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Sample records for cv africana para

  1. 1 Africana Studies AFRICANA STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Africana Studies AFRICANA STUDIES GW's Africana Studies Program promotes an interdepartmental, interdisciplinary course of study examining the diverse histories, cultures, politics and people of the African, and the Middle East. Students in the program are introduced to methodology from core areas of the humanities

  2. Social learning in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana).

    PubMed

    Greco, Brian J; Brown, Tracey K; Andrews, Jeff R M; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Caine, Nancy G

    2013-05-01

    Social learning is a more efficient method of information acquisition and application than trial and error learning and is prevalent across a variety of animal taxa. Social learning is assumed to be important for elephants, but evidence in support of that claim is mostly anecdotal. Using a herd of six adult female African bush elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) at the San Diego Zoo's Safari Park, we evaluated whether viewing a conspecific's interactions facilitated learning of a novel task. The tasks used feeding apparatus that could be solved in one of two distinct ways. Contrary to our hypothesis, the method the demonstrating animal used did not predict the method used by the observer. However, we did find evidence of social learning: After watching the model, subjects spent a greater percentage of their time interacting with the apparatus than they did in unmodeled trials. These results suggest that the demonstrations of a model may increase the motivation of elephants to explore novel foraging tasks. PMID:23238635

  3. Cytotoxic glucosphingolipid from Celtis Africana

    PubMed Central

    Perveen, Shagufta; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; El-Shafae, Azza Muhammed; Khan, Afsar; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Literature survey proved the use of the powdered sun-dried bark and roots of Celtis africana for the treatment of cancer in South Africa. Objective: The aim of this study was to do further isolation work on the ethyl acetate fraction and to investigate the cytotoxic activities of the various fractions and isolated compound. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions and compound 1 were tested on mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y using the microculture tetrazolium assay. Results: One new glucosphingolipid 1 was isolated from the aerial parts of C. africana. The structure of the new compound was determined by extensive analysis by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The ethyl acetate fraction and compound 1 showed strong cytotoxic activity with an EC50 value of 8.3 ?g/mL and 7.8 ?g/mL, respectively, compared with Kahalalide F positive control (6.3 ?g/mL). Conclusion: This is the first report of the occurrence of a cytotoxic glucosphingolipid in family Ulmaceae. PMID:26109753

  4. Candida africana and its closest relatives.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-11-01

    Candida africana is a recently described opportunistic yeast pathogen that has been linked to vaginal candidiasis. This yeast was first described, in 1995, as atypical chlamydospore-negative Candida albicans strain, and subsequently proposed as a new Candida species on the basis of morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics clearly different from those of typical C. albicans isolates. Phylogenetic studies based on the comparison of ribosomal DNA sequences demonstrated that C. africana and C. albicans isolates are too closely related to draw any conclusions regarding the status of a new species. Therefore, on the basis of these studies, some authors considered C. africana as a biovar of C. albicans even if genetic differences may be found if additional regions of genomic DNA are sequenced. The taxonomic situation of C. africana and its phylogenetic relationship with other Candida species is still controversial and remains, at present, a matter of debate. Our goal is to review the current knowledge about C. africana and highlight the development of rapid and accurate tests for its discrimination from C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida stellatoidea. Furthermore, through the analysis of literature data, we have found that C. africana has a worldwide distribution and a considerable number of features making its study particularly interesting. PMID:20667001

  5. Molecular Characterization of Highly Susceptible Candida africana from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Fakhim, Hamed; Shokohi, Tahereh; Haghani, Iman; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gholami, Haniyeh; Ahmadi, Imaneh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic studies highlight Candida africana as an atypical variant within Candida albicans species complex which is dominantly recovered from vaginal specimens. This study aimed to characterize C. africana isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) by molecular methods and in vitro susceptibilities. One hundred and fifty-six (48.44 %) Candida strains were collected from 322 patients diagnosed with VVC. Of these, 114 (73.07 %) were germ tube positive and presented green color on the chromogenic medium, thus classified as C. albicans species complex. One hundred and nine (95.61 %) out of 114 isolates were identified as C. albicans, while five (4.38 %) isolates were identical with C. africana based on hwp1 PCR. C. africana appeared to be highly susceptible to the tested antifungals. For all strains of C. africana, fluconazole MIC was 2-log2-dilution steps less active than amphotericin B, which in turn was 2-log2-dilution steps and 3-log2-dilution steps less active than other azoles and echinocandin agents, respectively. In conclusion, among the C. albicans species complex, C. albicans predominantly and C. africana rarely occur in vaginal mucosa. Due to limited information on molecular epidemiology of this novel yeast, more studies using molecular methods are needed to elucidate the inter- and intraspecific genomic variations of C. africana isolates. PMID:26183965

  6. Plasma preparation and storage for African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Knauf, Sascha; Blad-Stahl, Julia; Lawrenz, Arne; Schuerer, Ulrich; Wehrend, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The use of plasma as a life-saving tool for neonatal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that failed passive transfer of immunoglobulins is proposed. The methodology of blood sampling, plasma extraction, and plasma storage is described. Values for cellular component sedimentation and biochemical parameters of extracted plasma that was collected from 2 female elephants is presented. The proposal for a central plasma bank for elephants in European zoos is suggested. PMID:19368242

  7. Yingna Su CV Astrophysicist

    E-print Network

    Su, Yingna

    Yingna Su ­ CV Astrophysicist Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Education History: B.D. Astrophysics, 2008, Purple Mountain Observatory Predoctoral Fellow, 2005-2007, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Professional History: 2009/12 - now Astrophysicist, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

  8. MASTER: CV, DNe, variables.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanutsa, P.; Gress, O.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Buckley, D.; Antipin, S.; Tiurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Vladimirov, V.; Kuvshinov, D.; Shurpakov, S.; Shumkov, V.; Potter, S.; Kniazev, A.; Kotze, M.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Budnev, N.; Yazev, S.; Poleshchuk, V.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Parkhomenko, A.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Y.; Gabovich, A.; Krushinsky, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Bourdanov, A.

    2015-03-01

    MASTER OT J105529.06-255654.5 discovery - new CV MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010 ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 10h 55m 29.06s -25d 56m 54.5s on 2015-03-11.89942 UT.

  9. Real-time PCR detection of sorghum ergot pathogens Claviceps africana, C. sorghi, and C. sorghicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum ergot is a serious disease that has caused major losses in sorghum growing regions worldwide. Claviceps africana is now the most widely distributed species causing ergot in many countries including the U.S., whereas both C. africana and C. sorghi exist in India. A third species (C. sorghic...

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana?

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Candida albicans and its closely related yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples. PMID:18987171

  12. AFRICANA STUDIES CERTIFICATE PROGRAM GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE The Graduate School and University Center

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    AFRICANA STUDIES CERTIFICATE PROGRAM GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE The Graduate School and University Center document of The Graduate School and University Center, the Africana Studies Certificate Program shall The City University of New York In accordance with the Bylaws of the Graduate Council and the Governance

  13. CLAMS_CV580_CAR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-28

    CLAMS_CV580_CAR Project Title:  CLAMS Discipline:  Field ... Radiance in 14 spectral bands Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:  Order Data Relevant Documents:  CV580 Flight Tracks CAR Home Page Readme Files:  Readme CAR ...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Candida africana in Genital Specimens in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Yu, Aihua; Chen, Xiangming; Wang, Guojiang; Feng, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Candida africana, an emerging yeast pathogen, is closely related to Candida albicans and most commonly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). However, its prevalence in candidal balanoposthitis is still unclear. In this study, the prevalence of C. africana in both candidal balanoposthitis and VVC in a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Shanghai, China, was analyzed, and the molecular characterization and susceptible profiles of C. africana isolates were investigated. As results, C. africana was only isolated in 5 out of 79 (6.3%) cases of candidal balanoposthitis rather than cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among them, 4 out of 5 isolates share the same genotype of DST 782 with an isolate from vaginal swab in Japan published previously. All C. africana isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:26665002

  15. Year Action IB # Jig HAL CP HAL CV Trawl CP Trawl CV

    E-print Network

    Year Action IB # Jig Pot Gear (CP and CV) HAL CP HAL CV Trawl CP Trawl CV TOTAL TAC ABC OFL (CV and CP) HAL CP HAL CV 50 HAL CV CP Trawl CV Rockfish Program Cooperati ves TOTAL Vessel CP = Catcher Processor Rockfish Program Cooperatives this allocation is deducted from the trawl

  16. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of the first Italian Candida africana isolate.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    One atypical isolate of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was isolated from an Italian patient with vulvovaginitis. The strain, germ tube positive and chlamydospore-negative showed white-thin turquoise colonies on Candida ID 2 medium. The yeast was identified as Candida africana by using morphological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the molecular results obtained in this study as well as in other studies, C. africana cannot be yet considered as a new species of Candida. It is possible that C. africana represents a new variant of C. albicans like the well-known Candida stellatoidea. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of C. africana in Italy. PMID:18983430

  17. Sorghum Ergot: Distinguishing Sphacelia and Sclerotia of Claviceps africana in Seed 

    E-print Network

    Frederickson, Debra; Odvody, Gary; Isakeit, Thomas

    1999-07-05

    and convoluted surface (Figs. 1 and 2). l Soft and ?spongy? after soaking, absorbing water, swelling and releasing conidia in a ?cloud? around them (Fig. 1). l Conical to pointed tissue at the top of the structure if sclerotial tissue is present as well.... africana are always found in associ- ation with sphacelia. However, sphacelia may have no sclerotial tissue to fully formed sclerotia present. In C. africana, the sclerotia and sphacelia are so physically associated with one another that it is impossible...

  18. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association. PMID:25830114

  19. Bilateral ovarian cystadenoma in a geriatric African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Hoby, Stefan; Aloisio, Fabio; Schumacher, Vanessa L

    2014-06-01

    A 59-yr-old, captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died of a cardiovascular collapse. Necropsy revealed bilateral replacement of the ovarian tissue by multiple cystic formations of up to 10 cm in diameter. The cysts were thin walled and filled with clear watery fluid. Smaller solid masses with an irregular surface projected from the wall of a few of the cysts. Histologically, the cystic structures were characterized by a single layer of well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane. Occasionally the cysts contained nodular proliferations of single-layered, well-differentiated cuboidal epithelial cells forming anastomosing tubules and occasional papillary projections. The ovarian neoplasia was diagnosed as a bilateral multilocular serous ovarian cystadenoma. The nulliparous status and the advanced age may have contributed to the ovarian pathology. PMID:25000708

  20. Exploratory rigid laparoscopy in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Julia; Hendrickson, Dean A; Stetter, Mark; Neiffer, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    In March 2009, a 25-yr-old captive female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) underwent an exploratory laparoscopy after several weeks of diarrhea, submandibular and ventral edema, and swelling on medial and lateral aspects of all feet. Although there have been recent advances in laparoscopic vasectomies in free-ranging African elephants in South Africa utilizing specially designed rigid laparoscopes and insufflation devices, this was the first attempt at using these same techniques for an exploratory purpose. The elephant was sedated in a static restraint chute and remained standing for the duration of the procedure. Laparoscopy provided visibility of the dorsal abdomen, enabled collection of reproductive tract biopsies and peritoneal fluid samples, and allowed for instillation of antibiotics and crystalloid fluids directly into the abdominal cavity. Abdominal exploration, collection of tissue samples, and local therapy is possible via standing laparoscopy in megavertebrates. PMID:25632688

  1. Reproductive strategies of the kangaroo leech, Marsupiobdella africana (Glossiphoniidae).

    PubMed

    Kruger, Natasha; Du Preez, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Kangaroo Leech, Marsupiobdella africana, is a hermaphroditic organism, with insemination taking place by the planting of a spermatophore on another leech. Spermatophores are mostly planted on the anterior of the recipient leech, but not always. Several spermatophores may be planted by different leeches on a single recipient. The spermatophore consists of two side by side lobes. Within minutes from planting of the spermatophore, the contents are squeezed out and into the body of the recipient. Sperm are believed to find the way to the ova by following chemical cues. Kangaroo Leeches display advanced parental care by transferring fertilized eggs from the reproductive opening to a brood pouch on the ventral side. Fully developed leeches may copulate after detaching from the amphibian host Xenopus laevis, or from the Cape River Crab Potamonautes perlatus with which it maintains a phoretic association. PMID:25830114

  2. Mortality trends in the African cherry (Prunus africana) and the implications for colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) in

    E-print Network

    Fashing, Peter J.

    Mortality trends in the African cherry (Prunus africana) and the implications for colobus monkeys plant; Bark harvesting; Fallback resource 1. Introduction Over the past several decades, African cherry

  3. CV detaille (Detailed CV, in French) Jean-Pierre Nadal

    E-print Network

    Nadal, Jean-Pierre

    CV d´etaill´e (Detailed CV, in French) Jean-Pierre Nadal Directeur de recherche au CNRS Directeur d : nadal@lps.ens.fr Url : http://www.lps.ens.fr/~nadal et Centre d'Analyse et de Math´ematique Sociales UMR@ehess.fr Url : http://cams.ehess.fr/document.php?id=698 1 #12;J.-P. Nadal 2 Contents Curriculum Vitae 3 Annexes

  4. Cultural characteristics, morphology, and variation within Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from India.

    PubMed

    Muthusubramanian, Venkateshwaran; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Rajaram Reddy, Daram; Tooley, Paul W

    2006-04-01

    Sorghum ergot in India is caused by Claviceps africana and C. sorghi. The distributions of these two species in India is not known. Eighty-nine sorghum ergot isolates were cultured from young sphacelia obtained from male sterile sorghum plants artificially inoculated using inoculum collected in the field. Based on cultural characteristics, the isolates were separated into two groups which differed distinctly in the morphology of their sphacelia, conidia, and sclerotia. Marked differences also were observed in rates of secondary conidial production and disease spread between the groups. In combination with molecular evidence, our results confirm that the isolates placed in Group I represent C. africana and Group II isolates represent C. sorghi. C. africana was found to be widely distributed in all sorghum growing areas of India. The species first described as occuring in India, C. sorghi, appears to be restricted to a few locations in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. PMID:16556494

  5. Adherence ability of Candida africana: a comparative study with Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; De Leo, Filomena; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we compared the adherence ability to human Hela cells and biofilm formation of three closely related Candida yeast. In our experiments, Candida africana showed poor adhesion ability to human Hela cells and the absence of biofilm formation on polyvinyl chloride strips. Conversely, Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis formed mature biofilms and stable attachment to Hela cells. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study reporting data on biofilm formation and adherence to human Hela cells by C. africana. PMID:20202113

  6. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda BV; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion. PMID:26417263

  7. Effect of storage temperature and sphacellum age on C. africana conidia survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum ergot, caused by Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle & de Milliano, is a disease that poses a serious treat to sorghum, especially in hybrid seed production. The initial sign of the disease is called a sphacelium. Sphacelia containing macroconidia could play a role in the survival of t...

  8. Open CV intro Aside: Histogram Equalization

    E-print Network

    Kosecka, Jana

    Open CV intro Aside: Histogram Equalization Images are from Wikipedia. #12;Today we'll code: A fully functional sparse optical flow algorithm! Plan ·! OpenCV Basics ­! What is it? ­! How do you get started with it? ·! Feature Finding and Optical Flow ­! A brief mathematical discussion. ·! OpenCV

  9. The Only African Wild Tobacco, Nicotiana africana: Alkaloid Content and the Effect of Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Marlin, Danica; Nicolson, Susan W.; Yusuf, Abdullahi A.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Heyman, Heino M.; Krüger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Herbivory in some Nicotiana species is known to induce alkaloid production. This study examined herbivore-induced defenses in the nornicotine-rich African tobacco N. africana, the only Nicotiana species indigenous to Africa. We tested the predictions that: 1) N. africana will have high constitutive levels of leaf, flower and nectar alkaloids; 2) leaf herbivory by the African bollworm Helicoverpa armigera will induce increased alkaloid levels in leaves, flowers and nectar; and 3) increased alkaloid concentrations in herbivore-damaged plants will negatively affect larval growth. We grew N. africana in large pots in a greenhouse and exposed flowering plants to densities of one, three and six fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera, for four days. Leaves, flowers and nectar were analyzed for nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine. The principal leaf alkaloid was nornicotine (mean: 28 µg/g dry mass) followed by anabasine (4.9 µg/g) and nicotine (0.6 µg/g). Nornicotine was found in low quantities in the flowers, but no nicotine or anabasine were recorded. The nectar contained none of the alkaloids measured. Larval growth was reduced when leaves of flowering plants were exposed to six larvae. As predicted by the optimal defense theory, herbivory had a localized effect and caused an increase in nornicotine concentrations in both undamaged top leaves of herbivore damaged plants and herbivore damaged leaves exposed to one and three larvae. The nicotine concentration increased in damaged compared to undamaged middle leaves. The nornicotine concentration was lower in damaged leaves of plants exposed to six compared to three larvae, suggesting that N. africana rather invests in new growth as opposed to protecting older leaves under severe attack. The results indicate that the nornicotine-rich N. africana will be unattractive to herbivores and more so when damaged, but that potential pollinators will be unaffected because the nectar remains alkaloid-free even after herbivory. PMID:25025217

  10. The only African wild tobacco, Nicotiana africana: alkaloid content and the effect of herbivory.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Danica; Nicolson, Susan W; Yusuf, Abdullahi A; Stevenson, Philip C; Heyman, Heino M; Krüger, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Herbivory in some Nicotiana species is known to induce alkaloid production. This study examined herbivore-induced defenses in the nornicotine-rich African tobacco N. africana, the only Nicotiana species indigenous to Africa. We tested the predictions that: 1) N. africana will have high constitutive levels of leaf, flower and nectar alkaloids; 2) leaf herbivory by the African bollworm Helicoverpa armigera will induce increased alkaloid levels in leaves, flowers and nectar; and 3) increased alkaloid concentrations in herbivore-damaged plants will negatively affect larval growth. We grew N. africana in large pots in a greenhouse and exposed flowering plants to densities of one, three and six fourth-instar larvae of H. armigera, for four days. Leaves, flowers and nectar were analyzed for nicotine, nornicotine and anabasine. The principal leaf alkaloid was nornicotine (mean: 28 µg/g dry mass) followed by anabasine (4.9 µg/g) and nicotine (0.6 µg/g). Nornicotine was found in low quantities in the flowers, but no nicotine or anabasine were recorded. The nectar contained none of the alkaloids measured. Larval growth was reduced when leaves of flowering plants were exposed to six larvae. As predicted by the optimal defense theory, herbivory had a localized effect and caused an increase in nornicotine concentrations in both undamaged top leaves of herbivore damaged plants and herbivore damaged leaves exposed to one and three larvae. The nicotine concentration increased in damaged compared to undamaged middle leaves. The nornicotine concentration was lower in damaged leaves of plants exposed to six compared to three larvae, suggesting that N. africana rather invests in new growth as opposed to protecting older leaves under severe attack. The results indicate that the nornicotine-rich N. africana will be unattractive to herbivores and more so when damaged, but that potential pollinators will be unaffected because the nectar remains alkaloid-free even after herbivory. PMID:25025217

  11. Abstract The lactating mammary gland of the African el-ephant (Loxodonta africana) has been studied with a panel

    E-print Network

    Pretoria, University of

    Abstract The lactating mammary gland of the African el- ephant (Loxodonta africana) has been Mammary gland · Lactation · Secretion · Proliferation · Apoptosis · Milk · African elephant, Loxodonta · Stuart Patton Histo- and cytophysiology of the lactating mammary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta

  12. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Wound Healing Properties of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Beneth. and Strophanthus hispidus DC.

    PubMed Central

    Agyare, Christian; Dwobeng, Anita Serwaa; Agyepong, Nicholas; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Ayande, Patrick George; Adarkwa-Yiadom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infections of various types of wounds are a challenge to the treatment of wounds and wound healing. The study was to investigate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of methanol leaf and stem bark extracts of Kigelia africana and methanol leaf and root extracts of Strophanthus hispidus and also to determine wound healing properties of the extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extracts were determined against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus using agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl–hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The influence of the extracts on rate of wound closure was investigated using the excision wound model and histopathological investigation of treated and untreated wound tissues performed. The MICs of leaf extract of K. africana against test organisms were 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and stem bark extract were 2.25–7.5?mg/mL. The leaf extract of S. hispidus had MIC range of 2.5–7.5?mg/mL and 2.5–10?mg/mL for root extract. The IC50 of leaf and stem bark extracts of K. africana were 56.9 and 13.7??g/mL, respectively and leaf and root of S. hispidus were 49.8 and 45.1??g/mL, respectively. K. africana extracts (7.5% w/w) showed significant (P < 0.05) wound contraction at day 7 with 72% of wound closure whiles significant (P < 0.05) wound contractions were observed on day 11 for stem bark of K. africana, leaf and root extracts of S. hispidus. Wound tissues treated with the extracts showed improved collagenation, re-epitheliazition and rapid granulation formation compared with untreated wound tissues. The extracts were found to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and sapogenetic glycosides. The HPLC finger-printing of the extracts were developed. The leaf, stem bark and root extracts of K. africana and S. hispidus exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and enhanced wound healing properties and these may justify the medicinal uses of the plants for treatment of microbial infections and wounds. PMID:23662099

  13. CV

    E-print Network

    2015-10-13

    Oct 13, 2015 ... Algorithms for uncertainty quantification and reduction .... Identification of IKr Kinetics and Drug Binding in Native Myocytes, Annals of Biomedical ..... Grant title: Data Collection & Integration in Cardiac Risk Assessment, 1 R43 ...

  14. CV

    E-print Network

    2015-10-08

    Meetings in Seattle, Washington JMM 2016, January 2016 ... Université du Montréal Summer School on Counting Arithmetic Objects, June 2014 ... Judge for Purdue Undergraduate Research and Poster Symposium Poster session, April 2015 ... Harbridge Consulting Group - actuarial intern Harbridge Consulting Group.

  15. CV

    E-print Network

    2015-12-01

    May 2016. Thesis: Graph diffusions and matrix functions: fast algorithms and ... Research Intern, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Cyber-anaytics and Decision Systems group ... Summer Research Assistant, Mathematics Department, Fordham University .... Fall 2014 · Instructor · Undergraduate Linear Algebra (MA 264), one section.

  16. CV

    E-print Network

    2015-08-17

    Undergraduate Student Brant Coburn, working on Hecke algebras and quantum spin .... at the Université Paris VI (Pierre et Marie Curie, Jussieu), Paris (France). Studies of ... Pressure measurements at low temperatures, Supervisor: Prof. H. Godfrin ... Presentation of physics experiments to first–graders,. Cumberland ...

  17. Assessment of Diversity in Claviceps africana and Other Claviceps Species by RAM and AFLP Analyses.

    PubMed

    Tooley, P W; O'Neill, N R; Goley, E D; Carras, M M

    2000-10-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic diversity among isolates of Claviceps africana, the sorghum ergot pathogen, and isolates of other Claviceps spp. causing ergot on sorghum or other hosts, was analyzed by random amplified microsatellite (RAM) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses. Of the RAM primer sets tested, one revealed polymorphism in C. africana isolates, with Australian and Indian isolates possessing a unique fragment. AFLP analysis, in addition to clearly distinguishing Claviceps spp., revealed polymorphisms in C. africana. A group of isolates from the United States, Puerto Rico, and South Africa exhibited 95 to 100% similarity with one another. Several isolates from Isabela, Puerto Rico were 100% similar to an isolate from Texas, and another isolate from Puerto Rico was identical with one from Nebraska. Australian and Indian isolates showed greater than 90% similarity with isolates from the United States., Puerto Rico, and South Africa. A number of polymorphisms existed in the United States group, indicating that the recently introduced population contains multiple genotypes. Isolates of C. sorghicola, a newly described sorghum pathogen from Japan, were very distinct from other species via RAM and AFLP analyses, as were isolates from outgroups C. purpurea and C. fusiformis. Both RAM and AFLP analysis will be useful in determining future patterns of intercontinental migration of the sorghum ergot pathogen, with the AFLP method showing greater ability to characterize levels of intraspecific variation. PMID:18944476

  18. mRNA vaccine CV9103 and CV9104 for the treatment of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Steffen; Schwentner, Christian; Stenzl, Arnulf; Bedke, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Among currently available vaccine strategies for cancer, nucleotide-based vaccination is an appealing treatment modality. Curevacs’ mRNA containing vaccines (RNActive®) combine the beneficial properties of sufficient antigen-expression, autologous immune-stimulation and a high flexibility with respect to production and application. CV9103 and CV9104 are novel RNActive®-derived anticancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. After successful phase I/II studies with documentation of good tolerability and favorable immune-activation of CV9103, the vaccine CV9104 is currently undergoing clinical testing in specific clinical settings such as castration resistant prostate cancer and as a neoadjuvant agent in men with high risk prostate cancer prior to surgery. This review discusses the available preclinical and clinical data on the anticancer vaccination treatment with RNActive®-derived anticancer-vaccines CV9103 and CV9104. PMID:25483661

  19. Jared W. Young, CV. CURRICULUM VITAE

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    , Department of Psychobiology EDUCATIONAL HISTORY 2001 ­ 2005: Ph.D. in Psychopharmacology, Department-clinical psychopharmacology: British Association for Psychopharmacology 2009: Travel Award: American College of Neuropsychopharmacology #12;Jared W. Young, CV. 2 2008: Outstanding poster presentation in preclinical psychopharmacology

  20. Tutorials on Matlab, OpenCV, and Computer Science Department

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Hao

    Tutorials on Matlab, OpenCV, and SDL Computer Science Department Hao Jiang #12;Matlab · Matlab. · Rewrite bottleneck procedures using c. ­ System(`c_exe'); ­ Compile the function using mex. #12;OpenCV #12;OpenCV · OpenCV is a C library for image processing and computer vision. http

  1. SeeingWithOPenCV FindingFacesin lmages

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    SeeingWithOPenCV FindingFacesin lmages what this mouthfulmeans.Figure1 showsan exampleof OPenCV severalscales. The classifierusesdata storedin an XMLfileto decidehow to classify each image location.The OPenCV andinstallingOpenCV,readingand writingimagefiles,capturingvideo, andworkingwiththelPllmagedata structufe. r

  2. Two jacalin-related lectins from seeds of the African breadfruit (Treculia africana L.).

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Michiko; Nsimba-Lubaki, Shadrack Makuta; Hayashi, Namiko; Minami, Yuji; Yagi, Fumio; Hiemori, Keiko; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Two jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) were purified by mannose-agarose and melibiose-agarose from seeds of Treculia africana. One is galactose-recognizing JRL (gJRL), named T. africana agglutinin-G (TAA-G), and another one is mannose-recognizing JRL (mJRL), TAA-M. The yields of the two lectins from the seed flour were approximately 7.0 mg/g for gJRL and 7.2 mg/g for mJRL. The primary structure of TAA-G was determined by protein sequencing of lysyl endopeptic peptides and chymotryptic peptides. The sequence identity of TAA-G to other gJRLs was around 70%. Two-residue insertion was found around the sugar-binding sites, compared with the sequences of other gJRLs. Crystallographic studies on other gJRLs have shown that the primary sugar-binding site of gJRLs can accommodate Gal, GalNAc, and GalNAc residue of T-antigen (Gal?1-3GalNAc?-). However, hemagglutination inhibition and glycan array showed that TAA-G did not recognize GalNAc itself and T-antigen. TAA-G preferred melibiose and core 3 O-glycan. PMID:25155899

  3. Nuclear microprobe studies of elemental distributions in dormant seeds of Burkea africana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, E. T. F.; Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przyby?owicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przyby?owicz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Seed nutrient stores are vital post-germination for the establishment of seedlings in harsh and unpredictable environments. Plants of nutrient-poor environments allocate a substantial proportion of total acquired nutrients to reproduction (i.e. seeds). We propose that differential allocation of mineral resources to specific seed tissues is an indication of a species germination and establishment strategy. Burkea africana Hook is a leguminous tree typical of broad-leaved nutrient-poor savannas in southern Africa. Elemental distributions in dormant B. africana seed structures were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3.0 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous BS and PIXE point analyses. Mineral nutrient concentrations varied greatly between seed tissues. Elevated levels of metals known to play an important role as plant enzyme co-factors were found in the seed lens and embryonic axis. Distributions of most of these metals (Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, but not K or Cu) were positively correlated with embryonic P distribution, and probably represent phytin deposits. The distribution of metals within seed structures is 'patchy' due to their complexation with P as electron-dense globoid phytin crystals, which constrains the interpretation of PIXE point analyses.

  4. AFLP COMPARISONS AMONG CLAVICEPS AFRICANA ISOLATES CAUSING SORGHUM ERGOT IN THE U.S., AFRICA, INDIA, AND JAPAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighty-seven isolates of the sorghum ergot pathogen, C. africana, from diverse geographic locations were analyzed using four different AFLP primer combinations to determine genetic relationships among isolates. Most isolates showed unique AFLP types, indicating that much genetic variation is present...

  5. Suppression of Caco-2 and HEK-293 cell proliferation by Kigelia africana, Mimusops zeyheri and Ximenia caffra seed oils.

    PubMed

    Chivandi, Eliton; Cave, Eleanor; Davidson, Bruce Clement; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey; Moyo, Davison; Madziva, Michael Taurai

    2012-01-01

    Animal-derived oils and purified fatty acids, but not indigenous fruit-tree-derived seed oils, have been used to study cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we determined the effects of the Kigelia africana, the Mimusops zeyheri and the Ximenia caffra seed-oil on cell proliferation in culture. Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells were maintained and treated with various concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 mg/l) of K. africana, M. zehyeri and X. caffra seed oil. The trypan blue dye exclusion method was used to determine cell growth 48-hours after oil treatment. All three tree seed oils suppressed both Caco-2 and HEK-293 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the tree seed oils did not cause increased cell death as the number of dead cells remained unchanged under control and oil-treated conditions. K. africana oil significantly suppressed Caco-2 cell growth compared to HEK-293 cell growth at all oil concentrations, whereas M. zeyheri and X. caffra seed oils significantly suppressed HEK-293 and Caco-2 cell growth, only at a concentration of 80 mg/l. The suppression of Caco-2 and HEK-293 cell proliferation by K. africana, M. zeyheri and X. caffra seed oils suggest a potential antiproliferative effect of these tree seed oils on the two cell lines. PMID:22210722

  6. Conservation priorities for Prunus africana defined with the aid of spatial analysis of genetic data and climatic variables.

    PubMed

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A C; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species' range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. PMID:23544118

  7. Conservation Priorities for Prunus africana Defined with the Aid of Spatial Analysis of Genetic Data and Climatic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Barbara; Loo, Judy; Gaisberger, Hannes; van Zonneveld, Maarten J.; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Conservation priorities for Prunus africana, a tree species found across Afromontane regions, which is of great commercial interest internationally and of local value for rural communities, were defined with the aid of spatial analyses applied to a set of georeferenced molecular marker data (chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites) from 32 populations in 9 African countries. Two approaches for the selection of priority populations for conservation were used, differing in the way they optimize representation of intra-specific diversity of P. africana across a minimum number of populations. The first method (S1) was aimed at maximizing genetic diversity of the conservation units and their distinctiveness with regard to climatic conditions, the second method (S2) at optimizing representativeness of the genetic diversity found throughout the species’ range. Populations in East African countries (especially Kenya and Tanzania) were found to be of great conservation value, as suggested by previous findings. These populations are complemented by those in Madagascar and Cameroon. The combination of the two methods for prioritization led to the identification of a set of 6 priority populations. The potential distribution of P. africana was then modeled based on a dataset of 1,500 georeferenced observations. This enabled an assessment of whether the priority populations identified are exposed to threats from agricultural expansion and climate change, and whether they are located within the boundaries of protected areas. The range of the species has been affected by past climate change and the modeled distribution of P. africana indicates that the species is likely to be negatively affected in future, with an expected decrease in distribution by 2050. Based on these insights, further research at the regional and national scale is recommended, in order to strengthen P. africana conservation efforts. PMID:23544118

  8. 1/21/14 CV -Deines Research https://sites.google.com/site/deineslab/cv 1/6

    E-print Network

    1/21/14 CV - Deines Research https://sites.google.com/site/deineslab/cv 1/6 Andrew M. Deines and Systematics. 43:-- #12;1/21/14 CV - Deines Research https://sites.google.com/site/deineslab/cv 2/6 2005 Deines, Lodge DM. Influence of fishery effort and #12;1/21/14 CV - Deines Research https://sites.google.com

  9. Oligosaccharides produced by submerged cultures of Claviceps africana and Claviceps sorghi.

    PubMed

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Halada, P; Kuzma, M; Pazoutová, S; Stod?lková, E; Kolínská, R

    2005-01-01

    Oligosaccharides produced by submerged cultures of C. africana and C. sorghi were isolated by semipreparative HPLC. Structure of 6-O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-D-glucopyranose (blastose), 1,6-bis-O-(beta-D-fructofuranosyl)-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (neokestose) and two sugar alcohols, 1-O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-D-mannitol (fructosylmannitol) and 1,6-bis-O-(beta-D-fructofuranosyl)-D-mannitol (bisfructosylmannitol) was determined by NMR spectrometry. MALDI TOF MS analysis revealed molecular ions [M+Na]+ that indicate the presence of other tetra- and pentasaccharides (m/z = 689.4 and 851.5, respectively) and corresponding sugar alcohol (m/z = 691.4). Rapid conversion of sucrose into series of oligosaccharides and corresponding sugar alcohols was observed in all tested strains. PMID:16295657

  10. African elephants (Loxodonta africana) recognize visual attention from face and body orientation.

    PubMed

    Smet, Anna F; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-07-01

    How do animals determine when others are able and disposed to receive their communicative signals? In particular, it is futile to make a silent gesture when the intended audience cannot see it. Some non-human primates use the head and body orientation of their audience to infer visual attentiveness when signalling, but whether species relying less on visual information use such cues when producing visual signals is unknown. Here, we test whether African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are sensitive to the visual perspective of a human experimenter. We examined whether the frequency of gestures of head and trunk, produced to request food, was influenced by indications of an experimenter's visual attention. Elephants signalled significantly more towards the experimenter when her face was oriented towards them, except when her body faced away from them. These results suggest that elephants understand the importance of visual attention for effective communication. PMID:25013015

  11. FATAL ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN AN AFRICAN SAVANNA ELEPHANT (LOXODONTA AFRICANA) IN A FRENCH ZOO.

    PubMed

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Joris, Antoine; Romey, Aurore; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib; Lemberger, Karin

    2015-06-01

    A fatal case of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) involving an African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) occurred in November 2013 at the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. An adult female was found dead without any preliminary symptoms. Gross pathologic changes consisted of petechiae and hemorrhages on mucosae and internal organs, abundant transudate in the abdominal and pericardial cavities, and myocarditis. Histopathologic examination showed extensive degeneration and necrosis of ventricular cardiomyocytes with concurrent lymphoplasmocytic and eosinophilic infiltrate. An EMCV was isolated from several organs and considered the causative agent of the myocarditis. The same strain of virus was also isolated in rodents captured on zoo premises and considered to be the reservoir of the virus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first EMCV case in a captive African elephant in Europe. PMID:26056902

  12. Parotid salivary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): structure and composition of saliva.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, E J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J; de Vos, V

    1988-12-01

    Specimens from parotid salivary glands of full-grown elephant (Loxodonta africana) a (n=6) and saliva aspirated from their main excretory ducts were examined macroscopically and microscopically and analyzed biochemically. The composition of the saliva was compared to that of the blood. The parotids (n=12; mean = 7.4 kg) are homocrine and of a seromucous nature. Myoepithelial cells are well-developed along intercalated ducts and their processes extend to proximal portions of allied acini. The saliva is hypotonic and contains relatively low concentrations of sodium and glucose and high concentrations of potassium, urea, calcium and phosphorus. Absence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase negates a digestive role and the voluminous secrete evidently aids swallowing by moisturising and lubricating the large mass of ingested leaves, grass and bark. PMID:3210214

  13. Robert Gray 1 CV: Robert D. Gray

    E-print Network

    St Andrews, University of

    Robert Gray 1 CV: Robert D. Gray Personal Information Web: http://www.uea.ac.uk/~ fga12juu/ Address: School of Mathematics Telephone: +44 1603 591443 University of East Anglia Norwich NR4 7TJ Email: Robert.D.Gray Scholarship for Training for Algebra Research (Sum- mer 2001). #12;Robert Gray 2 Grants and Fellowships

  14. Elec 331 -Respiratory System Respiratory & CV Systems

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Respiratory System 1 Respiratory & CV Systems · Transport ­ Pump · Distribution) during heavy breathing Transport (Respiratory) Natural state of lung #12;Elec 331 - Respiratory System 2: Distribution Exchange Respiratory (Air) #12;Elec 331 - Respiratory System 3 SRC: PNP, p.554 CO2 O2 Cardio

  15. Dipayan (Dip) Biswas: CV (June 2014) DIPAYAN (DIP) BISWAS

    E-print Network

    Jank, Wolfgang

    Dipayan (Dip) Biswas: CV (June 2014) 1 DIPAYAN (DIP) BISWAS University of South Florida BSN 3218 Doctoral Consortium Fellow, Minneapolis, June 2003. #12;Dipayan (Dip) Biswas: CV (June 2014) 2 RESEARCH

  16. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Kehua; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation. PMID:22291848

  17. Ms informacon: http://cv1.cpd.ua.es/ConsPlanesEstudio/cvFi-

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Más informacíon: http://cv1.cpd.ua.es/ConsPlanesEstudio/cvFi- chaAsiEEES.asp?wCodEst=C053&wcodasi=2 6048&wLengua=C&scaca=2012-13 Departamento de Química Física Correo electrónico: dqfis@ua.es Teléfono: 965903536 Página web: http://dqf.ua.es/es/ Diseño:GabinetedeImagenyComunicaciónGráficadelaUniversidaddeAlicante.Impressió:imprenta.ua

  18. Morphological redescription and molecular characterization of three species of Travassosinematidae (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) from Gryllotalpa africana Beauv (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neetu; Chaudhary, Anshu; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2013-01-01

    Binema mirzaia (Basir, 1942a) Basir, 1956, Cameronia nisari (Parveen and Jairajpuri, 1985) Adamson and Van Waerebeke, 1992a and Mirzaiella meerutensis Singh and Malti, 2003 are redescribed morphologically along with molecular identification from the intestine of mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana. Molecular characterization was carried out using the D2–D3 expansion domains of the 18S ribosomal DNA region. This study first time presents molecular data for the above three nematode species. PMID:24143052

  19. SeeingWithOpenCV FollowThatFace!

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    SeeingWithOpenCV FollowThatFace! describedin lastmonth'sarticle.To do that, however,you'd needto'dnepdto handlethatJ v t v u situation,aswell. Fortunately,OpenCV includes specializedcode for trackinga faceCVtotrackataceonce you'vedetectedit. FaceTrackingin OpenCV Trackinga face is more drfficult thantrackinga strongly

  20. Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman: The Overexploitation of a Medicinal Plant Species and Its Legal Context

    PubMed Central

    Bodeker, Gerard; Weisbord, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The linkage between herbal medicines and the sustainability of medical plants from which they are manufactured is increasingly being understood and receiving attention through international accords and trade labeling systems. However, little attention is paid to the fair trade aspects of this sector, including the issue of benefit-sharing agreements with traditional societies whose knowledge and resources are being exploited for commercial herbal medicine development and production. This article examines the case of Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman, from equatorial Africa. While the conservation and cultivation dimension of the trade in P. africana has been much discussed in literature, no research appears to have focused on the traditional resource rights and related ethical dimensions of this trade in traditional medicine of Africa. Serving as a cautionary tale for the unbridled exploitation of medicinal plants, the history of P. africana extraction is considered here in the context of relevant treaties and agreements existing today. These include the Nagoya Protocol, a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement from the World Trade Organization, and two African regional frameworks: the Swakopmund Protocol and the Organisation Africaine de la Propriété Intellectuelle Initiative. In the context of strengthening medicinal plant research in Africa, a novel international capacity-building project on traditional medicines for better public health in Africa will be discussed, illustrating how access and benefit sharing principles might be incorporated in future projects on traditional medicines. PMID:25225776

  1. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  2. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if accretion disks are present or not. Our results suggest that the accretion disk's geometric shape directly affects the disk's precession rate.

  3. EARTH, MOON, SUN, AND CV ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2009-11-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting cataclysmic variable (CV) dwarf novae (DN) systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar, and black hole systems. We find that spinning, tilted CV DN systems cannot be described by a precessing ring or by a precessing rigid disk. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our analysis indicates that the best description of a retrogradely precessing spinning, tilted, CV DN accretion disk is a differentially rotating, tilted disk with an attached rotating, tilted ring located near the innermost disk annuli. In agreement with the observations and numerical simulations by others, we find that our numerically simulated CV DN accretion disks retrogradely precess as a unit. Our final, reduced expression for retrograde precession agrees well with our numerical simulation results and with selective observational systems that seem to have main-sequence secondaries. Our results suggest that a major source to retrograde precession is tidal torques like that by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth. In addition, these tidal torques should be common to a variety of systems where one member is spinning and tilted, regardless if accretion disks are present or not. Our results suggest that the accretion disk's geometric shape directly affects the disk's precession rate.

  4. Structure and innervation of the tusk pulp in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Weissengruber, GE; Egerbacher, M; Forstenpointner, G

    2005-01-01

    African elephants (Loxodonta africana) use their tusks for digging, carrying and behavioural display. Their healing ability following traumatic injury is enormous. Pain experience caused by dentin or pulp damage of tusks seems to be negligible in elephants. In this study we examined the pulp tissue and the nerve distribution using histology, electron microscopy and immunhistochemistry. The results demonstrate that the pulp comprises two differently structured regions. Randomly orientated collagen fibres characterize a cone-like part lying rostral to the foramen apicis dentis. Numerous nerve fibres and Ruffini endings are found within this cone. Rostral to the cone, delicate collagen fibres and large vessels are orientated longitudinally. The rostral two-thirds of the pulp are highly vascularized, whereas nerve fibres are sparse. Vessel and nerve fibre distribution and the structure of connective tissue possibly play important roles in healing and in the obviously limited pain experience after tusk injuries and pulp alteration. The presence of Ruffini endings is most likely related to the use of tusks as tools. PMID:15817106

  5. Serum oxytetracycline concentrations in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) calves after long-acting formulation injection.

    PubMed

    Bush, M; Stoskopf, M K; Raath, J P; Papich, M G

    2000-03-01

    Serum oxytetracycline pharmacokinetics were studied in 18 African elephant (Loxodonta africana) calves. Each elephant received separate injections of oxytetracycline at approximately 18 mg/kg i.m. and 8 mg/kg i.v. in a cross-over study. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postinjection. An additional sample was drawn 110 hr before the animals were reinjected in the cross-over study and a final blood sample was drawn 48 hr after the second dose. No lameness or stiffness was observed following i.m. injections. Serum oxytetracycline concentrations >0.5 microg/ml were present 48 hr after initial dosing for all elephants (i.m., i.v., high or low dosage). Only elephants given the high i.m. dosage (18 mg/kg) maintained levels >0.5 microg/ml 72 hr postinjection. No significant difference in serum oxytetracycline concentration with time was observed between the groups given different i.v. dosages. These studies demonstrated that quantifiable serum oxytetracycline concentrations can be maintained in young African elephants with a low-dosage multidose i.m. regimen. PMID:10884122

  6. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    PubMed

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree. PMID:14522426

  7. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana

    PubMed Central

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-01-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations. PMID:24849171

  8. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana.

    PubMed

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-11-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations. PMID:24849171

  9. Acute death associated with Citrobacter freundii infection in an African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Ortega, Joaquín; Corpa, Juan M; Orden, José A; Blanco, Jorge; Carbonell, María D; Gerique, Amalia C; Latimer, Erin; Hayward, Gary S; Roemmelt, Andreas; Kraemer, Thomas; Romey, Aurore; Kassimi, Labib B; Casares, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    A 21-year-old male African elephant (Loxodonta africana) died suddenly with no previous medical history. Grossly, there were severe multifocal epicardial and endocardial hemorrhages of the atria and ventricles, hydropericardium, multifocal pleural hemorrhages, and severe pulmonary congestion and edema. Histologically, there was fibrinoid vasculitis and thrombosis in the heart and lung and myocardial necrosis. Citrobacter freundii was isolated in abundance in pure culture from liver and heart samples. Low levels of multiples types of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV-6, EEHV-2B, and EEHV-3A) were detected in spleen samples, but not in heart samples. The levels of EEHV DNA found were much lower than those usually associated with acute EEHV hemorrhagic disease, and many other genomic loci that would normally be found in such cases were evidently below the level of detection. Therefore, these findings are unlikely to indicate lethal EEHV disease. Polymerase chain reaction for encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and toxicology for oleander (Nerium oleander) were negative. Stress, resulting from recent transport, and antimicrobial therapy may have contributed to the death of this animal. PMID:26179092

  10. Assessment of ovarian cycles in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) by measurement of salivary progesterone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Illera, Juan-Carlos; Silván, Gema; Cáceres, Sara; Carbonell, Maria-Dolores; Gerique, Cati; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Munro, Coralie; Casares, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring ovarian cycles through hormonal analysis is important in order to improve breeding management of captive elephants, and non-invasive collection techniques are particularly interesting for this purpose. However, there are some practical difficulties in collecting proper samples, and easier and more practical methods may be an advantage for some institutions and/or some animals. This study describes the development and validation of an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for progestins in salivary samples of African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Weekly urinary and salivary samples from five non-pregnant elephant cows aged 7-12 years were obtained for 28 weeks and analyzed using EIA. Both techniques correlated positively (r = 0.799; P < 0.001), and the cycle characteristics obtained were identical. The results clearly show that ovarian cycles can be monitored by measuring progestins from salivary samples in the African elephant. This is a simple and non-invasive method that may be a practical alternative to other sampling methods used in the species. PMID:24610639

  11. Milk composition of a free-ranging African elephant (Loxodonta africana) cow during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Osthoff, G; De Waal, H O; Hugo, A; de Wit, M; Botes, P

    2005-06-01

    Only one study previously reported comprehensively on the composition of African elephant's (Loxodonta africana) milk that was collected from 30 dead animals. In the current study milk was obtained from a tame but free-ranging African elephant cow without immobilization during the period when she was 4-47 days postpartum. At the respective collection times the nutrient content was 21.8 and 25.0 g protein; 56.0 and 76.0 g fat; 71.1 and 26.0 g sugars per kilogram of milk. The protein fraction, respectively, consisted of 10.0 and 14.0 g caseins/kg milk and of 11.8 and 11 g whey proteins/kg milk. During lactation the lactose content dropped from 52.5 to 11.8 g/kg milk, while the oligosaccharide content increased from 11.8 to 15.2 g/kg milk. The oligosaccharide was characterized as a galactosyllactose, which is digestible by cellulase. Electrophoresis and identification of protein bands showed a similar migrating sequence of proteins as seen in cow's milk, but some of the corresponding proteins were less negatively charged. The lipid fraction contains a high content of capric and lauric acids, approximately 60% of the total fatty acids, and low content of myristic, palmitic and oleic acids. PMID:15961336

  12. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    PubMed

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae. PMID:14648300

  13. MIZEX, 1984, NASA CV-990 flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    During June/July 1984, the NASA CV-990 Airborne Laboratory was utilized in a mission to overly the Fram Strait/East Greenland Sea marginal ice zone (MIZ) during the main summer marginal ice zone experiment (MIZEX '84). The eight data flights were coordinated where possible with overpasses of the Nimbus-7 satellite, and with measurement of sea ice, open ocean, and atmospheric properties at the surface. The surface research teams were based on seven research vessels, some with helicopters: (1) M/V Kvitbjorn, (2) M/V Polarqueen; (3) M/S Haakon Mosby; (4) a M/S H.U. Sverdrup, all from Norway; (5) F/S Polarstern from the Federal Republic of Germany; and (6) the USNS Lynch from the USA. There were also coordinated flights with the NRL P3, NOAA P3, Canadian CV580, and the French B-17 during the overlap portions of their respective missions. Analysis of the real-time data acquired during the mission and uncalibrated data stored on tape has served to indicate the mission was over 90% successful.

