% of the in situ NH 4 concentration) was rather high. The predation impact (33-154% of the zooplankton production) was high and suggests an important role of mysids to explain the low zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio and the low transfer efficiency observed within the food chain of the western part of Ebrié Lagoon.

Kouassi, Ernest; Pagano, Marc; Saint-Jean, Lucien; Sorbe, Jean Claude

2006-04-01

87

An indigenous plant food used by lactating mothers in west Africa: the nutrient composition of the leaves of Kigelia africana in Ghana.  

PubMed

Although the leaves of Kigelia africana are used to make a palm-nut soup which is consumed mainly by lactating women in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the nutrient qualities of this underutilized and underappreciated plant food. Leaves of Kigelia africana, called "sausage tree" in English and "nufuten" in the Twi language of Ghana, were collected in Kumasi and analyzed for their content of nutritionally important fatty acids, amino acids, minerals, and trace elements. The dried leaves contained 1.62% fatty acids, of which ?-linolenic acid and linolenic acid accounted for 44% and 20%, respectively, of the total. Protein accounted for 12.6% of the dry weight and, except for lysine, its overall essential amino acid profile compared favorably to a World Health Organization protein standard for school children. Kigelia leaf contained considerable amounts of many essential elements, including calcium (7,620 ?g/g), iron (161 ?g/g), magnesium (2,310 ?g/g), manganese (14.6 ?g/g), zinc (39.9 ?g/g), and chromium (0.83 ?g/g); selenium, however, was not detected. These data indicate that Kigelia africana leaf compares favorably with many other commonly-consumed green leafy vegetables such as spinach and provides a rational basis for promoting the conservation and propagation of the plant and encouraging its wider use in the diets of populations in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21883090

Glew, R S; Amoako-Atta, B; Ankar-Brewoo, G; Presley, J M; Chang, Y-C; Chuang, L-T; Millson, M; Smith, B R; Glew, R H

2010-01-01

88

Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

2006-01-01

89

Discovery of the heavily obscured supernova 2002cv  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the 13th of May 2002, supernova 2002cv was discovered using a near-infrared camera working at the AZT-24 1.1 m telescope at Campo Imperatore (AQ-Italy). After the infrared detection a simultaneous photometric follow-up was started at optical wavelengths. The preliminary results confirm a heavily obscured object with a V-K color not lower than 6 mag, making SN 2002cv the most reddened supernova ever observed. This finding, along with the recent discovery of another obscured supernova, suggests a critical revision of the rates known to date. The estimate of the visual extinction and the light curves are provided here. These latter indicate that our SN 2002cv observations are the earliest available for a type-Ia supernova at IR wavelengths.

Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V.; Arkharov, A.; Bernardi, F.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Dolci, M.; Di Carlo, E.; Valentini, G.

2002-10-01

90

Mansonia africana and Mansonia uniformis are Vectors in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti lymphatic filariasis in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Recent data from Ghana indicates that after seven rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) there is still sustained transmission albeit at low levels in certain areas where Anopheles melas, An. gambiae s.s., Mansonia and Culex species are the main biting mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus are the known vectors in Ghana and a recent report indicated that An. melas could transmit at low level microfilaraemia. However, because An. melas is not found everywhere there was the need to determine whether any of the other culicine species could also be playing a role in the transmission of LF. Methods Indoor mosquitoes collected once a month for three months using pyrethrum spray catches in six communities within the Kommenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA) District, Central Region of Ghana were morphologically identified, dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Additionally, stored mosquito samples collected during previous years in 8 communities from the Gomoa District also in the Central Region were similarly processed. The identities of all W. bancrofti parasites found were confirmed using an established PCR method. Results A total of 825 indoor resting mosquitoes comprising of 501 Anopheles species, 239 Mansonia species, 84 Culex species and 1 Aedes species were dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Mansonia africana had infection and infectivity rates of 2.5%. and 2.1% respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l. had an infection rate of 0.4% and a similar infectivity rate. None of the Culex sp. and Aedes sp were found with infection. From the stored mosquitoes the infection and infectivity rates for M. africana were 7.6% (N?=?144) and 2.8% respectively whilst the corresponding rates for M. uniformis were 2.9% (N?=?244) and 0.8%. Conclusions This is the first report of Mansonia species as vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Ghana and in West Africa since that of 1958 in Guinea. The revelation of a hitherto unrecognised vector which is possibly more efficient in transmission than the recognised ones has a profound implication for elimination of lymphatic filariasis programmes in the sub-region.

2012-01-01

91

Isolation and culture of grape vine cv. Chardonnay leaf protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental conditions were established that resulted in high yields and good viability of the protoplasts obtained from leaves of Vitis vinifera, cv. Chardonnay regenerated in vitro by somatic embryogenesis. The effect of factors of the culture medium and various environmental conditions upon the frequency of cell division has been examined, and a method of culture is described by which protoplasts

M. Barbier; R. Bessis

1990-01-01

92

CV Serpentis: C III in the Optical and UV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The wind of the WC8 star in the binary CV Ser was modelled by a spherically symmetric series of shells through which the light of the 08-9 V star passes, along changing sight-lines, during the course of its 29 day period. Examination of the flux in the C ...

D. J. Stickland G. Ford C. Lloyd A. J. Willis

1986-01-01

93

The Type Theory of PL\\/CV3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programming logic PL\\/CV3 is based on the notion of a mathematical type. The core of the type theory, from which the full theory for program verification and specification can be derived, is presented. Whereas the full theory was designed to be usable, the core theory was selected to be analyzable. This presentation strives to be succinct, yet thorough. The

Robert L. Constable; Daniel R. Zlatin

1984-01-01

94

Phoretic interaction between the kangaroo leech Marsupiobdella africana (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) and the cape river crab Potamonautes perlatus (Decapoda: Potamonautidae).  

PubMed

The South African leech Marsupiobdella africana is a temporary ectoparasite of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, has a phoretic association with a freshwater crab Potamonautes perlatus, and exhibits advanced parental care by incubating its offspring in a brood pouch. Because phoretic associations are usually regarded to favor the phoront's dispersion, its occurrence within the biology of a parasitic species reflects an intimate context of interactions. In addition to phoresy, attachment to the crab may confer other advantages pertaining to offspring development and predator avoidance, dispersion and the parasitic life cycle. Two ponds where amphibian and crab hosts co-occur were sampled twice a month for a period of 1 year. The population dynamics of the leeches and their use of specific microhabitats as attachment sites on the crabs were also investigated. Results indicate a direct relationship between intra-specific variation in the sex ratio among captured crab hosts and the number of leeches recruited over time. The attachments to specific microhabitats on the hard surfaces of the host suggest a proximal proximate anti-predatory strategy. Finally, the importance of oxygen accessibility for the offspring development has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed a remarkable network of interactions linking all partners of this system raising the question as to whether the crabs merely act as a vehicle or play a role within the parasitic life cycle. PMID:24918071

Badets, Mathieu; Preez, Louis Du

2014-04-01

95

Characterization of a novel polyomavirus isolated from a fibroma on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In this study a novel polyomavirus, the African elephant polyomavirus 1 (AelPyV-1) found in a protruding hyperplastic fibrous lesion on the trunk of an African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was characterized. The AelPyV-1 genome is 5722 bp in size and is one of the largest polyomaviruses characterized to date. Analysis of the AelPyV-1 genome reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. In the area preceding the VP2 start codon three putative open-reading frames, possibly coding for an agnoprotein, could be localized. A regulatory, non-coding region separates the 2 coding regions. Unique for polyomaviruses is the presence of a second 854 bp long non-coding region between the end of the early region and the end of the late region. Based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the AelPyV-1 and 61 other polyomavirus sequences, AelPyV-1 clusters within a heterogeneous group of polyomaviruses that have been isolated from bats, new world primates and rodents. PMID:24205012

Stevens, Hans; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Sijmons, Steven; Van Ranst, Marc; Maes, Piet

2013-01-01

96

Phylogeography of the Afromontane Prunus africana reveals a former migration corridor between East and West African highlands.  

PubMed

Scattered populations of the same tree species in montane forests through Africa have led to speculations on the origins of distributions. Here, we inferred the colonization history of the Afromontane tree Prunus africana using seven chloroplast DNA loci to study 582 individuals from 32 populations sampled in a range-wide survey from across Africa, revealing 22 haplotypes. The predominant haplotype, HT1a, occurred in 13 populations of eastern and southern Africa, while a second common haplotype, HT1m, occurred in populations of western Uganda and western Africa. The high differentiation observed between populations in East Africa was unexpected, with stands in western Uganda belonging with the western African lineage. High genetic differentiation among populations revealed using ordered alleles (N(ST) = 0.840) compared with unordered alleles (G(ST) = 0.735), indicated a clear phylogeographic pattern. Bayesian coalescence modelling suggested that 'east' and 'west' African types likely split early during southward migration of the species, while further more recent splitting events occurred among populations in the East of the continent. The high genetic similarity found between western Uganda and west African populations indicates that a former Afromontane migration corridor may have existed through Equatorial Africa. PMID:21087325

Kadu, C A C; Schueler, S; Konrad, H; Muluvi, G M M; Eyog-Matig, O; Muchugi, A; Williams, V L; Ramamonjisoa, L; Kapinga, C; Foahom, B; Katsvanga, C; Hafashimana, D; Obama, C; Geburek, T

2011-01-01

97

Phoretic interaction between the kangaroo leech Marsupiobdella africana (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae) and the cape river crab Potamonautes perlatus (Decapoda: Potamonautidae)?  

PubMed Central

The South African leech Marsupiobdella africana is a temporary ectoparasite of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, has a phoretic association with a freshwater crab Potamonautes perlatus, and exhibits advanced parental care by incubating its offspring in a brood pouch. Because phoretic associations are usually regarded to favor the phoront’s dispersion, its occurrence within the biology of a parasitic species reflects an intimate context of interactions. In addition to phoresy, attachment to the crab may confer other advantages pertaining to offspring development and predator avoidance, dispersion and the parasitic life cycle. Two ponds where amphibian and crab hosts co-occur were sampled twice a month for a period of 1 year. The population dynamics of the leeches and their use of specific microhabitats as attachment sites on the crabs were also investigated. Results indicate a direct relationship between intra-specific variation in the sex ratio among captured crab hosts and the number of leeches recruited over time. The attachments to specific microhabitats on the hard surfaces of the host suggest a proximal proximate anti-predatory strategy. Finally, the importance of oxygen accessibility for the offspring development has been investigated experimentally. Results revealed a remarkable network of interactions linking all partners of this system raising the question as to whether the crabs merely act as a vehicle or play a role within the parasitic life cycle.

Badets, Mathieu; Preez, Louis Du

2013-01-01

98

Molecular fingerprinting of a new Kiwifruit cultivar (cv. Tsehelidis) and comparative analysis with cv. Hayward according to physicochemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Tsechelidis” is a new kiwifruit cultivar of Actinidia deliciosa species that was developed in North Greece (Episkopi, Imathia) through collaboration between Farmaplant S.A and Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly.The variety originated from a systematically sporophytic selection in cv. Hayward and was evaluated for its plant and fruit characteristics for 3 years. In parallel with

A. G. Mavromatis; I. Arvanitoyannis; G. Nanos; M. Sakellariou; C. Ilanidis; A. Korkovelos

2010-01-01

99

Seed yield and its components of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Digitaria milanjiana cv. Jarra and Andropogon gayanus cv. Kent in north-east Thailand under different rates of nitrogen application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of seed yields of pasture grasses in Thailand, pure seed yields of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Andropogon gayanus cv. Kent and Digitaria milanjiana cv. Jarra in one season were 81-123 kg\\/ha, 326-569 kg\\/ha and 48-97 kg\\/ha, respectively. Corresponding thousand-seed weights were 4.68, 3.35 and 0.42 g. Germination rates were 36, 73 and 17% at 4-6 months post

N. R. GOBIUS; C. PHAIKAEW

100

Antimalarial drug interactions of compounds isolated from Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and their synergism with artemether, against the multidrug-resistant W2mef Plasmodium falciparum strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, drug resistance has been the major obstacle in the fight against malaria, and the search for new drugs together\\u000a with the combination therapy constitutes the major approach in responding to this situation. The present study aims at assessing\\u000a the in vitro antimalarial activity of four compounds isolated from Kigelia africana stem bark (atranorin?-?KAE1, specicoside?-?KAE7, 2?,3?,19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-20-en-28-oic acid?–?KAE3, and p-hydroxy-cinnamic

Denis Zofou; Mathieu Tene; Pierre Tane; Vincent P. K. Titanji

101

The genus Zambedania Mahunka 1972 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Pygmephoridae)-redescription of the type species Z. africana and descriptions of two new species from Africa and South America.  

PubMed

The type species of the genus Zambedania Mahunka, 1972 (Z. africana Mahunka, 1972) is redescribed based on the holotype collected from soil in Zimbabwe. Two new species are described and illustrated herewith: Z. madagascariana from Madagascar and Z. argentiniana from Argentina. The generic diagnosis of Zambedania is amended, and the key to its species is supplied. Morphology, taxonomy and biology of included species are briefly discussed. The first record of the genus being phoretic on a South American nemesiid spider is presented. PMID:24870154

Camerik, Anne M; Magowski, Wojciech L

2014-01-01

102

Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

1995-01-01

103

Callus formation from Malus x domestica cv. ‘Jonathan’ protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts could be successfully isolated and cultured from callus and suspension cultures of Malus xdomestica cv. ‘Jonathan’. Protoplast-derived colonies were recovered when the osmoticum (glucose) was gradually reduced in semi-solid 8p medium or by the use of feeder plates. Formation of embryo-like structures was induced from the protoplast-derived callus on media supplemented with IAA and BA. These structures formed roots

Mohamed Kouider; Randal Hauptmann; Jack M. Widholm; Robert M. Skirvin; Safi S. Korban

1984-01-01

104

Transgenic plants of Vitis vinifera cv. Seyval blanc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf discs of grapevine cv. Seyval blanc originating from in vitro cultures were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 harbouring the vector pGJ42 carrying genes for chitinase and RIP (ribosome-inactivating protein) in an attempt to improve fungal resistance. The gene for neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) was used as the selectable marker gene. The explants were cocultivated for 2 days with recombinant Agrobacteria

B.-A. Bornhoff; M. Harst; E. Zyprian; R. Töpfer

2005-01-01

105

The early-type close binary CV Velorum revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:Our goal was to improve the fundamental parameters of the massive close double-lined eclipsing B2.5V+B2.5V binary CV Velorum. Methods: We gathered new high-resolution échelle spectroscopy on 13 almost consecutive nights covering two orbits. We computed a simultaneous solution to all the available high-quality radial-velocity and light data with the latest version of the Wilson-Deviney code. Results: We obtained the following

K. Yakut; C. Aerts; T. Morel

2007-01-01

106

Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36–42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing.

Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

2013-01-01

107

Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children.  

PubMed

Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36-42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing. PMID:23442823

Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

2013-04-01

108

Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Activity of Crude Extract and Fractions of Entada africana in Genotype 1b Replicon Systems.  

PubMed

Entada africana (Ea) is a medicinal plant from the family of Fabaceae, used in Western and Central Africa regions to treat liver diseases. Antiviral properties of this plant were reported against Hepatitis B virus, while effects against Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remained unknown. This study reports for the first time, the effects of Ea crude extract and fractions on HCV replication. Furthermore, the effect of one Ea fraction on the transcriptional expression of two interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) was also investigated. A methylene chloride-methanol (MCM) stem bark crude extract and different MCM fractions (EaF0, EaF5, EaF10, EaF25, and EaF100) were prepared and tested on LucUbiNeo-ET and Huh 5.15 cells lines used as genotype 1b (GT1b) replicon systems. The cells were incubated with crude extract and fractions at various concentrations. Then, the antiviral activity was assessed by luciferase reporter assay and the cell viability by MTT assay. Gene expression was also analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results showed that the Ea crude extract dose-dependently inhibited HCV replication after 24 and 72 h of incubation. The MCM fraction (EaF10) exhibited the strongest anti-HCV properties with an IC50 = 0.453 ± 0.00117 mg/ml and no reduction of cell viability at antiviral concentrations. This fraction also significantly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (5.36-fold), and 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-3 (OAS-3) by 4.46-fold after 6 h and 2.31-fold after 24 h at the mRNA levels. Taken altogether, these results suggest that Ea may contain ingredients that indirectly regulate HCV replication. PMID:25004879

Galani Tietcheu, Borris Rosnay; Sass, Gabriele; Njayou, Nico Frederic; Mkounga, Pierre; Tiegs, Gisa; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

2014-01-01

109

A Primitive Achondrite With Oxygen Isotopic Affinities to CV Chondrites: Implications for Differentiation and Size of the CV Parent Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NWA 3133 found in Northwest Africa (as several stones totaling ˜ 4 kg) has a metamorphic texture with ˜120° triple grain junctions (mean grainsize = 0.28 mm); no chondrules are present. Olivine (46 vol.%; Fa22, FeO/MnO = 64) and orthopyroxene (28 vol.%; Fs18.9Wo2.3, FeO/MnO = 42) are the most abundant phases, with less intermediate plagioclase (An53.5Or2.3), Cr-diopside (Fs7.5Wo48.3, Cr2O3 = 0.71 wt.%), Al-Ti-bearing chromite (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.73, TiO2 = 2.6 wt.%), Na-Mg-bearing merrillite, troilite (1-5 wt.% Ni) and Fe-Ni metal (15-20 wt.% Ni). Clinopyroxene, chromite and merrillite are inhomogeneously distributed as relatively large grains. Metal is partially altered to limonite (W1-2), and minor limonite and calcite occur along grain boundaries. Oxygen isotopic compositions (? 17O, ? 18O) determined in two laboratories by laser fluorination on handpicked olivine (-3.67, +0.94; -3.62, +0.89; -2.91, +1.78 per mil) and on acid-washed whole rock fragments (-2.25, +2.46; -1.75, +3.06 per mil) plot on the mixing line for Allende and other CV3 chondrites. Thus, NWA 3133 could be regarded as the first known "CV7 chondrite", and may have been formed by metamorphic recrystallization (or perhaps igneous processes) in the CV parent body. Other meteorites with oxygen and/or Cr isotopic affinities to the CV3 chondrites are the three members of the Eagle Station pallasite grouplet and the silicated irons Bocaiuva and NWA 176 (Clayton and Mayeda., 1996; Liu et al, 2001; Shukolyukov and Lugmair, 2001). Our inference from these data is that the CV parent body was an at least partially differentiated (and relatively large) object consisting of a metal+silicate core region surrounded by a presumably silicate-rich mantle and a chondrule-CAI-rich regolith, the deepest portions of which were metamorphosed and/or partially melted to form primitive achondritic lithologies.

Irving, A. J.; Larson, T. E.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Rumble, D.; Bunch, T. E.; Wittke, J. H.; Kuehner, S. M.

2004-12-01

110

Rooting cuttings of Syringa vulgaris cv. Charles Joly and Corylus avellana cv. Aurea: the influence of stock plant pruning and shoot growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between shoot growth and rooting was examined in two, 'difficult-to root' amenity trees, Syringa vulgaris L. cv. Charles Joly and Corylus avellana L. cv. Aurea. A range of treatments reflecting severity of pruning was imposed on field-grown stock prior to bud break. To minimise variation due to the numbers of buds that developed under different treatments, bud number

Ross Cameron; Richard Harrison-Murray; Michael Fordham; Heather Judd; Yannick Ford; Tim Marks; Rodney Edmondson

2003-01-01

111

Callus formation from Malus x domestica cv. 'Jonathan' protoplasts.  

PubMed

Protoplasts could be successfully isolated and cultured from callus and suspension cultures of Malus xdomestica cv. 'Jonathan'. Protoplast-derived colonies were recovered when the osmoticum (glucose) was gradually reduced in semi-solid 8p medium or by the use of feeder plates. Formation of embryo-like structures was induced from the protoplast-derived callus on media supplemented with IAA and BA. These structures formed roots but plants failed to develop. Protoplasts could be isolated from leaves, but not from stems or petioles. The leaf protoplasts failed to divide. PMID:24253471

Kouider, M; Hauptmann, R; Widholm, J M; Skirvin, R M; Korban, S S

1984-08-01

112

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

113

Some physical, pomological and nutritional properties of kiwifruit cv. Hayward.  

PubMed

In this research, several physical, pomological and nutritional properties that are important for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separation and packaging of kiwifruit cv. Hayward grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey were determined. The fruit characteristics ranged from 72.28 g for average fruit weight, 59.41, 46.28 and 42.87 mm for fruit length, width and thickness, 49.03 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 0.825% for sphericity and 66.52 cm(3) for the volume of fruit, respectively. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 575.27 kg/m(3), 1,093 kg/m(3) and 47.13%. The highest coefficient of static friction was obtained on plywood as 0.190, followed by polyethylene, rubber and galvanized steel sheet as 0.173, 0.163 and 0.158, respectively. The total soluble solid content, acidity, vitamin C, ash and total nitrogen content of kiwifruit cv. Hayward were 7.32%, 1.64%, 108 mg/100g, 0.71 g/100 g and 0.84%, respectively. The fresh fruits have 1.09 mg/100g total chlorophylls and flesh color data represented as L, a and b were 57.18, 17.25 and 37.46, respectively. PMID:17710584

Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Turgut, Nihat

2007-09-01

114

CV-6209, a highly potent antagonist of platelet activating factor in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

2-[N-acetyl-N-(2-methoxy-3-octadecylcarbamoyloxypropoxycarbonyl) aminomethyl]-1-ethylpyridinium chloride (CV-6209) inhibited aggregation of rabbit and human platelets induced by platelet activating factor (PAF) with the IC50 values of 7.5 X 10(-8) and 1.7 X 10(-7) M, respectively, and had little effects on the aggregation induced by arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen. The inhibitory effect of CV-6209 on the PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation was 104, 9, 8 and 3 times more potent than the PAF antagonists CV-3988, ONO-6240, Ginkgolide B and etizolam, respectively. CV-6209 inhibited [3H]serotonin release from rabbit platelets stimulated with PAF (3 X 10(-8) M) with a similar potency as the inhibition on the platelet aggregation. CV-6209 inhibited PAF (0.3 microgram/kg i.v.)-induced hypotension in rats (ED50, 0.009 mg/kg i.v.) with no effect on the hypotension induced by arachidonic acid, histamine, bradykinin and isoproterenol. CV-6209 (1 mg/kg) inhibited slightly the acetylcholine-induced hypotension. In rats, post-treatment with CV-6209 reversed the PAF (1 microgram/kg i.v.)-induced hypotension rapidly (ED50, 0.0046 mg/kg i.v.); CV-6209 was 74, 20, 185 and over 2100 times more potent than CV-3988, ONO-6240, Ginkgolide B and etizolam, respectively. Thus, the relative potency of the anti-PAF action of PAF analog (CV-6209, CV-3988 and ONO-6240) differed little between the inhibition of PAF-induced platelet aggregation and the reversal of PAF-induced hypotension, but that of nonPAF analogs (Ginkgolide B and etizolam) differed greatly with these assay systems, when standardized with CV-6209.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3612533

Terashita, Z; Imura, Y; Takatani, M; Tsushima, S; Nishikawa, K

1987-07-01

115

Nardosinanols A-I and lemnafricanol, sesquiterpenes from several soft corals, Lemnalia sp., Paralemnalia clavata, Lemnalia africana, and Rhytisma fulvum fulvum.  

PubMed

Ten new sesquiterpenes, nardosinanols A-I ( 1- 9) and lemnafricanol ( 10), have been isolated from several Kenyan soft corals, i.e., from Lemnalia sp., Paralemnalia clavata, Lemnalia africana, and Rhytisma fulvum fulvum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of these compounds were elucidated by interpretation of MS, COSY ( (1)H- (1)H correlations), HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY NMR spectroscopic experiments and in the case of 5 also by chemical transformation to compounds 11 and 12. Nine compounds ( 1- 9) are based on the nardosinane skeleton ( 1- 6 are nardosinanes and 7- 9 nornardosinanes). Lemnafricanol ( 10) possesses a novel tricyclic skeleton. Compounds 3, 7, and 10 were found to be toxic to brine shrimp with LC 50 values of 4.0, 0.35, and 0.32 microM, respectively. PMID:18247571

Bishara, Ashgan; Yeffet, Dina; Sisso, Mor; Shmul, Guy; Schleyer, Michael; Benayahu, Yehuda; Rudi, Amira; Kashman, Yoel

2008-03-01

116

Estudo da ativacao das pecas componentes do ciclotron CV-28. (Study of the activation of the parts components of the CV-28 cyclotron).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CV-17 cyclotron, isochronous, compact, of variable energy is an accelerator of charged particles and is applied in several situations such as: radioisotopes production, neutron production, irradiation damage analysis, activation analysis. During the p...

P. W. Fajardo

1986-01-01

117

Collisional facilitation of aqueous alteration of CM and CV carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CM chondrites exhibit a strong correlation between the degree of alteration and the extent of particle alignment (i.e., the strength of the petrofabric). It seems likely that the S1 shock stage of essentially every CM and the high matrix abundance (˜70 vol.%) of these samples ensured that the shock waves that produced CM petrofabrics (by collapsing matrix pores and squeezing chondrules into pore spaces) were significantly attenuated and were too weak to damage olivine crystal lattices. Random collisions on the CM body produced petrofabrics and created fractures in the target rocks. Subsequent impact-mobilization of water caused hydrated phases to form preferentially in the more-fractured regions (those with the strongest petrofabrics); the less-deformed, less-fractured CM regions experienced lower degrees of aqueous alteration. Many CV3 chondrites also have petrofabrics: roughly half are from the oxidized Bali-like subgroup (CV3OxB), roughly half are from the reduced subgroup (CV3R) and none is from the oxidized Allende-like subgroup (CV3OxA) (which is less altered than CV3OxB). Nearly all CVs with petrofabrics are S3-S4 and nearly all CVs that lack petrofabrics are S1. Oxidized CVs have much higher porosities (typically 20-28%) than reduced CVs (0.6-8%), facilitating more-extensive aqueous alteration. The CV3R chondrites formed from low-porosity material that inhibited oxidation during alteration. The oxidized CV subgroups formed from higher-porosity materials. The CV3OxB samples were shocked, became extensively fractured and developed petrofabrics; the CV3OxA samples were not shocked and never developed petrofabrics. When water was mobilized, both sets of porous CV chondrites became oxidized; the more-fractured CV3OxB subgroup was more severely altered.

Rubin, Alan E.

2012-08-01

118

Experimental Aqueous Alteration of the Allende CV3 Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous alteration is an important process that prevailed in the early solar system. In order to better understand the aqueous alteration processes and conditions, we embarked in hydrothermal alteration experiments of the Allende CV3 chondrite. We here present the first results of our experiments. Samples of Allende were sealed in gold tubes with 1-N HCl and heated in a reactor vessel at 450 degrees C and 800 bars for 4 to 6 weeks. Thin sections were made from the run products and were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS spectrometer. Our experiments produced remarkable alteration textures in the Allende chondrite. Parts of internal areas of most of the chondrules are replaced by brownish-to-greenish phyllosilicate, exhibiting an appearance closely similar to the altered ("spinach"-bearing) chondrules in CM chondrites. Fractures and interstices in chondrules and matrix, up to 20 micrometers in width and 1 mm in length, are filled with phyllosilicate, producing remarkable veins similar to those observed in CI chondrites. Mainly two kinds of phyllosilicates were produced. One contains major Mg and Fe and has compositions similar to Fe-rich saponite. This is the most common phyllosilicate that occurs in both chondrules and matrix; it is primarily formed by replacing olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. The other kind of phyllosilicate contains major Mg and Fe and variable Al; it is probably a mixture of two phases, so we tentatively call it high-Al phyllosilicates (HAP). HAP occurs mainly in chondrule mesostasis, where it is formed by replacing mesostasis glass. Chondrules and aggregates are altered from their edges to inward. Olivine in outer areas of chondrules and aggregates are enriched in Fe, and most of individual olivine grains show strong Fe-Mg zoning, indicating substantial Fe was added from matrix to chondrules. Mesostasis in central areas is preferentially replaced by HAP, while that in outer areas is replaced by saponite. There are remarkable differences in degree of alteration by phyllosilicates among the precursor minerals in chondrules. The resistance to alteration increases in the order, glass, low-Ca pyroxene, olivine. Aggregates of Fe-rich saponite ranging in diameter from 10 to 50 micrometers are produced in places in matrix. However, most of small original olivine grains (1 to 10 micrometers in diameter) still remain unaltered. This is surprising to us, taking into account the fact that chondrule internals were altered to the extent up to 200x200 micrometers^2 in area. This indicates that the alteration proceeds much faster in chondrule mesostasis than in the fine-grained matrix. Drastic chemical exchanges took place between chondrules and matrix. Among major elements, Fe was added from matrix to chondrules mainly as an olivine component, whereas Mg, Al, Ca, Na and S were lost from chondrules. In chondrule mesostasis, Ca is almost completely lost, confirming that the mobility of Ca is particularly high. As a result of these elemental exchanges, the meteorite became homogenized as a whole. The texture and the phyllosilicate mineralogy produced in the altered Allende samples are closely similar to those observed in the Mokoia and Kaba CV3 chondrites [1,2]. These similarities suggest that the alteration in Mokoia and Kaba occurred in situ on the CV parent body under conditions somewhat related to the present experimental condition, although the pressure and temperature should have been much lower than those used in our experiments. References: [1] Tomeoka K. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 1745-1754. [2] Keller L. P. and Buseck P. R. (1990) GCA, 54, 2113-2120.

Tomeoka, K.; Kojima, T.

1995-09-01

119

Linear and nonlinear interpretation of CV-580 lightning data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical models developed for the study of lightning strike data acquired by in-flight aircraft are applied to the data measured on the CV-580. The basic technique used is the three dimensional time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. Both linear and nonlinear models are used in the analysis. In the linear model, the lightning channel and the aircraft are assumed to form a linear time invariant system. A transfer function technique can then be used to study the response of the aircraft to a given lightning strike current. Conversely, the lightning current can be inferred from the measured response. In the nonlinear model, the conductivity of air in the vicinity of the aircraft is calculated and incorporated into the solution of the Maxwell's equations. The nonlinear model thus simulates corona formation and air breakdown. Results obtained from the models are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. This study provides another validation of the models and increases confidence that the models may be used to predict aircraft response to any general lightning strike.

Ng, Poh H.; Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.

1988-01-01

120

Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in Prunus incisa cv. February Pink.  

PubMed

Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Prunus incisa Thunb. cv. February Pink were investigated. Using a medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins supplemented with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), we evaluated the effects of light, growth regulators, amino acids, carbohydrate source, and root induction medium. Explants cultured under light or dark conditions both resulted in the formation of embryos. Embryogenesis was inhibited by the addition of 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, or gibberellic acid to the medium. Amino acids were not effective in promoting embryogenesis, with high levels of amino acids actually inhibiting it. Sucrose and glucose effectively induced embryogenesis, while sorbitol and mannitol completely inhibited it. Sucrose and glucose also promoted secondary embryogenesis. Embryos that formed in medium containing 4% or 5% sucrose were abnormally shaped and did not fully develop, while those that formed in medium with sucrose concentrations of 2% or 3% were much more vigorous. Root explants that were induced on medium containing 1.0 micro M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced more somatic embryos than explants induced on medium without IBA. Approximately 50% of the roots induced on medium containing 1.0 microM IBA produced somatic embryos on medium containing 10 microM 2,4-D and 3% sucrose. PMID:15022015

Cheong, E J; Pooler, M R

2004-06-01

121

Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

1990-01-01

122

Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV  

SciTech Connect

Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

Rittmann, P.D.

1984-08-01

123

Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

2013-09-01

124

Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

2013-05-01

125

In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae).  

PubMed

In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for their cytotoxicity on LLC/MK2 monkey kidney cells. The EtOAc extract exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity (IC(50)?= 11.15 ?g/mL on W-2; 3.91 and 4.74 ?g/mL on field CAM10 and SHF4 isolates, respectively), whereas the n-hexane fraction showed a weak activity (IC(50)?= 73.78 ?g/mL on W-2 and 21.85 ?g/mL on SHF4). Three out of the four compounds showed good activity against all the three different parasite strains (IC(50)?<5 ?M). Specicoside exhibited the highest activity on W-2 (IC(50)?= 1.54 ?M) followed by 2?, 3?, 19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (IC(50)?= 1.60 ?M) and atranorin (IC(50)?= 4.41 ?M), while p-hydroxycinnamic acid was the least active (IC(50)?=53.84 ?M). The EtOAc extract and its isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic (CC(50)?> 30 ?g/mL), whereas the n-hexane extract and two of its products, atranorin and 2?, 3?, 19?-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxicity at high concentrations, with the last one being the most toxic (CC(50)?= 9.37 ?g/mL). These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. PMID:21487780

Zofou, Denis; Kengne, Archile Bernabe Ouambo; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

2011-06-01

126

Antimicrobial activity and probable mechanisms of action of medicinal plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus.  

