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Sample records for cyanide plant foundations

  1. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-40 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-53 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Detoxification of cyanide by woody plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Zhou, Puhua; Liu, Yunda; Hu, Hao

    2005-08-01

    Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper examines the potential of three woody plants from the Salicaceae family to degrade cyanide. Pre-rooted trees were grown in carefully designed bioreactors with aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.0 +/- 1 degree C for a maximum of 144 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.95 to 1.15 CN mg/L. Cyanide in water and in plant tissues was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results from the investigation indicated that significant reduction of aqueous cyanide was found during the presence of plants in all treatments. Little amounts of applied cyanide were detected in the tissues of plants, mainly in roots and bottom stem. Cyanide remaining in tissues varied with the species of plants, despite similar periods of exposure. The data also indicated that photolysis, hydrolysis, and microbial degradation were not occurring and that volatilization was minimal. In conclusion, transport and metabolism of cyanide in plants is most likely. PMID:15981035

  5. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-12-31

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.

  7. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  8. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  9. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-09-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes.

  10. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  11. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and cyanide in soils from manufactured gas plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, YiFong.

    1993-01-01

    The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide which subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.

  12. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  13. Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, A.; Monteagudo, J.M.; San Martin, I.; Aguirre, M.

    2010-07-15

    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV/Fe(II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis of the oxidation of cyanides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). A factorial experimental design allowed the determination of the influences of operating variables (initial concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, oxalic acid and Fe(II) and pH) on the degradation kinetics. Temperature and UV-A solar power were also included in the Neural Network fittings. The pH was maintained at a value >9.5 during cyanide oxidation to avoid the formation of gaseous HCN and later lowered to enhance mineralization. Under the optimum conditions ([H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] = 2000 ppm, [Fe(II)] = 8 ppm, pH = 3.3 after cyanide oxidation, and [(COOH){sub 2}] = 60 ppm), it was possible to degrade 100% of the cyanides and up to 92% of Total Organic Carbon. (author)

  14. Amistad power plant. Final foundation report

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Amistad Dam is located at approximate river mile 567 on the Rio Grande about 12 miles upstream from Del Rio, Texas. The dam consists of a 950-foot long concrete spillway section in the main river channel flanked by non-overflow concrete sections and earth embankments on each side of the spillway section, and an earth dike extending about 2.2 miles east of the United States end of the main dam. The non-overflow concrete sections of the dam include a 225 foot long power intake section on the United States side and a 223-foot long power intake section on the Mexico side. Maximum height of the dam is 254 feet with crest elevation of the spillway section at elevation 1086.4 feet above mean sea level. This report provides a complete record of foundation conditions encountered during construction of the Amistad Power Plant. Information will be valuable when evaluating (1) necessary remedial action required to prevent or repair any failures resulting from foundation deficiencies, (2) contractor claims related to foundation conditions or alleged change of conditions, and (3) planning and design of future comparable construction projects.

  15. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001. PMID:24843024

  16. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  17. Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Photosynthetic Organs of Freshwater Aquatic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Azcn-Bieto, Joaquim; Murillo, Joaquim; Peuelas, Josep

    1987-01-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid[SHAM]) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species: six angiosperms, two bryophytes, and an alga. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weight basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant, the percentage of resistance being higher than 50% with very few exceptions. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower and ranged between 25 and 50%. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was not stimulated by sucrose, malate or glycine in the absence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O2 uptake was also increased by the uncoupler. PMID:16665506

  18. Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants. [Myriophyllum spicatum

    SciTech Connect

    Azcon-Bieto, J.; Murillo, J.; Penuelas, J.

    1987-07-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid(SHAM)) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weigh basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O/sub 2/ uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

  19. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. )

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  1. 95. View of foundation plant looking east showing one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. View of foundation plant looking east showing one of the four cylinders completed in the midstream tower known as Pier 3. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  3. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  4. Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-09-07

    Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

  5. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

  6. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

    2004-01-01

    Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for irrigation, discharge it to rapid infiltration basins, or, in some cases, discharge it to surface waters. Surface waters are diverted around surface mining operations. Adverse effects of groundwater drawdown include formation of sinkholes within 5 km of groundwater drawdown; reduced stream flows with reduced quantities of wate available for irrigation, stock watering, and domestic, mining and milling, and municipal uses; reduction or loss of vegetation cover for wildlife, with reduced carrying capacity for terrestrial wildlife; loss of aquatic habitat for native fishes and their prey; and disruption of Native American cultural traditions. Surface discharge of excess mine dewatering water and other waters to main waterways may contain excess quantities of arsenic, total dissolved solids, boron, copper, fluoride, and zinc. When mining operations cease, and the water pumps are dismantled, these large open pits may slowly fill with water, forming lakes. The water quality of pit lakes may present a variety of pressing environmental problems. PMID:15369321

  7. OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  8. Transient transcriptional regulation of the CYS-C1 gene and cyanide accumulation upon pathogen infection in the plant immune response.