  14. Viability of Claviceps africana spores ingested by adult corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Prom, Louis K; Lopez, Juan D

    2004-06-01

    A study was conducted in College Station, TX, to determine the viability of Claviceps africana spores in the digestive tract of adult corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Both sexes were exposed to ergot-infected sorghum panicles for 30 min, and spores were recovered from excreta of the moths at 24-, 48-, and 72-h intervals after feeding. Recovered spores were quantified, and viability was determined by the germination rate of macroconidia. Nearly a 100-fold greater concentration of spores was recovered from female excreta at the three time intervals compared with male excreta. Concentration of spores in female and male excreta was greatest at 24 h, with a significant reduction at the later time intervals. Spore germination rates for both sexes were greater at 24 h, with survival being significantly reduced at the 72-h interval. Spores in female excreta survived longer than those from male excreta. Spore survival over time was significantly reduced in male excreta. Spore concentration and survival were greater from female excreta, which is key, because egg-laying activities on sorghum panicles intensify during flowering, and this source of ergot spores could contribute to the spread of the disease. This study demonstrates that corn earworm moths can internally carry viable ergot spores for several days and can act as primary dispersal agents for the fungus. This is important because contaminated moths migrating from areas in Mexico and southern Texas where ergot is endemic could transmit and spread the disease to other sorghum growing regions of the United States. PMID:15279250

  15. Molecular characterization of adipose tissue in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Emeli M; Fainberg, Hernan P; Choong, Siew S; Giles, Thomas C; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J; Allen, William R; Emes, Richard D; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and ? linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

  16. Lack of spatial and behavioral responses to immunocontraception application in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Delsink, Audrey K; Kirkpatrick, Jay; van Altena, J J; Bertschinger, Henk J; Ferreira, Sam M; Slotow, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Opinions are divided as to whether human intervention to control elephant (Loxodonta africana) population growth is desirable, partly because of elephant welfare concerns. Female contraception through immunization with porcine zona pellucida (PZP) proteins is viable. The effects of sustained use and application of the PZP vaccine on elephant behavioral and spatial responses were examined by evaluating herd ranging, fission-fusion dynamics, association patterns, and reproductive and sexual behaviors. Minimal change was anticipated as a result of long calf dependence on and association with cows, a reduced but not indefinite 0% growth rate and the known mechanism of action of PZP vaccines, and minimal expected change in resource requirements necessitating behavioral or spatial use adaptations. Although behavioral effects identified in previous hormonal contraceptive trials were evident, it was demonstrated that immunocontraception caused no prolonged behavioral, social, or spatial changes over the 11-yr study period. Individually identified elephants were monitored from 1999 to 2011. Minimal, short-term social disruption, with temporary changes to the herds' core ranges, was observed during the annual treatment events, particularly in the first three treatment years, when vaccinations were conducted exclusively from the ground. Thereafter, when vaccinations were conducted aerially, minor disruptions were confined to the morning of administration only. Despite sustained treatments resulting in demographic changes of fewer calves being born, treatments did not alter spatial range use, and no adverse interherd-intraherd relations were observed. Similarly, resource requirements did not change as calving still occurred, although in fewer numbers. It was concluded that PZP immunocontraception has no detectable behavioral or social consequences in elephants over the course of 11 yr, providing a convincing argument for the use of sustained immunocontraception in the medium to long term as an important tool for elephant management. Behavioral consequences of alternative management approaches should all receive similar scrutiny to enable managers to make informed decisions when weighing management interventions. PMID:24437086

  17. Evaluation of Prosopis africana Seed Gum as an Extended Release Polymer for Tablet Formulation.

    PubMed

    Nadaf, Sameer; Nnamani, Petra; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to screen Prosopis africana seed gum (PG), anionic polymer for extended release tablet formulation. Different categories of drugs (charge basis) like diclofenac sodium (DS), chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), and ibuprofen (IB) were compacted with PG and compared with different polymers (charge basis) like xanthan gum (XG), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K100M), and chitosan (CP). For each drug, 12 batches of tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, and granules were evaluated for flow properties, compressibility, and compactibility by Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, swelling index, in vitro dissolution studies, etc. It has been observed that granules of all batches showed acceptable flowability. According to Heckel and Leuenberger analysis, granules of PG-containing compacts showed similar and satisfactory compressibility and compactibility compared to granules of other polymers. PG showed significant swelling (P?

  18. Molecular Characterization of Adipose Tissue in the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Siew S.; Giles, Thomas C.; Sells, James; May, Sean; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, William R.; Emes, Richard D.; Mostyn, Alison; Mongan, Nigel P.; Yon, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is a dynamic and flexible organ with regulatory roles in physiological functions including metabolism, reproduction and inflammation; secreted adipokines, including leptin, and fatty acids facilitate many of these roles. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is experiencing serious challenges to optimal reproduction in captivity. The physiological and molecular basis of this impaired fertility remains unknown. AT production of leptin is a crucial molecular link between nutritional status, adiposity and fertility in many species. We propose that leptin has a similar function in the African elephant. African elephant visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT) was obtained from both sexes and a range of ages including females with known pregnancy status. RNA was extracted and histological sections created and analyzed by microarray, PCR and immunohistochemistry respectively. Gas-chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of AT. Microarray expression profiling was used to compare gene expression profiles of AT from pre-pubertal versus reproductively competent adult African elephants. This study demonstrates, for the first time, leptin mRNA and protein expression in African elephant AT. The derived protein sequence of the elephant leptin protein was exploited to determine its relationship within the class I helical cytokine superfamily, which indicates that elephant leptin is most closely related to the leptin orthologs of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), Lepus oiostolus (woolly hare), and members of the Ochotonidae (Pika). Immunohistological analysis identified considerable leptin staining within the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Significant differences in fatty acid profiles between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were revealed, most notably a reduction in both linoleic and ? linoleic acid in pregnant animals. This report forms the basis for future studies to address the effect of nutrient composition and body condition on reproduction in captive and wild elephants. PMID:24633017

  19. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants. PMID:21127305

  20. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for parasite elimination.

    PubMed

    Gandolf, A Rae; Lifschitz, A; Stadler, C; Watson, B; Galvanek, L; Ballent, M; Lanusse, C

    2009-03-01

    Loxodonta africana are susceptible to a wide variety of parasites that are often treated with the broad spectrum antiparasitic ivermectin (IVM) based on empirical knowledge. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure plasma IVM levels following administration of 0.1 mg/kg IVM p.o., 2) compare plasma IVM levels following administration with regular versus restricted feed rations, 3) measure IVM excretion in feces, and 4) use these findings to generate dosing recommendations for this species. Using a crossover design, six African elephants were divided into two groups. Ivermectin was administered and typical grain rations were either provided or withheld for 2 hr. Blood and fecal samples were collected for 7 days following drug administration. After a 5-wk washout period, groups were switched and the procedure repeated. Plasma and fecal IVM were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no statistically significant difference detected in the pharmacokinetic data between the fed and fasted groups. Peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and half-life for plasma ranged between 5.41-8.49 ng/ml, 17.1-20.3 ng x day/ml, and 3.12-4.47 day, respectively. High IVM concentrations were detected in feces. The peak concentration values in feces were between 264-311-fold higher than those obtained in plasma. The comparatively large area under the curve and short time to maximum concentration in feces indicate elimination prior to absorption of much of the drug. Plasma IVM concentrations were low when compared to other species. Based on these findings, administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg p.o. should be appropriate for eliminating many types of parasites in elephants, and could minimize development of parasite resistance. PMID:19368248

  1. Neocortical neuronal morphology in the newborn giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bob; Lee, Laura; Schall, Matthew; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H; Kottwitz, Jack J; Roberts, John F; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-02-01

    Although neocortical neuronal morphology has been documented in the adult giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana), no research has explored the cortical architecture in newborns of these species. To this end, the current study examined the morphology of neurons from several cortical areas in the newborn giraffe and elephant. After cortical neurons were stained with a modified Golgi technique (N?=?153), dendritic branching and spine distributions were analyzed by using computer-assisted morphometry. The results showed that newborn elephant neurons were considerably larger in terms of all dendritic and spine measures than newborn giraffe neurons. Qualitatively, neurons in the newborns appeared morphologically comparable to those in their adult counterparts. Neurons in the newborn elephant differed considerably from those observed in other placental mammals, including the giraffe, particularly with regard to the morphology of spiny projection neurons. Projection neurons were observed in both species, with a much larger variety in the elephant (e.g., flattened pyramidal, nonpyramidal multipolar, and inverted pyramidal neurons). Although local circuit neurons (i.e., interneurons, neurogliaform, Cajal-Retzius neurons) resembled those observed in other eutherian mammals, these were usually spiny, which contrasts with their adult, aspiny equivalents. Newborn projection neurons were smaller than the adult equivalents in both species, but newborn interneurons were approximately the same size as their adult counterparts. Cortical neuromorphology in the newborn giraffe is thus generally consistent with what has been observed in other cetartiodactyls, whereas newborn and adult elephant morphology appears to deviate substantially from what is commonly observed in other placental mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:257-287, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26104263

  2. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    PubMed Central

    Weissengruber, G E; Egger, G F; Hutchinson, J R; Groenewald, H B; Elsässer, L; Famini, D; Forstenpointner, G

    2006-01-01

    The uniquely designed limbs of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal. Besides other morphological peculiarities, the feet are equipped with large subcutaneous cushions which play an important role in distributing forces during weight bearing and in storing or absorbing mechanical forces. Although the cushions have been discussed in the literature and captive elephants, in particular, are frequently affected by foot disorders, precise morphological data are sparse. The cushions in the feet of African elephants were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both the forelimb and the hindlimb a 6th ray, the prepollex or prehallux, is present. These cartilaginous rods support the metacarpal or metatarsal compartment of the cushions. None of the rays touches the ground directly. The cushions consist of sheets or strands of fibrous connective tissue forming larger metacarpal/metatarsal and digital compartments and smaller chambers which were filled with adipose tissue. The compartments are situated between tarsal, metatarsal, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges or other structures of the locomotor apparatus covering the bones palmarly/plantarly and the thick sole skin. Within the cushions, collagen, reticulin and elastic fibres are found. In the main parts, vascular supply is good and numerous nerves course within the entire cushion. Vater–Pacinian corpuscles are embedded within the collagenous tissue of the cushions and within the dermis. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermal papillae of the foot skin. The micromorphology of elephant feet cushions resembles that of digital cushions in cattle or of the foot pads in humans but not that of digital cushions in horses. Besides their important mechanical properties, foot cushions in elephants seem to be very sensitive structures. PMID:17118065

  3. James F. Gilchrist cv -page 1/16

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    James F. Gilchrist cv - page 1/16 James F. Gilchrist ­ Curriculum Vitae A. Biographical Information at Harvard University) #12;James F. Gilchrist cv - page 2/16 B. Publications and Creative Activities Refereed Articles 32) T. Muangnapoh, A. L. Weldon, and J. F. Gilchrist, "Enhanced monolayer deposition via vibration

  4. C.V. Yanli Zhang Page 1 of 10

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanli

    C.V. Yanli Zhang Page 1 of 10 Yanli Zhang, Ph.D. Assistant professor of Spatial Science and Water in 21st century China #12;C.V. Yanli Zhang Page 2 of 10 PUBLICATIONS Peer Reviewed Articles 1. Zhang, Y., D. Unger, Y. Zhang, P. Bedford, and I. Hung. 2014. Comparing remotely sensed Pictometry web based

  5. Analysis of Claviceps africana and C. sorghi from India using AFLPs, EF-1alpha gene intron 4, and beta-tubulin gene intron 3.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Paul W; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Carras, Marie M; Pazoutová, Sylvie

    2006-04-01

    Isolates of Claviceps causing ergot on sorghum in India were analysed by AFLP analysis, and by analysis of DNA sequences of the EF-1alpha gene intron 4 and beta-tubulin gene intron 3 region. Of 89 isolates assayed from six states in India, four were determined to be C. sorghi, and the rest C. africana. A relatively low level of genetic diversity was observed within the Indian C. africana population. No evidence of genetic exchange between C. africana and C. sorghi was observed in either AFLP or DNA sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using DNA sequences from 14 different Claviceps species. A multigene phylogeny based on the EF-1alpha gene intron 4, the beta-tubulin gene intron 3 region, and rDNA showed that C. sorghi grouped most closely with C. gigantea and C. africana. Although the Claviceps species we analysed were closely related, they colonize hosts that are taxonomically very distinct suggesting that there is no direct coevolution of Claviceps with its hosts. PMID:16563714

  6. Disease severity and susceptibility of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)] to infection by Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  7. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 ?g ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 ?g ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex. PMID:25289589

  8. Potential infection of Claviceps africana Frederickson, Mantle and de Milliano in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] in Mexico and the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were at College Station, USA, and Rio Bravo and Celaya, Mexico, under irrigated conditions during 2002 and 2003. Six sorghum hybrids and three male-sterile lines were planted at each location. Claviceps africana isolates were applied every other morning. Panicles were inoculated using...

  9. Diversidad genetica de aislamientos de cornezuelo (Claviceps africana fredrickson, mantle, y de milliano) de sorgo [Sorghum bicolor (l.) moench.] en Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted in Rio Bravo, Tamaulipas, and Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico, in which pathogenicity of two isolates of ergot (Claviceps africana) obtained from the same two locations, were evaluated on six hybrids and three male sterile sorghum lines. Also, a genetic variance indicated signif...

  10. ANALYSIS OF CLAVICEPS AFRICANA AND C. SORGHI FROM INDIA USING AFLPS, EF-1 ALPHA GENE INTRON 4, AND BETA-TUBULIN GENE INTRON 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum ergot is a serious constraint in the production of F1hybrid seeds, an essential input in productive sorghum cultivation systems. Until 1991, Claviceps sorghi was considered to be the only perfect stage of Sphacelia sorghi McRae found to occur in India. In 1990, Claviceps africana, another p...

  11. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  12. Pitfalls in the detection of CV2 (CRMP5) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Lidia; Saiz, Albert; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-15

    CV2 antibodies (CV2-ab) associate with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) and small-cell lung cancer. This study was designed to assess the sensitivity of two widely used anti-CV2 commercial kits. Fifty three sera with CV2-ab identified by immunohistochemistry on paraformaldehyde-perfused rat brain were tested with two commercial immunoblot kits (Euroimmun AG, and Ravo Diagnostika) and 4 (7.5%) of them were negative with the commercial kits. The 4 samples were positive by immunofluorescence on HEK293 cells transfected with CRMP5 and immunoblot of these cells lysate. A few CV2-ab-positive sera may be missed by commercial immunoblots. Negative samples from patients with high suspicion for PNS should be tested by alternative methods. PMID:26711575

  13. Fusarium inhibition by wild populations of the medicinal plant Salvia africana-lutea L. linked to metabolomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salvia africana-lutea L., an important medicinal sage used in the Western Cape (South Africa), can be termed a ‘broad-spectrum remedy’ suggesting the presence of a multiplicity of bioactive metabolites. This study aimed at assessing wild S. africana-lutea populations for chemotypic variation and anti-Fusarium properties. Methods Samples were collected from four wild growing population sites (Yzerfontein, Silwerstroomstrand, Koeberg and Brackenfell) and one garden growing location in Stellenbosch. Their antifungal activities against Fusarium verticillioides (strains: MRC 826 and MRC 8267) and F. proliferatum (strains: MRC 6908 and MRC 7140) that are aggressive mycotoxigenic phytopathogens were compared using an in vitro microdilution assay. To correlate antifungal activity to chemical profiles, three techniques viz. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were employed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the NMR data. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to integrate LC-MS and NMR data sets. All statistics were performed with the SIMCA-P?+?12.0 software. Results The dichloromethane:methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts of the plant species collected from Stellenbosch demonstrated the strongest inhibition of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.031 mg ml-1 and 0.063 mg ml-1 respectively. GC-MS showed four compounds which were unique to the Stellenbosch extracts. By integrating LC-MS and 1H NMR analyses, large chemotype differences leading to samples grouping by site when a multivariate analysis was performed, suggested strong plant-environment interactions as factors influencing metabolite composition. Signals distinguishing the Stellenbosch profile were in the aromatic part of the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusions This study shows the potential of chemotypes of Salvia africana-lutea in controlling fungal growth and consequently mycotoxin production. Products for use in the agricultural sector may be developed from such chemotypes. PMID:24621275

  14. Enduring consequences of early experiences: 40 year effects on survival and success among African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lee, Phyllis C; Bussière, Luc F; Webber, C Elizabeth; Poole, Joyce H; Moss, Cynthia J

    2013-04-23

    Growth from conception to reproductive onset in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) provides insights into phenotypic plasticity, individual adaptive plastic responses and facultative maternal investment. Using growth for 867 and life histories for 2652 elephants over 40 years, we demonstrate that maternal inexperience plus drought in early life result in reduced growth rates for sons and higher mortality for both sexes. Slow growth during early lactation was associated with smaller adult size, later age at first reproduction, reduced lifetime survival and consequently limited reproductive output. These enduring effects of trading slow early growth against immediate survival were apparent over the very long term; delayed downstream consequences were unexpected for a species with a maximum longevity of 70+ years and unpredictable environmental experiences. PMID:23407501

  15. Divergent pattern of nuclear genetic diversity across the range of the Afromontane Prunus africana mirrors variable climate of African highlands

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Caroline A. C.; Konrad, Heino; Schueler, Silvio; Muluvi, Geoffrey M.; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L.; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Geburek, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Afromontane forest ecosystems share a high similarity of plant and animal biodiversity, although they occur mainly on isolated mountain massifs throughout the continent. This resemblance has long provoked questions on former wider distribution of Afromontane forests. In this study Prunus africana (one of the character trees of Afromontane forests) is used as a model for understanding the biogeography of this vegetation zone. Methods Thirty natural populations from nine African countries covering a large part of Afromontane regions were analysed using six nuclear microsatellites. Standard population genetic analysis as well as Bayesian and maximum likelihood models were used to infer genetic diversity, population differentiation, barriers to gene flow, and recent and all migration among populations. Key Results Prunus africana exhibits strong divergence among five main Afromontane regions: West Africa, East Africa west of the Eastern Rift Valley (ERV), East Africa east of the ERV, southern Africa and Madagascar. The strongest divergence was evident between Madagascar and continental Africa. Populations from West Africa showed high similarity with East African populations west of the ERV, whereas populations east of the ERV are closely related to populations of southern Africa, respectively. Conclusions The observed patterns indicate divergent population history across the continent most likely associated to Pleistocene changes in climatic conditions. The high genetic similarity between populations of West Africa with population of East Africa west of the ERV is in agreement with faunistic and floristic patterns and provides further evidence for a historical migration route. Contrasting estimates of recent and historical gene flow indicate a shift of the main barrier to gene flow from the Lake Victoria basin to the ERV, highlighting the dynamic environmental and evolutionary history of the region. PMID:23250908

  16. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah A; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M; Blake, Margaret R; Leavelle, Stephen E; Marshall, Jennifer J; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol concentrations remained baseline for two of the elephants throughout and after the renovation period, while one elephant that was pregnant had elevated cortisol during construction. Cortisol concentrations for the pregnant elephant remained higher than baseline once she was introduced to the new flooring and allowed back into the building, but these values were closer to the cortisol concentrations before renovations than during construction. Our findings demonstrate that individual elephants can vary in their behavioral and physiological responses to exhibit modifications. Given that the elephants walked more during the day, two of the three elephants had an increase in rest behavior during the night, and there were minimal changes in cortisol response after the flooring renovations, we conclude that the flooring renovations overall had a positive impact on animal welfare. PMID:26535582

  17. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M.; Blake, Margaret R.; Leavelle, Stephen E.; Marshall, Jennifer J.; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F.; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants’ behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol concentrations remained baseline for two of the elephants throughout and after the renovation period, while one elephant that was pregnant had elevated cortisol during construction. Cortisol concentrations for the pregnant elephant remained higher than baseline once she was introduced to the new flooring and allowed back into the building, but these values were closer to the cortisol concentrations before renovations than during construction. Our findings demonstrate that individual elephants can vary in their behavioral and physiological responses to exhibit modifications. Given that the elephants walked more during the day, two of the three elephants had an increase in rest behavior during the night, and there were minimal changes in cortisol response after the flooring renovations, we conclude that the flooring renovations overall had a positive impact on animal welfare. PMID:26535582

  18. Ch OpenCV for interactive open architecture computer vision Qingcang Yua

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Harry H.

    Ch OpenCV for interactive open architecture computer vision Qingcang Yua , Harry H. Chenga,*, Wayne and implementation of an interactive open architecture computer vision software package called Ch OpenCV is presented. Benefiting from both Ch and OpenCV, Ch OpenCV has many salient features. It is interactive, capable

  19. Complete genome sequence of the halophilic bacterium Spirochaeta africana type strain (Z-7692T) from the alkaline Lake Magadi in the East African Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Liolios, Konstantinos; Abt, Birte; Scheuner, Carmen; Teshima, Hazuki; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Detter, J. Chris; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2013-01-01

    Spirochaeta africana Zhilina et al. 1996 is an anaerobic, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacte- rium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain of the species, Z-7692T, was iso- lated in 1993 or earlier from a bacterial bloom in the brine under the trona layer in a shallow lagoon of the alkaline equatorial Lake Magadi in Kenya. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. Considering the pending reclassification of S. caldaria to the genus Treponema, S. africana is only the second 'true' member of the genus Spirochaeta with a genome-sequenced type strain to be pub- lished. The 3,285,855 bp long genome of strain Z-7692T with its 2,817 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  1. Activation and inhibition of thermosensitive TRP channels by voacangine, an alkaloid present in Voacanga africana, an African tree.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuko; Horie, Syunji; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Tominaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2014-02-28

    Voacangine (1) is an alkaloid found in the root bark of Voacanga africana. Our previous work has suggested that 1 is a novel transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist. In this study, the agonist and antagonist activities of 1 were examined against thermosensitive TRP channels. Channel activity was evaluated mainly using TRP channel-expressing HEK cells and calcium imaging. Herein, it was shown that 1 acts as an antagonist for TRPV1 and TRPM8 but as an agonist for TRPA1 (EC50, 8 ?M). The compound competitively blocked capsaicin binding to TRPV1 (IC50, 50 ?M). Voacangine (1) competitively inhibited the binding of menthol to TRPM8 (IC50, 9 ?M), but it showed noncompetitive inhibition against icilin (IC50, 7 ?M). Moreover, the compound selectively abrogated chemical agonist-induced TRPM8 activation and did not affect cold-induced activation. Among these effects, the TRPM8 inhibition profile is unique and noteworthy, because to date no studies have reported a menthol competitive inhibitor of TRPM8 derived from a natural source. Furthermore, this is the first report of a stimulus-selective TRPM8 antagonist. Accordingly, 1 may contribute to the development of a novel class of stimulus-selective TRPM8 blockers. PMID:24484240

  2. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) home ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: a five-year satellite tracking study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D; Minot, Edward O

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  3. Prolactin in the Afrotheria: characterization of genes encoding prolactin in elephant (Loxodonta africana), hyrax (Procavia capensis) and tenrec (Echinops telfairi).

    PubMed

    Wallis, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Pituitary prolactin shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution, with occasional short bursts of rapid change imposed on a generally rather slow evolutionary rate. In mammals, episodes of rapid change occurred in the evolution of primates, cetartiodactyls, rodents and the elephant. The bursts of rapid evolution in cetartiodactyls and rodents were followed by duplications of the prolactin gene that gave rise to large families of prolactin-related proteins including placental lactogens, while in primates the burst was followed by corresponding duplications of the related GH gene. The position in elephant is less clear. Extensive data relating to the genomic sequences of elephant and two additional members of the group Afrotheria are now available, and have been used here to characterize the prolactin genes in these species and explore whether additional prolactin-related genes are present. The results confirm the rapid evolution of elephant (Loxodonta africana) prolactin - the sequence of elephant prolactin is substantially different from that predicted for the ancestral placental mammal. Hyrax (Procavia capensis) prolactin is even more divergent but tenrec (Echinops telfairi) prolactin is strongly conserved. No evidence was obtained from searches of public databases for additional genes encoding prolactin-like proteins in any of these species. Detailed analysis of evolutionary rates, and other factors, indicates that the episode of rapid change in hyrax, and probably elephant, was adaptive, though the nature of the associated biological change(s) is not clear. PMID:19017712

  4. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay. PMID:18268901

  5. Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Home Ranges in Sabi Sand Reserve and Kruger National Park: A Five-Year Satellite Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bindi; Holland, John D.; Minot, Edward O.

    2008-01-01

    During a five-year GPS satellite tracking study in Sabi Sand Reserve (SSR) and Kruger National Park (KNP) we monitored the daily movements of an elephant cow (Loxodonta africana) from September 2003 to August 2008. The study animal was confirmed to be part of a group of seven elephants therefore her position is representative of the matriarchal group. We found that the study animal did not use habitat randomly and confirmed strong seasonal fidelity to its summer and winter five-year home ranges. The cow's summer home range was in KNP in an area more than four times that of her SSR winter home range. She exhibited clear park habitation with up to three visits per year travelling via a well-defined northern or southern corridor. There was a positive correlation between the daily distance the elephant walked and minimum daily temperature and the elephant was significantly closer to rivers and artificial waterholes than would be expected if it were moving randomly in KNP and SSR. Transect lines established through the home ranges were surveyed to further understand the fine scale of the landscape and vegetation representative of the home ranges. PMID:19065264

  6. Taylor, M.H. CV 1 MICHAEL H. TAYLOR

    E-print Network

    , Llanos basin, Colombia, submitted, Tectonics 5. Silver C., M. Murphy, M. Taylor, J, Gosse, T. 2015, Baltz, 33, doi:10.1002/2013TC003302. 4. M. Murphy, M. Taylor, J. Gosse, C. Silver, D. Whip, C. BeaumontTaylor, M.H. CV 1 MICHAEL H. TAYLOR The University of Kansas Department of Geology 114 Lindley Hall

  7. CV: Leigh G. Torres Leigh G. Torres, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    CV: Leigh G. Torres Leigh G. Torres, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Fisheries, climate change and habitat alterations. Publications a) Peer-reviewed journal publications Torres, L.G., P through spatial analysis and genetics. Marine Mammal Science 19(3):502-514. Torres, L.G., W.A. McLellan, E

  8. K. D. Bockrath CV 1 Katherine D. Bockrath

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    , Matthew J. Hill. (2013). The Mussel-Fish Relationship: A Potential New Twist in North American Unionidae? Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142 (3), 642-648 #12;K. D. Bockrath CV 2 Posters and Presentations Invited Talks 9/2014 How Freshwater Mussel Glochidia use Alabama Shad in the ACF. Alabama Shad

  9. R. MICHAEL YOUNG CV JANUARY 2015 R. Michael Young

    E-print Network

    Young, R. Michael

    organizations at the national, state and local levels. Young's research looks primarily at new models of plans!1 R. MICHAEL YOUNG CV JANUARY 2015 R. Michael Young Professor Department of Computer Science Campus Box 8206 North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, 27513-8206 919.513.3038 young

  10. CV Renana Ofan page 1 of 3 Renana H. Ofan

    E-print Network

    CV Renana Ofan page 1 of 3 Renana H. Ofan New York University Phone: 212-998-7780 Center for Neural Science Cell: 646-660-3481 4 Washington Pl. room 809 Fax: 212-994-4011 New York, NY, 10003 email: ofan: Professor David Heeger Investigated cortical mapping of spatial attention in the parietal cortex using f

  11. Computational simulation of CV combination preferences in babbling.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hosung; Goldstein, Louis M; Giulivi, Sara; Levitt, Andrea G; Whalen, D H

    2013-03-01

    There is a tendency for spoken consonant-vowel (CV) syllables, in babbling in particular, to show preferred combinations: labial consonants with central vowels, alveolars with front, and velars with back. This pattern was first described by MacNeilage and Davis, who found the evidence compatible with their "frame-then-content" (F/C) model. F/C postulates that CV syllables in babbling are produced with no control of the tongue (and therefore effectively random tongue positions) but systematic oscillation of the jaw. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman & Goldstein) predicts that CV preferences will depend on the degree of synergy of tongue movements for the C and V. We present computational modeling of both accounts using articulatory synthesis. Simulations found better correlations between patterns in babbling and the AP account than with the F/C model. These results indicate that the underlying assumptions of the F/C model are not supported and that the AP account provides a better and account with broader coverage by showing that articulatory synergies influence all CV syllables, not just the most common ones. PMID:24496111

  12. An Energy-Efficient, Fast FPGA Hardware Architecture for OpenCV-Compatible Object

    E-print Network

    Rose, Jonathan

    An Energy-Efficient, Fast FPGA Hardware Architecture for OpenCV-Compatible Object Detection Braiden source OpenCV computer vision software. The architecture is novel, compared to prior work in this area Computer Vision project, OpenCV [3]. We should note that the mobile context of this paper rests

  13. An Energy Efficient FPGA Hardware Architecture for the Acceleration of OpenCV Object Detection

    E-print Network

    Rose, Jonathan

    An Energy Efficient FPGA Hardware Architecture for the Acceleration of OpenCV Object Detection for the Acceleration of OpenCV Object Detection Braiden Brousseau Master of Applied Science Graduate Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4 OpenCV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5 Multi

  14. Antioxidant fractions of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. and Entada africana Guill. et Perr. induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in HC-04 cells.

    PubMed

    Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Amougou, Atsama Marie; Fouemene Tsayem, Romeo; Njikam Manjia, Jacqueline; Rudraiah, Swetha; Bradley, Bolling; Manautou, José Enrique; Fewou Moundipa, Paul

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro antioxidant properties, cytoprotective activity, and ability to induce nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) of five solvent fractions of the methylene chloride/methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) and Entada africana (Fabaceae) were evaluated. Five antioxidant endpoints were used in the antioxidant activity investigation. The total phenolic content of the fractions was assessed as to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the profile of interesting fractions analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cytoprotective activity of fractions was determined by H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HC-04 cells by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into culture medium. HC-04 cells were used to investigate the ability to induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2. For both plants, the methylene chloride/methanol (90/10; v/v) fraction (F10), methylene chloride/methanol (75/25; v/v) (F25), and the methanolic fraction (F100) were found to have the highest total polyphenol content and exhibited high antioxidant activity strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The cytoprotective activity of fraction F25 from both plants was comparable to that of quercetin (3.40?±?0.05 ?g/mL), inhibiting LDH leakage with a low half inhibition concentration (IC50) of 4.05?±?0.03 and 3.8?±?0.02 ?g/mL for K. grandifoliola and E. africana, respectively. Lastly, fraction F25 of K. grandifoliola significantly (P?africana and quercetin was only twofold. The results indicate for the first time that fraction F25 of the studied plants is more antioxidant and cytoprotective and induces nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in a human hepatocyte cell line. PMID:26272694

  15. The Social and Ecological Integration of Captive-Raised Adolescent Male African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) into a Wild Population

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Methodology/Principal Findings Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. Conclusions/Significance We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be explored further. PMID:23437076

  16. Effects of GnRH analogues on pituitary-testicular function in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Brown, J L; Bush, M; Wildt, D E; Raath, J R; de Vos, V; Howard, J G

    1993-11-01

    We tested the ability of several GnRH analogues to suppress pituitary-testicular activity and potentially musth in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana). In Study 1, adult bulls were given 4 or 12 mg GnRH antagonist (Detirelix) or saline i.m. on day 0 (n = 3 bulls per treatment). Animals were then recaptured on day 2 (about 48 h later) and given 300 micrograms GnRH i.v. to assess the ability of the antagonist to block pituitary activity. Detirelix reduced (P < 0.05) basal concentrations of serum LH and testosterone on day 2 compared with day 0, with no effect of dose. Similarly, LH and testosterone release induced by GnRH were also reduced (P < 0.05) in the Detirelix-treated bulls (50-70% reduction in peak concentrations). In Study 2, elephants were given 30 mg of a structurally similar GnRH antagonist (103-201-40; n = 6), 22.5 mg of a long-acting GnRH agonist (Lupron Depot; n = 4) or D-mannitol carrier (n = 4) i.m. on day 0. All bulls were recaptured and given GnRH on day 2 (103-201-40 treatment) or on days 2 and 20 (Lupron Depot treatment) after the initial injection. In contrast to Detirelix, 103-201-40 did not inhibit basal or GnRH-induced LH or testosterone secretion. Pituitary-testicular responses to Lupron Depot were initially stimulatory, as evidenced by increased (P < 0.05) LH and testosterone secretion on days 0 and 2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8107048

  17. HPLC-Based Activity Profiling for hERG Channel Inhibitors in the South African Medicinal Plant Galenia africana.

    PubMed

    Du, Kun; De Mieri, Maria; Saxena, Priyanka; Phungula, Khanya V; Wilhelm, Anke; Hrubaru, Madalina Marina; van Rensburg, Elmarie; Zietsman, Pieter C; Hering, Steffen; van der Westhuizen, Jan H; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel is a voltage-activated K(+) channel involved in cardiac action potential. Its inhibition can lead to QT prolongation, and eventually to potentially fatal arrhythmia. Therefore, it is considered a primary antitarget in safety pharmacology. To assess the risk of human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition by medicinal plants, 700 extracts from different parts of 142 medicinal plants collected in Southern Africa were screened on Xenopus laevis oocytes. A CH2Cl2 extract from the stems and leaves of Galenia africana (Aizoaceae) reduced the peak tail human ether-a-go-go-related gene current by 50.4?±?5.5?% (n?=?3) at a concentration of 100?µg/mL. By means of high-performance liquid chromatography-based activity profiling, nine flavonoids were identified in the active time windows. However, the human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition of isolated compounds was less pronounced than that of extract and active microfractions (human ether-a-go-go-related gene inhibition between 10.1?±?5 and 14.1?±?1.6 at 100?µM). The two major constituents, 7,8-methylenedioxyflavone (1) and 7,8-dimethoxyflavone (13), were quantified (4.3?% and 9.4?%, respectively, in the extract). Further human ether-a-go-go-related gene inhibition tests for compounds 1 and 13 at 300?µM showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity (33.2?±?12.4 and 30.0?±?7.4, respectively). In a detailed phytochemical profiling of the active extract, a total of 20 phenolic compounds, including six new natural products, were isolated and identified. PMID:25922911

  18. An Intensive HST/COS Study of 31 CV WDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Beuermann, K.; Bildsten, L.; De Martino, D.; Godon, P.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Patterson, J.; Schreiber, M. R.; Sion, E. M.; Szkody, P.; Townsley, D.; Zorotovic, M.

    2015-06-01

    Accretion is the key ingredient in the evolution of white dwarfs (WDs) in cataclysmic variables (CVs), with important implications for their potential as progenitors for Type Ia Supernovae. The effective temperature (Teff) gives a direct measure of the average accretion rate and we report here the Teff measurement for 31 CV WDs, observed as a part of a 122 orbit HST program. The HST spectra alone cannot resolve the degeneracy between Teff and the surface gravity log g, and we will use phase-resolved X-Shooter observations to (i) measure the mass ratio of the CVs from the reflex motion of both the WD and the donor star (ii) to establish the spectral energy distribution (SED), which constrains both Teff and log g. Combining the X-Shooter and HST data, we can measure the WD masses to a few percent, and will be able to answer the question whether accreting CV WDs grow in mass.

  19. Axtrell, a new CV3 chondrite find from Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Casanova, I.; Symes, S.; Benoit, P.; Sears, D. W. G.; Wacker, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a previously unreported meteorite found in Axtell, Texas, in 1943. Based on the mineralogical composition and texture of its matrix and the sizes and abundance of chondrules, we classify it as a CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. The dominant opaque phase in the chondrules is magnetite, and that in refractory inclusions is Ni-rich metal (awaruite). Axtell, therefore, belongs to the oxidized subgroup of CV3 chondrites, although unlike Allende it escaped strong sulfidation. The meteorite bears a strong textural resemblance to Allende, and its chondrule population and matrix appear to be quite similar to those of Allende, but its refractory inclusions, thermoluminescence properties, and cosmogenic Co-60 abundances are not. Our data are consistent with a terrestrial age for Axtell of approximately 100 years and a metamorphic grade slightly lower than that of Allende.

  20. Effect of UV irradiation, toluidine blue, and environment on maternal haploid frequencies from the cross between Nicotiana tabacum and N. africana

    SciTech Connect

    Chimoyo, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Treating Nicotiana africana Merxm. pollen with three levels UV radiation prior to pollinating four cultivars of flue-cured tobacco (Coker 176, NC95, McN944 and PD4), Nicotiana tabacum produced 1,953 viable seedlings from an estimated total of 170,248 seeds, of which 1,667 were haploid and 286 were hybrids. Drenching N. tabacum flowers with toluidine blue 18 hours after pollination with normal N. africana pollen, yielded 511 viable seedlings from 70,613 seeds, of which 346 were haploid and 165 hybrids. Untreated pollen gave 548 viable seedlings from 56,291 seeds, comprising 341 haploids and 208 hybrids. Contrary to results from a previous histological study, in vivo pollen tube growth rate appears to be similar irrespective of pollen source or treatment, and fertilization seems to occur at about the same time as in the selfed control. From an estimated total of 803,854 seeds sown, 3,014 viable seedlings were obtained. Coker 176 gave significantly higher yields of haploids than the other three cultivars. Field grown plants produced more haploids than greenhouse grown plants. Further evidence was obtained to support selective chromosomal elimination as the mechanism governing the development of maternal haploids from this interspecific cross.

  1. Epidemiology and genetic characteristics of pigeon circovirus (PiCV) in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Dai, Wei; Wang, Shaohui; Dai, Dingzhen

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is one of four viruses in the family Circoviridae that affect young pigeons around the world. We collected 158 serum or tissue samples from six poultry farms in eastern China to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of PiCV in Chinese pigeons. We tested for PiCV using a PCR assay and found that PiCV was present in 80.7 % (88/109) of diseased pigeons and 63.3 % (31/49) of healthy pigeons; overall, 75.3 % (119/158) of samples were PiCV positive. One PiCV-positive sample from each poultry farm was randomly chosen for amplification of the complete PiCV genome by inverse primer PCR (IP-PCR). The six genomic PiCV strains were designated as AHBZ (KJ704801), HBLF-E2 (KJ704802), JSJN (KJ704803), NJPK-21 (KJ704804), SDDZ (KJ704805) and SHWH-AB4 (KJ704806). We compared these new PiCV genomes to six publicly available PiCV genomes and found that the Rep and Cap genes had sequence identity ranging from 93.8 % to 100 % and 79.1 % to 100 %, respectively. In a phylogenetic analysis, PiCV and eight other members of the genus Circovirus were sister to chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of genus Gyrovirus. The results of this study provide evidence that PiCV is present in Chinese pigeons at a high rate and that PiCV is a viral lineage that is distinct from CAV. PMID:25348272

  2. Recurrence of hyperprolactinemia and continuation of ovarian acyclicity in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Ball, Ray L; Brown, Janine L

    2014-09-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is associated with reproductive acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and may contribute to the non-self-sustainability of the captive population in North America. It is a common cause of infertility in women and other mammals and can be treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline. The objectives of this study were to assess prolactin responses to cabergoline treatment in hyperprolactinemic, acyclic African elephants and to determine the subsequent impact on ovarian cyclic activity. Five elephants, diagnosed as hyperprolactinemic (>11 ng/ml prolactin) and acyclic (maintenance of baseline progestagens for at least 1 yr), were treated with 1-2 mg cabergoline orally twice weekly for 16-82 wk. Cabergoline reduced (P < 0.05) serum prolactin concentrations during the treatment period compared to pretreatment levels in four of five elephants (11.5 +/- 3.2 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4 ng/ml; 20.3 +/- 16.7 vs. 7.9 +/- 9.8 ng/ml; 26.4 +/- 15.0 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; 42.2 +/- 22.6 vs. 18.6 +/- 8.9 ng/ml). However, none of the females resumed ovarian cyclicity based on serum progestagen analyses up to 1 yr posttreatment. In addition, within 1 to 6 wk after cessation of oral cabergoline, serum prolactin concentrations returned to concentrations that were as high as or higher than before treatment (P < 0.05). One elephant that exhibited the highest pretreatment prolactin concentration (75.2 +/- 10.5 ng/ml) did not respond to cabergoline and maintained elevated levels throughout the study. Thus, oral cabergoline administration reduced prolactin concentrations in elephants with hyperprolactinemia, but there was no resumption of ovarian cyclicity, and a significant prolactin rebound effect was observed. It is possible that higher doses or longer treatment intervals may be required for cabergoline treatment to result in permanent suppression of prolactin secretion and to mitigate associated ovarian cycle problems. PMID:25314824

  3. The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae CV Patrol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Alexandra Bianca; Shappee, Benjamin John; Archer Shappee, Bartlett; ASAS-SN

    2015-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by monitoring the extra-galactic sky down to V~17 mag every 2-3 days using multiple telescopes, hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, in the northern and southern hemispheres. By far the most common events observed by ASAS-SN are the Galactic transients. Since April 2013 ASAS-SN has identified over 180 new cataclysmic variable stars and announced over 260 new outbursts of known CVs. To make our data available to the CV community in 'real time', we have launched an automated 'CV Patrol' to monitor known CVs for outbursts as a useful tool for both professional and amateurs astronomers. It is a long term goal of ASAS-SN to make all our data public in real-time, and this patrol will serve as a framework for future ASAS-SN data releases.

  4. Some physical, pomological and nutritional properties of kiwifruit cv. Hayward.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Turgut, Nihat

    2007-09-01

    In this research, several physical, pomological and nutritional properties that are important for the design of equipments for harvesting, processing, transportation, sorting, separation and packaging of kiwifruit cv. Hayward grown in the Black Sea region of Turkey were determined. The fruit characteristics ranged from 72.28 g for average fruit weight, 59.41, 46.28 and 42.87 mm for fruit length, width and thickness, 49.03 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 0.825% for sphericity and 66.52 cm(3) for the volume of fruit, respectively. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 575.27 kg/m(3), 1,093 kg/m(3) and 47.13%. The highest coefficient of static friction was obtained on plywood as 0.190, followed by polyethylene, rubber and galvanized steel sheet as 0.173, 0.163 and 0.158, respectively. The total soluble solid content, acidity, vitamin C, ash and total nitrogen content of kiwifruit cv. Hayward were 7.32%, 1.64%, 108 mg/100g, 0.71 g/100 g and 0.84%, respectively. The fresh fruits have 1.09 mg/100g total chlorophylls and flesh color data represented as L, a and b were 57.18, 17.25 and 37.46, respectively. PMID:17710584

  5. No nebular magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a central role in mass and angular momentum transport in the protosolar disk and facilitated the accretion of the first planetesimals. Thought to be key evidence for this hypothesis is the high unblocking-temperature, randomly oriented magnetization in chondrules in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite. However, it has recently been realized that most of the ferromagnetic minerals in Allende are products of secondary processes on the parent planetesimal. Here we reevaluate the pre-accretional magnetism hypothesis for Allende using new paleomagnetic analyses of chondrules including the first measurements of mutually oriented subsamples from within individual chondrules. We confirm that Allende chondrules carry a high-temperature component of magnetization that is randomly oriented among chondrules. However, we find that subsamples of individual chondrules are also non-unidirectionally magnetized. Therefore, the high-temperature magnetization in Allende chondrules is not a record of nebular magnetic fields and is instead best explained by remagnetization during metasomatism in a <8 ?T magnetic field. This low field intensity suggests that any core dynamo on the CV parent body decayed before the end of metasomatism, likely <40 My after the formation of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). Despite widespread practice, the magnetization in Allende should not be used to constrain magnetic fields in the protosolar nebula.

  6. Collisional facilitation of aqueous alteration of CM and CV carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2012-08-01

    CM chondrites exhibit a strong correlation between the degree of alteration and the extent of particle alignment (i.e., the strength of the petrofabric). It seems likely that the S1 shock stage of essentially every CM and the high matrix abundance (˜70 vol.%) of these samples ensured that the shock waves that produced CM petrofabrics (by collapsing matrix pores and squeezing chondrules into pore spaces) were significantly attenuated and were too weak to damage olivine crystal lattices. Random collisions on the CM body produced petrofabrics and created fractures in the target rocks. Subsequent impact-mobilization of water caused hydrated phases to form preferentially in the more-fractured regions (those with the strongest petrofabrics); the less-deformed, less-fractured CM regions experienced lower degrees of aqueous alteration. Many CV3 chondrites also have petrofabrics: roughly half are from the oxidized Bali-like subgroup (CV3OxB), roughly half are from the reduced subgroup (CV3R) and none is from the oxidized Allende-like subgroup (CV3OxA) (which is less altered than CV3OxB). Nearly all CVs with petrofabrics are S3-S4 and nearly all CVs that lack petrofabrics are S1. Oxidized CVs have much higher porosities (typically 20-28%) than reduced CVs (0.6-8%), facilitating more-extensive aqueous alteration. The CV3R chondrites formed from low-porosity material that inhibited oxidation during alteration. The oxidized CV subgroups formed from higher-porosity materials. The CV3OxB samples were shocked, became extensively fractured and developed petrofabrics; the CV3OxA samples were not shocked and never developed petrofabrics. When water was mobilized, both sets of porous CV chondrites became oxidized; the more-fractured CV3OxB subgroup was more severely altered.

  7. Certificate Program AFRICANA STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    - cade and a half as one of the academic world's most active interdisciplinary arenas. The primary goal for primary sources. Its convergence of music, literature, art, politics, and history--along with its myriad offerings are from a broad spectrum of disciplines including Anthropology, Art, English, Film Studies

  8. Prof. C. Patrick Yue CV Chik Patrick Yue, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Yue, Patrick

    Prof. C. Patrick Yue ­ CV Chik Patrick Yue, Ph.D. Mobile: +852 9789-5981 | eepatrick@ust.hk | http-time), EE Department 2001 ­ 2003 #12;Prof. C. Patrick Yue ­ CV Industry Experience Non-executive Director

  9. Solution NMR Structure of Hypothetical Protein CV_2116 Encoded by a Viral Prophage Element in Chromobacterium violaceum

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Cort, John R.; Garcia, Maite; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2012-06-14

    CV{_}2116 from Chromobacterium violaceum is a small hypothetical protein of 82 amino acids. A PSI-BLAST search using the CV{_}2116 protein sequence as a query identified only two hits, both with amino acid sequence identities of less than 40%. After the CV{_}2116 gene was cloned into the p15TvLic expression plasmid and transformed into E. coli, the desired CV{_}2116 protein was expressed and purified. A high quality solution structure of CV{_}2116 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. The tertiary structure of CV{_}2116 adopts a novel alpha + beta fold containing two anti-parallel beta sheets and one alpha helix in the C-terminal end. CV{_}2116 does not belong to any known protein sequence families and no similar structures exist in the protein data bank. To date, no function of CV{_}2116 can be derived from either sequence or structural similarity searches.