PubMed

Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78-100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50<50 µg/ml with MIC values of less than 0.78 mg/ml. Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue. PMID:23785437

Mwitari, Peter G; Ayeka, Peter A; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N; Bii, Christine C

2013-01-01

127

Magnetic characteristics of CV chondrules with paleointensity implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a detailed magnetic study on 45 chondrules from two carbonaceous chondrites of the CV type: (1) Mokoia and (2) Allende. Allende has been previously extensively studied and is thought to have a high potential of retaining an extra-terrestrial paleofield. Few paleomagnetic studies of Mokoia have previously been undertaken. We report a range of magnetic measurements including hysteresis, first-order reversal curve analysis (FORCs), demagnetization characteristics, and isothermal remanent (IRM) acquisition behavior on both Mokoia and Allende chondrules. The Mokoia chondrules displayed more single domain-like behavior than the Allende chondrules, suggesting smaller grain sizes and higher magnetic stability. The Mokoia chondrules also had higher average concentrations of magnetic minerals and a larger range of magnetic characteristics than the Allende chondrules. IRM acquisition analysis found that both sets of chondrules have the same dominant magnetic mineral, likely to be a FeNi phase (taenite, kamacite, and/or awaruite) contributing to 48% of the Mokoia chondrules and 42% of the Allende chondrule characteristics. FORC analysis revealed that generally the Allende chondrules displayed low-field coercivity distributions with little interactions, and the Mokoia chondrules show clear single-domain like distributions. Paleointensity estimates for the two meteorites using the REMc and Preisach methods yielded estimates between 13 and 60 ?T and 3-56 ?T, respectively, for Allende and 3-140 ?T and 1-110 ?T, respectively, for Mokoia. From the data, we suggest that Mokoia chondrules carry a non-primary remagnetization, and while Allende is more likely than Mokoia to retain its primary magnetization, it also displays signs of post accretionary magnetization.

Emmerton, Stacey; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Hezel, Dominik C.; Bland, Philip A.

2011-12-01

128

Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.  

PubMed

A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600?CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease. PMID:24495921

Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F L; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H Rogier

2014-01-01

129

Direct extraction of mobility in pentacene OFETs using CV and IV measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility was extracted from top-contact pentacene organic field effect transistors with minimal assumptions. Low-frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were used to calculate the sheet charge density of the channel, and current-voltage measurements with low drain-to-source voltage were used to extract mobility. The separation of charge and mobility with the use of C-V measurements illustrates that the mobility increases with gate voltage,

K. Ryu; I. Kymissis; V. Bulovic; C. G. Sodini

2005-01-01

130

Phyllosilicates in the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite - Evidence for aqueous alteration in an oxidizing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most CV chondrites contain little if any phyllosilicate mineralization. A petrographic and transmission electron microscopy study of the Mokoia CV carbonaceous chondrite shows that the matrix, chondrules, aggregates, and inclusions all contain considerable amounts of phyllosilicates. The mineralogy and occurrence of phyllosilicates in Mokoia differ from those in the CI and CM chondrites. The differences suggests that aqueous alteration of the three meteorite groups probably occurred under a variety of conditions.

Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

1990-06-01

131

Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.  

PubMed

Microcystin-LR (0.02 ?g/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 ?g/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. PMID:23999063

Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

2014-03-01

132

[Habitat factor analysis for Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii based on spatial information technology].  

PubMed

Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a tertiary survival plant, is a rare tree species of significant economic value and expands rapidly in China. Its special habitat factor analysis has the potential value to provide guide information for its planting, management, and sustainable development, because the suitable growth conditions for this tree species are special and strict. In this paper, the special habitat factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii in its core region, i.e., in seven villages of Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a series of data, such as IKONOS image, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and field survey data supported by the spatial information technology. The results showed that T. grandis cv. Merrillii exhibited high selectivity of environmental factors such as elevation, slope, and aspect. 96.22% of T. grandis cv. Merrillii trees were located at the elevation from 300 to 600 m, 97.52% of them were found to present on the areas whose slope was less than 300, and 74.43% of them distributed on sunny and half-sunny slopes. The results of PCA analysis indicated that the main environmental factors affecting the habitat of T. grandis cv. Merrillii were moisture, heat, and soil nutrients, and moisture might be one of the most important ecological factors for T. grandis cv. Merrillii due to the unique biological and ecological characteristics of the tree species. PMID:19238862

Wang, Xiao-ming; Wang, Ke; Ao, Wei-jiu; Deng, Jin-song; Han, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-yun

2008-11-01

133

THE EFFECTS OF BLUE LIGHT AT 440 NM ON POTATO TUBERIZATION FOR SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV. DESIRÉE AND L. CV. NORLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

In my project I determined the effect of blue light at 440 nm on potato callus and tuberization. A potato tuber is the part of the plant that becomes the actual potato. Callus is an isolated thickening of potato plant tissue. My first goal was to grow a somatic mutation of a Norland plant (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland), which

Erin Austad

134

Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http://wwwflag.wr.usgs.gov/ISIS). References: [1] Torson, J.M., and Becker, K.J., (1997), ISIS - A Software Architecture for Processing Planetary Images, Lunar and Plan. Sci. XXVIII, 387-388, [2] Gaddis, L., (1996), Use of ISIS for Processing and Analysis of Planetary Remote Sensing data, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 28, No. 7, p. A-286.

Torson, J. M.

2001-05-01

135

Circulating HFMD-Associated Coxsackievirus A16 Is Genetically and Phenotypically Distinct from the Prototype CV-A16  

PubMed Central

Human enteroviruses (HEV) have been linked to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Pacific and Southeast Asia for decades. Many cases of HFMD have been attributed to coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, CA16), based on only partial viral genome determination. Viral phenotypes are also poorly defined. Herein, we have genetically and phenotypically characterized multiple circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients and determined multiple full-length sequences of these circulating viruses. We discovered that the circulating CV-A16 viruses from HFMD patients are genetically distinct from the proto-type CV-A16 G10. We have also isolated circulating CV-A16 viruses from hospitalized HFMD patients and compared their virological differences. Interestingly, circulating CV-A16 viruses are more pathogenic in a neonatal mouse model than is CV-A16 G10. Thus, we have found circulating recombinant forms of CV-A16 (CRF CV-A16) that are related to, but different from, the prototype CV-A16 G10 that have distinct biological phenotypes.

Li, Jingliang; Ren, Sangsang; Wei, Zhenhong; Bao, Wanguo; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Wenyan; Zhou, Yulai; Sun, Fei; Markham, Richard; Yu, Xiao-Fang

2014-01-01

136

76 FR 67209 - United States v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive...v. Grupo Bimbo S.A.B. de C.V., et al., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-01857...Grupo Bimbo, S.A.B. de C.V., et al., Defendants. Case:...

2011-10-31

137

Role of rye chromosome 2R from wheat-rye substitution line 2R(2D) 1 ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29- Secale cereale L. cv. Onokhoiskaya) in genetic regulation of meiotic restitution in wheat-rye polyhaploids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the role of rye chromosome 2R from the wheat-rye substitution line 2R(2D)1 (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29-Secale cereale L. cv. Onokhoiskaya) in genetic regulation of meiotic restitution in wheat-rye polyhaploids 2R(2D)1 ? S. cereale L. cv. Onokhoiskaya. Rye chromosome 2R proved to affect the completeness of the meiotic program, suppressing the formation\\u000a of restitution

O. G. Silkova; A. I. Shchapova; V. K. Shumny

2007-01-01

138

Remote sensing of the link between arable field and elephant ( Loxodonta africana) distribution change along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated whether the proportion of remotely sensed arable fields increased along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Sebungwe region. We also investigated whether and to what extent this increase in arable fields affected the distribution of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) between the 1980s and 1990s. Results showed a relatively higher increase in the proportion of arable fields in the zone cleared of tsetse by 1986 compared to the zone that was still tsetse infested by the same date. Results also showed contrasting patterns in the relationship between the proportion of the habitat under arable fields and elephant distribution between the two periods. Specifically, in the 1980s, when arable field cover was between 0% and 11%, there was a weak ( p > 0.05) positive relationship between elephant presence and the proportion of the habitat under arable fields. In contrast, a significant ( p < 0.05) negative relationship emerged in the 1990s, when arable field cover ranged between 0% and 88%. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the change in the probability of elephant presence between the early 1980s and the early 1990s was significantly ( p < 0.05) related to the change in the proportion arable fields. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the expansion of arable fields in the Sebungwe was greater in areas where tsetse had been eradicated compared with areas that were still tsetse infested. Overall, the results suggest that using remotely sensed data, we can conclude that tsetse eradication led to the redistribution of elephants in response to arable field expansion.

Murwira, Amon; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Huizing, H. J. G.; Prins, H. H. T.

139

Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if available, blood parathyroid hormone levels to adjust the nutritional supplementation for each individual elephant. PMID:24063079

van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

2013-09-01

140

Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum  

PubMed Central

CV_2116 is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids from the Gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV_2116 sequence as a query identified only one hit (E = 2e?07) corresponding to a hypothetical protein OR16_04617 from Cupriavidus basilensis OR16, which failed to provide insight into the function of CV_2116. The CV_2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid, transformed into E. coli, and 13C- and 15N-labeled NMR samples of CV_2116 were overexpressed in E. coli and purified for structure determination using NMR spectroscopy. The resulting high-quality solution NMR structure of CV_2116 revealed a novel ? + ? fold containing two anti-parallel ?-sheets in the N-terminal two-thirds of the protein and one ?-helix in the C-terminal third of the protein. CV_2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence family and a Dali search indicated that no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. Although no function of CV_2116 could be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches, the neighboring genes of CV_2116 encode various proteins annotated as similar to bacteriophage tail assembly proteins. Interestingly, C. violaceum exhibits an extensive network of bacteriophage tail-like structures that likely result from lateral gene transfer by incorporation of viral DNA into its genome (prophages) due to bacteriophage infection. Indeed, C. violaceum has been shown to contain four prophage elements and CV_2116 resides in the fourth of these elements. Analysis of the putative operon in which CV_2116 resides indicates that CV_2116 might be a component of the bacteriophage tail-like assembly that occurs in C. violaceum.

Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

2012-01-01

141

CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

1995-01-01

142

CV-Muzar - The Virtual Community Environment that Uses Multiagent Systems for Formation of Groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to present two agents' societies responsible for group formation (sub-communities) in CV-Muzar (Augusto Ruschi Zoobotanical Museum Virtual Community of the University of Passo Fundo). These societies are integrated to execute a data mining classification process. The first society is a static society that intends preprocessing data, investigating the information about groups in the CV-Muzar. The second society is a dynamical society that will make a classification process by analyzing the existing groups and look for participants that have common subjects in order to constitute a sub-community. The formation of sub-communities is a new functionality within the CV-Muzar that intends to bring the participants together according to two scopes: interest similarity and knowledge complementarities.

de Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Moraes, Márcia Cristina

143

The Ningqiang meteorite - Classification and petrology of an anomalous CV chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ningqiang is an anomalous CV chondrite (oxidized subgroup) containing a high abundance of aggregational inclusions (13.7 vol pct) and low abundances of refractory inclusions (1.0 + 1.0 or - 0.5 vol pct) and bulk refractory lithophiles (about 0.82 x CV). Ningqiang may have agglomerated after most refractory inclusions at the nebular midplane had already been incorporated into other objects. Coarse-grained rims surround only about 5 percent of Ningqiang chondrules, compared to about 50 percent in normal CV chondrites. Aggregational inclusions appear to have formed by incipient melting of fine-grained aggregates at relatively low temperatures in the solar nebula, possibly by the mechanism responsible for chondrule formation.

Rubin, A. E.; Wang, D.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Wasson, J. T.

1988-03-01

144

An amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI) in CK3 NWA 1559, comparison to AOIs in CV3 Allende, and the origin of AOIs in CK and CV chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An amoeboid olivine inclusion in CK3 NWA 1559 (0.54 × 1.3 mm) consists of a diopside-rich interior (approximately 35 vol%) and an olivine-rich rim (approximately 65 vol%). It is the first AOI to be described in CK chondrites; the apparent paucity of these inclusions is due to extensive parent-body recrystallization. The AOI interior contains irregular 3-15 ?m-sized Al-bearing diopside grains (approximately 70 vol%), 2-20 ?m-sized pores (approximately 30 vol%), and traces of approximately 2 ?m plagioclase grains. The 75-160 ?m-thick rim contains 20-130 ?m-sized ferroan olivine grains, some with 120º triple junctions. A few coarse (25-50 ?m-sized) patches of plagioclase with 2-18 ?m-thick diopside rinds occur in several places just beneath the rim. The occurrence of olivine rims around AOI-1 and around many AOIs in CV3 Allende suggests that CK and CV AOIs formed by the acquisition of porous forsteritic rims around fine-grained, rimless CAIs that consisted of diopside, anorthite, melilite, and spinel. Individual AOIs in carbonaceous chondrites may have formed after transient heating events melted their olivine rims as well as portions of the underlying interiors. In AOI-1, coarse plagioclase grains with diopside rinds crystallized immediately below the olivine rim. Secondary parent-body alteration transformed forsterite in the rims of CV and CK AOIs into more-ferroan olivine. Some of the abundant pores in the interior of AOI-1 may have formed during aqueous alteration after fine-grained melilite and anorthite were leached out. Chondrite groups with large chondrules tend to have large AOIs. AOIs that formed in dust-rich nebular regions (where CV and CK chondrites later accreted) tend to be larger than AOIs from less-dusty regions.

Rubin, Alan E.

2013-03-01

145

Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

Keller, Lindsay P.

2011-01-01

146

New parameter extraction method based on split C-V measurements in FDSOI MOSFETs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new parameter extraction methodology based on split C-V is proposed for FDSOI MOS devices. To this end, a detailed capacitance theoretical analysis is first conducted emphasizing the usefulness of the Maserjian function. Split C-V measurements carried out on various FDSOI CMOS technologies show that the Maserjian function exhibits a power law dependence with inversion charge as ?Qi-2 whatever the carrier type and gate oxide thickness. This feature enables to confirm the validity of a two-parameter simple capacitance model and allows for a reliable MOSFET parameter extraction in FDSOI devices.

Ben Akkez, Imed; Cros, Antoine; Fenouillet-Beranger, Claire; Boeuf, Frederic; Rafhay, Q.; Balestra, Francis; Ghibaudo, Gérard

2013-06-01

147

A two phase circular regression algorithm for quantifying wear in CV joint ball race tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a two-phase circular regression algorithm is presented for extracting wear profiles from Rzeppa-type constant velocity (CV) joints and for quantifying race track wear. In ball races operating under harsh cyclic loading conditions the predominant brinelling and “false brinelling” wear mechanism result in small indentations or grooves in the race track. These are particularly difficult to measure as

Mike L. Philpott; Brain P. Welcher; Dale R. Pankow; Douglas Vandenberg

1996-01-01

148

Aspects of amino acid metabolism in stored potato tubers (cv. Pentland Dell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubers of the cv. Pentland Dell were stored at 5 and 10°C for up to 33 weeks and analysed for soluble protein and free amino acids. In addition, glutamine synthetase, NADH-GOGAT and acid proteinase activities were measured over the 33-week storage period. An accumulation of asparagine and glutamine occurred during late storage which coincided with an upturn in proteinase activity.

E. R Brierley; P. L. R Bonner; A. H Cobb

1997-01-01

149

Shelf life of minimally processed apple (cv. Jonagored) determined by colour changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, chemical and sensory changes of cut apple (cv. Jonagored) stored in the dark at 4 °C were evaluated. Colour was found to be the critical parameter for this product. Apple cubes underwent severe surface browning primarily during the initial days of storage. The shelf-life of cut apple was therefore very limited, to three days maximum.Sensory analyses and objective quality

A. M. C. N Rocha; A. M. M. B Morais

2003-01-01

150

Spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-14cv as a cataclysmic variable in outburst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained two low-resolution optical spectra of ASASSN-14cv (vsnet-alert 17395, vsnet-alert 17402, vsnet-alert 17404) on June 22.9 UT using a 0.23-m Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, Lhires III spectrograph configured for low-resolution

Berardi, Paolo; Lester, Tim; Teyssier, Francois

2014-06-01

151

Tospoviruses, weeds and thrips associated with chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev cv. Polaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under field conditions, impatiens necrotic spot (INSV) and tomato spotted wilt tospoviruses (TSWV) were detected by the dot blot technique in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev cv. Polaris) plants having concentric rings and line patterns, from Villa Guerrero and Coatepec de Harinas, State of Mexico. There were 15 species of thrips associated with chrysanthemum in the region, 10 already known and

M. Daniel L. Ochoa; N. R. M. Johansen; G. A. Herrera; E. Cárdenas Soriano

1996-01-01

152

Características estruturais e índice de tombamento de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk em pastagens diferidas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito dos períodos de diferimento e de pastejo sobre a densidade populacional de perfilhos, a massa dos componentes morfológicos da forragem e o índice de tombamento em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Dois ensaios foram conduzidos: o primeiro denominado ano 1 e, o segundo, ano 2. Adotou-se o esquema de parcelas subdivididas, segundo o

Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos; Dilermando Miranda da Fonseca; Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides; Domicio do Nascimento Júnior; Augusto César de Queiroz; José Ivo Ribeiro Júnior

2009-01-01

153

DEVELOPMENT OF FLOWER ORGANS IN COMMON LILAC (SYRINGA VULGARIS L.) CV. MME FLORENT STEPMAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the development of common lilac cv. Mme Florent Stepman inflorescence buds and flowers were carried out in 2001-2002 in order to observe the development of flower organs before and after winter dormancy during the following phenological phases: inflorescence bud swelling, inflorescence elongation, flower bud whitening, flower bud swelling and flowering anthesis. The hypogynous, actinomorphic and perfect flower conforms

AGATA JE þDRZEJUK

2005-01-01

154

Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

2013-10-01

155

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Cultivated Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of cultivated summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. More than twenty-five components were identified with the major ones being ?-terpinene (40.9%) and carvacrol (39.3%).

Józef Góra; Anna Lis; Andrzej Lewandowski

1996-01-01

156

Using CV-GLUE procedure in analysis of wetland model predictive uncertainty.  

PubMed

This study develops a procedure that is related to Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), called the CV-GLUE procedure, for assessing the predictive uncertainty that is associated with different model structures with varying degrees of complexity. The proposed procedure comprises model calibration, validation, and predictive uncertainty estimation in terms of a characteristic coefficient of variation (characteristic CV). The procedure first performed two-stage Monte-Carlo simulations to ensure predictive accuracy by obtaining behavior parameter sets, and then the estimation of CV-values of the model outcomes, which represent the predictive uncertainties for a model structure of interest with its associated behavior parameter sets. Three commonly used wetland models (the first-order K-C* model, the plug flow with dispersion model, and the Wetland Water Quality Model; WWQM) were compared based on data that were collected from a free water surface constructed wetland with paddy cultivation in Taipei, Taiwan. The results show that the first-order K-C* model, which is simpler than the other two models, has greater predictive uncertainty. This finding shows that predictive uncertainty does not necessarily increase with the complexity of the model structure because in this case, the more simplistic representation (first-order K-C* model) of reality results in a higher uncertainty in the prediction made by the model. The CV-GLUE procedure is suggested to be a useful tool not only for designing constructed wetlands but also for other aspects of environmental management. PMID:24726969

Huang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Yu-Pin; Chiang, Li-Chi; Wang, Yung-Chieh

2014-07-01

157

Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.  

PubMed

4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. PMID:23040992

Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

2013-01-01

158

Identification of the 21 monosomic lines in Avena byzantina C. Koch cv. ‘Kanota’  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the 21 possible monosomic lines have been screened and confirmed from 33 monosomic stocks of Avena byzantina C. Koch cv. ‘Kanota’. All of them, except Mono-21 which was a progeny of monosomic ‘Cherokee’ (A. sativa) repeatedly backcrossed with ‘Kanota’, were obtained in the progenies of haploid (2n = 3x), aneuploid (2n = 6X±) and autotriploid (2n = 9X)

T. Morikawa

1985-01-01

159

Chemical changes during the development and ripening of the fruit of Cucumis melo (Cv. Makdimon)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the aroma volatiles, free amino acids, sugars, principal acids, and soluble minerals were studied during the development and ripening of the fruit of Cucumis melo L. Reticulatis group cv. Makdimon. Ethyl acetate was the most abundant volatile produced during the final growth stage, but ethanol was the major volatile found in immature fruit. Most of the free amino

Youming Wang; S. Grant Wyllie; David N. Leach

1996-01-01

160

Stable expression of anti-HPV 16 E7-ribozyme in CV-1 cell lines.  

PubMed

The HPV16 (human papilloma virus type 16) E7 gene product, an oncoprotein, has been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of anogenital cancer, particularly of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the effect of suppression of the expression of the E7 gene in CV-1 cells by ribozyme, Rz523 with a transacting ribozyme targeted to the E7 RNA and two processing ribozyme genes at the 5' and 3' flank was cloned into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pREP9 under the control of RSV-LTR promoter. The resultant plasmid pRSV-Rz523 was transfected into CV-1 cells by calcium phosphate coprecipitation. The expression of the ribozyme in G418-resistant cells was detected by dot-blot hybridization. Ribozymes stably expressed in the CV-1 cells were at a level of 9.0 pmol per 10(6) cells, in which the active ribozyme molecules were more than 50 fmol per 10(6) cells. The result of RNase protection assay showed that the steady-state level of the E7 RNA fragment in CV-1 cell lines was significantly reduced by about 90% in ribozyme-expressing cells. In contrast, the antisense control plasmid pRSV-AE7 only exhibited about 20%. This result implicated the possibility of reversing the malignant phenotype of cervical cancer by means of suppressing the expression of the E7 gene with ribozyme. PMID:9187492

Huang, Y; Kong, Y; Wang, Y; Qi, G; Lu, C

1996-01-01

161

Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): the GAMA galaxy group catalogue (G3Cv1)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the complete Galaxy and Mass Assembly I (GAMA-I) survey covering ˜142 deg2 to rAB= 19.4, of which ˜47 deg2 is to rAB= 19.8, we create the GAMA-I galaxy group catalogue (G3Cv1), generated using a friends-of-friends (FoF) based grouping algorithm. Our algorithm has been tested extensively on one family of mock GAMA lightcones, constructed from ? cold dark matter N-body simulations populated with semi-analytic galaxies. Recovered group properties are robust to the effects of interlopers and are median unbiased in the most important respects. G3Cv1 contains 14 388 galaxy groups (with multiplicity ?2), including 44 186 galaxies out of a possible 110 192 galaxies, implying ˜40 per cent of all galaxies are assigned to a group. The similarities of the mock group catalogues and G3Cv1 are multiple: global characteristics are in general well recovered. However, we do find a noticeable deficit in the number of high multiplicity groups in GAMA compared to the mocks. Additionally, despite exceptionally good local spatial completeness, G3Cv1 contains significantly fewer compact groups with five or more members, this effect becoming most evident for high multiplicity systems. These two differences are most likely due to limitations in the physics included of the current GAMA lightcone mock. Further studies using a variety of galaxy formation models are required to confirm their exact origin. The G3Cv1 catalogue will be made publicly available as and when the relevant GAMA redshifts are made available at .

Robotham, A. S. G.; Norberg, P.; Driver, S. P.; Baldry, I. K.; Bamford, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Merson, A.; Peacock, J. A.; Brough, S.; Cameron, E.; Conselice, C. J.; Croom, S. M.; Frenk, C. S.; Gunawardhana, M.; Hill, D. T.; Jones, D. H.; Kelvin, L. S.; Kuijken, K.; Nichol, R. C.; Parkinson, H. R.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Phillipps, S.; Popescu, C. C.; Prescott, M.; Sharp, R. G.; Sutherland, W. J.; Taylor, E. N.; Thomas, D.; Tuffs, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Wijesinghe, D.

2011-10-01

162

Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.  

PubMed

In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 ?g/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

2012-05-01

163

77 FR 5574 - United States v. Grupo Bimbo, S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grupo Bimbo, S.A.B. de C.V., et al.; Public Comment and Response on Proposed...Grupo Bimbo, S.A.B. de C. V., et al., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-01857...Grupo Bimbo, S.A.B. de C.V., et al. Defendants. CASE NO.:...

2012-02-03

164

Fayalitic olivine in CV3 chondrite matrix and dark inclusions: A nebular origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fayalitic olivine (Fa>32) is the major component of the matrices and Dark Inclusions (DI) of CV3 and other unequilibrated chondrites. It occurs most commonly as rims, veins and halos in and around chondrule silicates in the Allende-type (CV3OxA) chondrites and to a much lesser extent in the reduced (CV3R) and Bali-type (CV3OxB) chondrites. The olivines have distinctive platy, tabular and lath- or irregular-shaped crystals, with the ratio the two types varying widely. In CV3OxB chondrites, matrix fayalitic olivines range up to Fa99.9, whereas in the other CV3 chondrites the range is much smaller. The platy and tabular anisotropic forms of the fayalitic olivines strongly suggest growth from a vapor and the nature of occurrences suggests that CV3 matrices are unequilibrated mixtures of nebular materials. We argue that the parent body hydration/dehydration model has numerous inconsistencies that make this hypothesis highly unlikely. These include: (1) There is no direct evidence linking fayalitic olivine to precursor phyllosilicates. (2) Dehydration of phyllosilicates cannot explain the wide range of morphologies of the fayalitic olivines. (3) Fayalitic olivine clearly predates the formation of the hydrous phases in CV3 chondrites and is one of the phases that breaks down to form phyllosilicates (Keller et al., 1994). (4) The unequilibrated nature of the matrix, including fine scale zoning in 10=B5-sized fayalitic olivine crystals, would not survive the parent body metamorphism required in the dehydration model. (5) A DI in the Ningqiang chondrite contains fayalitic olivine rimmed by glassy and microcrystalline material (Zolensky et al., 1997), which probably formed by radiation damage. This indicates that the fayalitic olivine was exposed to solar radiation in a nebular setting. (6) Some Allende chondrules contain unaltered primary, anhydrous glassy mesostasis in contact with the host matrix (e.g., Ikeda and Kimura, 1995). Chondrule mesostases would not have survived parent body hydration without becoming hydrated and would probably not survive the metamorphic heating required in the dehydration scenario. (7) Single platy and barrel-shaped crystals of fayalitic olivine are present in accretionary rims in CAIs (MacPherson and Davis, 1997), which developed in the nebula. (8) Matrix lumps completely encased in chondrules in ordinary chondrites contain mainly fayalitic olivine (Scott et al., 1984), indicating a nebular origin. (9) Oxygen isotopic compositions of Allende matrix and DIs strongly indicate little or no hydration for Allende and its components (Clayton, 1997). We favor a nebular vaporization/recondensation model in which vaporization of chondritic dust produced a fayalite-rich vapor, followed by formation of the fayalitic olivine by direct recondensation from the vapor, epitactic growth on surfaces of existing forsterite and enstatite in chondrules, and replacement of existing forsterite and enstatite by gas-solid exchange.

Weisberg, Michael K.; Prinz, Martin

1998-09-01

165

The influence of Peronospora tabacina Adam upon the growth rhythm of Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun.  

PubMed

The cinematographic method was used for studying the changes of the growth rhythm of the leaves in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun after the inoculation with Peronospora tabacina Adam. The leaves were screened only at the maturing phase when displaying characteristic disturbances of the growth rhythm. The leaves of a healthy plant show a regular growth rhythm, with regular amplitudes of growth spirals and growth rate. The growth spiral increments are elongated regular and even up to the mature stage of the leaf. In Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun the original regular rhythm was kept for 130 hrs. after the infection with the conidia of Peronospora tabacina Adam. When the first symptoms of the disease appeared on an inoculated leaf (approximately after 20 hrs.), fructification of the mould occurred, the growth rhythm was retarded and, after the necrotization of spots, the leaf died away. PMID:726717

Novák, J; Nováková, J

1978-01-01

166

About the determination of the Schottky barrier height with the CV method  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of general notions about Schottky barrier contacts (SBC) with the insulating layer and interface states (ISs) communicating with semiconductor and metal (when their influence results in the linear bias-dependence of the barrier height and the ideality factor n=const), it is shown that the barrier height determined with C-V method is defined with a simple expression: phibc=nphib0-(n-1)(phis+V2), practically

V. G. Bozhkov; N. A. Torkhov; A. V. Shmargunov

2011-01-01

167

About the determination of the Schottky barrier height with the CV method  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of general notions about Schottky barrier contacts (SBC) with the insulating layer and interface states (ISs) communicating with semiconductor and metal (when their influence results in the linear bias-dependence of the barrier height and the ideality factor n=const), it is shown that the barrier height determined with C-V method is defined with a simple expression: ?bc=n?b0-(n-1)(?s+V2), practically

V. G. Bozhkov; N. A. Torkhov; A. V. Shmargunov

2011-01-01

168

IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors  

SciTech Connect

The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

Maria R. Coluccia et al.

2002-07-16

169

The Influence of Fungicide Sprays on Infection Of Apple cv. Bramley's Seedling By Nectria galligena  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990, a long-term trial was initiated by planting young apple trees, cv. Bramley's Seedling, inoculated, at single sites in the leader shoots, with Nectria galligena. The effect of spring–summer and autumn fungicide spray programmes, applied during 1991–1993, on the development of new cankers was assessed up to May 1994. Spring–summer fungicide programmes, applied as for the control of apple

Louise R. Cooke

1999-01-01

170

Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Banana (Musa, AAA cv. Cavendish) Fruits Peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fresh green and yellow banana peel of, (Musa, cv. Cavendish) fruits were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical elimination. While, antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolated components were

Matook Saif Mokbel; Fumio Hashinaga

171

SALT spectral observations of a new, bright, southern CV: MASTER OT J142023.5-485540  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2013-06-24.063 UT, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT; Buckley et al. 2006; O’Donoghue et al. 2006) observed MASTER OT J142023.5-485540 (RA=14h 20m 23.5s; Dec=-48d 55m 40s). This outbursting CV was discovered by MASTER-ICATE on 2013-06-08.048 UT and followup observations were requested in ATEL #5144.

Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.; Kotze, E. J.; Worters, H. L.; Buckley, D. A. H.; O'Donoghue, H.; Shara, M.

2013-07-01

172

Genetic transformation of Cavendish banana ( Musa spp. AAA group) cv 'Grand Nain' via microprojectile bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method has been developed for the stable transformation and regeneration of Cavendish banana (Musa spp. AAA group) cv 'Grand Nain' by microprojectile bombardment. Embryogenic cell suspensions were initiated using immature\\u000a male flowers as the explant. Cells were co-bombarded with the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) selectable marker gene under the control of a banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) promoter or

D. K. Becker; B. Dugdale; M. K. Smith; R. M. Harding; J. L. Dale

2000-01-01

173

Gibberellins and bud break, vegetative shoot growth and flowering in Metrosideros collina cv. Tahiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of the growth promotive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and 2,2-dimethyl GA4, and of C-16,17 endo-dihydro GA5, which is known to promote flowering while inhibiting stem growth in the long-day grass Lolium temulentum, were made to micropropagated plants of Metrosideros collina cv. Tahiti, a highly ornamental cultivar with an intermittent flowering pattern. Gibberellin A4 and 2,2-dimethyl GA4 stimulated vegetative growth both

J. Clemens; P. E. Jameson; P. Bannister; R. P. Pharis

1995-01-01

174

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

175

Effect of the impregnated solute on air drying and rehydration of apple slices ( cv. Granny Smith)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple (cv. Granny Smith) slices (8mm thickness, 20mm internal diameter, 64mm external diameter) were vacuum impregnated with solutions of glucose, sucrose and trehalose. These were hot air dried and rehydrated in solutions of the same solutes. For impregnating solutions, aw was 0.96 whereas for rehydration aw was 0.99. Throughout dehydration (45°C) the water effective diffusion coefficient in the product’s liquid

L. Atarés; A. Chiralt; C. González-Martínez

2009-01-01

176

On the evaluation theory of CV measurements on narrow gap semiconductor MIS structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model for evaluating experimental capacitance 2014voltage curves on narrow 2014 gap semiconductor (NGS) MIS structures is developed. The features of NGS are taken into account. Demonstrated and discussed is the effect of utilizing Fermi-Dirac statistics, incomplete ionization and recharging of dopants and conduction band nonparabolicity on the behaviour of theoretical C-V curves and interface state density assessment. The

K. G. Germanova; E. P. Valcheva

1987-01-01

177

Temporal and spatial changes in cell wall composition in developing grains of wheat cv. Hereward  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of enzyme mapping, FT-IR microscopy and NMR spectroscopy was used to study temporal and spatial aspects of endosperm\\u000a cell wall synthesis and deposition in developing grain of bread wheat cv. Hereward. This confirmed previous reports that changes\\u000a in the proportions of the two major groups of cell wall polysaccharides occur, with ?-glucan accumulating earlier in development\\u000a than arabinoxylan.