    PubMed

    Garca, Irene; Rosas, Tbata; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2013-08-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme ?-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  9. Elimination of phenols, ammonia and cyanide in wash water from biomass gasification, and nitrogen recycling using planted trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Graber, Andreas; Skvarc, Robert; Junge-Berberovi?, Ranka

    2009-01-01

    Trickling filters were used to treat wash water from a wood gasifier. This wash water contained toxic substances such as ammonium, cyanide, phenols, and PAH. The goal was to develop a system that degraded toxic substances, and achieved full nitrification of ammonia. A 1 kW model wood gasifier plant delivered wash water for the experiments, which was standardised to a conductivity of 3 mS/cm by dilution. Toxicity was assessed by bacterial luminescence detection, germination test with cress (Lepidium sativum), and pot plants cultivated in a hydroponic setup irrigated continuously with the wastewater. Treatment experiments were done in both planted and unplanted trickling filters. Plant yield was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The trickling filters achieved complete detoxification of phenol, PAH and cyanide as well as full nitrification. The specific elimination rates were 100 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for phenols and 90 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for ammonium in planted systems. In unplanted trickling filters circulated for 63 h, phenol concentration decreased from 83.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L and cyanide concentration from 0.32 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. PAH concentrations were reduced from 3,050 microg/L to 0.89 microg/L within 68 days. The assays demonstrated the feasibility of using the technique to construct a treatment system in a partially closed circulation for gasifier wash water. The principal advantage is to convert toxic effluents from biomass gasifiers into a non-toxic, nitrogen-rich fertiliser water, enabling subsequent use in plant production and thus income generation. However, the questions of long-term performance and possible accumulation of phenols and heavy metals in the produce still have to be studied. PMID:19955650

  10. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 016 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND CYANIDE SALTS ( CAS No . various ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  11. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  12. Release of iron-cyanide complexes form contaminated soils - Batch and column experiments on substrates from Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Soils of former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are often contaminated with iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes that originate from gas purification process. Cyanide is a potentially toxic substance and its presence in soil and groundwater may cause risk for human health as well as for the environment. MGPs were commonly built on the city suburban areas, which have spread ever since. Nowadays, these sites are typically located in inner cities, causing environmental thread, due to the leaching of pollutants. More recently, columns and batch experiments have been used to study fate and mobility of contaminants is soil. The release of iron-cyanide complexes under unsaturated flow conditions was evaluated with eight columns of 30 cm length and a diameter of 5,4 cm. Cyanide concentrations in the collected leachates were measured with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). Additionally pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and various ion concentrations were determined. In order to compare the release of Fe-CN complexes in saturated conditions a batch experiment was conducted, where in defined time intervals, 1 ml of the extract water phase was analyzed for CN concentration. Study revealed an analogous trend of cyanide release in both experiments indicating primarily the release of formerly dissolved phase (hexacyanoferrates) followed by continual dissolution of ferric ferrocyanide. We conclude that batch experiments, conducted prior to column analysis, can serve as preliminary prediction of the water soluble cyanide fraction under unsaturated conditions.

  13. Cyanide utilization and degradation by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Knowles, C J

    1988-01-01

    Various microorganisms can produce (cyanogenesis) or degrade cyanide. They degrade cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Significant amounts of cyanide are formed as a secondary metabolite by a wide range of fungi and a few bacteria by decarboxylation of glycine. When cyanide has been formed by the snow mould fungus it is degraded by conversion to carbon dioxide and ammonia via an unknown pathway. In contrast, cyanogenic bacteria either do not further catabolize cyanide or they convert it into beta-cyanoalanine by addition to cysteine or O-acetylserine. Several non-cyanogenic fungi that are pathogens of cyanogenic plants are known to degrade cyanide by hydration to formamide by the enzyme cyanide hydratase. Such fungi can be immobilized and used in packed-cell columns to continuously detoxify cyanide. ICI Biological Products Business market a preparation of spray-dried fungal mycelia, 'CYCLEAR', to detoxify industrial wastes. Novo Industri have also introduced a cyanidase preparation to convert cyanide directly into formate and ammonia. Bacteria have been isolated that use cyanide as a source of nitrogen for growth. Because cyanide, as KCN or NaCN, is toxic for growth, the bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) have to be grown in fed-batch culture with cyanide as the limiting nutrient. Cyanide is converted to carbon dioxide and ammonia (which is then assimilated) by an NADH-linked cyanide oxygenase system. PMID:3073060

  14. Transient Transcriptional Regulation of the CYS-C1 Gene and Cyanide Accumulation upon Pathogen Infection in the Plant Immune Response1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  15. Possible roles of plant sulfurtransferases in detoxification of cyanide, reactive oxygen species, selected heavy metals and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Most, Parvin; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (?-Glu-Cys-Gly) is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (?-Glu-Cys)2-11-Gly (PCs). Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str), also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF) of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR) and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism. PMID:25594348

  16. Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an optimum needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

  17. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  18. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  19. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  20. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  1. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  5. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  6. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  7. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  8. Metabolism of cyanide by Chinese vegetation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua; Wang, Chang; Zhou, Xishi

    2004-07-01

    Cyanide is a high-volume production chemical and the most commonly used leaching reagent for gold and silver extraction. Its environmental behavior and fate is of significant concern because it is a highly toxic compound. Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper presents an investigation of the potential of Chinese vegetation to degrade cyanide. Detached leaves (1.5 g fresh weight) from 28 species of 23 families were kept in glass vessel with 100 ml of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.5 degrees C for 28 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.83 to 1.0 CN mg l(-1). The disappearance of cyanide from the aqueous solution was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The fastest cyanide removal was by Chinese elder, Sambucus chinensis, with a removal capacity of 8.8 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1), followed by upright hedge-parsley (Torilis japonica) with a value of 7.5 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1). The lowest removal capacity had the snow-pine tree (Credrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud). Results from this investigation indicated that a wide range of plant species is able to efficiently metabolize cyanide. Therefore, cyanide elimination with plants seems to be a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated by cyanide from gold and silver mines or from other sources. PMID:15120557

  9. Effect of Ethylene and Oxygen on the Development of Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Whole Plant Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rychter, Anna; Janes, Harry W.; Frenkel, Chaim