  10. Ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma biomonitoring suitability for estimating nutritional contamination risks under seasonal climate in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Domingos, Marisa

    2015-08-01

    The risks posed by nutrient deposition due to air pollution on ecosystems and their respective services to human beings can be appropriately estimated by bioindicator plants when they are well acclimated to the study region environmental conditions. This assumption encouraged us to comparatively evaluate the accumulation potential of ryegrass cv. Lema and guava cv. Paluma macro and micronutrients. We also indicated the most appropriate species for biomonitoring nutrient contamination risks in tropical areas of Southeastern Brazil, which are characterized by marked dry and wet seasons and complex mixtures of air pollutants from different sources (industries, vehicle traffic and agriculture). The study was conducted in 14 sites with different neighboring land uses, within the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, central-eastern region of São Paulo State. The exposure experiments with ryegrass and guava were consecutively repeated 40 (28 days each) and 12 (84 days each) times, respectively, from Oct/2010 to Sept/2013. Macro and micronutrients were analyzed and background concentrations and enrichment ratios (ER) were estimated to classify the contamination risk within the study region. Significantly higher ER suggested that ryegrass were the most appropriate accumulator species for N, S, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn deposition and guava for K, Ca, P and B deposition. Based on these biomonitoring adjustments, we concluded that the nutrient deposition was spatially homogeneous in the study area, but clear seasonality in the contamination risk by nutritional inputs was evidenced. Significantly higher contamination risk by S, Fe, K and B occurred during the dry season and enhanced contamination risk by Mn, Cu and Zn were highlighted during the wet season. Distinctly high contamination risk was estimated for S, Fe and Mn in several exposure experiments. PMID:25938695

  11. Relative Heap Efficiency of the OpenCV Framework in the Dalvik Virtual Machine and the Java Virtual Machine

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Relative Heap Efficiency of the OpenCV Framework in the Dalvik Virtual Machine and the Java Virtual jblynch@ucsd.edu Abstract The OpenCV framework is an open source project released under the BSD license will focus on the OpenCV framework, an open source project that furnishes developers with a series

  12. Processing in a transitional environment of CV and CK chondrites' parent bodies in the light of mineralogical and petrological analysis of NWA 1465 CV3 meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.; Ormandi, Sz.; Jozsa, S.

    2015-05-01

    CV and CK chondrites might came from the same parent body from different depth values. To better constrain the conditions there, the composition, structure and chronology of mineral changes were analyzed in NWA 1465 CV3 chondrite meteorite. This sample represents an interesting part of the proposed ancient parent body where opposite to the generally poor altered state of CV3 chondrites, strong mechanical deformation produced elongated chondrules. All of the ingredients in the sample were flattened and fractured. After the chondrules settled down glass formation, opaque crystallization, fracturing and a second opaque generation followed by carbonate crystallization happened. The lack of fragments along the veins suggests no shearing movement happened, and the small number of weak shock signatures points to S2 level, and the oriented pressure in the parent body might come from burial induced pressure. The meteorite might came from a location in the CV-CK parent body where melting, and weak impact related fracturing and vein filling happened. In this an environment alteration of the primitive material started, possibly from a zone transitional between the shallow, less processed CV, and the deeper, more processed CK chondrites.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity and Probable Mechanisms of Action of Medicinal Plants of Kenya: Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus

    PubMed Central

    Mwitari, Peter G.; Ayeka, Peter A.; Ondicho, Joyce; Matu, Esther N.; Bii, Christine C.

    2013-01-01

    Withania somnifera, Warbugia ugandensis, Prunus africana and Plectrunthus barbatus are used traditionally in Kenya for treatment of microbial infections and cancer. Information on their use is available, but scientific data on their bioactivity, safety and mechanisms of action is still scanty. A study was conducted on the effect of organic extracts of these plants on both bacterial and fungal strains, and their mechanisms of action. Extracts were evaluated through the disc diffusion assay. Bacteria and yeast test strains were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar and on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the filamentous fungi. A 0.5 McFarland standard suspension was prepared. Sterile paper discs 6 mm in diameter impregnated with 10 µl of the test extract (100 mg/ml) were aseptically placed onto the surface of the inoculated media. Chloramphenicol (30 µg) and fluconazole (25 µg) were used as standards. Discs impregnated with dissolution medium were used as controls. Activity of the extracts was expressed according to zone of inhibition diameter. MIC was determined at 0.78–100 mg/ml. Safety studies were carried using Cell Counting Kit 8 cell proliferation assay protocol. To evaluate extracts mechanisms of action, IEC-6 cells and RT-PCR technique was employed in vitro to evaluate Interleukin 7 cytokine. Investigated plants extracts have both bactericidal and fungicidal activity. W. ugandensis is cytotoxic at IC50<50 µg/ml with MIC values of less than 0.78 mg/ml. Prunus africana shuts down expression of IL 7 mRNA at 50 µg/ml. W. somnifera has the best antimicrobial (1.5625 mg/ml), immunopotentiation (2 times IL 7 mRNA expression) and safety level (IC50>200 µg/ml). Fractions from W. ugandensis and W. somnifera too demonstrated antimicrobial activity. Mechanisms of action can largely be attributed to cytotoxicity, Gene silencing and immunopotentiation. Use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine has been justified and possible mechanisms of action demonstrated. Studies to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents continue. PMID:23785437

  14. Morphological Analyses of Spring Wheat (CIMMYT cv. PCYT-10) Somaclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Hashim, Z. N.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to induce callus from single immature wheat embryos, produce multiple seedlings from the induced callus, and analyse the somaclonal regenerants for potential grain production in a space garden. Immature wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (cv. PCYT-10), embryos were excised 10 to 12 days post-anthesis and cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog's inorganic salts. Embryos cultured on medium containing kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) at 0.5mg/l plus 2 or 3mg/l dicamba (1-methoxy-3,6- dichlorobenzoic acid) or 0.2mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid produced calli from which 24, 35 and 39% of the explant tissue exhibited regenerants, respectively. The size of flag leaves, plant heights, tillers per plant, spike lengths, awn lengths, and seeds per spike were significantly different in regenerants of two-selfed recurrent generations (SC(sub 1), SC(sub 2)) than in parental controls. However, there were no significant differences in spikelets per spike between the SC(sub 2) and parental controls. Desirable characteristics that were obtained included longer spikes, more seeds per spike, supernumerary spikelets, and larger flag leaves, variants that should be useful in wheat improvement programs.

  15. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-09-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  16. Infrared small target detection technology based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Zhijian

    2013-05-01

    Accurate and fast detection of infrared (IR) dim target has very important meaning for infrared precise guidance, early warning, video surveillance, etc. In this paper, some basic principles and the implementing flow charts of a series of algorithms for target detection are described. These algorithms are traditional two-frame difference method, improved three-frame difference method, background estimate and frame difference fusion method, and building background with neighborhood mean method. On the foundation of above works, an infrared target detection software platform which is developed by OpenCV and MFC is introduced. Three kinds of tracking algorithms are integrated in this software. In order to explain the software clearly, the framework and the function are described in this paper. At last, the experiments are performed for some real-life IR images. The whole algorithm implementing processes and results are analyzed, and those algorithms for detection targets are evaluated from the two aspects of subjective and objective. The results prove that the proposed method has satisfying detection effectiveness and robustness. Meanwhile, it has high detection efficiency and can be used for real-time detection.

  17. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  18. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Trung, Nguyen Vu; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Uyen, Nguyen Hanh; Giri, Abhishek; Thi Thuy Chinh BKrong, Nguyen; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hien, Tran Tinh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600?CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease. PMID:24495921

  19. THE BANANA PROJECT. V. MISALIGNED AND PRECESSING STELLAR ROTATION AXES IN CV VELORUM

    E-print Network

    Albrecht, Simon H.

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find ...

  20. Detoxification of microcystin-LR in water by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takatoshi; Okuhata, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Jeon, Bong-Seok; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-03-01

    Microcystin-LR (0.02 ?g/ml) in the hydroculture medium of Portulaca oleracea cv., became below the detection level (<0.0001 ?g/ml) by HPLC analysis after 7 days. The toxicity of microcystin estimated with protein phosphatase inhibition assay, however, remained at 37% of the initial level, indicating that microcystin-LR was transformed by P. oleracea cv. into unknown compound(s) of lower toxicity. PMID:23999063

  1. Genetic and Morphological Characterization of Freshwater Shrimps (Caridina africana Kingsley, 1882) Reveals the Presence of Alien Shrimps in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, Luca; Kitchin, Natasha; Impson, Dean N; Clark, Paul F; Richard, Jasmine; Daniels, Savel R; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification and molecular data (mtDNA COI) were used to resolve the taxonomic identity of a non-native freshwater shrimp in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa and to evaluate levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the species' core natural distribution. The species was morphologically and genetically identified as Caridina africana Kingsley, 1882, whose main natural distribution is in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, more than 1200 km from the point of new discovery. Subsequently, sequence data from natural populations occurring in seven rivers throughout KZN showed the presence of nuclear copies of the mtDNA COI gene (NUMTs) in 46 out of 140 individuals. Upon removal of sequences containing NUMTs, levels of genetic diversity were low in the alien population (possibly as a consequence of a bottleneck event), while varying levels of genetic diversity and differentiation were found in natural populations, indicating habitat heterogeneity, fragmentation and restricted gene flow between rivers. Following the present study, the alien shrimp has survived the Western Cape's winter and dispersed into a nearby tributary of the Eerste River System, hence posing an additional potential threat to endangered endemics. Understanding the biology of this alien species will aid detection and eradication procedures. PMID:26297730

  2. Defense response of a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 is induced at temperatures below 24°C.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Tanaka, Chihiro; Choi, Doil; Sano, Satoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant growth and development. Recent studies imply that plants show various responses to non-extreme ambient temperatures. Previously, we have found that a pepper cultivar cv. Sy-2 (Capsicum chinense) shows developmental defects at temperatures below 24°C. In this study, to gain new insights into the temperature sensitivity of cv. Sy-2, temperature-sensitive genes were screened using microarray techniques. At restrictive temperature of 20°C, almost one-fourth of the 411 up-regulated genes were defense related or predicted to be defense related. Further expression analyses of several defense-related genes showed that defense-related genes in cv. Sy-2 were constitutively expressed at temperatures below 24°C. Moreover, accumulation of high level of salicylic acid (SA) in cv. Sy-2 grown at 20°C suggests that the defense response is activated in the absence of pathogens. To confirm that the defense response is induced in cv. Sy-2 below 24°C, we evaluated the resistance to biotrophic bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora capsici. Cv. Sy-2 showed enhanced resistance to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, but not to C. capsici. PMID:21424609

  3. Figure 3: Overexpression of AtCV led to chloroplast degradation Figure 5: AtCV interacts with photosystem II subunit PsbO1 in vivo

    E-print Network

    Blumwald, Eduardo

    stresses affect crop yields by limiting plant growth and accelerating leaf senescence. The earliest mediates plant chloroplast stability during the response of plants to abiotic stresses. E : Envelope and oxidative stress Mock NaCl MV Relativeexpression(2CT) ProAtCV::GUS Young Old Figure 4: Silencing At

  4. Visualization of HDF/HDF-EOS Format Earth Observing System Data Using the ISIS "cv" Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torson, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    The "cv" (Cube Visualization) program has been used for a number of years as part of the ISIS image processing system (Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers) [1],[2]. In addition to reading the native ISIS image cube format, "cv" has recently been enhanced to directly read the HDF and HDF-EOS file formats used for distributing data from various Earth Observing System (EOS) Missions (e.g. the Terra and Landsat-7 satellites). Files based on HDF Version 4.x are supported; files based on the new HDF 5.x are not yet supported. "cv" is now packaged so that it can be used without installing the rest of the ISIS software system. The capabilities of the program include: Displays (as images) any Swath/Grid data fields in HDF-EOS files; Displays (as images) any Scientific Data Set (SDS) data fields in HDF files; Combines multiple HDF/HDF-EOS fields to form one display object; Subarea selection and/or subsampling (allows handling large files); Simultaneous display of multiple images/files; Plots intensity profiles along any of the three axes in a 3D data set; Writes displayed data fields to binary files (allows doing further processing using ISIS programs or using other software packages); Reports cursor location and pixel value (includes reporting Latitude/Longitude with optional conversion between geocentric and geographic coordinates); Includes many additional flexible display options. The "cv" program is implemented in the IDL language and makes use of the IDL CALL_EXTERNAL capability to call I/O and utility routines written in C and Fortran. Pre-compiled versions of "cv" are available for Sun Solaris, Compaq Alpha and PC Linux platforms. To obtain "cv", go to the USGS anonymous ftp site (ftpflag.wr.usgs.gov). Do a "cd dist/isis" and get (in binary mode) the README_CV.TXT file (installation instructions) and the tar file for the desired platform (cv_sun.tar, cv_alpha.tar, cv_pc.tar). More information on ISIS is available at the ISIS website (http://wwwflag.wr.usgs.gov/ISIS). References: [1] Torson, J.M., and Becker, K.J., (1997), ISIS - A Software Architecture for Processing Planetary Images, Lunar and Plan. Sci. XXVIII, 387-388, [2] Gaddis, L., (1996), Use of ISIS for Processing and Analysis of Planetary Remote Sensing data, GSA Abstracts with Programs, v. 28, No. 7, p. A-286.

  5. Synchronicity of pollination and inoculation with Claviceps africana and its effects on pollen-pistil compatibility and seed production in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-López, Ma Eugenia; Mendoza-Onofre, Leopoldo E; González-Hernández, Víctor A; Zavaleta-Mancera, H Araceli; Mora-Aguilera, Gustavo; Hernández-Martínez, Miguel; Córdova-Téllez, Leobigildo

    2010-04-01

    Sorghum ergot (caused by Claviceps africana) is a disease that affects sorghum seed development and yield. The interaction between pollen tube growth and hyphal development determines whether ovaries will be fertilized or colonized. Thus their respective deposition times on the stigma are critical. The effect of the time interval between pollination and inoculation on stigma receptivity and seed production was measured under field conditions in the male-sterile line A9 at Montecillo, State of México (2240m altitude). Pollination and inoculation treatments, from simultaneous application to 2 and 4h difference, were imposed when all stigmas on the panicle had emerged. Control panicles were either only pollinated or only inoculated. Eighteen hours later, pollen grains that adhered to, and germinated within the stigma, pollen tubes in the style and ovary, and fertilized pistils were counted. Pistils showing some disease expression (germinated spores, mycelium growth, or tissue necrosis) at 18, 48, and 72h were recorded. The number of diseased florets was registered at the dough growth stage, while number of seeds, grain yield and 100-seeds weight was measured at the physiological maturity. The pathogen applied in a water suspension of macro and secondary conidia caused a decrease in stigma receptivity; the greatest decrease (40-60%) occurred when the pollen and the inoculum were deposited almost simultaneously, regardless of which was deposited first. The route of the pollen tube was also the route for fungal infection. On average, treatments first inoculated had 60% more diseased florets and 36% less grain yield, 30% fewer seeds and seed size decreased 8%, than those first pollinated. PMID:20943138

  6. The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Kharlamova, Anastasia S; Saveliev, Sergei V; Protopopov, Albert V; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of the mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) recovered from the Yakutian permafrost in Siberia, Russia. This unique specimen (from 39,440-38,850 years BP) provides the rare opportunity to compare the brain morphology of this extinct species with a related extant species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). An anatomical description of the preserved brain of the woolly mammoth is provided, along with a series of quantitative analyses of various brain structures. These descriptions are based on visual inspection of the actual specimen as well as qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography imaging data obtained for the woolly mammoth in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging data from three African elephant brains. In general, the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined, estimated to weigh between 4,230 and 4,340 g, showed the typical shape, size, and gross structures observed in extant elephants. Quantitative comparative analyses of various features of the brain, such as the amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and gyrnecephalic index, all indicate that the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined has many similarities with that of modern African elephants. The analysis provided here indicates that a specific brain type representative of the Elephantidae is likely to be a feature of this mammalian family. In addition, the extensive similarities between the woolly mammoth brain and the African elephant brain indicate that the specializations observed in the extant elephant brain are likely to have been present in the woolly mammoth. PMID:26011110

  7. Remote sensing of the link between arable field and elephant ( Loxodonta africana) distribution change along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Zambezi valley, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murwira, Amon; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Huizing, H. J. G.; Prins, H. H. T.

    We investigated whether the proportion of remotely sensed arable fields increased along a tsetse eradication gradient in the Sebungwe region. We also investigated whether and to what extent this increase in arable fields affected the distribution of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana) between the 1980s and 1990s. Results showed a relatively higher increase in the proportion of arable fields in the zone cleared of tsetse by 1986 compared to the zone that was still tsetse infested by the same date. Results also showed contrasting patterns in the relationship between the proportion of the habitat under arable fields and elephant distribution between the two periods. Specifically, in the 1980s, when arable field cover was between 0% and 11%, there was a weak ( p > 0.05) positive relationship between elephant presence and the proportion of the habitat under arable fields. In contrast, a significant ( p < 0.05) negative relationship emerged in the 1990s, when arable field cover ranged between 0% and 88%. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the change in the probability of elephant presence between the early 1980s and the early 1990s was significantly ( p < 0.05) related to the change in the proportion arable fields. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the expansion of arable fields in the Sebungwe was greater in areas where tsetse had been eradicated compared with areas that were still tsetse infested. Overall, the results suggest that using remotely sensed data, we can conclude that tsetse eradication led to the redistribution of elephants in response to arable field expansion.

  8. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if available, blood parathyroid hormone levels to adjust the nutritional supplementation for each individual elephant. PMID:24063079

  9. The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Kharlamova, Anastasia S; Saveliev, Sergei V; Protopopov, Albert V; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of the mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) recovered from the Yakutian permafrost in Siberia, Russia. This unique specimen (from 39,440-38,850 years BP) provides the rare opportunity to compare the brain morphology of this extinct species with a related extant species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). An anatomical description of the preserved brain of the woolly mammoth is provided, along with a series of quantitative analyses of various brain structures. These descriptions are based on visual inspection of the actual specimen as well as qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography imaging data obtained for the woolly mammoth in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging data from three African elephant brains. In general, the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined, estimated to weigh between 4,230 and 4,340 g, showed the typical shape, size, and gross structures observed in extant elephants. Quantitative comparative analyses of various features of the brain, such as the amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and gyrnecephalic index, all indicate that the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined has many similarities with that of modern African elephants. The analysis provided here indicates that a specific brain type representative of the Elephantidae is likely to be a feature of this mammalian family. In addition, the extensive similarities between the woolly mammoth brain and the African elephant brain indicate that the specializations observed in the extant elephant brain are likely to have been present in the woolly mammoth. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:2326-2343, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26382030

  10. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  11. Immobilization of enzymatic extracts of Portulaca oleracea cv. roots for oxidizing aqueous bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Kazuki; Kaneda, Hirokazu; Harada, Kazuo; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Hirata, Kazumasa

    2015-05-01

    Water pollution from the release of industrial wastewater is a serious problem for almost every industry. Enzymes from portulaca, Portulaca oleracea cv., have been investigated for their ability to degrade bisphenol A (BPA), one of the well-known estrogenic pollutants. Enzymatic crude extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots were immobilized on aminopropyl-modified glass beads. They maintained BPA metabolic activity over a broad range of pH values and temperatures. The immobilized enzyme was reusable with more than 50 % of its initial activity retained after 12 batch reactions and no loss of activity after storage for 1 month at -30 °C. Thus, the immobilization of extracts from P. oleracea cv. roots is a useful method for removing BPA from industrial wastewater. PMID:25700813

  12. Analysis of Positive Superhump Shapes Near Superoutburst Maximum in CV SU UMa-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobertz, Michele; Voloshina, Irina; Goel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Positive superhumps are hump-shaped modulations in light curves of some Cataclysmic Variables (CVs) that have a period that is slightly longer than the orbital period. In CV SU UMa-like systems, the shape of the positive superhump is known to change throughout the superoutburst, which thus slightly changes the published, observed, positive superhump period. In this presentation, we analyze numerical simulations of prograde precession in accretion disks of CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum. We compare the simulated positive superhump shapes with the shapes obtained from observations, using AW Sge as our model. Similarly, we compare associated Fourier Transforms with associated periodograms. We conclude with our analysis of the likely sources that generate the shape of the positive superhump in CV SU UMa-like systems near superoutburst maximum.

  13. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  14. CV-Muzar - The Virtual Community Environment that Uses Multiagent Systems for Formation of Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Moraes, Márcia Cristina

    The purpose of this chapter is to present two agents' societies responsible for group formation (sub-communities) in CV-Muzar (Augusto Ruschi Zoobotanical Museum Virtual Community of the University of Passo Fundo). These societies are integrated to execute a data mining classification process. The first society is a static society that intends preprocessing data, investigating the information about groups in the CV-Muzar. The second society is a dynamical society that will make a classification process by analyzing the existing groups and look for participants that have common subjects in order to constitute a sub-community. The formation of sub-communities is a new functionality within the CV-Muzar that intends to bring the participants together according to two scopes: interest similarity and knowledge complementarities.

  15. An amoeboid olivine inclusion (AOI) in CK3 NWA 1559, comparison to AOIs in CV3 Allende, and the origin of AOIs in CK and CV chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-03-01

    An amoeboid olivine inclusion in CK3 NWA 1559 (0.54 × 1.3 mm) consists of a diopside-rich interior (approximately 35 vol%) and an olivine-rich rim (approximately 65 vol%). It is the first AOI to be described in CK chondrites; the apparent paucity of these inclusions is due to extensive parent-body recrystallization. The AOI interior contains irregular 3-15 ?m-sized Al-bearing diopside grains (approximately 70 vol%), 2-20 ?m-sized pores (approximately 30 vol%), and traces of approximately 2 ?m plagioclase grains. The 75-160 ?m-thick rim contains 20-130 ?m-sized ferroan olivine grains, some with 120º triple junctions. A few coarse (25-50 ?m-sized) patches of plagioclase with 2-18 ?m-thick diopside rinds occur in several places just beneath the rim. The occurrence of olivine rims around AOI-1 and around many AOIs in CV3 Allende suggests that CK and CV AOIs formed by the acquisition of porous forsteritic rims around fine-grained, rimless CAIs that consisted of diopside, anorthite, melilite, and spinel. Individual AOIs in carbonaceous chondrites may have formed after transient heating events melted their olivine rims as well as portions of the underlying interiors. In AOI-1, coarse plagioclase grains with diopside rinds crystallized immediately below the olivine rim. Secondary parent-body alteration transformed forsterite in the rims of CV and CK AOIs into more-ferroan olivine. Some of the abundant pores in the interior of AOI-1 may have formed during aqueous alteration after fine-grained melilite and anorthite were leached out. Chondrite groups with large chondrules tend to have large AOIs. AOIs that formed in dust-rich nebular regions (where CV and CK chondrites later accreted) tend to be larger than AOIs from less-dusty regions.

  16. CAMSHIFT Tracker Design Experiments with Intel OpenCV and SAI

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    CAMSHIFT Tracker Design Experiments with Intel OpenCV and SAI Alexandre R.J. Fran¸cois Institute, robustness and, if possible, non-intrusiveness. In order for computer vision techniques to have a significant's Open Computer Vision library and SAI (Software Architecture for Immersipresence), a software

  17. SEPARATION OF SUNLIGHT AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE COMPOSITION OF VITIS VINIFERA CV. MERLOT BERRIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanin and phenolic profiles of berry skins from Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot in the Yakima Valley of Washington were influenced by sun exposure and temperature in 1999 and 2000. Total skin monomeric anthocyanin (TSMA) concentrations were higher in 2000 than in 1999 in any given treatment. Berry t...

  18. Evan L. Weissman, CV, January 2015 Page 1 of 9 Evan L. Weissman

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    in Environmental Policy) University of Tennessee Thesis: Food Security in the 21st Century: Lessons from CubanEvan L. Weissman, CV, January 2015 Page 1 of 9 Evan L. Weissman Assistant Professor of Food Studies Coordinator, Minor in Food Studies Department of Public Health, Food Studies, and Nutrition David B. Falk

  19. Fayalite in the Vigarano CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: Occurrences, formation age and conditions

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    of CV3 chondrites. The fayalites (FaN 80) with grain sizes typically b20 µm occurs in veins that extend/ or magnetite. The fayalite-bearing veins terminate at the boundaries of clasts. No evidence of strong impact enough to make melt veins is found in materials adjacent to the veins. These observations suggest

  20. Indirect measurements of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu fermentable cell wall sugars for second generation biofuels production.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results of a study conducted to evaluate the possibility of using IVDMD values of B. brizantha cv. Marandu to predict cell wall sugars that would be available in a biorefinery for ethanol production are reported. The study was conducted based on the similarity between rumen enzymes and those used i...

  1. Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Allende CV3 chondrite: High precision ion microprobe studies

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotope systematics of chondrules in the Allende CV3 chondrite: High precision ion in revised form 21 September 2011 Abstract The oxygen three-isotope systematics of 36 chondrules from. However, most relict olivine grains show oxygen iso- tope ratios that overlap with those in homogeneous

  2. arXiv:math.CV/0410109v26Oct2004 WEIGHTED BERGMAN KERNELS AND VIRTUAL BERGMAN

    E-print Network

    arXiv:math.CV/0410109v26Oct2004 WEIGHTED BERGMAN KERNELS AND VIRTUAL BERGMAN KERNELS GUY ROOS Abstract. We introduce the notion of virtual Bergman kernel and study some of its applications. Contents Introduction 1 1. Virtual Bergman kernels 2 2. Virtual Bergman kernels for bounded symmetric domains 7 3

  3. R.A. Schultz, CV; page 1 RICHARD A. SCHULTZ, Ph.D., P.G.

    E-print Network

    ), and deepwater assets including Alaska, Canada, US (Lower 48) and Gulf of Mexico, Norway/North Sea, Russia, LibyaR.A. Schultz, CV; page 1 RICHARD A. SCHULTZ, Ph.D., P.G. 13831 Oak Fair Bend, Cypress, Texas 77429 Registered and licensed as a Professional Geologist (P.G.), Texas Board of Professional Geoscientists, State

  4. Phytoremediation of 4,4'-thiodiphenol (TDP) and other bisphenol derivatives by Portulaca oleracea cv.

    PubMed

    Okuhata, Hiroshi; Ninagawa, Masahiko; Takemoto, Naomichi; Ji, Hezhe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Ai; Nagae, Masaki; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Arizono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    4,4'-Thiodiphenol (TDP) is a bisphenol derivative, and there has been no report on TDP removal by any plants or pure bacterial cultures. The removal of TDP by Portulaca oleracea cv., a floricultural herbal plant, was examined with a hydroculture system, and 97% of TDP was removed after 4 days culture. PMID:23040992

  5. THE VALUE OF LUPINUS ALBUS L. CV. AU HOMER AS A WINTER COVER CROP FOR COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) management in the southeastern USA with conservation tillage requires the utilization of winter cover crops to increase organic matter in the top 5 cm of the soil. The objective of our research was to test the newly-developed bitter white lupin cv. `AU Home...

  6. Abstract Morphemes and Lexical Representation: The CV-Skeleton in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudelaa, Sami; Marslen-Wilson, Willian D.

    2004-01-01

    Overlaps in form and meaning between morphologically related words have led to ambiguities in interpreting priming effects in studies of lexical organization. In Semitic languages like Arabic, however, linguistic analysis proposes that one of the three component morphemes of a surface word is the CV-Skeleton, an abstract prosodic unit coding the…

  7. Outburst of CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhungana, G.; Ferrante, F. V.; Staten, R.; Kehoe, R.

    2015-02-01

    Further to ATel#1272, we report observations of an outburst of the U Geminorum-type CV ROTSE3 J031031.4+431115.0 in unfiltered CCD images taken by the 0.45 m ROTSE-IIIb telescope at McDonald Observatory, Texas.

  8. LETTER Communicated by Bard Ermentrout Analytic Expressions for Rate and CV of a Type I Neuron

    E-print Network

    Longtin, André

    -driven leaky integrate-and-fire neuron. We focus on the firing rate and coefficient of variation (CV "bias cur- rent" input parameter, a model that can be looked upon as the simplest version of a type I cases of the model. We also show that caution must be used to extend these results to the neuron model

  9. Alian Wang: CV (July 2015) Curriculum Vita of Prof. Alian Wang

    E-print Network

    (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets) project, "life in Atacama". 2011­ 2012, PI, a NASA Development Program) project. #12;Alian Wang: CV (July 2015) 2 2007­2018, PI, a NASA Mars Scout-MoO (Mission-ASTID (Astrobiology Science and Technology Instrument Development) projects, for developing WIR and BUF sensors. 200

  10. CV dtaill et rapport d'activit de Lapo BOSCHI Lapo BOSCHI

    E-print Network

    Boschi, Lapo

    CV détaillé et rapport d'activité de Lapo BOSCHI 1 Lapo BOSCHI Maitre de conférences Laboratoire iSTeP, UMR 7193 UPMC-CNRS Université Pierre et Marie Curie 4, place Jussieu Case 129, T.46-00, Et.2 75252 Paris Cedex 05 Téléphone : +33(0)144275243 Email : lapo

  11. Prevalence and natural host range of Homalodisca coagulata virus-1 (HoCV-1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution of a potential biological agent, the newly discovered leafhopper-infecting virus, HoCV-1 was examined across the USA. Few biological agents exist for use against leafhopper pests. We examined and compared leafhopper salivary gland and midgut tissues using transmission electron micro...

  12. Chapter C-V-1 Image Formation and Waveform Design for Distributed Apertures in Multipath

    E-print Network

    Yazici, Birsen

    system distributed aperture radar system. We assume that the system is operating in multi for range-Doppler imaging developed in [1,2] to distributed aperture radar systems. Our approach utilizesChapter C-V-1 Image Formation and Waveform Design for Distributed Apertures in Multipath via Gram

  13. Automatic tracking of red blood cells in micro channels using OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Vânia; Rodrigues, Pedro J.; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to developan automatic method able to track red blood cells (RBCs) trajectories flowing through a microchannel using the Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV). The developed method is based on optical flux calculation assisted by the maximization of the template-matching product. The experimental results show a good functional performance of this method.

  14. Antibiotic targeting of the bacterial secretory pathway Smitha Rao C.V. a

    E-print Network

    Economou, Tassos

    Review Antibiotic targeting of the bacterial secretory pathway Smitha Rao C.V. a , Evelien De xxxx Keywords: Antibiotic target Protein secretion inhibitor Signal peptidase SecA Antibiotic resistance Finding new, effective antibiotics is a challenging research area driven by novel approaches

  15. CV Konrad Tollmar Home adress: 62 Stedman St, Brookline, MA 02446, USA

    E-print Network

    Tollmar, Konrad

    CV Konrad Tollmar Home adress: 62 Stedman St, Brookline, MA 02446, USA Phone home: +1 617 738 1084 and the Oxygen project. Employments 1988-1989 Ericsson Information System 1989-1991 Naturens Hus (A multimedia and Public Spaces - Video Mediated Communication in a Future Home Environment, Video paper at CHI'2000, ACM

  16. Sustainability and its Economic Interpretations John C.V. Pezzey and Michael A. Toman

    E-print Network

    Pezzey, Jack

    1 Chapter 6 Sustainability and its Economic Interpretations by John C.V. Pezzey and Michael A 1987) popularized the concept of sustainability, the idea (if not the precise term) figured prominently is an attempt to determine more precisely under what conditions a sustainable level of per capita consumption

  17. Identification of HoCV-1 virus in Texas Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new strain of leafhopper virus was discovered in leafhoppers which are vectors of Pierce’s disease of grapes. The original leafhopper infecting virus, HoCV-1, was isolated from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis, from samples collected in California and Florida. Using the orig...

  18. EST-SSR MARKERS FROM FRAGARIA VESCA L. CV. YELLOW WONDER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen microsatellite primer pairs were developed from a cDNA library of Fragaria vesca cv. Yellow Wonder. Transferability to 13 species of Fragaria ranged from 71% in diploid species F. gracilis Losinsk., F. iinumae Makino, F. nilgerrensis Schltdl. ex J. Gay and F. nipponica Makino to 100% in the...

  19. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (Cv. Purple Majesty) and their impact on antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation parameters of purified anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato (Purple Majesty cv.) heated at high temperatures (100 - 150 °C) was determined. Purified anthocyanins, prepared by removing salts, sugars and colorless non-anthocyanin phenolics from the crude extract, were quantified using H...

  20. Safe, Effective and Easily Reproducible Fusion Technique for CV Junction Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sannegowda, Raghavendra Bakki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) refers to a bony enclosure where the occipital bone surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas and the axis vertebrae. Because of the complexity of structures, CVJ instability is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Posterior CV fusion procedures have evolved a lot over the last couple of decades. There has been a lookout for one such surgical procedure which is inherently safe, simple, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound. In our study, we present the initial experience the cases of CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw & rod construct operated by the author. Aims and Objectives: The current study is a descriptive analysis of the cases of CVJ instability treated by us with instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective, analytical study in which cases of CV junction instability operated by the author between January 2010 to March 2014 were analysed using various clinical, radiological and outcome parameters. Conclusion: CV junction instrumentation using O-C1-C2 screw and rod construct fusion technique proved to be safe, effective, easily reproducible and biomechanically sound technique which can be adopted by all surgeons who may be at any stage of their learning curve. PMID:25954660

  1. M. Bahrami Fluid Mechanics (S 09) Integral Relations for CV 8 The angular momentum

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami Fluid Mechanics (S 09) Integral Relations for CV 8 The angular momentum A control volume analysis can be applied to the angular momentum, by letting B equal to angular momentum vector H. If O is the point about which moments are desired, the angular moment about O

  2. Formation timescales of CV chondrites from component specific Hf-W systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Maike; Hezel, Dominik C.; Schulz, Toni; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Münker, Carsten

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are an important meteorite group that closely resembles the bulk composition of the solar system. We report the first elemental and isotope dataset for Hf-W in carbonaceous chondrites that includes chondrules, matrix, magnetic fractions as well as bulk compositions. Our study focuses on the three CV3 chondrites, Allende, Vigarano and Bali. Compared to bulk chondrites, matrix splits have low Hf/W ratios and ?182W compositions, whereas chondrule splits are characterized by high, but more variable, Hf/W ratios and ?182W compositions. Thus, Hf/W ratios behave complementary between chondrules and matrix in the analysed CV chondrites, supporting the view that both components formed from the same parental reservoir. Strong nucleosynthetic effects were observed in most of the analysed CV3 components, especially in matrices and chondrule splits that were found to have large ?183W anomalies of several ?-units. All separates define a rough correlation between initial 182W/184W and 183W/184W ratios, in agreement with theoretical model trends based on calculations for stellar nucleosynthesis. Our results, therefore, indicate a heterogeneous distribution of s- and r-process W isotopes among the different CV3 chondrite components, arguing for selective thermal processing of early solar system matter during chondrule formation. After correcting for nucleosynthetic anomalies, chondrules and matrix splits of reduced (Vigarano) as well as oxidised (Allende) CV3 chondrites define a linear correlation in ?182W vs. 180Hf/184W space, which is interpreted as an isochron, covering an age interval within the first ?2.6 Ma after solar system formation. As peak metamorphic temperatures for CV3 chondrites were well below the 182Hf-182W closure temperature, the resulting isochron within its error most likely defines a common formation interval for all components. The calculated age interval is for the first time based on a combined chondrule-matrix isochron, a marked difference compared to previous studies where only chondrules were analysed. Notably, our formation age interval covers previously reported chondrule formation ages determined using 26Al and Pb-Pb chronometry, illustrating that chondrule and matrix formation started contemporaneously with CAI formation and lasted over a time interval of about 2-3 Ma. Our results also corroborate previous models from ordinary chondrites, in that chondrite parent bodies were not the first planetesimals to have formed in the early solar system.

  3. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 ?g/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  4. Graphical method for determining the coefficient of consolidation cv from a flow-pump permeability test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, Roger H.; Olsen, Harold W.; Nelson, Karl R.; Gill, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A graphical method has been developed for determining the coefficient of consolidation from the transient phases of a flow-pump permeability test. The flow pump can be used to infuse fluid into or withdraw fluid from a laboratory sediment specimen at a constant volumetric rate in order to obtain data that can be used to calculate permeability using Darcy's law. Representative type-curve solutions to the associated forced-flow and pressure-decay models are derived. These curves provide the basis for graphically evaluating the permeability k, the coefficient of consolidation cv, and the coefficient of volume change mv. The curve-matching technique is easy and rapid. Values of k, cv and mv for a laterally confined kaolinite specimen were determined by this graphical method and appear to be in reasonably good agreement with numerically derived estimates (within 20%). Discrepancies between the two sets of results seem to be largely a function of data quality.

  5. Xoconostle fruit (Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa) by-products as potential functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-10-15

    There is a lack of information on the potential use of xoconostle cultivars as sources of antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical and colorant industries. The aim of this study was to provide a phytochemical characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of Opuntia matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa by-products (epicarp and endocarp mucilage's), in order to evaluate their interest as sources of functional ingredients for human or animal foods. These by-products showed a high content in glucose, citric and linoleic acids, tocopherols, and isorhamnetin-O-(di-deoxyhexosyl-hexoside) (mainly in epicarp), and presented relevant antioxidant properties. The obtained results support the use of O. matudae Scheinvar cv. Rosa agro-industrial by-products as functional food ingredients, namely for antioxidant-enriched formulations, instead of being discarded. PMID:25952871

  6. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  7. GC-FID/MS Profiling of Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Peels from Citrus aurantium, C. sinensis cv. Washington navel, C. sinensis cv. Tarocco and C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno from Dubrovnik Area (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Jerkovi?, Igor; Drulži?, Jasmina; Marijanovi?, Zvonimir; Gugi?, Mirko; Joki?, Stela; Roje, Marin

    2015-07-01

    The peels of Citrus aurantium L. and Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivars from the Dubrovnik region (south Croatia) were extracted by supercritical CO2 at 40 degrees C and 10 MPa at 1.76 kg/h to obtain enriched extracts in comparison with simple pressing of the peels. The extracts were analyzed in detail by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS). Relevant similarities among the peel oil compositions of C. aurantium and C. sinensis cultivars were found with limonene predominance (up to 54.3%). The principal oxygenated monoterpenes were linalool (3.0%-5.9%), ?-terpineol (0.7%-2.4%), linalyl acetate (0.0%-5.0%), geranyl acetate (0.0%-0.4%), (Z)-citral (0.0%-1.8%) and (E)-citral (0.0%-1.9%). Several sesquiterpenes were found with minor percentages. Coumarin derivatives were identified in all the samples among the relevant compounds. Isogeijerin dominated in the peels of C. sinensis cv. Tarocco (15.3%) and C. aurantium (11.2%). Scoparone ranged from 0.1% to 0.5% in all the samples. Bergapten (up to 1.4%), osthole (up to 1.1%) and 7-methoxy-8-(2-formylpropyl)coumarin (up to 1.1%) were found mostly in C. sinensis cv. Doppio Sanguigno. It was possible to indicate a few other differences among the extracts such as higher percentage of linalool, linalyl and geranyl acetates, as well as the abundance of sabinene and isogeijerin in C. aurantium or the occurrence of ?-sinensal in C. sinensis cultivars. PMID:26411039

  8. IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype BTeV silicon pixel sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maria R. Coluccia et al.

    2002-07-16

    The authors present IV and CV curves for irradiated prototype n{sup +}/n/p{sup +} silicon pixel sensors, intended for use in the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. They tested pixel sensors from various vendors and with two pixel isolation layouts: p-stop and p-spray. Results are based on exposure with 200 MeV protons up to 6 x 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}.

  9. Biochemical analysis of SV40 small t mediated theophylline resistance in CV-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The papovavirus SV40 encodes for the two tumor antigens, large T and small t. While much is known about large T, little information is available about the role of small t in the viral life cycle. The authors have developed a system for studying small t antigen based on its ability to overcome the G/sub 0/ growth arrest induced by the methylxanthine, theophylline. Uninfected CV-1 cells, the permissive host for SV40, are arrested by 1-2mM theophylline. In contrast, Wt-infected cells are not arrested by the same concentrations of this drug. Biochemical studies were designed to analyze the effects of theophylline and the means by which small t can overcome the growth arrest of CV-1 cells. Theophylline, a cyclic AMP analogue, does not appear to arrest CV-1 cells by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. Theophylline appears to arrest CV-1 cells by inhibiting sodium influx. Both /sub 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake were inhibited by theophylline. Amiloride and TMB-8, drugs which are known to inhibit the plasma membrane Na/sup +//H/sup +/ antiporter, decreased /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake to the same degree as theophylline. Because these drugs also arrested mock and D1- but not Wt-infected cells it is possible that theophylline inhibits sodium uptake by inhibiting this antiporter. Furthermore, because Wt-infected cells are resistant to the growth arrest induced by these drugs, it is possible that small t acts either by directly altering this antiporter or by bypassing the step which requires the activity of the antiporter.

  10. CV population densities: Using CFHT as the worlds largest time-series photometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, D. A.; Haswell, C. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Ringwald, F.

    2002-01-01

    Known samples of cataclysmic variables (CVs) are sparse and/or rife with selection effects and do not provide adequate tests of theories of their evolution. We have used the CFHT12k mosaic camera as the worlds largest time-series photometer, observing a 0.3 sq.deg. Galactic field with 3 minute time-resolution. The resulting unbiased, magnitude-limited sample of CVs, and their progenitors will be used to test the predictions of CV population models.

  11. Numerical C-V calculations of CdTe/CdS thin films solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Alvarado, F. L.; Avendaño-Lopez, J.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Vigil, O.; Vidal, J.; de Gante, P.; Rojas-Hernandez, E.; Hernandez-Contreras, H.

    2000-03-01

    We have calculated the band discontinuites and interface charge density of the heterojunction CdTe/CdS, the calculations are based in the C-V matching method. Our solar cells are builted with thin films done by close spaced sublimation. The significance of the simultaneous determinations of the band discontinuites and interface charges of these solar cells is discussed. Work partially supported by CONACYT, Mexico, proyect G27713A

  12. A real-time camera calibration system based on OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Guo, Huinan; Ren, Long; Zhou, Zuofeng

    2015-07-01

    Camera calibration is one of the essential steps in the computer vision research. This paper describes a real-time OpenCV based camera calibration system, and developed and implemented in the VS2008 environment. Experimental results prove that the system to achieve a simple and fast camera calibration, compared with MATLAB, higher precision and does not need manual intervention, and can be widely used in various computer vision system.

  13. Teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the Intel OpenCV library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koz?owski, Adam; Królak, Aleksandra

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an approach to teaching image processing and pattern recognition with the use of the OpenCV library. Image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision are important branches of science and apply to tasks ranging from critical, involving medical diagnostics, to everyday tasks including art and entertainment purposes. It is therefore crucial to provide students of image processing and pattern recognition with the most up-to-date solutions available. In the Institute of Electronics at the Technical University of Lodz we facilitate the teaching process in this subject with the OpenCV library, which is an open-source set of classes, functions and procedures that can be used in programming efficient and innovative algorithms for various purposes. The topics of student projects completed with the help of the OpenCV library range from automatic correction of image quality parameters or creation of panoramic images from video to pedestrian tracking in surveillance camera video sequences or head-movement-based mouse cursor control for the motorically impaired.

  14. Utrophins compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx3cv in adhered platelets.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris; Mondragón, Ricardo; Candelario, Aurora; García-Sierra, Francisco; Mornet, Dominique; Rendón, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2008-01-01

    Platelet adhesion is a critical step due to its hemostatic role in stopping bleeding after vascular damage. Short dystrophins are the most abundant dmd gene products in nonmuscle tissues, and in association with cytoskeleton proteins contribute to their intrinsic function; while utrophins are dystrophin-homologous related family proteins with structural and functional similarities. We previously demonstrated the presence of Dp71 isoforms, utrophins, and various dystrophin-associated proteins and their participation in cytoskeleton re-organization, filopodia and lamellipodia extension, and in centralizing cytoplasmic granules during the adhesion process of human platelets. To evaluate the morphologic changes and actin-based structures of mdx(3cv) platelets during the adhesion process, we compared the topographic distribution of Dp71d/Dp71Delta110(m) and dystrophin-associated protein in adhered platelets from dystrophic mdx(3cv) mouse. By confocal microscopy, we showed that absence of Dp71 isoforms in platelets from this animal model disrupted dystrophin-associated protein expression and distribution without modifying the platelet morphology displayed during the glass-adhesion process. By immunoprecipitation assays, we proved that up-regulated utrophins were associated with dystrophin-associated proteins to conform the dystrophin-associated protein complex corresponding to utrophins, which might compensate for Dp71 absence in mdx(3cv) platelets. PMID:18180614

  15. Thermal performance of a top heat mode closed-loop oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (THMCLOHP/CV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a top heat mode closed-looped oscillating heat pipe with check valves (THMCLOHP/CV). Ethanol is used as a working fluid with filling ratios of 30, 50, and 80% of the total volume of the tube. The THMCLOHP/CV is made of a copper tube with an inside diameter of 2.03 mm. The angle of inclination is 90° from the horizontal axis with 40 turns, two check valves, and an evaporator length of 50, 100, and 150 mm. The operating temperatures are 44 and 55°C. It is found that the thermal resistance decreases significantly as the working temperature is increased. Thus, the evaporator length affects the thermal resistance of the THMCLOHP/CV. The presence of the THMCLOHP/CV is clearly demonstrated to contribute to thermal performance improvement.

  16. Compositional and petrographic similarities of CV and CK chondrites: A single group with variations in textures and volatile concentrations attributable to impact heating, crushing and oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Isa, Junko; Rubin, Alan E.

    2013-05-01

    Greenwood et al. (2010) gathered data on O-isotopic and elemental compositions and reevaluated literature data for CV and CK chondrites. They concluded that these two chondrite groups originated on the same parent asteroid, with CK chondrites being metamorphosed CV chondrites (which are otherwise missing types 4 through 6). To test this interpretation we have gathered new instrumental neutron-activation-analysis (INAA) data for CV and CK chondrites and reexamined their petrographic features. The new INAA data like the older data show scatter attributable to weathering effects, but we conclude that the refractory lithophile abundances are the same in CV and CK, in agreement with the Greenwood et al. interpretation. Several volatile elements are significantly lower in CK than in CV chondrites. Among the elements we determine, the greatest difference between CV and CK is found for Br, for which the CV/CK ratio is ?4; As and Sb are about 20% lower in CK than CV and smaller differences are observed for Zn, Ga and Se. It seems likely that volatiles were lost during impact-heating events that also provided the heat responsible for metamorphic recrystallization. Within statistical uncertainty, chondrules in CV and CK chondrites are the same size and have similar textural distributions. A significant petrographic difference between CK and CV chondrites cited by Kallemeyn et al. (1991) was the much higher percentage of igneous rims around CV chondrules. However, we now recognize that many chondrules in CK3.8 NWA 1559 have igneous rims and in CK4 chondrites, igneous rims are recognizable by their associated sulfide-rich rings; there are no quantifiable CV-CK differences in igneous-rim abundances. We used Ca and Al maps to show that CK chondrites have CAI abundances similar to those of CV chondrites. It thus appears that there are no resolvable pre-metamorphic petrographic differences between CV and CK chondrites. We recommend that the “CK” designation be abandoned and that the CV group be acknowledged as spanning the range of petrologic types 3-6. We suggest that CK3 chondrites be designated CV3OxK. Most CK4 chondrites are highly fragmental; collisional crushing appears to be much more common than in CV chondrites. It seems likely that CK chondrites formed from reduced CV3 materials after the latter was impacted, buried, aqueously altered and annealed.