G. A. Toole; G. Le Gall; I. J. Colquhoun; C. Nemeth; L. Saulnier; A. Lovegrove; T. Pellny; M. D. Wilkinson; J. Freeman; R. A. C. Mitchell; E. N. C. Mills; P. R. Shewry

2010-01-01

178

Chelator-Enhanced Lead Accumulation in Agropyron Elongatum cv. Szarvasi-1 in Hydroponic Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroponic culture was applied to compare the efficiency of K2EDTA and citrate in mobilizing Pb for accumulation in Agropyron elongatum cv. Szarvasi-1 and their effects on some physiological characteristics of the plants. The plants were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0, 10, and 100 ?M Pb(NO3)2 combined with chelating agents added to the nutrient solutions after 21 days of growth,

Ildikó Vashegyi; László Lévai; Ferenc Fodor

2011-01-01

179

In vitro selection of endosulfan-tolerant strains of Brassica compestris (cv. Brown Sarson)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endosulfan tolerant lines of mustard (Brassica campestris cv. Brown Sarson) have been developed through tissue culture methods. Cotyledonary expiants excised from eight day old in vitro grown seedlings were used for inducing callus. Fast growing friable callus was then transferred to MS medium containing (0.1–2.0 ugl-1) endosulfan for selection. Five alternating exposures with and without endosulfan containing medium yielded an

K. R. Arya; R. C. Gupta; B. D. Semwal; M. U. Beg

1994-01-01

180

Heavily metamorphosed clasts from the CV chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract- Metamorphosed clasts in the CV carbonaceous chondrite breccias Mokoia and Yamato-86009 (Y-86009) are coarse-grained, granular, polymineralic rocks composed of Ca-bearing (up to 0.6 wt% CaO) ferroan olivine (Fa34-39), ferroan Al-diopside (Fs9-13Wo47-50, approximately 2-7 wt% Al2O3), plagioclase (An37-84Ab63-17), Cr-spinel (Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.19-0.45, Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.60-0.79), nepheline, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, Ca-phosphate, and rare grains of Ni-rich taenite; low-Ca pyroxene is absent. Most clasts have triple junctions between silicate grains, indicative of prolonged thermal annealing. Based on the olivine-spinel and pyroxene thermometry, the estimated metamorphic temperature recorded by the clasts is approximately 1100 K. Few clasts experienced thermal metamorphism to a lower degree and preserved chondrule-like textures. The Mokoia and Y-86009 clasts are mineralogically unique and different from metamorphosed chondrites of known groups (H, L, LL, R, EH, EL, CO, CK) and primitive achondrites (acapulcoites, brachinites, lodranites). On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, compositions of olivine in the clasts plot along carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral line and the Allende mass-fractionation line, and overlap with those of the CV chondrule olivines; the ?17O values of the clasts range from about -4.3‰ to -3.0‰. We suggest that the clasts represent fragments of the CV-like material that experienced metasomatic alteration, high-temperature metamorphism, and possibly melting in the interior of the CV parent asteroid. The lack of low-Ca pyroxene in the clasts could be due to its replacement by ferroan olivine during iron-alkali metasomatic alteration or by high-Ca ferroan pyroxene during melting under oxidizing conditions.

Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nakamura, Tomoki

2012-12-01

181

Influence of edible coating on quality of plum ( Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. ‘Sapphire’)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible coating may enhance the boundary layer resistance resulting in enhanced shelf life of fruits. Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. ‘Sapphire’) were treated with coating material based on carbohydrate (Versasheen) with sorbitol as plasticizer\\u000a and stored at 20 °C and 85% RH. The influence of coating on the gas transmission rates was estimated using a carrier of 100%\\u000a cellulose paper. Coating

Hyang Lan Eum; Dae Keun Hwang; Manfred Linke; Seung Koo Lee; Manuela Zude

2009-01-01

182

Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from solid olive residues of c.v. Coratina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant profile of extracts from solid olive residue (SOR) of c.v. Coratina, a cultivar widely diffused in the south of Italy, using both cell-free and cell-based experimental models, was investigated. A total hydroalcoholic extract (polyphenols content 19.7%) and a purified extract (Oleaselect™) (polyphenols content 35.1%) were tested for their ability to quench the stable free radical DPPH, the peroxyl

G. Aldini; A. Piccoli; G. Beretta; P. Morazzoni; A. Riva; C. Marinello; R. Maffei Facino

2006-01-01

183

MOS CV characterization of ultrathin gate oxide thickness (1.3-1.8 nm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equivalent circuit approach to MOS capacitance-voltage (C-V) modeling of ultrathin gate oxides (1.3-1.8 nm) is proposed. Capacitance simulation including polysilicon depletion is based on quantum mechanical (QM) corrections implemented in a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator; tunneling current is calculated using a one-dimensional (1-D) Green's function solver. The sharp decrease in capacitance observed for gate oxides below 2.0 nm in

Chang-Hoon Choi; Jung-Suk Goo; Tae-Young Oh; Zhiping Yu; Robert W. Dutton; Amr Bayoumi; Min Cao; Paul Vande Voorde; Dieter Vook; C. H. Diaz

1999-01-01

184

Copper-mediated oxidative burst in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?In cell suspension cultures of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) a rapid and concentration-dependent accumulation of H2O2 is induced by excess concentrations of copper (up to 100??M). This specific and early response towards copper stress was\\u000a shown to be extracellular. Addition of 300?U of catalase per ml decreased the level of H2O2. Superoxide dismutase (5?U\\/ml) induced an

T. Raeymaekers; G. Potters; H. Asard; Y. Guisez; N. Horemans

2003-01-01

185

The effect of ?-glucanase on the nutritive value of hulless barley cv. Rastik for broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was carried out on 48 eight-day-old broiler females, kept in individual cages and allocated to 3 groups, 16 birds per group. Two experimental diets were formulated, both contained 800 g\\/kg of hulless barley cv. Rastik, and were unsupplemented or supplemented with a ?-glucanase preparation (Avizyme 1100, 1.5 g\\/kg). The control diet was based on wheat and soyabean meal

M. Bekta; M. Fabija?ska; S. Smulikowska

186

Effect of potassium starvation on the uptake of radiocaesium by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short term experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of internal tissue potassium concentration on the uptake\\u000a of radiocaesium by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic). The results showed that potassium starvation increased Cs influx rates by a factor of 10 compared with non-starved\\u000a plants. Solution to plant tissue transfer factor (TF) values also increased by around an order

Y.-G. Zhu; G. Shaw; A. F. Nisbet; B. T. Wilkins

2000-01-01

187

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of commercial melon ( Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotyledon explants of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L., cv. Amarillo Oro) seedlings were co-cultivated with disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 that contained the binary vector plasmid pBI121.1. The T-DNA region of this binary vector contains the Nopaline synthase\\/neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) chimeric gene for kanamycin resistance and the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S\\/ß-glucuronidase (GUS) chimeric gene. After infection, the cotyledon pieces were

M. P. Vallés; J. M. Lasa

1994-01-01

188

Effectiveness and tolerability of CV-3988, a selective PAF antagonist, after intravenous administration to man.  

PubMed Central

1. The efficacy and tolerability of CV-3988, a selective PAF antagonist with structural analogies with PAF, were studied after intravenous infusion in man. 2. The compound, in doses from 750 to 2,000 micrograms kg-1, significantly reduced platelet sensitivity for PAF. The threshold aggregating concentration (TAC) of PAF, expressed in % of the mean predosing value, increased in a dose dependent manner reaching 356 +/- 162% of the basal TAC at the end and 266 +/- 123% of the basal TAC 4 h after infusion of the highest dose. The TAC of PAF returned to the basal value within 24 h after the end of the infusion. 3. CV-3988 did not cause major side effects nor changes in blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rate. However, small but clinically insignificant changes in plasma haemoglobin and serum haptoglobin were seen at the end and 4 h after the end of the infusion, indicating a slight haemolysis. 4. Our results indicate that, when adequate infusion volumes and infusion rates are used, CV-3988 can safely be administered to man and should be useful in elucidating the role of PAF in disease.

Arnout, J; van Hecken, A; De Lepeleire, I; Miyamoto, Y; Holmes, I; De Schepper, P; Vermylen, J

1988-01-01

189

Umbilical reconstruction using a modified inverted C-V flap with conjoint flaps.  

PubMed

The umbilicus is an important aesthetic feature of the abdomen. Because of its location, the umbilicus can be injured after abdominal surgical procedures. Various methods have been devised to reconstruct the umbilicus by using local flaps, purse-string sutures, or a cartilage graft, but there are no ideal methods. The authors have created a modified inverted C-V flap with conjoint flaps. A 10-year-old boy presented with deformed umbilicus because he had undergone surgical correction of an omphalocele. The drawback of the traditional C-V flap method is the transverse long abdominal scar because of the long length of the V flap. However, by using two conjoint flaps at the superior part of the C-V flap, the length of V flap can be more short and the umbilical wall can be reconstructed by rotation of two conjoint flaps. It is also good for making a sinusoidal pocket and it makes the umbilicus deeper and more natural-looking. After the operation, there were no complications like flap necrosis, infection, haematoma, and so on. The patient was satisfied with the results The patient had a more attractive umbilicus than the one with the other previous technique. This new method makes a natural-looking umbilicus with less of a transverse scar and an adequate sinusoidal pocket and umbilical wall. PMID:23829506

Lee, Yoonho; Lee, San Ha; Woo, Kevin Volt

2013-09-01

190

Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

Koz?owski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

2009-06-01

191

Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana  

PubMed Central

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (?)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

2014-01-01

192

Anthelmintic activities of aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana.  

PubMed

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae), commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant), liriodenine (1), lysicamine (2), (-)-anonaine (3), (-)-asimilobine (4), (-)-caaverine (5), (-)-N-methylasimilobine (6), (-)-nuciferine (7), (-)-nornuciferine (8), (-)-roemerine (9), 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10) and cepharadione B (11) were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis). However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana. PMID:24583851

Lin, Rong-Jyh; Wu, Mei-Hsuan; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Chuan-Min

2014-01-01

193

Fayalite in the Vigarano CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: Occurrences, formation age and conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed petrographic characterization, 53Mn- 53Cr age determination and thermodynamic stability evaluations of fayalite in Vigarano meteorite that belongs to the reduced subgroup of CV3 chondrites. Vigarano is a breccia consisting of clasts which are separate chondrules surrounded by olivine-rich fine-grained materials. Four out of twenty three explored clasts contain fayalites that represent materials of the Bali-like oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites. The fayalites (Fa > 80 ) with grain sizes typically < 20 µm occurs in veins that extend from chondrules into the fine-grained materials. The fayalite commonly coexists with troilite and/or magnetite. The fayalite-bearing veins terminate at the boundaries of clasts. No evidence of strong impact enough to make melt veins is found in materials adjacent to the veins. These observations suggest that the fayalite-bearing veins in the Bali-like clasts formed through aqueous alteration in an asteroid prior to fragmentation and re-accretion to the Vigarano parent body. In saponite-rich fine-grained materials, we also found troilite-magnetite veins, which are similar to the fayalite-bearing veins in morphology. Morphological evidences and thermochemical equilibrium calculations suggest that fayalite replaced magnetite, and that replacement occurred at temperatures < 200 °C and low water/rock mass ratios from 0.07 to 0.18, which represent aqueous to metamorphic transition. Fayalite grains typically show iron-magnesium zoning (fayalite content decreases towards the grain edges). Based on equilibrium models, this zoning may have occurred at increasing temperature. The observed initial ratio of ( 53Mn/ 55Mn) 0 = (2.3 ± 0.5) × 10 - 6 suggests that fayalite formed ~ 5 Ma before the timing when the Mn-Cr system was closed in angrite NWA 4801 and has an absolute age of ~ 4563 ± 1 Ma. The age of fayalite is identical within errors to that in Mokoia and Kaba CV3 chondrites, which belong to the Bali-like oxidized subgroup. The identical age implies that aqueous alteration occurred at the same time in parent asteroids of Bali-like subgroup materials. These fayalite-bearing materials may have been derived from a single CV3 asteroid or from separate CV3 asteroids where aqueous alteration simultaneously occurred.

Jogo, Kaori; Nakamura, Tomoki; Noguchi, Takaaki; Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.

2009-10-01

194

Secondary Mineralization of Components in CV3 Chondrites: Nebular and Asteroidal Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our review of mineralogical variations among CV3 chondrites suggests that all components, chondrules, matrices, and CAIs, were affected by various degrees of secondary mineralization. Chondrules and CAIs are rimmed with fayalitic olivine [1, 2]; metal in all components is oxidized and sulfidized to magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides [3]; silicates in all components are aqueously altered to phyllosilicates [4]; and nepheline, sodalite, wollastonite, and hedenbergite replace primary minerals in CAIs [5]. In those CV3s with altered CAIs, nepheline etc. are also present in chondrule mesostases [6] and in matrices [7]. Correlated occurrences of secondary minerals indicate that they have related origins. CV3 chondrites can be divided into three kinds according to their secondary features. Reduced CV3s (e.g., Efremovka) lack magnetite [8] and show minimal secondary features. Oxidized CV3s [8] generally show all features: those like Mokoia contain minor fayalitic rims, nepheline, etc, whereas those like Allende lack phyllosilicates but contain well developed fayalite rims and abundant nepheline, etc. Allende-like CV3 chondrites also contain abundant plate-like matrix olivine (Fa(sub)45-55). Similarities in chemistry and O isotopic composition and petrographic observations suggest that fayalitic rims and plate-like matrix olivine have related origins [1, 9]. The presence of secondary minerals in all components implies that alteration postdated component formation. The absence of secondary minerals in reduced CV3s indicates that CV3 oxidized formed from CV3 reduced-like material. Oxidized and reduced materials coexist in some breccias indicating a common parent asteroid. Nebular origins are widely accepted for most secondary features. To form fayalitic rims and matrix , Palme and colleagues [10, 11] suggest that chondritic components were briefly exposed to a hot (>1500 K), highly oxidizing nebula with H2O/H2 to about 1. Such an environment could have resulted from vaporization after >1000-fold dust/gas enrichment [11]. Fe-rich olivine will not condense until most Mg has condensed into forsterite [11]. The steep compositional gradients between adjacent fayalite and forsterite limit the duration of fayalite condensation to a period of several hours [2]. There are several inconsistencies in this late-stage evaporation-condensation model. Fayalitic rims occur inside chondrules and formed by alteration, not by condensation. Forsterite and enstatite grains that supposedly condensed from the nebula are absent on chondrule rims and in chondrites. Magnetite, Ni-rich metal and sulfides are present inside matrix olivine, inconsistent with equilibrium calculations. I-Xe data suggest that sodalite formation in Allende lasted for about 10 Myr, which is inconsistent with a nebular origin [12]. Asteroidal alteration is favored for magnetite [3] and required for most phyllosilicates [4]. Asteroidal formation of fayalite [13] was rejected [2], partly because hydrous minerals are absent in Allende. We suggest that Allende-like CV3 chondrites may have formed in an asteroid by aqueous alteration and dehydration; see Krot et al. [this volume] for details. Higher Na and K concentrations in oxidized CV3 chondrites are not inconsistent with asteroidal alteration, as CM2 chondrites show similar heterogeneities. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA grants NAGW-3281 (K. Keil) and 152-11-40-23 (M.E.Z.). References: [1] Peck J. A. and Wood J. A. (1987) GCA, 51, 1503-1510. [2] Hua X. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1389-1408. [3] Blum J. D. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 543-556. [4] Keller L. P. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5589-5598. [5] Hashimoto A. and Grosman L. (1987) GCA, 51, 1685-1704. [6] Kimura M. and Ikeda Y. (1992) Proc. Symp. Antarc. Meteorites, 17, 31-33. [7] Peck J. A. (1983) LPS XIV, 373-374. [8] McSween H. Y. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [9] Weinbruch S. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 2649-2661. [10] Palme et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 25, 383. [11] Palme H. and Fegley B. (1991) EPSL, 101, 180-195. [12] Swindle T. D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2215-2227. [13]

Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.; Zolensky, M. E.

1995-09-01

195

Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"EJAB is a refereed online journal of bibliographies on any aspect of Africa, its peoples, their homes, cities, towns, districts, states, countries, regions, including social, economic sustainable development, creative literature, the arts, and the Diaspora." The site currently has three bibliographies: Guides, Collections and Ancillary Materials to African Archival Resources in the US; Foreign Periodicals on Africa; and Medical/Health Periodicals and Books on Africa. Combined, they contain over 2100 entries. Anyone studying Africa will undoubtedly find numerous important resources.

1997-01-01

196

Technology Assessment of Through-Silicon Via by Using $C$–$V$ and $C$–$t$ Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-V characteristics of through-silicon vias (TSVs) manufactured in two different processing lines are compared to demonstrate the reproducibility of the TSV process module in terms of the minimum TSV depletion capacitance in the operating voltage region. TSV C-V and C-t measurements before and after thermocycling are employed for assessing the oxide liner and Ta barrier integrity of the TSV under

Guruprasad Katti; Michele Stucchi; Dimitrios Velenis; Sarasvathi Thangaraju; Kristin De Meyer; Wim Dehaene; Eric Beyne

2011-01-01

197

Cardiac versus vascular effects of a new dihydropyridine derivative, CV-4093. In vitro comparison with other calcium antagonists.  

PubMed

The effects of CV-4093, a new dihydropyridine derivative, on isolated cardiovascular tissues were compared with those of several dihydropyridine and non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. CV-4093 effectively inhibited the contractions induced in canine femoral arteries by high [K+]0 and Bay K 8644, but incompletely relaxed those induced by norepinephrine. CV-4093, 10(-6) M, abolished the electrically induced slow action potentials in guinea-pig papillary muscles partially depolarized by 25 mM K+ solution and attenuated those induced by isoproterenol, histamine and Bay K 8644. The rank order of potency of dihydropyridine and non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists in canine femoral arteries and veins precontracted with 120 mM [K+]0 was as follows: nisoldipine greater than nicardipine greater than or equal to nifedipine greater than or equal to CV-4093 greater than verapamil greater than or equal to diltiazem. Nisoldipine was the most potent and CV-4093 was the least potent among these drugs in terms of negative inotropic effect in normally polarized papillary muscles and negative chronotropic effect in right atria of guinea pigs. The rank order of potency for these cardiodepressant actions was nisoldipine greater than or equal to nifedipine greater than nicardipine greater than verapamil greater than diltiazem greater than or equal to CV-4093. The duration of action potential in guinea-pig papillary muscles was shortened by nisoldipine and nifedipine, unchanged by nicardipine and CV-4093 and was slightly prolonged by verapamil and diltiazem. These results suggest that CV-4093 is a calcium antagonist with a highly selective vascular effect and little cardiodepressant action, and could be of value for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:3350058

Nakaya, H; Hattori, Y; Nakao, Y; Kanno, M

1988-01-27

198

mdx(?cv) mice manifest more severe muscle dysfunction and diaphragm force deficits than do mdx Mice.  

PubMed

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle dysfunction leading to premature death by the third decade of life. The mdx mouse, the most widely used animal model of DMD, has been extremely useful to study disease mechanisms and to screen new therapeutics. However, unlike patients with DMD, mdx mice have a very mild motor function deficit, posing significant limitations for its use as a platform to assess the impact of treatments on motor function. It has been suggested that an mdx variant, the mdx(5cv) mouse, might be more severely affected. Here, we compared the motor activity, histopathology, and individual muscle force measurements of mdx and mdx(?cv) mice. Our study revealed that mdx(?cv) mice showed more severe exercise-induced fatigue, Rotarod performance deficits, and gait anomalies than mdx mice and that these deficits began at a younger age. Muscle force studies showed more severe strength deficits in the diaphragm of mdx(?cv) mice compared to mdx mice, but similar force generation in the extensor digitorum longus. Muscle histology was similar between the two strains. Differences in genetic background (genetic modifiers) probably account for these functional differences between mdx strains. Overall, our findings indicate that the mdx and mdx(?cv) mouse models of DMD are not interchangeable and identify the mdx(?cv) mouse as a valuable platform for preclinical studies that require assessment of muscle function in live animals. PMID:21893021

Beastrom, Nicholas; Lu, Haiyan; Macke, Allison; Canan, Benjamin D; Johnson, Eric K; Penton, Christopher M; Kaspar, Brian K; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R; Zhou, Lan; Janssen, Paul M L; Montanaro, Federica

2011-11-01

199

mdx5cv Mice Manifest More Severe Muscle Dysfunction and Diaphragm Force Deficits than Do mdx Mice  

PubMed Central

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle dysfunction leading to premature death by the third decade of life. The mdx mouse, the most widely used animal model of DMD, has been extremely useful to study disease mechanisms and to screen new therapeutics. However, unlike patients with DMD, mdx mice have a very mild motor function deficit, posing significant limitations for its use as a platform to assess the impact of treatments on motor function. It has been suggested that an mdx variant, the mdx5cv mouse, might be more severely affected. Here, we compared the motor activity, histopathology, and individual muscle force measurements of mdx and mdx5cv mice. Our study revealed that mdx5cv mice showed more severe exercise-induced fatigue, Rotarod performance deficits, and gait anomalies than mdx mice and that these deficits began at a younger age. Muscle force studies showed more severe strength deficits in the diaphragm of mdx5cv mice compared to mdx mice, but similar force generation in the extensor digitorum longus. Muscle histology was similar between the two strains. Differences in genetic background (genetic modifiers) probably account for these functional differences between mdx strains. Overall, our findings indicate that the mdx and mdx5cv mouse models of DMD are not interchangeable and identify the mdx5cv mouse as a valuable platform for preclinical studies that require assessment of muscle function in live animals.

Beastrom, Nicholas; Lu, Haiyan; Macke, Allison; Canan, Benjamin D.; Johnson, Eric K.; Penton, Christopher M.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Rodino-Klapac, Louise R.; Zhou, Lan; Janssen, Paul M.L.; Montanaro, Federica

2011-01-01

200

Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).  

PubMed

Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse. PMID:24226709

Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

1990-08-01

201

Carrier Density Profiling of Ultra-Shallow Junction Layers Through Corrected C-V Plotting  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this report is to present and justify a new approach for carrier density profiling in ultra-shallow junction (USJ) layer. This new approach is based on a capacitance measurement model, which takes series impedance, shunt resistance and the presence of a boron skin on the USJ layer into account. It allows us to extract the depletion layer capacitances in the USJ layer from C-V plotting more accurately and hence to obtain better carrier density profiles. Based on this new approach the carrier density profiles of different USJ layers with and without halo-style implants are obtained and discussed.

Chen, James; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Dimitrova, Tatiana [Four Dimensions, Inc., 3140 Diablo Ave, Hayward, California, 94545 (United States); Timans, Paul [Mattson Technology, Inc. Fremont, California (United States); Gelpey, Jeff; McCoy, Steve [Mattson Technology Canada, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Lerch, Wilfried; Paul, Silke [Mattson Thermal Products GmbH, Dornstadt (Germany); Bolze, Detlef [IHP, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2008-11-03

202

The light curve of CV Serpentis, the sometimes-eclipsing Wolf-Rayet star  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New photoelectric observations of the B-magnitude of CV Ser made in 1973 and 1974 show no clear evidence of an eclipse, but they establish night-to-night variability of several percent, a systematic brightness change of 0.035 mag during a portion of the single orbit observed in 1973, and irregular flaring in 1974. We made iris photometer measurements of Harvard patrol plates taken between 1905 June and 1953 July, and find no evidence of a very deep eclipse such as observed by Hjellming and Hiltner. We present several new light curves and discuss then in the light of the recent results of Cowley et al.

Schild, R.; Liller, W.

1975-01-01

203

Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

Johnson, C. A.; Prinz, M.; Weisberg, M. K.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

1990-03-01

204

Avaliação de fontes de amônia para o tratamento de fenos de gramíneas tropicais. 2. Compostos nitrogenados  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Este estudo foi desenvolvido para se avaliarem as alterações nos conteúdos de compostos nitrogenados dos fenos de braquiária decumbens ( Brachiaria decumbnes Stapf) e jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa Ness Stapf) não-tratados, tratados com uréia (U - 5,4% da MS), uréia (UL - 5,4% da MS) mais labe-labe (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, cv. Highworth-3,0% da MS) ou amônia anidra (NH3

Ricardo Andrade Reis; Luis Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues; Kléber Tomás de Resende; João Ricardo Alves Pereira; Ana Cláudia Ruggieri

2001-01-01

205

Ophthalmic results in patients with macroprolactinomas treated with a new prolactin inhibitor CV 205-502.  

PubMed Central

Macroprolactinomas are pituitary tumours which have been effectively treated medically since the introduction of bromocriptine. The visual function of 13 patients treated with a new prolactin (PRL) inhibitor CV 205-502 (Sandoz Basle), a potent and selective dopamine D2 receptor agonist, was evaluated. This is the first detailed ophthalmic report of the use of this drug in macroprolactinomas. Patients were enrolled from June 1988 to July 1990 (mean follow up 30 months). Visual function including visual acuity, ocular pressure, and visual fields was regularly controlled. Visual fields (VF) were tested with Goldmann and automatic static perimetry (Vision Monitor). Treatment was globally effective. No modifications of the visual function were observed in nine patients (six normal, three previous VF losses after surgery). In four other patients, visual function dramatically improved (regression of a III paresis, one case; disappearance of a chiasmatic syndrome, three cases). A pituitary necrosis was observed in one case and successfully cured. CV 205-502 seems to be an effective and well tolerated treatment of macroprolactinomas. Images

Grochowicki, M; Khalfallah, Y; Vighetto, A; Berquet, S; Sassolas, G

1993-01-01

206

Electroacupuncture Stimulation at CV12 Inhibits Gastric Motility via TRPV1 Receptor  

PubMed Central

Gastric dysmotility is one of the major pathophysiological factors in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Acupuncture, as one of the alternative approaches, is efficacious in the treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders; however, the mechanism underlying its action is unclear. In the present study, we used both capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, and TRPV1 knockout mice. Animals were divided into wild-type group (WT), capsazepine injection group (CZP, 0.5?mg/kg, i.p.), and TRPV1 knockout mice group (TRPV1?/?). Each of these three groups was divided into three subgroups, which were subjected to EA stimulation at acupoint Zhongwan (CV12) at a different intensity (1, 2, or 4?mA). We demonstrated that electroacupuncture at Zhongwan (CV12) markedly inhibited gastric motility at 2 and 4?mA in an intensity-dependent manner in wild-type mice. The inhibitory effect was also observed in capsazepine-injected and TRPV1?/? mice but was no longer intensity dependent, indicating that TRPV1 is partially involved in the electroacupuncture-mediated modulation of gastric motility.

Yu, Zhi; Cao, Xin; Xia, Youbing; Ren, Binbin; Feng, Hong; Wang, Yali; Jiang, Jingfeng; Xu, Bin

2013-01-01

207

Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. puttabale micropropagated clones.  

PubMed

An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron (0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 +/- 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 +/- 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (5-15%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, beta-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt. PMID:23898552

Venkatesh; Krishna, V; Kumar, K Girish; Pradeepa, K; Kumar, S R Santosh; Kumar, R Shashi

2013-07-01

208

THE RELATIONSHIP QUESTIONNAIRE-CLINICAL VERSION (RQ-CV): INTRODUCING A PROFOUNDLY-DISTRUSTFUL ATTACHMENT STYLE  

PubMed Central

Cost-efficient prenatal assessments are needed that have the potential to identify those at risk for parent/infant relational problems. With this goal in mind, an additional attachment style description was added to the Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991), an established self-report attachment measure, to create the Relationship Questionnaire: Clinical Version (RQ-CV). The additional description represents a profoundly-distrustful attachment style: “I think it's a mistake to trust other people. Everyone's looking out for themselves, so the sooner you learn not to expect anything from anybody else the better.” The RQ-CV was applied to a sample of 44 low-income mothers who had participated in a previous study of the impact of family risk factors on infant development. After first controlling for demographic risk factors and for other insecure adult attachment styles, mother's profound-distrust was associated with three independent assessments of the quality of maternal interactions with the infant assessed 20 years earlier. In particular, profound-distrust was related to more hostile, intrusive, and negative behaviors toward the infant. The results are discussed within the framework of attachment theory.

HOLMES, BJARNE M.; LYONS-RUTH, KARLEN

2006-01-01

209

Metabolism of Tritiated Gibberellin A(9) by Shoots of Dark-grown Dwarf Pea, cv. Meteor.  

PubMed

Tritium-labeled gibberellin A(9) ((3)H-GA(9)) was metabolized by etiolated shoots of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) to GA(20), GA(10), 2,3-dihydro-GA(31), and a number of highly polar, acidic GA-like substances. Identifications were made by gasliquid radiochromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic studies showed that GA(30) and 2,3-dihydro-GA(31) were produced within 5 hours following (3)H-GA(9) application to pea shoots. The polar GA-like substances were produced between 5 and 10 hours after (3)H-GA(9) application. Levels of GA(10) increased with time, and since no GA(10) was produced during the purification procedures, GA(10) was, in all probability, produced from (3)H-GA(9) within the plant tissue. The radioactive interconversion products produced by pea from (3)H-GA(9) have chromatographic properties similar to biologically active GA-like substances present in etiolated shoots of dwarf pea. Large scale applications of (3)H-GA(9) with very low specific activity to etiolated pea shoots showed that the radioactivity of the interconversion products was correlated exactly with biological activity as assayed by dwarf rice (Oryza sativa cv. Tan-ginbozu). PMID:16658838

Railton, I D; Durley, R C; Pharis, R P

1974-07-01

210

Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

Deng, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Leng, Bi-Yan; Lou, Ning-Ning; He, Shuai

2010-05-01

211

Evidence for internally generated magnetic fields on the CV chondrite parent planetesimal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been known that some carbonaceous chondrites carry a stable natural remanent magnetization. The origin of this magnetization has been a longstanding mystery because it was in many cases acquired following accretion of the parent bodies. The spinning, orbiting parent body would have been unlikely to record the spatially and temporally variable magnetic fields associated with the early sun and the protoplanetary disk. On the other hand, the possibility of an internally generated dynamo field has been discounted due to the traditional assumption that chondrites are samples of undifferentiated bodies. We have conducted a paleomagnetic study on mutually oriented samples of Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. We found that the fusion crust is magnetized in a different direction from the interior, which constitutes a baked contact test demonstrating that the magnetization in the interior is preterrestrial. Our thermal demagnetization analyses demonstrate that most of the natural remanent magnetization is carried by pyrrhotite with a small contribution from magnetite and other phases. This confirms results from numerous previous investigators that the magnetization in Allende must have been acquired after accretion. A variety of petrologic and geochronometric suggest that thermal metamorphism to peak temperatures of 550- 600°C continued for millions of years afterward, consistent with our thermal demagnetization data. Other new geochemical datasets indicate that metallic cores had already formed in planetesimals by this time. Therefore, the magnetization Allende and other CV samples is naturally explained by an internal core dynamo on a partially differentiated parent body.

Carporzen, L.; Weiss, B. P.; Ebel, D. S.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

2008-12-01

212

Structural analysis of the short length ribosomal DNA variant from Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska.  

PubMed Central

The genomic clone, RRNpss1, representing the short ribosomal DNA length variant in Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska, has been isolated and the 2859 bp intergenic spacer, along with the 25S rRNA 3' border and 18S rRNA 5' border, has been sequenced. The intergenic spacer contains nine tandem repeats, approximately 180 bp in length, which show greater than 80% sequence homology to each other. The RNA polymerase I transcription start site and a processing site, located 776 bp and 536 bp upstream of the 5' end of 18S rRNA, respectively, have been determined using S1 analysis. The region surrounding the +1 site shows strong homology between the positions -6 to +10 to the rDNA sites of initiation in radish, maize, and wheat. The sequence CATGCAAA is located 19 bp upstream of the site of initiation, and appears once within each subrepeat and twice more between the end of the subrepeat array and the site of initiation. A previously characterized HpaII site which shows developmental regulation of methylation is located 31 bp downstream of the site of initiation. Using RFLP linkage analysis, the short rDNA length variant of cv. Alaska is assigned to Chromosome 4 where it is genetically independent of the long rDNA length variant which is putatively assigned to Chromosome 7. Images

Piller, K J; Baerson, S R; Polans, N O; Kaufman, L S

1990-01-01

213

Gene ontology based characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Brassica rapa cv. Osome.  

PubMed

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in Chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp. PMID:23898551

Arasan, Senthil Kumar Thamil; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Lee, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Gu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo; Nou, Ill-Sup

2013-07-01

214

In Situ Measurement of Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Magnetite in the Allende CV3 Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetite is relatively abundant in the oxidized CV chondrites. This study was undertaken to examine possible origins in nebular or in parent-body processes. Magnetite in Allende has several distinct characteristics compared to that of the other CV chondrites. Unlike Mokoia and Vigarano, magnetite in Allende is almost exclusively found in chondrules, where it typically forms spherical nodules often associated with metal and/or sulfides. In addition, the Ni contents of metal in most CV chondrites seldom exceed 50 wt%, while in Allende nearly all of metal grains are Ni rich (64-71 wt% Ni [e.g., 1]), which we designate awaruite even though the Ni range is below that of awaruite. Rare kamacite grains are present in chondrules [2]. A few rare Allende nodules have euhedral to subhedral awaruite grains [e.g., 3]. Nodules of magnetite + sulfides, magnetite + metal, and metal + sulfide exhibit different textures implying that magnetite grains are not simply pseudomorphs of preexisting metal grains. Tiny magnetite grains (< 1 micrometer) are found in Ni-rich metal ; in turn, the host metal is surrounded by magnetite. The textural evidence is not sufficient to distinguish between a high temperature and a low temperature origin for the magnetite. Six magnetite nodules, which had relatively clean areas of ~ 25 micrometers diameter, from 4 Allende PO chondrules were selected for in situ oxygen isotope study using the UCLA Cameca ims 1270, a high resolution - high sensitivity ion microprobe. A ~0.3 nA primary Cs+ beam was defocused to a 20-25 micrometers spot and a field aperture inserted into the secondary ion beam to restrict the analyzed area to the central 10-12 micrometers of each nodule. Negative ions were collected at a mass resolving power of ~6500, sufficient to eliminate hydride interferences. A normal incidence electron gun was employed to compensate possible sample charging. To monitor the instrumental mass fractionation (-11.2+/-0.5 per mil/amu) analyses of terrestrial magnetite LP204a [4] were made interspersed amongst the chondrule analyses. Chondrule data corrected for mass fractionation and normalized to the SMOW scale are shown in Figure 1. Oxygen isotope ratios from inclusion and crack free regions in four magnetite nodules are tightly clustered below the terrestrial mass fractionation (TF) line and are distinct from oxygen isotope fields observed in magnetite from CI and Essebi chondrites [5] and from isolated grains in CI meteorites [6]. The data plot near the ^(16)O mixing line of refractory minerals in Allende (CCAM), but the spread in the ratios is too low relative to the precision of the measurements to define any linear trend for these samples. In 2 chondrules, magnetite nodules with cracks or Ni-Fe metal have very different oxygen compositions; they plot near the TF line at low delta^(18)O (-10 per mil). At this time, it is not clear if this difference could be due to a sputtering artifact, or if it reflects alteration or inclusion of another phase in these "magnetite" nodules. The question of the origin of CV magnetite has not yet been resolved. Data on additional samples including other CV chondrites will help clarify this point. References: [1] McSween H. Y. Jr. (1977) GCA, 41, 1777-1790. [2] Fuchs L. H. and Olsen E. (1973) EPSL, 18, 379-384. [3] Rubin A. E. (1991) Am. Mineral., 76, 1356-1362. [4] Valley J. W. and Graham G. M. (1991) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 109, 38-52. [5] Rowe M. W. et al. (1994) GCA, 58, 5341-5347. [6] Hyman M. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 350.