    1979-01-01

    Mitochondria from whole potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) ordinarily fail to oxidize respiratory substrates and to consume molecular O2 in the presence of cyanide. Mitochondrial preparations obtained from tubers previously held for 24 hours in ethylene (10 microliters per liter) in air are only partially inhibited by cyanide. Application of ethylene in 100% O2 led to an additional increase in the resistance of the mitochondrial respiration to cyanide. The resistance to cyanide was accompanied by a decrease in the respiratory control but no change in oxidative phosphorylation as shown by the measurement of ATP synthesis. The development of resistance to cyanide following the application of ethylene appears to require whole tubers and may represent an inductive process. PMID:16660669

  10. Beyond toxicity: a regulatory role for mitochondrial cyanide.

    PubMed

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide's role in signaling. PMID:24398435

  11. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale (Thoughts on Plant Biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science. PMID:21490417

  12. The Arabidopsis genome: a foundation for plant research.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Michael; Walsh, Sean

    2005-12-01

    The sequence of the first plant genome was completed and published at the end of 2000. This spawned a series of large-scale projects aimed at discovering the functions of the 25,000+ genes identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). This review summarizes progress made in the past five years and speculates about future developments in Arabidopsis research and its implications for crop science. The provision of large populations of gene disruption lines to the research community has greatly accelerated the impact of genomics on many areas of plant science. The tools and community organization required for plant integrative and systems biology approaches are now ready to accomplish the next big step in plant biology--the integration of knowledge and modeling of biological processes. In the future, plant science will continue to be enriched by the alignment of high-quality basic research (generally conducted in Arabidopsis), with strategic objectives in crop plants. The sequence and analysis of an increasing number of crop plant genomes enhance this alignment and provide new insights into genome evolution and crop plant domestication. PMID:16339360

  13. Toxicology and the chemical foundation of plants of Erycibe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyong; Wang, Li; Liao, Liping; Zhang, Zijia; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-10-01

    Erycibe is a relatively small genus in the family Convolvulaceae with over 10 identified species. Some Erycibe plant species are purportedly toxic at high doses. However, few toxicology studies have been conducted on those species. In this study, the toxicity of 40% ethanolic extracts of Erycibeobtusifolia, Erycibeschmidtii, and Erycibeellipptimba was evaluated. E. ellipptimba has been reported to be more toxic due to containing larger amounts of Baogongteng C, an alkaloid with known toxicity. Thus, E. ellipptimba was chosen for further toxicology study here. An HPLC-MS method was developed to identify the main components and determine the percentages of Baogongteng C in total alkaloid of E. ellipptimba (EWA). The toxicity of total alkaloid and Baogongteng C was evaluated and compared. The results indicated that Baogongteng A and Baogongteng C are the major toxic chemical compounds of the Erycibe species tested. The results also suggest EWA is cholinergic. Finally, in a subacute toxicity study of EWA, alterations observed with high dosage suggest that the liver and kidney could be the target organs of toxicity. PMID:25073109

  14. Two-Photon Sensing and Imaging of Endogenous Biological Cyanide in Plant Tissues Using Graphene Quantum Dot/Gold Nanoparticle Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Sheng; Wu, Cuichen; Liu, Changhui; Xiao, Yue; Li, Yinhui; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Ronghua

    2015-09-01

    One main source of cyanide (CN(-)) exposure for mammals is through the plant consumption, and thus, sensitive and selective CN(-) detection in plants tissue is a significant and urgent work. Although various fluorescence probes have been reported for CN(-) in water and mammalian cells, the detection of endogenous biological CN(-) in plant tissue remains to be explored due to the high background signal and large thickness of plant tissue that hamper the effective application of traditional one-photo excitation. To address these issues, we developed a new two-photo excitation (TPE) nanosensor using graphene quantum dots (GQDs)/gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) conjugate for sensing and imaging endogenous biological CN(-). With the benefit of the high quenching efficiency of AuNPs and excellent two-photon properties of GQDs, our sensing system can achieve a low detection limit of 0.52 μM and deeper penetration depth (about 400 μm) without interference from background signals of a complex biological environment, thus realizing sensing and imaging of CN(-) in different types of plant tissues and even monitoring CN(-) removal in food processing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time for fluorescent sensing and imaging of CN(-) in plant tissues. Moreover, our design also provides a new model scheme for the development of two-photon fluorescent nanomaterial, which is expected to hold great potential for food processing and safety testing. PMID:26264405

  15. Cyanide hydrolysis in a cyanide-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri AK61, by cyanidase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Yano, K; Ikebukuro, K; Karube, I

    1998-06-01

    The cyanide-degrading bacterial strain AK61 was isolated from waste water at a metal-plating plant. The isolated strain was characterized by Gram-staining, quinone analysis, fatty acid profile and the API 20NE identification system, and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri. Whole cells were able to degrade cyanide rapidly in a 1 mM solution containing no organic substances, and produced ammonia as a product. The induction of the cyanide-degrading activity of P. stutzeri AK61 did not depend on the presence of cyanide in the culture medium during growth. The cyanide-degrading enzyme was purified approximately 49-fold from a cell extract of P. stutzeri AK61. The enzyme had a K(m) of 1.7 mM for cyanide and a specific activity of 54.6 mumol ammonia produced min-1. The activity of the enzyme was optimal at 30 degrees C and pH 7.5. The results of SDS-PAGE, gel-filtration chromatography and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the enzyme indicated that the functional enzyme was an aggregated protein consisting of a 38 kDa polypeptide. Like cyanidase (cyanide dihydratase), it was shown that the enzyme catalysed the hydrolysis of cyanide to ammonia and formate. PMID:9639937

  16. Enzymatic mechanism and biochemistry for cyanide degradation: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Balomajumder, Chandrajit; Agarwal, V K