  17. Complete CV

    E-print Network

    2015-12-13

    University education. Studies of physics .... Ad hoc committee for strategic planning (interdiscipliary, equipment). Spr 06. > Ad hoc .... ESF conference on Teichmüller Theory and its Interactions in Mathematics and Physics,. Jun 10. Bellaterra ...

  18. The first mass and angular momentum loss measurements for a CV-like binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    The period distribution of close binaries, cataclysmic variables, novae and single-degenerate SN1a progenitor candidates is largely controlled by magnetically-driven mass and angular momentum loss (AML) from the M dwarf secondary. The mass loss rates for these spun-up stars remain essentially unknown and impossible to observe directly, with likely values in the range 1e-12 to 1e-15 Msun/yr. AML presciptions for CVs differ by orders of magnitude. One way to measure the mass loss rate is to observe the dM wind accrete onto its WD companion in a pre-CV very close to Roche Lobe overflow but lacking the obscuring complications and emission from an accretion disk. The measurement can be combined with realistic MHD models to understand the accretion fraction, the mass that escapes, and the AML. The best-studied nearby pre-CV is QS Vir (48pc, P=3.6hr). However, its wind accretion rates measured from 1999 HST UV spectra of the WD metal absorption lines and 2006 XMM-Newton CCD spectroscopy differ by a factor of a thousand, pointing to either a dominant CME stochastic component, or a "magnetic switch" found in MHD simulations and driven by cyclic activity on the M dwarf. HST COS spectra combined with XMM-Newton monitoring on timescales from weeks to years will tease out CME vs cyclic accretion variations. UV and X-ray measurements will provide the first consistency check of both accretion rate measurement methods. MHD models tailored to the system will enable the first quasi-direct measurements of the mass loss and AML from a CV-like binary. Our project requires 6 HST/COS orbits in Cycles 22-24, and 60ksec on XMM in Cycle 22

  19. Pulmonary nodule detection in CT images based on shape constraint CV model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bing; Tian, Xuedong; Wang, Qian; Yang, Ying; Xie, Hongzhi E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn; Zhang, Shuyang; Gu, Lixu E-mail: xiehongzhi@medmail.com.cn

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Accurate detection of pulmonary nodules remains a technical challenge in computer-aided diagnosis systems because some nodules may adhere to the blood vessels or the lung wall, which have low contrast compared to the surrounding tissues. In this paper, the analysis of typical shape features of candidate nodules based on a shape constraint Chan–Vese (CV) model combined with calculation of the number of blood branches adhered to nodule candidates is proposed to reduce false positive (FP) nodules from candidate nodules. Methods: The proposed scheme consists of three major stages: (1) Segmentation of lung parenchyma from computed tomography images. (2) Extraction of candidate nodules. (3) Reduction of FP nodules. A gray level enhancement combined with a spherical shape enhancement filter is introduced to extract the candidate nodules and their sphere-like contour regions. FPs are removed by analysis of the typical shape features of nodule candidates based on the CV model using spherical constraint and by investigating the number of blood branches adhered to the candidate nodules. The constrained shapes of CV model are automatically achieved from the extracted candidate nodules. Results: The detection performance was evaluated on 127 nodules of 103 cases including three types of challenging nodules, which are juxta-pleural nodules, juxta-vascular nodules, and ground glass opacity nodules. The free-receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve shows that the proposed method is able to detect 88% of all the nodules in the data set with 4 FPs per case. Conclusions: Evaluation shows that the authors’ method is feasible and effective for detection of three types of nodules in this study.

  20. Flight test results from the CV990 simulated space shuttle during unpowered automatic approaches and landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings with a CV990 aircraft were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle. The flight tests were designed to study from 11,300 m to touchdown the performance of a navigation and guidance concept which utilized blended radio/inertial navigation using VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. In excess of fifty automatic approaches and landings were conducted. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines on a conventional size runway.

  1. Dark inclusions in Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano - Evidence for nebular oxidation of CV3 constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Prinz, Martin; Weisberg, Michael K.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1990-01-01

    The origin and the history of dark inclusions (DIs) are investigated using petrologic, chemical, and oxygen isotopic data on ten DI samples from Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano. These data indicate that the DIs of the Leoville and Vigarano are closely similar to those of Allende. The inclusions appear to be fragments of CV3 parent bodies which were processed to different degrees prior to their incorporation as clasts into the Allende, Leoville, and Vigarano chondrites. The processing homogenized the olivine compositions, presumably through heating, and also involved oxygen exchange with O-16-poorer surroundings.

  2. The light curve of CV Serpentis, the sometimes-eclipsing Wolf-Rayet star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R.; Liller, W.

    1975-01-01

    New photoelectric observations of the B-magnitude of CV Ser made in 1973 and 1974 show no clear evidence of an eclipse, but they establish night-to-night variability of several percent, a systematic brightness change of 0.035 mag during a portion of the single orbit observed in 1973, and irregular flaring in 1974. We made iris photometer measurements of Harvard patrol plates taken between 1905 June and 1953 July, and find no evidence of a very deep eclipse such as observed by Hjellming and Hiltner. We present several new light curves and discuss then in the light of the recent results of Cowley et al.

  3. Low-lift-to-drag-ratio approach and landing studies using a CV-990 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kock, B. M.; Fulton, F. L.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of a flight-test program utilizing a CV-990 airplane, flow in low-lift-to-drag-ratio (L/D) configurations, to simulate terminal area operation, approach, and landing of large unpowered vehicles. The results indicate that unpowered approaches and landings are practical with vehicles of the size and performance characteristics of the proposed shuttle vehicle. Low L/D landings provided touchdown dispersion patterns acceptable for operation on runways of reasonable length. The dispersion pattern was reduced when guidance was used during the final approach. High levels of pilot proficiency were not required for acceptable performance.

  4. Ultrastructural changes in shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) treated with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, Homa

    2008-04-15

    In the present research, structure and ultrastructure of shoot apical meristem of canola (Brassica napus cv. Symbol) under salinity conditions were investigated. The experiments were conducted in five groups (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 dS m(-1)) under greenhouse conditions. Sampling of apical meristem and TEM tissue preparation procedure were carried out. Semithin and ultrathin sections were prepared and viewed in light and electron microscopy, respectively. The results included reduction of meristem size, disorders in meristem structure. Also formation of autophagic vacuoles was observed that is probably one of the plant responses to salt stress for more water storage in these vacuoles and decreasing of cell water requirements. PMID:18819558

  5. Three in one go: consequential angular momentum loss can solve major problems of CV evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. R.; Zorotovic, M.; Wijnen, T. P. G.

    2016-01-01

    The average white dwarf (WD) masses in cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been measured to significantly exceed those of single WDs, which is the opposite of what is theoretically expected. We present the results of binary population synthesis models taking into account consequential angular momentum loss (CAML) that is assumed to increase with decreasing WD mass. This approach cannot only solve the WD mass problem but also brings in agreement theoretical predictions and observations of the orbital period distribution and the space density of CVs. We speculate that frictional angular momentum loss following nova eruptions might cause such CAML and could be the missing ingredient of CV evolution.

  6. Three in one go: consequential angular momentum loss can solve major problems of CV evolution

    E-print Network

    Schreiber, Matthias R; Wijnen, Thomas P G

    2015-01-01

    The average white dwarf (WD) masses in cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been measured to significantly exceed those of single WDs, which is the opposite of what is theoretically expected. We present the results of binary population synthesis models taking into account consequential angular momentum loss (CAML) that is assumed to increase with decreasing WD mass. This approach can not only solve the WD mass problem, but also brings in agreement theoretical predictions and observations of the orbital period distribution and the space density of CVs. We speculate that frictional angular momentum loss following nova eruptions might cause such CAML and could thus be the missing ingredient of CV evolution.

  7. Galectin CvGal2 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Displays Unique Specificity for ABH Blood Group Oligosaccharides and Differentially Recognizes Sympatric Perkinsus Species.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Tasumi, Satoshi; Pasek, Marta; Banerjee, Aditi; Shridhar, Surekha; Wang, Lai-Xi; Bianchet, Mario A; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2015-08-01

    Galectins are highly conserved lectins that are key to multiple biological functions, including pathogen recognition and regulation of immune responses. We previously reported that CvGal1, a galectin expressed in phagocytic cells (hemocytes) of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), is hijacked by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it causes systemic infection and death. Screening of an oyster hemocyte cDNA library revealed a novel galectin, which we designated CvGal2, with four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs). Phylogentic analysis of the CvGal2 CRDs suggests close relationships with homologous CRDs from CvGal1. Glycan array analysis, however, revealed that, unlike CvGal1 which preferentially binds to the blood group A tetrasaccharide, CvGal2 recognizes both blood group A and B tetrasaccharides and related structures, suggesting that CvGal2 has broader binding specificity. Furthermore, SPR analysis demonstrated significant differences in the binding kinetics of CvGal1 and CvGal2, and structural modeling revealed substantial differences in their interactions with the oligosaccharide ligands. CvGal2 is homogeneously distributed in the hemocyte cytoplasm, is released to the extracellular space, and binds to the hemocyte surface. CvGal2 binds to P. marinus trophozoites in a dose-dependent and ?-galactoside-specific manner. Strikingly, negligible binding of CvGal2 was observed for Perkinsus chesapeaki, a sympatric parasite species mostly prevalent in the clams Mya arenaria and Macoma balthica. The differential recognition of Perkinsus species by the oyster galectins is consistent with their relative prevalence in oyster and clam species and supports their role in facilitating parasite entry and infectivity in a host-preferential manner. PMID:26158802

  8. The Glycine max cv. Enrei Genome for Improvement of Japanese Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michihiko; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Komatsu, Setsuko; Namiki, Nobukazu; Mukai, Yoshiyuki; Kurita, Kanako; Kamatsuki, Kaori; Ikawa, Hiroshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Ishimoto, Masao; Kaga, Akito; Katayose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We elucidated the genome sequence of Glycine max cv. Enrei to provide a reference for characterization of Japanese domestic soybean cultivars. The whole genome sequence obtained using a next-generation sequencer was used for reference mapping into the current genome assembly of G. max cv. Williams 82 obtained by the Soybean Genome Sequencing Consortium in the USA. After sequencing and assembling the whole genome shotgun reads, we obtained a data set with about 928?Mbs total bases and 60,838 gene models. Phylogenetic analysis provided glimpses into the ancestral relationships of both cultivars and their divergence from the complex that include the wild relatives of soybean. The gene models were analyzed in relation to traits associated with anthocyanin and flavonoid biosynthesis and an overall profile of the proteome. The sequence data are made available in DAIZUbase in order to provide a comprehensive informatics resource for comparative genomics of a wide range of soybean cultivars in Japan and a reference tool for improvement of soybean cultivars worldwide. PMID:26199933

  9. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    PubMed

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude. PMID:19194724

  10. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (?M trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents. PMID:26665298

  11. Heterogeneous compute in computer vision: OpenCL in OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparakis, Harris

    2014-02-01

    We explore the relevance of Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) in Computer Vision, both as a long term vision, and as a near term emerging reality via the recently ratified OpenCL 2.0 Khronos standard. After a brief review of OpenCL 1.2 and 2.0, including HSA features such as Shared Virtual Memory (SVM) and platform atomics, we identify what genres of Computer Vision workloads stand to benefit by leveraging those features, and we suggest a new mental framework that replaces GPU compute with hybrid HSA APU compute. As a case in point, we discuss, in some detail, popular object recognition algorithms (part-based models), emphasizing the interplay and concurrent collaboration between the GPU and CPU. We conclude by describing how OpenCL has been incorporated in OpenCV, a popular open source computer vision library, emphasizing recent work on the Transparent API, to appear in OpenCV 3.0, which unifies the native CPU and OpenCL execution paths under a single API, allowing the same code to execute either on CPU or on a OpenCL enabled device, without even recompiling.

  12. Multi-camera calibration based on openCV and multi-view registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-ming; Wan, Xiong; Zhang, Zhi-min; Leng, Bi-yan; Lou, Ning-ning; He, Shuai

    2010-10-01

    For multi-camera calibration systems, a method based on OpenCV and multi-view registration combining calibration algorithm is proposed. First of all, using a Zhang's calibration plate (8X8 chessboard diagram) and a number of cameras (with three industrial-grade CCD) to be 9 group images shooting from different angles, using OpenCV to calibrate the parameters fast in the camera. Secondly, based on the corresponding relationship between each camera view, the computation of the rotation matrix and translation matrix is formulated as a constrained optimization problem. According to the Kuhn-Tucker theorem and the properties on the derivative of the matrix-valued function, the formulae of rotation matrix and translation matrix are deduced by using singular value decomposition algorithm. Afterwards an iterative method is utilized to get the entire coordinate transformation of pair-wise views, thus the precise multi-view registration can be conveniently achieved and then can get the relative positions in them(the camera outside the parameters).Experimental results show that the method is practical in multi-camera calibration .

  13. More evidence for a partially differentiated CV chondrite parent body from paleomagnetic studies of ALH 84028 and ALH 85006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, B. Z.; Weiss, B. P.; Carporzen, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic studies of the CV carbonaceous chondrites Allende and Kaba and numerical modeling studies have suggested that the CV chondrite parent body may have been partially differentiated, with a molten metallic core, dynamo magnetic field, and an unmelted chondritic lid. To further evaluate this hypothesis, here we present new paleomagnetic analyses of two previously unstudied CV3 chondrites: the unshocked, Allende-type oxidized chondrite ALH 84028 and the weakly shocked, Bali-type oxidized chondrite ALH 85006. We preformed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization experiments, AF-based paleointensity experiments, and rock magnetic experiments on mutually oriented subsamples of each meteorite. Both meteorites pass fusion crust baked contact tests, indicating that their interiors retain a magnetization predating atmospheric entry. In the interior of ALH 84028, we identified a unidirectional medium temperature (blocked to 300°C), high coercivity (blocked to >420 mT) component. In the interior of ALH 85006, we identified MT components blocked up to 400-475°C. The unblocking temperatures and unidirectional nature of the MT components in both meteorites indicates their origin as a partial thermoremanence or thermochemical remanence acquired during metamorphism following accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. Our paleointensity experiments indicate paleofield intensities of 32-73 ?T for ALH 84028 and 14-45 ?T for ALH 85006 . When combined with similar recent results for Allende and Kaba, there is now consistent evidence for dynamo fields from four CV chondrites with collectively diverse lithologies and shock states. Therefore, the magnetic field on the CV parent body was not a localized event like that expected for a field generated by meteoroid impact plasmas and instead likely had a wide spatial extent. Further, given the younger I-Xe ages for Kaba compared to Allende (9-10 Ma and 2-3 Ma after Stillwater respectively), CV parent body magnetic fields existed over an extended period of time. Together, these data present compelling evidence for the presence of a core-generated dynamo on the CV chondrite parent body, persistent for at least 8 Ma.

  14. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism in the stability field of low feldspar (i.e., less than 800 C) and a metamorphic history similar to that of the CO chondrites but unlike that of the ordinary chondrites.

  15. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  16. The digestion of fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Melle) and white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca) by growing cattle fed indoors.

    PubMed

    Beever, D E; Thomson, D J; Ulyatt, M J; Cammell, S B; Spooner, M C

    1985-11-01

    1. Pure swards of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Melle) or white clover (Trifolium repens L. cv. Blanca) were harvested daily at three and two stages of growth respectively, and offered to housed cattle. The grass diets comprised primary growth (May) and two later regrowths of contrasting morphology (i.e. leaf: stem values of 1.54 and 2.84 respectively), and were characterized by high contents of water-soluble carbohydrate and neutral-detergent fibre and comparable in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibilities (mean 0.80). Total nitrogen content was higher on primary growth grass (34 g/kg DM) than on regrowths (23 g/kg DM) but lower than values obtained for the two clover diets (38 and 43 g/kg DM, respectively). The clover diets had lower water-soluble carbohydrate contents than the grasses, comparable cellulose, but lower neutral-detergent fibre contents and in vitro DM digestibilities of 0.70 and 0.77 respectively. 2. The experiment lasted from May until August, during which time a total of twenty-one young Friesian steers (initial average live weight 130 kg) were used to determine both nutrient supply to the small intestine (twelve animals) and apparent digestibility (nine animals). Each diet was offered at three levels of DM intake (i.e. 18, 22 and 26 g/kg live weight). A further six steers, all fed at the rate of 22 g DM/kg live weight, were used to determine the metabolizable energy contents of the five diets by means of open-circuit calorimetry. 3. The three grass diets and the later-cut clover had, as intended, quite similar in vivo organic matter digestibilities, but that of the earlier-cut clover was lower, and this was associated with a large number of flower heads in this crop at the time of feeding. 4. On the clover diets, proportionately less of the ingested organic matter appeared to be digested in the rumen (0.40) compared with the grass diets (0.58) (P less than 0.001). On the high-N primary grass and the clover diets, substantial rumen losses of N were detected (P less than 0.01) compared with regrowth grasses. 5. The metabolizable energy content of the primary growth of grass was 12.2 MJ/kg DM, whilst the values for the other two grass diets were lower (11.6 MJ/kg DM), despite no marked decline in overall energy digestibility. Values for the two clover diets (mean 10.5 MJ/kg DM) were considerably lower than all values noted for the grasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3870696

  17. The efficiency of energy utilization in growing cattle consuming fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melle) or white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Blanca).

    PubMed

    Cammell, S B; Thomson, D J; Beever, D E; Haines, M J; Dhanoa, M S; Spooner, M C

    1986-05-01

    1. Twenty Friesian steers (225 kg live weight) were fed on mid- (M) (June-July) and late- (L) (August-September) season crops of either fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melle) (G) or white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Blanca) (C). Each of the forage diets was offered at three restricted planes of nutrition above maintenance to compare the effect of forage species on the efficiency of energy utilization. All diets were harvested daily from swards of regrowth forage of intended equivalent digestibility. 2. Faecal and urine excretions were measured for 7 and 5 d respectively, followed by two consecutive 24 h measurements of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange in open-circuit respiration chambers. 3. The apparent digestibility of the energy in perennial ryegrass (0.759) was marginally higher (P less than 0.01) than that in white clover (0.748); the mid- and late-season forages were of similar (P greater than 0.05) digestibilities. Metabolizable energy (ME): digestible energy (DE) in diet G (0.837) was significantly (P less than 0.001) different from that in diet C (0.812). The partition of energy losses when expressed as MJ/GJ gross energy intake (GEI) indicated that energy lost as methane was not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) either between forages (G 62.8, C 63.4) or between seasons (M 63.2, L 63.1). Energy excretion in urine was higher for cattle fed on diet C (77.5) compared with diet G (60.5) (P less than 0.001). Heat production was similar (P greater than 0.05) between forages (G 480, C 478), but lower (P less than 0.01) for L (471) compared with M(486). Energy retention (by difference) was lower (P less than 0.001) for diet C (132) than G (156) and for M (138) than L (149) (P less than 0.05). 4. Parallel-line analysis of unscaled ME intake (MEI) in relation to retained energy (RE; MJ/d) indicated that the efficiency of utilization (kt) was similar (P greater than 0.05) between perennial ryegrass (0.42) and white clover (0.46). Linear extrapolation of the values to zero energy retention indicated that maintenance requirements of ME (Em; MJ/d) were 23.3 for diet G and 28.8 for diet C. The extrapolated Em when expressed in relation to a measured fasting heat production (FHP) of 22.8 (MJ/d) resulted in a derived efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance (km) of 0.97 (G) and 0.79 (C), suggesting an underestimate of Em for diet G.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3676184

  18. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-01-01

    A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16?kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6??M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8??M and 21.5??M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100??M. PMID:20617140

  19. Proliferation potential of 18-month-old callus of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris.

    PubMed

    De Silva, A E; Kadir, M A; Aziz, M A; Kadzimin, S

    2006-01-01

    Differential effect of plant growth regulators and additives in proliferation of 18-month-old calli of Ananas comosus L. cv. Moris were assessed in vitro. The proliferation of callus relied on the growth regulators and additives. Of the different auxins supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 32.22 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) gave the highest mean fresh weight of callus (46.817 g). Medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was inferior to NAA, while b-naphthoxy acetic acid (BNOA) and p-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (4-CPA) were not effective in proliferating 18-months old callus. Addition of casein hydrolysate and coconut water to NAA supplemented medium showed better proliferation and production of callus. However, in terms of callus production, NAA at 32.22 microM was economically better. PMID:16493521

  20. The fractionation of noble gases in diamonds of CV3 Efremovka chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Semjonova, L. F.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown that in diamonds of Efremovka CV3 the noble gases with normal isotopic compositions are fractionated in different degree while the correlation of isotopic anomalous components is nearly constant. Some data for noble gases in DE-4 sample of Efremovka chondrite are considered. In contrast to DE-2 sample the DE-4 was treated except conc. HClO4, 220 C in addition with mixture of conc. H2SO4+H3PO4 (1:1), 220 C, twice. Noble gases analysis were performed in Germany at Max Plank Institute fur Chemie. Noble gases were released by oxidation of samples at stepped heating from 420 C to 810 C and by pyrolysis at 580, 590, and 680 C.

  1. Persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit: some physical, chemical and nutritional properties.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai

    2008-01-01

    The persimmon cv. Hachiya (Diospyros kaki) fruits were analysed for some physical properties (fruit dimensions, fruit mass, fruit volume, fruit density, aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, spread area, projected area, bulk density, skin and flesh firmness, skin and flesh colour as L, a and b values, coefficient of static friction on different surfaces and porosity), chemical properties (moisture, ash, pH, acidity, vitamin C, total soluble solids) and nutritional properties (phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc). The fruit characteristics ranged from 169 g for average fruit mass, 65.97 mm for the geometric mean diameter, 1.03% for sphericity and 180 cm3 for volume of fruit. The bulk density, fruit density and porosity were determined as 5,817 N/m3, 9,300 N/m3 and 38.06%, respectively. The present study also revealed important nutritional values of persimmon fruits. PMID:19382348

  2. Contrasting Size Distributions of Chondrules and Inclusions in Allende CV3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kent R.; Tait, Alastair W.; Simon, Jusin I.; Cuzzi, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    There are several leading theories on the processes that led to the formation of chondrites, e.g., sorting by mass, by X-winds, turbulent concentration, and by photophoresis. The juxtaposition of refractory inclusions (CAIs) and less refractory chondrules is central to these theories and there is much to be learned from their relative size distributions. There have been a number of studies into size distributions of particles in chondrites but only on relatively small scales primarily for chondrules, and rarely for both Calcium Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules in the same sample. We have implemented macro-scale (25 cm diameter sample) and high-resolution microscale sampling of the Allende CV3 chondrite to create a complete data set of size frequencies for CAIs and chondrules.

  3. Overseas trip report, CV 990 underflight mission. [Norwegian Sea, Greenland ice sheet, and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Crawford, J.; Hardis, L.

    1980-01-01

    The scanning microwave radiometer-7 simulator, the ocean temperature scanner, and an imaging scatterometer/altimeter operating at 14 GHz were carried onboard the NASA CV-990 over open oceans, sea ice, and continental ice sheets to gather surface truth information. Data flights were conducted over the Norwegian Sea to map the ocean polar front south and west of Bear Island and to transect several Nimbus-7 footprints in a rectangular pattern parallel to the northern shoreline of Norway. Additional flights were conducted to obtain correlative data on the cryosphere parameters and characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet, and study the frozen lakes near Barrow. The weather conditions and flight path way points for each of the nineteen flights are presented in tables and maps.

  4. Defect Detection in Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavity Surface Using C + + and OpenCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Samantha; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) uses superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate an electron beam. If theses cavities have a small particle or defect, it can degrade the performance of the cavity. The problem at hand is inspecting the cavity for defects, little bubbles of niobium on the surface of the cavity. Thousands of pictures have to be taken of a single cavity and then looked through to see how many defects were found. A C + + program with Open Source Computer Vision (OpenCV) was constructed to reduce the number of hours searching through the images and finds all the defects. Using this code, the SRF group is now able to use the code to identify defects in on-going tests of SRF cavities. Real time detection is the next step so that instead of taking pictures when looking at the cavity, the camera will detect all the defects.

  5. Petrography and classification of refractory inclusions in the Allende and Mokoia CV3 chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornacki, A. S.; Cohen, R. E.; Wood, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported for a comprehensive petrographic survey of the refractory inclusions in the Allende and Mokoia CV3 chondrites. More than 600 refractory inclusions in 22 thin sections of the meteorites were studied by optical and scanning-electron microscopy. Olivine-rich inclusions and Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are aggregates of various combinations of three fundamental petrographic constituents: rimmed concentric objects, Ca, Si-rich chaotic material, and mafic inclusion matrix. A new classification system for refractory inclusions is developed that is based on the size and abundance of these three fundamental constituents. The new classification system avoids several problems that are inherent in other classification systems, which use the term 'coarse-grained' too restrictively for many simple CAIs and inaccurately for most mililite-rich complex CAIs.

  6. Relationship of superficial scald development and alpha-farnesene oxidation to reactions of diphenylamine and diphenylamine derivatives in Cv. Granny Smith apple peel.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Fellman, John K

    2005-10-19

    Cv. Granny Smith apple fruit, treated at harvest with aqueous emulsions containing diphenylamine (DPA) and DPA derivatives, were evaluated for the peel disorder superficial scald (scald) after 6 months of cold storage at 1 degrees C plus 0 or 7 days at 20 degrees C. Metabolism of these derivatives and alpha-farnesene oxidation were also evaluated after 6 months. Derivatives substituted at the para position prevented scald, but scald developed on fruit treated with derivatives substituted in the amino, ortho, or meta positions. The extent of scald control was also dependent on the chemical nature of the functional group used to derivatize DPA. Hydroxylation of DPA and DPA derivatives during storage was not associated with scald control. Methoxylated DPA derivatives produced during storage resulted from O-methylation of C-hydroxylated derivatives rather than C-methoxylation of DPA. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine provided partial scald control, possibly resulting from its degradation to DPA, indicating that the amino hydrogen of DPA may be crucial for scald control. Results suggest that functional group position and chemical properties both contribute to the efficacy of DPA derivatives for scald control. PMID:16218691

  7. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun')

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydr...

  8. Water Deficit Effect on Ratio of Seed to Berry Fresh Weight and Berry Weight Uniformity in Winegrape cv. Merlot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field-grown grapevines cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) were differentially irrigated in a randomized block design during two growing seasons to maintain a high or low level of vine water stress between fruit set and harvest. Detached berries from clusters harvested at maturity were individually weig...

  9. Confirmation By QTL mapping Of The Malus Robusta (Cv. Robusta 5) derived powdery mildew resistance gene Pl1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has made extensive use of Malus robusta cv. Robusta 5 as a source of resistance to fire blight. Robusta 5 has also been used as the source of powdery mildew resistance by other breeding programs and a single locus Pl1 has been associated with this resist...

  10. Michael W. Cole (mwcole@mwcole.net) CV March 11, 2015 1 Michael W. Cole 197 University Ave.

    E-print Network

    Cole, Michael W.

    Michael W. Cole (mwcole@mwcole.net) ­ CV ­ March 11, 2015 1 Michael W. Cole 197 University Ave. Newark, NJ 07102 Phone: (314) 632-6536 E-mail: mwcole@mwcole.net Web: www.colelab.org Education 2009, with the interdisciplinary backgrounds, deep knowledge in chosen disciplines, and technical, professional, and personal

  11. Inherited transgene expression of the uidA and bar genes in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of two transgenes, bar and uidA, was studied in Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants. ‘Nellie White’ had been transformed using the gene gun to bombard with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. PCR analysis confirmed that eight ...

  12. High Efficiency Somatic Embrogenesis and Plant Regeneration in Suspension Cultures of an Ornamental Ginger Hybrid (Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants were successfully regenerated via somatic embryogenesis from shoot apex-derived callus of an ornamental ginger hybrid, Hedychium muluense x cv ‘Starburst’. H. muluense is a dwarf species and ‘Starburst’ is a hybrid cultivar with white and very fragrant flowers in a circular, wheel-like arrang...

  13. Abstract Embryogenic cultures of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Jack and Asgrow A2872] were established in

    E-print Network

    Parrott, Wayne

    Abstract Embryogenic cultures of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Jack and Asgrow A2872] were has been effective for the transformation of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] using microprojectile of soybean embryogenic cultures within their normal 2-week subculture period, and to determine if differences

  14. First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara halstedii on black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North American perennial black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida cv. ‘Goldsturm’) is an important nursery crop, prized by gardeners and landscapers for its persistent bloom and ease of cultivation. In September 2013 disease symptoms characteristic of downy mildew were observed from multiple plants a...

  15. Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion PV-related research at CvO University Oldenburg

    E-print Network

    Semiconductor Physics and Quantum Solar Energy Conversion PV-related research at CvO University Oldenburg GRECO Cvo UNI OL/ Nds.PV-Symp. 06-2009 semiconductor physics / quantum solar energy conversion energy and semiconductor research (EHF) amongst regular lectures Educational Programs (PPRE, EUREC) #12

  16. Wintercuring of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid in response to Xylella fastidiosa infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clonal replicates of Prunus dulcis cv ‘Butte,’ P. webbii and their interspecific hybrid P 63-61 were inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain M23 and evaluated for Almond Leaf Scorch Disease and subsequent wintercuring of infections during three growing seasons. Initial inoculations established gr...

  17. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified ?-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to ?-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  18. Abundance, major element composition and size of components and matrix in CV, CO and Acfer 094 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Brunner, Chelsea; Konrad, Kevin; Leftwich, Kristin; Erb, Isabelle; Lu, Muzhou; Rodriguez, Hugo; Crapster-Pregont, Ellen J.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The relative abundances and chemical compositions of the macroscopic components or "inclusions" (chondrules and refractory inclusions) and fine-grained mineral matrix in chondritic meteorites provide constraints on astrophysical theories of inclusion formation and chondrite accretion. We present new techniques for analysis of low count/pixel Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and Fe X-ray intensity maps of rock sections, and apply them to large areas of CO and CV chondrites, and the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. For many thousands of manually segmented and type-identified inclusions, we are able to assess, pixel-by-pixel, the major element content of each inclusion. We quantify the total fraction of refractory elements accounted for by various types of inclusion and matrix. Among CO chondrites, both matrix and inclusion Mg/Si ratios approach the solar (and bulk CO) ratio with increasing petrologic grade, but Si remains enriched in inclusions relative to matrix. The oxidized CV chondrites with higher matrix/inclusion ratios exhibit more severe aqueous alteration (oxidation), and their excess matrix accounts for their higher porosity relative to reduced CV chondrites. Porosity could accommodate an original ice component of matrix as the direct cause of local alteration of oxidized CV chondrites. We confirm that major element abundances among inclusions differ greatly, across a wide range of CO and CV chondrites. These abundances in all cases add up to near-chondritic (solar) bulk abundance ratios in these chondrites, despite wide variations in matrix/inclusion ratios and inclusion sizes: chondrite components are complementary. This complementarity provides a robust meteoritic constraint for astrophysical disk models.

  19. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development. PMID:12552151

  20. Unusual Dark Clasts in the Vigarano CV3 Chondrite: Record of Parent Body Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, T.; Tomeoka, K.; Takeda, H.

    1993-07-01

    A variety of dark lithic clasts have been reported from CV3 chondrites and are commonly called "dark inclusions" (DIs). The DIs widely range in texture from chondritic with chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) embedded in a matrix (similar to host meteorites), to fine-grained aggregates of Fe-rich olivine free of coarse-grained components [1,2]. The DIs have been interpreted to represent (1) primary aggregates of materials in the solar nebula [3-5] and (2) materials that were affected by thermal metamorphism on their parent bodies [6]. We present the results of petrographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of two unusual clasts found in the Vigarano CV3 chondrite. The two unusual clasts, which we will call CL1 and CL2, are approximately 1.2 x 1.0 mm^2 (CLl) and 0.8 x 0.6 mm^2 (CL2) and occur within one of the large clasts (2.8 x 1.0 mm^2). CL1 and CL2 have very similar mineralogies and textures; they contain irregular to oval-shaped inclusions consisting mostly of fine grains of Fe-rich olivine embedded in the matrix of the clasts, and are free of distinct chondrules, CAIs, and coarse mineral fragments. Thus, they resemble the fine-grained variety of DIs. Under the optical microscope, most inclusions resemble chondrules or chondrule fragments in shape and size. However, they are brownish-translucent in transmitted light and are clearly distinct from chondrules in the Vigarano host. The inclusions are characteristically flattened in direction, exhibiting apparent foliation. Our SEM observations reveal the following unusual characteristics: (1) the inclusions are not mere random aggregates of olivine grains but have peculiar internal textures, i.e., assemblies of round or oval-shaped outlines, which are suggestive of pseudomorphs after porphyritic or granular olivine chondrules; (2) one of the thick inclusion rims contains a network of vein-like strings of elongated olivine grains, (3) an Fe-Ni metal aggregate in CL1 has an Fe-, Ni-, S-rich halo, suggesting a reaction between its precursor and the surrounding matrix; and (4) olivine in the clasts commonly shows a swirly, fibrous texture similar to that of phyllosilicate. These characteristics are not reconciled with a primary (unprocessed) origin for the clasts but suggest that they were involved in a secondary process such as aqueous alteration. The fine grains of olivine in these clasts were presumably produced by thermal transformation of phyllosilicate. Serpentine is known to start transforming to olivine at >300 degrees C [7]. The inclusions in CL1 and CL2 resemble chondrules: Some of them are surrounded by distinctive rims similar to chondrule rims commonly seen in the carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, we believe that the precursor material of the clasts would have been related to some types of chondrites, possibly the Vigarano host itself, and that aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism occurred in the meteorite parent body. We suggest that some of the dark inclusions and clasts previously reported from CV3 chondrites and other types of meteorites may have origins common to these clasts in Vigarano. References: [1] Fruland R. M. et al. (1978) Proc. LPSC 9th, 1305-1329. [2] Johnson C. A. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 819-830. [3] Bischoff A. et al. (1988) LPSC XIX, 88-89. [4] Kurat G. (1989) Z. Naturforsch., 44a, 988-1004. [5] Palme H. (1989) Z. Naturforsch., 44a, 1005-1014. [6] Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1983) LPSC XIV, 75-76. [7] Akai J. (1992) Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites, 5, 120-135.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Chilean children.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Rosanna E; Muñoz, Alma E; Levine, Myron M; Lepetic, Alejandro; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Schuerman, Lode

    2011-05-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™) were assessed in 240 healthy Chilean children randomized to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV (PHiD-CV group) or hepatitis A vaccine (HAV control group) at 2-4-6 months of age. All were offered 1 HAV dose at 12 months (outside study). The PHiD-CV group received a second HAV dose at 18-21 months and PHiD-CV booster at 20-23 months. The HAV control group received 2 PHiD-CV catch-up doses at 18-21 and 20-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and pneumococcal antibody responses and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) were measured. Both PHiD-CV vaccination schedules were well tolerated and immunogenic against the pneumococcal vaccine serotypes and protein D. The reactogenicity of PHiD-CV primary, booster and catch-up doses was in line with previous PHiD-CV studies, although generally higher than with HAV. For each vaccine serotype, the percentage of subjects with antibody concentrations ?0.2 µg/ml (GSK's 22F-inhibition ELISA) was at least 93.2% following 3 PHiD-CV primary doses and at least 97.4% post-booster; percentages with OPA titers ?8 were at least 91.7% post-booster. After 2-dose catch-up, at least 94.3% of children had antibody concentrations ?0.2 µg/ml against each serotype except 6B (84.3%); at least 95.2% had OPA titers ?8 except against serotypes 1, 5 and 6B. In conclusion, the safety profiles of 2 PHiD-CV vaccination schedules (3-dose primary plus booster and 2-dose catch-up) were in line with previous studies and PHiD-CV was immunogenic for all 10 vaccine serotypes and protein D. PMID:21441782

  2. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese affected by esca disease.

    PubMed

    Agrelli, Diana; Amalfitano, Carmine; Conte, Pellegrino; Mugnai, Laura

    2009-12-23

    Chemical and spectroscopic analyses ((13)C cross-polarization-magic angle spinning NMR and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies) were carried out on the wood of Vitis vinifera cv. Sangiovese with brown-red discoloration and black streaks caused by esca disease. The analyses of the brown-red wood revealed the destruction of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose as well as modifications in the pectic and ligninic wood fractions. The pectic fraction consisted of carbohydrates associated with polyphenols. The lignin fraction exhibited only a few changes in the aromatic systems and a partial demethylation, and it appeared to be associated with condensed phenolic components probably arising from response polyphenols. The degradation of hemicelluloses and noncrystalline cellulose in brown-red wood, where the pathogens Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora prevail with respect to the other fungus Fomitiporia mediterranea, was consistent with reports on the degradative activity of such fungi in vitro carried out on model substrates. The observed alterations could also be attributed to the radical oxidation process caused by the oxidative response of defense itself triggered by infection, as suggested by the accumulation of postinfectional compounds. The analyses of wood tissue with black streaks showed less marked deterioration; here, an increase in pectic and phenolic substances, which probably accumulate in the xylem vessels as a response to the infection, was observed. PMID:19919033

  3. Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils cv. Leccino.

    PubMed

    Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938

  4. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  5. Biomonitoring of air pollution with mercury in Croatia by using moss species and CV-AAS.

    PubMed

    Spiri?, Zdravko; Vu?kovi?, Ivana; Stafilov, Traj?e; Kušan, Vladimir; Ba?eva, Katerina

    2014-07-01

    Moss samples from four dominant species (Hypnum cupressiforme, Pleurozium schreberi, Homalothecium sericeum and Brachythecium rutabulum) were collected during the summer and autumn of 2010 from 121 sampling sites evenly distributed over the territory of Croatia. Samples were totally digested by using microwave digestion system, whilst mercury was analysed by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). Descriptive statistics were done from analyses of mercury in all moss samples. The content of mercury ranged from 0.010 to 0.145 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 0.043 mg kg(-1). Hg distribution map shows the sites of the country with higher levels of this element. High contents of Hg were found in moss samples collected from the regions of Podravina and Istria as a result of anthropogenic pollution. Comparison of median values and ranges with those found in moss samples in 2006 shows slight reduction of mercury air pollution. When compared to the results obtained from recent studies conducted in Slovenia, Macedonia and especially in Norway-which serves as a reference considering the fact that it is a pristine area-mercury air pollution in Croatia is insignificant. PMID:24733436

  6. Transfer cell wall ingrowths and transport capacity in pea leaf discs. [Pisum sativum cv

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmers, L.E.; Turgeon, R.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer cell wall ingrowths are thought to increase transport capacity by increasing plasmelemma surface area. Little direct evidence for this hypothesis exists since experimental systems in which the surface area of wall ingrowths can be modulated have not been available. They grew Pisum sativum cv. Little Marvel plants under three light regimes (150, 500, 1000 umol photons m/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) using 1000 watt Sylvania Metal Halide lamps. Wall ingrowths in minor vein phloem parenchyma cells were analyzed morphometrically from electron micrographs and a positive correlation was found between light intensity and extent of wall ingrowths. Vein loading was assayed by floating abraded leaf discs on /sup 14/C-sucrose (1 mM). There was a positive correlation between uptake and transfer cell wall surface area, although the latter increased more than the former. No significant differences were found in vein length, numbers of phloem elements, or phloem cross sectional areas. Changes in light intensity after a leaf reached maturity did not change uptake potential over a period of at least three days.

  7. Germination and Plantlet Regeneration of Encapsulated Microshoots of Aromatic Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cv. MRQ 74)

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Saleh, Azani; Mahmad, Noraini; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Mohajer, Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Plant tissues such as somatic embryos, apical shoot tips, axillary shoot buds, embryogenic calli, and protocom-like bodies are potential micropropagules that have been considered for creating synthetic seeds. In the present study, 3–5?mm microshoots of Oryza sativa L. Cv. MRQ 74 were used as explant sources for obtaining synthetic seeds. Microshoots were induced from stem explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.5?mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP). They were encapsulated in 3% (w/v) sodium alginate, 3% sucrose, 0.1?mg/L BAP, and 0.1?mg/L ?-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Germination and plantlet regeneration of the encapsulated seeds were tested by culturing them on various germination media. The effect of storage period (15–30 days) was also investigated. The maximum germination and plantlet regeneration (100.0%) were recorded on MS media containing 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar with and without 0.1?mg/L BAP. However, a low germination rate (6.67%) was obtained using top soil as a sowing substrate. The germination rate of the encapsulated microshoots decreased from 93.33% to 3.33% after 30 days of storage at 4°C in the dark. Therefore, further research is being done to improve the germination rate of the synthetic seeds. PMID:22919338

  8. Sequence analysis of ORF IV RTBV isolated from tungro infected Oryza sativa L. cv Ciherang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastilestari, Bernadetta Rina; Astuti, Dwi; Estiati, Amy; Nugroho, Satya

    2015-09-01

    The Effort to increase rice production is often constrained by pest and disease such as Tungro. The Tungro disease is caused by the joint infection with two dissimilar viruses; a bacil-form-DNA virus, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus(RTBV) and the spherical RNA virus, Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and transmitted by Green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens). The symptom of disease is caused by the presence of RTBV. The genome of RTBV consists of four Open reading frames (ORFs) which encode functional proteins. Of the four, ORF IV is unique because it exists only in RTBV. The most efficient method of generating disease resistance plants is to look for natural sources of resistance genes in wild or germplasm and then transfer the gene and the accompanying resistance in cultivated crop varieties. The aim of this study is, therefore, to isolate and analyze of 1170 bp gene of ORF 4 of Tungro virus isolated from an Indonesian rice cultivar, Ciherang (Oryza sativa L. cv Indica). DNA sequencing analysis using BLAST showed 94% similarity with the reference sequence gen bank Acc.M65026.1. The comparisons and mutation analysis of DNA sequences were discussed in this research.

  9. Acylated anthocyanins from sprouts of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango: isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Matera, Riccardo; Gabbanini, Simone; Berretti, Serena; Amorati, Riccardo; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Valgimigli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Little is known on structure-activity relationships of antioxidant anthocyanins. Raphanus sativus cv Sango sprouts are among the richest sources (270 mg/100 g fresh weight). We isolated from sprouts' juice 9 acylated anthocyanins, including 4 new compounds. All comprise a cyanidin core bearing 3-4 glucose units, multiply acylated with malonic and phenolic acids (ferulic and sinapic). All compounds were equally effective in inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid in aqueous micelles, with rate constant for trapping peroxyl radicals kinh=(3.8 ± 0.7) × 10(4)M(-1)s(-1) at 37 °C. In acetonitrile solution kinh varied with acylation: (0.9-2.1) × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at 30 °C. Each molecule trapped a number n of peroxyl radicals ranging from 4 to 7. Anthocyanins bearing sinapic acid were more effective than those bearing the ferulic moiety. Under identical settings, deacylated cyanin, ferulic and sinapic acids had kinh of 0.4 × 10(5), 0.3 × 10(5) and 1.6 × 10(5)M(-1)s(-1) respectively, with n ranging 2-3. Results show the major role of acylation on antioxidant performance. PMID:25053073

  10. Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (cv. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F. L.

    2008-12-01

    Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of cv. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system, a sustained deficit (SDI)treatment B received 60% of crop evapotranspiration, a regulated deficit(RDI) irrigation treatment C received irrigation water before-flowering and just before pit-hardening, and a Dry-farming treatment. Tree and orchard transpiration and the dynamics of water uptake by roots were estimated from sap flow measurements and water balance technique. Stomatal conductance was modeled from local meteorological variables, measured sap flow and tree canopy variables. Higher than treatment A and B stomatal conductance and the high tree fruit production recommend treatment C as most suitable for scheduling irrigation of olive orchards in wet years of well distributed late summer rainfall. For drier years of no summer and early autumn rains that minimizes available water to extract by roots outside the wet bulb of drip irrigation and for the scarce readily available irrigation water years, as so often occurs in the region, the sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) regime seems a better option. Nonetheless, for years of limited available water resources that preclude sustained deficit irrigation, careful management of the proposed RDI could also allow for efficient use of irrigation water.

  11. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Dennis H.; Weedon, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40°C for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield, and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate of ripening by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly threefold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimize the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality. PMID:24348494

  12. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  13. G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and CV fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (CV). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson–Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971

  14. Impacts of strigolactone on shoot branching under phosphate starvation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba)

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Lin; Wen, Chao; Fang, Shuang; Chen, Xiaoli; Nie, Jing; Chu, JinFang; Yuan, Cunquan; Yan, Cunyu; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jinba) shoot branching is determined by bud outgrowth during the vegetative growth stage. The degree of axillary bud outgrowth is highly influenced by environmental conditions, such as nutrient availability. Here, we demonstrated that phosphorus (Pi) starvation significantly reduces axillary bud outgrowth in chrysanthemum. A strigolactone (SL) biosynthesis gene, DgCCD7, was isolated and characterized as an ortholog of MAX3/DAD3/RMS5/D17. By using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), three putative SLs were identified and levels of all three SLs showed strong increase under Pi starvation conditions. Determinations of the distribution of SLs and regulation of DgCCD7/8 in response to Pi changes in root indicate that SL acts systemically. However, temporal expression patterns of biosynthesis and signaling genes in nodes revealed that Pi starvation causes a local response of SL pathway. Treatment of node segments with or without auxin and Pi revealed that in the absence of exogenous auxin, Pi delayed axillary buds outgrowth and up-regulated local SL pathway genes. These data indicated that an auxin-SL regulatory loop responded to Pi starvation for delaying bud outgrowth locally, root biosynthesized SLs were transported acropetally and functioned in shoot branching inhibition under Pi starvation. We proposed that SLs contributed to chrysanthemum shoot branching control in response to Pi-limiting conditions in a systemic way. PMID:26442011

  15. Characterization of Fusarium wilt resistant somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali by cDNA-RAPD.