Choi, B.-G.; Coath, C. D.; Leshin, L.; Wang, J.; McKeegan, K. D.; Wasson, J. T.

1995-09-01

215

Determination of the petrologic type of CV3 chondrites by Raman spectroscopy of included organic matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first reliable quantitative determination of the thermal metamorphism grade of a series of nine CV3 chondrites: Allende, Axtell, Bali, Mokoia, Grosnaja, Efremovka, Vigarano, Leoville, and Kaba. The maturity of the organic matter in matrix, determined by Raman spectroscopy, has been used as a powerful metamorphic tracer, independent of the mineralogical context and extent of aqueous alteration. This tracer has been used along with other metamorphic tracers such as Fe zoning in type-I chondrules of olivine phenocrysts, presolar grain abundance and noble gas abundance (bulk and P3 component). The study shows that the petrologic types determined earlier by Induced ThermoLuminescence were underestimated and suggests the following values: PT (Allende-Axtell) >3.6; PT (Bali-Mokoia-Grosnaja) ˜3.6; PT (Efremovka-Leoville-Vigarano) = 3.1-3.4; PT (Kaba) ˜3.1. The most commonly studied CV3, Allende, is also the most metamorphosed. Bali is a breccia containing clasts of different petrologic types. The attribution suggested by this study is that of clasts of the highest petrologic types, as pointed out by IOM maturity and noble gas bulk abundance. CV3 chondrites have complex asteroidal backgrounds, with various degrees of aqueous alteration and/or thermal metamorphism leading to complex mineralogical and petrologic patterns. (Fe,Mg) chemical zoning in olivine phenocrysts, on the borders of type I chondrules of porphyritic olivine- and pyroxene-rich textural types, has been found to correlate with the metamorphism grade. This suggests that chemical zoning in some chondrules, often interpreted as exchanges between chondrules and nebular gas, may well have an asteroidal origin. Furthermore, the compositional range of olivine matrix is controlled both by thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. This does not support evidence of a nebular origin and does not necessarily mirror the metamorphism grade through (Fe,Mg) equilibration. On the other hand, it may provide clues on the degree of aqueous alteration vs. thermal metamorphism and on the timing of both processes. In particular, Mokoia experienced significant aqueous alteration after the metamorphism peak, whereas Grosnaja, which has similar metamorphism grade, did not.

Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Montagnac, Gilles

2006-04-01

216

Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism in the stability field of low feldspar (i.e., less than 800 C) and a metamorphic history similar to that of the CO chondrites but unlike that of the ordinary chondrites.

Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

1995-01-01

217

C-V measurements of micron diameter metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using a scanning-electron-microscope-based nanoprobe  

SciTech Connect

The C-V electrical characterization of microstructures on a standard probe station is limited by the magnification of the imaging system and the precision of the probe manipulators. To overcome these limitations, we examine the combination of in situ electrical probing and a dual column scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam system. The imaging parameters and probing procedures are carefully chosen to reduce e-beam damage to the metal oxide semiconductor capacitor device under test. Estimation of shunt capacitance is critical when making femtofarad level measurements. C-V measurements of micron size metal-oxide-silicon capacitors are demonstrated.

Zheng, T.; Jia, H.; Wallace, R. M.; Gnade, B. E. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

2007-10-15

218

Molecular evidence that diploid Stylosanthes humilis and diploid Stylosanthes hamata are progenitors of allotetraploid Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano.  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, using peroxidase, O-methyltransferase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase cDNAs isolated from Stylosanthes humilis, as probes, provided molecular evidence for the genetic origin of the naturally occuring allotetraploid genotype Stylosanthes hamata cv. Verano (2n = 4x = 40). Hybridization patterns strongly suggest that the likely progenitors of S. hamata cv. Verano were a diploid S. humilis (2n = 2x = 20) and a diploid S. hamata (2n = 2x = 20) species. PMID:18470174

Curtis, M D; Manners, J M; Cameron, D F

1995-04-01

219

Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.  

PubMed

Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and ?-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines. PMID:24767053

Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

2014-09-15

220

Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.  

PubMed

Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better. PMID:16493521

De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

2006-01-01

221

Factors affecting taste scores of early season seedless table grape cv. Mystery and Prime.  

PubMed

Table grapes of cv. Mystery and Prime were harvested from 10 farms in two growing areas of Israel over two seasons. The grapes were separated on the basis of sucrose solutions from 12 to 18%; soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and pH were determined; and taste tests were conducted. SSC gave the best correlation with taste tests, and multiple regression of SSC, TA, and pH improved the correlation. There were both seasonal and regional differences in the measured maturity parameters. Lower TA and higher pH were found in grapes from the Jordan Valley. Volatiles were predominantly C(6) compounds hexanal and 2-hexanal, contributing a fresh aroma to the grapes. It is concluded that Mystery and Prime grapes have good organoleptic quality if harvested at SSC levels of >14%. PMID:11804527

Sonego, Lilian; Lurie, Susan; Zuthi, Yohanan; Kaplonov, Tatiana; Ben-Arie, Ruth; Kosto, Itzhak

2002-01-30

222

In vitro selection of endosulfan-tolerant strains of Brassica compestris (cv. Brown Sarson).  

PubMed

Endosulfan tolerant lines of mustard (Brassica campestris cv. Brown Sarson) have been developed through tissue culture methods. Cotyledonary expiants excised from eight day old in vitro grown seedlings were used for inducing callus. Fast growing friable callus was then transferred to MS medium containing (0.1-2.0 ugl(-1)) endosulfan for selection. Five alternating exposures with and without endosulfan containing medium yielded an endosulfan tolerant cell line (ETL). The plants regenerated from ETL were found to tolerate three fold higher concentrations of endosulfan. Callus induced from randomly selected endosulfan tolerant regenerated plants were also tolerant to 3.0 ugl endosulfan, thereby, suggesting that tolerance has been acquired at the gene level.Biochemical investigation revealed higher levels of total free sugar, free amino acids, protein and activity of peroxidase in the tolerant cell line. PMID:24192881

Arya, K R; Gupta, R C; Semwal, B D; Beg, M U

1994-12-01

223

Understanding CV Secondaries and the Energetics of Dwarf Novae Outbursts via Parallaxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine HST and ground-based parallaxes for cataclysmic variables (CVs) to examine their outburst energetics, as well as the nature of their secondary stars. Harrison et al. (2004) have recently published parallaxes for WZ Sge, YZ Cnc, and RU Peg, and have reanalyzed the HST parallaxes for U Gem, SS Aur, and SS Cyg. Combined with existing HST parallaxes for RW Tri (McArthur et al. 1999), TV Col (McArthur et al. 2001), EX Hya and V1223 Sgr (Beuermann et al. 2004a,b), ten high-quality parallaxes are available to constrain the various types of outbursts of CVs. In addition, Thorstensen (2003) has published ground-based parallaxes for fourteen CV systems.

Johnson, J. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Osborne, H. L.

2004-07-01

224

Screening of a functional polysaccharide from Zizyphus Jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao and its property.  

PubMed

Chinese jujube has been used as a kind of Chinese medicinal herb for a long time. In this paper, the polysaccharides from Zizyphus Jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao (ZSP), one of the major Chinese jujube varieties, were extracted and purified sequentially so that its water-soluble immunobiological fractions were screened. The crude ZSP was found to dramatically increase thymus and spleen indices in mice, enhance the proliferation of splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and have potential anti-complementary activity. Immunobiological tests indicated that two fractions of ZSP, coded ZSP3c and ZSP4b, were the main active components. ZSP3c was rich in pectin with a degree of esterification (DE) of 49%, which may be related to its stronger immunological activity. PMID:21539856

Li, Jinwei; Shan, Liang; Liu, Yuanfa; Fan, Liuping; Ai, Lianzhong

2011-10-01

225

Biogenesis of volatile methyl esters in snake fruit (Salacca edulis, Reinw) cv. Pondoh.  

PubMed

The methyl esters of carboxylic acids are characteristic olfactory volatile compounds for the sweet aroma of snake fruit, (Salacca edulis, Reinw) cv. Pondoh. Although methanol was not detected as a volatile constituent, the crude enzymes showed activity to synthesize the methyl esters in the presence of acyl-CoA and methanol. Therefore, the biosynthetic origin of methanol was investigated, resulting in the detection of pectin methyl transferase activity in the flesh. This pectin methyl transferase activity increased during fruit maturation, in parallel with the level of methanol originating from hand-squeezed juice and with the methyl esters extracted from flesh of the fruit. Based on these results, the origin of methanol was confirmed to be the methyl esters of pectins. The crude enzyme also catalyzed the formation of methyl hexanoate, one of the esters of the fruit, in the presence of methyl pectins and hexanoyl-CoA that were used as precursors for a model reaction. PMID:12843652

Supriyadi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Wu, Shuiqin; Tomita, Naomi; Fujita, Akira; Watanabe, Naoharu

2003-06-01

226

Complete bi-partite CV entanglement characterization via coveriance matrix measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first complete experimental reconstruction of the covariance matrix (CM) relative to a bi-partite continuous variable (CV) entangled state outing a non degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) below threshold. The covariance matrix CM has been reconstructed following the method reported in V. D'Auria et al., J. Opt. B 7, S750 (2005). The two entangled beams (signal (a) and idler (b)) are produced by a by a continuous wave (CW) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) via type-II (same frequency but with orthogonal polarizations), phase matching and working below threshold. Our experimental setup makes use of a single homodyne detector and of a compact source of entangled beams. The quadratures values and other relevant quantities are reconstructed by quantum tomography, without making any a priori assumption on the state under evalutation.

Porzio, Alberto; D'Auria, Virginia; Fornaro, Stefano; Solimeno, Salvatore

2009-05-01

227

Detection of unusual carotenoid esters in fresh mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Kent').  

PubMed

The carotenoid pattern of mango cv. 'Kent' was investigated by LC-(APcI)MS analyses. In solvent extracts from the mesocarp an unusual carotenoid ester was identified as violaxanthin dibutyrate. For unequivocal identification of butyric acid by an independent method, total lipids were isolated by solvent extraction from the fruit flesh and analyzed by GC after saponification and subsequent methylation. Thus, evidence of butyric acid (1.6 area%) was provided. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a xanthophyll dibutyrate in plants. Additionally, further carotenoid peaks were tentatively assigned to 9-cis-violaxanthin and neochrom or luteoxanthin, respectively, by their UV/vis and MS data of the saponified extracts. PMID:14559275

Pott, Isabell; Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Carle, Reinhold

2003-10-01

228

Partial melting of the Allende (CV3) meteorite - Implications for origins of basaltic meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity. Melts are eucritic if this variable is below that of the iron-wuestite buffer or angritic if above it. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wuestite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid greater than 110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting.

Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jones, J. H.

1991-05-01

229

Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla cv. BONA.  

PubMed

The altitudinal variation of the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asteraceae) was assessed. Plants of M. chamomilla cultivar BONA were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The amounts of flavonoids and phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC/DAD. For both flavonoids and phenolic acids positive (r = 0.559 and 0.587) and statistically significant (both p < 0.001) correlations with the altitude of the growing site were observed. The results are compared to previous results on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Moreover, various ecological factors, which change with the altitude of the growing site, are discussed as potential causes for the observed variation. PMID:18484542

Ganzera, Markus; Guggenberger, Manuela; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

2008-03-01

230

Bioresorbable adhesion barrier for reducing the severity of postoperative cardiac adhesions: Focus on REPEL-CV®  

PubMed Central

Treatment of a number of congenital heart defects often necessitates staged surgical intervention. In addition, substantial improvements in postoperative cardiac care and more liberal use of biological valve substitutes have resulted in many adult patients surviving to become potential candidates for reoperations to repair or replace valves or to undergo additional revascularization procedures. In all these scenarios, surgeons are confronted with cardiac adhesions, leading to an increased surgical risk. Thus, bioresorbable adhesion barriers had become of increasing interest because they are easy to use, and safe and effective. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which REPEL-CV® prevents adhesive processes, as well as the development, design, and materials used, and also summarizes efficacy studies, clinical data, safety, and current role in therapy.

Haensig, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Rastan, Ardawan Julian

2011-01-01

231

Influência de fatores químicos do solo sobre a incidência do mal-do-Panamá na bananeira cv. pacovan na Paraíba  

Microsoft Academic Search

This objective of this work was to investigate the correlation of chemicals soil factors and its influences with the incidence and severity of Panama disease ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ) in banana tree ( Musa sapientium cv. pacovan) in the State of Paraíba. The work was carried out at Areia, Alagoa Nova, Bananeiras and Lagoa Seca Municipalities, where

Edson Batista Lopes; Carlos Henrique de Brito; Ivanildo Cavalcanti de Albuquerque; Arlington Ricardo

232

Using Multidimensional Rasch Analysis to Validate the Chinese Version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ-CV)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article used the multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model to examine the construct validity and detect the substantial differential item functioning (DIF) of the Chinese version of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ-CV). A total of 1,354 Hong Kong junior high school students were administered the…

Lee, John Chi-Kin; Zhang, Zhonghua; Yin, Hongbiao

2010-01-01

233

Genetic homogeneity of in vitro raised plants of grapevine cv. Crimson Seedless revealed by ISSR and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to test the clonal homogeneity of six month old tissue culture raised plants of grapevine cv. Crimson Seedless using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. Visible assessment of these in vitro raised plants maintained in polyhouse did not show any morphological differences among themselves. However, to test the genetic homogeneity

A. Nookaraju; D. C. Agrawal

234

Use of modified atmosphere to extend shelf life of fresh-cut carambola ( Averrhoa carambola L. cv. Fwang Tung)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-cut fruit products, including carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), have limited marketability due to cut surface browning attributed to phenolic compound oxidation by enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The objective of this study was to evaluate postharvest changes in carambola slices in three different packages. Carambola fruit (cv. Fwang Tung) were picked from the Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro

Gustavo H. A. Teixeira; José F. Durigan; Ricardo E. Alves; Timothy J. O’Hare

2007-01-01

235

Effect of heat and cold treatments on respiratory metabolism and shelf-life of sweet cherry, type picota cv “Ambrunés”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv Ambrunés) is included in the group of Picotas. This variety is potentially suitable for postharvest mechanical processing due to its particular morphology, greater firmness and the fact that it is harvested without a stem. In order to improve the postharvest shelf-life of this variety, we evaluated the residual effects of heat pre-treatments at

R. Alique; J. P. Zamorano; M. A. Martínez; J. Alonso

2005-01-01

236

Effects of morphactin and paclobutrazol flowering treatments on shoot and root phenology in mango cv. Kensington Pride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango cv. Kensington Pride, is the major horticultural tree crop in the tropical region of northern Australia. The warm, humid climate encourages vegetative growth and growers need to implement flowering treatments to maximise opportunities for high fruit yields. Two chemical-based flowering treatments have recently been introduced to the north Australian mango region. The first, paclobutrazol (P), inhibits the synthesis of

S. J. Blaikie; V. J. Kulkarni; W. J. Müller

2004-01-01

237

FLORESCIMENTO E FRUTIFICAÇÃO DE MANGUEIRA (Mangifera indica L.) CV. ROSA PROMOVIDOS POR DIFERENTES DOSES DE PACLOBUTRAZOL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient techniques as the floral induction allow the establishment of commercialization strategies for favorable periods of market and economical success in the cultivation of mango fruits. An experiment, was conducted in order to study the effect of different paclobutrazol doses (PBZ) on the flowering and production of mango fruits Cv. Rosa. The experiment design used was formed by randomized blocks

MARIA GEROLINA SILVA CARDOSO; ABEL REBOUÇAS; SÃO JOSÉ; ANSELMO ELOY; SILVEIRA VIANA; SYLVANA NAOMI MATSUMOTO; TIYOKO NAIR; HOJO REBOUÇAS

238

A study to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on yield of field-grown soybeans ( Glycine max. cv. Hodgson)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in 1985 and 1986, using a fully automated rain exclusion canopy system, to investigate the impact of simulated acidic rain (SAR) on yield of soybean (Glycine max cv. Hodgson). Treatment effects were determined for various yield components: seed yield (kg ha-1), pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight (g 100 seeds-1). Plant

Allen Kuja; Murray Dixon

1989-01-01

239

Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme by grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins extracted from Vitis vinífera L. cv. País  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of two extracts of grape skin and seeds from Vitis vinífera L. cv. País (Chilean black grapes), rich in proanthocyanidins (PAs), was evaluated on the inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), and the inhibition was related to the type and number of subunits of the polymeric PAs chain. Size exclusion chromatography was used to purify the extract

Gonzalo Eriz; Verónica Sanhueza; Marlene Roeckel; Katherina Fernández

2011-01-01

240

Influence of metal cleaning on the particle size and surface morphology of platinum black studied by NMR, TEM and CV techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic voltammetry (CV), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were employed to investigate the particle size and surface morphology of fuel cell grade platinum black samples as received and prepared under three different cleaning methods. The Pt particle growth was most markedly caused by extensive CV treatment, moderately by cleaning with chromic acid, and negligibly

Kee Sung Han; Oc Hee Han

2001-01-01

241

Consecutive applications of brassica green manures and seed meal enhances suppression of Meloidogyne javanica and increases yield of Vitis vinifera cv Semillon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the result of 1–3 year application sequences of two brassica green manures (Indian mustard cv Nemfix and BQ mulch™), Nemfix seed meal and Nemacur® on the suppression of root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in soil and roots, and the consequent improvement on vigour and productivity of Vitis vinifera cv Semillon. Soil examination revealed ca. 37–78% suppression of

L. Rahman; M. A. Whitelaw-Weckert; B. Orchard

2011-01-01

242

Unusual Dark Clasts in the Vigarano CV3 Chondrite: Record of Parent Body Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of dark lithic clasts have been reported from CV3 chondrites and are commonly called "dark inclusions" (DIs). The DIs widely range in texture from chondritic with chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) embedded in a matrix (similar to host meteorites), to fine-grained aggregates of Fe-rich olivine free of coarse-grained components [1,2]. The DIs have been interpreted to represent (1) primary aggregates of materials in the solar nebula [3-5] and (2) materials that were affected by thermal metamorphism on their parent bodies [6]. We present the results of petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of two unusual clasts found in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. The two unusual clasts, which we will call CL1 and CL2, are approximately 1.2 x 1.0 mm^2 (CLl) and 0.8 x 0.6 mm^2 (CL2) and occur within one of the large clasts (2.8 x 1.0 mm^2). CL1 and CL2 have very similar mineralogies and textures; they contain irregular to oval-shaped inclusions consisting mostly of fine grains of Fe-rich olivine embedded in the matrix of the clasts, and are free of distinct chondrules, CAIs, and coarse mineral fragments. Thus, they resemble the fine-grained variety of DIs. Under the optical microscope, most inclusions resemble chondrules or chondrule fragments in shape and size. However, they are brownish-translucent in transmitted light and are clearly distinct from chondrules in the Vigarano host. The inclusions are characteristically flattened in direction, exhibiting apparent foliation. Our SEM observations reveal the following unusual characteristics: (1) the inclusions are not mere random aggregates of olivine grains but have peculiar internal textures, i.e., assemblies of round or oval-shaped outlines, which are suggestive of pseudomorphs after porphyritic or granular olivine chondrules; (2) one of the thick inclusion rims contains a network of vein-like strings of elongated olivine grains, (3) an Fe-Ni metal aggregate in CL1 has an Fe-, Ni-, S-rich halo, suggesting a reaction between its precursor and the surrounding matrix; and (4) olivine in the clasts commonly shows a swirly, fibrous texture similar to that of phyllosilicate. These characteristics are not reconciled with a primary (unprocessed) origin for the clasts but suggest that they were involved in a secondary process such as aqueous alteration. The fine grains of olivine in these clasts were presumably produced by thermal transformation of phyllosilicate. Serpentine is known to start transforming to olivine at >300 degrees C [7]. The inclusions in CL1 and CL2 resemble chondrules: Some of them are surrounded by distinctive rims similar to chondrule rims commonly seen in the carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, we believe that the precursor material of the clasts would have been related to some types of chondrites, possibly the Vigarano host itself, and that aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism occurred in the meteorite parent body. We suggest that some of the dark inclusions and clasts previously reported from CV3 chondrites and other types of meteorites may have origins common to these clasts in Vigarano. References: [1] Fruland R. M. et al. (1978) Proc. LPSC 9th, 1305-1329. [2] Johnson C. A. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 819-830. [3] Bischoff A. et al. (1988) LPSC XIX, 88-89. [4] Kurat G. (1989) Z. Naturforsch., 44a, 988-1004. [5] Palme H. (1989) Z. Naturforsch., 44a, 1005-1014. [6] Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1983) LPSC XIV, 75-76. [7] Akai J. (1992) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 5, 120-135.

Kojima, T.; Tomeoka, K.; Takeda, H.