    2010-04-15

    Cyanides are fast-acting poisons, can be lethal if exposed in excess. In spite of fact, cyanides are discharged as effluents in large scale from industries every year. Certain bacteria, fungi, algae and plants produce cyanides. It has been observed that microbes and plant systems can degrade cyanides to less toxic compounds. There are many enzymes, which are produced by microorganisms that utilize cyanides as substrate to make alanine, glutamic acid, alfa-amino-butyric acid, beta-cyanoalanine, etc. Present paper deals with different enzymes, their mechanisms and corresponding pathways with respect to the known biochemistry of enzyme and feasibility for the use in treatment of cyanides containing industrial effluents. PMID:20004515

  17. Enzymatic detoxification of cyanide: clues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Tomao, Paola; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a dreaded chemical because of its toxic properties. Although cyanide acts as a general metabolic inhibitor, it is synthesized, excreted and metabolized by hundreds of organisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, plants, and insects, as a mean to avoid predation or competition. Several cyanide compounds are also produced by industrial activities, resulting in serious environmental pollution. Bioremediation has been exploited as a possible alternative to chemical detoxification of cyanide compounds, and various microbial systems allowing cyanide degradation have been described. Enzymatic pathways involving hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitution/transfer reactions are implicated in detoxification of cyanide by bacteria and fungi. Amongst enzymes involved in transfer reactions, rhodanese catalyzes sulfane sulfur transfer from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of the less toxic thiocyanate. Mitochondrial rhodanese has been associated with protection of aerobic respiration from cyanide poisoning. Here, the biochemical and physiological properties of microbial sulfurtransferases are reviewed in the light of the importance of rhodanese in cyanide detoxification by the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Critical issues limiting the application of a rhodanese-based cellular system to cyanide bioremediation are also discussed. PMID:18685272

  18. Nitryl cyanide, NCNO?.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Blanger-Chabot, Guillaume; Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O

    2014-07-01

    The elusive nitryl cyanide, NCNO2, has been synthesized and characterized. It was prepared in good yield, isolated by fractional condensation, characterized by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy, and studied by theoretical calculations. Nitryl cyanide holds promise as a high energy density material (HEDM) and might also prove useful as a HEDM building block. The simplicity and inherent stability of nitryl cyanide, together with the known multitude of nitriles in interstellar space, suggest that the compound might also be a potential candidate for observations in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry. PMID:24861214

  19. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile dUrgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  20. Genome mining of cyanide-degrading nitrilases from filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Basile, Lacy J; Willson, Richard C; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    A variety of fungal species are known to degrade cyanide through the action of cyanide hydratases, a specialized subset of nitrilases which hydrolyze cyanide to formamide. In this paper, we report on two previously unknown and uncharacterized cyanide hydratases from Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans. Recombinant forms of four cyanide hydratases from N. crassa, A. nidulans, Gibberella zeae, and Gloeocercospora sorghi were prepared after their genes were cloned with N-terminal hexahistidine purification tags, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. These enzymes were compared according to their relative specific activity, pH activity profiles, thermal stability, and ability to remediate cyanide contaminated waste water from silver and copper electroplating baths. Although all four were similar, the N. crassa cyanide hydratase (CHT) has the greatest thermal stability and widest pH range of >50% activity. N. crassa also demonstrated the highest rate of cyanide degradation in the presence of both heavy metals. The CHT of A. nidulans has the highest reaction rate of the four fungal nitrilases evaluated in this work. These data will help determine optimization procedures for the possible use of these enzymes in the bioremediation of cyanide-containing waste. Similar to known plant pathogenic fungi, both N. crassa and A. nidulans were induced to express CHT by growth in the presence of KCN. PMID:18587571

  1. Dynamics of Metal Cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas J.; Houchins, Cassidy; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2010-06-01

    Time resolved IR spectroscopy was used to characterize the vibrational energy relaxation (VER) dynamics of the CN stretching bands of aqueous molecular metal cyanides and networked metal cyanides, such as Prussain Blue, in reverse micelles. The vibrational and rotational relaxation dynamics of the CN stretching bands near 2000 cm-1 for aqueous molecular cyanides Au(CN)2-, Ni(CN)42-, Pt(CN)42-, Co(CN)63-, Mn(CN)42-, and Ru(CN)64- have been investigated using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. While the spectra and dynamics of Ru(CN)64- are similar to those previously reported for ferrocyanide, VER times are significantly longer (>30 ps) in the other molecules. Mn(CN)63- represents an intermediate case with a relaxation time of about 15 ps in water. The VER dynamics extend and reinforce the established trends of metal cyanide CN band frequencies and intensities. Prussian Blue and its ruthenium analog were also studied using visible pump-IR probe and IR pump-IR probe spectroscopy. The VER dynamics are similar to the monometal cyanides and there is evidence for CN band excitation following back electron transfer based on the comparison of visible and infrared pump results.