    PubMed

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is counted among the most destructive diseases of crop plants in India. In the absence of any credible control measure to manage this disease, development of resistant cultivars is the best option. Somaclonal variations arising out of long term in vitro culture of plant tissues is an important source of genetic variability and the selection of somaclones having desired characteristics is a promising strategy to develop plants with improved characters. In the present study, we isolated a group of somaclonal variants of banana cv. Rasthali which showed efficient resistance towards Foc race 1 infection in repeated bioassays. cDNA-RAPD methodology using 96 decamer primers was used to characterize these somaclonal variants. Among the four differentially amplified bands obtained, one mapping to the coding region of a lipoxygenase gene was confirmed to be down regulated in the somaclones as compared to controls by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results correlated well with earlier studies with lipoxygenase mutants in maize wherein reduced expression of lipoxygenase led to enhanced resistance towards Fusarium infection. PMID:25160909

  16. Purification and autolysis of the ficin isoforms from fig (Ficus carica cv. Sabz) latex.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hamid; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Salami, Maryam; Mirzaei, Morteza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Sheibani, Nader

    2013-03-01

    Ficin (EC 3.4.22.3), a cysteine endoproteolytic protease in fig trees' latex, has multiple isoforms. Until now, no data on autolysis of individual ficins (ficin isoforms) are available. Following purification, ficins' autolysis was determined by HPLC chromatogram changes and ultrafiltrations at different temperatures and storage times. These results showed that the number of HPLC peaks in latex proteins purification of Ficus carica cv. Sabz varied from previous fig varieties or cultivars. Proteolytic activity of ficins was inhibited by specific cysteine protease inhibitors, confirming the participation of the cysteine residue in the active site. The zeta potential of the first two eluted peaks (I and II) was negative, while that of other peaks were positive. All ficins were susceptible to autolysis when stored at high temperatures. In contrast, only the last two ficins (B, C) were prone to autolysis at cold temperature after long storage period. The rate of degradation of the ficins was significantly increased with the increased storage time. The ficin (A) related to peak (III) had the highest and the lowest surface hydrophobic patches and ratio of autolytic to proteolytic activity, respectively. PMID:23312458

  17. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation. PMID:25796713

  18. G-quadruplex formation in double strand DNA probed by NMM and CV fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Sanoica, Janet; Cullum, Emily; Tipanna, Ramreddy; Myong, Sua

    2015-09-18

    G-quadruplexes (GQs) are alternative DNA secondary structures that can form throughout the human genome and control the replication and transcription of important regulatory genes. Here, we established an ensemble fluorescence assay by employing two GQ-interacting compounds, N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) and Crystal Violet (CV). This enables quantitative measurement of the GQ folding propensity and conformation specificity in both single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA. Our GQ mapping indicates that the likelihood of GQ formation is substantially diminished in dsDNA, likely due to the competition from the Watson-Crick base pairing. Unlike GQ folding sequence in ssDNA which forms both parallel and antiparallel GQs, dsDNA displays only parallel folding. Additionally, we employed single molecule FRET to obtain a direct quantitation of stably formed-, weakly folded and unfolded GQ conformations. The findings of this study and the method developed here will enable identifying and classifying potential GQ-forming sequences in human genome. PMID:26202971

  19. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas)

    PubMed Central

    Zufferey, V.; Cochard, H.; Ameglio, T.; Spring, J.-L.; Viret, O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (gs), petiole hydraulic conductance (Kpetiole), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (?x) of –0.95?MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a ?x of –1.5?MPa. Kpetiole described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's Kpetiole levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70–90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a ‘hydraulic fuse’, thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in Kpetiole and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  20. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    PubMed

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants. PMID:16604461

  1. Structural Insight into Cell Wall Architecture of Micanthus sinensis cv. using Correlative Microscopy Approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianfeng; Lv, Xunli; Yang, Shumin; Tian, Genlin; Liu, Xing'e

    2015-10-01

    Structural organization of the plant cell wall is a key parameter for understanding anisotropic plant growth and mechanical behavior. Four imaging platforms were used to investigate the cell wall architecture of Miscanthus sinensis cv. internode tissue. Using transmission electron microscopy with potassium permanganate, we found a great degree of inhomogeneity in the layering structure (4-9 layers) of the sclerenchymatic fiber (Sf). However, the xylem vessel showed a single layer. Atomic force microscopy images revealed that the cellulose microfibrils (Mfs) deposited in the primary wall of the protoxylem vessel (Pxv) were disordered, while the secondary wall was composed of Mfs oriented in parallel in the cross and longitudinal section. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy images indicated no variation in the Mf orientation of Pxv and the Mfs in Pxv were oriented more perpendicular to the cell axis than that of Sfs. Based on the integrated results, we have proposed an architectural model of Pxv composed of two layers: an outermost primary wall composed of a meshwork of Mfs and inner secondary wall containing parallel Mfs. This proposed model will support future ultrastructural analysis of plant cell walls in heterogeneous tissues, an area of increasing scientific interest particularly for liquid biofuel processing. PMID:26358178

  2. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  3. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  4. Purification and Characterization of a Lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. (Anasazi Beans)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arishya; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Lin, Peng

    2009-01-01

    A lectin has been isolated from seeds of the Phaseolus vulgaris cv. “Anasazi beans” using a procedure that involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)-ion exchange chromatography on Mono S, and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex 200. The lectin was comprised of two 30-kDa subunits with substantial N-terminal sequence similarity to other Phaseolus lectins. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was stable within the pH range of 1–14 and the temperature range of 0–80°C. The lectin potently suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells with an IC50 of 1.3 ?M, and inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 7.6 ?M. The lectin evoked a mitogenic response from murine splenocytes as evidenced by an increase in [3H-methyl]-thymidine incorporation. The lectin had no antifungal activity. It did not stimulate nitric oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages. Chemical modification results indicated that tryptophan was crucial for the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. PMID:19343172

  5. Phenolics from strawberry cv. Falandi and their antioxidant and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Xie, Haihui; Jiang, Yueming; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2016-03-01

    Three new phenolic glucosides, falandiosides A (1), B (2), and C (6) were isolated from strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) cv. Falandi fruit, together with three flavone glucuronides (3-5), eleven lignan glycosides (12-22), and five others. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All the known phenolics were reported from strawberry for the first time. They were evaluated for antioxidant and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Three new and fifteen known phenolics showed potent 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity with IC50 values of 22.50-4.28?M in comparison to l-ascorbic acid (14.21?M). Quercetin 3-(6-methylglucuronide) (4), (+)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (12), and (-)-isolariciresinol 9'-glucoside (13) were active in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. Moreover, compounds 12 and 13 had moderate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values. Further, two new and seven known phenolics exhibited more potent ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 537.43-25.39?M than acarbose (619.94?M). PMID:26471628

  6. Hydrolysis of Conjugated Gibberellins by ?-Glucosidases from Dwarf Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. «Tan-ginbozu»).

    PubMed

    Schliemann, W

    1984-09-01

    Dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. «Tan-ginbozu») is widely used for gibberellin conjugate bioassay. Soluble and particulate fractions from seeds and seedlings of this variety showed hydrolytic activity toward [(3)H]GA-O-Glc. The soluble fraction from mature seeds exhibited the highest [(3)H]GA-O-Glc/pNP-?-Glc hydrolysis ratio which decreased during the early germination phase. The soluble ?-glucosidases from mature seeds were efficiently separated by CMSephadex C-50 column chromatography. It was found that the most active ?-glucosidase CM 1 from seeds hydrolyses GA(8)-O-2-Glc 8 times faster than GA(3)-O-3-Glc and GA(3) Glc ester. In shoots of 4-d-old etiolated seedlings a soluble ?-glucosidase (CM 4) is present which showed a 200 times faster hydrolysis of GA(8)-O-2-Glc as compared to GA(3)-O-3-Glc. Both the ?-glucosidase CM 4 and the main ?-glucosidase component CM 5 possessed relatively high GA(3) Glc ester hydrolysing activity. Our enzymatic findings demonstrate that in dwarf rice bioassay (leaf application) the GA-OGlc with equatorially arranged glucosyl residues (O-2-glucosides of GA(8), GA(26), GA(27), and GA(29)) and GA Glc esters are hydrolysed by the concerted action of the endogenous a-glucosidases CM 4 and CM 5 from shoots. PMID:23195047

  7. The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in CV Velorum

    E-print Network

    Albrecht, Simon; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As part of the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of $\\beta_{\\rm p} = -52\\pm6^{\\circ}$ and $\\beta_{\\rm s}= 3\\pm7^{\\circ}$ for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V $+$ B2.5V, $P=6.9$ d). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds ($v \\sin i_{\\star}$) over the last $30$ years, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is $\\approx65^{\\circ}$, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about $140$ years. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the $v \\sin i_{\\star}$. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronge...

  8. The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV Velorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Triaud, Amaury; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-01

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of ?p = -52° ± 6° and ?s = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i sstarf) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ?65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i sstarf. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time.

  9. The BANANA project. V. Misaligned and precessing stellar rotation axes in CV Velorum

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Triaud, Amaury; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Setiawan, Johny; Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuel; Queloz, Didier; Snellen, Ignas; Eggleton, Peter

    2014-04-20

    As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of ?{sub p} = –52° ± 6° and ?{sub s} = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i {sub *}) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ?65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i {sub *}. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary.

  10. Sink to Source Transition in Tendrils of a Semileafless Mutant, Pisum sativum cv Curly 1

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Richard; Gerrath, Jean M.; Peterson, Carol A.; Grodzinski, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    Sink to source transition parallels loss of thigmotropic capacity in tendrils of a semileafless mutant, Pisum sativum cv Curly. Macroscopic tendril development is subdivided based on thigmotropic capacity. Stage I is the elongation stage and, although the rate of photosynthesis is similar to that of stage II and III tendrils, dark respiration rates are higher in stage I. During stage II, tendrils are thigmotropic and act as a sink. Even though stage II tendrils have CO2 exchange characteristics similar to those of stage III tendrils, which are coiled, our fluorescein, 14C-partitioning, and 11C-translocation experiments suggest that stage I and II tendrils do not export carbon. Only stage III tendrils act as sources of newly fixed carbon. Export from them is blocked by cold, heat girdling of the petiole, or anoxia treatment of the tendrils. A late stage II tendril complex, in which coiling is occurring, may be exporting photoassimilates; however, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fact that the pea leaf is a compound structure and there may be one or more stage III tendrils, no longer thigmotropic, within the tendril complex. Photosynthetic maturity in pea tendrils occurs at stage III and is characterized by the ability of these tendrils to export photoassimilates. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653179

  11. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10?mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30?min, ethanol (1?g or 2?g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2?3- ?and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(?) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification. PMID:22451246

  12. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  13. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  15. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  16. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  17. Effects of Colonization of the Roots of Domestic Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Amaroo) by Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Constantinoiu, Constantin; Gardiner, Christopher; Warner, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. cv Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. cv Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen. PMID:25911477

  18. Improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in mice consuming sour cherry juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska).

    PubMed

    Sari?, Ana; Sobocanec, Sandra; Balog, Tihomir; Kusi?, Borka; Sverko, Visnja; Dragovi?-Uzelac, Verica; Levaj, Branka; Cosi?, Zrinka; Macak Safranko, Zeljka; Marotti, Tatjana

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation tested the in vivo antioxidant efficacy (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase; Gpx), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and anti-inflammatory properties (cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2) of sour cherry juices obtained from an autochthonous cultivar (Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska) that is grown in coastal parts of Croatia. Antioxidant potential was tested in mouse tissue (blood, liver, and brain), LPO (liver, brain) and anti-inflammatory properties in glycogen elicited macrophages. Additionally, the concentration of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and total anthocyanins present in Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice was determined. Mice were randomly divided into a control group (fed with commercial food pellets) and 2 experimental groups (fed with commercial food pellets with 10% or 50% of cherry juice added). Among the anthocyanins, the cyanidin-3-glucoside was present in the highest concentration. These results show antioxidant action of cherry juice through increased SOD (liver, blood) and Gpx (liver) activity and decreased LPO concentration. The study highlights cherry juice as a potent COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant in the liver and blood of mice, but not in the brain. Thus, according to our study, Prunus cerasus cv. Maraska cherry juice might potentially be used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory product with beneficial health-promoting properties. PMID:19763832

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Agustín E.; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A.; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10–18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) in Chilean Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Agustín E; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Piqueras, José A; Vera-Villarroel, Pablo; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in the development of assessment tools for obsessive-compulsive symptomatology in children and adolescents. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) is a well-established assessment self-report, with special interest for the assessment of dimensions of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This instrument has shown to be useful for clinical and non-clinical populations in two languages (English and European Spanish). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the OCI-CV in a Chilean community sample. The sample consisted of 816 children and adolescents with a mean age of 14.54 years (SD = 2.21; range = 10-18 years). Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent/divergent validity, and gender/age differences were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a 6-factor structure (Doubting/Checking, Obsessing, Hoarding, Washing, Ordering, and Neutralizing) with one second-order factor. Good estimates of reliability (including internal consistency and test-retest), evidence supporting the validity, and small age and gender differences (higher levels of OCD symptomatology among older participants and women, respectively) are found. The OCI-CV is also an adequate scale for the assessment of obsessions and compulsions in a general population of Chilean children and adolescents. PMID:26317404

  1. Quantifying the Deformation of Leoville Chondrules in 3D: Implications for the Post-Accretional History of the CV3 Parent Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, N. V.; Smith, C. L.; Sykes, D.; Downes, H.; Ahmed, F.; Russell, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    Micro-CT scanning allows for the three-dimensional analysis of both degree of deformation and direction of preferred orientation of chondrules in the Leoville CV3 meteorite, indicating post-accretional impact as the cause for the foliation.

  2. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO): 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV 26.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hills, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Lightcurves for five asteroids selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) were obtained at Riverland Dingo Observatory (RDO) from 2012 July-September: 501 Urhixidur, 1897 Hind, 1928 Summa, 6261 Chione, and (68216) 2001 CV26.

  3. Establishment of regeneration and transformation system in Egyptian sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cv Sohag 1.

    PubMed

    Al-Shafeay, Amal F; Ibrahim, Ahmed S; Nesiem, Mohamed R; Tawfik, Mohamed S

    2011-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important oil crop in many tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, yet has received little attention in applying modern biotechnology in its improvement due to regeneration and transformation difficulties. Here within, we report the successful production of transgenic fertile plants of sesame (cv Sohag 1), after screening several cultivars. Agrobacterium tumefaciens- carrying the pBI121 plasmid {neomycin phosphotransferase gene (NPTII) and a ?-glucuronidase gene (GUS)} was used in all experiments. Recovery of transgenic sesame shoots was achieved using shoot induction medium (Murashige and Skoog MS basal salt mixture + Gamborg's B5 vitamins + 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 5.0 mg/l AgNO3 + 30.0 g/l sucrose + 7.0 g/l agar + 200 mg/l cefotaxime and 25 mg/l kanamycin) and shoots were rooted on MS medium + B5 vitamins + 1.0 mg/l IAA + 10.0 g/l sucrose and 7.0 g/l agar. Rooted shoots were transplanted into soil and grown to maturity in greenhouse. Incorporation and expression of the GUS gene into T0 sesame plants was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and GUS histochemical assay. Several factors were found to be important for regeneration and transformation in sesame. The most effective were plant genotype and the addition of AgNO3 for successful recovery of sesame shoots. Co-cultivation time and optical density of the Agrobacterium were also critical for sesame transformation. This work is an attempt to open the door for further genetic improvement of sesame using important agronomic traits. PMID:22179191

  4. Scale-Dependent Measurements of Meteorite Strength and Fragmentation: Tamdakht (H5) and Allende (CV3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Asphaug, Erik; Garvie, Laurence; Morris, Melissa; Rai, Ashwin; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2015-11-01

    Meteorites are pieces of natural space debris, which have survived ejection from their parent bodies and passage through the Earth’s atmosphere. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study the fundamental physical and mechanical properties of early Solar System materials. But to date, few direct studies of physical properties have been conducted on meteoritic materials, in contrast to extensive chemical and isotopic analyses. It is important to determine these properties as they are related to disruption and fragmentation of bolides and asteroids, and activities related to sample return and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Here we present results from an ongoing suite of scale-dependent studies of meteorite strength and fragmentation. The meteorites studied are Tamdakht (H5), an ordinary chondrite that exhibits a heterogeneous structure criss-crossed with shock veins and centimeter-sized regions of white and light grey, and the carbonaceous chondrite Allende (CV3), which suitable pieces are light grey with abundant chondrules and CAIs. Uniaxial compression tests are performed on meteorite cubes ranging from 0.5 to 4 centimeters using an Instron 5985 frame with a 250 kN load cell and compression fixtures with 145mm diameter radial platens. All tests are conducted at room temperature and in displacement control with a displacement rate of 0.25 mm per minute to ensure quasi-static conditions. A three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) system that enables noncontact measurement of displacement and strain fields is also used. Analysis of the strength and failure process of the two meteorite types is conducted and compared to terrestrial materials.

  5. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  6. Nature and origin of interstellar diamond from the Allende CV3 meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, David; Freund, Friedemann; Bunch, Ted; Krishnan, Kannan; Stampfer, Mitch; Chang, Sherwood; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1990-01-01

    Data and experimental evidence which support the contention that the C delta diamonds may result from grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks in the interstellar medium are presented. Fragments of the Allende CV3 chondrite were acid-treated. A whitish powder was obtained. For the Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) a small drop of ethanol suspension was transferred onto holey carbon support films on 3 mm EM grids. The AEM was performed on transmission-thin fragments of the material which overlay holes in the film, to eliminate interference from the substrate. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was performed on a large aliquot of C. Diamond was identified by selected area electron diffraction. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray (STEM-EDS) microanalyses of the C delta diamond, using a light-element detector, show that oxygen and possibly nitrogen are the only impurities consistently present. ESCA spectra from bulk C delta material confirm the presence of N at a level of 0.35 percent or less. Under UV irradiation a yellow-red fluorescence is observed, consistent with that of natural diamonds containing substitutional N. Electron Energy Loss Spectra (EELS) were recorded at 2 eV resolution from the C delta diamond, high pressure synthetic diamond, a diamond film produced in a low pressure plasma by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a heated silicon substrate (Roy, 1987), graphite, and amorphous arc sputtered carbon. Comparison of the carbon K edge shape and fine structure shows the Allende C delta phase to be largely diamond, but with a significant pre-edge absorption feature indicative of transitions of C 1s electrons into pi asterisk orbitals which are absent in the purely sp(3)-bonded diamond but present in graphite and amorphous carbon.

  7. Diurnal cycles of embolism formation and repair in petioles of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Chasselas).

    PubMed

    Zufferey, V; Cochard, H; Ameglio, T; Spring, J-L; Viret, O

    2011-07-01

    The impact of water deficit on stomatal conductance (g(s)), petiole hydraulic conductance (K(petiole)), and vulnerability to cavitation (PLC, percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity) in leaf petioles has been observed on field-grown vines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas). Petioles were highly vulnerable to cavitation, with a 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity at a stem xylem water potential (?(x)) of -0.95?MPa, and up to 90% loss of conductivity at a ?(x) of -1.5?MPa. K(petiole) described a daily cycle, decreasing during the day as water stress and evapotranspiration increased, then rising again in the early evening up to the previous morning's K(petiole) levels. In water-stressed vines, PLC increased sharply during the daytime and reached maximum values (70-90%) in the middle of the afternoon. Embolism repair occurred in petioles from the end of the day through the night. Indeed, PLC decreased in darkness in water-stressed vines. PLC variation in irrigated plants showed the same tendency, but with a smaller amplitude. The Chasselas cultivar appears to develop hydraulic segmentation, in which petiole cavitation plays an important role as a 'hydraulic fuse', thereby limiting leaf transpiration and the propagation of embolism and preserving the integrity of other organs (shoots and roots) during water stress. In the present study, progressive stomatal closure responded to a decrease in K(petiole) and an increase in cavitation events. Almost total closure of stomata (90%) was measured when PLC in petioles reached >90%. PMID:21447755

  8. Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea boom in the characterization of air pollution by accumulation of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Sumita, Nairo Massakazu; Mendes, Maria Elizabete; Macchione, Mariangela; Guimarães, Eliane Tigre; de Lichtenfels, Ana Julia Faria Coimbra; de Lobo, Débora-Jã Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilárlo Nascimento; Saiki, Mitiko

    2003-05-01

    Tradescantia pallida cv. purpurea, a plant species widely employed for ornamentation in Brazil, has been successfully used for monitoring the genotoxicity of various agents by the micronucleus assay. To amplify knowledge about its suitability as a bioindicator species, its capacity for accumulating trace elements from urban air pollution was evaluated. T. pallida was rooted using standardized soil, and the vases were distributed in two highly polluted sites of the urban area of São Paulo, Brazil (Cerqueira Cesar and Congonhas districts), and in one unpolluted control site situated approximately 50 km from downtown São Paulo (in Caucaia do Alto). Approximately six months after exposure to pollutants, adult leaves of this plant were collected monthly for 12 months. The leaves were washed with deionized water, dried, and ground for analyses. Characterization of element levels was carried out by neutron activation analysis. Powdered samples and standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for short and long periods, and concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, and Zn were determined. Analysis of variance applied to the results indicated that samples from polluted sites present the highest concentrations of Ba, Ce, Cr, Co, Fe, La, Sb, and Sc (p < 0.05). Discriminant analysis revealed that it was possible to distinguish the two polluted areas with a precision of 97.5%, based on the amount of pollutant elements measured in the plants at each site. The results indicated the potential use of T. pallida as an accumulator plant for air pollution biomonitoring. PMID:12774990

  9. Effects of host demography, season and rainfall on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of free-living elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Ogwiji, M; Kumshe, H A

    2013-10-15

    The effects of host demography, rainfall and season on the prevalence and parasitic load of gastrointestinal parasites of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) of the Chad Basin National Park were determined for the first time. Out of the 274 elephants examined, 36.86% were infected. Of the 178 males examined, 35.96% harboured Strongyloides, Coccidia and Strongyles with worm burdens of 75.6 +/- 0.3, 125.2 +/- 1.4 and 420.2 +/- 0.1, respectively. Among the males, the larvae of Strongyloides papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides while Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Murshidia species and Oesophagostomum columbianum were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Those infected with Coccidia yielded Eimeria bovis. Of the 96 females examined, 38.54% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyles with 102.2 +/- 0.7 Oocysts per Gram of faeces (OPG) and 360.2 +/- 0.1 Eggs per Gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. The helminth larvae recovered from the females infected with Strongyles were; H. contortus, O. columbianum and Murshidia species, while those infected with Coccidia yielded E. bovis. Out of the 213 adults examined, 27.23% were infected with Strongyloides and Strongyles with 187.3 +/- 0.4 and 208.4 +/- 0.1 EPG, respectively. The larvae of S. papillosus were recovered from those infected with Strongyloides, while the larvae of H. contortus, O. columbianum, T. colubriformis and Murshidia were recovered from those infected with Strongyles. Of the 61 young examined, 70.49% were infected with Coccidia and Strongyloides with OPG of 88.4 +/- 0.2 and EPG of 624.4 +/- 0.2. The elephants were mostly infected in the rainy season. The worm burden and prevalence according to sex and age were highest in August. The males and young were more infected than their counterparts. In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic factors played a role on the prevalence and worm burden of gastrointestinal parasites of elephants of the Chad Basin National Park. PMID:24506015

  10. A secondary origin of chondrule magnetization in the Allende CV carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carporzen, L.; Fu, R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Weiss, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar nebula may have played a key role in the radial transport of angular momentum and mass during the early accretional phase of the solar system. Chondrules and many calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), millimeter sized silicate objects found in most chondritic meteorites, were heated to high temperatures and cooled in the nebula and therefore may have recorded a thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) from the nebula field. Additionally, primitive magnetization in chondrules and CAIs may yield constraints about their mode of formation. However, any such primary magnetization may have been significantly altered during subsequent metamorphism and aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid. We performed two tests to determine the nebular origins of remanent magnetization in chondrules and refractory inclusions in the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite: 1) a classic paleomagnetic conglomerate test to identify post-accretional remagnetization events and 2) a unidirectionality test of subsamples taken from individual chondrules and CAIs. We conducted individual measurements of mutually oriented chondrules, CAIs, and matrix as well as SQUID microscope maps of the magnetic fields of 30 ?m thin sections. All samples and thin sections were mutually oriented to within 5°. Our results confirm previous findings that all subsamples of the meteorite carry a unidirectional overprint blocked up to 260°-290°C (MT component). Chondrules and CAIs also carry a higher temperature (HT) remanence oriented in scattered directions unrelated to the direction of the MT overprint. We have confirmed that this HT magnetization is not an artifact of the demagnetization procedure but is a preterrestrial component. Measurements of subsamples of single chondrules and CAIs show that the HT magnetization is not unidirectional within each inclusion. Petrographic data suggests that most magnetic minerals in Allende were the product of parent body alteration. These facts suggest that the magnetization in Allende chondrules and CAIs is not a preaccretional TRM and is unlikely to record the nebular field. We suggest that preaccretional remanence in Allende material was destroyed by aqueous alteration and metasomatism, which was followed or coincident with metamorphism that introduced the MT overprint. The HT component we detect may represent a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) acquired during aqueous alteration.

  11. Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight) averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions, indicating that the use of the beneficial bacterial endophytes may boost switchgrass growth on marginal lands and significantly contribute to the development of a low input and sustainable feedstock production system. PMID:22647367

  12. Opaque Mineral Assemblages at Chondrule Boundaries in the Vigarano CV Chondrite: Evidence for Gas-Solid Reactions Following Chondrule Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, Dante S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of opaque minerals in primitive ordinary chondrites suggest that metal grains exposed at chondrule boundaries were corroded when volatile elements recondensed after the transient heating event responsible for chondrule formation. Metal grains at chondrule boundaries in the Bishunpur (LL3.1) chondrite are rimmed by troilite and fayalite. If these layers formed by gas solid reaction, then the composition of the corrosion products can provide information on the chondrule formation environment. Given the broad similarities among chondrules from different chondrite groups, similar scale layers should occur on chondrules in other primitive meteorite groups. Here I report on metal grains at chondrule boundaries in Vigarano (CV3).

  13. Problemas para dormir

    Cancer.gov

    Dormir bien es importante para su salud física y mental. Un buen sueño en la noche no solo le ayuda a pensar claramente, también le baja su presión arterial, ayuda su apetito y fortalece su sistema inmunitario.

  14. ParaSITE

    E-print Network

    Rakowitz, Michael

    1998-01-01

    paraSITE proposes the appropriation of exterior ventilation systems on existing architecture to inflate pneumatic shelters that are designed for homeless people. This project involves the production of a series of inflatable ...

  15. Summer pruning: an ecological alternative to postharvest calcium treatment to improve storability of high quality apple cv. 'Reinette du Canada'.

    PubMed

    Guerra, M; Casquero, P A

    2010-08-01

    Two strategies, summer pruning and postharvest Ca treatment, were studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. 'Reinette du Canada' in order to analyze its effect on the fruit quality during storage. Summer pruning and Ca treatment reduced external and internal bitter-pits; so after 180 days of storage, both treatments decreased external bitter-pit by 10.0% and 16.7%, respectively. Summer pruning influenced color, firmness, total soluble solids and titratable acidity (TA) of fruit during storage, whereas Ca treatment only affected firmness and TA. Fruit from pruned trees had significant lower K and Mg than those from unpruned trees and Ca treatment increased Ca content. Orchard management, by means of summer pruning, combined with Ca postharvest application would be useful to prevent losses due to bitter-pit during storage in commercial orchards. However, in organic orchards, summer pruning would be the ecological alternative to decrease bitter-pit incidence during storage in high quality apple cv. 'Reinette du Canada'. K/Ca ratio, on the peel at harvest, turned out to be the best parameter to correlate with external and internal bitter-pits during storage; so this ratio would be useful to predict bitter-pit on long-term storage. PMID:21339152

  16. Studies on quality and vase life of cut Gerbera jamesonii cv. 'Balance' flowers by silver nanoparticles and chlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Safa, Zakieh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Kaviani, Behzad; Nikchi, Narges; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    Cut gerbera flowers are sensitive to microbial contamination and have a short vase life. Silver nanoparticles are used in various applications as an antimicrobial agent. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of SNP and chlorophenol to extend the vase life and postharvest quality of gerbera (Gerberajamesonii cv. 'Balance') cut flowers. Cut gerbera flowers were kept in solutions containing 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) SNP and/or 0, 5 and 10 mM chlorophenol for 24 hr; then held in vase solution containing 250 mg l(-1) 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate and 3% sucrose. The maximum vase life (16.33 days) was observed in flowers held in solution containing 10 mg l(-1) SNP. The 5 mg l(-1) SNP plus 10 mM chlorophenol and 10 mg l(-1) SNP plus 5 mM chlorophenol inhibited bacterial growth in the vase solution. The minimum fresh weight loss (6.48 gr) during the vase period was observed for flowers kept in solution containing 20 mg l(-1)1 SNP. The results revealed that SNP and chlorophenol have the potential to extend vase life and enhanc the postharvest quality of cut gerbera cv. 'Balance' flowers. PMID:25895266

  17. Processor core for real time background identification of HD video based on OpenCV Gaussian mixture model algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, Mariangela; Napoli, Ettore

    2013-05-01

    The identification of moving objects is a fundamental step in computer vision processing chains. The development of low cost and lightweight smart cameras steadily increases the request of efficient and high performance circuits able to process high definition video in real time. The paper proposes two processor cores aimed to perform the real time background identification on High Definition (HD, 1920 1080 pixel) video streams. The implemented algorithm is the OpenCV version of the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), an high performance probabilistic algorithm for the segmentation of the background that is however computationally intensive and impossible to implement on general purpose CPU with the constraint of real time processing. In the proposed paper, the equations of the OpenCV GMM algorithm are optimized in such a way that a lightweight and low power implementation of the algorithm is obtained. The reported performances are also the result of the use of state of the art truncated binary multipliers and ROM compression techniques for the implementation of the non-linear functions. The first circuit has commercial FPGA devices as a target and provides speed and logic resource occupation that overcome previously proposed implementations. The second circuit is oriented to an ASIC (UMC-90nm) standard cell implementation. Both implementations are able to process more than 60 frames per second in 1080p format, a frame rate compatible with HD television.

  18. Petrology, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of aluminum-rich chondrules from CV3 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Hsu, Weibiao; Li, Xianhua; Li, Qiuli; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guoqiang

    2015-12-01

    Bulk major element composition, petrography, mineralogy, and oxygen isotope compositions of twenty Al-rich chondrules (ARCs) from five CV3 chondrites (Northwest Africa [NWA] 989, NWA 2086, NWA 2140, NWA 2697, NWA 3118) and the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite were studied and compared with those of ferromagnesian chondrules and refractory inclusions. Most ARCs are marginally Al-richer than ferromagnesian chondrules with bulk Al2O3 of 10-15 wt%. ARCs are texturally similar to ferromagnesian chondrules, composed primarily of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, spinel, Al-rich glass, and metallic phases. Minerals in ARCs have intermediate compositions. Low-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.6-8.8Wo0.7-9.3) has much higher Al2O3 and TiO2 contents (up to 12.5 and 2.3 wt%, respectively) than that in ferromagnesian chondrules. High-Ca pyroxene (Fs0.3-2.0Wo33-54) contains less Al2O3 and TiO2 than that in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Plagioclase (An77-99Ab1-23) is much more sodic than that in CAIs. Spinel is enriched in moderately volatile element Cr (up to 6.7 wt%) compared to that in CAIs. Al-rich enstatite coexists with anorthite and spinel in a glass-free chondrule, implying that the formation of Al-enstatite was not due to kinetic reasons but is likely due to the high Al2O3/CaO ratio (7.4) of the bulk chondrule. Three ARCs contain relict CAIs. Oxygen isotope compositions of ARCs are also intermediate between those of ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs. They vary from -39.4‰ to 13.9‰ in ?18O and yield a best fit line (slope = 0.88) close to the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line. Chondrules with 5-10 wt% bulk Al2O3 have a slightly more narrow range in ?18O (-32.5 to 5.9‰) along the CCAM line. Except for the ARCs with relict phases, however, most ARCs have oxygen isotope compositions (>-20‰ in ?18O) similar to those of typical ferromagnesian chondrules. ARCs are genetically related to both ferromagnesian chondrules and CAIs, but the relationship between ARCs and ferromagnesian chondrules is closer. Most ARCs were formed during flash heating and rapid cooling processes like normal chondrules, only from chemically evolved precursors. ARCs extremely enriched in Al and those with relict phases could have had a hybrid origin (Krot et al. 2002) which incorporated refractory inclusions as part of the precursors in addition to ferromagnesian materials. The occurrence of melilite in ARCs indicates that melilite-rich CAIs might be present in the precursor materials of ARCs. The absence of melilite in most ARCs is possibly due to high-temperature interactions between a chondrule melt and the solar nebula.

  19. ACTG Acting [BFA] AFST Africana Studies [BA

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    Visual Arts [BFA] Tracks: AR -Art History FV -Cinematic Arts IM -Imaging/Digital Arts GR -Graphic Design] or [BS] CMPE Computer Engineering [BS] CMSC Computer Science [BS] DANC Dance [BA] DSGN Design [BFA] ECON Gender and Women's Studies [BA] HAPP Health Administration and Policy [BA] HIST History [BA] IFSM

  20. Africana Studies 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . American Studies 51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cognitive Science 119. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparative Literature 121. . . . . . . . . . Mathematics and Statistics 230. . . . . . . . . . Music 239. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women's and Gender Studies 313. . . . . . . Critical Reasoning and Analytical Skills (CRAAS) Courses 318

  1. Identification and Expression of Two Novel Cytochrome P450 Genes, CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38, in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Li, Chuan; Yang, Zhifan

    2015-01-01

    Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée can cause severe losses in rice. Cytochrome P450s play crucial roles in the metabolism of allelochemicals in herbivorous insects. Two novel P450 cDNAs, CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38, were cloned from the midgut of C. medinalis. CYP6CV1 encodes a protein of 500 amino acid residues, while CYP9A38-predicted protein has 531 amino acid residues. Both cDNA-predicted proteins contain the conserved functional domains for all P450s. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CYP6CV1 is grouped in the cluster containing CYP6B members, while CYP9A38 is in the cluster including CYP9 members. However, both clusters are contained in the same higher lineage. Homologous analysis revealed that CYP6CV1 is most similar to CYP6B8, CYP6B7, CYP6B6, CYP6B2, and CYP6B4 with the highest amino acid identity of 41%. CYP9A38 is closest to CYP9A17, CYP9A21, CYP9A20, and CYP9A19 with the highest amino acid identity of 66%. Studies of temporal expression profiles revealed that CYP9A38 showed a steady increase in mRNA level during the five instar stages, but a low-expression level in pupae, and then presented at a high-expression level again in adults. Similar expression patterns were obtained with CYP6CV1. In the fifth instar larvae, CYP6CV1 was mainly expressed in midgut and fat bodies, whereas CYP9A38 was mainly expressed in midgut. Expression studies also revealed a 3.20-fold over-expression of CYP6CV1 and 3.54-fold over-expression of CYP9A38 after larval exposure to host rice resistance. Our results suggest that both CYP6CV1 and CYP9A38 may be involved in detoxification of rice phytochemicals. PMID:25896119

  2. Tiempo para un cambio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  3. Role of ethrel in causation of floral malformation in mango cv. Amrapali: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2015-01-01

    Floral malformation is a main constraint to reduce fruit yield in mango plants. Recently, we report on the role of putrescine in normalizing the functional morphology of mango flower by reducing various adverse effects of ethylene. Here, ethrel, an ethylene releasing compound, was exogenously applied to mango plant cv Amrapali to evaluate the response of flower development under high level of ethylene. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed that ethrel treated flowers were observed to progressively be deformed and remain unbloom. The flower buds were not distinguishable and flower parts such as petals, sepals, anther and stigma were not properly developed. The stamen showed fused anther lobes and carpel depicted curved style with pointed stigma. The findings of present study suggest the involvement of ethylene to abort the functional morphology of flower and thereby development of malformation. PMID:25751309

  4. Anatalline and other methyl jasmonate-inducible nicotine alkaloids from Nicotiana tabacum cv. By-2 cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Suvi T; Rischer, Heiko; Laakso, Into; Maaheimo, Hannu; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2004-10-01

    Anatalline [2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine] accumulation was shown to be induced by methyl jasmonate in Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-2 cell cultures. Beside anatabine, anatalline represented the most abundant alkaloid, moreover, it was always present in two isomeric forms occurring always in similar concentrations. Both isomers could be completely separated by GC-MS. For structural analysis, the isolation of both isomers was performed using a semi-preparative HPLC system. The structures of anatalline [cis-2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine] and its stereoisomer trans-2,4-di(3-pyridyl)piperidine were confirmed by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. The biosynthetic origin of anatalline was studied by feeding alkaloid precursors to BY-2 cell cultures. PMID:15490322

  5. Petrography and classification of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormacki, A. S.; Wood, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a detailed, systematic petrographic survey of Ca, Al-rich and olivine-rich inclusions in the Allende CV3 chondrite are reported, and a new classification system based on clearly defined and readily applied petrographic criteria is presented. Most Allende inclusions are aggregates containing one or more of three distinct constituents: (1) rimmed concentric objects enriched in Al- and Ti-rich oxide minerals and various amounts of Ca-rich silicates; (2) porous, 'fine-grained' chaotic material enriched in Ca-rich silicates, especially clinopyroxenes and garnets; and (3) porous, 'fine-grained', mafic inclusion matrix, enriched in olivine, pyroxene, and feldspathoids. Two texturally distinct varieties of inclusions consist primarily of inclusion matrix: unrimmed olivine aggregates and rimmed olivine aggregates. Ca, Al-rich inclusions are classified on the basis of the size and abundance of their constituent concentric objects. Some fundamental relationships among Allende inclusions that previusly have not been emphasized are discussed.

  6. Complete genome sequence of a banana bract mosaic virus isolate infecting the French plantain cv. Nendran in India.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, V; Selvarajan, R

    2012-02-01

    The first complete genome sequence of an Indian isolate (TRY) of Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) was determined following virus RNA extraction from the French plantain cv. Nendran (AAB). The complete genome was 9711 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail and had a genome organization similar to that of a Philippine (PHI) isolate characterized earlier. When compared to BBrMV-PHI, the complete genome sequence of BBrMV-TRY was 94% identical at the nucleotide level and its ten mature proteins had amino acid sequence identities ranging from 88 to 98%. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the BBrMV-TRY isolate is closely related to the BBrMV-PHI isolate. PMID:22134527

  7. Physiological and biochemical responses resulting from nitrite accumulation in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1).

    PubMed

    Ezzine, Monia; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib

    2006-10-01

    The sensitivity of hydroponically cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ibiza F1) submitted to nitrite treatments (0.25-10mM KNO(2)) for 7d was studied. Increasing nitrite levels in the culture medium led to several disruptions of tomato plants, reflected by reductions of both dry matter per plant, chlorophyll concentrations and the appearance of chlorosis symptoms at the leaf surface. This behaviour was accompanied by stimulation of nitrite, nitrate and ammonia ion accumulation, mainly in roots and old leaves. Higher proteolytic and gaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC. 1.11.1.7) activities and malonyldialdehyde content were also noted. Protein content of the different plant organs was decreased by nitrite treatment. These physiological and biochemical parameters were chosen as they are stress indicators. Taken together, our data partly explain the harmful effects of nitrite ions, when excessive in the culture medium. PMID:16971215

  8. Development and validation of the Chinese Version of Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale (CV-IJSS) for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Hector W H; Wong, Alvin

    2005-06-01

    Job satisfaction has been increasingly regarded as an important outcome of vocational rehabilitation programs among people with mental illness. Chinese measures of job satisfaction for individuals with mental illness are however extremely scarce. The aim of this study was to translate the 32-item Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale to Chinese. By means of the expert panel method, the culturally relevant 28-item Chinese Version of Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale (CV-IJSS) was then finalized. A validation study among a group of 125 individuals with mental illness showed that the scale had acceptable psychometric properties. Coefficient alpha of the total score was 0.81 with subscales ranging from 0.63 to 0.87. Test re-test reliability as measured by ICC was 0.77 for the total score and ranged from 0.54 to 0.72 for the subscales. Factorial analysis yielded a four factor solution (general satisfaction, job ambiguity and stress, advancement and security, and job recognition) accounting for 44% of the total variance. The factor solution had similarities as well as differences when compared with the Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale. The differences are discussed in the light of cultural differences. Relationship between scores of CV-IJSS and work performance, quality of life and self-esteem was positive in general which may act as evidence to its concurrent validity. The Chinese Version of Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale is ready for use by rehabilitation professionals to assess vocational rehabilitation outcome for individuals with mental illness in Hong Kong and other Chinese societies. Directions for further studies are suggested. PMID:16048246

  9. CvManGO, a method for leveraging computational predictions to improve literature-based Gene Ontology annotations.

    PubMed

    Park, Julie; Costanzo, Maria C; Balakrishnan, Rama; Cherry, J Michael; Hong, Eurie L

    2012-01-01

    The set of annotations at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) that classifies the cellular function of S. cerevisiae gene products using Gene Ontology (GO) terms has become an important resource for facilitating experimental analysis. In addition to capturing and summarizing experimental results, the structured nature of GO annotations allows for functional comparison across organisms as well as propagation of functional predictions between related gene products. Due to their relevance to many areas of research, ensuring the accuracy and quality of these annotations is a priority at SGD. GO annotations are assigned either manually, by biocurators extracting experimental evidence from the scientific literature, or through automated methods that leverage computational algorithms to predict functional information. Here, we discuss the relationship between literature-based and computationally predicted GO annotations in SGD and extend a strategy whereby comparison of these two types of annotation identifies genes whose annotations need review. Our method, CvManGO (Computational versus Manual GO annotations), pairs literature-based GO annotations with computational GO predictions and evaluates the relationship of the two terms within GO, looking for instances of discrepancy. We found that this method will identify genes that require annotation updates, taking an important step towards finding ways to prioritize literature review. Additionally, we explored factors that may influence the effectiveness of CvManGO in identifying relevant gene targets to find in particular those genes that are missing literature-supported annotations, but our survey found that there are no immediately identifiable criteria by which one could enrich for these under-annotated genes. Finally, we discuss possible ways to improve this strategy, and the applicability of this method to other projects that use the GO for curation. DATABASE URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org. PMID:22434836

  10. Certificao Sun Para Programador

    E-print Network

    meio ambiente Misto de avião e pássaro, robô pousa na mão Robô cultiva cartilagens para transplantes Energia Espaço Informática Materiais Mecânica Meio ambiente Nanotecnologia Robótica Plantão Modelio System

  11. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  12. Survey of 42,000 Gossypium hirsutum cv. Maxxa BAC-End Sequences and Frequency, Type, and Annotation of BAC-derived SSRs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quest for more molecular markers is a major initiative in cotton, which lags behind crops such as soybean, maize, and rice in this type of research. In an effort to increase the number of microsatellite markers in Gossypium, BAC-end sequences from a publicly available Gossypium hirsutum cv. Maxx...

  13. The Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Hand-Held Computer as a Medium for Teaching Mathematics to Fire Control Systems Repairers. Research Report 1408.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldovici, John A.; Scott, Thomas D.

    A study compared the benefits of using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV hand-held computer, as opposed to conventional training without computers, in teaching mathematics to fire control systems repairers. Thirty soldiers in a course to train fire control systems repairers received training in technical mathematics using the hand-held computer, whereas…

  14. Case 6:08-cv-00088-LED Document 409 Filed 10/01/10 Page 1 of 2 PageID #: 37793 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    § § § § § § § § § Plaintiff vs. CASE NO. 6:08 CV 88 APPLE, INC. Defendant VERDICT FORM In answering these questions, you PATENTS 1A. Did Mirror Worlds prove by a preponderance ofthe evidence that Apple infringed any ofthe and convincing evidence that Apple's infringement, ifany, was willful? Answer "Yes" or "No" as to each patent

  15. Omega Gliadin Genes Expressed in Triticum Aestivum cv Butte 86: Effects of Post-anthesis Fertilizer on Transcript Accumulation During Grain Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The partial coding sequences of omega gliadin genes expressed in developing wheat kernels Triticum aestivum cv Butte 86 were identified in EST databases. Three gene assemblies encode proteins with PQQPFP as the predominant repetitive motif. Of these, two encode proteins with at least one cysteine an...

  16. Differences in Stylet Penetration Behaviors of Glassy-winged Sharpshooters on Xylella-Resistant Vitis candicans vs. Susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitoring was used to compare stylet penetration behaviors of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), a vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), on Xf-resistant Vitis candicans grape vs. susceptible V. vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay.’ Frequency of occurrence of X waves (represent...

  17. Improving the french fry quality of russeted potatoes through transformation with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the Chipping cv. Snowden

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microtubers of two dual-purpose russeted potatoes were transformed with the anti-sweetening gene (UgpA) from the cv. Snowden using well know Agrobacterium tumifaciens mediated transformation system. Seventy-two and twenty-four distinct transformants of AOND95292-3Russ and ND7882b-7Russ, respectivel...

  18. Effects of Vaccination with 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenza Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) on the Nasopharyngeal Microbiome of Kenyan Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Feazel, Leah M.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Robertson, Charles E.; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Scott, J. Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines reduce the prevalence of vaccine serotypes carried in the nasopharynx. Because this could alter carriage of other potential pathogens, we assessed the nasopharyngeal microbiome of children who had been vaccinated with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Methods Profiles of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 60 children aged 12-59 months, who had been randomized to receive 2 doses of PHiD-CV (n=30) or Hepatitis A vaccine (n=30) 60 days apart, were constructed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of swab specimens collected before vaccination and 180 days after dose 1. Results Prior to vaccination, Moraxella catarrhalis (median of 12.3% of sequences/subject), Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.4%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5.6%) were the most abundant nasopharyngeal bacterial species. Vaccination with PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the species composition, abundance, or prevalence of known pathogens. Distinct microbiomes were identified based on the abundances of Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Haemophilus species. These microbiomes shifted in composition over the study period and were independent of age, sex, school attendance, antibiotic exposure, and vaccination. Conclusions Vaccination of children with two doses of PHiD-CV did not significantly alter the nasopharyngeal microbiome. This suggests limited replacement carriage with pathogens other than non-vaccine strains of S. pneumoniae. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:26083474

  19. Effects of pH, sample size, and solvent partitioning on recovery of soluble phenolic acids and isoflavonoids in red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several extraction parameters were tested to determine optimal conditions for extracting phenolics from red clover (Trifolium pratense L. cv. Kenland). HPLC-UV profiles were compared before and after partitioning a methanolic extract of soluble phenolics with ethyl acetate-ether (1:1, v/v). The e...

  20. USE OF REPEATED BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE IN RABBITS TO ASSESS POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG CHANGES IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF CARDIOVASCULAR (CV) DISEASE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models of coronary heart disease (e.g., hyperlipidemic rabbits) are being used to investigate epidemiologic associations between higher levels of air pollution and adverse CV consequences. Mechanisms by which pollutant-induced lung or systemic inflammation leads to acute C...