1993-07-01

243

Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), 3N from the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) CAI and UR CAI 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (?17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB CAI are 16O-rich (?17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (?17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA CAI and spinel (?17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (?17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain unclear.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from Mosla chinensis Maxim. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jiangxiangru.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A water-soluble pectic polysaccharide (MP-A40) was isolated and purified from Mosla chinensis Maxim. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jiangxiangru for the first time, with a molecular weight of 32,600Da. MP-A40 was comprised of 68.63% galacturonic acid and 13.05% neutral sugar. In addition, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose and glucose composed the neutral sugar in a relative ratio of 4.94, 3.07, 2.13, 1.62 and 1.29% of the dry weight of MP-A40, respectively. Structural characterization of MP-A40 was investigated by methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. From the results, the structure of MP-A40 was revealed as follows: 1,4-linked ?-d-GalpA and 1,4-linked ?-d-GalpA6Me interspersed with rare t-Araf (0.60%), t-Rhap (1.67%) and t-GalpA (10.15%). Esterification assay showed that about 32% of the carboxylic groups in GalA residues existed as methyl ester. In addition, MP-A40 could inhibit the growth of human leukemic cell line K562 and stimulate nitric oxide production from RAW 264.7 macrophages both in dose-dependent manners. PMID:24708981</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jing-En; Cui, Steve W; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3848316"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40°C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate of ripening by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly threefold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimize the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greer, Dennis H.; Weedon, Mark M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...785...83A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary <span class="hlt">CV</span> Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of ?p = -52° ± 6° and ?s = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ?65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3406776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence of metaxenia and false hybrids in Brassica juncea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kikarashina x B. napus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Imported genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus) is approved by Japanese law. Some GM canola varieties have been found around importation sites, and there is public concern that these may have any harmful effects on related species such as reduction of wild relatives. Because B. juncea is distributed throughout Japan and is known to be high crossability with B. napus, it is assumed to be a recipient of B. napus. However, there are few reports for introgression of cross-combination in B. juncea × B. napus. To assess crossability, we artificially pollinated B. juncea with B. napus. After harvesting a large number of progeny seeds, we observed false hybrids and metaxenia of seed coats. Seed coat color was classified into four categories and false hybrids were confirmed by morphological characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Furthermore, the occurrence of false hybrids was affected by varietal differences in B. napus, whereas that of metaxenia was related to hybridity. Therefore, we suggest that metaxenia can be used as a marker for hybrid identification in B. juncea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kikarashina × B. napus. Our results suggest that hybrid productivity in B. juncea × B. napus should not be evaluated by only seed productivity, crossability ought to be assessed the detection of true hybrids.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsuda, Mai; Konagaya, Ken-ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Kaneko, Yukio; Tabei, Yutaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22650010"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro antioxidant activity of banana (Musa spp. ABB <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pisang Awak).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The methanolic extract of Musa ABB <span class="hlt">cv</span> Pisang Awak was investigated for the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the fruit extract were found to be 120 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) and 440 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g of sample dry weight, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the Pisang Awak methanol extract (PAME) (20-500 microg/ml) was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity, 2-2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation decolourization and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (OH*). The EC50 values of DPPH, ABTS and OH* activities of the PAME and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) were found to be 65 and 9 microg/ml, 29 and 6 microg/ml, 36 and 42 microg/ml respectively. The reducing capacity increased with increasing concentration (31.5-1000 mg/ml) of the fruit extract and the activity was comparable with the standard BHT. The high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols. The strong and positive correlations were obtained between total phenol/flavonoid contents (R2 = 0.693-1.0) and free radical scavenging ability was attributed to the polyphenols as the major antioxidants. PMID:22650010</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Darsini, D Teepica Priya; Maheshu, V; Vishnupriya, M; Sasikumar, J M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15045398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury determination by <span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS in wastewater and sewage sludge from a stabilization pond system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mercury concentrations in wastewater and sewage sludge of a stabilization pond system have been evaluated. The system is built by three parallel facultative ponds followed by two systems of three maturation ponds in series. The samples of wastewater and sludge were digested using nitric acid and placed into a Parr-type bomb for 4 h at 110 degrees C. Mercury was measured by Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS) at 253.7 nm with sodium tetrahydroborate as reductant. The methodologies were checked with an USEPA quality control sample, a standard reference material from NIST and with another method of mineralization (cold mineralization) showing good results. Concentrations of mercury in wastewater between 1.47 +/- 0.75 microgl(-1) have been found at the entrance of the system and 0.74 +/- 0.0 microgl(-1) at the exit, while in sludge the results were between 0.29 +/- 0.12 microgkg(-1) in the facultative pond and 0.04 +/- 0.02 microgkg(-1) in the second maturation pond (exit). PMID:15045398</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Araujo, K; Colina, M; Mazurek, R; Delgado, J; Ledo, H; Gutierrez, E; Herrera, L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15998151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower. PMID:15998151</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3419424"> <span id="translatedtitle">Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Encapsulated Microshoots of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3–5?mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5?mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1?mg/L BAP, and 0.1?mg/L ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15–30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1?mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GeCoA..67.3165M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extinct 10Be in Type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have found clear evidence of live 10Be in five normal Type A Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), one normal Type B CAI, and one FUN Type A CAI, all from <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites. The ( 10Be/ 9Be) 0 ratios range from ˜0.36 × 10 -3 to ˜0.77 × 10 -3 and are similar to those found by previous workers. The ( 10Be/ 9Be) 0 ratios do not correlate in a temporal fashion with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0, suggesting that 10Be and 26Al were produced by different mechanisms. An examination of possible sources for the short-lived radionuclides indicates that production of 10Be was almost certainly by particle irradiation, possibly within the solar system, and was probably accompanied by significant production of 41Ca and 53Mn. In contrast, all of the 60Fe, most of the 26Al, and some of the 53Mn were probably produced in stars and were imported into the solar system within presolar dust grains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacPherson, Glenn J.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23692745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nutraceutical properties and polyphenolic profile of berry skin and wine of Vitis vinifera L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aglianico).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Red grapes are rich in phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and resveratrol, all substances which have been suggested as having nutraceutical and health benefits. The berry skin and wine of grape cultivar Vitis vinifera L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aglianico), grown in Basilicata (Southern Italy) were examined to determinate the presence of the above mentioned compounds as well as to establish the inorganic cation profile. HPLC analysis coupled with LC-ESI/MS/MS detected high contents of total flavonols and anthocyanins in berry skin and wine. The wine made with the same grape used for berry skin assays showed a notable presence of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (39.4% of total flavonols), and malvidin and petunidin derivatives (63.9% and 10.8% of total anthocyanins, respectively). The strong antioxidant ROS-scavenging activity, determined by both DPPH and FRAP assays, and the high resveratrol content confer high sensory characteristics resulted to be associated with positive nutraceutical properties of these grapes and wine. The level of cis-resveratrol was lower than trans-resveratrol in both berry skin and wine reaching 44.1mg/kg and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The cation profile presents low levels of Ca, Cu, K, Fe, Zn and Cd compared to numerous, important red wines, such as Monastrell and Tempranillo. PMID:23692745</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Nisco, Mauro; Manfra, Michele; Bolognese, Adele; Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Pagano, Francesco; Milite, Ciro; Russo, Maria Teresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23136472"> <span id="translatedtitle">Occurrence of metaxenia and false hybrids in Brassica juncea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kikarashina × B. napus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Imported genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus) is approved by Japanese law. Some GM canola varieties have been found around importation sites, and there is public concern that these may have any harmful effects on related species such as reduction of wild relatives. Because B. juncea is distributed throughout Japan and is known to be high crossability with B. napus, it is assumed to be a recipient of B. napus. However, there are few reports for introgression of cross-combination in B. juncea × B. napus. To assess crossability, we artificially pollinated B. juncea with B. napus. After harvesting a large number of progeny seeds, we observed false hybrids and metaxenia of seed coats. Seed coat color was classified into four categories and false hybrids were confirmed by morphological characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Furthermore, the occurrence of false hybrids was affected by varietal differences in B. napus, whereas that of metaxenia was related to hybridity. Therefore, we suggest that metaxenia can be used as a marker for hybrid identification in B. juncea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Kikarashina × B. napus. Our results suggest that hybrid productivity in B. juncea × B. napus should not be evaluated by only seed productivity, crossability ought to be assessed the detection of true hybrids. PMID:23136472</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsuda, Mai; Konagaya, Ken-Ichi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Kaneko, Yukio; Tabei, Yutaka</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23561174"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hojiblanca.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10552519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbohydrate content and metabolism as related to maturity and chilling sensitivity of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fortune mandarins.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fruits of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Fortune mandarin were periodically harvested throughout the ripening period to evaluate changes in carbohydrate content and metabolism in flavedo tissue and to determine the potential role of carbohydrates in the tolerance of citrus fruit to chilling injury (CI). Sucrose showed little change in the flavedo during the season, but fructose and glucose increased, in nearly equal amounts, throughout the fall and winter, reaching a maximum in January. Starch levels were less abundant than soluble carbohydrates and rose continuously until March. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 4.1.14) activity decreased from December throughout ripening. Changes in sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) and acid and alkaline invertase (Inv; EC 3.2.1.26) activities correlated with changes in the reducing sugars, but acid invertase was less active than the other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes. Carbohydrate changes in the flavedo of Fortune mandarins with fruit maturity appear not to be related to the chilling tolerance of fruits during cold storage. PMID:10552519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holland, N; Sala, J M; Menezes, H C; Lafuente, M T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=EC95-43199-7&hterms=World+War+II&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2522World%2BWar%2BII%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span>-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the <span class="hlt">CV</span>990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16657774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Respiratory Response of Fig (Ficus carica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mission) Fruits to Ethylene.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth in diameter of the fig (Ficus carica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mission) fruit takes place in three distinct periods; two periods (I and III) of rapid growth are separated by a period (II) of slow growth. With respect to exposure to ethylene, the fruit exhibits a two phase response. Ethylene inhibits fruit growth in phase A (period I), the period of cell division, stimulates growth in early phase B (early period II), and stimulates both growth and ripening during the remainder of phase B (late period II and period III). The adverse effect of exogenous ethylene on fruits during phase A is thought to be due to inhibition of cell division. The gradual transition occurring in the response of fruits during phase B was interpreted in terms of carbohydrate level in the fruits.The onset of period III and a respiratory climacteric rise was preceded by or concomitant with a sudden burst of endogenous ethylene synthesis. This, together with the fact that exogenous ethylene applied at the proper stage of fruit growth triggers both ripening and the climacteric rise, leads to the conclusion that ethylene is the causal agent. In other words, the data support the concept that ethylene is a growth hormone that initiates a chain of metabolic and physiological events leading to fig fruit ripening. PMID:16657774</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marei, N; Crane, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6448700"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brassinosteroid stimulation of hypocotyl elongation and wall relaxation in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hypocotyl elongation of pakchoi (Brassica chinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lei-Choi) was stimulated by applying 300 ng of brassinosteroid (2[alpha],3[alpha],22[beta],23[beta]-tetrahydroxy-24[beta]-methyl-B-homo-7-oxa-5[alpha]-cholestan-6-one, BR) in 1 [mu]L of 50% ethanol to the apex of hypocotyls. BR had its greatest effect on elongation of the apical 3-mm region below the cotyledonary node (75% stimulation) between 6 and 18 h after treatment. Stress/strain (Instron) analysis of this 3-mm region revealed that plastic and elastic components of extension were not significantly different between BR-treated and control seedlings. In pressure-block experiments, the initial rate of relaxation was 2-fold faster in BR-treated plants as compared with controls, whereas after 125 min the total amount of relaxation and the relaxation rate were the same for the two treatments. Osmotic pressure of cell sap expressed from this 3-mm region showed a large decrease (28%) in BR-treated seedlings compared to the controls. The authors conclude that BR stimulates growth in pakchoi by accelerating the biochemical processes that cause wall relaxation, without inducing a large change in wall mechanical properties. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tzannwei Wang; Cosgrove, D.J.; Arteca, R.N. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636938"> <span id="translatedtitle">Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Leccino.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B43C0447S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system, a sustained deficit (SDI)treatment B received 60% of crop evapotranspiration, a regulated deficit(RDI) irrigation treatment C received irrigation water before-flowering and just before pit-hardening, and a Dry-farming treatment. Tree and orchard transpiration and the dynamics of water uptake by roots were estimated from sap flow measurements and water balance technique. Stomatal conductance was modeled from local meteorological variables, measured sap flow and tree canopy variables. Higher than treatment A and B stomatal conductance and the high tree fruit production recommend treatment C as most suitable for scheduling irrigation of olive orchards in wet years of well distributed late summer rainfall. For drier years of no summer and early autumn rains that minimizes available water to extract by roots outside the wet bulb of drip irrigation and for the scarce readily available irrigation water years, as so often occurs in the region, the sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) regime seems a better option. Nonetheless, for years of limited available water resources that preclude sustained deficit irrigation, careful management of the proposed RDI could also allow for efficient use of irrigation water.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santos, F. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3134346"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (?x) of –0.95?MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a ?x of –1.5?MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004M%26PS...39.1387W"> <span id="translatedtitle">I-Xe measurements of CAIs and chondrules from the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of CAIs in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5557689"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of REE fractionation among individual chondrules from the allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) chondrite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abundances of REE, Ba, Sr, Rb, K, Mg and Ca were determined by precise mass spectrometric isotope dilution techniques for 24 chondrules from the Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>3) chondrite. The REE abundances are 2.5-10 {times} CI for barred olivine chondrules, 2-8 {times} CI for porphyritic and nonporphyritic pyroxene chondrules, 0.15-4 {times} CI for porphyritic olivine and porphyritic olivine-pyroxene chondrules and are more or less similarly fractionated. General REE fractionations and large (up to 170%) anomalies of Ce, Eu and Yb occur in all chondrule types, particularly for barred olivine and pyroxene-rich chondrules. Positive correlations of REE with the moderately volatile elements, K and Rb, as well as other refractory elements, Ca, Sr and Ba, are independent of textural type and major chemical compositions. Each type of chondrule has large and systematic abundance variations of K and Rb, but shows a constant K/Rb ratio close to that of CIs. From the these results, the following constraints on the chemical characteristics of precursors and chondrule-forming events are suggested: (1) vaporization loss of alkalis accompanied by K/Rb fractionation did not occur during chondrule-formation melting events, (2) elemental abundances were basically established prior to melting events by accretion of alkali-free component(s) and alkali-bearing refractory precursors with fractionated REE, (3) gas/solid (or liquid) processes yielding REE fractionations took place during the formation of refractory precursors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Misawa, K; Nakamura, N. (Kobe Univ. (Japan))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3755362"> <span id="translatedtitle">Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz) latex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees’ latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins’ autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25053073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sango: Isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span> Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270mg/100g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8±0.7)×10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37°C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1)×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30°C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4×10(5), 0.3×10(5) and 1.6×10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance. PMID:25053073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179184"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perianth bottom-specific blue color development in Tulip <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Murasakizuisho requires ferric ions.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The entire flower of Tulipa gesneriana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Murasakizuisho is purple, except the bottom, which is blue. To elucidate the mechanism of the different color development in the same petal, we prepared protoplasts from the purple and blue epidermal regions and measured the flavonoid composition by HPLC, the vacuolar pH by a proton-selective microelectrode, and element contents by the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method. Chemical analyses revealed that the anthocyanin and flavonol compositions in both purple and blue colored protoplasts were the same; delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside (1) and major three flavonol glycosides, manghaslin (2), rutin (3) and mauritianin (4). The vacuolar pH values of the purple and blue protoplasts were 5.5 and 5.6, respectively, without any significant difference. However, the Fe(3+) content in the blue protoplast was approximately 9.5 mM, which was 25 times higher than that in the purple protoplasts. We could reproduce the purple solution by mixing 1 with two equimolar concentrations of flavonol with lambda(vismax) = 539 nm, which was identical to that of the purple protoplasts. Furthermore, addition of Fe(3+) to the mixture of 1-4 gave the blue solution with lambda(vismax) = 615 nm identical to that of the blue protoplasts. We have established that Fe(3+) is essential for blue color development in the tulip. PMID:17179184</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shoji, Kazuaki; Miki, Naoko; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kato, Chiharu; Yoshida, Kumi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5004684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21598794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chelator-enhanced lead accumulation in Agropyron elongatum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Szarvasi-1 in hydroponic culture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydroponic culture was applied to compare the efficiency of K2EDTA and citrate in mobilizing Pb for accumulation in Agropyron elongatum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Szarvasi-1 and their effects on some physiological characteristics of the plants. The plants were grown in nutrient solutions containing 0, 10, and 100 microM Pb(NO3)2 combined with chelating agents added to the nutrient solutions after 21 days of growth, in 3 concentrations (0, 100, and 500 microM). The effects were measured after eight days. The energy grass proved to be greatly resistant to the treatments, as was reflected in the slight inhibition of growth, the resistance of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and the chlorophyll composition and the lack of change in the malone-dialdehyde content. Fundamental differences can be identified between the effects of EDTA and citrate. Citrate had only a little effect on the physiological parameters, which may be due to the strongly increasing lead accumulation with increasing concentration of Pb in the nutrient solution. Additionally, citrate ensured a higher biomass yield with higher shoot Pb accumulation compared to EDTA in almost all treatments. Concerning biomass reduction, 10 microM Pb applied together with K2EDTA has the most deleterious effects on energy grass. The effects correlated with the concentration of EDTA. PMID:21598794</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vashegyi, Ildikó; Cseh, Edit; Lévai, László; Fodor, Ferenc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16076139"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jopung).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. L Jopung) by various chromatographic columns. AFP-J strongly inhibited yeast fungal strains, including Candida albicans, Trichosporon beigelii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas it exhibited no activity against crop fungal pathogens. Automated Edman degradation determined the partial N-terminal sequence of AFP-J to be NH2-Leu-Pro-Ser-Asp-Ala-Thr-Leu-Val-Leu-Asp-Gln-Thr-Gly-Lys-G lu-Leu-Asp-Ala-Arg-Leu-. The partially sequence had 83% homology with a serine protease inhibitor belonging to the Kunitz family, and the protein inhibited chymotrypsin, pepsin, and trypsin. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 13 500.5 Da. This protease inhibitor suppressed over 50% the proteolytic activity at 400 microg/mL. These results suggest that AFP-J is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antiinfective agents. PMID:16076139</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Yoonkyung; Choi, Bo Hwa; Kwak, Ji-Sun; Kang, Chang-Won; Lim, Hak-Tae; Cheong, Hyeon-Sook; Hahm, Kyung-Soo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=396842"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and Respiratory Response of Fig (Ficus carica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mission) Fruits to Ethylene 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Growth in diameter of the fig (Ficus carica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Mission) fruit takes place in three distinct periods; two periods (I and III) of rapid growth are separated by a period (II) of slow growth. With respect to exposure to ethylene, the fruit exhibits a two phase response. Ethylene inhibits fruit growth in phase A (period I), the period of cell division, stimulates growth in early phase B (early period II), and stimulates both growth and ripening during the remainder of phase B (late period II and period III). The adverse effect of exogenous ethylene on fruits during phase A is thought to be due to inhibition of cell division. The gradual transition occurring in the response of fruits during phase B was interpreted in terms of carbohydrate level in the fruits. The onset of period III and a respiratory climacteric rise was preceded by or concomitant with a sudden burst of endogenous ethylene synthesis. This, together with the fact that exogenous ethylene applied at the proper stage of fruit growth triggers both ripening and the climacteric rise, leads to the conclusion that ethylene is the causal agent. In other words, the data support the concept that ethylene is a growth hormone that initiates a chain of metabolic and physiological events leading to fig fruit ripening.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marei, Nasr; Crane, Julian C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1971-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919033"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed. PMID:19919033</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS..tmp...79M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Noble gases in individual chondrules of the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyzed noble gases in nine individual chondrules, an assemblage of small chondrules, and four whole-rock samples of the Allende <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite. Major elements were also determined for five chondrules. The cosmic ray exposure ages are calculated from cosmogenic 3He to be 5.17 ± 0.38 and 5.15 ± 0.25 Myr for the averages of the chondrules and whole rocks, respectively, showing no significant pre-exposure evidence for the studied chondrules. Large amounts of 36Ar, 80,82Kr, and 128Xe produced by neutron capture are observed in most samples; the abundances of these nuclides are correlated among the samples. The epithermal neutron flux and neutron slowing down density are calculated based on [80Kr]n, from which a sample depth of about 30 cm can be calculated. The measured chondrules contain variable amounts of radiogenic 129Xe. The abundance ratios of radiogenic 129Xe to neutron capture-produced 128Xe are rather constant among the studied chondrules; four chondrules give more precise ratios at the high-temperature fractions, ranging from 1920 ± 80 to 2280 ± 140, which corresponds to a time difference of 3.9 ± 2.4 Myr. It is noticeable that most chondrules also contain 244Pu-derived fission Xe. The average 244Pu/238U ratio for nine chondrules is 0.0069 ± 0.0018, which agrees well with the preferred ratio reported for chondrites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miura, Yayoi N.; Nagao, Keisuke; Kimura, Makoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317695"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) Peel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24733436"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomonitoring of air pollution with mercury in Croatia by using moss species and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Moss samples from four dominant species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Homalothecium sericeum and Brachythecium rutabulum) were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010 from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the territory of Croatia. Samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion system, whilst mercury was analysed by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-AAS). Descriptive statistics were done from analyses of mercury in all moss samples. The content of mercury ranged from 0.010 to 0.145 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 0.043 mg kg(-1). Hg distribution map shows the sites of the country with higher levels of this element. High contents of Hg were found in moss samples collected from the regions of Podravina and Istria as a result of anthropogenic pollution. Comparison of median values and ranges with those found in moss samples in 2006 shows slight reduction of mercury air pollution. When compared to the results obtained from recent studies conducted in Slovenia, Macedonia and especially in Norway-which serves as a reference considering the fact that it is a pristine area-mercury air pollution in Croatia is insignificant. PMID:24733436</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spiri?, Zdravko; Vu?kovi?, Ivana; Stafilov, Traj?e; Kušan, Vladimir; Ba?eva, Katerina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24196181"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plant regeneration from cultured protoplasts of the cooking banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bluggoe (Musa spp., ABB group).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Suspensions of embryogenic cells of a triploid banana (Musa spp., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bluggoe) were initiated from the uppermost part of meristematic buds, and used as protoplast source. After 20 weeks in culture, the suspension contained a mixture of globular structures or globules and embryogenic cell clusters, as well as single cells. Two types of protoplasts were obtained from embryogenic suspension culture: small (20-30 ?m) and larger (30-50 ?m) protoplasts with a dense cytoplasm and large starch grains respectively. The small protoplasts probably originated from embryogenic cell clusters, and also from pseudocambial cells of globules, while larger protoplasts were probably released from oval starchy cells and those of the globule peripheral area. In co-culture with a suitable feeder, consisting of suspensions of diploid banana cells, the protoplasts of triploid banana reformed the cell wall within 24 h and underwent sustained divisions leading to the formation of small clusters of 2-3 cells within 7 days. The latter developed directly into embryos without passing through an apparent callus phase. 10% of such embryos gave rise to plantlets when subcultured in 2.2 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine and 2 ?M 4 amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid for 1 week, before transfer to MS medium containing 10 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. The rest of the embryos underwent intensive direct secondary embryogenesis which could lead to the formation of plantlets with a frequency of up to 50% upon further transfer to hormone-free medium. PMID:24196181</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Megia, R; Haïcour, R; Tizroutine, S; Trang, V B; Rossignol, L; Sihachakr, D; Schwendiman, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5626595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. (Clemson Univ., SC (USA))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1075846"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sink to Source Transition in Tendrils of a Semileafless Mutant, Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Curly 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sink to source transition parallels loss of thigmotropic capacity in tendrils of a semileafless mutant, Pisum sativum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Curly. Macroscopic tendril development is subdivided based on thigmotropic capacity. Stage I is the elongation stage and, although the rate of photosynthesis is similar to that of stage II and III tendrils, dark respiration rates are higher in stage I. During stage II, tendrils are thigmotropic and act as a sink. Even though stage II tendrils have CO2 exchange characteristics similar to those of stage III tendrils, which are coiled, our fluorescein, 14C-partitioning, and 11C-translocation experiments suggest that stage I and II tendrils do not export carbon. Only stage III tendrils act as sources of newly fixed carbon. Export from them is blocked by cold, heat girdling of the petiole, or anoxia treatment of the tendrils. A late stage II tendril complex, in which coiling is occurring, may be exporting photoassimilates; however, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that the pea leaf is a compound structure and there may be one or more stage III tendrils, no longer thigmotropic, within the tendril complex. Photosynthetic maturity in pea tendrils occurs at stage III and is characterized by the ability of these tendrils to export photoassimilates. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cote, Richard; Gerrath, Jean M.; Peterson, Carol A.; Grodzinski, Bernard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387087"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of preservative agents on the respiration rate of minimally processed potato (Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Monalisa).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shelf life of minimally processed potatoes (MPP) is limited by enzyme-catalyzed browning reactions, with the increase in respiration being another factor that affects quality retention of this product. Sulfites are commonly used as effective preservative agents in minimally processing potatoes, but ascorbic acid and citric acid are considered natural sulfite substitutes and more accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to study the effect of combinations of the preservative agents cited above (sodium metabisulfite 0.1% and 0.5%; citric acid 0.1% and 0.5%; ascorbic acid 0.5%) on the respiration rate of MPP (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Monalisa) processed at both ambient and refrigerated temperatures. The results have revealed that there is a significant effect of dipping treatment and temperature on respiration rate of MPP. Sodium metabisulfite (SM) reduces respiratory activity up to 0.8 mL/kg/h. The addition of either citric or ascorbic acid enhanced the effect of SM on the reduction of the respiration rate of MPP. The strongest effect (up to 3.3 mL/kg/h) was observed when a combination of all 3 agents at the higher concentrations was employed at a temperature of 18 degrees C. PMID:18387087</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petri, E; Arroqui, C; Angós, I; Vírseda, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IJTFM.129..299K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Life-Cycle-Management of <span class="hlt">CV</span> Cables based on Degradation Diagnosis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the usability of life-cycle management (LCM) of <span class="hlt">CV</span> cables based on degradation diagnosis, focusing on the application in small-scale facility. Because the failure in small-scale facility should be evaluated as a discrete event, we developed the model for estimating both the mean value and the variation of the life-cycle cost (LCC). When the failure loss cost is large, the short replacement cycle is the most cost-effective in a time-based maintenance (TBM), although many cables are replaced. Therefore, the reduction in LCC by taking a condition-based maintenance (CBM) is realized mainly due to the reduction in replaced cables by diagnosis. On the other hand, when the failure loss cost is small, LCC of each cable by taking TBM can be smaller than LCC by CBM in many cables due to the longer replacement cycle without diagnosis. However, the mean value of LCC among 100 cables is still small in CBM, because the total number of failure cables is much smaller in CBM due to the diagnosis. Consequently, LCC can be reduced by CBM, while the reason for the reduction in LCC by CBM, in other words the usability of CBM, depends on the relation between cost for diagnosis, cable replacement and failure loss. The results would be useful in the decision making to take CBM in small scale application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kato, Takeyoshi; Koyama, Yutaka; Suzuoki, Yasuo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37471201"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols from grapes and wines of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cesanese d’Affile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present study was to evaluate the amount of some potential health-promoting phenols in the grape of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cesanese d’Affile and in wines made from these grapes. The analyses were performed using HPLC\\/DAD\\/MS. The accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flavan-3-ols in the seed was determined at different stages of ripening of the grape</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Mulinacci; A. R. Santamaria; C. Giaccherini; M. Innocenti; A. Valletta; G. Ciolfi; G. Pasqua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v64k553273w77827.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Improved Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Potential in Mice Consuming Sour Cherry Juice ( Prunus Cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and\\u000a anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and\\u000a brain), LPO (liver, brain)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ana Šari?; Sandra Sobo?anec; Tihomir Balog; Borka Kuši?; Višnja Šverko; Verica Dragovi?-Uzelac; Branka Levaj; Zrinka ?osi?; Željka Ma?ak Šafranko; Tatjana Marotti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40143879"> <span id="translatedtitle">The purification and immunocharacterisation of N-methylputrescine oxidase from transformed root cultures of Nicotiana tabacum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> SC58</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The enzyme N-methylputrescine oxidase which catalyses the conversion of N-methylputrescine to N-methylpyrrolinium salt has been purified to homogeneity from transformed roots of Nicotiana tabacum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> SC58. The enzyme has an apparent sub-unit molecular weight of 53 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with gel-filtration studies, indicating that the native form is a dimer. The Km of the enzyme</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Russell McLauchlan; Raymond A. McKee; David M. Evans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48552405"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of phenolic compounds biosynthesized in pink-colored skin of Japanese indigenous Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Koshu grape</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Koshu is a traditional grape cultivar that has been grown for centuries in Japan. The Koshu grape has pink-colored skin\\u000a and Koshu wines have slight astringency. We demonstrated for the first time the characterization of hydroxycinnamic acids,\\u000a flavan-3-ols, and flavonoids in Koshu grape using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.\\u000a The gross weight of phenolic compounds</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hironori Kobayashi; Yumiko Suzuki; Kosei Ajimura; Tomonori Konno; Shunji Suzuki; Hiroshi Saito</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JApSc...7.3127H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Activity of Terpenoid and Pyrrole Compounds Isolated from Snake Fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bongkok</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The compound of 3β-hydroxy-sitosterol (1) and 2-metylester-1-H-pyrrole-4-carboxilyc acid were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Bongkok, (2). Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by the two compounds were evaluated against enzyme of xanthine oxidase. Compound 1 could be regarded as inactive, while compound 2 was found to be active with IC50 value of 48.86 μg mL-1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herliani Afrianti Priyatno, Leni; Yulinah Sukandar, Elin; Ibrahim, Slamet; Ketut Adnyana, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://jcb.rupress.org/cgi/reprint/152/5/867.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate Induces Actin Stress-Fiber Formation and Inhibits Membrane Ruffling in <span class="hlt">Cv</span>1 Cells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) is widely implicated in cytoskeleton regulation, but the mechanisms by which PIP 2 effect cytoskeletal changes are not defined. We used recombinant adenovirus to in- fect <span class="hlt">CV</span>1 cells with the mouse type I phosphatidylinosi- tol phosphate 5-kinase a (PIP5KI), and identified the players that modulate the cytoskeleton in response to PIP 2 signaling. PIP5KI</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masaya Yamamoto; Donald H. Hilgemann; Siyi Feng; Haruhiko Bito; Hisamitsu Ishihara; Yoshikazu Shibasaki; Helen L. Yin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41045569"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alleviation of drought stress of Chile ancho pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. San Luis) with arbuscular mycorrhiza indigenous to Mexico</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Selecting indigenous mycorrhizal fungi that enhance plant water status is important in Mexico for sustainable production systems of Chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. San Luis). To determine mycorrhizal enhancement of drought resistance, plants were either non-inoculated (NonAMF), or inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): Glomus fasciculatum and a mixed Glomus spp. from Mexico (ZAC-19). Plants were then exposed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. T Davies; V Olalde-Portugal; L Aguilera-Gomez; M. J Alvarado; R. C Ferrera-Cerrato; T. W Boutton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012126&hterms=ceres+bidirectional+scans&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522ceres%2Bbidirectional%2Bscans%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012118&hterms=ceres+bidirectional+scans&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522ceres%2Bbidirectional%2Bscans%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012134&hterms=ceres+bidirectional+scans&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522ceres%2Bbidirectional%2Bscans%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080012119&hterms=ceres+bidirectional+scans&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2522ceres%2Bbidirectional%2Bscans%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span> CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-<span class="hlt">CV</span>. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41876930"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification of culturable and originally non-culturable endophytic bacteria isolated from shoot tip cultures of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grand Naine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article we describe the identification of endophytic bacteria belonging to three groups isolated from shoot tip cultures\\u000a of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grand Naine in a recent study (Thomas et al. 2008) based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequence homology analysis. The first group included banana stocks that displayed obvious\\u000a colony growth on MS based tissue culture medium during the first</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pious Thomas; Ganiga K. Swarna; Pulak K. Roy; Prakash Patil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40847531"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origin of magnetite in oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites: in situ measurement of oxygen isotope compositions of Allende magnetite and olivine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetite in the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende mainly occurs as spherical nodules in porphyritic-olivine (PO) chondrules, where it is associated with Ni-rich metal and\\/or sulfides. To help constrain the origin of the magnetite, we measured oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and coexisting olivine grains in PO chondrules of Allende by an in situ ion microprobe technique. Five magnetite nodules form</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byeon-Gak Choi; Kevin D. McKeegan; Laurie A. Leshin; John T. Wasson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/g621323354m3u0n0.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural organization and cytochemical features of the pistil in Olive ( Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual at anthesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pistil structure and composition are critical in recognizing and permitting the germination of suitable pollen grains. We\\u000a have studied the structure of the different component tissues of the pistil, their organization and cytochemical features\\u000a of olive flowers, Olea europaea L., at anthesis, an essential first step for understanding the processes of pollen-pistil interaction and fertilization.\\u000a The pistil from olive <span class="hlt">cv</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Serrano; C. Suárez; A. Olmedilla; H. F. Rapoport; M. I. Rodríguez-García</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40223456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of culture density, conditioned medium and feeder cultures on microspore embryogenesis in Brassica napus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Topas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In microspore cultures of Brassica napus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Topas, embryo yield increases with culture density up to about 40,000 microspores per ml. A much higher density (100,000 per ml) appears inhibitory to embryogenesis. A relatively high culture density (30,000 or 40,000 per ml) for the first 2–4 days of culture is crucial for embryogenesis, after which cultures may be diluted</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bin Huang; Sharon Bird; Roger Kemble; Daina Simmonds; Wilf Keller; Brian Miki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/71/7/3458.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anaerobic n-Alkane Metabolism by a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T, recently isolated from marine sediments, was investigated for n-alkane metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain had predominantly odd numbers of carbon atoms (C odd) when the strain was grown on a C-odd alkane (pentadecane) and even numbers of carbon atoms (C even) when it was grown on a C-even</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Vincent Grossi; Danielle Raphel; Robert Matheron; Agnes Hirschler-Rea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/u8x47g7l272p5t27.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of chromosome 5B on synapsis and chiasma formation in wheat, triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chinese Spring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present paper summarizes and discusses the results obtained from a series of ultrastructural investigations of the effect\\u000a of chromosome 5B on chromosome pairing, and synaptonemal complex formation in wheat, T. aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Chinese Spring. The material\\u000a comprises hexaploid wheat nullisomic for chromosome 5B, monosomic for 5B, euploid wheat, wheat where chromosomes 5B have been\\u000a replaced by one, two or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Preben Bach Holm; Xingzhi Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22738977"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of bisphenol A metabolites produced by Portulaca oleracea <span class="hlt">cv</span>. by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The garden plant portulaca (Portulaca oleracea <span class="hlt">cv</span>.) efficiently removes bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, from a hydroponic solution, but the molecular mechanisms underlying BPA metabolism by portulaca remain unclear. In this study, BPA metabolites converted by portulaca were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. We observed the hydroxylation of BPA and the oxidization of it to quinone. Polyphenol oxidases are likely to contribute to BPA degradation by portulaca. PMID:22738977</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watanabe, Ippei; Harada, Kazuo; Matsui, Takeshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Kato, Ko; Bamba, Takeshi; Hirata, Kazumasa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://diana.pe.titech.ac.jp/PDF/2002/Huangmrs686.