  2. Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhodanese in protection from cyanide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a DeltarhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the DeltarhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:17098912

  3. Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese in Protection from Cyanide Toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a ?rhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the ?rhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:17098912

  4. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  5. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  7. Cyanide Formation by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Ruth; Corpe, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    Michaels, Ruth (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), and W. A. Corpe. Cyanide formation by Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 89:106112. 1965.The formation of cyanide by a Chromobacterium violaceum strain was studied with growing cultures and with nonproliferating cells grown in complex and chemically defined media. Most of the cyanide was produced during the log-phase growth of the organism, and accumulated in the culture supernatant fluid. A synergistic effect of glycine and methionine on cyanide formation in a chemically defined medium was observed, and the amount of cyanide formed was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the two substances. Cyanide formation by nonproliferating cells was stimulated by preincubation with glycine and methionine. Cyanide formation by adapted cells in the presence of glycine and methionine was stimulated by succinate, malate, or fumarate, and depressed by azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Methionine could be replaced by betaine, dimethylglycine, and choline. PMID:14255648

  8. 36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-50 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S. THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-36 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. The current and future applications of microorganism in the bioremediation of cyanide contamination.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Joanne; Cummings, Stephen P

    2006-07-01

    Inorganic cyanide and nitrile compounds are distributed widely in the environment, chiefly as a result of anthropogenic activity but also through cyanide synthesis by a range of organisms including higher plants, fungi and bacteria. The major source of cyanide in soil and water is through the discharge of effluents containing a variety of inorganic cyanide and nitriles. Here the fate of cyanide compounds in soil and water is reviewed, identifying those factors that affect their persistence and which determine whether they are amenable to biological degradation. The exploitation of cyanides by a variety of taxa, as a mechanism to avoid predation or to inhibit competitors has led to the evolution in many organisms of enzymes that catalyse degradation of a range of cyanide compounds. Microorganisms expressing pathways involved in cyanide degradation are briefly reviewed and the current applications of bacteria and fungi in the biodegradation of cyanide contamination in the field are discussed. Finally, recent advances that offer an insight into the potential of microbial systems for the bioremediation of cyanide compounds under a range of environmental conditions are identified, and the future potential of these technologies for the treatment of cyanide pollution is discussed. PMID:16683094

  11. Cyanide resistant respiration is involved in temperature rise in ripening mangoes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Patil, B C; Sinha, S K

    1990-04-30

    Thermogenesis is attributed to the cyanide resistant respiration in the inflorescence of Arum lilies. Although cyanide resistant respiration is ubiquitously operative in the plant systems, it has never been correlated with thermogenesis except for the above example. Internal temperature of the ripening mango increased from 29.0 degrees C to 38.9 degrees C during its ripening process. Concomitantly, it was coupled with the increase in total respiration and cyanide resistant respiration as well. Implication of cyanide resistant respiration in thermogenesis has been discussed in relation to the ripening fruit. PMID:2334438

  12. Acute cyanide poisoning from laetrile ingestion.

    PubMed

    Beamer, W C; Shealy, R M; Prough, D S

    1983-07-01

    A case of cyanide poisoning from laetrile ingestion is presented as an illustration of the recognition and treatment of cyanide intoxication. The pharmacology of laetrile, of cyanide, and of antidotes to cyanide intoxication are discussed as they relate to the acute management and successful treatment of this patient after this highly lethal ingestion. PMID:6881636

  13. The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate

    PubMed Central

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson’s diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants. PMID:22655035

  14. Cholinergic aspects of cyanide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bredow, J.D.; Vick, J.A.

    1993-05-13

    The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest in the presence of cyanide induced respiratory arrest are assumed to be due to anoxia and therefore unresponsive to cardiotonic agents. Pretreatment or treatment with atropine sulfate or methyl atropine nitrate provides a marked reduction in the cardiovascular irregularities, bradycardia and hypotension. The cyanide induced cardiovascular effect can also be prevented by bilateral vagotomy. An intramuscularly injected combination of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 1 mg/kg of atropine sulfate ensured recovery of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs exposed to lethal concentrations (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) of sodium cyanide.

  15. Semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of Three Hapalemur species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nayuta; Tan, Chia L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Three sympatric Hapalemur species (H. g. griseus, H. aureus, and H. (Prolemur) simus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar are known to eat bamboo food parts that contain cyanide. How these lemurs avoid cyanide poisoning remains unknown. In this study, we tested for the presence/absence of cyanide in bamboo lemur foods and excreta to (1) document patterns of cyanide consumption among species with respect to diet, (2) identify routes of elimination of cyanide from the gastrointestinal tract, and (3) determine whether cyanide is absorbed from the diet. We tested 102 food, urine, and fecal samples for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during two "pre-dry" seasons (April 2006, May 2007) using commercially available Cyantesmo test strips. The test strips changed color in the presence of HCN, and we recorded color change on a scale of 0 (no change) to 5 (cobalt) at preset intervals with a final score taken at 24 hr. We detected cyanide in bamboo food parts and urine of all three Hapalemur species. Time to color change of the test strips ranged from almost instantaneous to >12 hr incubation. Of the foods tested, only bamboo contained cyanide, but results differed among bamboo species and plant parts of the same species. Specifically, branch shoot and culm pith of the giant bamboo produced strong, immediate reactions to the test paper, whereas parts of liana bamboos produced either weak or no color change. Cyanide was present in almost all urine samples but rarely in fecal samples. This suggests that dietary cyanide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the Hapalemur species and excreted, at least in part, by the kidneys. Samples from H. griseus exhibited lower, though still detectable, cyanide levels compared with H. simus and H. aureus. Differences among lemur species appear to be related to the specific bamboo parts consumed. PMID:19790190

  16. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril

    2008-04-15

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Martnkov, Ludmila; Vesel, Alicja Barbara; Ringelov, Anna; Chmtal, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the current knowledge of the enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of cyanide, i.e., cyanide hydratases (CHTs; EC 4.2.1.66) and cyanide dihydratases (CynD; EC 3.5.5.1). CHTs are probably exclusively produced by filamentous fungi and widely occur in these organisms; in contrast, CynDs were only found in a few bacterial genera. CHTs differ from CynDs in their reaction products (formamide vs. formic acid and ammonia, respectively). Several CHTs were also found to transform nitriles but with lower relative activities compared to HCN. Mutants of CynDs and CHTs were constructed to study the structure-activity relationships in these enzymes or to improve their catalytic properties. The effect of the C-terminal part of the protein on the enzyme activity was determined by constructing the corresponding deletion mutants. CynDs are less active at alkaline pH than CHTs. To improve its bioremediation potential, CynD from Bacillus pumilus was engineered by directed evolution combined with site-directed mutagenesis, and its operation at pH 10 was thus enabled. Some of the enzymes have been tested for their potential to eliminate cyanide from cyanide-containing wastewaters. CynDs were also used to construct cyanide biosensors. PMID:26329848