  1. A study of the effects of ALD growth temperature on Al2O3 gate oxide by C-V and G-V measurements

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    A study of the effects of ALD growth temperature on Al2O3 gate oxide by C-V and G-V measurements) Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to grow aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on n-type Si (100) substrates time, progress in low temperature ALD meth- ods has aroused interest in the relationships between de

  2. Draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi).

    PubMed

    Kolton, Max; Green, Stefan J; Harel, Yael Meller; Sela, Noa; Elad, Yigal; Cytryn, Eddie

    2012-10-01

    Here we report the draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium sp. strain F52, isolated from the rhizosphere of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Maccabi). Flavobacterium spp. are ubiquitous in the rhizospheres of agricultural crops; however, little is known about their physiology. To our knowledge, this is the first published genome of a root-associated Flavobacterium strain. PMID:22965088

  3. Deep transcriptome-sequencing and proteome analysis of the hydrothermal vent annelid Alvinella pompejana identifies the CvP-bias as a robust measure of eukaryotic thermostability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alvinella pompejana is an annelid worm that inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the Pacific Ocean. Living at a depth of approximately 2500 meters, these worms experience extreme environmental conditions, including high temperature and pressure as well as high levels of sulfide and heavy metals. A. pompejana is one of the most thermotolerant metazoans, making this animal a subject of great interest for studies of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Results In order to complement existing EST resources we performed deep sequencing of the A. pompejana transcriptome. We identified several thousand novel protein-coding transcripts, nearly doubling the sequence data for this annelid. We then performed an extensive survey of previously established prokaryotic thermoadaptation measures to search for global signals of thermoadaptation in A. pompejana in comparison with mesophilic eukaryotes. In an orthologous set of 457 proteins, we found that the best indicator of thermoadaptation was the difference in frequency of charged versus polar residues (CvP-bias), which was highest in A. pompejana. CvP-bias robustly distinguished prokaryotic thermophiles from prokaryotic mesophiles, as well as the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum from mesophilic eukaryotes. Experimental values for thermophilic proteins supported higher CvP-bias as a measure of thermal stability when compared to their mesophilic orthologs. Proteome-wide mean CvP-bias also correlated with the body temperatures of homeothermic birds and mammals. Conclusions Our work extends the transcriptome resources for A. pompejana and identifies the CvP-bias as a robust and widely applicable measure of eukaryotic thermoadaptation. Reviewer This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, L. Aravind and Anthony M. Poole. PMID:23324115

  4. CV -Teodoro Stadler, 2013 Teodoro Stadler -CV

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    of a total project budget of US$ 8,213,170.- Design and conduct research on different aspects of boll weevil): Austrian and Argentinean EDUCATION: Ph.D., Biological Sciences. 1988. Department of Biology. Faculty, pesticide resistance, development and testing of biorational pesticides based on natural products (inorganic

  5. The chemical composition of suberin in apoplastic barriers affects radial hydraulic conductivity differently in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) and corn (Zea mays L. cv. Helix).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Lukas; Franke, Rochus; Hartmann, Klaus-Dieter; Ranathunge, Kosala; Steudle, Ernst

    2005-05-01

    Apoplastic transport barriers in the roots of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) and corn (Zea mays L. cv. Helix) were isolated enzymatically. Following chemical degradation (monomerization, derivatization), the amounts of aliphatic and aromatic suberin monomers were analysed quantitatively by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In corn, suberin was determined for isolated endodermal (ECW) and rhizo-hypodermal (RHCW) cell walls. In rice, the strong lignification of the central cylinder (CC), did not allow the isolation of endodermal cell walls. Similarly, exodermal walls could not be separated from the rhizodermal and sclerenchyma cell layers. Suberin analyses of ECW and RHCW of rice, thus, refer to either the entire CC or to the entire outer part of the root (OPR), the latter lacking the inner cortical cell layer. In both species, aromatic suberin was mainly composed of coumaric and ferulic acids. Aliphatic suberin monomers released from rice and corn belonged to five substance classes: primary fatty acids, primary alcohols, diacids, omega-hydroxy fatty acids, and 2-hydroxy fatty acids, with omega-hydroxy fatty acids being the most prominent substance class. Qualitative composition of aliphatic suberin of rice was different from that of corn; (i) it was much less diverse, and (ii) besides monomers with chain lengths of C(16), a second maximum of C(28) was evident. In corn, C(24) monomers represented the most prominent class of chain lengths. When suberin quantities were related to surface areas of the respective tissues of interest (hypodermis and/or exodermis and endodermis), exodermal cell walls of rice contained, on average, six-times more aliphatic suberin than those of corn. In endodermal cell walls, amounts were 34 times greater in rice than in corn. Significantly higher amounts of suberin detected in the apoplastic barriers of rice corresponded with a substantially lower root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) compared with corn, when water flow was driven by hydrostatic pressure gradients across the apoplast. As the OPR of rice is highly porous and permeable to water, it is argued that this holds true only for the endodermis. The results imply that some caution is required when discussing the role of suberin in terms of an efficient transport barrier for water. The simple view that only the quantity of suberin present is important, may not hold. A more detailed consideration of both the chemical nature of suberins and of the microstructure of deposits is required, i.e. how suberins impregnate wall pores. PMID:15809280

  6. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Every year, billions of tons of eroded mineral soils from the Saharan Desert and the Sahel region, the largest dust source in the world, cross Mediterranean towards Europe, western Asia and the tropical North Atlantic Ocean as far as the Caribbean and South America. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of dust on climate are not well understood and the bulk and surface chemistry of the mineral dust particles determines interactions with gaseous and other particle species. The quantification of the magnitude of warming or cooling remains open because of the strong variability of the atmospheric dust burden and the lack of representative data for the spatial and temporal distribution of the dust composition. CV-Dust is a project that aims at provide a detailed data on the size distribution and the size-resolved chemical and mineralogical composition of dust emitted from North Africa using a natural laboratory like Cape Verde. This archipelago is located in an area of massive dust transport from land to ocean, and is thus ideal to set up sampling devices that are able to characterize and quantify dust transported from Africa. Moreover, Cape Verde's future economic prospects depend heavily on the encouragement of tourism, therefore it is essential to elucidate the role of Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality. The main objectives of CV-Dust project are: 1) to characterize the chemical and mineralogical composition of dust transported from Africa by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in the strategic archipelago of Cape Verde; 2) to identify the sources of particles in Cape Verde by using receptor models; 3) to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality; 4) to model processes governing dust production, transport, interaction with the radiation field and removal from the atmosphere. Here we present part of the data obtained throughout the last year, involving a set of more than 100 PM10 samples, addressing mainly their mass concentrations and the chemical composition of water soluble ions and carbon species (carbonates and organic and elemental carbon). Different PM10 samplers worked simultaneously in order to collect enough mass to make the aerosol characterization through the different methodologies and to collect aerosols in different filter matrixes, which have to be appropriated to the chemical and mineralogical analysis. The sampling site was located at Santiago Island, in the surroundings of Praia City (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level). High concentrations, up to more than 400 ?g m-3, are connected to north-east and north-northeast winds, and it was identified several dust events characteristic of "bruma seca", whose duration is on average of two to four days. Backward trajectories analysis confirms that the high concentrations in Cape Verde are associated with air masses passing over the Sahara. During dust events the percentage of inorganic water soluble ions for the total PM10 mass concentration decreased significantly to values lower than 10% in comparison with remainder data that range around 45±10%. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the project PTDD/AAC-CLI/100331/2008 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008646 (CV-Dust). J. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH-BD-6105-2009 from FCT.

  7. Fundao para a Cincia com

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Fundação para a Ciência com menos dinheiro em 2014 // PÁGS. 2-3 #12;No próximo ano vai haver menos dinheiro para bolsas e projectos de investigação EDUARDO MARTINS Orçamento. Fundação para a Ciência com menos dinheiro em 2014 Governo assumiu como "objectivo estratégico" na área da ciência reforçar

  8. Early inhibition of photosynthesis during development of Mn toxicity in tobacco. [Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY14

    SciTech Connect

    Nable, R.O.; Houtz, R.L.; Cheniae, G.M. )

    1988-04-01

    Early physiological effects of developing Mn toxicity in young leaves of burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv KY 14) were examined in glass-house/water cultured plants grown at high (summer) and low (winter) photon flux. Following transfer of plants to solutions containing 1 millimolar Mn{sup 2+}, sequential samplings were made at various times for the following 9 days, during which Mn accumulation by leaves increased rapidly from {approx} 70 on day 0 to {approx} 1700 and {approx} 5000 microgram per gram dry matter after 1 and 9 days, respectively. In plants grown at high photon flux, net photosynthesis declined by {approx} 20 and {approx} 60% after 1 and 9 days, respectively, and the onset of this decline preceded appearance (after 3 to 4 days) of visible foliar symptoms of Mn toxicity. Intercellular CO{sub 2} concentrations and rates of transpiration were not significantly affected. Though the activity of latent or activated polyphenol oxidase increased in parallel with Mn accumulation, neither leaf respiration nor the activity of catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (EC 1.10.1.7) were greatly affected. These effects from Mn toxicity could not be explained by any changes in protein or chlorophyll abundance. Additionally, they were not a consequence of Mn induced Fe deficiency. Therefore, inhibition of net photosynthesis and enhancement of polyphenol oxidase activity are early indicators of excess Mn accumulation in tobacco leaves.

  9. Recessive Resistance Derived from Tomato cv. Tyking-Limits Drastically the Spread of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C.; Díaz-Pendón, Juan A.; Fonseca, Maria Esther N.; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Moriones, Enrique; Resende, Renato O.

    2015-01-01

    The tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) causes severe damage to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. TYLCD is associated with a complex of single-stranded circular DNA plant viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) transmitted by the whitefy Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The tomato inbred line TX 468-RG is a source of monogenic recessive resistance to begomoviruses derived from the hybrid cv. Tyking F1. A detailed analysis of this germplasm source against tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel (TYLCV-IL), a widespread TYLCD-associated virus, showed a significant restriction to systemic virus accumulation even under continuous virus supply. The resistance was effective in limiting the onset of TYLCV-IL in tomato, as significantly lower primary spread of the virus occurred in resistant plants. Also, even if a limited number of resistant plants could result infected, they were less efficient virus sources for secondary spread owing to the impaired TYLCV-IL accumulation. Therefore, the incorporation of this resistance into breeding programs might help TYLCD management by drastically limiting TYLCV-IL spread. PMID:26008699

  10. Effect of salicylhydroxamic acid on endosperm strength and embryo growth of Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, C. A.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) stimulated germination of photosensitive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Waldmann's Green) seeds in darkness. To determine whether SHAM acts on the embryo or the endosperm, we investigated separately effects of SHAM on growth potential of isolated embryos as well as on endosperm strength. Embryo growth potential was quantified by incubating decoated embryos in various concentrations of osmoticum and measuring subsequent radicle elongation. Growth potential of embryos isolated from seeds pretreated with 4 millimolar SHAM was equal to that of untreated controls. Rupture strength of endosperm tissue excised from seeds pretreated with SHAM was 33% less than that of controls in the micropylar region. To determine if the embryo must be in contact with the endosperm of SHAM to weaken the endosperm, some endosperms were incubated with SHAM only after dissection from seeds. Rupture strength of SHAM-treated, isolated endosperms in the micropylar region was 25% less than that of untreated controls. There was no difference in rupture strength in the cotyledonary region of endosperm isolated from seeds treated with SHAM in buffer or buffer alone. SHAM therefore stimulates germination not by enhancing embryo growth potential, but by weakening the micropylar region of the endosperm enclosing the embryo.

  11. Safety evaluation of sweet lupine (Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa). II. Nine-month feeding and multigeneration study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ballester, D R; Brunser, O; Saitúa, M T; Egaña, J I; Yáñez, E O; Owen, D F

    1984-01-01

    Sweet lupine Lupinus albus cv. Multolupa) flour containing 41.7% protein and 0.025% lupanine was fed for 9 months to two generations of rats (F1 and F2) at a level that provided 20% dietary protein. The diets were supplemented with 0.2% DL-methionine. The control diet provided the same dietary protein level from defatted soya-bean flour, fish meal and dried skimmed milk. The lupine diet had no effect on the general condition, mortality or behaviour of the animals. The growth rate of males fed sweet lupine was significantly higher than that of the controls. Haematological parameters and tests of liver function were normal in all treatment groups. At autopsy there were no significant changes in the weight of the heart, kidney, spleen, brain and gonads. However, the relative weight of the liver of lupine-fed rats was significantly lower than that in the controls. The histology of the liver, like that of the other organs examined, was normal. The reproduction study did not reveal any adverse effect on fertility or lactation that could be attributed to ingestion of sweet lupine. This investigation did not disclose any deleterious effects through two generations of rats that were fed sweet lupine at a level that provided 20% dietary protein for 9 months. PMID:6537936

  12. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv.'Tropic Sun').

    PubMed

    Colegate, Steven M; Gardner, Dale R; Joy, Robert J; Betz, Joseph M; Panter, Kip E

    2012-04-11

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun') is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds, and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of 'Tropic Sun' were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems, and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid contents of the roots, stems, and leaves of immature plants were estimated to be 0.05, 0.12, and 0.01% w/w, respectively, whereas seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w. PMID:22429238

  13. Isolation and purification of a novel deca-antifungal peptide from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Jopung) against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kook; Gopal, Ramamourthy; Seo, Chang Ho; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Yoonkyung

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study, an antifungal protein, AFP-J, was purified from tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. L Jopung) and by gel filtration and HPLC. In this study, the functional peptide was characterized by partial acid digestion using HCl and HPLC. We obtained three peaks from the AFP-J, the first and third peaks were not active in the tested fungal strain. However, the second peak, which was named Potide-J, was active (MIC; 6.25 ?g/mL) against Candida albicans. The amino acid sequences were analyzed by automated Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequence of Potide-J was determined to be Ala-Val-Cys-Glu-Asn-Asp-Leu-Asn-Cys-Cys. Mass spectrometry showed that its molecular mass was 1083.1 Da. Finally, we confirmed that a disulfide bond was present between Cys(3) and Cys(9) or Cys(10). Using this structure, Potide-J was synthesized via solid-phase methods. In these experiments, only the linear sequence was shown to display strong activity against Candida albicans. These results suggest that Potide-J may be an excellent candidate compound for the development of commercially applicable antibiotic agents. PMID:22605963

  14. Expression of a cystatin transgene can confer resistance to root lesion nematodes in Lilium longiflorum cv. 'Nellie White'.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo; Wantoch, Sarah; Lilley, Catherine J; Chitwood, David J; Atkinson, Howard J; Kamo, Kathryn

    2015-06-01

    Lilium longiflorum cv. 'Nellie White' assumes a great economic importance as cut flowers, being one of the most valuable species (annual pot plants value above $20,000,000) in terms of wholesales in the US. The root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans (RLN) constitutes one of the main pests for lily producers due to the significant root damage it causes. Our efforts have focused on the generation of soybean hairy roots (as a transient test model) and stable transgenic lilies overexpressing a modified rice cystatin (Oc-I?D86) transgene and challenged with root lesion nematodes. Lily transformation was achieved by gene gun co-bombardment using both a pBluescript-based vector containing the cystatin gene and pDM307 that contains a bar gene for phosphinothricin selection. Both soybean hairy roots and lilies overexpressing the OcI?D86 transgene exhibited enhanced resistance to RLN infection by means of nematode reduction up to 75 ± 5% on the total number of nematodes. In addition, lily plants overexpressing OcI?D86 displayed an increase of plant mass and better growth performance in comparison to wild-type plants, thereby demonstrating an alternative strategy for increasing the yield and reducing nematode damage to this important floral crop. PMID:25398618

  15. Herbicide treatments alter carotenoid profiles for 14C tracer production from tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum cv. VFNT cherry) cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Nancy J; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W

    2009-06-10

    Progress in learning about underlying carotenoid bioactivity mechanisms has been limited because of the lack of commercially available radiolabeled lycopene (LYC), phytoene (PE), and phytofluene (PF). Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum cv. VFNT cherry) cell cultures have been treated to produce [(14)C]-PE and PF but with relatively low yields. To increase carotenoid production, two bleaching herbicides were administered during the culture incubation, 2-(4-chlorophenyl-thio)triethylamine and norflurazon, separately or in combination to produce varying ratios of PE, PF, and LYC. Treatment with both herbicides resulted in optimal production of all three carotenoids. Subsequently, cultures were incubated in [(14)C]-sucrose-containing media to produce labeled LYC, PE, and PF. Adding [(14)C]-sucrose on day 1 of the 14 day culture incubation cycle to norflurazon-treated cultures led to a small increase in labeling efficiency compared to adding it on day 7. Improved culture conditions efficiently provided sufficient (14)C-carotenoids for future cell culture and animal metabolic tracking studies. PMID:19489618

  16. Nitrogen balance for wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10) grown under elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Bloom, A. J.; Bugbee, B. B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that elevated CO2 concentration would increase NO3- absorption and assimilation using intact wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10). Nitrate consumption, the sum of plant absorption and nitrogen loss, was continuously monitored for 23 d following germination under two CO2 concentrations (360 and 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2) and two root zone NO3- concentrations (100 and 1000 mmol m3 NO3-). The plants were grown at high density (1780 m-2) in a 28 m3 controlled environment chamber using solution culture techniques. Wheat responded to 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 by increasing carbon allocation to root biomass production. Elevated CO2 also increased root zone NO3- consumption, but most of this increase did not result in higher biomass nitrogen. Rather, nitrogen loss accounted for the greatest part of the difference in NO3- consumption between the elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. The total amount of NO3(-)-N absorbed by roots or the amount of NO3(-)-N assimilated per unit area did not significantly differ between elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. Instead, specific leaf organic nitrogen content declined, and NO3- accumulated in canopies growing under 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2. Our results indicated that 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 diminished NO3- assimilation. If NO3- assimilation were impaired by high [CO2], then this offers an explanation for why organic nitrogen contents are often observed to decline in elevated [CO2] environments.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test at GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Calinda M.

    2014-01-01

    JWST ISIM has entered into its system-level testing program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In December 2013, ISIM successfully completed the first in a series of three cryo-vacuum tests, which included two flight science instruments. Since then, there have been full-fledged efforts towards the CV2 test scheduled to finish at the end of 2014. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. In order to satisfy the program requirements, GSFC had to develop unique structural and thermal hardware to test ISIM. Most noteworthy is a helium shroud structure and cooling system built in order to achieve operational temperatures below 20K (-253C). This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) communicates the performance and challenges of the SES during the first ISIM test, and (3) summarizes the action plan to improve the system prior to the next test.

  18. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 °C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  19. Characterization of the adaptive response of grapevine (cv. Tempranillo) to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Delrot, S; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Gomès, E; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I

    2015-03-01

    This work aims to characterize the physiological response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo to UV-B radiation under water deficit conditions. Grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to three levels of supplemental biologically effective UV-B radiation (0, 5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)day(-1)) and two water regimes (well watered and water deficit), in a factorial design, from fruit-set to maturity under glasshouse-controlled conditions. UV-B induced a transient decrease in net photosynthesis (Anet), actual and maximum potential efficiency of photosystem II, particularly on well watered plants. Methanol extractable UV-B absorbing compounds (MEUVAC) concentration and superoxide dismutase activity increased with UV-B. Water deficit effected decrease in Anet and stomatal conductance, and did not change non-photochemical quenching and the de-epoxidation state of xanthophylls, dark respiration and photorespiration being alternative ways to dissipate the excess of energy. Little interactive effects between UV-B and drought were detected on photosynthesis performance, where the impact of UV-B was overshadowed by the effects of water deficit. Grape berry ripening was strongly delayed when UV-B and water deficit were applied in combination. In summary, deficit irrigation did not modify the adaptive response of grapevine to UV-B, through the accumulation of MEUVAC. However, combined treatments caused additive effects on berry ripening. PMID:25617319

  20. Chemical Composition, In vivo Digestibility and Metabolizable Energy Values of Caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) Fresh, Silage and Hay

    PubMed Central

    Özelçam, H.; K?rkp?nar, F.; Tan, K.

    2015-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine nutritive values of caramba (Lolium multiflorum cv. caramba) fresh, silage and hay by in vivo and in vitro methods. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) in crude protein content value between fresh caramba (12.83%) and silage (8.91%) and hay (6.35%). According to results of experiment, the crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin contents of the three forms of caramba varied between 30.22% to 35.06%, 57.41% to 63.70%, 35.32% to 43.29%, and 5.55% to 8.86% respectively. There were no significant differences between the three forms of caramba in digestibility of nutrients and in vivo metabolizable energy (ME) values (p>0.05). However, the highest MECN (ME was estimated using crude nutrients) and MEADF values were found in fresh caramba (p<0.01). As a result, it could be said that, there were no differences between the three forms of caramba in nutrient composition, digestibility and ME value, besides drying and ensiling did not affect digestibility of hay. Consequently, caramba either as fresh, silage or hay is a good alternative source of forage for ruminants. PMID:26323399

  1. A new antifungal protein and a chitinase with prominent macrophage-stimulating activity from seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. pinto.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B

    2002-01-18

    From the seeds of the pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. pinto), a chitinase and a novel antifungal protein, both with the ability of markedly augmenting nitrite production by murine peritoneal macrophages, were isolated. The antifungal proteins, designated phasein A and phasein B, exhibited molecular weights of 28 and 32 kDa, respectively. Phaseins A and B were adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and were eluted as adjacent peaks from CM-Sepharose. Phasein A demonstrated potent antifungal activity toward Fusarium oxysporum and Physalospora piricola. Phasein B was more potent than phasein A toward P. piricola but less potent than phasein A toward F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. Both antifungal proteins inhibited the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, with phasein B being more potent. Nitrite production by mouse macrophages was greatly boosted in the presence of both phaseins A and B, although the effect of phasein A was more prominent. The bioactivities of phaseins were in general potent compared with those of other antifungal proteins. PMID:11785974

  2. High-susceptibility of photosynthesis to photoinhibition in the tropical plant Ficus microcarpa L. f. cv. Golden Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shunichi; Tamashiro, Ayumu; Sakihama, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Yasusi; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Background The tropical plant Ficus microcarpa L. f. cv. Golden Leaves (GL) is a high-light sensitive tropical fig tree in which sun-leaves are yellow and shade-leaves are green. We compared the response of photosynthetic activities to strong light between GL and its wild-type (WT, Ficus microcarpa L. f.). Results Field measurements of maximum photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (Fv/Fm) of intact sun-leaves in GL showed that photo synthetic activity was severely photoinhibited during the daytime (Fv/Fm = 0.46) and subsequently recovered in the evening (Fv/Fm = 0.76). In contrast, WT did not show any substantial changes of Fv/Fm values throughout the day (between 0.82 and 0.78). Light dependency of the CO2 assimilation rate in detached shade-leaves of GL showed a response similar to that in WT, suggesting no substantial difference in photosynthetic performance between them. Several indicators of photoinhibition, including declines in PSII reaction center protein (D1) content, Fv/Fm value, and O2 evolution and CO2 assimilation rates, all indicated that GL is much more susceptible to photoinhibition than WT. Kinetics of PAM chlorophyll a fluorescence revealed that nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) capacity of GL was lower than that of WT. Conclusion We conclude that the photosynthetic apparatus of GL is more highly susceptible to photoinhibition than that of WT. PMID:11926968

  3. Characterizing NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes of Methylobacterium extorquens and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta).

    PubMed

    Koutsompogeras, Panagiotis; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2006-01-11

    The methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens (strain with CABI registration number IMI 369321), which has been isolated from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) callus cultures, was grown on a mixture of methanol (0.25% v/v) and 1,2-propanediol (0.75% v/v). The microbial biotransformation of 1,2-propanediol to 2-hydroxypropanal (lactaldehyde) was studied. The bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymatic activities were assessed, and the optimum pH for ADH activity was found to be pH 6.0. Enzyme assays were carried out for both the bacterial and the strawberry extracts to define the best substrate specificity. For Methylobacterium extorquens, the best substrates were found to be methanol (Km = 0.78 mM) and 1,2-propanediol (Km = 15.84 mM), whereas for strawberries, 1-propanol (Km = 3.54 mM) and ethanol (Km = 6.66 mM) were the best substrates. A wide variety of metals as well as EDTA were shown to decrease the enzymatic activity. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE experiments showed molecular weights of 45.0 and 24.6 kDa for the alcohol dehydrogenases of Methylobacterium extorquens and Fragaria x ananassa, respectively. PMID:16390205

  4. Altitudinal variation of phenolic contents in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO: a 3-year comparison.

    PubMed

    Spitaler, Renate; Winkler, Andrea; Lins, Isabella; Yanar, Sema; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2008-03-01

    In continuation of our studies of altitudinal effects on secondary metabolite profile of flowering heads from taxa of the Asteraceae, we investigated phenolic contents and radical scavenging potential from cultivated plants of Arnica montana cv. ARBO during the growing seasons 2003, 2004, and 2005. By conducting experiments on potted plants, we excluded that differences in phenolic contents from plants grown at different altitudes were related primarily to differences in soil composition at these sites. To assess altitudinal and interseasonal variation, plants of A. montana cultivar ARBO were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2,230 m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck, Austria. In all growing seasons and regardless of the soil the plants were grown in, the proportion of flavonoids with vicinal-free hydroxy groups in ring B to flavonoids lacking this feature, and the total amount of caffeic acid derivatives, significantly increased with elevation. These increases of antioxidant phenolics corresponded to an increase of the radical scavenging potential of extracts from plants grown at different altitudes. The results are discussed in regard to previous studies that suggest that enhanced UV-B radiation and decreased temperatures trigger augmented biosynthesis of UV-absorbing and antioxidant phenolics in higher plants. PMID:18259818

  5. Empiric mathematical model for predicting the content of alpha-acids in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cv. Aurora.

    PubMed

    Sre?ec, Siniša; Ceh, Barbara; Ciler, Tanja Savi?; Rus, Alenka Ferlež

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research is to find a simple mathematical model due to sum of effective temperatures and rainfalls from second germination after spring pruning till the technological maturity of hop cones, in order to achieve reliable prognosis of alpha-acids content in hop cv. Aurora. After mathematical analyses of experimental data by Eurequa Formulize 0.96 Beta software 17 equations were offered, and after substituting the values of dependent and independent variables in all equations only one equation was chosen with p?=?0.034 (p<0.05). This equation is not reliable in extremely drought year if crop evapotranspiration ET0 in July is higher than 4.5, primarily because of negative influence on formation and development of hop glandular trichomes. Considering achieved results it is possible to suggest following general equation for alpha-acids accumulation in hop: y?=?[(k 1 w)?-?k 2?-?(k 3 w (2))/x]?÷?(-10)???ET 0 July ???4.5. Where y is alpha acids content in dry matter (%), x?=?sum of effective temperatures and w?=?sum of rainfals, both from second germination after spring pruning till technological maturity of hop cones. Coefficients k 1 , k 2 and k 3 are determined for cultivar Aurora (53.8, 453 and 1.33, respectively). PMID:23596559

  6. Response of different maturity stages of sapota (Manilkara achras Mill.) cv. Kallipatti to in-package ethylene absorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Wangdup; Pal, R K; Sen, Sangita; Jha, S K

    2011-12-01

    Sapota fruits are highly perishable due to their climacteric nature. The rapid softening of fruits is primarily due to high activity of many oxidative enzymes and liberation of ethylene. Harvest maturity plays a crucial role in deciding the marketability of climacteric fruits in general. Attempt has been made to evaluate the response of ethylene absorbent on variable maturity groups of harvested Sapota cv. Kallipatti with the objective to delay the ripening during transit and extend its marketability during storage at ambient condition (27-32 °C & 65-75% R.H.). Harvested fruits having three different degree of ripeness (as maturity indices viz. mature, half-ripe and ripe) were packed with or without ethylene absorbent sachets (Bioconservación, France) in 10 kg CFB boxes and transported from Dahnu to Delhi covering a distant of approximately 2500 KM by truck on road along with conventional packaging as control. The fruits were evaluated immediately on arrival at Delhi and subsequently during storage for various physical, physiological, biochemical and decay parameters. Mature fruits with ethylene absorbent exhibited maximum delay in ripening, low ethylene liberation, weight loss and high fruit firmness. The response of ethylene absorbent to extend the marketability of ripe fruit was not significant. PMID:23572819

  7. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids, Including Monoesters with an Unusual Esterifying Acid, from Cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv.’Tropic Sun’)

    PubMed Central

    Colegate, Steven M.; Gardner, Dale R.; Joy, Robert J.; Betz, Joseph M.; Panter, Kip E.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation of Crotalaria juncea L. (Sunn Hemp cv. ‘Tropic Sun’) is recommended as a green manure crop in a rotation cycle to improve soil condition, help control erosion, suppress weeds and reduce soil nematodes. Because C. juncea belongs to a genus that is known for the production of toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, extracts of the roots, stems, leaves and seeds of ‘Tropic Sun’ were analyzed for their presence using HPLC-ESI/MS. Qualitative analysis identified previously unknown alkaloids as major components along with the expected macrocyclic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid diesters, junceine and trichodesmine. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids occurred mainly as the N-oxides in the roots, stems and, to a lesser extent, leaves, but mainly as the free bases in the seeds. Comprehensive spectrometric and spectroscopic analysis enabled elucidation of the unknown alkaloids as diastereoisomers of isohemijunceine, a monoester of retronecine with an unusual necic acid. The dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid content of the roots, stems, leaves of immature plants was estimated to be 0.05, 0.12 and 0.01% w/w respectively while seeds were estimated to contain 0.15% w/w. PMID:22429238

  8. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Borges, Gina; Nagai, Chifumi; Jackson, Mel C; Yokota, Takao; Crozier, Alan; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-16

    Changes occurring in phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids, during the growth of seeds of cacao (Theobroma cacao) cv. Trinitario, were investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. Extracts of seeds with a fresh weight of 125, 700, 1550, and 2050 mg (stages 1-4, respectively) were analyzed. The phenolic compounds present in highest concentrations in developing and mature seeds (stages 3 and 4) were flavonols and flavan-3-ols. Flavan-3-ols existed as monomers of epicatechin and catechin and as procyanidins. Type B procyanidins were major components and varied from dimers to pentadecamer. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-arabinoside and cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, along with the N-phenylpropernoyl-l-amino acids, N-caffeoyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-l-aspartate, N-coumaroyl-3-hydroxytyrosine (clovamide), and N-coumaroyltyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and the purine alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, were present in stage 3 and 4 seeds. Other purine alkaloids, such as theophylline and additional methylxanthines, did not occur in detectable quantities. Flavan-3-ols were the only components to accumulate in detectable quantities in young seeds at developmental stages 1 and 2. PMID:23215441

  9. 5S program to reduce change-over time on forming department (case study on CV Piranti Works temanggung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiana Dewi, Septika; Setiawan, Budi; P, Susatyo Nugroho W.

    2013-06-01

    Productivity is one aspect that determines the success of a company in the competitive world of business. There are seven main types of activities that do not have value-added in manufacturing processes such as overproduction, waiting time, transportation, excess inventory, unnecessary motion and defects. The whole activity is a waste (waste) that can cause harm to the Company. Therefore, in production activities is important to pay attention so that the objectives of production productivity can be achieved. Problems experienced by CV Piranti Works is a production target is not achieved resulting in a lost sale raises the cost of which can cause harm to the Company. From the analysis conducted major known cause of the problem is the length of time required for changeover. This is supported by the high non-value added activity in the changeover activities. Lean Manufacturing is an approach to make system more efficient by reducing waste. This study refers to the book compiled by Takashi Osada (2004) and several other references. In this research used method 5S (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) for the of forming departement. The purpose of this research is to design a work environment using the 5S method (Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke) and make arrangement of equipment and working tool cabinet design with TRIZ methods. From these results, is expected to eliminate or reduce of non-value added activity and improved the changeover time so as to meet production targets completion of the company.

  10. Determination of valence and conduction-band discontinuities at the (Ga,In) P/GaAs heterojunction by C-V profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. A.; Caine, E. J.; Kroemer, H.; Long, S. I.; Babic, D. I.

    1987-01-01

    The valence and conduction band discontinuities for the lattice matched (Ga,In)P/GaAs heterojunction have been determined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) profiling. Both p-p and n-n heterojunctions were profiled, in order to obtain separate and independent values for both the valence-band-edge discontinuity (?Ev) and the conduction-band discontinuity (?Ec). The band lineup is found to be of the straddling type with the valence- and conduction-band discontinuities 0.24 and 0.22 eV, respectively, with an estimated accuracy of ±10 meV. Computer reconstruction of the C-V profiles was used to check the consistency of the data. The band offset data indicate that the (Ga,In)P/(Al,Ga)As system should be staggered for a certain range of Al compositions.

  11. Effects of series and parallel resistances on the C-V characteristics of silicon-based metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Rejaiba; Mohamed, Ben Amar; Adel, Matoussi

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the electrical behavior of the Al/SiO2/Si MOS structure. We have used the complex admittance method to develop an analytical model of total capacitance applied to our proposed equivalent circuit. The charge density, surface potential, semiconductor capacitance, flatband and threshold voltages have been determined by resolving the Poisson transport equations. This modeling is used to predict in particular the effects of frequency, parallel and series resistance on the capacitance-voltage characteristic. Results show that the variation of both frequency and parallel resistance causes strong dispersion of the C-V curves in the inversion regime. It also reveals that the series resistance influences the shape of C-V curves essentially in accumulation and inversion modes. A significant decrease of the accumulation capacitance is observed when R s increases in the range 200-50000 ?. The degradation of the C-V magnitude is found to be more pronounced when the series resistance depends on the substrate doping density. When R s varies in the range 100 ?-50 k?, it shows a decrease in the flatband voltage from -1.40 to -1.26 V and an increase in the threshold voltage negatively from -0.28 to -0.74 V, respectively. Good agreement has been observed between simulated and measured C-V curves obtained at high frequency. This study is necessary to control the adverse effects that disrupt the operation of the MOS structure in different regimes and optimizes the efficiency of such electronic device before manufacturing.

  12. Petrography, stable isotope compositions, microRaman spectroscopy, and presolar components of Roberts Massif 04133: A reduced CV3 carbonaceous chondrite

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jemma; Schrader, Devin L; Alexander, Conel M O'D; Lauretta, Dante S; Busemann, Henner; Franchi, Ian A; Greenwood, Richard C; Connolly, Harold C; Domanik, Kenneth J; Verchovsky, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the mineralogy, petrography, C-N-O-stable isotope compositions, degree of disorder of organic matter, and abundances of presolar components of the chondrite Roberts Massif (RBT) 04133 using a coordinated, multitechnique approach. The results of this study are inconsistent with its initial classification as a Renazzo-like carbonaceous chondrite, and strongly support RBT 04133 being a brecciated, reduced petrologic type >3.3 Vigarano-like carbonaceous (CV) chondrite. RBT 04133 shows no evidence for aqueous alteration. However, it is mildly thermally altered (up to approximately 440 °C); which is apparent in its whole-rock C and N isotopic compositions, the degree of disorder of C in insoluble organic matter, low presolar grain abundances, minor element compositions of Fe,Ni metal, chromite compositions and morphologies, and the presence of unequilibrated silicates. Sulfides within type I chondrules from RBT 04133 appear to be pre-accretionary (i.e., did not form via aqueous alteration), providing further evidence that some sulfide minerals formed prior to accretion of the CV chondrite parent body. The thin section studied contains two reduced CV3 lithologies, one of which appears to be more thermally metamorphosed, indicating that RBT 04133, like several other CV chondrites, is a breccia and thus experienced impact processing. Linear foliation of chondrules was not observed implying that RBT 04133 did not experience high velocity impacts that could lead to extensive thermal metamorphism. Presolar silicates are still present in RBT 04133, although presolar SiC grain abundances are very low, indicating that the progressive destruction or modification of presolar SiC grains begins before presolar silicate grains are completely unidentifiable. PMID:26640360

  13. Lack of effect of aspirin in primary CV prevention in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy: results from 8 years follow-up of NID-2 study.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Marfella, Raffaele; Pagano, Antonio; Porta, Giovanni; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Lascar, Nadia; Minutolo, Roberto; Carbonara, Ornella; Persico, Marcello; Piscione, Federico; De Nicola, Luca; Torella, Roberto; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The risk-to-benefit ratio for the use of low dose of aspirin in primary cardiovascular (CV) prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus remains to be clarified. We assessed the effect of aspirin on risk of CV events in type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, in order to verify the usefulness of Guidelines in clinical practice. We carried out a prospective multicentric study in 564 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy free of CV disease attending outpatient diabetes clinics . A total of 242 patients received antiplatelet treatment with aspirin 100 mg/day (group A), and 322 were not treated with antiplatelet drugs (group B). Primary end point was the occurrence of total major adverse cardio-vascular events (MACE). Secondary end points were the relative occurrence of fatal MACE. The average follow-up was 8 years. Total MACE occurred in 49 patients from group A and in 52 patients from group B. Fatal MACE occurred in 22 patients from group A and in 20 from group B; nonfatal MACE occurred in 27 patients from group A and in 32 patients from group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show a statistically significant difference of cumulative MACE between the two groups. A not statistically significant difference in the incidence of both fatal (p = 0.225) and nonfatal CV events (p = 0.573) between the two groups was observed. These results were confirmed after adjustment for confounders (HR for MACE 1.11, 95 % CI 0.91-1.35). These findings suggest that low dose of aspirin is ineffective in primary prevention for patients with nephropathy. PMID:25109286

  14. The C—V and G/?—V Electrical Characteristics of 60Co ?-Ray Irradiated Al/Si3N4/p-Si (MIS) Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyrek, S.; Turan, A.; M. Bülbül, M.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of 60Co (?-ray) irradiation on the electrical characteristics of Al/Si3N4/p-Si (MIS) structures is investigated using capacitance-voltage (C—V) and conductance-voltage (G/?—V) measurements. The MIS structures are exposed to a 60Co ? radiation source at a dose of 0.7 kGy/h, with a total dose range of 0-100 kGy. The C—V and G/?—V properties are measured before and after 60Co ?-ray irradiation at 500 kHz and room temperature. It is found that the capacitance and conductance values decrease with the increase in the total dose due to the irradiation-induced defects at the interface. The results also indicate that ? radiation causes an increase in the barrier height ?B, Fermi energy EF and depletion layer width WD. The interface state density (Nss), using the Hill-Coleman method and dependent on radiation dose, is determined from the C—V and G/?—V measurements and decreases with an increase in the radiation dose. The decrease in the interface states can be attributed to the decrease in the recombination centers and the passivation of the Si surface due to the deposition insulator layer (Si3N4). In addition, it is clear that the acceptor concentration NA decreases with increasing radiation dose. The profile of series resistance Rs for various radiation doses is obtained from forward and reverse-biased C—V and G/?—V measurements, and its values decrease with increasing radiation dose, while it increases with increasing voltage in the accumulation region

  15. Application of silver nanoparticles contained in ethanol as a working fluid in an oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (CLOHP/CV): a thermodynamic behaviour study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuwakietkumjohn, N.; Parametthanuwat, T.

    2015-09-01

    This research focused on the thermal behaviour of oscillating heat pipe with a check valve (CLOHP/CV). The CLOHP/CV was made from a copper capillary tube with an internal diameter of 2.03 mm, 40 turns, and 2 check valves. The CLOHP/CV had three sections: the evaporator and adiabatic condenser of a length of 50, 100, and 150 mm. The angles of inclinations were 90°, 80°, 60°, 40°, 20° and 0° at normal operating conditions. The two working fluids were an ethanol and silver nanoparticles concentration of 0.5 wt% contained in the ethanol ( NE). The filling ratio was 50 % with respect to the total volume of the tube. The operating temperature ( T w ) was 45, 65, 85, 105, 125 and 150 °C. The results of the study showed that the heat flux increased significantly when the operating temperature increased, and the heat flux increased when the L e decreased from 150 to 50 mm. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of CLOHP/CV showed the highest heat flux of 2,012.63 W/m2 at L e of 50, with an angle of inclination of 90° and operating temperature of 150 °C with NE. The behaviour of 0.5 wt% of silver nanoparticles contained in the ethanol produced a good contact angle. The 0.5 wt% of silver nanoparticles decreased the wet ability, thus increasing the thermal behaviour. The optimum concentration for the addition of silver nanoparticles in the working fluid was 0.5 wt%.

  16. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  17. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana)

    PubMed Central

    Stansfield, Fiona J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These ‘Age Reference Lines’ were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70–75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  18. Effects of Different Local Moxibustion-Like Stimuli at Zusanli (ST36) and Zhongwan (CV12) on Gastric Motility and Its Underlying Receptor Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yang-Shuai; Xin, Juan-Juan; Yang, Zhao-Kun; He, Wei; Shi, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Hu, Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Zhu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the “intensity-response” relationship in local moxibustion-like stimuli- (LMS-) modulated gastric motility and its underlying receptor mechanism. Based on the thermal pain threshold (43°C), 41°C, 43°C, and 45°C LMS were separately applied to ST36 or CV12 for 180?s among ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3?/?) mice, TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1?/?) mice, and their homologous wild-type C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 in each group). Gastric motility was continuously measured by an intrapyloric balloon, and the amplitude, integral, and frequency of gastric motility during LMS were compared with those of initial activities. We found that both 43°C and 45°C LMS at ST36 induced significantly facilitated effect of gastric motility (P < 0.05), while LMS at CV12 induced inhibited effects (P < 0.05). 41°C LMS had no significant impact on gastric motility. Compared with C57BL/6 mice, the facilitatory effect at ST36 and inhibitive effect of LMS at CV12 were decreased significantly in TRPV1?/? mice (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) but not changed markedly in ASIC3?/? mice (P > 0.05). These results suggest that there existed an “intensity-response” relationship between temperature in LMS and its effects on gastric motility. TRPV1 receptor played a crucial role in the LMS-modulated gastric motility. PMID:26246837

  19. Absence of Dp71 in mdx3cv mouse spermatozoa alters flagellar morphology and the distribution of ion channels and nNOS.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Enrique O; Mornet, Dominique; Rendon, Alvaro; Martínez-Rojas, Dalila

    2005-01-01

    In muscle, the absence of dystrophin alters the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC), which is involved in the clustering and anchoring of signaling proteins and ion and water channels. Here we show that mice spermatozoa express only dystrophin Dp71 and utrophin Up71. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the absence of Dp71 on the morphology and membrane distribution of members of the DAPC, ion channels and signaling proteins of spermatozoa obtained from dystrophic mutant mdx3cv mice. Our work indicates that although the absence of Dp71 results in a dramatic decrease in beta-dystroglycan, it induces membrane redistribution and an increase in the total level of alpha-syntrophin, voltage-dependent Na+ (micro1) and K+ (Kv1.1) channels and neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The short utrophin (Up71) was upregulated and redistributed in the spermatozoa of mdx3cv mice. A significant increase in abnormal flagella morphology was observed in the absence of Dp71, which was partially corrected when the plasma membrane was eliminated by detergent treatment. Our observations point to a new phenotype associated with the absence of Dp71. Abnormal flagellar structure and altered distribution of ion channels and signaling proteins may be responsible for the fertility problems of mdx3cv mice. PMID:15601658

  20. A transcriptomic study of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) interaction with the vascular ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata.

    PubMed

    Camps, Céline; Kappel, Christian; Lecomte, Pascal; Léon, Céline; Gomès, Eric; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2010-06-01

    Eutypa dieback is a vascular disease that may severely affect vineyards throughout the world. In the present work, microarrays were made in order (i) to improve our knowledge of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon) responses to Eutypa lata, the causal agent of Eutypa dieback; and (ii) to identify genes that may prevent symptom development. Qiagen/Operon grapevine microarrays comprising 14,500 probes were used to compare, under three experimental conditions (in vitro, in the greenhouse, and in the vineyard), foliar material of infected symptomatic plants (S(+)R(+)), infected asymptomatic plants (S(-)R(+)), and healthy plants (S(-)R(-)). These plants were characterized by symptom notation after natural (vineyard) or experimental (in vitro and greenhouse) infection, re-isolation of the fungus located in the lignified parts, and the formal identification of E. lata mycelium by PCR. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR experiments were run to confirm the expression of some genes of interest in response to E. lata. Their expression profiles were also studied in response to other grapevine pathogens (Erysiphe necator, Plasmopara viticola, and Botrytis cinerea). (i) Five functional categories of genes, that is those involved in metabolism, defence reactions, interaction with the environment, transport, and transcription, were up-regulated in S(+)R(+) plants compared with S(-)R(-) plants. These genes, which cannot prevent infection and symptom development, are not specific since they were also up-regulated after infection by powdery mildew, downy mildew, and black rot. (ii) Most of the genes that may prevent symptom development are associated with the light phase of photosynthesis. This finding is discussed in the context of previous data on the mode of action of eutypin and the polypeptide fraction secreted by Eutypa. PMID:20190040

  1. Photosynthesis and growth responses of mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv Pusa Bold) plants to free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE).

    PubMed

    Ruhil, Kamal; Sheeba; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Tripathy, Baishnab C

    2015-07-01

    Increased atmospheric [CO2] is likely to affect photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield potential of plants. Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) is an important oil seed crop that is widely grown in India. Therefore, the impact of elevated [CO2] (585 ?mol mol(-1)) on pigment and protein content, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic electron transport reactions, CO2 assimilation, biomass production, and seed yield potential was measured in B. juncea cv Pusa Bold, grown inside free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) rings installed on the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India. Plants were grown for three consecutive winter seasons (2010-2013), in ambient (385 ?mol mol(-1)) or elevated [CO2], in field conditions. Elevated [CO2] had no significant effect on the minimal chlorophyll fluorescence (F 0), while the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, measured as variable fluorescence (F v?=?F m-F 0) to maximum fluoresence (F m), increased by 3 %. Electron transport rate, photosystem I, photosystem II, and whole chain electron transport rates increased by 8 % in elevated [CO2]. However, the net photosynthesis rate increased by ?50 % in three growing seasons under elevated [CO2] condition. The stomatal conductance and transpiration rate decreased resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. The photosynthesizing surface, i.e., leaf area index substantially increased leading to higher biomass and seed yield under elevated [CO2] condition. Acclimatory downregulation of photosynthesis and plant productivity was not observed in three consecutive growing years suggesting that in the absence of nutrient limitation, B. juncea is highly responsive to elevated CO2 whose yield potential shall increase in changing climatic conditions. PMID:25471475

  2. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    PubMed Central

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A.; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A.; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. “Kent” was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ? 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like “cell wall,” “carbohydrate catabolic process” and “starch and sucrose metabolic process” among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening. PMID:25741352

  3. FANTINA: Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA- Payload For Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Biele, J.; Bousquet, P.; Ciarletti, V.; Ho, T. M.; Issler, J. L.; Kofman, W.; Michel, P.; Plettemeier, D.; Puget, P.; Souyris, J. C.; Ulamec, S.; van Zoest, T.; Zine, S.

    2012-04-01

    The internal structure of small bodies is still poorly known and has never been measured directly. There is no way to determine from ground based observation whether the body is a monolithic piece of rock or a rubble-pile, an aggregate of boulders held together by gravity and how much porosity it contains, both in the form of micro-scale or macro-scale porosity. Knowing this structure is a key point for a better understanding of the asteroid accretion and dynamical evolution. It is the main objective of the FANTINA experience proposed Payload for Marco Polo R CV3 / ESA mission: FANTINA (Marco Polo's Daughter) for Fathom Asteroids Now: Tomography and Imagery of a NEA is to provide measurement capabilities and science data which are not accessible by remote sensing of the asteroid from the Marco-Polo R spacecraft alone and which complement the analysis of the returned samples. The FANTINA payload is a Lander carrying the ASSERT experiment and a complementary payload to be defined: ASSERT is a bistatic CONSERT/Rosetta-like radar to achieve the tomography both in transmission and in reflexion of the asteroid in order to characterise its composition and its heterogeneity from decimetric to global scale. The lander is a long-lived bus in the 10-kg class derived from MASCOT/Hayabusa 2. This paper reviews the science rationale of FANTINA in the context of the Marco Polo R mission to 1996FG3. The surface package concept will be reviewed including the radar tomography principles. So a preliminary design and budget will be done.