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CV</span> and GV Measurements Showing Single Electron Trapping in Nanocrystalline Silicon Dot Embedded in MOS Memory Structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We prepared a SiO2\\/nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si)\\/SiO2 sandwich structure. A clear positive shift in <span class="hlt">C-V</span> and G-V curves due to electrons trapped in nc-Si dots has been observed at room temperature. The peak in conductance around flat band condition indicates that a trap event had occurred where an electron is stored per nc-Si dot. A logarithmic charge loss function is found</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaoyun Huang; Souri Banerjee; Shunri Oda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1080965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triacylglycerol Bioassembly in Microspore-Derived Embryos of Brassica napus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Reston 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Erucic acid (22:1) was chosen as a marker to study triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in a Brassica napus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Reston microspore-derived (MD) embryo culture system. TAGs accumulating during embryo development exhibited changes in acyl composition similar to those observed in developing zygotic embryos of the same <span class="hlt">cv</span>, particularly with respect to erucic and eicosenoic acids. However, MD embryos showed a much higher rate of incorporation of 14C-erucoyl moieties into TAGs in vitro than zygotic embryos. Homogenates of early-late cotyledonary stage MD embryos (14-29 days in culture) were assessed for the ability to incorporate 22:1 and 18:1 (oleoyl) moieties into glycerolipids. In the presence of [1-14C]22:1-coenzyme A (CoA) and various acyl acceptors, including glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P), radiolabeled erucoyl moieties were rapidly incorporated into the TAG fraction, but virtually excluded from other Kennedy Pathway intermediates as well as complex polar lipids. This pattern of erucoyl incorporation was unchanged during time course experiments or upon incubation of homogenates with chemicals known to inhibit Kennedy Pathway enzymes. In marked contrast, parallel experiments conducted using [1-14C]18:1-CoA and G-3-P indicated that 14C oleoyl moieties were incorporated into lyso-phosphatidic acids, phosphatidic acids, diacylglycerols, and TAGs of the Kennedy Pathway, as well as other complex polar lipids, such as phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines. When supplied with l-[2-3H(N)]G-3-P and [1-14C]22:1-CoA, the radiolabeled TAG pool contained both isotopes, indicating G-3-P to be a true acceptor of erucoyl moieties. Radio-high-performance liquid chromatography, argentation thin-layer chromatography/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and stereospecific analyses of radiolabeled TAGs indicated that 22:1 was selectively incorporated into the sn-3 position by a highly active diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT; EC 2.3.1.20), while oleoyl moieties were inserted into the sn-1 and sn-2 positions. In the presence of sn-1,2-dierucin and [1-14C]22:1-CoA, homogenates and microsomal preparations were able to produce radiolabeled trierucin, a TAG not found endogenously in this species. A 105,000g pellet fraction contained 22:1-CoA:DGAT exhibiting the highest specific activity. The rate of 22:1-CoA:DGAT activity in vitro could more than account for the maximal rate of TAG biosynthesis observed in vivo during embryo development. In double label experiments, G-3-P was shown to stimulate the conversion of [3H]phosphatidylcholines to [3H]diacylglycerols, which subsequently acted as acceptors for 14C erucoyl moieties. In vitro, 22:1 moieties did not enter the sn-1 position of TAGs by a postsynthetic modification or transacylation of preformed TAGs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, David C.; Weber, Nikolaus; Barton, Dennis L.; Underhill, Edward W.; Hogge, Lawrence R.; Weselake, Randall J.; Pomeroy, M. Keith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17357447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study on powdery mildew resistance transfer from S. cereale L.<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Weiling rye into wheat.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Weiling rye (S. cereale L.<span class="hlt">cv</span>.), a Chinese dwarf rye, confers high powdery mildew (Erysiphe gramininis f.sp.tritici) in China. My8443, a wheat cultivars infecting seriously powdery mildew disease, was used as the female parent and Weiling rye was used as the donor of powdery mildew resistance in the study. A new wheat-rye translocation line,named No.147,was developed from BC2F6 progenies of wheat cultivars My8443 and Weiling rye to transfer the resistance from Weiling rye to common wheat. The powdery mildew resistance of No.147 and its parents were investigated in seedling and adult stages by artificially inoculating the mixture of advanced pathogenic races in room and field and the single pathogenic race in room. Improved Giemsa C-banding technique and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH,Genomic in situ hybridization) were used to identify wheat and rye chromosomes. Acid polyacylamide gel electrophoresis(APAGE) separation of endosperm gliadin and simple sequence repeat(SSR) PCR amplification of 11 SCM-Secale cereale markers also were employed for 1RS confirmation in the study. The results showed that No.147 was a new 1BL/1RS wheat-rye chromosome translocation with high powdery mildew resistance derived from Weiling rye. The reason on the formation of the new wheat-rye chromosome translocation was analyzed. The utilizations of resistance gene resource derived from Chinese Weiling rye and the new 1BL/1RS translocation line in wheat genetics and breeding improvement were discussed in the paper. PMID:17357447</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Huai Yu; Ren, Zheng Long</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24735825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen supply affects anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in grapevine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon berries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Accumulation of anthocyanins in grape berries is influenced by environmental factors (such as temperature and light) and supply of nutrients, i.e., fluxes of carbon and nitrogen feeding the berry cells. It is established that low nitrogen supply stimulates anthocyanin production in berry skin cells of red varieties. The present works aims to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response of anthocyanin accumulation to nitrogen supply in berries from field grown-plants. To this end, we developed an integrated approach combining monitoring of plant nitrogen status, metabolite measurements and transcript analysis. Grapevines (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) were cultivated in a vineyard with three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 60 and 120kgha(-1) of nitrogen applied on the soil). Anthocyanin profiles were analyzed and compared with gene expression levels. Low nitrogen supply caused a significant increase in anthocyanin levels at two ripening stages (26days post-véraison and maturity). Delphinidin and petunidin derivatives were the most affected compounds. Transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis confirmed the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavonoid-3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plant cultivated without nitrogen compared to the ones cultivated with 120kgha(-1) nitrogen fertilization. The results indicate that nitrogen controls a coordinated regulation of both positive (MYB transcription factors) and negative (LBD proteins) regulators of the flavonoid pathway in grapevine. PMID:24735825</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soubeyrand, Eric; Basteau, Cyril; Hilbert, Ghislaine; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Delrot, Serge; Gomès, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19941088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Abosora.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23582642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Erwinia amylovora affects the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in mature leaves of Pyrus communis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Conférence.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Flavonoids, which are synthesized by the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway, not only contribute to fruit colour and photoprotection, they also may provide antimicrobial and structural components during interaction with micro-organisms. A possible response of this pathway was assessed in both mature and immature leaves of shoots of 2-year-old pear trees <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Conférence, which were inoculated with the gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora strain SGB 225/12, were mock-inoculated or were left untreated. The phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway was analysed by histological studies, by gene expression using RT-qPCR and by HPLC analyses of the metabolites at different time intervals after infection. Transcription patterns of two key genes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and chalcone synthase (CHS) related to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway showed differences between control, mock-inoculated and E. amylovora-inoculated mature leaves, with the strongest reaction 48 h after inoculation. The impact of E. amylovora was also visualised in histological sections, and confirmed by HPLC, as epicatechin -which is produced via ANR- augmented 72 h after inoculation in infected leaf tissue. Besides the effect of treatments, ontogenesis-related differences were found as well. The increase of certain key genes, the rise in epicatechin and the visualisation in several histological sections in this study suggest a non-negligible impact on the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway in Pyrus communis due to inoculation with E. amylovora. In this study, we propose a potential role of this pathway in defence mechanisms, providing a detailed analysis of the response of this system attributable to inoculation with E. amylovora. PMID:23582642</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vrancken, K; Holtappels, M; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Treutter, D; Valcke, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1077485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Glucocerebrosides of Rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) Leaf and Plasma Membrane 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glucocerebrosides of whole rye (Secale cerale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) leaf and plasma membrane were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography following hydrolysis or as intact molecules purified by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Fatty acids of acid-hydrolyzed leaf and plasma membrane glucocerebrosides consisted of >98 weight percent saturated and monounsaturated 2-hydroxy fatty acids which contained 16 to 26 carbon atoms. The major fatty acids detected were 2-hydroxynervonic acid (24:1h), 2-hydroxylignoceric acid (24:0h), 2-hydroxyerucic acid (22:1h), and 2-hydroxybehenic acid (22:0h). Long-chain bases of alkaline-hydrolyzed glucocerebrosides consisted primarily of cis-trans isomers of the trihydroxy base 4-hydroxysphingenine (t18:1) and the dihydroxy base sphingadienine (d18:2) with lesser amounts of 4-hydroxysphinganine (t18:0) and isomers of sphingenine (d18:1). Intact, underivatized glucocerebroside molecular species of rye leaf and plasma membrane were separated into more than 30 molecular species using reverse-phase HPLC. The molecular species composition of leaf and plasma membrane were quantitatively and qualitatively similar. The major molecular species was 24:1h-t18:1 which constituted nearly 40 weight percent of leaf and plasma membrane extracts. Several other species including 22:1h-t18:1, 24:1h-t18:1 (isomer), 22:0h-t18:1, 24:1h-d18:2, and 24:0h-t18:1 each comprised 4 to 8% of the total. It is anticipated that the high performance liquid chromatography procedure developed in this study to separate intact, underivatized lipid molecular species will be useful in future studies of the physical properties and biosynthesis of plant glucocerebrosides.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cahoon, Edgar B.; Lynch, Daniel V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8470354"> <span id="translatedtitle">The toxic effects of mature flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris L <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lathco) on sheep.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The toxic effects of mature, seed-bearing flatpea (Lathyrus sylvestris L <span class="hlt">cv</span> Lathco) hay on sheep was studied in a feeding trial with 25 adult ewes. Five ewes were barren; 20 were in the last 10 w of pregnancy. The ewes were blocked by weight and reproductive status for assignment to treatment groups. Four groups of 5 ewes each were allotted to 1 of the following diets: 0% (controls), 35.0%, 52.5% or 70.0% flatpea (FP); and 1 group of 5 ewes was allotted to a diet of increasing levels of 17.5, 35.0, 52.5 and 70.0% FP. Flatpea hay was harvested in the mature, seed-bearing stage, pelleted, reground and incorporated into a basal (control) diet of 30% corn + 70% alfalfa by substitution of an appropriate amount of FP for alfalfa. The resulting diets were fed for up to 42 days. The toxic nature of FP was expressed by the following dose-related responses: Fluctuating reductions in feed intake upon initiation of diets containing 35% FP and above; occurrence of a potentially fatal, acute central nervous system syndrome at FP levels as low as 35%; and reduced weight gain at FP levels of 52.5% and above. A wasting condition was observed in 1 ewe fed 52.5% FP. Four of 5 ewes and 1 lamb fed increasing levels of FP developed acute poisoning. One of these ewes developed acute neurotoxicosis when consuming 52.5% FP; 3 other ewes and 1 40-d-old orphaned lamb developed neurotoxicosis upon raising the FP level to 70.0%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8470354</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rowe, L D; Ivie, G W; DeLoach, J R; Foster, J G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1091943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rapidly Induced Wound Ethylene from Excised Segments of Etiolated Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wound-induced ethylene synthesis by subapical stem sections of etiolated Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alaska seedlings, as described by Saltveit and Dilley (Plant Physiol 1978 61: 447-450), was half-saturated at 3.6% (v/v) O2 and saturated at about 10% O2. Corresponding values for CO2 production during the same period were 1.1% and 10% O2, respectively. Anaerobiosis stopped all ethylene evolution and delayed the characteristic pattern of wound ethylene synthesis. Exposing tissue to 3.5% CO2 in air in a flow-through system reduced wound ethylene synthesis by 30%. Enhancing gas diffusivity by reducing the total pressure to 130 mm Hg almost doubled the rate of wound ethylene synthesis and this effect was negated by exposure to 250 ?l liter?1 propylene. Applied ethylene or propylene stopped wound ethylene synthesis during the period of application, but unlike N2, no lag period was observed upon flushing with air. It is concluded that the characteristic pattern of wound-induced ethylene synthesis resulted from negative feedback control by endogenous ethylene. No wound ethylene was produced for 2 hours after excision at 10 or 38 C. Low temperatures prolonged the lag period, but did not prevent induction of the wound response, since tissue held for 2 hours at 10 C produced wound ethylene immediately when warmed to 30 C. In contrast, temperatures above 36 C prevented induction of wound ethylene synthesis, since tissue cooled to 30 C after 1 hour at 40 C required 2 hours before ethylene production returned to normal levels. The activation energy between 15 and 36 C was 12.1 mole kilocalories degree?1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saltveit, Mikal E.; Dilley, David R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21215830"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) on bacterial nasopharyngeal carriage.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) may reduce nasopharyngeal carriage (NPC) of Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine strains (VT), but serotype replacement with non-vaccine strains (NVT) has been reported. Bacterial NPC after PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> vaccination was assessed in the second year of life. Open descriptive study of NPC reported for 414 subjects vaccinated at 3-5 and 12-15 months of age with PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> with or without prophylactic paracetamol (PP) compared to 336 age-matched PCV-naïve controls. Carriage was assessed prior to and 1, 3, 7 and 12 months after PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> booster or MenACWY-TT control vaccination at 12-15 months of age. At each visit, carriage of VT was reduced by 22-35% in PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> recipients. Vaccine efficacy across all visits was 21.7% [95% CI 2.6; 37.0] (26.8% carriage in the PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> group versus 34.2% in controls). Carriage rates of NVT tended to be higher in PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> recipients. Pre-booster, these findings were more pronounced when PP had not been administered. No substantial effect of PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> vaccination was observed on NPC of other bacterial pathogens including non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Primary and booster vaccination with PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> reduced NPC of VT in the second year of life and tended to slightly increase that of NVT in line with previous experience with the 7-valent PCV. PMID:21215830</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prymula, Roman; Hanovcova, Irena; Splino, Miroslav; Kriz, Pavla; Motlova, Jitka; Lebedova, Vera; Lommel, Patricia; Kaliskova, Eva; Pascal, Thierry; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49266425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) on bacterial nasopharyngeal carriage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) may reduce nasopharyngeal carriage (NPC) of Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine strains (VT), but serotype replacement with non-vaccine strains (NVT) has been reported. Bacterial NPC after PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> vaccination was assessed in the second year of life.Open descriptive study of NPC reported for 414 subjects vaccinated at 3–5 and 12–15 months of age with PHiD-<span class="hlt">CV</span> with or without prophylactic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roman Prymula; Irena Hanovcova; Miroslav Splino; Pavla Kriz; Jitka Motlova; Vera Lebedova; Patricia Lommel; Eva Kaliskova; Thierry Pascal; Dorota Borys; Lode Schuerman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36089209"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and cellular fatty-acid composition of a sulphate-reducing bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803 T, grown on n-alkenes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The anaerobic degradation of n-alkenes by a sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T was investigated. Results suggest that enzymes required for alkene degradation are inducible. Moreover, total cellular fatty acids of strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T were predominantly C-odd when the strain was grown on C-odd substrates and C-even when grown on C-even substrates. In addition to classical bacterial fatty acids, unusual 4-Me-17:1?11</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristiana Cravo-Laureau; Agnès Hirschler-Réa; Robert Matheron; Vincent Grossi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24506015"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span>) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta <span class="hlt">africana</span>) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin National Park. PMID:24506015</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040140824&hterms=inductively+coupled+mass+spectrometry&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinductively%2Bcoupled%2Bmass%2Bspectrometry"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury Abundances and Isotopic Compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>)Carbonaceous Chondrites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 6 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 6 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with d l 96/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from 2260 %o to 1440 9/00 in Murchison and from 2620 9/00 to 1540 9/00 in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 9/00m. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the singlecollector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900 C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released fiom the meteorites as a h c t i o n of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225" and 343"C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344 C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 9/00, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ;340"C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation suggests that Hg is associated with S-bearing phases and, thus, that HgS is a major Hg-bearing phase in both meteorites. The Hg peak at 225 C for Allende is similar to release patterns of physically adsorbed Hg on silicate and metal grains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lauretta, D. S.; Klaue, B.; Blum, J. D.; Buseck, P. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001GeCoA..65.2807L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury abundances and isotopic compositions in the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) carbonaceous chondrites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The abundance and isotopic composition of Hg was determined in bulk samples of both the Murchison (CM) and Allende (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) carbonaceous chondrites using single- and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bulk abundances of Hg are 294 ± 15 ng/g in Murchison and 30.0 ± 1.5 ng/g in Allende. These values are within the range of previous measurements of bulk Hg abundances by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Prior studies suggested that both meteorites contain isotopically anomalous Hg, with ? 196/202Hg values for the anomalous, thermal-release components from bulk samples ranging from -260 ‰ to +440 ‰ in Murchison and from -620 ‰ to +540 ‰ in Allende (Jovanovic and Reed, 1976a; 1976b; Kumar and Goel, 1992). Our multi-collector ICP-MS measurements suggest that the relative abundances of all seven stable Hg isotopes in both meteorites are identical to terrestrial values within 0.2 to 0.5 ‰. On-line thermal-release experiments were performed by coupling a programmable oven with the single-collector ICP-MS. Powdered aliquots of each meteorite were linearly heated from room temperature to 900°C over twenty-five minutes under an Ar atmosphere to measure the isotopic composition of Hg released from the meteorites as a function of temperature. In separate experiments, the release profiles of S and Se were determined simultaneously with Hg to constrain the Hg distribution within the meteorites and to evaluate the possibility of Se interferences in previous NAA studies. The Hg-release patterns differ between Allende and Murchison. The Hg-release profile for Allende contains two distinct peaks, at 225° and 343°C, whereas the profile for Murchison has only one peak, at 344°C. No isotopically anomalous Hg was detected in the thermal-release experiments at a precision level of 5 to 30 ‰, depending on the isotope ratio. In both meteorites the Hg peak at ˜340°C correlates with a peak in the S-release profile. This correlation suggests that Hg is associated with S-bearing phases and, thus, that HgS is a major Hg-bearing phase in both meteorites. The Hg peak at 225°C for Allende is similar to release patterns of physically adsorbed Hg on silicate and metal grains. Prior studies suggested that the isotopic anomalies reported from NAA resulted from interference between 203Hg and 75Se. However, the amount of Se released from both meteorites, relative to Hg, is insufficient to produce all of the observed anomalies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lauretta, Dante S.; Klaue, Bjoern; Blum, Joel D.; Buseck, Peter R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16232424"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic position of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei, a symbiont of Astragalus sinicus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Japan.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The phylogenetic position of Rhizobium huakuii bv. renge, a symbiont of Astragalus sinicus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Japan (renge-sou), was studied. The following phylogenetic approaches were used: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a full-length 16S rDNA fragment, 16S rDNA analysis of the first 300-bp sequence, bacteriophage typing, and amplification of the genomic region by random primer. All the data suggest that strains of R. huakuii bv. renge should be classified into subspecies of the new genus Mesorhizobium (Jarvis et al., Inter. J. System. Bacteriol., 47, 895-898, 1997) and renamed M. huakuii subsp. rengei. All the strains fell into a tight cluster which included M. loti and M. huakuii. The strains isolated from root nodules on A. sinicus were divided into three groups as follows: group I, M. huakuii subsp. rengei B3, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My6, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My7, M. huakuii subsp. rengei My3, and M. huakuii subsp. rengei OUT30020; group II, M. huakuii subsp. huakuii CCBAU103(T), M. huakuii subsp. huakuii ACCC13005, M. huakuii subsp. huakuii 7653R, and Mesorhizobium sp. N-1; group III, Mesorhizobium sp. OUT30019. All the strains isolated in Japan except strains N-1 and OUT30019 were classified into group I. Strains in group I were sensitive to bacteriophage H1 which was isolated from rice-paddy soil in Japan. Strains in groups II and III except for M. huakuii subsp. huakuii 7653R were resistant to phage H1. Rhizobium sp. ACMP18, a native symbiont of Astragalus cicer that forms nodules on A. sinicus, showed close similarity to M. huakuii subsp. huakuii CCBAU103(T), and should thus be classified as a Mesorhizobium sp. Taken together, the results of the analyses indicate that M. huakuii subsp. rengei forms a subgroup which is distinct from M. huakuii subsp. huakuii strains isolated in China and that strain B3 is the type strain. PMID:16232424</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nuswantara, S; Fujie, M; Yamada, T; Malek, W; Inaba, M; Kaneko, Y; Murooka, Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/63268259q756m73t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Para</span> Red and Sudan Dyes in Egg Yolk by UPLC–MS–MS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) with alumina N as adsorbent has been used for extraction of <span class="hlt">para</span> red, Sudan 1, Sudan\\u000a 2, Sudan 3, and Sudan 4 dyes from egg yolk. The extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass\\u000a spectrometry (UPLC–MS–MS). Mean recovery for the five dyes ranged from 63.2 to 98.6%, with <span class="hlt">CV</span> 0.55–10.00%. One sample was\\u000a confirmed to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xiaolin Hou; Yonggang Li; Shoujun Cao; Zhongwen Zhang; Yongnin Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008947"> <span id="translatedtitle">First results of a physicochemical survey of <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions: The refractory trace elements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have physically, mineralogically, and chemically characterized 20 <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 CAIs. We investigate the Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and their relationships with other refractory trace elements within our suite of CAIs and among the minerals contained in them. Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) offer glimpses into the earliest chemical and physical processes during solar system formation. We have begun a study of the trace element distribution(s) within <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 CAIs and their constituent minerals to help constrain the chemical environment(s) of their formation and evolution. We have physically, mineralogically, and chemically characterized 20 individual CAIs in thick sections of 3 different <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites using 3D tomography, qualitative x-ray mapping, quantitative electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) techniques. The combination of these techniques on individual CAIs will expand our knowledge of the physical and chemical formation conditions of these enigmatic objects. For our initial report, we will focus on the content(s) of the refractory trace elements Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, and Ta. Previous investigations of suites of these elements in bulk Allende refractory inclusions have shown that while there seems to be little Zr/Hf variation from the currently accepted chondritic value of {approx}35, there exist considerable Nb/Ta variations within the same samples. As a whole, this variation is consistent with condensation within in a small temperature range, because Nb oxides are predicted to condense at temperatures very similar (14-40 C) to Tb oxides: suggested that the effect can be explained by efficient condensation of Ta atoms from a gas leaving it enriched in Nb atoms. Here, we investigate the distribution(s) of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and their relationships with other refractory trace elements within our suite of 20 CAIs and among the minerals contained in them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedrich, J.M.; Jochum, K.P.; Ebel, D.S. (Mainz); (AMNH); (MXPL)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions, indicating that the use of the beneficial bacterial endophytes may boost switchgrass growth on marginal lands and significantly contribute to the development of a low input and sustainable feedstock production system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApJ...680L.141T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of a New FUN CAI from a <span class="hlt">CV</span> Carbonaceous Chondrite: Evidence for Multistage Thermal Processing in the Protoplanetary Disk</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the mineralogy, petrography, as well as oxygen and magnesium isotope data of a newly identified FUN inclusion from the <span class="hlt">CV</span> carbonaceous chondrite NWA 779. Variability in the texture of the mineral phases coupled with oxygen isotope data provides evidence for multistage evolution of this inclusion under distinct thermal regimes: slow crystallization of 16O-rich melt accompanied by evaporation, and subsequent remelting in an 16O-poor reservoir during transient heating events, possibly associated with the formation of <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrules. The inferred oxygen isotope composition of the precursor material of this inclusion (?17,18O=-48.4+2.5-3.0‰) is consistent with that observed for CAIs and amoeboid olivine aggregates from least metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites, suggesting that both FUN and normal CAIs formed in an 16O-rich reservoir with oxygen isotope composition similar to that inferred for the Sun. However, in contrast to normal CAIs, most FUN inclusions show no evidence for live 26Al at the time of their formation. Based on these observations, we propose that the protosolar molecular cloud was polluted with stellar-derived 26Al prior to its collapse. Thus, FUN CAIs formed at a time when dust inherited from the molecular cloud-including the carrier of 26Al-was still poorly homogenized in the protoplanetary disk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thrane, Kristine; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890018744&hterms=cbh&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2522cbh%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interpretation of F106B and <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 in-flight lightning data and form factor determination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two topics of in-flight aircraft/lightning interaction are addressed. The first is the analysis of measured data from the NASA F106B Thunderstorm Research Aircraft and the <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 research program run by the FAA and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The <span class="hlt">CV</span>580 data was investigated in a mostly qualitative sense, while the F106B data was subjected to both statistical and quantitative analysis using linear triggered lightning finite difference models. The second main topic is the analysis of field mill data and the calibration of the field mill systems. The calibration of the F106B field mill system was investigated using an improved finite difference model of the aircraft having a spatial resolution of one-quarter meter. The calibration was applied to measured field mill data acquired during the 1985 thunderstorm season. The experimental determination of form factors useful for field mill calibration was also investigated both experimentally and analytically. The experimental effort involved the use of conducting scale models and an electrolytic tank. An analytic technique was developed to aid in the understanding of the experimental results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rudolph, T.; Horembala, J.; Eriksen, F. J.; Weigel, H. S.; Elliott, J. R.; Parker, S. L.; Perala, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3994458"> <span id="translatedtitle">Immune response to live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-<span class="hlt">CV</span>) neutralizes Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from South-East Asia and India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background During clinical development of the licensed Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-<span class="hlt">CV</span>), the neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies was assessed against the vaccine virus and against well characterized wild-type (wt) viruses isolated between 1949–1991. We assessed whether JE-<span class="hlt">CV</span>-induced antibodies can also neutralize more recent wt Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) isolates including a genotype 1 isolate. Methods Sera from 12–18 month-old children who received a single dose of JE-<span class="hlt">CV</span> in a phase III study in Thailand and the Philippines (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00735644) were randomly selected and pooled according to neutralization titer against JE-<span class="hlt">CV</span> into eight samples. Neutralization was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT50) against three recent isolates from JEV genotypes 1 and 3 in addition to four JEV previously tested. Results Neutralization titers against the three recent JEV strains were comparable to those observed previously against other strains and the vaccine virus. The observed differences between responses to genotype 1 and 3 viruses were within assay variability for the PRNT50. Conclusions The results were consistent with previously generated data on the neutralization of wt JEV isolates, immune responses induced by JE-<span class="hlt">CV</span> neutralize recently isolated virus from southeast (SE) Asia and India.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15344818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Growth and cellular fatty-acid composition of a sulphate-reducing bacterium, Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T, grown on n-alkenes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The anaerobic degradation of n-alkenes by a sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T was investigated. Results suggest that enzymes required for alkene degradation are inducible. Moreover, total cellular fatty acids of strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T were predominantly C-odd when the strain was grown on C-odd substrates and C-even when grown on C-even substrates. In addition to classical bacterial fatty acids, unusual 4-Me-17:1delta11 and 4-Me-18:1delta11 fatty acids and their saturated homologues were detected when strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T was grown on 1-pentadecene and 1-hexadecene, respectively. These methyl-branched monounsaturated fatty acids could constitute specific metabolites of n-alkene degradation by sulphate-reducing bacteria. PMID:15344818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Matheron, Robert; Grossi, Vincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2063397"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanism of the anti-tumour effect of 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(3-pyridylmethyl) 1,4-benzoquinone (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">2,3,5-Trimethyl-6-(3-pyridylmethyl) 1,4-benzoquinone (<span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504), an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, effectively suppressed growth of the MAC16 tumour in vivo and prevented the accompanying cachexia, when administered daily at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). There was a reduction in the tumour concentration of linoleic (LA), arachidonic (AA), oleic, stearic and palmitic acid. In order to elucidate the mechanism of the anti-tumour action, the effect of <span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504 on the metabolism of AA through the 5-, 12- and 15-lipoxygenase pathways has been determined in cell lines sensitive (MAC16, MAC13, MAC26 and Caco-2) and resistant (A549 and DU-145) to <span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504. Incubation of all cell lines with [3H]AA led to the appearance of [3H]5-, 12- and 15-HETE. Preincubation of MAC16, MAC13, MAC26 and Caco-2 with 10 microM <span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504 inhibited the conversion of AA to 5-, 12- and 15-HETE, while in A549 and DU-145 cells there was no effect on metabolism through any lipoxygenase pathway. Two other cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and PC-3, sensitive to growth inhibition by <span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504, are known to require LA for growth, while DU-145, which was insensitive to growth inhibition by <span class="hlt">CV</span>-6504, showed no growth response to LA. These results suggest that some tumours are dependent on lipoxygenase metabolites of LA and AA for their continual growth, and interference with this pathway produces a specific growth inhibition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hussey, H. J.; Tisdale, M. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23796859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition and antioxidant activities in immumosuppressed mice of polysaccharides isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim <span class="hlt">cv</span>. jiangxiangru.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polysaccharide MP was isolated from Mosla chinensis Maxim <span class="hlt">cv</span>. jiangxiangru. It was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 5.364:12.260:3.448:12.260:32.567:30.651, with 11.00%±0.24% uronic acid and 9.046%±0.04% protein. Its antioxidant activity on the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice was investigated. The spleen and the thymus indices were investigated, and the biochemical parameters were evaluated in three organs (liver, heart and kidney). MP was able to overcome the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and can significantly raise the T-AOC, CAT, SOD and GSH-PX level. It also raised the spleen and thymus indices and decreased the MDA level in mice. MP could play an important role during the prevention process of oxidative damage in immunological system. PMID:23796859</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Jing-En; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Huang, Dan-Fei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Li, Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870049284&hterms=rare+earth+elements&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drare%2Bearth%2Belements"> <span id="translatedtitle">Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and <span class="hlt">CV</span> meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850018096&hterms=MOS&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DMOS"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies in electron phenomena in MOS structures: The pulsed <span class="hlt">C-V</span> method. M.S. Thesis. Abstract Only</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pulse hysteresis capacitance voltage (<span class="hlt">C-V</span>) provides a straight forward technique for measuring the change of various charges in MOS structures and a tool for investigating the kinetics of various electron phenomena is developed and described. The method can be used for measuring the energy distribution and kinetics of surface states with the resolution of about 1/5 x 10 to the -9 power cm eV. Some transients in an MOS structure, particularly, the thermal generation of minority charge carriers via surface states and the relaxation of minority charge carriers supplied from the inversion layer outside the MOS structure are theoretically investigated. Analytical expressions which clearly present the physics of those electron phenomena are derived.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaplan, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1081076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Level of Abscisic Acid in Integuments, Nucellus, Endosperm, and Embryo of Peach Seeds (Prunus persica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Springcrest) during Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Free abscisic acid (ABA) in integuments, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo was determined throughout seed development of peach (Prunus persica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Springcrest). Quantification of ABA was performed using combined high performance liquid chromatography-radioimmunoassay based on a monoclonal antibody raised against free (S)-ABA. In the integuments and endosperm, ABA concentration remained constant during the first 100 days after anthesis and rose in the following days when fresh weight was rapidly decreasing. In the nucellus, the ABA concentration variation pattern paralleled that of tissue growth. ABA concentration in the embryo increased constantly with the growth of the tissues to reach a maximum at the last growth stage. The role of ABA in peach seeds is discussed in relation to the development of the different seed tissues.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piaggesi, Alberto; Perata, Pierdomenico; Vitagliano, Claudio; Alpi, Amedeo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21047129"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenol metabolism in the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during ripening.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kinetic behavior and protein-expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) have been determined in the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during fruit ripening. Moreover, the concentration of total phenolic compounds, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol has been also determined. This study was carried out in 20-year-old olive trees grown in Jaén (Spain). The concentration of total and specific phenols showed a specific pattern in each cultivar. Frantoio showed the highest phenol concentration followed by Arbequina, Picual, and Verdial. A coordinated response between PAL, PPO, and the concentration of total phenols in the four cultivars was found. Also, specific changes were shown over the course of ripening, indicating a regulation of PAL, PPO, and phenol concentration in the olive-tree leaves during fruit ripening. PMID:21047129</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ortega-García, Francisca; Peragón, Juan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JKPS...64..840O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ion temperature and radial profile of CII-<span class="hlt">CV</span> located in the edge and divertor plasmas of large helical device</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Space-resolved vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy using a 3-m normal incidence spectrometer is utilized to measure the impurity emission profile in the edge and divertor plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD). It measures the vertical profile of VUV lines emitted in the wavelength range of 300-3200 °A. CII, CIII, CIV, and <span class="hlt">CV</span> lines emitted from carbon ions are successfully measured, and their ion temperatures are derived from the Doppler broadening. Vertical profiles of the emission intensity and the ion temperature are measured simultaneously for the CIV line. The emission intensity profile, which has several peak structures, is reasonably explained by considering the relation between the C3+ ion distribution and the geometry used for the observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oishi, Tetsutarou; Morita, Shigeru; Dong, Chunfeng; Goto, Motoshi; Wang, Erhui; Huang, Xianli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20309495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Morpho-histological study of banana (Musa spp. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grande Naine [AAA]) cell suspensions during cryopreservation and regeneration.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, a morpho-histological study of banana (Musa spp. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grande Naine [AAA]) embryogenic cell suspensions during cryopreservation and regeneration was performed. It was demonstrated that the regeneration process of somatic embryos originating from cryopreserved cell suspensions was different from that of control cell suspensions. Somatic embryos originating from cryopreserved cell suspensions had a unicellular origin. The regeneration process was modified not only by freezing in liquid nitrogen but also by the plasmolyzing effect of the 0.5 M sucrose solution employed during pretreatment. This result explained the high number of embryonic structures formed on M3 medium, compared with the control. Proembryos blocked at the globular stage could pursue their development when they were plated on new culture medium at a lower density after 30 days of culture on M3 medium. The unicellular origin of somatic embryos produced from cryopreserved cell suspensions offers the prospect of using cryopreservation to select non-chimeral transformed plants. PMID:20309495</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Georget, Frédéric; Engelmann, Florent; Domergue, Régis; Cote, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134527"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran in India.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate. PMID:22134527</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336956"> <span id="translatedtitle">The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata <span class="hlt">cv</span>.-gr. sesquipedalis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata <span class="hlt">cv</span>.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata <span class="hlt">cv</span>.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3308158"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Cv</span>ManGO, a method for leveraging computational predictions to improve literature-based Gene Ontology annotations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The set of annotations at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) that classifies the cellular function of S. cerevisiae gene products using Gene Ontology (GO) terms has become an important resource for facilitating experimental analysis. In addition to capturing and summarizing experimental results, the structured nature of GO annotations allows for functional comparison across organisms as well as propagation of functional predictions between related gene products. Due to their relevance to many areas of research, ensuring the accuracy and quality of these annotations is a priority at SGD. GO annotations are assigned either manually, by biocurators extracting experimental evidence from the scientific literature, or through automated methods that leverage computational algorithms to predict functional information. Here, we discuss the relationship between literature-based and computationally predicted GO annotations in SGD and extend a strategy whereby comparison of these two types of annotation identifies genes whose annotations need review. Our method, <span class="hlt">Cv</span>ManGO (Computational versus Manual GO annotations), pairs literature-based GO annotations with computational GO predictions and evaluates the relationship of the two terms within GO, looking for instances of discrepancy. We found that this method will identify genes that require annotation updates, taking an important step towards finding ways to prioritize literature review. Additionally, we explored factors that may influence the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">Cv</span>ManGO in identifying relevant gene targets to find in particular those genes that are missing literature-supported annotations, but our survey found that there are no immediately identifiable criteria by which one could enrich for these under-annotated genes. Finally, we discuss possible ways to improve this strategy, and the applicability of this method to other projects that use the GO for curation. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Julie; Costanzo, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Rama; Cherry, J. Michael; Hong, Eurie L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572993"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in so far unexplored Helleborus orientalis Lam. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Olympicus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The so far unexplored H. Orientalis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Olympicus exhibits a unique pattern of flower senescence, involving re-greening of creamy white petaloid sepals at the later stages. The greenish sepals become photosynthetically competent immediately after pollination and persist until the seeds are set. After the seed set, the entire (green) flower abscises from the plant. Flower development of Helleborus orientalis <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Olympicus growing in the open was divided into six stages (I-VI) from tight bud stage to the senescent stage. The average life span of an individual flower after it is fully open is about 6 days. Membrane permeability of sepal tissues estimated as electrical conductivity of leachates increased during senescence. The content of sugars and soluble proteins in the sepal tissues increased during flower opening and declined thereafter during senescence. The protease activity increased as the flower progressed towards senescence. From the present study, it becomes evident that decline in the sugar status and elevation in specific protease activity leading to degradation of proteins are the important factors regulating development and senescence in H. orientalis flowers. Although the tissue content of soluble proteins registered an overall quantitative decrease but SDS-PAGE of protein extract from sepal tissues suggested a decrease in the expression of high molecular weight proteins and an increase in low molecular weight proteins during flower development and senescence. At this stage it is not known whether the polypeptides that increased during senescence play an important role in the senescence of Helleborus orientalis flowers. The increase in these polypeptides during flower senescence is of particular interest because they may be linked to flower longevity. Understanding the nature of these proteins can provide new insights into the pathways that execute senescence and the post-transcriptional regulation of senescence in this flower system. PMID:23572993</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah; Islam, Sheikh Tajamul; Bhat, Mushtaq Ahmad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24222501"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro propagation and assessment of the genetic fidelity of Musa acuminata (AAA) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Vaibalhla derived from immature male flowers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient in vitro propagation method has been developed for the first time for Musa acuminata (AAA) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Vaibalhla, an economically important banana cultivar of Mizoram, India. Immature male flowers were used as explants. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used for the regeneration process. Out of different PGR combinations, MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.5 mg L(-1) ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was optimal for production of white bud-like structures (WBLS). On this medium, explants produced the highest number of buds per explant (4.30). The highest percentage (77.77) and number (3.51) of shoot formation from each explants was observed in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. While MS medium supplemented with a combination of 2 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA showed the maximum shoot length (14.44 cm). Rooting efficiency of the shoots was highest in the MS basal medium without any PGRs. The plantlets were hardened successfully in the greenhouse with 96% survival rate. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to assess the genetic stability of in vitro regenerated plantlets of M. acuminata (AAA) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Vaibalhla. Eight RAPD and 8 ISSR primers were successfully used for the analysis from the 40 RAPD and 30 ISSR primers screened initially. The amplified products were monomorphic across all the regenerated plants and were similar to the mother plant. The present standardised protocol will find application in mass production, conservation and genetic transformation studies of this commercially important banana. PMID:24222501</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hrahsel, Lalremsiami; Basu, Adreeja; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Thangjam, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41045071"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutation breeding of banana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Highgate ( Musa spp., AAA Group) for tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense using chemical mutagens</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shoot apices of in vitro-grown cultures of banana (Musa spp., AAA Group <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Highgate) were treated with various concentrations of the mutagens sodium azide, diethyl sulphate, and ethyl methanesulphonate to evaluate their effectiveness in inducing mutations and also with the aim of producing variants tolerant to the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. This fungus causes fusarial wilt or Panama</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Bhagwat; E. J. Duncan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48659194"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Five Bacterial Lectins (PAIL, PA-IIL, RSL, RS-IIL, and <span class="hlt">CV</span>-IIL): Interactions with Diverse Animal Cells and Glycoproteins</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a Among the ten different lectins discovered in the old biochemistry laboratory at Bar-Ilan University during the years 1972–2006\\u000a (Fig. 9.1), five were isolated from three soil bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) [1–3], Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) [4, ], and Chromobacterium violaceum (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) [6].</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nechama Gilboa-Garber; Keren D. Zinger-Yosovich; Dvora Sudakevitz; Batya Lerrer; Anne Imberty; Michaela Wimmerova; Albert M. Wu; Nachman C. Garber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=186104"> <span id="translatedtitle">USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (<span class="hlt">CV</span>) DISEASE.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse <span class="hlt">CV</span> consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41045284"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of fertilizer rate on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality, with special respect to pigments, in black chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. `Viking'</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of fertilizer rate on fruit quality parameters in the black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa [Michx] Ell.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. `Viking' was studied over three years. A combined N–P–K fertilizer was applied in different rates. Plant height, yield, berry weight, anthocyanin content, content of brown compounds, content of soluble solids, anthocyanin composition and total acidity were recorded for the different treatments. Increased</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niklas Jeppsson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/731j07282t3493l5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tissue culture in synthetic atmospheres: diffusion rate effects on cytokinin-induced callus growth and isoflavonoid production in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Acme</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentration is one factor that is known to determine how metabolic gases influence the growth and secondary metabolism of plant tissues in culture. How actual gas bioavailability influences these processes has not been studied despite its potential importance in specialized applications. A simple model system, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Acme] callus culture, was selected for experiments because exogenous</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lindsey K. Tuominen; Mary E. Musgrave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40134494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance fruit growth and quality of chile ancho ( Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> San Luis) plants exposed to drought</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and drought on fruit quality was evaluated in chile ancho (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> San Luis). AMF treatments were (1) Glomus fasciculatum (AMFG), (2) a fungal species consortium from the forest “Los Tuxtla” in Mexico (AMFT), (3) a fungal species consortium from the Sonorian desert in Mexico (AMFD), and (4) a noninoculated control</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hortencia G. Mena-Violante; Omar Ocampo-Jiménez; Luc Dendooven; Gerardo Martínez-Soto; Jaquelina González-Castañeda; Fred T. Davies Jr; Víctor Olalde-Portugal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49481246"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification and quantification of phenols, carotenoids, and vitamin C from papaya ( Carica papaya L., <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maradol) fruit determined by HPLC-DAD-MS\\/MS-ESI</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin C, phenols, and carotenoids are bioactive compounds that protect the body from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phytochemicals found in papaya fruit flesh and skin (Carica papaya L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> Maradol) was conducted in four stages of ripeness, using high-performance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Laura E. Gayosso-García Sancho; Elhadi M. Yahia; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22965088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maccabi).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain. PMID:22965088</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41046120"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of preharvest calcium sprays on quality attributes, physicochemical aspects of cell wall components and susceptibility to brown rot of peach fruits ( Prunus persica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Andross)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was planned to evaluate the effect of preharvest calcium sprays on physicochemical aspects of cell wall components, activity patterns of pectin-modifying enzymes and susceptibility to brown rot (Monilinia fructicola) of peach fruits (Prunus persica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Andross’). Six or 10 preharvest calcium sprays were applied with two different formulas (calcium chloride and an ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) chelated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. A. Manganaris; M. Vasilakakis; I. Mignani; G. Diamantidis; K. Tzavella-Klonari</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41162836"> <span id="translatedtitle">The firmness of stored tomatoes ( <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tradiro). 2. Kinetic and Near Infrared models to describe pectin degrading enzymes and firmness loss</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tomatoes (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tradiro), harvested at two maturity stages, were stored at four different temperatures during up to four weeks. The lowest storage temperature was known to cause chilling injury, the three other temperatures were regarded save. During storage Near Infrared spectra of intact tomatoes were recorded and samples were taken at regular time intervals to determine the activities of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Van Dijk; C. G. Boeriu; T. Stolle-Smits; L. M. M. Tijskens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB92105105"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elongation and Contraction of the Plant Axis and Development of Spongy Tissues in the Radish Tuber ('Raphanus sativus'L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Saxa Nova).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of the tuber of Raphanus sativus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Saxa Nova is rather indefinite; morphologically this tuber is interpreted as a mass of tissue that is continuously remodelled. Strong elongation and contraction of upper half, lower half of the hypoc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. F. C. Magendans</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=INISMF4080"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contribution to the Study of exp 14 C-Acetate as the Precursor of Amino Acids in Detached Leaves of Coffee (Coffea Arabica <span class="hlt">Cv</span>. Mundo Novo).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbon-14 labelled acetates were used as the precursors of amino acids in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica <span class="hlt">cv</span> Mundo Novo). Leaves with the labelled acetates were incubated and released CO sub 2 was retained in paper discs with hiamine for further radioact...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. G. Brasil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED262248.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Hewlett-Packard HP-41<span class="hlt">CV</span> Hand-Held Computer as a Medium for Teaching Mathematics to Fire Control Systems Repairers. Research Report 1408.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study compared the benefits of using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41<span class="hlt">CV</span> hand-held computer, as opposed to conventional training without computers, in teaching mathematics to fire control systems repairers. Thirty soldiers in a course to train fire control systems repairers received training in technical mathematics using the hand-held computer, whereas…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boldovici, John A.; Scott, Thomas D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aas.bf.uni-lj.si/september2006/21nandagopal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adenine sulphate induced high frequency shoot organogenesis in callus and in vitro flowering of Cichorium intybus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Focus - a potent medicinal plant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient protocol has been developed for the in vitro plant regeneration and flowering achieved from young leaf explants of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Focus). The callus induction and shoot multiplication was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Gamborg ? s (B5) media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of Indole-3-acetic acid, 6-Benzylaminopurine, 6-Furfurylaminopurine and Adenine sulphate. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. NANDAGOPAL; B. D. RANJITHA KUMARI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PSA..76.5223C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen Isotope Measurements of the Reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Chondrite Thiel Mountains 07007 Using a NanoSIMS: Implication to the Nebula Oxygen Isotope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">O-isotopic compositions of fine-grained CAIs in the reduced <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 TIL 07007 using the NanoSIMS with permil-precision suggesting that O-isotopes of the nebula changed from ^16O-rich when spinel condensed to ^16O-depleted when melilite formed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, B.-G.; Kim, H.; Hong, T. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE97000490"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic and stomatal response of Medicago sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. saranac to free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (F.A.C.E.) and nitrogen.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plots of Medicago sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. saranac were grown in the field at ambient (355 (mu)mol CO(sub 2) mol(sup -1) air) or elevated (600(mu)mol CO(sub 2) mol(sup -1) air) CO(sub 2) concentrations. High (200kg yr(sup -1)) or low (20kg yr(sup -1)) nitrogen levels w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. P. Bridson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE85701603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Production of Short-Lived Radiopharmaceuticals with <span class="hlt">CV</span>-28 Cyclotron. Final Report for the Period 1 June 1981-14 July 1984.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A variable energy isochronous cyclotron <span class="hlt">CV</span>-28 at the Physical Department of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is used for radionuclide production of medical interest. The production methods of sup 67 Ga, sup 77 Br, sup 111 In,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Gerbasi da Silva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41046398"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variation of nutrient elements in peach fruits (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. May Crest) and its correlation with development of Brown rot ( Monilinia laxa)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the seasonal variation of nutrient elements in peach fruits (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. May Crest) was examined. Generally, peach nutrients content was highest in the first stages of fruit formation (April) and gradually reduced by developing of fruit. The susceptibility of peaches at different growth stages to Monilinia laxa was also investigated. Fruits were susceptible to M. laxa only at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Thomidis; C. Tsipouridis; V. Darara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3564776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep transcriptome-sequencing and proteome analysis of the hydrothermal vent annelid Alvinella pompejana identifies the <span class="hlt">Cv</span>P-bias as a robust measure of eukaryotic thermostability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Alvinella pompejana is an annelid worm that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean. Living at a depth of approximately 2500 meters, these worms experience extreme environmental conditions, including high temperature and pressure as well as high levels of sulfide and heavy metals. A. pompejana is one of the most thermotolerant metazoans, making this animal a subject of great interest for studies of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Results In order to complement existing EST resources we performed deep sequencing of the A. pompejana transcriptome. We identified several thousand novel protein-coding transcripts, nearly doubling the sequence data for this annelid. We then performed an extensive survey of previously established prokaryotic thermoadaptation measures to search for global signals of thermoadaptation in A. pompejana in comparison with mesophilic eukaryotes. In an orthologous set of 457 proteins, we found that the best indicator of thermoadaptation was the difference in frequency of charged versus polar residues (<span class="hlt">Cv</span>P-bias), which was highest in A. pompejana. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>P-bias robustly distinguished prokaryotic thermophiles from prokaryotic mesophiles, as well as the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum from mesophilic eukaryotes. Experimental values for thermophilic proteins supported higher <span class="hlt">Cv</span>P-bias as a measure of thermal stability when compared to their mesophilic orthologs. Proteome-wide mean <span class="hlt">Cv</span>P-bias also correlated with the body temperatures of homeothermic birds and mammals. Conclusions Our work extends the transcriptome resources for A. pompejana and identifies the <span class="hlt">Cv</span>P-bias as a robust and widely applicable measure of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Reviewer This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, L. Aravind and Anthony M. Poole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22582155"> <span id="translatedtitle">In vitro plantlet regeneration from nodal segments and shoot tips of Capsicum chinense Jacq. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Naga King Chili.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An in vitro regeneration protocol was developed for Capsicum chinense Jacq. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Naga King Chili, a very pungent chili cultivar and an important horticultural crop of Nagaland (Northeast India). Maximum number of shoot (13 ± 0.70) was induced with bud-forming capacity (BFC) index of 10.8, by culturing nodal segments in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 ?M Thidiazuron (TDZ) followed by 35.52 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Using shoot tips as explants, multiple shoot (10 ± 0.37) (BFC 8.3) was also induced in MS medium fortified with either 18.16 ?M TDZ or 35.52 ?M BAP. Elongated shoots were best rooted in MS medium containing 5.70 ?M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Rooted plantlets thus developed were hardened in 2-3 weeks time in plastic cups containing potting mixture of a 1:1 mix of soil and cow dung manure and then subsequently transferred to earthen pots. The regenerated plants did not show any variation in the morphology and growth as compared to the parent plant. PMID:22582155</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16667529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physiological Characteristics of Fe Accumulation in the ;Bronze' Mutant of Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> ;Sparkle' E107 (brz brz).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pea (Pisum sativum L.) mutant, E107 (brz, brz) accumulated extremely high concentrations of Fe in its older leaves when grown in light rooms in either defined nutrient media or potting mix, or outdoors in soil. Leaf symptoms (bronze color and necrosis) were correlated with very high Fe concentrations. When E107 plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied 10 mum Fe, as the Fe(III)-N,N'-ethylenebis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)glycine] chelate, their roots released higher concentrations of Fe(III) reducing substances to the nutrient media than did roots of the normal parent <span class="hlt">cv</span>, ;Sparkle.' Reciprocal grafting experiments demonstrated that the high concentrations of Fe in the shoot was controlled by the genotype of the root. In short-term (59)Fe uptake studies, 15-day-old E107 seedlings exhibited higher rates of Fe absorption than did ;Sparkle' seedlings under Fe-adequate growth conditions. Iron deficiency induced accelerated short-term Fe absorption rates in both mutant and normal genotypes. Iron-treated E107 roots also released larger amounts of both protons and Fe(III) reductants into their nutrient media than did iron-treated ;Sparkle' roots. Furthermore, the mutant translocated proportionately more Fe to its shoot than did the parent regardless of Fe status. PMID:16667529</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Welch, R M; Larue, T A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>.'Tropic Sun').</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Tropic Sun') is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of 'Tropic Sun' were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems, and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid contents of the roots, stems, and leaves of immature plants were estimated to be 0.05, 0.12, and 0.01% w/w, respectively, whereas seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w. PMID:22429238</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Joy, Robert J; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22733494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cotton gene expression profiles in resistant Gossypium hirsutum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Zhongzhimian KV1 responding to Verticillium dahliae strain V991 infection.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Verticillium wilt of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a widespread and destructive disease that is caused by the soil-borne fungus pathogen Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). To study the molecular mechanism in wilt tolerance, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and dot blot techniques were used to identify the specifically expressed genes in a superior wilt-resistant cotton cultivar (G. hirsutum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Zhongzhimian KV1) after inoculation with pathogen. cDNAs from the root tissues of Zhongzhimian KV1 inoculated with V. dahliae strain V991 or water mock were used to construct the libraries that contain 4800 clones. Based on the results from dot blot analysis, 147 clones were clearly induced by V. dahliae and selected from the SSH libraries for sequencing. A total of 92 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated non-redundant expressed sequences tags (ESTs) were identified as disease responsive genes and classified into 9 functional groups. Two important clues regarding wilt-resistant G. hirsutum were obtained from this study. One was Bet v 1 family; the other was UbI gene family that may play an important role in the defense reaction against Verticillium wilt. The result from real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were activated quickly and transiently after inoculation with V. dahliae. PMID:22733494</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Wen-Wei; Jian, Gui-Liang; Jiang, Teng-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Zheng; Qi, Fang-Jun; Xu, Shi-Chang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24161756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Overexpression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from barley (Hordeum vulgare <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nure) roots.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In plant cells, the plastidial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P2-G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) represents one of the most important sources of NADPH. However, previous studies revealed that both native and recombinant purified P2-G6PDHs show a great instability and a rapid loss of catalytic activity. Therefore it has been difficult to describe accurately the catalytic and physico-chemical properties of these isoforms. The plastidial G6PDH encoding sequence from barley roots (Hordeum vulgare <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nure), devoid of a long plastidial transit peptide, was expressed as recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, either untagged or with an N-terminal his-tag. After purification from both the soluble fraction and inclusion bodies, we have explored its kinetic parameters, as well as its sensitivity to reduction. The obtained results are consistent with values determined for other P2-G6PDHs previously purified from barley roots and from other land plants. Overall, these data shed light on the catalytic mechanism of plant P2-G6PDH, summarized in a proposed model in which the sequential mechanism is very similar to the mammalian cytosolic G6PDH. This study provides a rational basis to consider the recombinant barley root P2-G6PDH as a good model for further kinetic and structural studies. PMID:24161756</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Castiglia, Daniela; Cafasso, Donata; Pizzo, Elio; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12750946"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of manganese in low-pH-induced root hair formation in Lactuca sativa <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grand Rapids seedlings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Root hair formation is induced by low pH in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Grand Rapids) seedlings cultured in mineral medium. The role of mineral concentrations in this phenomenon was investigated, especially for manganese. When lettuce seedlings were cultured in media that were deficient in calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), boron (B) or molybdenum (Mo), morphological changes were induced in roots. Deficiency of other nutrients had little effect on root hair formation. Ca or B deficiency inhibited the growth of the main root and the formation of root hairs, regardless of pH. Mn or Mo deficiency increased root hair formation at pH 6 and suppressed main root growth slightly. In contrast, increasing the Mn concentration suppressed low-pH-induced root hair formation. The Mn content of roots grown at pH 4 was only about 15% of that at pH 6. In contrast, the Mo content of roots grown at low pH was about six times that of roots grown at neutral pH. These results suggest that root hair formation induced by low pH is at least partly mediated by decreased Mn uptake in root cells. PMID:12750946</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Konno, Masae; Ooishi, Machiko; Inoue, Yasunori</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056209"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and Metabolism of sym-Homospermidine and Canavalmine in the Sword Bean Canavalia gladiata <span class="hlt">cv</span> Shironata</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The unusual polyamines, sym-homospermidine (homoSPD) and canavalmine (CAN), were found in the seed of Canavalia species such as C. gladiata, C. ensiformis, and C. brasilensis, but not in those of other leguminous crops. To examine the distribution and metabolism of homoSPD and CAN in sword bean, C. gladiata <span class="hlt">cv</span> Shironata, polyamine analysis was carried out throughout the life cycle of this plant. During seed germination, putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM) were accumulated in the radicle and hypocotyl. HomoSPD and CAN were, however, maintained at very low levels over a 6-day period of germination. In nodulated sword bean plants, a large quantity of homoSPD was found in the root nodule. CAN was detected exclusively in the senescent nodule at very low concentrations. These polyamines were not detected in any other organs including root, stem, leaf, vine, flower, and pod, while PUT, SPD, and SPM were always found in those organs. As plants reached the reproductive stage, homoSPD and CAN appeared in the immature seed and their concentrations increased as seed formation progressed. By contrast, the level of SPM continuously decreased during seed development. In developing seeds, considerable accumulation of canavanine, an analog of arginine, which is a precursor in polyamine biosynthesis, was also observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fujihara, Shinsuke; Nakashima, Toshikatsu; Kurogochi, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Masuro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1067162"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural Changes in Thylakoid Proteins during Cold Acclimation and Freezing of Winter Rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Puma) 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thylakoids were isolated from nonhardened and cold-hardened winter rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Puma), and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence and absence of sulfhydryl reagents. Electrophoresis of cold-hardened rye thylakoid proteins revealed the presence of a 35 kilodalton polypeptide and the absence of a 51 kilodalton polypeptide found in nonhardened rye thylakoid proteins. The 35 kilodalton band could be induced by adding ?-mercaptoethanol to nonhardened rye thylakoid proteins, whereas the 51 kilodalton band could be formed by adding cupric phenanthroline to these same proteins. Sulfhydryl group titration showed that cold-hardened rye thylakoid proteins contained more free sulfhydryls than nonhardened rye proteins. Although amino acid analysis of thylakoid proteins revealed quantitative differences in several amino acid residues, the polarity of thylakoid proteins did not change during cold acclimation. No significant changes in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of thylakoid proteins appeared when either nonhardened or cold-hardened plants were frozen in vivo or in vitro. However, thylakoid proteins did aggregate when frozen in the presence of ?-mercaptoethanol. Although thylakoid proteins isolated from cold-hardened rye contained more reduced thiols, a general state of reduction did not act as a cryoprotectant. It is hypothesized that conformational changes of specific proteins may be important for low temperature growth of rye. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffith, Marilyn; Brown, Gregory N.; Huner, Norman P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4093477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intake and Performance of Yearling Steers Grazing Guineagrass (Panicum maximum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tanz?nia) Pasture Supplemented with Different Energy Sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplements containing different energy sources in relation to mineral supplementation of steers grazing guineagrass (Panicum maximum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Tanzânia) pasture, during the dry season. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of a mineral supplementation and two other supplements, one based on corn seed and the other based on soybean hulls, and provided at 0.8% of body weight. Forty-eight, 12 month-old crossbred steers with an average initial body weight of 267 kg, were assigned to twelve paddocks (1,125 ha) of guineagrass. The animals that were fed with soybean hulls and corn seed presented a greater average daily gain (0.982 and 0.937) when compared with the mineral supplementation. Soybean hulls can be used as a satisfactory food source, replacing corn as an energy source in the supplementation of beef cattle without compromising animal performance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santana, M. C. A.; Euclides, V. B. P.; Mancio, A. B.; Medeiros, S. R.; Costa, J. A. R.; Oliveira, R. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669138"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance of energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Szarvasi-1) grown in hydroponic culture.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phytoremediation is a plant based, cost effective technology to detoxify or stabilise contaminated soils. Fast growing, high biomass, perennial plants may be used not only in phytoremediation but also in energy production. Szarvasi-1 energy grass (Elymus elongatus subsp. ponticus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Szarvasi-1), a good candidate for this combined application, was grown in nutrient solution in order to assess its Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn accumulation and tolerance. Its shoot metal accumulation showed the order Pb < Ni < Cu ? Cd < Zn. In parallel with this, Pb and Ni had no or very little influence on the growth, dry matter content, chlorophyll concentration and transpiration of the plants. Cu and Cd treatment resulted in significant decreases in all these parameters that can be attributed to Fe plaque formation in the roots suggested by markedly increased Fe and Cu accumulation. This came together with decreased shoot and root Mn concentrations in both treatments while shoot Cu and Zn concentrations decreased under Cd and Cu exposure, respectively. Zn treatment had no effect or even slightly stimulated the plants. This may be due to a slight stimulation of Fe translocation and a very efficient detoxification mechanism. Based on the average 300 mg kg?¹ (dry mass) Zn concentration which is 0.03% of the shoot dry mass the variety is suggested to be classified as Zn accumulator. PMID:23669138</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sipos, Gyula; Solti, Adám; Czech, Viktória; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Tóth, Brigitta; Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12405770"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pectins as possible source of the copper involved in the green staining alteration of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Gordal table olives.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pectic and pigment compositions and Ca and Cu contents of the alcohol-insoluble solid (AIS) residues were determined in <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Gordal olives treated with NaOH solution and kept at different constant pH values (3.5-6.5). The same controls were made in table olives presenting green staining alteration. The ratio between the various pectin fractions of the more acid pH experiment samples remained similar in fruits not showing green staining. In altered fruits, the protopectin fraction was lower, and the calcium pectate or EDTA soluble pectins were higher. Regarding the presence of Ca and Cu in the AIS, it was observed that, whereas Ca levels fell at the most acid pH values, those of Cu increased. The concentration of Ca was higher in the AIS of altered olives than in nonaltered ones. The same trend was seen for the zone with or without green staining of an altered fruit. In the case of Cu, the relationship was the opposite: a decrease in the levels of AIS Cu in fruits and zones of fruits with green staining. This result was correlated with the highest concentration of Cu-chlorophyll complexes found in such samples and suggested that pectins might act as a reservoir of Cu involved in the alteration. PMID:12405770</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, M Isabel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23195866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increased Vacuolar ATPase Activity Correlated With CAM Induction in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë blossfeldiana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tom Thumb.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vacuolar ATPase activities were determined by differential inhibition of homogenates of isolated protoplasts (using the inhibitors molybdate for acid phosphatases, vanadate for plasmalemma ATPase, azide for mitochondrial ATPase, and phlorizin for chloroplast ATPase) and in preparations of isolated vacuoles of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and Kalanchoë blossfeldiana <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tom Thumb. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was induced in M. crystallinum by NaCl-salinity and in K. blossfeldiana by short-day treatments. Vacuolar ATPase activities increased several-fold during the transition from C(3) photosynthesis to CAM. The increase was quantitatively related to the rates of nocturnal maliacid accumulation in CAM assuming a stoichiometry of 2 H(+) pumped into the vacuole for 1 ATP hydrolyzed and 1 malate(2-) anion transported by secondary flux coupling. In M. crystallinum increased vacuolar ATPase activities were truly correlated with the degree of CAM expressed and not with NaCl accumulation due to the salinity treatment. Some properties of the vacuolar A TPase of M. crystallinum characterized in vacuole preparations were a pH-optimum near 8.0, an apparent K(m) (MgATP(2-)) of 0.20 to 0.29 mM, and an approximately 70 % inhibition by 50 mM nitrate. PMID:23195866</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Struve, I; Weber, A; Lüttge, U; Ball, E; Smith, J A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.2128B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forsterite-bearing type B refractory inclusions from <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites: From aggregates to volatilized melt droplets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed petrologic and oxygen isotopic analysis of six forsterite-bearing Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (FoBs) from <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites indicates that they formed by varying degrees of melting of primitive precursor material that resembled amoeboid olivine aggregates. A continuous evolutionary sequence exists between those objects that experienced only slight partial melting or sintering through objects that underwent prolonged melting episodes. In most cases, melting was accompanied by surface evaporative loss of magnesium and silicon. This loss resulted in outer margins that are very different in composition from the cores, so much so that in some cases, the mantles contain mineral assemblages that are petrologically incompatible with those in the cores. The precursor objects for these FoBs had a range of bulk compositions and must therefore have formed under varying conditions if they condensed from a solar composition gas. Five of the six objects show small degrees of mass-dependent oxygen isotopic fractionation in pyroxene, spinel, and olivine, consistent with the inferred melt evaporation, but there are no consistent differences among the three phases. Forsterite, spinel, and pyroxene are 16O-rich with ?17O ˜ -24‰ in all FoBs. Melilite and anorthite show a range of ?17O from -17‰ to -1‰.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bullock, Emma S.; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Ulyanov, Alexander A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15161211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of harvest date and crop yield on the fatty acid composition of virgin olive oils from <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study was analyzed the effect of crop year and harvesting time on the fatty acid composition of <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Picual virgin olive oil. The study was carried out during the fruit ripening period for three crop seasons. The mean fatty acid composition of Picual oils was determined. The oils contained palmitic acid (11.9%), oleic acid (79.3%), and linoleic acid (2.95%). The content of palmitic acid and saturated fatty acids decreased during fruit ripening while oleic and linoleic acids increased. The amount of stearic and linolenic acids decreased. The amount of saturated acids, palmitic and stearic, and the polyunsaturated acids linoleic and linolenic was dependent on the time of harvest, whereas the amount of oleic acid varied with the crop year. The differences observed between crop years for both palmitic and linoleic acid may be explained by the differences in the temperature during oil biosynthesis and by the amount of summer rainfall for oleic acid content. A significant relationship was observed between the MUFA/PUFA ratio and the oxidative stability measured by the Rancimat method. PMID:15161211</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beltrán, Gabriel; Del Rio, Carmen; Sánchez, Sebastián; Martínez, Leopoldo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=158764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Purification and Characterization of Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase from Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Muscat de Frontignan Cell Cultures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A geranyl diphosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.1), which catalyzes the formation of geranyl diphosphate from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, was isolated from Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Muscat de Frontignan cell cultures. Purification of the enzyme was achieved successively by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxylapatite, Mono Q, Phenyl Superose, Superose 12, and preparative nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. The enzyme formed only geranyl diphosphate as a product. In all cases, neither neryl diphosphate, the cis isomer, nor farnesyl diphosphate was detected. The enzyme showed a native molecular mass of 68 [plus or minus] 5 kD as determined by gel permeation. On sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, geranyl diphosphate synthase purified to electrophoretic homogeneity migrated with a molecular mass of 66 [plus or minus] 2 kD. Michaelis constants for isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate were 8.5 and 56.8 [mu]M, respectively. The enzyme required Mn2+ and Mg2+ as cofactors and its activity was enhanced by Triton X-100. Inorganic pyrophosphate, aminophenylethyl diphosphate, and geranyl diphosphate had inhibitory effects on the enzyme.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clastre, M.; Bantignies, B.; Feron, G.; Soler, E.; Ambid, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1080154"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Low O2 Root Stress on Ethylene Biosynthesis in Tomato Plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill <span class="hlt">cv</span> Heinz 1350) 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low O2 conditions were obtained by flowing N2 through the solution in which the tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill <span class="hlt">cv</span> Heinz 1350) were growing. Time course experiments revealed that low O2 treatments stimulated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase production in the roots and leaves. After the initiation of low O2 conditions, ACC synthase activity and ACC content in the roots increased and reached a peak after 12 and 20 hours, respectively. The conversion of ACC to ethylene in the roots was inhibited by low levels of O2, and ACC was apparently transported to the leaves where it was converted to ethylene. ACC synthase activity in the leaves was also stimulated by low O2 treatment to the roots, reaching a peak after 24 hours. ACC synthase levels were enhanced by cobalt chloride and aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), although they inhibited ethylene production. Cobalt chloride enhanced ACC synthase only in combination with low O2 conditions in the roots. Under aeration, AOA stimulated ACC synthase activity in both the roots and leaves. However, in combination with low O2 conditions, AOA caused a stimulation in ACC synthase activity in the leaves and no effect in the roots.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Tzann-Wei; Arteca, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11760996"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monoterpenic and norisoprenoidic glycoconjugates of Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Melon B. as precursors of odorants in Muscadet wines.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The volatile monoterpenic and norisoprenoidic compounds released by glycosidase enzyme hydrolysis of C18 reversed-phase isolates from the juice of Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Melon B. have been qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC-MS and GC-FID. The components analyzed were broadly similar to those previously reported for other varieties but the level of bound p-menth-1-en-7,8-diol was higher in this cultivar. Then the monoterpenic and norisoprenoidic volatiles released from the same glycosidic extracts under mild acid conditions, mimicking wine aging conditions, have been analyzed using GC-Olfactometry and GC-MS. The most odorous compounds detected were p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, cis- and trans-vitispiranes, 1,6,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphtalene (TDN), beta-damascenone and riesling acetal. To assess their potential levels in corresponding wines after ageing, most of these odorants were generated by harsh acid hydrolysis from the precursors extracts and quantitatively determined using SPME and GC-MS/MS. For the development and application of this analysis, the odorants not commercialy available were synthesized. The total amounts of norisoprenoidic odorants generated by acid hydrolysis of the glycosidic extracts were shown to be proportional to the total amounts of these precursors. PMID:11760996</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schneider, R; Razungles, A; Augier, C; Baumes, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12797756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene on ripening, storage life, and volatile production by d'Anjou <span class="hlt">cv</span>. pear fruit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">d'Anjou <span class="hlt">cv</span>. pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) exposed at harvest to 0, 0.42, 4.2, or 42 micromol m(-)(3) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 12 h at 20 degrees C were stored at 1 degrees C for up to 8 months. After storage, half of the fruit was continuously exposed to ethylene (0.45 or 4-18 mmol m(-)(3)) for 7 days at 20 degrees C. All fruit treated with 1-MCP had lower respiration and ethylene production compared to untreated controls. Fruit quality changes were delayed following 1-MCP treatment, as was development of superficial scald and peel yellowing. The duration of 1-MCP-induced responses was dependent on 1-MCP treatment concentration. When 1-MCP-treated fruit began to ripen, softening and production of volatile compounds proceeded similar to that of untreated fruit. Post-storage ethylene exposure did not consistently stimulate ripening of fruit previously treated with 1-MCP. Efficacy of ethylene treatment depended on 1-MCP concentration and storage duration. PMID:12797756</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Argenta, Luiz C; Fan, Xuetong; Mattheis, James P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3344199"> <span id="translatedtitle">Isolation and Purification of a Novel Deca-Antifungal Peptide from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Jopung) Against Candida albicans</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a previous study, an antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. L Jopung) and by gel filtration and HPLC. In this study, the functional peptide was characterized by partial acid digestion using HCl and HPLC. We obtained three peaks from the AFP-J, the first and third peaks were not active in the tested fungal strain. However, the second peak, which was named Potide-J, was active (MIC; 6.25 ?g/mL) against Candida albicans. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by automated Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequence of Potide-J was determined to be Ala-Val-Cys-Glu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Asn-Cys-Cys. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 1083.1 Da. Finally, we confirmed that a disulfide bond was present between Cys3 and Cys9 or Cys10. Using this structure, Potide-J was synthesized via solid-phase methods. In these experiments, only the linear sequence was shown to display strong activity against Candida albicans. These results suggest that Potide-J may be an excellent candidate compound for the development of commercially applicable antibiotic agents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22858130"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hermes: contribution of the basal stem compared to the root.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The potential of mature flax plants (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF=32) and translocation factor TF' (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils. PMID:22858130</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douchiche, Olfa; Chaïbi, Wided; Morvan, Claudine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23596559"> <span id="translatedtitle">Empiric mathematical model for predicting the content of alpha-acids in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aurora.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this research is to find a simple mathematical model due to sum of effective temperatures and rainfalls from second germination after spring pruning till the technological maturity of hop cones, in order to achieve reliable prognosis of alpha-acids content in hop <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Aurora. After mathematical analyses of experimental data by Eurequa Formulize 0.96 Beta software 17 equations were offered, and after substituting the values of dependent and independent variables in all equations only one equation was chosen with p?=?0.034 (p<0.05). This equation is not reliable in extremely drought year if crop evapotranspiration ET0 in July is higher than 4.5, primarily because of negative influence on formation and development of hop glandular trichomes. Considering achieved results it is possible to suggest following general equation for alpha-acids accumulation in hop: y?=?[(k 1 w)?-?k 2?-?(k 3 w (2))/x]?÷?(-10)???ET 0 July ???4.5. Where y is alpha acids content in dry matter (%), x?=?sum of effective temperatures and w?=?sum of rainfals, both from second germination after spring pruning till technological maturity of hop cones. Coefficients k 1 , k 2 and k 3 are determined for cultivar Aurora (53.8, 453 and 1.33, respectively). PMID:23596559</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sre?ec, Siniša; Ceh, Barbara; Ciler, Tanja Savi?; Rus, Alenka Ferlež</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22771854"> <span id="translatedtitle">A peroxisomally localized acyl-activating enzyme is required for volatile benzenoid formation in a Petuniaxhybrida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Mitchell Diploid' flower.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, ?-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript has been cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD. PMID:22771854</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colquhoun, Thomas A; Marciniak, Danielle M; Wedde, Ashlyn E; Kim, Joo Young; Schwieterman, Michael L; Levin, Laura A; Van Moerkercke, Alex; Schuurink, Robert C; Clark, David G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24726943"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of silver nanoparticles on rice (Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. KDML 105) seed germination and seedling growth.