  18. Cyanide degradation by an Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Figueira, M M; Ciminelli, V S; de Andrade, M C; Linardi, V R

    1996-05-01

    Chemical formation of a glucose-cyanide complex was necessary for metabolic degradation of cyanide at concentrations up to 50.0 mg/L by a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from gold extraction circuit liquids. Ammonia accumulating during the culture log phase as the sole nitrogen by-product was further utilized for bacterial growth. Washed (intact) cells, harvested at different periods of bacterial growth on cyanide, consumed oxygen in presence of cyanide. These findings suggest that metabolism of cyanide involved a dioxygenase enzyme that converted cyanide directly to ammonia, without the formation of cyanate. PMID:8640610

  19. Effect of foundation embedment on the seismic response of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.H.; Thompson, R.W.; Charman, C.M.

    1982-08-01

    The effects of soil-structure interaction during seismic events upon the dynamic response of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant (HTGR) have been investigated for both surface-founded and embedded basemats. The influence from foundation embedment has been quantitatively assessed through a series of theoretical studies on plants of various sizes. The surface-founded analyses were performed using frequency-independent soil impedance parameters; while the embedded plant analyses utilized finite element models simulated on the FLUSH computer program. The seismic response of the surface-founded plants has been used to establish the standard-site design in-structure response spectra. These analyses were performed by using the linear modal formulation based on conventional soil stiffness and damping values. Numerical results are presented in terms of in-structure response spectra along with other pertinent seismic load data at key levels of the plant. Analysis techniques for future studies using viscoelastic halfspace representation and inelastic finite element modeling for soil are also discussed.

  20. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

  1. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

  2. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  3. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds.

    PubMed

    Wiemeyer, S N; Hill, E F; Carpenter, J W; Krynitsky, A J

    1986-10-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy. PMID:3503141

  4. Measurements of the Engagement of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Kalancho daigremontiana with the Use of On-Line Oxygen Isotope Discrimination 1

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sharon A.; Yakir, Dan; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Giles, Larry; Osmond, C. Barry; Siedow, James N.; Berry, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    Discrimination against 18O during dark respiration in tissues of Kalancho daigremontiana, Medicago sativa, and Glycine max was measured using an on-line system that enabled direct measurements of the oxygen fractionation of samples in a gas-phase leaf disk electrode unit. Discrimination factors for cytochrome pathway respiration were 18.6 to 19.8%o for all tissues. However, discrimination in cyanide-resistant respiration was significantly higher in green tissues (30.4-31.2%o) compared with nongreen tissues (25.3-25.9%o). Using these discrimination factors, the partitioning of electron transport to these pathways was calculated from measurements of discrimination in the absence of inhibitors. Changes in flux through the alternative pathway were measured during the light and dark phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism in leaf disks of K. daigremontiana. The flux of electrons through the alternative pathway was higher during deacidification than during the other phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism. The increase in alternative pathway electron flux accounted for all of the increased respiration in the light phase. Despite this increase, simultaneous measurements of malate concentration and respiratory flux confirm that only a small proportion of the total malate decarboxylation occurs in the mitochondria. PMID:16653089

  5. Foundation improvement techniques for heavy power plant structures at the Gilberton Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.W. ); Lewis, M.R. ); Whitcraft, J.S. ); Pernisi, R.E. )

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, a number of small cogeneration projects have been developed in various parts of the country to make use of the economic advantages afforded by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. The viability of these projects depends upon the ability of the developer, engineer and constructor to assemble a cost effective program that has the capability to produce electricity profitably. To assure success, the projects are, in many cases, constructed under lump sum contracts with relatively short schedules. For many of these projects, the site conditions are not ideal. It is usually necessary to construct the facilities n parcels of land not readily suitable for other purposes. Because of cost and schedule constraints, as well as potentially adverse soil conditions, there is a continuing need for development of innovative solutions to difficult foundation situations. This paper discusses an approach to one such problem.

  6. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  7. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

  8. Metabolism of cyanide by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Shah, M M; Grover, T A; Aust, S D

    1991-10-01

    The oxidation of veratryl alcohol (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol) by lignin peroxidase H2 (LiP H2) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was strongly inhibited by sodium cyanide. The I50 was estimated to be about 2-3 microM. In contrast, sodium cyanide binds to the native enzyme with an apparent sodium cyanide dissociation constant Kd of about 10 microM. Inhibition of the veratryl alcohol oxidase activity of LiP H2 by cyanide was reversible. Ligninolytic cultures of P. chrysosporium mineralized cyanide at a rate that was proportional to the concentration of cyanide to 2 mM. The N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone-cyanyl radical adduct was observed by ESR spin trapping upon incubation of LiP H2 with H2O2 and sodium cyanide. The identity of the spin adduct was confirmed using 13C-labeled cyanide. Six-day-old cultures of the fungus were more tolerant to sodium cyanide toxicity than spores. Toxicity measurements were based on the effect of sodium cyanide on respiration of the fungus as determined by the metabolism of [14C]glucose to [14C]CO2. We propose that this tolerance of the mature fungus was due to its ability to mineralize cyanide and that this fungus might be effective in treating environmental pollution sites contaminated with cyanide. PMID:1910320

  9. ALTERNATIVES FOR SODIUM CYANIDE FOR FLOTATION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide has long been looked upon as the classical poison and has been listed by EPA as a priority pollutant. The mineral dressing industry has long used cyanide in its concentration and extractive metallurgy operations. Cyanide plays a role of varying importance in the metallurg...