  4. Antioxidant activity and chemical components as potential anticancer agents in the olive leaf (Olea europaea L. cv Leccino.) decoction.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Nini, Antonella; Antenucci, Lina; Raimo, Gennaro; Iorizzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is correlated with a regular consumption of fruits and vegetable, many of which are rich in polyphenols. The additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in human body. Olea europaea L. leaf are rich in phenolic components, which have been proposed to play a role in cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the main components in the Olea europaea L. leaf (cv. Leccino) preserved during the decoction preparation, in order to delineate the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and its isolated compounds by using different in vitro assays including DPPH radicalscavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effect and the ability to delay the linoleic acid peroxidation process (ALP). The aqueous decoction was partitioned obtaining four extracts and the n-butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. Phytochemical investigation leads to the isolation of thirteen secondary metabolites including simple phenolics, flavonoids, secoiridoids whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. A significant free radical scavenging effect against DPPH has been evidenced in fraxamoside (1) (EC50 62.6 µM) and taxifolin (5) (EC50 50.0 µM), isolated for the first time from the water decoction. The most active compound in the TAC evaluation, was the 3,4 dihydro-phenyl glycol (8) (0.90 caffeic acid equiv.) while taxifolin and fraxamoside resulted as the most efficient inhibitors of XO activity (IC50 2.7 and 5.2 µM, respectively). Secoxyloganin (4), oleuropein (2) and tyrosol (6) showed the highest ALP activity. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. PMID:25102361

  5. Plasma membrane lipid alterations associated with cold acclimation of winter rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. cv Puma)

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.V.; Steponkus, P.L. )

    1987-01-01

    Highly enriched plasma membrane fractions were isolated from leaves of nonacclimated (NA) and acclimated (ACC) rye (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) seedlings. Collectively, free sterols, steryl glucosides, and acylated steryl glucosides constituted > 50 mole % of the total lipid in both NA and ACC plasma membrane fractions. Glucocerebrosides containing hydroxy fatty acids constituted the major glycolipid class of the plasma membrane, accounting for 16 mole % of the total lipid. Phospholipids, primarily phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine with lesser amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol, comprised only 32 mole% of the total lipid in NA samples. Following cold acclimation, free sterols increased from 33 to 44 mole %, while steryl glucosides and acylated steryl glucosides decreased from 15 to 6 mole % and 4 to 1 mole %, respectively. Sterol analyses of these lipid classes demonstrated that free {beta}-sitosterol increased from 21 to 32 mole % (accounting for the increase in free sterols as a class) at the expense of sterol derivatives containing {beta}-sitosterol. Glucocerebrosides decreased from 16 to 7 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. In addition, the relative proportions of associated hydroxy fatty acids, including 22:0 (h), 24:0 (h), 22:1 (h), and 24:1 (h) were altered. The phospholipid content of the plasma membrane fraction increased to 42 mole % of the total lipid following cold acclimation. Although the relative proportions of the individual phospholipids did not change appreciably after cold acclimation, there were substantial differences in the molecular species. Di-unsaturated molecular species of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine increased following acclimation. These results demonstrate that cold acclimation results in substantial changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane.

  6. A Lectin with Highly Potent Inhibitory Activity toward Breast Cancer Cells from Edible Tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. Nagaimo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-01-01

    A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC50 values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum cv Stewart) with improved efficiency

    PubMed Central

    He, Y.; Jones, H. D.; Chen, S.; Chen, X. M.; Wang, D. W.; Li, K. X.; Wang, D. S.; Xia, L. Q.

    2010-01-01

    An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated durum wheat transformation system has been developed for the production of 121 independent transgenic lines. This improved system used Agrobacterium strain AGL1 containing the superbinary pGreen/pSoup vector system and durum wheat cv Stewart as the recipient plant. Acetosyringone at 400??M was added to both the inoculation and cultivation medium, and picloram at 10?mg l?1 and 2?mg l?1 was used in the cultivation and induction medium, respectively. Compared with 200??M in the inoculation and cultivation media, the increased acetosyringone concentration led to significantly higher GUS (?-glucuronidase) transient expression and T-DNA delivery efficiency. However, no evident effects of acetosyringone concentration on regeneration frequency were observed. The higher acetosyringone concentration led to an improvement in average final transformation efficiency from 4.7% to 6.3%. Furthermore, the concentration of picloram in the co-cultivation medium had significant effects on callus induction and regeneration. Compared with 2?mg l?1 picloram in the co-cultivation medium, increasing the concentration to 10?mg l?1 picloram resulted in improved final transformation frequency from 2.8% to 6.3%, with the highest frequency of 12.3% reached in one particular experiment, although statistical analysis showed that this difference in final transformation efficiency had a low level of significance. Stable integration of foreign genes, their expression, and inheritance were confirmed by Southern blot analyses, GUS assay, and genetic analysis. Analysis of T1 progeny showed that, of the 31 transgenic lines randomly selected, nearly one-third had a segregation ratio of 3:1, while the remainder had ratios typical of two or three independently segregating loci. PMID:20202997

  8. Genome organisation and retrotransposon driven molecular evolution of the endosperm Hardness (Ha) locus in Triticum aestivum cv Glenlea.

    PubMed

    Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2008-12-01

    Wheat endosperm texture is controlled primarily by a locus (Ha), which comprises Gsp-1, Pina and Pinb genes encoding the so-called grain softness protein, puroindoline-a and puroindoline-b, respectively. Pina and Pinb were detected only on the D-genome of hexaploid wheat and its diploid progenitors while Gsp-1 was on all three homoeologous loci. Hexaploid cultivar Glenlea has a hard phenotype due to a null Pina genotype (D-genome) but the sequence organization is not reported. This study aimed at understanding the evolution of homoeologous Ha loci. Sequencing of three BAC clones from cv Glenlea was performed and sequence analyses delimited the Ha loci which spanned 3,925, 5,330 and 31,607 bp in the A-, B- and D-genomes, respectively. A solo LTR of Angela retroelement, downstream to Gsp-A1 and a fragment of Sabrina retroelement, downstream of Gsp-B1, were discovered. We propose that the insertion of these elements into the intergenic regions have driven the deletions of genomic segments harbouring Pina and Pinb genes in the A- and B-genomes of hexaploid wheat. Similarly, fragments of Romani and Vagabond retroelements were identified between truncated Pina and Pinb genes, indicating their role in the deletion of Pina in Glenlea, leading to its hard texture. Structural differences of the Ha locus region of the A-genome between two hexaploid wheat varieties namely Glenlea and Renan (CR626929), suggested the presence of more than one tetraploid ancestor in the origin of hexaploid wheat. PMID:18830712

  9. Modeling the effect of time and temperature on respiration rate of pomegranate arils (cv. "Acco" and "Herskawitz").

    PubMed

    Caleb, Oluwafemi J; Mahajan, Pramod V; Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Witthuhn, Corli R

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the effect of time and temperature on the respiration rate (RR) of fresh-cut produce, towards the design of a suitable modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) system, requires an adequate mathematical model for prediction of RR as a function of both time and temperature. This study investigated the effect of temperature (5, 10, and 15 °C) and storage time (1 to 5 d) on the RR (R(O2) and R(CO2)) of 2 pomegranate cultivars (cv. "Acco" and "Herskawitz") fresh arils. R(O2) and R(CO2) were 3 to 4 folds significantly higher with increased temperature from 5 to 15 °C and were within the range of 2.51 to 7.59 mL/kg h and 2.72 to 9.01 mL/kg h, respectively, for both cultivars. At 15 °C R(CO2) increased significantly from 8.4 to 25.96 mL/kg h from day 1 to 5, respectively, while at 5 °C R(CO2) changed from 2.9 to 2.05 mL/kg h from day 1 to 5. Temperature had the greatest influence on RR and the interaction of time and temperature also significantly affected R(O2) and R(CO2). The respiratory quotient (RQ) estimated by linear regression was 0.98 at 95% significant level. The dependence of RR on temperature and time was accurately described with a combination of an Arrhenius-type and power equation model for and of fresh pomegranate arils. PMID:22429147

  10. Microbiological and biochemical profile of cv. Conservolea naturally black olives during controlled fermentation with selected strains of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Panagou, Efstathios Z; Schillinger, Ulrich; Franz, Charles M A P; Nychas, George-John E

    2008-04-01

    The effect of controlled fermentation processes on the microbial association and biochemical profile of cv. Conservolea naturally black olives processed by the traditional anaerobic method was studied. The different treatments included (a) inoculation with a commercial starter culture of Lactobacillus pentosus, (b) inoculation with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from a fermented cassava product and (c) uninoculated spontaneous process. Microbial growth, pH, titratable acidity, organic acids and volatile compounds were monitored throughout the fermentation. The initial microbiota consisted of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria was evident in all processes. Both starter cultures were effective in establishing an accelerated fermentation process and reduced the survival period of Gram-negative bacteria by 5 days compared with the spontaneous process, minimizing thus the likelihood of spoilage. Higher acidification of the brines was observed in inoculated processes without any significant difference between the two selected starter cultures (113.5 and 117.6mM for L. plantarum and L. pentosus, respectively). L. pentosus was also determined as the major species present during the whole process of spontaneous olive fermentation. It is characteristic that lactic acid fermentation was also initiated rapidly in the spontaneous process, as the conditions of fermentation, mainly the low salt level (6%, w/v) favored the dominance of lactic acid bacteria over yeasts. Lactic, acetic and propionic were the organic acids detected by HPLC in considerable amounts, whereas citric and malic acids were also present at low levels and degraded completely during the processes. Ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate were the major volatile compounds identified by GC. Their concentrations varied among the different treatments, reflecting varying degrees of microbial activity in the brines. The results obtained from this study could help the Greek table olive industry to improve the existing processing schemes in order to increase product consistency and quality expanding the international market for naturally black olives. PMID:18206777

  11. Control of endogenous bacterial contamination and micropropagation of a traditional table banana (Musa spp. cv. Kanthali) of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Titov, Soubir; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Alam, Md Sadrul; Uddin, Sarder Nasir

    2007-11-01

    Shoot tips of a traditional table banana (Musa spp. cv. Kanthali) of Bangladesh were evaluated for in vitro propagation. Initial surface sterilization (with 0.1% HgCl2 for 12 minutes) of shoot tips was successful but microbial contamination (mostly bacteria) at the rhizomatous base of the explants was observed within 6-15 days after inoculation which eventually killed 85% of inoculated explants. So, for contamination free culture establishment explants were soaked in two broad spectrum antibiotics namely ampicillin and gentamicin. Cent percent contamination free cultures were established by soaking the explants in 400 mg/L ampicillin or 200 mg/L gentamicin for 1h. Antibiotic treated explants were found to be full contamination free but failed to regenerate after 3 weeks of culture. But some of them absorbed media for up to 2nd subculture and showed swelling of explants and some color changes from pale white to light/deep green. Finally, a few days after 3rd subculture, no growth of explants was observed and all treated explants eventually started to die. Among the untreated alive explants the best medium for single shoot development was MS + 4.0 mg/L BA + 0.5 mg/L KT + 15% CW and average time required for shoot development was 18-21 days. But the regeneration percentage was very low (30%). The best medium for shoot multiplication was MS + 4.0 mg/L BA + 2.0 mg/L IAA + 15% CW and only average 3-4 shoots were formed per shoot. Finally, in vitro proliferated shoots produced roots with maximum frequency (90%) in half strength of MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg/L IBA. PMID:18257234

  12. Kenney cv short

    E-print Network

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-21

    Student Teaching Internship, Carroll High School, Dayton, OH. Spring ... Issues in the Undergraduate Mathematics Preparation of Secondary ..... 2013-2016 ... course over the summer 2009 and has been revised to become a course in the.

  13. John Cushman's CV

    E-print Network

    F. Alejandro Bonilla

    1982 - 1985, Associate Professor of Environmental Physics, Purdue University ..... Curry*, J.E. and J.H. Cushman (1998) Structure in confined fluids: phase ..... Cushman, J.H. (1983) Incorporation of the Rhizosphere into Plant Root Models.

  14. Ilex cornuta cv. Burfordii 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    This publication explains how to minimize damage to live oak trees by the oak leaf roller and an associated caterpillar species, which occur throughout Texas but are most damaging in the Hill Country and South Texas....

  15. cv / Graser Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Master of Laws, Harvard Law School, Cambridge/MA. 1996 Second State Exam in law, State of Baden-Württemberg/Germany. 1994 First State Exam in law, State of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. 1993 Diploma in Legal Studies Public Law and Social Policy, Hertie School of Governance, Berlin. DEGREES 2006 "Habilitation" (post

  16. Identification, quantitation and distribution of gibberellins in fruits of Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska during pod development.

    PubMed

    García-Martinez, J L; Santes, C; Croker, S J; Hedden, P

    1991-04-01

    In addition to the previously-reported gibberellins: GA1; GA8, GA20 and GA29 (García-Martínez et al., 1987, Planta 170, 130-137), GA3 and GA19 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in pods and ovules of 4-d-old pollinated pea (Pisum sativum cv. Alaska) ovaries. Pods contained additionally GA17, GA81 (2?-hydroxy GA20) and GA29-catabolite. The concentrations of GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20 and GA29 were higher in the ovules than in the pod, although, with the exception of GA3, the total content of these GAs in the pod exceeded that in the seeds. About 80% of the GA3 content of the ovary was present in the seeds. The concentrations of GA19 and GA20 in pollinated ovaries remained fairly constant for the first 12 ds after an thesis, after which they increased sharply. In contrast, GA1 and GA3 concentrations were maximal at 7 d and 4-6 d, respectively, after anthesis, at about the time of maximum pod growth rate, and declined thereafter. Emasculated ovaries at anthesis contained GA8, GA19 and GA20 at concentrations comparable with pollinated fruit, but they decreased rapidly. Gibberellins a1 and A3 were present in only trace amounts in emasculated ovaries at any stage. Parthenocarpic fruit, produced by decapitating plants immediately above an emasculated flower, or by treating such flowers with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or GA7, contained GA19 and GA20 at similar concentrations to seeded fruit, but very low amounts of GA1 and GA3 Thus, it appears that the presence of fertilised ovules is necessary for the synthesis of these last two GAs. Mature leaves and leaf diffusates contained GA1, GA8, GA19 and GA20 as determined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion monitoring. This provides further evidence that vegetative tissues are a possible alternative source of GAs for fruit-set, particularly in decapitated plants. PMID:24193929

  17. Efficacy of Pneumococcal Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Young Latin American Children: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–induced antibody responses and protection against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) is unclear. This study assessed the impact of the ten-valent pneumococcal nontypable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) on these end points. The primary objective was to demonstrate vaccine efficacy (VE) in a per-protocol analysis against likely bacterial CAP (B-CAP: radiologically confirmed CAP with alveolar consolidation/pleural effusion on chest X-ray, or non-alveolar infiltrates and C-reactive protein ? 40 µg/ml); other protocol-specified outcomes were also assessed. Methods and Findings This phase III double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted between 28 June 2007 and 28 July 2011 in Argentine, Panamanian, and Colombian populations with good access to health care. Approximately 24,000 infants received PHiD-CV or hepatitis control vaccine (hepatitis B for primary vaccination, hepatitis A at booster) at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 mo of age. Interim analysis of the primary end point was planned when 535 first B-CAP episodes, occurring ?2 wk after dose 3, were identified in the per-protocol cohort. After a mean follow-up of 23 mo (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,295; control, n?=?10,201), per-protocol VE was 22.0% (95% CI: 7.7, 34.2; one-sided p?=?0.002) against B-CAP (conclusive for primary objective) and 25.7% (95% CI: 8.4%, 39.6%) against World Health Organization–defined consolidated CAP. Intent-to-treat VE was 18.2% (95% CI: 5.5%, 29.1%) against B-CAP and 23.4% (95% CI: 8.8%, 35.7%) against consolidated CAP. End-of-study per-protocol analyses were performed after a mean follow-up of 28–30 mo for CAP and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (PHiD-CV, n?=?10,211; control, n?=?10,140) and AOM (n?=?3,010 and 2,979, respectively). Per-protocol VE was 16.1% (95% CI: ?1.1%, 30.4%; one-sided p?=?0.032) against clinically confirmed AOM, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n?=?11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n?=?11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763

  18. 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Muema, D M; Nduati, E W; Uyoga, M; Bashraheil, M; Scott, J A G; Hammitt, L L; Urban, B C

    2015-01-01

    Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12–23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3–45%; P?CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. PMID:25845628

  19. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance. PMID:25277445

  20. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  1. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  2. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  3. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  4. Prmio para trs novas aplicaes

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Prémio para três novas aplicações Tecnologia. A "wiride" venceu o "Lisbon Big Apps", concurso de Instituto Superior Técnico que desenvolveu o projeto, citada pelo/dAT, a "wiride" é uma nova forma de andar

  5. Tomografía computarizada (TC) y exploraciones para cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que describe el procedimiento y la tecnología de exploraciones con tomografía computarizada así como sus usos para el diagnóstico, para exámenes de detección y para tratamiento del cáncer.

  6. S-asteroids 387 Aquitania and 980 Anacostia - Possible fragments of the breakup of a spinel-bearing parent body with CO3/CV3 affinities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbine, Thomas H.; Gaffey, Michael J.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1992-01-01

    Asteroids 387 Aquitania and 980 Anacostia are anomalous members of the S-class. Their reflectance spectra exhibit a strong broad absorption feature longwards of 1.5 micron and no significant feature near 1 micron. Their spectra indicate the presence of spinel, an aluminum-magnesium oxide mineral commonly present in inclusions in CV3 and CO3 meteorites. Spinel probably makes up only a small percentage of the surface assemblages of these asteroids, but its spectral effect may be enhanced by its presence in fine-grained white inclusions in immature asteroid regoliths. It is speculated that Aquitania and Anacostia represent material formed in the same nebular zone as the CV3 and CO3 chondrites but either: (A) at an earlier time in the nebula when such inclusions might have been a relatively larger fraction of the nebular grain population; or (B) in local regions where nebular processes (e.g., settling to the midplane) had concentrated such inclusions. The close similarity of two orbital elements (a, i) suggests that Aquitania and Anacostia may be members of a partially dispersed asteroid family produced by the early disruption of a spinel-bearing parent body.

  7. Temperature dependence of frequency dispersion in III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor C-V and the capture/emission process of border traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vais, Abhitosh; Lin, Han-Chung; Dou, Chunmeng; Martens, Koen; Ivanov, Tsvetan; Xie, Qi; Tang, Fu; Givens, Michael; Maes, Jan; Collaert, Nadine; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; DeMeyer, Kristin; Thean, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion observed in capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of III-V metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices. The dispersion in the accumulation region of the capacitance data is found to change from 4%-9% (per decade frequency) to ˜0% when the temperature is reduced from 300 K to 4 K in a wide range of MOS capacitors with different gate dielectrics and III-V substrates. We show that such significant temperature dependence of C-V frequency dispersion cannot be due to the temperature dependence of channel electrostatics, i.e., carrier density and surface potential. We also show that the temperature dependence of frequency dispersion, and hence, the capture/emission process of border traps can be modeled by a combination of tunneling and a "temperature-activated" process described by a non-radiative multi-phonon model, instead of a widely believed single-step elastic tunneling process.

  8. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of volatile oil extracted from Brassica rapa cv. "yukina" used in Japanese traditional food.

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Takagi, Ayumi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts of Brassica rapa cv. "yukina" was analyzed using GC-MS, GC-PFPD, and GC-O. A total of 50 compounds were identified. The most prominent constituents were (E)-1,5-heptadiene (40.27%), 3-methyl-3-butenenitrile (25.97%) and 3-phenylpropanenitrile (12.41%). With regard to aroma compounds, 12 compounds were identified by GC-O analysis. The main aroma-active compounds were dimethyl tetrasulfide (sulphury-cabbage, FD = 64), 3-phenylpropanenitrile (nutty, FD = 64), 3-methylindole (pungent, FD = 64), and methional (potato, FD = 32). The antioxidant activity of the aroma-active compounds of the oil was determined using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. The ORAC values were found to be 785 ± 67 trolox equivalents (?mol TE/g) for B. rapa cv. "yukina" oil. The results obtained showed that the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts is a good dietary source of antioxidants. PMID:24919480

  9. Antisense suppression of thioredoxin h mRNA in Brassica napus cv. Westar pistils causes a low level constitutive pollen rejection response.

    PubMed

    Haffani, Yosr Z; Gaude, Thierry; Cock, J Mark; Goring, Daphne R

    2004-07-01

    In Brassica , the thioredoxin h proteins, THL1 and THL2, were previously found to be potential inhibitors of the S receptor kinase (SRK) in the Brassica self-incompatibility response. To investigate the biological roles of THL1 and THL2 in pollen-pistil interactions, the stigma-specific SLR1 promoter was used to drive antisense THL1/2 expression in Brassica napus cv. Westar. This cultivar is normally compatible, but antisense suppression of THL1/2 led to a low level constitutive rejection of all Brassica napus pollen tested. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the pollen rejection was a typical Brassica self-incompatibility rejection response with reduced pollen adhesion, germination and pollen tube growth. In addition, Westar was found to express the SLG(15) and SRK(15) proteins which may be the target of regulation by THL1 and THL2. Thus, these results indicate that the THL1 and THL2 are required for full pollen acceptance in B. napus cv. Westar. PMID:15604705

  10. Separating para and ortho water.

    PubMed

    Horke, Daniel A; Chang, Yuan-Pin; D?ugo??cki, Karol; Küpper, Jochen

    2014-10-27

    Water exists as two nuclear-spin isomers, para and ortho, determined by the overall spin of its two hydrogen nuclei. For isolated water molecules, the conversion between these isomers is forbidden and they act as different molecular species. Yet, these species are not readily separated, and no pure para sample has been produced. Accordingly, little is known about their specific physical and chemical properties, conversion mechanisms, or interactions. The production of isolated samples of both spin isomers is demonstrated in pure beams of para and ortho water in their respective absolute ground state. These single-quantum-state samples are ideal targets for unraveling spin-conversion mechanisms, for precision spectroscopy and fundamental symmetry-breaking studies, and for spin-enhanced applications, for example laboratory astrophysics and astrochemistry or hypersensitized NMR experiments. PMID:25196938

  11. Direct online HPLC-CV-AFS method for traces of methylmercury without derivatisation: a matrix-independent method for urine, sediment and biological tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Brombach, Christoph-Cornelius; Gajdosechova, Zuzana; Chen, Bin; Brownlow, Andrew; Corns, Warren T; Feldmann, Jörg; Krupp, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant which occurs in different species, with methylmercury (MeHg) being the critical compound due to its neurotoxicity and bioaccumulation through the food chain. Methods for trace speciation of MeHg are therefore needed for a vast range of sample matrices, such as biological tissues, fluids, soils or sediments. We have previously developed an ultra-trace speciation method for methylmercury in water, based on a preconcentration HPLC cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-CV-AFS) method. The focus of this work is mercury speciation in a variety of sample matrices to assess the versatility of the method. Certified reference materials were used where possible, and samples were spiked where reference materials were not available, e.g. human urine. Solid samples were submitted for commonly used digestion or extraction processes to obtain a liquid sample for injection into the analytical system. For MeHg in sediment samples, an extraction procedure was adapted to accommodate MeHg separation from high amounts of Hg(2+) to avoid an overload of the column. The recovery for MeHg determination was found to be in the range of 88-104% in fish reference materials (DOLT-2, DOLT-4, DORM-3), lobster (TORT-2), seaweed (IAEA-140/TM), sediments (ERM(®)-CC580) and spiked urine and has been proven to be robust, reliable, virtually matrix-independent and relatively cost-effective. Applications in the ultra-trace concentration range are possible using the preconcentration up to 200 mL, while for higher MeHg-containing samples, lower volumes can be applied. A comparison was carried out between species-specific isotope dilution gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SSID-GC-ICP-MS) as the gold standard and HPLC-CV-AFS for biological tissues (liver, kidney and muscle of pilot whales), showing a slope of 1.008 and R (2)?=?0.97, which indicates that the HPLC-CV-AFS method achieves well-correlated results for MeHg in biological tissues. PMID:25318461

  12. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    PubMed

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of two sunflower genotypes (cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus cv. 1114 and newly developed genotype H. annuus × Helianthus argophyllus) to Pb medium-term stress and the role of exogenously applied EDTA in alleviating Pb toxicity in hydroponics. Plant growth, morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues, electrolyte leakage, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, total flavonoid content, and superoxide dismutase isoenzyme profile were studied by conventional methods. Differential responses of both genotypes to Pb supplied in the nutrient solution were recorded. Pb treatment induced a decrease in the relative growth rate, disturbance of plasma membrane integrity, and changes in the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues and in the antioxidant capacity, which were more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb when compared with the cultivar. This was mainly due to increased photosynthetically active area, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, permanently high total antioxidant activity, and free radical scavenging capacity as well as total flavonoid content. The addition of EDTA into the nutrient solution led to limitation of the negative impact of Pb ions on the above parameters in both genotypes. This could be related to the reduced content of Pb in the roots, stems, and leaves, suggesting that the presence of EDTA limited the uptake of Pb. The comparative analysis of the responses to Pb treatment showed that the deleterious effect of Pb was more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype H. annuus × H. argophyllus was more productive and demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb medium-term stress, which could indicate that it may possess certain mechanisms to tolerate high Pb concentrations. This character could be inherited from the wild parent used in the interspecific hybridization. The ability of EDTA to prevent Pb absorption by the plants could underly the mechanism of limiting of the negative impact of Pb ions. Hence, EDTA cannot be used to enhance Pb absorption from nutrient solution by sunflower plants for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:23135752

  13. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  14. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748?T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation. PMID:25582183

  15. A refractory inclusion in the Kaba CV3 chondrite - Some implications for the origin of spinel-rich objects in chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Post, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first detailed petrographic and mineralogical study of a Ca, Al-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Kaba CV3 chondrite is reported. This 'fine-grained' CAI contains abundant small, rounded, rimmed, spinel-rich objects which have important features in common with the spinel-rich objects in other carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. These nodules are interpreted as fractionated distillation residues of primitive dust. However, the available data do not unambiguously rule out a condensation origin for at least some of these objects. Finally, the preservation of distinct diopside-hedenbergite rims on the spinel-rich bodies and the small grain size of many minerals in the CAI matrix material both suggest that the CAI accreted cool and had a relatively cool thermal history in the Kaba parent body.

  16. Optimization of in vitro regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with heat-resistant cDNA in Brassica oleracea subsp. italica cv. Green Marvel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Seyed Ali; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Abdullah, Janna Ong

    2015-11-01

    An efficient system for shoot regeneration and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Brassica oleracea cv. Green Marvel cultivar is described. This study focuses on developing shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants of broccoli cv. Green Marvel using thidiazuron (TDZ), zeatin, and kinetin, the optimization of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the hypocotyl explants with heat-resistant cDNA, followed by the confirmation of transgenicity of the regenerants. High shoot regeneration was observed in 0.05-0.1 mg dm(-3) TDZ. TDZ at 0.1 mg dm(-3) produced among the highest percentage of shoot regeneration (96.67 %) and mean number of shoot formation (6.17). The highest percentage (13.33 %) and mean number (0.17) of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants subjected to preculture on shoot regeneration medium (SRM) with 200 µM acetosyringone. On optimization of bacterial density and inoculation time, the highest percentage and mean number of putative transformant production were on hypocotyl explants inoculated with a bacterial dilution of 1:5 for 30 min. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated a transformation efficiency of 8.33 %. The luciferase assay showed stable integration of the Arabidopsis thaliana HSP101 (AtHSP101) cDNA in the transgenic broccoli regenerants. Three out of five transgenic lines confirmed through PCR showed positive hybridization bands of the AtHSP101 cDNA through Southern blot analysis. The presence of AtHSP101 transcripts in the three transgenic broccoli lines indicated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed the expression of the gene. In conclusion, an improved regeneration system has been established from hypocotyl explants of broccoli followed by successful transformation with AtHSP101 for resistance to high temperature. PMID:25986972

  17. Polymethoxylated flavones, flavanone glycosides, carotenoids, and antioxidants in different cultivation types of tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) from Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Hongsibsong, Surat; Biesalski, Hans-Konrad

    2010-05-26

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) and flavanone glycosides (FGs) were analyzed in hand-pressed juice and the peeled fruit of 'Sainampueng' tangerines ( Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) grown in northern Thailand. The tangerines were collected from a citrus cluster of small orchard farmers and were cultivated as either agrochemical-based (AB), agrochemical-safe (AS), or organic grown fruits. Juice samples were also measured on contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, and tocopherols. The peel-deriving PMFs tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin were found with high concentrations in juice as a result of simple squeezing, whereas amounts of those PMFs were negligibly low in peeled tangerine fruit. In contrast, the mean concentrations of the FGs narirutin, hesperidin, and didymin were several fold higher in peeled fruit than in tangerine juice and significantly higher in organic than AS and AB tangerines. Narirutin and hesperidin in juice from organic produces as well as narirutin in juice from AS produces were significantly higher than respective mean concentrations in juice from AB produces. beta-Cryptroxanthin was the predominant carotenoid beside zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, and beta-carotene in tangerine juice. Ascorbic acid concentrations were not predicted by the type of cultivation, whereas alpha-tocopherol was significantly higher in juice from organic than AS produces. In summary, hand-pressed juice of C. reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng serves as a rich source of PMFs, FGs, carotenoids, and antioxidants: 4-5 tangerine fruits ( approximately 80 g of each fruit) giving one glass of 200 mL hand-pressed juice would provide more than 5 mg of nobiletin and tangeretin and 36 mg of hesperidin, narirutin, and didymin, as well as 30 mg of ascorbic acid, >1 mg of provitamin A active beta-cryptoxanthin, and 200 microg of alpha-tocopherol. PMID:20420369

  18. Introducing constricted variational density functional theory in its relaxed self-consistent formulation (RSCF-CV-DFT) as an alternative to adiabatic time dependent density functional theory for studies of charge transfer transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Seth, Mike; Ziegler, Tom

    2014-05-14

    We have applied the relaxed and self-consistent extension of constricted variational density functional theory (RSCF-CV-DFT) for the calculation of the lowest charge transfer transitions in the molecular complex X-TCNE between X = benzene and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene. Use was made of functionals with a fixed fraction (?) of Hartree-Fock exchange ranging from ? = 0 to ? = 0.5 as well as functionals with a long range correction (LC) that introduces Hartree-Fock exchange for longer inter-electronic distances. A detailed comparison and analysis is given for each functional between the performance of RSCF-CV-DFT and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that in this particular case, all functionals afford the same reasonable agreement with experiment for RSCF-CV-DFT whereas only the LC-functionals afford a fair agreement with experiment using TDDFT. We have in addition calculated the CT transition energy for X-TCNE with X = toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene employing the same functionals as for X = benzene. It is shown that the calculated charge transfer excitation energies are in as good agreement with experiment as those obtained from highly optimized LC-functionals using adiabatic TDDFT. We finally discuss the relation between the optimization of length separation parameters and orbital relaxation in the RSCF-CV-DFT scheme.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ?0.2 ?g/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ?8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ?100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children. PMID:25830489

  20. Oficina para Prcticas Externas y Orientacin para el Empleo (OPE) CONVOCATORIA DEL AO 2015 PARA PRCTICAS REMUNERADAS DE LA OPE

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    medios de comunicación para mejorar su visibilidad - Planteamiento de planes de medios eficientes de las para poder realizar las funciones encomendadas vinculadas al área de comunicación de la UAM CRITERIOS

  1. Oficina para Prcticas Externas y Orientacin para el Empleo (OPE) CONVOCATORIA DEL AO 2015 PARA PRCTICAS REMUNERADAS DE LA OPE

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    cursos gratuitos que el Centro Regional de #12;Oficina para Prácticas Externas y Orientación para el) FORMACIÓN A RECIBIR: - Curso interno "Atención al público y al estudiante en particular. Técnicas y habilidades para una correcta ejecución". - Curso interno "Unidades y servicios de la UAM dirigidos

  2. Requisitos para utilizar el enlace | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Espanol.smokefree.gov ofrece apoyo y recursos para norteamericanos que hablan español y quieren dejar de fumar. Este sitio en la red fue creada por la División de Investigación para el Control del Tabaco del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer.

  3. Estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón

    Cancer.gov

    Conjunto de información sobre los estudios ALCHEMIST para el cáncer de pulmón, los cuales examinarán los tejidos de tumores de pacientes con cáncer de pulmón en estadio inicial para detectar mutaciones genéticas en genes EGFR y ALK.

  4. Three minimum tile paths from bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of the soybean (Glycine max cv. 'Forrest'): tools for structural and functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, JL; Yesudas, C; Yaegashi, S; Afzal, AJ; Kazi, S; Lightfoot, DA

    2006-01-01

    Background The creation of minimally redundant tile paths (hereafter MTP) from contiguous sets of overlapping clones (hereafter contigs) in physical maps is a critical step for structural and functional genomics. Build 4 of the physical map of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. 'Forrest') showed the 1 Gbp haploid genome was composed of 0.7 Gbp diploid, 0.1 Gbp tetraploid and 0.2 Gbp octoploid regions. Therefore, the size of the unique genome was about 0.8 Gbp. The aim here was to create MTP sub-libraries from the soybean cv. Forrest physical map builds 2 to 4. Results The first MTP, named MTP2, was 14,208 clones (of mean insert size 140 kbp) picked from the 5,597 contigs of build 2. MTP2 was constructed from three BAC libraries (BamHI (B), HindIII (H) and EcoRI (E) inserts). MTP2 encompassed the contigs of build 3 that derived from build 2 by a series of contig merges. MTP2 encompassed 2 Gbp compared to the soybean haploid genome of 1 Gbp and does not distinguish regions by ploidy. The second and third MTPs, called MTP4BH and MTP4E, were each based on build 4. Each was semi-automatically selected from 2,854 contigs. MTP4BH was 4,608 B and H insert clones of mean size 173 kbp in the large (27.6 kbp) T-DNA vector pCLD04541. MTP4BH was suitable for plant transformation and functional genomics. MTP4E was 4,608 BAC clones with large inserts (mean 175 kbp) in the small (7.5 kbp) pECBAC1 vector. MTP4E was suitable for DNA sequencing. MTP4BH and MTP4E clones each encompassed about 0.8 Gbp, the 0.7 Gbp diploid regions and 0.05 Gbp each from the tetraploid and octoploid regions. MTP2 and MTP4BH were used for BAC-end sequencing, EST integration, micro-satellite integration into the physical map and high information content fingerprinting. MTP4E will be used for genome sequence by pooled genomic clone index. Conclusion Each MTP and associated BES will be useful to deconvolute and ultimately finish the whole genome shotgun sequence of soybean. PMID:16725032

  5. Direct purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using a PEG/salt-based Aqueous Two Phase System.

    PubMed

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2011-01-01

    An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system pH (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w) NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%). Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel. PMID:21986520

  6. Plant growth enhancing effects by a siderophore-producing endophytic streptomycete isolated from a Thai jasmine rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105).

    PubMed

    Rungin, Siriwan; Indananda, Chantra; Suttiviriya, Pavinee; Kruasuwan, Worarat; Jaemsaeng, Ratchaniwan; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2012-10-01

    An endophytic Streptomyces sp. GMKU 3100 isolated from roots of a Thai jasmine rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) showed the highest siderophore production on CAS agar while phosphate solubilization and IAA production were not detected. A mutant of Streptomyces sp. GMKU 3100 deficient in just one of the plant growth promoting traits, siderophore production, was generated by inactivation of a desD-like gene encoding a key enzyme controlling the final step of siderophore biosynthesis. Pot culture experiments revealed that rice and mungbean plants inoculated with the wild type gave the best enhancement of plant growth and significantly increased root and shoot biomass and lengths compared with untreated controls and siderophore-deficient mutant treatments. Application of the wild type in the presence or absence of ferric citrate significantly promoted plant growth of both plants. The siderophore-deficient mutant clearly showed the effect of this important trait involved in plant-microbe interaction in enhancement of growth in rice and mungbean plants supplied with sequestered iron. Our results highlight the value of a substantial understanding of the relationship of the plant growth promoting properties of endophytic actinomycetes to the plants. Endophytic actinomycetes, therefore, can be applied as potentially safe and environmentally friendly biofertilizers in agriculture. PMID:22836676

  7. Immunodetection and Identification of N6-(o-Hydroxybenzylamino)Purine as a Naturally Occurring Cytokinin in Populus × canadensis Moench cv Robusta Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Strnad, Miroslav; Peters, Wilfried; Beck, Erwin; Kamínek, Miroslav

    1992-01-01

    A highly specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for 9-?-d-ribofuranosyl-N6-(o-hydroxybenzylamino)purine [(oOH)[9R]BAP] and structurally related cytokinins. As little as 3 femtomoles of the compound could be detected by this method. Cross-reactivity studies demonstrated the specificity of four polyclonal antibodies for (oOH)[9R] BAP and its free base in preference to a range of natural cytokinins and other purines. After evaluating the method by internal standardization employing [2-3H](oOH)[9R]BAP of high specific radioactivity as recovery marker by dilution analyses and by immunohistograms, it was possible to apply ELISA to quantify (oOH)[9R]BAP in plant extracts. In addition to (oOH)[9R]BAP, an unknown cytokinin reacting with the same antibody was detected in high performance liquid chromatography-fractionated extracts of mature Populus × canadensis Moench cv Robusta. The structure of the new compound was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and finally confirmed by synthesis as N6-(o-hydroxybenzylamino)purine. PMID:16668886

  8. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P?

  9. The sequence of change within the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat following short-term exposure to ozone. [Triticum aestivum L. cv Avalon

    SciTech Connect

    Farage, P.K.; Long, S.P.; Baker, N.R. ); Lechner, E.G. )

    1991-02-01

    The basis of inhibition of photosynthesis by single acute O{sub 3} exposures was investigated in vivo using analyses based on leaf gas exchange measurements. The fully expanded second leaves of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Avalon) were fumigated with either 200 or 400 nanomoles per mole O{sub 3} for between 4 and 16 hours. This reduced significantly the light-saturated rate of Co{sub 2} uptake and was accompanied by a parallel decrease in stomatal conductance. However, the stomatal limitation only increased significantly during the first 8 hours of exposure to 400 nanomoles per mole O{sub 3}; no significant increase occurred for any of the other treatments. Analysis of the response of CO{sub 2} uptake to the internal Co{sub 2} concentration implied that the predominant factor responsible for the reduction in light-saturated CO{sub 2} uptake was a decrease in the efficiency of carboxylation. At saturating concentrations of Co{sub 2}, photosynthesis was inhibited by no more than 22% after 16 hours, indicating that the capacity for regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate was less susceptible to O{sub 3}. Ozone fumigations also had a less pronounced effect on light-limited photosynthesis. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II estimated from the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence and the atrazine-binding capacity of isolated thylakoids demonstrated that photochemical reactions were not responsible for the initial inhibition of CO{sub 2} uptake.

  10. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60-80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 1016-2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 106 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11).

  11. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    PubMed

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. PMID:22805117

  12. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

  13. Purification and characterization of a glucosamine-binding antifungal lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Chinese pinto beans with antiproliferative activity towards nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ang, Andrew Si Wo; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Dan, Xiuli; Chan, Yau Sang; Pan, Wenliang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-01-01

    A lectin has successfully been isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Chinese pinto bean using affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration in succession, with a 15.4-fold purification. Investigation of its characteristics revealed that Chinese pinto bean lectin (CPBL) was a 58-kDa dimeric glucosamine-binding protein. Its Mg(2+)-dependent hemagglutinating activity was stable at pH 7-8 and at or below 60 °C. When the purified lectin was tested against six fungal species including Phyllosticta citriasiana, Magnaporthe grisea, Bipolans maydis, Valsa mali, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Setosphaeria turcica, only the mycelial growth of V. mali was reduced by 30.6 % by the lectin at 30 ?M. The lectin did not exert any discernible antiproliferative effects on breast cancer MCF-7 cells, but was able to suppress proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE-1 cells, with an IC50 of 17.3 ?M, as revealed by the MTT assay. Since few plant lectins demonstrate antifungal activity against V. mali, and not many others have inhibitory effects on HONE-1 cells, CPBL is a distinctive lectin which may be exploited for development into an agent against V. mali and HONE-1 cells. PMID:24114321

  14. Isolation of a Hemagglutinin with Potent Antiproliferative Activity and a Large Antifungal Defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido Large Pinto Beans.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cuiming; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-06-10

    Lectins (hemagglutinins) are defined as sugar-binding proteins or glycoproteins with various biological activities. A 60 kDa dimeric hemagglutinin with a blocked N-terminus was isolated in large yield (190 mg/60 g) from the common edible bean Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido large pinto bean. Its hemagglutinating, antifungal, and antitumor activities as well as the effects of carbohydrate and metal ions on its hemagglutinating activity were examined. It inhibited the proliferation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (CNE2), human breast cancer (MCF7), and hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The IC50 values toward HepG2, MCF7, and CNE2 cells after treatment for 48 h were 8.1, 6.07, and 7.49 ?M, respectively, which were relatively low among lectins of different P. vulgaris cultivars. From the pinto beans, a 10888 Da antifungal peptide with similarity to plant defensins as revealed by mass spectroscopic analysis was also isolated with a yield of 3.2 mg of proteins from 60 g of beans. The large defensin was capable of inhibiting mycelial growth in Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Setosphaeria turcica, Bipolaris maydis, and Fusarium oxysporum but not in Valsa mali. PMID:25965006

  15. Effects of modified atmosphere packing and honey dip treatments on quality maintenance of minimally processed grape cv. Razaki (V. vinifera L.) during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Sab?r, Ali; Sab?r, Ferhan K; Kara, Zeki

    2011-06-01

    Increasing pressure in food conservation sector to replace chemical applications has urged researchers to focus on studying new strategies of extending the postharvest life of produces. In such efforts, numerous materials have been tested for their effectiveness as well as suitability in organic consumption. In this study, effects of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) and honey solution dip on maintenance of quality of minimally processed table grape cv. Razaki were investigated. During the storage at 0 °C with relative humidity of 90%, MAP, honey dip, and their combined applications significantly retarded the weight loss of berries that retained about 2 mm of cap stem. Soluble solid contents of all berries slightly increased, while their acid amounts decreased, resulting in consecutive rises of maturity index. With respect to the sensory score, calculated as mean of ten panelists, honey treatment alone was ranked the highest while control berries had significantly lower value. Overall, MAP, honey solution dip or their combination significantly maintained the general quality of minimally processed grape by delaying quality loss and berry decay. Therefore, honey solution dip yielded promising results to use as an edible organic coating barrier to moisture and resist to water vapor diffusion during the cold storage, offering a good adherence to berry surface. PMID:23572752

  16. Developmental patterns of emission of scent compounds and related gene expression in roses of the cultivar Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomin; Baldermann, Susanne; Cao, Shuyan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Caixia; Hirata, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2015-02-01

    2-Phenylethanol (2PE) and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT) are characteristic scent compounds in specific roses such as Rosa x hybrida cv. 'Yves Piaget'. We analyzed the endogenous concentrations and emission of 2PE and DMT during the unfurling process in different floral organs, as well as changes in transcript levels of the two key genes, PAR and OOMT2. The emission of both 2PE and DMT increased during floral development to reach peaks at the fully unfurled stage. The relative transcripts of PAR and OOMT2 also increased during floral development. Whereas the maximum for OOMT2 was found at the fully unfurled stage (stage 4), similar expression levels of PAR were detected at stage 4 and the senescence stage (stage 6). The results demonstrate a positive correlation between the expression levels of PAR and OOMT2 and the emission of 2PE and DMT. In addition, endogenous volatiles and relative transcripts showed tissue- and development-specific patterns. PMID:25576838

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of cv. Tempranillo phenology and grape quality within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) and relationships with climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. C.; Jones, G. V.; Yuste, J.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze spatial phenology and grape quality variability related to the climatic characteristics within the Ribera del Duero Designation of Origin (DO). Twenty plots planted with cv. Tempranillo and distributed within the DO were analyzed for phenology from 2004 to 2013. Grape quality parameters at ripening (berry weight, sugar content, acidity and pH, and anthocyanins) were analyzed in 26 plots for the period 2003-2013. The relationships between phenology and grape parameters with different climatic variables were confirmed with a multivariate analysis. On average, bud break was April 27th, bloom June 17th, and veraison August 12th. However, phenology during the time period showed high variability, with differences between years of up to 21 days for a phenology stage. The earliest dates were observed in dry years (2005, 2006, and to a lesser degree in 2009) while the later phenology dates occurred in the wettest year of the period (2008). High correlations were found between veraison date and temperature variables as well as with precipitation-evapotranspiration recorded during the bloom-veraison period. These effects tended to be higher in the central part of the DO. Grape quality parameters also showed high variability among the dry and the wet years, and the influence of extreme temperatures on color development as well as the effect of available water on acidity were observed.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of cv. Tempranillo phenology and grape quality within the Ribera del Duero DO (Spain) and relationships with climate.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M C; Jones, G V; Yuste, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze spatial phenology and grape quality variability related to the climatic characteristics within the Ribera del Duero Designation of Origin (DO). Twenty plots planted with cv. Tempranillo and distributed within the DO were analyzed for phenology from 2004 to 2013. Grape quality parameters at ripening (berry weight, sugar content, acidity and pH, and anthocyanins) were analyzed in 26 plots for the period 2003-2013. The relationships between phenology and grape parameters with different climatic variables were confirmed with a multivariate analysis. On average, bud break was April 27(th), bloom June 17(th), and veraison August 12th. However, phenology during the time period showed high variability, with differences between years of up to 21 days for a phenology stage. The earliest dates were observed in dry years (2005, 2006, and to a lesser degree in 2009) while the later phenology dates occurred in the wettest year of the period (2008). High correlations were found between veraison date and temperature variables as well as with precipitation-evapotranspiration recorded during the bloom-veraison period. These effects tended to be higher in the central part of the DO. Grape quality parameters also showed high variability among the dry and the wet years, and the influence of extreme temperatures on color development as well as the effect of available water on acidity were observed. PMID:25906047

  19. The photosynthetic and stomatal response of Medicago sativa cv. saranac to free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (F.A.C.E.) and nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bridson, N.P.

    1996-08-01

    Plots of Medicago sativa cv. saranac were grown in the field at ambient (355 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) or elevated (600{mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) CO{sub 2} concentrations. High (200kg yr{sup -1}) or low (20kg yr{sup -1}) nitrogen levels were applied to two isogeneic lines, one able and one unable to use nitrogen fixing bacteria. Plants were in the second year of field growth. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was via a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE). Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal assimilation by between 12% and 92%. Analysis of A/C{sub i} responses showed that effective nitrogen fertilisation was more important to rubisCO and RuBP activity than elevated CO{sub 2}. No acclimation was consistently observed. Leaves lower down the canopy were found to have lower Vc{sub max} and J{sub max} values, though age may be the cause of the latter effect. FACE conditions have only a small effect on these responses. There was some evidence found for the down-regulation of photosynthesis in the late afternoon. The FACE conditions had no affect on stomatal density but did increase epidermal cell density.