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the advances in nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been applied in many industries, increasing their potential exposure level in the environment, yet their environmental safety remains poorly evaluated. The possible effects of different sized AgNPs (20, 30-60, 70-120 and 150nm diameter) on jasmine rice, Oryza sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. KDML 105, were investigated at different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000mg/L) upon seed germination and seedling growth. The results revealed that the level of seed germination and subsequent growth of those seedlings that germinated were both decreased with increasing sizes and concentrations of AgNPs. Based on the analysis of AgNPs accumulation in plant tissues, it implied that the higher uptake was found when the seeds were treated with the smaller AgNPs, 20nm diameter AgNPs, but it was trapped in the roots rather than transported to the leaves. These resulted in the less negative effects on seedling growth, when compared to the seed soaking with the larger AgNPs with 150nm diameter. The negative effects of AgNPs were supported by leaf cell deformation when rice seeds were treated with 150-nm-diameter AgNP at the concentration of 10 or 100mg/L during seed germination. These results further strengthen our understanding of environmental safety information with respect to nanomaterials. PMID:24726943</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thuesombat, Pakvirun; Hannongbua, Supot; Akasit, Sanong; Chadchawan, Supachitra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origin of magnetite in oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites: in situ measurement of oxygen isotope compositions of Allende magnetite and olivine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetite in the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende mainly occurs as spherical nodules in porphyritic-olivine (PO) chondrules, where it is associated with Ni-rich metal and/or sulfides. To help constrain the origin of the magnetite, we measured oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and coexisting olivine grains in PO chondrules of Allende by an in situ ion microprobe technique. Five magnetite nodules form a relatively tight cluster in oxygen isotopic composition with delta 18O values from -4.8 to -7.1% and delta 17O values from -2.9 to -6.3%. Seven coexisting olivine grains have oxygen isotopic compositions from -0.9 to -6.3% in delta 18O and from -4.6 to -7.9% in delta 17O. The delta 17O values of the magnetite and coexisting olivine do not overlap; they range from -0.4 to -2.6%, and from -4.0 to -5.7%, respectively. Thus, the magnetite is not in isotopic equilibrium with the olivine in PO chondrules, implying that it formed after the chondrule formation. The delta 17O of the magnetite is somewhat more negative than estimates for the ambient solar nebula gas. We infer that the magnetite formed on the parent asteroid by oxidation of metal by H2O which had previously experienced minor O isotope exchange with fine-grained silicates. PMID:11540500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, B G; McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Wasson, J T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121339&hterms=magnetite+solar&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmagnetite%2Bsolar"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origin of magnetite in oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrites: in situ measurement of oxygen isotope compositions of Allende magnetite and olivine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetite in the oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite Allende mainly occurs as spherical nodules in porphyritic-olivine (PO) chondrules, where it is associated with Ni-rich metal and/or sulfides. To help constrain the origin of the magnetite, we measured oxygen isotopic compositions of magnetite and coexisting olivine grains in PO chondrules of Allende by an in situ ion microprobe technique. Five magnetite nodules form a relatively tight cluster in oxygen isotopic composition with delta 18O values from -4.8 to -7.1% and delta 17O values from -2.9 to -6.3%. Seven coexisting olivine grains have oxygen isotopic compositions from -0.9 to -6.3% in delta 18O and from -4.6 to -7.9% in delta 17O. The delta 17O values of the magnetite and coexisting olivine do not overlap; they range from -0.4 to -2.6%, and from -4.0 to -5.7%, respectively. Thus, the magnetite is not in isotopic equilibrium with the olivine in PO chondrules, implying that it formed after the chondrule formation. The delta 17O of the magnetite is somewhat more negative than estimates for the ambient solar nebula gas. We infer that the magnetite formed on the parent asteroid by oxidation of metal by H2O which had previously experienced minor O isotope exchange with fine-grained silicates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Choi, B. G.; McKeegan, K. D.; Leshin, L. A.; Wasson, J. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090132&hterms=embryo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dembryo"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Waldmann's Green seeds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1077339"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of Apoplastic Potassium Content by Elution Analysis of Leaf Lamina Tissue from Pea (Pisum sativum L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Argenteum) 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">K+ content and concentration within the apoplast of mesophyll tissue of pea (Pisum sativum L., <span class="hlt">cv</span> Argenteum) leaflets were determined using an elution procedure. Following removal of the epidermis, a 1 centimeter (inside diameter) glass cylinder was attached to the exposed mesophyll tissue and filled with 5 millimolar CaCl2 solution (1°C). From time-course curves of cumulative K+ diffusion from the tissue, the amount of K+ of extracellular origin was estimated. Apoplastic K+ contents for leaves from plants cultured in nutrient solution containing 2 or 10 millimolar K+ were found to range from 1 to 4.5 micromoles per gram fresh weight, comprising less than 3% of the total K+ content within the lamina tissue. Assuming an apoplastic solution volume of 0.04 to 0.1 milliliters per gram fresh weight and a Donnan cation exchange capacity of 2.63 micromoles per gram fresh weight (experimentally determined), the K+ concentration within apoplastic solution was estimated at 2.4 to 11.8 millimolar. Net movement of Rb+ label from the extracellular compartment within mesophyll tissue into the symplast was demonstrated by pulse-chase experiments. It was concluded that the mesophyll apoplast in pea has a relatively low capacitance as an ion reservoir. Apoplastic K+ content was found to be highly sensitive to changes in xylem solution concentration. Images Figure 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Long, Jean M.; Widders, Irvin E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21496030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Yueyoukang 1').</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A better understanding of somatic embryogenesis in banana (Musa spp.) may provide a practical way to improve regeneration of banana plants. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize the ultrastructural changes during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa AAA <span class="hlt">cv</span>. 'Yueyoukang 1'). We also used histological and immunohistochemical techniques with 16 monoclonal antibodies to study the spatial distribution and cellular/subcellular localization of different arabinogalactan protein (AGP) components of the cell wall during somatic embryogenesis. Histological study with periodic acid-Schiff staining documented diverse embryogenic stages from embryogenic cells (ECs) to the late embryos. SEM revealed a mesh-like structure on the surface of proembryos which represented an early structural marker of somatic embryogenesis. TEM showed that ECs were rich in juvenile mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi stacks. Cells in proembryos and early globular embryos resembled ECs, but they were more vacuolated, showed more regular nuclei and slightly more developed organelles. Immunocytochemical study revealed that the signal of most AGP epitopes was stronger in starch-rich cells when compared with typical ECs. The main AGP component in the extracellular matrix surface network of banana proembryos was the MAC204 epitope. Later, AGP immunolabelling patterns varied with the developmental stages of the embryos. These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana. PMID:21496030</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pan, Xiao; Yang, Xiao; Lin, Guimei; Zou, Ru; Chen, Houbin; Samaj, Jozef; Xu, Chunxiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3366594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids, Including Monoesters with an Unusual Esterifying Acid, from Cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>.'Tropic Sun')</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves and seeds of ‘Tropic Sun’ were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid content of the roots, stems, leaves of immature plants was estimated to be 0.05, 0.12 and 0.01% w/w respectively while seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colegate, Steven M.; Gardner, Dale R.; Joy, Robert J.; Betz, Joseph M.; Panter, Kip E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3283566"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing the source/sink ratio in Vitis vinifera (<span class="hlt">cv</span> Sangiovese) induces extensive transcriptome reprogramming and modifies berry ripening</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice in which a proportion of berry clusters are removed from the vine to increase the source/sink ratio and improve the quality of the remaining berries. Until now no transcriptomic data have been reported describing the mechanisms that underlie the agronomic and biochemical effects of thinning. Results We profiled the transcriptome of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Sangiovese berries before and after thinning at veraison using a genome-wide microarray representing all grapevine genes listed in the latest V1 gene prediction. Thinning increased the source/sink ratio from 0.6 to 1.2 m2 leaf area per kg of berries and boosted the sugar and anthocyanin content at harvest. Extensive transcriptome remodeling was observed in thinned vines 2 weeks after thinning and at ripening. This included the enhanced modulation of genes that are normally regulated during berry development and the induction of a large set of genes that are not usually expressed. Conclusion Cluster thinning has a profound effect on several important cellular processes and metabolic pathways including carbohydrate metabolism and the synthesis and transport of secondary products. The integrated agronomic, biochemical and transcriptomic data revealed that the positive impact of cluster thinning on final berry composition reflects a much more complex outcome than simply enhancing the normal ripening process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1066067"> <span id="translatedtitle">Action of Inhibitors of Ammonia Assimilation on Amino Acid Metabolism in Hordeum vulgare L. (<span class="hlt">cv</span> Golden Promise) 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Golden Promise) plants were grown in a continuous culture system in which the root and shoot ammonia and amino acid levels were constant over a 6-hour experimental period. Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), 1 millimolarity when added to the culture medium, caused a total inactivation of root glutamine synthetase with little effect on the shoot enzyme. Root ammonia levels increased and glutamine levels decreased, irrespective of whether the plants were grown in 1 millimolar nitrate or 1 millimolar ammonia. Levels of glutamate, aspartate, serine, threonine, and asparagine all increased. There was little alteration in the amino acid and ammonia levels in the shoot, suggesting that MSO is not rapidly transported. The addition of azaserine (25 micrograms per milliliter) to nitrate-grown plants caused a rapid increase in root ammonia, glutamine, and serine levels with a corresponding decrease in glutamate, aspartate, and alanine. Glutamine levels also increased in the shoot. The in vivo effect of MSO and azaserine was as would be predicted by their known in vitro inhibitory action if the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway of ammonia assimilation was in operation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fentem, P. Anthony; Lea, Peter J.; Stewart, George R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088899&hterms=pharmacokinetics&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3D%2522pharmacokinetics%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen balance for wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Veery 10) grown under elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the hypothesis that elevated CO2 concentration would increase NO3- absorption and assimilation using intact wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Veery 10). Nitrate consumption, the sum of plant absorption and nitrogen loss, was continuously monitored for 23 d following germination under two CO2 concentrations (360 and 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2) and two root zone NO3- concentrations (100 and 1000 mmol m3 NO3-). The plants were grown at high density (1780 m-2) in a 28 m3 controlled environment chamber using solution culture techniques. Wheat responded to 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 by increasing carbon allocation to root biomass production. Elevated CO2 also increased root zone NO3- consumption, but most of this increase did not result in higher biomass nitrogen. Rather, nitrogen loss accounted for the greatest part of the difference in NO3- consumption between the elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. The total amount of NO3(-)-N absorbed by roots or the amount of NO3(-)-N assimilated per unit area did not significantly differ between elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. Instead, specific leaf organic nitrogen content declined, and NO3- accumulated in canopies growing under 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2. Our results indicated that 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 diminished NO3- assimilation. If NO3- assimilation were impaired by high [CO2], then this offers an explanation for why organic nitrogen contents are often observed to decline in elevated [CO2] environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Bloom, A. J.; Bugbee, B. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607792"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proteasome inhibitor (MG132) rescues Nav1.5 protein content and the cardiac sodium current in dystrophin-deficient mdx5<span class="hlt">cv</span> mice</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel, Nav1.5, plays a central role in cardiac excitability and impulse propagation and associates with the dystrophin multiprotein complex at the lateral membrane of cardiomyocytes. It was previously shown that Nav1.5 protein content and the sodium current (lNa) were both decreased in cardiomyocytes of dystrophin-deficient mdx5<span class="hlt">cv</span> mice. In this study, wild-type and mdx5<span class="hlt">cv</span> mice were treated for 7 days with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 ?g/Kg/24 h) using implanted osmotic mini pumps. MG132 rescued both the total amount of Nav1.5 protein and lNa but, unlike in previous studies, de novo expression of dystrophin was not observed in skeletal or cardiac muscle. This study suggests that the reduced expression of Nav1.5 in dystrophin-deficient cells is dependent on proteasomal degradation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rougier, Jean-Sebastien; Gavillet, Bruno; Abriel, Hugues</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1399..377N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of thermal annealing on <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics of GaAs/AlAs Schottky diodes with embedded Al particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated effects of thermal annealing on the capacitance-voltage (<span class="hlt">C-V</span>) characteristics of GaAs/AlAs Schottky diodes in which Al particles had been embedded in the GaAs layers. Annealing was performed at temperatures ranging from 620 to 750 °C. It was found that the plateau and hysteresis observed in an as-grown sample gradually smeared with an increase in annealing temperature, implying that the trapping effect of electrons disappeared due to thermal annealing. Energy-filtered images of the sample annealed at 750 °C showed that an arsenic signal was detected in the layer that contained the Al particles. Thus, the change of <span class="hlt">C-V</span> characteristics was presumably due to a structural change of Al, probably the formation of an Al and As compound.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noda, T.; Mitsuishi, K.; Mano, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48427335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of biological parameters between the invasive B biotype and a new defined <span class="hlt">Cv</span> biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyradidae) in China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a widely distributed and destructive agricultural pest on various host plants. The\\u000a biology of two biotypes of B. tabaci: the invasive B and a new defined <span class="hlt">Cv</span> biotype, on a range of host plants (hibiscus, laurel, poinsettia, collard, cucumber\\u000a and tomato) were studied in the laboratory. Results revealed that the developmental</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bao-Li Qiu; Fang Dang; Shao-Jian Li; Muhammad Z. Ahmed; Feng-Liang Jin; Shun-Xiang Ren; Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57569942"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison between the Chemical Composition of the Oil, Solvent Extract and Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extract of Citrus medica <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Diamante</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Citrus medica L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Diamante collected in Calabria (Italy) was extracted by different technologies. The traditional hydrodistillation and solvent methods were compared to the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCF-CO2) performed at two fluid densities: the lowest at 250 g\\/dm and the highest at 875 g\\/dm. The effect of the drying process on the peels was studied, and the oil loss</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marco Poiana; Vincenzo Sicari; Biagio Mincione</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChPhL..30g7306Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">C—V</span> and G/?—V Electrical Characteristics of 60Co ?-Ray Irradiated Al/Si3N4/p-Si (MIS) Structures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of 60Co (?-ray) irradiation on the electrical characteristics of Al/Si3N4/p-Si (MIS) structures is investigated using capacitance-voltage (<span class="hlt">C—V</span>) and conductance-voltage (G/?—V) measurements. The MIS structures are exposed to a 60Co ? radiation source at a dose of 0.7 kGy/h, with a total dose range of 0-100 kGy. The <span class="hlt">C—V</span> and G/?—V properties are measured before and after 60Co ?-ray irradiation at 500 kHz and room temperature. It is found that the capacitance and conductance values decrease with the increase in the total dose due to the irradiation-induced defects at the interface. The results also indicate that ? radiation causes an increase in the barrier height ?B, Fermi energy EF and depletion layer width WD. The interface state density (Nss), using the Hill-Coleman method and dependent on radiation dose, is determined from the <span class="hlt">C—V</span> and G/?—V measurements and decreases with an increase in the radiation dose. The decrease in the interface states can be attributed to the decrease in the recombination centers and the passivation of the Si surface due to the deposition insulator layer (Si3N4). In addition, it is clear that the acceptor concentration NA decreases with increasing radiation dose. The profile of series resistance Rs for various radiation doses is obtained from forward and reverse-biased <span class="hlt">C—V</span> and G/?—V measurements, and its values decrease with increasing radiation dose, while it increases with increasing voltage in the accumulation region</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zeyrek, S.; Turan, A.; M. Bülbül, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40957843"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential antioxidative response of ascorbate glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites to chromium speciation stress in green gram ( Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek. <span class="hlt">cv</span> CO 4) roots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of the antioxidant enzymes and metabolites of the ascorbate glutathione pathway to oxidative stress caused by equal concentration (50?M) of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was studied in 15-day-old seedlings of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R.Wilczek. <span class="hlt">cv</span> CO 4) for 5 days after imposition of stress. Significant increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation was seen 5h after stress</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arun K Shanker; M Djanaguiraman; R Sudhagar; C. N Chandrashekar; G Pathmanabhan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l5vg3362872l627t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aflatoxin — induced alteration in the levels of membrane chemicals of subcellular organelles isolated from excised, incubated Glycine max, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Essex’ roots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isolates of aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus grow on autoclaved and field-grown (lesser extent) Glycine max beans. Both mixed and aflatoxin B1 inhibit G. max, <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Essex’ bean germination and elongation of either attached or excised cultured roots. Because B1 impairs the latter roots' ability to intracellularize [14C]-leucine, it may alter plasmalemma structure and\\/or function. To determine whether incubation of excised</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. Danley; S. Staggers; S. Walker; A. Varnert; G. C. Llewellyn; W. V. Dashek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49665558"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multidisciplinary study on the effects of phloem-limited viruses on the agronomical performance and berry quality of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nebbiolo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Viral infections are known to have a detrimental effect on grapevine yield and performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about their effect on the quality and safety of end products.Vines of Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nebbiolo clone 308, affected simultaneously by Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1), Grapevine virus A (GVA), and Rupestris stem pitting associated virus (RSPaV), were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marzia Giribaldi; Micol Purrotti; Davide Pacifico; Deborah Santini; Franco Mannini; Piero Caciagli; Luca Rolle; Laura Cavallarin; Maria Gabriella Giuffrida; Cristina Marzachì</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50982167"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zygomatic Smile Detection: The Semi-Supervised Haar Training of a Fast and Frugal System: A Gift to Open<span class="hlt">CV</span> Community</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Five different Open<span class="hlt">CV</span>-compatible XML haar cascades of zygomatic smile detectors as well as five SMILEsamples from which these detectors were derived had been trained and are presented hereby as a new open source SMILEsmileD package. Samples have been extended in an incremental learning fashion, exploiting previously trained detector in order to add and label new elements of positive example set.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. D. Hromada; C. Tijus; S. Poitrenaud; J. Nadel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54645236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Germacrene C Synthase from Lycopersicon esculentum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. VFNT Cherry Tomato: cDNA Isolation, Characterization, and Bacterial Expression of the Multiple Product Sesquiterpene Cyclase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Germacrene C was found by GC-MS and NMR analysis to be the most abundant sesquiterpene in the leaf oil of Lycopersicon esculentum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. VFNT Cherry, with lesser amounts of germacrene A, guaia-6,9-diene, germacrene B, beta -caryophyllene, alpha -humulene, and germacrene D. Soluble enzyme preparations from leaves catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]farnesyl diphosphate to these same sesquiterpene olefins,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheila M. Colby; John Crock; Barbara Dowdle-Rizzo; Peggy G. Lemaux; Rodney Croteau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49662740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of substituting dietary soybean meal for dehulled-micronized lupin ( Lupinus albus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Multitalia) on early phase laying hens production and egg quality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was designed to determine the effects on laying performance and egg quality resulting from substitution of soybean meal with dehulled-micronized lupin (Lupinus albus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Multitalia) in diet of early phase laying hens. Isa Brown layers, 18weeks of age were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10weeks. Two different durum wheat middlings-based diets were prepared; one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. Laudadio; V. Tufarelli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41323350"> <span id="translatedtitle">Purification and characterization of a high pl pectin methyl esterase isoenzyme and its inhibitor from tubers of Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Katahdin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IEF-activity staining of tuber extracts of three potato cultivars detected eight to nine isoenzymes of pectin methyl esterase (PME) with pI ranging from 5 to 10. One of the isoenzymes from <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Katahdin tubers was purified to homogeneity by SP-Sepharose and Heparin-Sephadex column chromatography. Its Mr, pI, and pH optimum were 33 kDa, 8·6 and 7·0 respectively and the enzyme</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. P. McMillan; M. C. M. Pérombelon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40867042"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water and continuous ozone exposure on the control of Penicillium digitatum on tangerine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. ‘Sai Nam Pung’ during storage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water in combination with ozone to control postharvest decay of tangerine <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Sai Num Pung” was investigated. The spore suspension containing 105 conidia ml?1 of Penicillium digitatum was prepared. EO water was generated by electrolysis of various concentrations of NaCl solution (5, 25, 50% and saturated NaCl). The spore suspension was inoculated into EO</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Whangchai; K. Saengnil; C. Singkamanee; J. Uthaibutra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.academicjournals.org/ajb/PDF/pdf2009/4Feb/Karuppanapandian%20et%20al.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chromium-induced accumulation of peroxide content, stimulation of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in green gram (Vigna radiata L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Wilczek) leaves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chromium (Cr)-induced oxidative damage and changes in contents of chlorophyll, protein, peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants were investigated in 4-day-old green gram (Vigna radiata L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Wilczek) seedlings. Cr increased the contents of peroxide and MDA but decreased the contents of chlorophyll and proteins. Cr reduced the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), but</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pritam Bala Sinha; Kamarul Haniya A; Manoharan K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40978682"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the physical and biochemical characteristics of onion <span class="hlt">cv</span>. SS1 bulbs during storage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a paucity of information on the role of ethylene in onion bulb dormancy, and the available literature is conflicting. Onion <span class="hlt">cv</span>. SS1 bulbs were treated with 1?ll?1 1-MCP for 24h at 20°C and then stored at 4, 12 or 20°C. Sprout growth was reduced in onions treated with 1-MCP and stored at 4 or 12°C, but not when</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gemma A. Chope; Leon A. Terry; Philip J. White</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vino-uruguay.com/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/estudio_tannat_.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploración del efecto protector frente a radicales libres de derivados de la uva (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>.Tannat) en Saccharomyces cerevisiae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analysis of a putative protection against free radicals by grape derivatives (Vitis vinifera L. <span class="hlt">Cv</span>.Tannat) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aim of this work was to analyse a possible genome protection provided by a grape derivative (Tannat wine) in yeast cell populations exposed to H2O2. Haploid and diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as the eukaryotic model. Cell samples were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. BRACESCO; S. ROCHA; F. CARRAU; E. NUNES</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41045492"> <span id="translatedtitle">A chilling-insensitive stage in germination of a low-temperature-adapted radish, rat’s tail radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Pakki-hood”</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rat’s tail radish (Raphanus sativus <span class="hlt">cv</span>. “Pakki-hood”), cultivated in the northern part of Thailand, does not require low temperature for flower-bud initiation and shows high germinability even at low temperature. To analyze its characteristic temperature response, seedlings were subjected to a 3 day-chilling treatment at 0°C after a series of incubations for germination at 26°C which ranged from 3h</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kazunari Nomura; Ichitaro Endo; Akira Tateishi; Hiroaki Inoue; Kazuo Yoneda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40978707"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection and discrimination of two fungal diseases of mango (<span class="hlt">cv</span>. Keitt) fruits based on volatile metabolite profiles using GC\\/MS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volatile organic compounds collected from the headspace of mango <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Keitt inoculated with Lasiodiplodia theobromae (stem-end rot), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (anthracnose), mock (as the first control) and non-wounded-non-inoculated mango (as the second control) were analyzed using GC\\/MS to investigate the feasibility of automatic detection and diagnosis of diseases of mango in stores. A total of 37 metabolites, relatively consistent in 8</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Moalemiyan; A. Vikram; A. C. Kushalappa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS..tmp...42F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A CAI from the Northwest Africa 2086 <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 ?m long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the CAI, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary CAI mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (?17O ~ -24‰); ?17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (?17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered CAIs from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in CAIs from the oxidized Allende-like <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; PáL-MolnáR, EleméR.; Krot, Alexander N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A CAI from the Northwest Africa 2086 <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 ?m long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the CAI, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary CAI mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (?17O ~ -24‰); ?17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (?17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the <span class="hlt">CV</span> chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered CAIs from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in CAIs from the oxidized Allende-like <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110893&hterms=magnetite+solar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmagnetite%2Bsolar"> <span id="translatedtitle">HRTEM and EFTEM Observations of Matrix in the Oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 Chondrite ALH 84028: Implications for the Origins of Matrix Olivines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The determination of the nature, distribution, and origin of organic material in carbonaceous chondrites is fundamental to understanding early solar nebular conditions and the origin of life. Using a variety of extraction techniques, followed by detailed chemical analysis, an extensive suite of organic compounds has been identified in carbonaceous chondrites. These data have provided key information on the diversity and isotopic composition of the organic component in chondrites. However, one disadvantage of extraction techniques is that all information regarding the spatial distribution of the organics on a fine scale is lost. This is especially important for the insoluble macromolecular carbon, which constitutes approximately 70% of the carbon in carbonaceous chondrites such as Murchison. The distribution and mineralogical associations may provide important constraints on the possible origins of the carbonaceous material. Our previous studies of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites Allende and Vigarano have demonstrated that energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), combined with high resolution TEM (HRTEM) are powerful tools for the in situ characterization of insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites. In this study, we have used SEM and TEM techniques to characterize the matrix mineralogy of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrite ALH 84028 and examine the distribution and mineralogical associations of carbon. We are especially interested in establishing whether the occurrence of poorly graphitized carbon (PGC), observed in Allende matrix olivines, is common to all oxidized <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 chondrites or is a unique feature of Allende.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abreu, Neyda M.; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852663"> <span id="translatedtitle">A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14?500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S+R+), infected asymptomatic plants (S–R+), and healthy plants (S–R–). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S+R+ plants compared with S–R– plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camps, Celine; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Leon, Celine; Gomes, Eric; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2852660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Stewart) with improved efficiency</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated durum wheat transformation system has been developed for the production of 121 independent transgenic lines. This improved system used Agrobacterium strain AGL1 containing the superbinary pGreen/pSoup vector system and durum wheat <span class="hlt">cv</span> Stewart as the recipient plant. Acetosyringone at 400??M was added to both the inoculation and cultivation medium, and picloram at 10?mg l?1 and 2?mg l?1 was used in the cultivation and induction medium, respectively. Compared with 200??M in the inoculation and cultivation media, the increased acetosyringone concentration led to significantly higher GUS (?-glucuronidase) transient expression and T-DNA delivery efficiency. However, no evident effects of acetosyringone concentration on regeneration frequency were observed. The higher acetosyringone concentration led to an improvement in average final transformation efficiency from 4.7% to 6.3%. Furthermore, the concentration of picloram in the co-cultivation medium had significant effects on callus induction and regeneration. Compared with 2?mg l?1 picloram in the co-cultivation medium, increasing the concentration to 10?mg l?1 picloram resulted in improved final transformation frequency from 2.8% to 6.3%, with the highest frequency of 12.3% reached in one particular experiment, although statistical analysis showed that this difference in final transformation efficiency had a low level of significance. Stable integration of foreign genes, their expression, and inheritance were confirmed by Southern blot analyses, GUS assay, and genetic analysis. Analysis of T1 progeny showed that, of the 31 transgenic lines randomly selected, nearly one-third had a segregation ratio of 3:1, while the remainder had ratios typical of two or three independently segregating loci.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">He, Y.; Jones, H. D.; Chen, S.; Chen, X. M.; Wang, D. W.; Li, K. X.; Wang, D. S.; Xia, L. Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.137...18T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Olivine-rich rims surrounding chondrules in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite: Further evidence for parent-body processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fine-grained rims surrounding chondrules and inclusions in the Mokoia <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 carbonaceous chondrite can be divided into phyllosilicate-rich and olivine-rich types. We present a petrographic and electron microscopic study of the olivine-rich rims and their host objects (referred to as chondrules/olivine-rich rims). The olivine-rich rims consist mainly of Fe-rich olivine and very minor phyllosilicate (saponite). Their host chondrules contain minor saponite and phlogopite, which resulted from aqueous alteration of anhydrous silicates. Mineralogical and compositional characteristics of the chondrules/olivine-rich rims suggest that they experienced mild thermal metamorphic effects. The rims commonly contain veins of coarse-grained Fe-rich olivine, magnetite, and Fe-(Ni) sulfides. The chondrules show abundant evidence of alteration along their peripheries, and the alteration textures suggest a mechanism for rim formation by replacement of the chondrules. Initially, enstatite and opaque nodules preferentially reacted to form coarse, platy, Fe-rich olivine crystals, which were subsequently divided into finer grains. Forsterite was also replaced by Fe-rich olivine. As the alteration advanced, these Fe-rich olivines were disaggregated, mixed with simultaneously produced saponite, and formed rims. In contrast, the surrounding matrix shows no evidence of such alteration and metamorphism. These observations indicate that the chondrules/olivine-rich rims did not experience these secondary processes in their present setting. The results suggest that the chondrules/olivine-rich rims experienced extensive replacement reactions in an environment in which aqueous fluids existed but only in minor amounts. They have probably also undergone simultaneous and/or subsequent mild thermal metamorphism. We suggest that the chondrules/olivine-rich rims are actually clasts transported from a relatively dry region in the parent body that was different from the region where Mokoia was finally lithified.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomeoka, Kazushige; Ohnishi, Ichiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3901204"> <span id="translatedtitle">Root exudation and root development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tizian) as affected by different soils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3549954"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Lectin with Highly Potent Inhibitory Activity toward Breast Cancer Cells from Edible Tubers of Dioscorea opposita <span class="hlt">cv</span>. Nagaimo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita <span class="hlt">cv</span>. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC50 values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2168147"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anaerobic 1-Alkene Metabolism by the Alkane- and Alkene-Degrading Sulfate Reducer Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans Strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The alkane- and alkene-degrading, marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfatibacillum aliphaticivorans strain <span class="hlt">CV</span>2803T, known to oxidize n-alkanes anaerobically by fumarate addition at C-2, was investigated for its 1-alkene metabolism. The total cellular fatty acids of this strain were predominantly C-(even number) (C-even) when it was grown on C-even 1-alkenes and predominantly C-(odd number) (C-odd) when it was grown on C-odd 1-alkenes. Detailed analyses of those fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after 6- to 10-week incubations allowed the identification of saturated 2- and 4-ethyl-, 2- and 4-methyl-, and monounsaturated 4-methyl-branched fatty acids with chain lengths that correlated with those of the 1-alkene. The growth of D. aliphaticivorans on (per)deuterated 1-alkenes provided direct evidence of the anaerobic transformation of these alkenes into the corresponding 1-alcohols and into linear as well as 10- and 4-methyl-branched fatty acids. Experiments performed with [13C]bicarbonate indicated that the initial activation of 1-alkene by the addition of inorganic carbon does not occur. These results demonstrate that D. aliphaticivorans metabolizes 1-alkene by the oxidation of the double bond at C-1 and by the subterminal addition of organic carbon at both ends of the molecule [C-2 and C-(?-1)]. The detection of ethyl-branched fatty acids from unlabeled 1-alkenes further suggests that carbon addition also occurs at C-3. Alkylsuccinates were not observed as potential initial intermediates in alkene metabolism. Based on our observations, the first pathways for anaerobic 1-alkene metabolism in an anaerobic bacterium are proposed. Those pathways indicate that diverse initial reactions of 1-alkene activation can occur simultaneously in the same strain of sulfate-reducing bacterium.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grossi, Vincent; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Meou, Alain; Raphel, Danielle; Garzino, Frederic; Hirschler-Rea, Agnes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348601"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gelation in protein extracts from cold acclimated and non-acclimated winter rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Musketeer).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A protein gel is a three-dimensional network consisting of molecular interactions between biopolymers that entrap a significant volume of a continuous liquid phase (water). Molecular interactions in gels occur at junction zones within and between protein molecules through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic associations (van der Waals attractions) and covalent bonding. Gels have the physicochemical properties of both solids and liquids, and are extremely important in the production and stability of a variety of foods, bioproducts and pharmaceuticals. In this study, gelation was induced in phenol extracted protein fractions from non-acclimated (NA) and cold-acclimated (CA) winter rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Musketeer) leaf tissue after repeated freeze-thaw treatments. Gel formation only occurred at high pH (pH 12.0) and a minimum of 3-4 freeze-thaw cycles were required. The gel was thermally stable and only a specific combination of chemical treatments could disrupt the gel network. SDS-PAGE analysis identified ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) as the major protein component in the gel, although Rubisco itself did not appear to be a factor in gelation. Raman spectroscopy suggested changes in protein secondary structure during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, the NA and CA gels were similar in composition and structure, with the exception that the CA gel appeared to be amyloidic in nature based on thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence. Protein gelation, particularly in the apoplast, may confer protection against freeze-induced dehydration and potentially have a commercial application to improve frozen food quality. PMID:23348601</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lim, Ze Long; Low, Nicholas H; Moffatt, Barbara A; Gray, Gordon R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16133211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural analysis of wheat wax (Triticum aestivum, <span class="hlt">c.v</span>. 'Naturastar' L.): from the molecular level to three dimensional crystals.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to elucidate the self assembly process of plant epicuticular waxes, and the molecular arrangement within the crystals, re-crystallisation of wax platelets was studied on biological and non-biological surfaces. Wax platelets were extracted from the leaf blades of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., <span class="hlt">c.v</span>. 'Naturastar', Poaceae). Waxes were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Octacosan-1-ol was found to be the most abundant chemical component of the wax mixture (66 m%) and also the determining compound for the shape of the wax platelets. The electron diffraction pattern showed that both the wax mixture and pure octacosan-1-ol are crystalline. The re-crystallisation of the natural wax mixture and the pure octacosan-1-ol were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Crystallisation of wheat waxes and pure octacosano-1-ol on the non polar highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) led to the formation of platelet structures similar to those found on the plant surface. In contrast, irregular wax morphologies and flat lying plates were formed on glass, silicon, salt crystals (NaCl) and mica surfaces. Movement of wheat wax through isolated Convallaria majalis cuticles led to typical wax platelets of wheat, arranged in the complex patterns typical for C. majalis. STM of pure octacosan-1-ol monolayers on HOPG showed that the arrangement of the molecules strictly followed the hexagonal structure of the substrate crystal. Re-crystallisation of wheat waxes on non-polar crystalline HOPG substrate showed that technical surfaces could be used to generate microstructured, biomimetic surfaces. AFM and SEM studies proved that a template effect of the substrate determined the orientation of the re-grown crystals. These effects of the structure and polarity of the substrate on the morphology of the epicuticular waxes are relevant for understanding interactions between biological as well as technical surfaces and waxes. PMID:16133211</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koch, K; Barthlott, W; Koch, S; Hommes, A; Wandelt, K; Mamdouh, W; De-Feyter, S; Broekmann, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9633H"> <span id="translatedtitle">FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 / ESA mission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056446"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plasma Membrane Lipid Alterations Associated with Cold Acclimation of Winter Rye Seedlings (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. <span class="hlt">cv</span> Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted >50 mole% of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole% of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole%, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole% and 4 to 1 mole%, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free ?-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole% (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing ?-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole% of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h), were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole% of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species (18:2/18:2, 18:2/18:3, 18:3/18:3) of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lynch, Daniel V.; Steponkus, Peter L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815009"> <span id="translatedtitle">PhDAHP1 is required for floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Petunia × hybrida <span class="hlt">cv</span> 'Mitchell Diploid'.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis consists of numerous enzymatic and regulatory processes. The initial enzymatic step bridging primary metabolism to secondary metabolism is the condensation of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P) carried out via 3-DEOXY-D-ARABINO-HEPTULOSONATE-7-PHOSPHATE (DAHP) synthase. Here, identified, cloned, localized, and functionally characterized were two DAHP synthases from the model plant species Petunia × hybrida <span class="hlt">cv</span> 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD). Full-length transcript sequences for PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 were identified and cloned using cDNA SMART libraries constructed from pooled MD corolla and leaf total RNA. Predicted amino acid sequence of PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins were 76% and 80% identical to AtDAHP1 and AtDAHP2 from Arabidopsis, respectively. PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to relatively highest levels in petal limb and tube tissues, while PhDAHP2 accumulated to highest levels in leaf and stem tissues. Through floral development, PhDAHP1 transcript accumulated to highest levels during open flower stages, and PhDAHP2 transcript remained constitutive throughout. Radiolabeled PhDAHP1 and PhDAHP2 proteins localized to plastids, however, PhDAHP2 localization appeared less efficient. PhDAHP1 RNAi knockdown petunia lines were reduced in total FVBP emission compared to MD, while PhDAHP2 RNAi lines emitted 'wildtype' FVBP levels. These results demonstrate that PhDAHP1 is the principal DAHP synthase protein responsible for the coupling of metabolites from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism, and the ultimate biosynthesis of FVBPs in the MD flower. PMID:24815009</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Langer, Kelly M; Jones, Correy R; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Rushing, Gabrielle V; Kim, Joo Young; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18830712"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genome organisation and retrotransposon driven molecular evolution of the endosperm Hardness (Ha) locus in Triticum aestivum <span class="hlt">cv</span> Glenlea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wheat endosperm texture is controlled primarily by a locus (Ha), which comprises Gsp-1, Pina and Pinb genes encoding the so-called grain softness protein, puroindoline-a and puroindoline-b, respectively. Pina and Pinb were detected only on the D-genome of hexaploid wheat and its diploid progenitors while Gsp-1 was on all three homoeologous loci. Hexaploid cultivar Glenlea has a hard phenotype due to a null Pina genotype (D-genome) but the sequence organization is not reported. This study aimed at understanding the evolution of homoeologous Ha loci. Sequencing of three BAC clones from <span class="hlt">cv</span> Glenlea was performed and sequence analyses delimited the Ha loci which spanned 3,925, 5,330 and 31,607 bp in the A-, B- and D-genomes, respectively. A solo LTR of Angela retroelement, downstream to Gsp-A1 and a fragment of Sabrina retroelement, downstream of Gsp-B1, were discovered. We propose that the insertion of these elements into the intergenic regions have driven the deletions of genomic segments harbouring Pina and Pinb genes in the A- and B-genomes of hexaploid wheat. Similarly, fragments of Romani and Vagabond retroelements were identified between truncated Pina and Pinb genes, indicating their role in the deletion of Pina in Glenlea, leading to its hard texture. Structural differences of the Ha locus region of the A-genome between two hexaploid wheat varieties namely Glenlea and Renan (CR626929), suggested the presence of more than one tetraploid ancestor in the origin of hexaploid wheat. PMID:18830712</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.134..100D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantified, whole section trace element mapping of carbonaceous chondrites by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy: 1. <span class="hlt">CV</span> meteorites</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present the application of a new synchrotron-based technique for rapid mapping of trace element distributions across large areas of the <span class="hlt">CV</span>3 meteorites Allende and Vigarano. This technique utilizes the Australian Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) beam line with its custom designed and built X-ray detector array called Maia. XFM with Maia allows data to be collected using a 2 ?m spot size at very low dwell times (?0.1-0.5 ms), resulting in maps of entire thin sections in ?5 h. Maia is an energy dispersive detector system with a large collection solid-angle, which allows full spectral acquisition and high sensitivity. Hence, there is no need to constrain the elements of interest a priori. We collected whole section maps (?2 cm × 1 cm) from 3 thick sections of Allende and a single map (2 cm × 1.5 cm) from a thick section of Vigarano. Our experimental conditions provide data for elements with 20 ? Z ? 40 (K-shell, Ca through Zr) and the L-emissions of Os, Ir, Pt, Au, and Pb. We illustrate the unique capabilities of this technique by presenting observations across myriad length scales, from the centimeter-scale down to the detection of sub-micrometer particles within these objects. Our initial results show the potential of this technique to help decipher spatial and textural variations in tr