  10. Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

    1985-01-01

    In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

  11. Biodegradation of cyanide by a new isolated strain under alkaline conditions and optimization by response surface methodology (RSM)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodegradation of free cyanide from industrial wastewaters has been proven as a viable and robust method for treatment of wastewaters containing cyanide. Results Cyanide degrading bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant for coke-oven-gas condensate by enrichment culture technique. Five strains were able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions and among them; one strain (C2) was selected for further studies on the basis of the higher efficiency of cyanide degradation. The bacterium was able to tolerate free cyanide at concentrations of up to 500ppm which makes it a good potentially candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide contaminated residues. Cyanide degradation corresponded with growth and reached a maximum level 96% during the exponential phase. The highest growth rate (1.23??108) was obtained on day 4 of the incubation time. Both glucose and fructose were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth. No growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. Four control factors including, pH, temperature, agitation speed and glucose concentration were optimized according to central composite design in response surface method. Cyanide degradation was optimum at 34.2C, pH10.3 and glucose concentration 0.44 (g/l). Conclusions Bacterial species degrade cyanide into less toxic products as they are able to use the cyanide as a nitrogen source, forming ammonia and carbon dioxide as end products. Alkaliphilic bacterial strains screened in this study evidentially showed the potential to possess degradative activities that can be harnessed to remediate cyanide wastes. PMID:24921051

  12. Microbes and microbial enzymes for cyanide degradation.

    PubMed

    Raybuck, S A

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, cyanide is a natural product generated by fungi and bacteria, and as a result microbial systems have evolved for the degradation of cyanide to less toxic compounds. The enzymes which utilize cyanide as a substrate can be categorized into the following reaction types: substitution/addition, hydrolysis, oxidation, and reduction. Each of these categories is reviewed with respect to the known biochemistry and feasibility for use in treatment of cyanide containing wastes. PMID:1369135

  13. Effect of Cyanide in Dark and Light on the Membrane Potential and the ATP Level of Young and Mature Green Tissues of Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Eberius, Cornelia I.; Novacky, Anton; Ball, Erika

    1983-01-01

    The effect of CN? and N2 on the electrical membrane potential (Em) was compared with that of CN? on the ATP levels in cotyledons of Gossypium hirsutum and in Lemna gibba L. In mature cotton tissue, CN? depolarized Em to the energy-independent diffusion potential (ED) in the dark. In the light Em recovered transiently. The same was observed in leaves of Nicotiana, Avena, Impatiens, Kalancho, and in Lemna. In contrast, in young cotton cotyledons and tobacco leaves and, to a large extent, in +sucrose-grown Lemna, Em was depolarized to ED also in the light in a similar way as in the dark. In Lemna grown without sucrose, the energy-dependent component of Em was only partially depolarized by CN? in dark or light. Cyanide plus salicylhydroxamic acid completely reduced Em to ED, abolished respiration and photosynthesis, and severely diminished the ATP level. This suggests the operation of a CN?-insensitive respiration in uninjured Lemna. The initial CN?-induced decay of the ATP level in cotton and Lemna was more rapid than the decay of Em. CN?-induced oscillations of the ATP level were followed by similar but slower oscillations of Em. This supports the view of a general dependence of Em on ATP. Discrepancies between inhibitor-induced changes of Em and ATP levels are suggested to result from additional regulation of Em by the cytoplasmatic pH value. A comparison of ED in young and mature cotton cotyledons in the dark and in the light suggests that in growing young cotyledons the different effect of CN? in the light is due to a less effective photosynthesis together with high mitochondrial respiration. In Lemna and in mature cotton tissue, Em in the light is maintained by noncyclic photophosphorylation and photosystem II, which is only partly inhibited by CN?, thus resulting in an incomplete depolarization and recovery of Em. Complete inhibition of photosynthetic O2 evolution and membrane depolarization by CN? plus salicylhydroxamic acid are suggested to result from photooxidation. PMID:16662984

  14. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  15. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  16. Influence of host plant genotype, presence of a pathogen, and coinoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on the rhizosphere expression of hydrogen cyanide- and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic genes in P. fluorescens biocontrol strain CHA0.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Fatemeh; Sharifi-Tehrani, Abbas; Lutz, Matthias P; Maurhofer, Monika

    2009-02-01

    The production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is a major factor in the control of soil-borne diseases by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. We investigated the impact of different biotic factors on the expression of HCN-in comparison to DAPG biosynthetic genes in the rhizosphere. To this end, the influence of plant cultivar, pathogen infection, and coinoculation with other biocontrol strains on the expression of hcnA-lacZ and phlA-lacZ fusion in strain CHA0 was monitored on the roots of bean. Interestingly, all the tested factors influenced the expression of the two biocontrol traits in a similar way. For both genes, we observed a several-fold higher expression in the rhizosphere of cv. Derakhshan compared with cvs. Goli and Naz, although bacterial rhizosphere colonization levels were similar on all cultivars tested. Root infection by Rhizoctonia solani stimulated total phlA and hcnA gene expression in the bean rhizosphere. Coinoculation of strain CHA0 with DAPG-producing P. fluorescens biocontrol strains Pf-68 and Pf-100 did neither result in a substantial alteration of hcnA nor of phlA expression in CHA0 on bean roots. To our best knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of biotic factors on HCN production by a bacterial biocontrol strain in the rhizosphere. PMID:19030916