  20. Synchrony between flower opening and petal-color change from red to blue in morning glory, Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kumi; Miki, Naoko; Momonoi, Kazumi; Kawachi, Miki; Katou, Kiyoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiji; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Kondo, Tadao

    2009-01-01

    Petal color change in morning glory Ipomoea tricolor cv. Heavenly Blue, from red to blue, during the flower-opening period is due to an unusual increase in vacuolar pH (pHv) from 6.6 to 7.7 in colored epidermal cells. We clarified that this pHv increase is involved in tonoplast-localized Na+/H+ exchanger (NHX). However, the mechanism of pHv increase and the physiological role of NHX1 in petal cells have remained obscure. In this study, synchrony of petal-color change from red to blue, pHv increase, K+ accumulation, and cell expansion growth during flower-opening period were examined with special reference to ItNHX1. We concluded that ItNHX1 exchanges K+, but not Na+, with H+ to accumulate an ionic osmoticum in the vacuole, which is then followed by cell expansion growth. This function may lead to full opening of petals with a characteristic blue color. PMID:19521056

  1. Evidence of Recombinant Citrus tristeza virus Isolate Occurring in Acid Lime cv. Pant Lemon Orchard in Uttarakhand Terai Region of Northern Himalaya in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaywant Kumar; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Biswas, Kajal Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The present study for the first time describes biological and molecular characterization of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) occurring in the Terai area of Uttarakhand State in Northern Himalaya region of India. Direct antigen coated-ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detected the CTV infection in Acid lime cv. Pant lemon (Citrus aurantifolia) orchards of Pantnagar with an estimated disease incidence of 16.6-20.5 %. To know the biological and genetic properties, an isolate, CTV Pant 4 was characterized. Isolate Pant 4 could be graft transmitted to Kinnow, Nagpur and Darjeeling mandarins, Mosambi sweet orange, Kagzi lime, Sweet lime, Sour orange but not to Rough lemon. The sequence analyses of the 5'ORF1a (3038 nucleotides) of LPro domain and 3'end (2058 nt) covering ORF7-ORF10 regions of the CTV genome revealed that Pant 4 was closely related to the previously reported Indian CTV isolate, Kpg3 from Northeastern Himalaya region with 97 and 98 % sequence identity, respectively. Whereas, it differed from the previously reported CTV isolate B165 from Southern India with 79 and 92 % identity, respectively for 5'ORF1a and 3' end regions. Recombination and SplitsTree decomposition analyses indicated that CTV isolate Pant 4 was a recombinant isolate originating from Kpg3 as a major and B165 as a minor donor. PMID:24426255

  2. Heat shock transcription factors expression during fruit development and under hot air stress in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiong; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play a role in plant responses to stress. Citrus is an economically important fruit whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for citrus. A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Citrus clementina to identify Hsf genes, named CcHsfs. Eighteen CcHsfs were identified and classified into three main clades (clades A, B and C) according to the structural characteristics and the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis and tomato. MEME motif analysis highlighted the conserved DBD and HR-A/B domains, which were similar to Hsf protein structures in other species. Gene expression analysis in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) fruit identified 14 Hsf genes, named CrHsf, as important candidates for a role in fruit development and ripening, and showed seven genes to be expressed in response to hot air stress. CrHsfB2a and CrHsfB5 were considered to be important regulators of citrate content and showed variation in both developmentally-related and hot air-triggered citrate degradation processes. In summary, the data obtained from this investigation provides the basis for further study to dissect Hsf function during fruit development as well as in response to heat stress and also emphasizes the potential importance of CrHsfs in regulation of citrate metabolism in citrus fruit. PMID:25596345

  3. Dehydrin metabolism is altered during seed osmopriming and subsequent germination under chilling and desiccation in Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale: possible role in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keting; Fessehaie, Anania; Arora, Rajeev

    2012-02-01

    Osmopriming improves seed germination performance as well as stress tolerance. To understand the biochemistry of osmopriming-induced seed stress tolerance, we investigated dehydrin (DHN) accumulation patterns at protein and transcript level (determined by immunoblotting and qPCR) during priming, and subsequent germination under optimal and stress conditions (i.e. chilling and desiccation) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Bloomsdale) seeds. Our data indicate enhanced germination performance of primed seeds is accompanied by increased accumulation of three dehydrin-like proteins (DLPs): 30, 26, and 19-kD. Moreover, 30, 26 and 19-kD DLPs that first only transiently accumulated during priming re-accumulated in response to stresses, suggesting an evidence for 'cross-tolerance', which is initially induced by priming and later recruited during post-priming germination under stresses. Study with CAP85, a spinach DHN, corroborates above observations at the gene-expression and protein accumulation level. Additionally, our results suggest that during seed germination and seedling establishment, CAP85 expression may be regulated by the interplay of two factors: seedling development and stress responses. In conclusion, our data suggest that 30, 26, and 19-kD dehydrin-like proteins and CAP85 may be used as potential biochemical/molecular markers for priming-induced stress tolerance in 'Bloomsdale' spinach. PMID:22195574

  4. Geographical characterization of greek virgin olive oils (cv. Koroneiki) using 1H and 31P NMR fingerprinting with canonical discriminant analysis and classification binary trees.

    PubMed

    Petrakis, Panos V; Agiomyrgianaki, Alexia; Christophoridou, Stella; Spyros, Apostolos; Dais, Photis

    2008-05-14

    This work deals with the prediction of the geographical origin of monovarietal virgin olive oil (cv. Koroneiki) samples from three regions of southern Greece, namely, Peloponnesus, Crete, and Zakynthos, and collected in five harvesting years (2001-2006). All samples were chemically analyzed by means of 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy and characterized according to their content in fatty acids, phenolics, diacylglycerols, total free sterols, free acidity, and iodine number. Biostatistical analysis showed that the fruiting pattern of the olive tree complicates the geographical separation of oil samples and the selection of significant chemical compounds. In this way the inclusion of the harvesting year improved the classification of samples, but increased the dimensionality of the data. Discriminant analysis showed that the geographical prediction at the level of three regions is very high (87%) and becomes (74%) when we pass to the thinner level of six sites (Chania, Sitia, and Heraklion in Crete; Lakonia and Messinia in Peloponnesus; Zakynthos). The use of classification and binary trees made possible the construction of a geographical prediction algorithm for unknown samples in a self-improvement fashion, which can be readily extended to other varieties and areas. PMID:18422335

  5. From Africa of States to United Africa: Towards Africana Democracy

    E-print Network

    Danabo, Pelle Darota

    2008-08-21

    Since Western Liberal Democracy's philosophical, cultural, and value foundations are radically different from that of Africa and; based on post-disciplinary approach and review of the vast literature on theories and ...

  6. Dominance rank relationships among wild female African elephants, Loxodonta africana

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    . 1997; Isbell & Young 2002). These models represent a diverse set of approaches to the problem of how 2005; published online 16 November 2005; MS. number: A9999) Socioecological models of the evolution the majority of costs (Vehrencamp 1983). Socioecological models of the evolution of female social relationships

  7. Epidemiological aspects of Claviceps africana, causal agent of Sorghum ergot 

    E-print Network

    Noe, Montes Garcia; Noe, Montes Garcia

    2005-02-17

    odyssey of my personal education. To my father Carlos and my mother Elvira, my brothers Miguel Angel and Carlos Jr., and my sisters Griselda and Sandra Luz for their support and love since my early years. Also, to my uncles Jose Guadalupe, Jose Trinidad...

  8. Oficina para Prcticas Externas y Orientacin para el Empleo (OPE) CONVOCATORIA DEL AO 2015 PARA PRCTICAS REMUNERADAS DE LA OPE

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    (principalmente OTOÑO y PRIMAVERA) * actualización de las bases de datos de emprendedores. (ANUAL) * al al Emprendedor Universitario, apoyando el trabajo administrativo y de coordinación necesario para su

  9. Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI anuncia becas de investigación para tecnologías portátiles

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial del NCI (CGH) anunció el otorgamiento de subvenciones que apoyarán el desarrollo y la validación de tecnologías portátiles y de bajo costo para mejorar la detección temprana, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer.

  10. Transmission infrared spectra (2-25 ?m) of carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, CV-CK, CR, C2 ungrouped): Mineralogy, water, and asteroidal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Garenne, A.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Moynier, F.; Schmitt, B.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, infrared transmission spectra (2-25 ?m range, 5000-400 cm-1) of 40 carbonaceous chondrites were analyzed (21 CMs, 5 CVs, 6 CRs, 3 CKs, 3 C2s and 2 CIs). All these meteorite groups are known to have experienced significant aqueous alteration (except the CKs). These IR measurements provide information about the parent body processes experienced, as well as spectra for comparison with observations of Solar System small bodies and possibly with astronomical observations of accretion and debris disks. This study reveals that each meteorite group appears to have specific signatures in the measured IR spectral range. In the case of the CI and CM groups, results show a variability in the shape of the silicate features that can be related to the evolution of the mineralogy with increasing extent of aqueous alteration extent as described by several authors with other techniques. This evolution of the silicate feature can be seen in the variation in the relative intensities of olivine and phyllosilicate IR features. The variability in the silicate features is correlated with the intensity of an -OH related absorption at 3-?m, which can be used for the classification of the meteorites according to the level of hydration. Interestingly, in the case of CM chondrites, for which the mineralogy is expected to be dominated by phyllosilicates (serpentine mostly), the shape of the silicate absorption resembles that of an amorphous silicate, with a broad and symmetric 10-?m band, unlike terrestrial phyllosilicates. The CV and CK groups have IR spectra that are dominated by olivine absorption. From this feature, it is possible to determine average Mg numbers for the olivine. For the CVs, the olivine Mg numbers appear to decrease in the order Kaba-Grosnaja-Vigarano-Mokoia-Allende. This trend is likely related to the long duration of metamorphism experienced by these samples and the chemical re-equilibration between chondritic components. In the case of CK chondrites, the inferred bulk Mg# of olivine is 67 (±1), and no variation is observed between the three studied samples, which is likely related to their high degree of equilibration. The 6 CR chondrites show the most variability in their IR spectra, from CM-like spectra in the case of the CR1 Grosvenor Mountains (GRO) 95577 to CV-like spectra for Roberts Massif (RBT) 04133 and Graves Nunataks (GRA) 06100 (one of them being most probably misclassified). Spectra of the remaining CRs show mixtures of various silicate component. Finally, these spectra can be used for comparison with emission spectra of fine-grained asteroid surfaces and dust-rich cometary tails. In the case of Tempel 1, the only group of CC that matches the observed feature around 10-?m region is the CR group. The spectral comparison shows some striking similarities between CRs and Tempel 1 dust. A genetic link between CR2 and comets is not proven, but mineralogical similarities are suggested from the IR spectra.

  11. Rare Earth Element Transfer from Soil to Navel Orange Pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and the Effects on Internal Fruit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jinjin; Ding, Changfeng; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of soil rare earth element (REE) on navel orange quality and safety in rare earth ore areas have gained great attention. This study investigated the transfer characteristics of REE from soil to navel orange pulp (Citrus sinensis Osbeck cv. Newhall) and examined the effects of soil REE on internal fruit quality in Xinfeng County, Jiangxi province, China. Path analysis showed that soil REE, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and Fe oxide (Feox) significantly affected pulp REE concentrations. A Freundlich-type prediction model for pulp REE was established: log[REEpulp] = -1.036 + 0.272 log[REEsoil] - 0.056 pH - 0.360 log[CEC] + 0.370 log[Feox] (n = 114, R2 = 0.60). From the prediction model, it was inferred that even when soil REE and Feox were as high as 1038 mg kg-1 and 96.4 g kg-1, respectively, and pH and CEC were as low as 3.75 and 5.08 cmol kg-1, respectively, pulp REE concentrations were much lower than the food limit standard. Additionally, soil REE levels were significantly correlated with selected fruit quality indicators, including titratable acidity (r = 0.52, P < 0.01), total soluble solids (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and vitamin C (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Generally, under routine methods of water and fertilization management, the cultivation of navel oranges in rare earth ore areas of south China with soil REE ranging from 38.6 to 546 mg kg-1 had improved in internal fruit quality. PMID:25806821

  12. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

    PubMed Central

    Manela, Neta; Oliva, Moran; Ovadia, Rinat; Sikron-Persi, Noga; Ayenew, Biruk; Fait, Aaron; Galili, Gad; Perl, Avichai; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA) pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG*) of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids, and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as well. PMID:26236327

  13. A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during CAI formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2015-09-01

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) CAI, that encloses at least 26 smaller CAIs of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B CAIs found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B CAIs within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" CAIs. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) CAIs plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid CAIs. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host CAI during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host CAI of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.

  14. Profiling monoterpenol glycoconjugation in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Muscat of Alexandria using a novel putative compound database approach, high resolution mass spectrometry and collision induced dissociation fragmentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hjelmeland, Anna K; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Ebeler, Susan E

    2015-08-01

    In this work we present a novel approach for the identification of plant metabolites using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The workflow involves developing an in-house compound database consisting of exact masses of previously identified as well as putative compounds. The database is used to screen accurate mass spectrometry (MS) data to identify possible compound matches. Subsequent tandem MS data is acquired for possible matches and used for structural elucidation. The methodology is applied to profile monoterpene glycosides in Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat of Alexandria grape berries over three developmental stages. Monoterpenes are a subclass of terpenes, the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, and are found in two major forms in the plant, "bound" to one or more sugar moieties or "free" of said sugar moieties. In the free form, monoterpenes are noted for their fragrance and play important roles in plant defense and as attractants for pollinators. However, glycoconjugation renders these compounds odorless, and it is this form that the plant uses for monoterpene storage. In order to gain insight into monoterpene biochemistry and their fate in the plant an analysis of intact glycosides is essential. Eighteen monoterpene glycosides were identified including a monoterpene trisaccharide glycoside, which is tentatively identified here for this first time in any plant. Additionally, while previous studies have identified monoterpene malonylated glucosides in other grapevine tissue, we tentatively identify them for the first time in grape berries. This analytical approach can be readily applied to other plants and the workflow approach can also be used for other classes of compounds. This approach, in general, provides researchers with data to support the identification of putative compounds, which is especially useful when no standard is available. PMID:26320795

  15. Improved Maturity and Ripeness Classifications of Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis Mangoes through Sensor Fusion of an Electronic Nose and Acoustic Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Saad, Fathinul Syahir Ahmad; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of reported studies on the use of non-destructive techniques to evaluate and determine mango maturity and ripeness levels. However, most of these reported works were conducted using single-modality sensing systems, either using an electronic nose, acoustics or other non-destructive measurements. This paper presents the work on the classification of mangoes (Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis) maturity and ripeness levels using fusion of the data of an electronic nose and an acoustic sensor. Three groups of samples each from two different harvesting times (week 7 and week 8) were evaluated by the e-nose and then followed by the acoustic sensor. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to discriminate the mango harvested at week 7 and week 8 based solely on the aroma and volatile gases released from the mangoes. However, when six different groups of different maturity and ripeness levels were combined in one classification analysis, both PCA and LDA were unable to discriminate the age difference of the Harumanis mangoes. Instead of six different groups, only four were observed using the LDA, while PCA showed only two distinct groups. By applying a low level data fusion technique on the e-nose and acoustic data, the classification for maturity and ripeness levels using LDA was improved. However, no significant improvement was observed using PCA with data fusion technique. Further work using a hybrid LDA-Competitive Learning Neural Network was performed to validate the fusion technique and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA-CLNN was also improved significantly when data fusion was applied. PMID:22778629

  16. Improved maturity and ripeness classifications of Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis mangoes through sensor fusion of an electronic nose and acoustic sensor.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Saad, Fathinul Syahir Ahmad; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Jaafar, Mahmad Nor; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of reported studies on the use of non-destructive techniques to evaluate and determine mango maturity and ripeness levels. However, most of these reported works were conducted using single-modality sensing systems, either using an electronic nose, acoustics or other non-destructive measurements. This paper presents the work on the classification of mangoes (Magnifera Indica cv. Harumanis) maturity and ripeness levels using fusion of the data of an electronic nose and an acoustic sensor. Three groups of samples each from two different harvesting times (week 7 and week 8) were evaluated by the e-nose and then followed by the acoustic sensor. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were able to discriminate the mango harvested at week 7 and week 8 based solely on the aroma and volatile gases released from the mangoes. However, when six different groups of different maturity and ripeness levels were combined in one classification analysis, both PCA and LDA were unable to discriminate the age difference of the Harumanis mangoes. Instead of six different groups, only four were observed using the LDA, while PCA showed only two distinct groups. By applying a low level data fusion technique on the e-nose and acoustic data, the classification for maturity and ripeness levels using LDA was improved. However, no significant improvement was observed using PCA with data fusion technique. Further work using a hybrid LDA-Competitive Learning Neural Network was performed to validate the fusion technique and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA-CLNN was also improved significantly when data fusion was applied. PMID:22778629

  17. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in other rainy regions. PMID:26492226

  18. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  19. Catabolism of (+/-)-abscisic acid by excised leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan and its modification by chemical and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, A.K.; Railton, I.D.

    1987-05-01

    Excised light-grown leaves and etiolated leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan catabolized applied (+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid ((+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)ABA) to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and 2'-hydroxymethyl ABA (2'-HMABA). Identification of these catabolites was made by microchemical methods and by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following high dose feeds of nonlabeled substrate to leaves. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that 2'-HMABA was derived from the (-) enantiomer of ABA. Refeeding studies were used to confirm the catabolic route. The methyl ester of (+/-)-(2/sup 14/C)-ABA was hydrolyzed efficiently by light-grown leaves of H. vulgare. Leaf age played a significant role in (+/-)-ABA catabolism, with younger leaves being less able than their older counterparts to catabolize this compound. The catabolism of (+/-)-ABA was inhibited markedly in water-stressed Hordeum leaves which was characterized by a decreased incorporation of label into 2'-HMABA, DPA, and conjugates. The specific, mixed function oxidase inhibitor, ancymidol, did not inhibit, dramatically (+/-)-ABA catabolism in light-grown leaves of Hordeum whereas the 80s ribosome, translational inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited this process markedly. The 70s ribosome translational inhibitors, lincomycin and chloramphenicol, were less effective than cycloheximide in inhibiting (+/-)-ABA catabolism, implying that cytoplasmic protein synthesis is necessary for the catabolism of (+/-)-ABA in Hordeum leaves whereas chloroplast protein synthesis plays only a minor role. This further suggests that the enzymes involved in (+/-)-ABA catabolism in this plant are cytoplasmically synthesized and are turned-over rapidly, although the enzyme responsible for glycosylating (+/-)-ABA itself appeared to be stable.

  20. Significant changes in cell and chloroplast development in young wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) grown in elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.J.; Leech, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) or at elevated (650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) CO{sub 2}. In elevated CO{sub 2}, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the number of chloroplasts in relation to mesophyll cell size or the linear relationship between chloroplast number or size and mesophyll cell size. No major changes in leaf anatomy or in chloroplast ultrastructure were detected as a result of growth in elevated CO{sub 2}, but there was a marked reduction in starch accumulation. In leaf sections fluorescently tagged antisera were used to visualize and quantitate the amount of cytochrome f, the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of the coupling factor 1 in ATP synthase, D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center, the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex, subunit II of photosystem I, and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. A significant finding was that in 10 to 20% of the mesophyll cells grown in elevated CO{sub 2} the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and cytochrome f were deficient by 75%, but the other proteins accumulated normally. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

  2. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands. PMID:12241566

  3. Does nitrogen supply affect the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Hanno) to the combination of elevated CO(2) and O(3)?

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Vilhena, J; Barnes, J

    2001-09-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Hanno) was grown at ambient (350 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated CO(2) (700 micromol mol(-1)) in charcoal/Purafil-filtered air (CFA <5 nmol mol(-1)) or ozone (CFA +75 nmol mol(-1) 7 h d(-1)) at three levels of N supply (1.5, 4 and 14 mM NO(-3)), to test the hypothesis that the combined impacts of elevated CO(2) and O(3) on plant growth and photosynthetic capacity are affected by nitrogen availability. Shifts in foliar N content reflected the level of N supplied, and the growth stimulation induced by elevated CO(2) was dependent on the level of N supply. At 60 d after transfer (DAT), elevated CO(2) was found to increase total biomass by 44%, 29%, 12% in plants supplied with 14, 4 and 1.5 mM NO(-3), respectively, and there was no evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO(2) across N treatments; the maximum in vivo rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) was similar in plants raised at elevated and ambient CO(2). At 60 DAT, ozone exposure was found to suppress plant relative growth rate (RGR) and net photosynthesis (A) in plants supplied with 14 and 4 mM NO(-3). However, O(3) had no effect on the RGR of plants supplied with 1.5 mM NO(-3) and this effect was accompanied by a reduced impact of the pollutant on A. Elevated CO(2) counteracted the detrimental effects of O(3) (i.e. the same ozone concentration that depressed RGR and A at ambient CO(2) resulted in no significant effects when plants were raised at elevated CO(2)) at all levels of N supply and the effect was associated with a decline in O(3) uptake at the leaf level. PMID:11520879

  4. TRANSIENT EXTREMELY SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3: A NEW CV X-RAY LUMINOSITY RECORD?

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W. S.; Heinke, C. O.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Edmonds, P. D.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    We observed the accreting white dwarf (WD) 1E1339.8+2837 (1E1339) in the globular cluster M3 in 2003 November, 2004 May, and 2005 January, using the Chandra ACIS-S detector. The source was observed in 1992 to possess traits of a supersoft X-ray source (SSS), with a 0.1-2.4 keV luminosity as large as 2 x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, after which time the source's luminosity fell by roughly two orders of magnitude, adopting a hard X-ray spectrum more typical of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our observations confirm 1E1339's hard CV-like spectrum, with photon index {Gamma} = 1.3 {+-} 0.2. We found 1E1339 to be highly variable, with a 0.5-10 keV luminosity ranging from (1.4 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} to 8.5{sup +4.9}{sub -4.6} x 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}, with 1E1339's maximum luminosity being perhaps the highest yet recorded for hard X-ray emission from a WD. In 2005 January, 1E1339 displayed substantial low-energy emission below {approx}0.3 keV. Although current Chandra responses cannot properly model this emission, its bolometric luminosity appears comparable to or greater than that of the hard spectral component. This raises the possibility that the supersoft X-ray emission seen from 1E1339 in 1992 may have shifted to the far-UV.

  5. Curdlan ?-1,3-Glucooligosaccharides Induce the Defense Responses against Phytophthora infestans Infection of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1) Leaf Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Lu, Guangxing; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system before the invasion of pathogens is a promising way to improve the resistance of plant against infection while reducing the use of agricultural chemicals. Although several elicitors were used to induce the resistance of potato plant to microbial pathogen infection, the role of curdlan oligosaccharide (CurdO) has not been established. In the current study, the defense responses were investigated at biochemical and proteomic levels to elucidate the elicitation effect of CurdOs in foliar tissues of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. McCain G1). The results indicate that the CurdOs exhibit activation effect on the early- and late-defense responses in potato leaves. In addition, glucopentaose was proved to be the shortest active curdlan molecule based on the accumulation of H2O2 and salicylic acid and the activities of phenylalanine amino-lyase, ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinase. The 2D-PAGE analysis reveals that CurdOs activate the integrated response reactions in potato cells, as a number of proteins with various functions are up-regulated including disease/defense, metabolism, transcription, and cell structure. The pathogenesis assay shows that the ratio of lesion area of potato leaf decreased from 15.82%±5.44% to 7.79%±3.03% when the plants were treated with CurdOs 1 day before the infection of Phytophthora infestans. Furthermore, the results on potato yield and induction reactions indicate that the defense responses induced by CurdOs lasted for short period of time but disappeared gradually. PMID:24816730

  6. Fundo Global para o Meio Ambiente

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;Fundo Global para o Meio Ambiente Global Environment Facility Avaliação dos Recursos de Climáticos Center for Weather Forecasts and Climate Studies Programa das Nações Unidas para o Meio Ambiente Fernando Ramos Martins Samuel Luna de Abreu Ricardo Rüther Realização Divisão de Clima e Meio Ambiente

  7. Dicopper(II) Metallacyclophanes with Electroswitchable Polymethyl-Substituted para-Phenylene Spacers.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Castellano, María; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Pasán, Jorge; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Armentano, Donatella; Journaux, Yves; Pardo, Emilio

    2013-09-01

    Double-stranded anionic dinuclear copper(II) metallacyclic complexes of the paracyclophane type [Cu2L2](4-) have been prepared by the Cu(II)-mediated self-assembly of different para-phenylenebis(oxamato) bridging ligands with either zero-, one-, or four-electron-donating methyl substituents (L=N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (ppba; 1), 2-methyl- N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (Meppba; 2), and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl- N,N'-para-phenylenebis(oxamate) (Me4ppba; 3)). These complexes have been isolated as their tetra-n-butylammonium (1 a-3 a), lithium(I) (1 b-3 b), and tetraphenylphosphonium salts (1 c-3 c). The X-ray crystal structures of 1 a and 3 c show a parallel-displaced ?-stacked conformation with a smaller deviation from perpendicularity between the two benzene rings and the basal planes of the square planar Cu(II) ions when increasing the number of methyl substituents (average dihedral angles (?) of 58.72(7) and 73.67(5)° for 1 a and 3 c, respectively). Variable-temperature (2.0-300 K) magnetic-susceptibility measurements show an overall increase of the intramolecular antiferromagnetic coupling with the number of methyl substituents onto the para-phenylene spacers (-J=75-95, 100-124, and 128-144 cm(-1) for 1 a-c, 2 a-c, and 3 a-c, respectively; H=-JS1×S2). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements show a reversible one-electron oxidation of the double polymethyl-substituted para-phenylenediamidate bridging skeleton at a relatively low formal potential that decreases with the number of methyl substituents (E1=+0.33, +0.24, and +0.15 V vs. SCE for 1-3, respectively). The monooxidized dicopper(II) ?-radical cation species 3' prepared by the chemical oxidation of 3 with bromine exhibits intense metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible and near-IR (?max=595 and 875 nm, respectively) regions together with a rhombic EPR signal with a seven-line splitting pattern due to hyperfine coupling with the nuclear spin of the two Cu(II) ions. Density functional (DF) calculations for 3' evidence a characteristic iminoquinonoid-type short-long-short alternating sequence of C-N and C-C bonds for both tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamidate bridges and a large amount of spin density of negative sign mainly delocalized along each of the four benzene C atoms directly attached to the amidate N atoms, which is in agreement with a fully delocalized ?-stacked monoradical ligand description. Hence, the spins of the two Cu(II) ions (SCu=1/2) that are antiparallel aligned in 3 (OFF state) become parallel in 3' (ON state). Further developments may be then envisaged for this new permethylated dicopper(II) paracyclophane with a redox noninnocent ligand as a prototype for molecular magnetic electroswitch. PMID:23873803

  8. Mahtab Jafari CV Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    ://files.onset.freedom.com/ocregister/Focus/20130626_Focus.pdf Yahoo! Voices. July 5, 2013. Rhodila rosea Furthers Lifespan of Fruit Flies by 24% http://voices.yahoo.com/rhodiola-rosea-furthers-lifespan-fruit-flies-by-12208012.html?cat=5 MSN News. July 2013. Scientists discover plants make flies live longer, Fad to follow http://now.msn.com/rhodiola-increases-lifespan-of-fruit-flies

  9. Owen CV -1 Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Horswill, Ian

    -direct Capital Punishment Center. Teach classes on Capital Punishment, Advanced Topics in Capital Punishment, and The Right to Counsel and the Death Penalty. Co-teach Capital Punishment Clinic class and supervise clinical in the undergraduate Plan II Honors Program on the cultural life of capital punishment. Student evaluations: "one

  10. CV S. Murawski CURRICULUM VITAE

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    fishermen's behavior and choice, and investing the short- and long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil of the Gulf of Mexico ever undertaken, and continue to analyze the impacts of Deepwater Horizon on Gulf fish

  11. [Abbreviated CV] David L. Seim

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingshen

    Ph.D. Program in the History of Technology & Science, History Dept., Iowa State University, 2007 & Science M.A., History, Iowa State University, 2001 M.A., Economics, Colorado State University, 1996 Fields major in Psychology TEACHING Primary Fields History of Science & Technology History of Social Science

  12. CV LIVIO RUGGIERO WORK EXPERIENCE

    E-print Network

    OfficeTM tools (WordTM, ExcelTM and PowerPointTM); Graphic design applications (Adobe Illustrator Filippacio-Il Casone- North Lazio" PERSONAL SKILLS Mother tongue Italian Other languages English - Spanish Communication skills Team spirit and capability in problem solving; I have always worked in a team

  13. CV Sergienko 1 Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Rodgers, Keith

    . Dissertation: Surface melting on ice shelves and icebergs. Advisor: Douglas R. MacAyeal 1999 Candidate sponsored, David E. Archer, P.I.), Collaborative Research on Earth's Largest Icebergs (NSF sponsored experience Austral summers, three seasons, 2004-2006: Icebergs of the Ross Sea, the Ross Ice Shelf and Mc

  14. Nerium oleander cv. Album (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Beverly Thompson

    2011-08-10

    square foot. Other Considerations: Do not allow to dry out. VARIETIES : Heavenly Blue. Album. COST OF PRODIJCTION: Storage cost: 6 weeks at GC = 364. 36 .+ 16 = 2.254 per pot. Forcing cost: 3 weeks at 54 = 1%. 154 + 6 = 2.54 per plant. Total... markets For L' a TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION L .. - " : I: Summary There is no established custom in the United States of using plants and flowers in the average home. Such customs take a long period of development. The florist industry...

  15. Trubanova CV 1 Andrea Trubanova

    E-print Network

    the lack of relationship between vaccines and autism diagnosis within a longitudinal sample Collected eye.D. Clinical Research Coordinator Marcus Autism Center, Atlanta, GA Managed all regulatory processes related. Cohen Fellow in Developmental Social Neuroscience Marcus Autism Center, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta

  16. FERNANDO GUIRAO CV Contact Information

    E-print Network

    . Hard copy and e-Book editions. 2. (with Frances M.B. Lynch and Sigfrido Ramírez) (eds.), Alan S and Canada). E-book version ISBN 9780333710784. Publications, chapters in books 1. "An Independent Catalonia

  17. Rosa cv. Fragrant Cloud (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Beverly Thompson

    2011-08-10

    This dissertation reports on three different yet related topics in light scattering computation, radiative transfer simulation, and remote sensing implementation, regarding the cloud properties and the retrieval of cloud properties from satellite...

  18. Gilbert CV 1 BENJAMIN GILBERT

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Benjamin

    : the positive correlation between native and exotic plant diversity. Ecology 86: 1848-1855. Karst*, J., B equally. Weber, A., J. Karst, B. Gilbert and J.P. Kimmins. 2005. Thuja plicata exclusion in ectomycorrhiza

  19. CV Velemir Ninkovic Nationality: Swedish

    E-print Network

    , Sweden BSc Agronomy, July 1990, Agricultural Engineer for Farming, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Alnarp, Sweden, Mars 22, 2013, Teaching - Ecological Concept

  20. The Rhetoric of the CV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    When a person sends in his or her job-application materials, he or she is not just assembling separate documents to fulfill the requirements of an ad. Those documents are part of a larger rhetorical whole, and together they form an argument for the viability of his or her candidacy for a particular job. Documents should be crafted meticulously,…

  1. Solanum quitoense cv. Lulo (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    With proper management, alfalfa will produce forage with the highest protein and total digestible nutrient of any hay crop. To aid in alfalfa production, this publication provides information on pre-plant factors, planting ...

  2. Georgi Kapitanov CV Georgi Kapitanov

    E-print Network

    , A Mathematical Model of Cancer Stem Cell Lineage Population Dynamics with Mutation Accumulation and Telomere of Tennessee, TN, USA, 2013 A Mathematical Model of Cancer Stem Cell Lineage Population Dynamics with Mu, Sewanee - the University of the South, Sewanee, TN, USA, 2012 A Mathematical Model of Cancer Stem Cell

  3. Dan Fleetwood, CV Faculty Office

    E-print Network

    Research Interests Effects of ionizing radiation on microelectronic devices & materials - 31 yrs. Novel yrs. Defects, reliability, radiation response of SiC, GaN, and other compound semiconductor devices, Albuquerque, NM, Distinguished/Senior Member of Technical Staff, Radiation Technology & Assurance Dept. (SMTS

  4. Bracken CV -1 Curriculum Vitae

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    .E.S. and S.L. Williams. 2013. Realistic changes in seaweed biodiversity affect multiple ecosystem functions.E.S. Bracken, M. McConville* , K. Rodrigue* , and C.S. Thornber. 2013. Invasion of the red seaweed on intertidal seaweed diversity

  5. Pyrus communis cv. Bartlett (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    by reduced and oxidized glutathione, and cell cycle processes, proliferation and apoptosis, in the rat colon. Total SOD activity was higher (p < 0.04) in rats consuming black sorghum when compared to all other diets. A similar, but not significant, trend...

  6. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future. PMID:24507140

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of the effect of temperature and fertilizer on gliadin and glutenin accumulation in the developing endosperm and flour from Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte 86

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flour quality is largely determined by the gluten proteins, a complex mixture of proteins consisting of high molecular weight-glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), and ?-, ?-, and ?-gliadins. Detailed proteomic analyses of the effects of fertilizer and high temperature on individual gliadin and glutenin protein levels are needed to determine how these environmental factors influence flour quality. Results Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte 86) were grown in greenhouses under moderate and high temperature regimens with and without post-anthesis fertilizer. Quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to construct accumulation profiles in developing endosperm for the entire complement of gluten proteins identified previously by tandem mass spectrometry. Amounts of individual gliadins and glutenins were also determined in flour produced under each of the regimens. Under all environmental regimens, most HMW-GS, LMW-GS, ?- and ?-gliadins accumulated rapidly during early stages of grain development and leveled off during middle stages of development. A subset of LMW-GS showed a second distinct profile, accumulating throughout development, while ?-gliadins showed a variety of accumulation profiles. In flour, fourteen distinct gluten proteins responded similarly to fertilizer, high temperature, and high temperature plus fertilizer. The majority of HMW-GS and ?-gliadins and some ?-gliadins increased while two LMW-GS and a minor ?-gliadin decreased. Fertilizer did not influence gluten protein accumulation under high temperature conditions. Additionally, the effects of fertilizer and high temperature were not additive; very few changes were observed when plants that received fertilizer were subjected to high temperature. Conclusions Although post-anthesis temperature and fertilizer have very different effects on grain development and yield, the two treatments elicit surprisingly similar effects on the accumulation of gluten proteins. The similarity of the responses to the different treatments is likely due to source-sink activities of nitrogen reserves in the wheat plant. Because each protein that showed a response in this study is linked to a gene sequence, the work sets the stage for transgenic studies that will better elucidate the roles of specific proteins in flour quality and in the response to the environment. PMID:23432757

  8. Delirio (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca del delirio como una complicación del cáncer o su tratamiento. Se tratan enfoques de los cuidados médicos de apoyo y los abordajes farmacológicos para el manejo del delirio.

  9. Neuroblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento y los exámenes de detección del neuroblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  10. 38% dos jovens no tm dinheiro para

    E-print Network

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    38% dos jovens não têm dinheiro para continuar a estudar Estudantes não são bem informados sobre continuará a estu- dar porque "por um lado, não tem dinheiro e, por outro lado, porque sente que não terá

  11. Endoscopic para-thyroidectomy: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Aziz, M M; Khan, A W; Uddin, M F; Hasanat, M A; Kader, M A; Chowdhury, A J; Choudhury, N A

    2010-07-01

    Two patients (one male and one female) underwent endoscopic para-thyroidectomy for parathyroid adenoma at the Department of Surgery, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Three ports (one mid line and two laterals) were employed, a 10 mm telescope was used for the visualization and a harmonic scalpel was used for the dissection. To the best of our knowledge, there was no report of endoscopic para-thyroidectomy from Bangladesh. Both patients were fed on the first post operative day and discharged from the 4th and 8th operative day. Both patient's parathyroid hormone (PTH) level dropped to about one fourth the level in 12 to 20 minutes after enucleation (as compared to the immediate pre operative level). Endoscopic para-thyroidectomy appears to be a technically feasible patient friendly modality of treatment for the selected cases of para-thyroid pathology in experienced hand with excellent cosmetic outcome. PMID:20639842

  12. Leucemia—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento de la leucemia, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  13. Linfoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del linfoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, investigación, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  14. Retinoblastoma—Versión para profesionales de salud

    Cancer.gov

    Información del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer para profesionales de salud sobre el tratamiento del retinoblastoma, así como referencias a estudios clínicos, estadísticas y otros temas relacionados con este tipo de cáncer.

  15. Fatiga (PDQ)—Versión para pacientes

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de información revisada por expertos acerca de la fatiga, una afección caracterizada por extremo cansancio e incapacidad para funcionar por la falta de energía, que a menudo se observa como una complicación del cáncer y su tratamiento.

  16. Consejos para pacientes que reciben radioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Serie de nueve (9) hojas sobre los efectos secundarios de la radioterapia. Cada hoja contiene recomendaciones y sugerencias prácticas para ayudarle a controlar los efectos secundarios durante la radioterapia, y a que se sienta mejor durante el tratamiento.

  17. ARQUITECTURA PARA LA DISTRIBUCIN DE DOCUMENTOS

    E-print Network

    Navarro Moldes, Leandro

    T E S I S ARQUITECTURA PARA LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE DOCUMENTOS EN UN SISTEMA DISTRIBUIDO A GRAN ESCALA: ARQUITECTURA Y TECNOLOGÍA DE COMPUTADORES BARCELONA, OCTUBRE DE 2002 #12;Dr. President Dr. Secretari Dr. Vocal

  18. The formation of Ca-, Fe-rich silicates in reduced and oxidized CV chondrites: The roles of impact-modified porosity and permeability, and heterogeneous distribution of water ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2014-07-01

    CV (Vigarano type) carbonaceous chondrites, comprising Allende-like (CVoxA) and Bali-like (CVoxB) oxidized and reduced (CVred) subgroups, experienced differing degrees of fluid-assisted thermal and shock metamorphism. The abundance and speciation of secondary minerals produced during asteroidal alteration differ among the subgroups: (1) ferroan olivine and diopside-hedenbergite solid solution pyroxenes are common in all CVs; (2) nepheline and sodalite are abundant in CVoxA, rare in CVred, and absent in CVoxB; (3) phyllosilicates and nearly pure fayalite are common in CVoxB, rare in CVred, and virtually absent in CVoxA; (4) andradite, magnetite, and Fe-Ni-sulfides are common in oxidized CVs, but rare in reduced CVs; the latter contain kirschsteinite instead. Thus, a previously unrecognized correlation exists between meteorite bulk permeabilities and porosities with the speciation of the Ca-, Fe-rich silicates (pyroxenes, andradite, kirschsteinite) among the CVox and CVred meteorites. The extent of secondary mineralization was controlled by the distribution of water ices, permeability, and porosity, which in turn were controlled by impacts on the asteroidal parent body. More intense shock metamorphism in the region where the reduced CVs originated decreased their porosity and permeability while simultaneously expelling intergranular ices and fluids. The mineralogy, petrography, and bulk chemical compositions of both the reduced and oxidized CV chondrites indicate that mobile elements were redistributed between Ca,Al-rich inclusions, dark inclusions, chondrules, and matrices only locally; there is no evidence for large-scale (>several cm) fluid transport. Published 53Mn-53Cr ages of secondary fayalite in CV, CO, and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, and carbonates in CI, CM, and CR chondrites are consistent with aqueous alteration initiated by heating of water ice-bearing asteroids by decay of 26Al, not shock metamorphism.

  19. Software Libre para ensear o aprender Matemtica

    E-print Network

    De Nápoli, Pablo Luis

    Software Libre para enseñar o aprender Matemática Porqué y Cómo Pablo De Nápoli pdenapo@dm.uba.ar #12;Introducción · En esta charla, presentaremos algunos de los pogramas que son software libre, que ventajas de utilizar software libre para la docencia y la investigación en matemática. #12;¿Por qué

  20. Laparoscopic extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iserte, Pablo Padilla; Minig, Lucas; Zorrero, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Lymph nodes are the main pathway in the spread of gynaecological malignancies, being a well-known prognostic factor. Lymph node dissection is a complex surgical procedure and requires surgical expertise to perform the procedure, thereby minimising complications. In addition, lymphadenectomy has value in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with gynaecologic cancer. Therefore, a video focused on the para-aortic retroperitoneal anatomy and the surgical technique of the extraperitoneal para-aortic lymphadenectomy is presented. PMID:26435746

  1. Preparation of a manganese titanate nanosensor: Application in electrochemical studies of captopril in the presence of para-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Karamali, Elham; Khoobi, Asma; Enhessari, Morteza

    2015-10-15

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of a novel nanostructure-based electrode for electrochemical studies and determination of captopril (CP). At first manganese titanate nanoceramics were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The structural evaluations of the pure nanopowders were investigated by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then it was used to prepare a new nanostructured manganese titanate carbon paste electrode (MnTiO3/CPE). The characterization of the modified sensor was carried out by comprehensive techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), SEM, and voltammetry. Subsequently, the modified electrode was used for CP catalytic oxidation in the presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a mediator. The results showed that PABA has high catalytic activity for CP oxidation. The electrochemical behavior of CP was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHA), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. Under the optimized conditions, the catalytic oxidation peak current of CP showed two linear dynamic concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-7) and 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-6), with a detection limit of 1.6 nM (signal/noise = 3), using the DPV technique. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for determination of CP in pharmaceutical and biological samples. PMID:26226644

  2. Oficina para Prcticas Externas y Empleabilidad (OPE) CONVOCATORIA ORDINARIA DEL AO 2016 PARA PRCTICAS REMUNERADAS DE

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    OTOÑO y PRIMAVERA) * actualización de las bases de datos de emprendedores. (ANUAL) * al funcionamiento Emprendedor Universitario, apoyando el trabajo administrativo y de coordinación necesario para su correcto

  3. The ParaScope parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.

    1993-01-01

    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  4. Recursos para los estudiantes La Oficina para el Bienestar del Estudiante patrocina

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    provocan tensión Muchos estudiantes están acostumbrados a ser los mejores de su clase. La escuela de ajustarse a una calificación "promedio" o más baja. Muchos de los estudiantes son vistos por sus familias para los estudiantes como para los miembros de la familia. Bienestar estudiantil Un aspecto esencial en

  5. Semirido: un desafo para la CienciaSemirido: un desafo para la Ciencia del Suelodel Suelo

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Semiárido: un desafío para la CienciaSemiárido: un desafío para la Ciencia del Suelodel Suelo 13 al(SL), Argentina DIFERENTES USOS DEL SUELO: CONSECUENCIAS SOBRE BALANCE HÍDRICO Y DRENAJE PROFUNDO EN ZONAS aguas y suelos. ¿Se desarrollan procesos similares ante el reciente avance de la agricultura sobre los

  6. Para Amal y Henry. Estas notas constituyen el material de apoyo para el curso de Sistemas

    E-print Network

    Guerra Hernández, Alejandro

    Para Amal y Henry. #12;#12;Prefacio Estas notas constituyen el material de apoyo para el curso de curso ha sido ofertado por la Facultad de F´isica e Inteli- gencia Artificial en cuatro ocasiones, dando lugar a cuatro tesis de maestr´ia. Aunque es un curso general sobre los SMA, el contenido del mismo est

  7. Fechas de los cursos para residentes OFERTAS DE CURSOS IDARM

    E-print Network

    Fechas de los cursos para residentes OFERTAS DE CURSOS IDARM PARA RESIDENTES PROGRAMA INTERNACIONAL a través de cursos permanentes realizados en el campus de la Escuela de Postgrado Naval de Monterey. Los de casos diseñados para resaltar los objetivos específicos de aprendizaje. Los cursos para residentes

  8. Generalized deformed para-Bose oscillator and its coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Ha Huy

    1996-04-01

    Generalized deformed commutation relations for a single-mode para-Bose oscillator are constructed. The connection of generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators with para-Bose oscillators is determined. From these, the energy spectrum of generalized deformed para-Bose oscillators and the coherent states of the annihilation operators are discussed.

  9. Nota a los padres de familia: Este libro para colorear fue diseado para ayudar a ensear a

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    #12;Nota a los padres de familia: Este libro para colorear fue diseñado para ayudar a enseñar a los. Al final de este libro para colorear, encontrarán una lista de alimentos ricos en calcio, que pueden Investigación Dental y Craneofacial #12;y el Amiguito Cepillito UN LIBRO PARA COLOREAR Institutos Nacionales

  10. PUBLICATIONS 1 Articles `a para^itre

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    . F. Gilbert, M. Anjos, P. Marcotte and G. Savard "Optimal design of bilateral contracts for energy and G. Savard "Network pricing of congestion-free networks: the elastic and linear demand case" `a para. F. Gilbert, P. Marcotte and G. Savard "A numerical study of the logit network pricing problem" `a

  11. Characterization of gallotannins and benzophenone derivatives from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins') peels, pulp and kernels by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Berardini, Nicolai; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Polyphenolics were extracted from peels, pulp and kernels of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins') and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the peel 18 gallotannins and five benzophenone derivatives were detected which were tentatively identified as galloylated maclurin and iriflophenone glucosides. Twenty-one and eight gallotannins were found in the kernels and pulp, respectively, whereas no evidence for the presence of benzophenone derivatives was obtained. Gallotannins quantified by the rhodanine assay amounted to 1.4 mg/g dm in the peels (expressed as gallic acid), while only small amounts (0.2 mg/g dm) were found in the pulp. In contrast, mango kernels contained 15.5 mg/g dm and thus proved to be a rich source of gallotannins. PMID:15384138

  12. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:26004822

  13. Sensitization to methylenedianiline and para-structures.

    PubMed

    Van Joost, T; Heule, F; de Boer, J

    1987-05-01

    A toxic-allergic skin reaction of the face, neck and arms due to accidental contact with methylenedianiline (syn: 4-4'-diaminodiphenylmethane) is reported in a cleaner at a chemical plant. Patch tests revealed sensitization to chemicals of the para-group. Earlier exposure to it was unlikely. Previous sensitization to related chemicals and possible cross-sensitization was considered to be the primary cause of the allergy and the clinical manifestations. PMID:3621924

  14. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  15. Dotar de precisión a exámenes de detección para cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Una conferencia reciente patrocinada por el NCI reunió a investigadores importantes de exámenes de detección y de control de cáncer para tratar la situación de la ciencia de exámenes de detección de precisión para cinco cánceres.

  16. GUIA DE FORMULARIOS PARA LA ACREDITACIN DE CARRERAS

    E-print Network

    . Infraestructura, apoyo técnico y recursos para la enseñanza 10. Vinculación con el medio. Los formularios de esta declarados y criterios previamente definidos. Para poder emitir juicios respecto de ambos aspectos, es

  17. Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI

    Cancer.gov

    El Centro para la Salud Mundial (CGH) del NCI coordina actividades de investigación y trabaja con socios nacionales e internacionales para comprender y enfrentar la carga que representa el cáncer a nivel mundial.

  18. Estadistica I Practica para los temas 4 y 5

    E-print Network

    Gil, Ana Arribas

    Estad´istica I Pr´actica para los temas 4 y 5: Variables aleatorias e Inferencia Estad´istica #12;Pr´actica para los temas 4 y 5: Variables aleatorias e Inferencia Estad´istica Contenidos Variables´imite usando el paquete Teaching Demos. Inferencia Estad´istica Intervalos de confianza para la media µ cuando

  19. Control del dolor: Apoyo para las personas con cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Contiene información sobre las medicinas contra el dolor para pacientes con cáncer, los planes para controlarlo, cómo hablar con su equipo de atención médica sobre el dolor que usted siente y qué hacer para controlar los efectos físicos y emocionales del

  20. Oficina para Prcticas Externas y Empleabilidad (OPE) CONVOCATORIA ORDINARIA DEL AO 2016 PARA PRCTICAS REMUNERADAS DE

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    estudiantes la opción de asistir a los cursos gratuitos que el Centro Regional de Información y Documentación análisis y síntesis B) FORMACIÓN A RECIBIR: - Curso interno "Atención al público y al estudiante en particular. Técnicas y habilidades para una correcta ejecución". - Curso interno "Unidades y servicios de la