  17. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 ?L, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20?L, 50 ?L). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 ?M. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  18. A disposable blood cyanide sensor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Mahon, Sari B; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R

    2013-03-20

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160 s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20 μL, 50 μL). RSDs were<10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in <4 min. PMID:23473259

  19. The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhou, Pu-Hua; Yang, Yong-Miao

    2006-07-01

    Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Uptake of ferrocyanide from the aqueous solution by plants was evident for all treatments and varied with plant species, ranging from 8.64 to 15.67% of initial mass. The uptake processes observed from hydroponic solution showed exponential disappearance kinetics. Very little amounts of the applied ferrocyanide were detected in all parts of plant materials, confirming passage of ferrocyanide through the plants. No ferrocyanide in air was found due to plant transpiration. Mass balance analysis showed that a large fraction of the reduction of initial mass in hydroponic solution was metabolized during transport within the plant materials. The difference in the metabolic rate of ferrocyanide between the three plant species was comparably small, indicating transport of ferrocyanide from hydroponic solution to plant materials and further transport within plant materials was a limiting step for assimilating this iron cyanide complex. In conclusion, phytoremediation of ferrocyanide by the plants tested in this study has potential field application. PMID:16703454

  20. Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Sadeghi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples (57) were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer's protocols. Results: Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 0.0007, 0.0070 0.0018, 0.0008 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 2.80, 7.20 1.80, 7.50 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001), whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5). Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 0.0130, 0.0077 0.0025, 0.0087 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 8.12, 8.04 3.99, 8.40 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754) and nitrate (P = 0.705) concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 0.033, 0.1180 0.033, 0.1200 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 40.74, 279.00 152.17, 298.40 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731) and nitrate (P = 0.187) concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Conclusion: Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water were within the standard range (0.07 mg/L for cyanide and 50 mg/L for nitrate) and was not a health problem at the time of our study, regular estimation of the toxic chemicals due to the development of industrial plants in this area is recommended. PMID:23900450

  1. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-10-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater.

  2. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis. PMID:18810551

  3. ABIM Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by Teaching Value for free. 3 View on Facebook ABIM Foundation Developing Approaches for De-implementation - a # ... de-implementation of ineffective diagnostic 1 View on Facebook ABIM Foundation "Whatever you do, do not end ...

  4. Dysautonomia Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the Dysautonomia Foundation, Inc. Disclaimer Privacy Policy Website Disclaimer The information provided in the Dysautonomia Foundation ... address, email address) that you submit through this website with any third party organization without your explicit ...

  5. Vibrational dynamics of metal cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, Daniel; Sando, Gerald M.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2010-04-01

    Time-resolved IR spectroscopy has been used to characterize vibrational and rotational relaxation dynamics of the C-N stretching bands for aqueous molecular cyanides, Au(CN)2-, Ni(CN)42-, Pt(CN)42-, Co(CN)63-, Mn(CN)63-, and Ru(CN)64-. The spectra and dynamics of Ru(CN)64- resemble those previously reported for ferrocyanide with a relatively short (<10 ps) vibrational energy relaxation (VER) time. VER times are longer (>30 ps) for Au(CN)2-, Ni(CN)42-, Pt(CN)42- and Co(CN)63-. Mn(CN)63- is an intermediate case with a VER time of 15 ps in water. These VER dynamics extend and reinforce the trends for metal cyanide CN vibrational band frequencies and intensities.

  6. Iodine cyanide as volumetric oxidant.

    PubMed

    Paul, R C; Chauhan, R K; Sharma, N C; Parkash, R

    1971-11-01

    Iodine cyanide has been developed as an oxidant for the determination of iodide, sulphite, thiosulphate, thiocyanate, arsenic (III), antimony(III), tin(II), mercury(I), iron(II), ascorbic acid and beta-naphthol in dilute aqueous mineral acids, glacial acetic acid and 1:1 acetic acid-acetic anhydride mixture, with visual and potentiometric methods of end-point detection. PMID:18960997

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide compounds are used in a number of industrial processes including mining, electroplating, metallurgy, chemical manufacturing, and photography because these compounds can form stable complexes with a range of metals. Hydrogen cyanide is also a component of tobacco smoke, v...

  8. Canavan Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Where to Go for Screening About the Canavan Foundation Support our Work News & Updates CANAVAN FOUNDATION 450 West End Avenue #6A, New York, NY ... Fax Toll Free: 866-907-1847 2016 Canavan Foundation | Sitemap | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Take our ...

  9. Dinosaurs victims of cyanide poisoning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    The Eos article, Comets and Life (March 28, 1989), reports on the work of Paul Thomas, Christophere Chyba, Carl Sagan and Leigh Brookshaw on cometary impact production of cyanides and other organics that may have been precursors of life. The article was based on material presented at the 20th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference [Thomas et al, 1989].As pointed out in the article, comets may contain 20% organic matter in the form of a complex interbonded mass. This kerogen-like material contains CN bonds as well as CC and CO bonds. Evidence for cyanide protection from light-element “CHON” solids was observed in the recent Halley's comet encounter in the form of CN plumes [Eberhardt et al., 1986; Schlosser et al., 1986]. An additional, and possibly more important source of cyanide, is HCN, which was observed [Schloerb et al., 1986] to be emitted from Halley's comet as part of the normal neutral gas emission with an abundance equal to 10-3 that of H2O. H2O is the dominant volatile species in comets and appears to constitute 80% or more of the total molecular release [Mendis, 1986].

  10. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  11. Acute cyanide poisoning by subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Prieto, I; Pujol, I; Santiuste, C; Poyo-Guerrero, R; Diego, A

    2005-05-01

    A 30 year old woman with a history of depression and previous suicide attempts was brought to the emergency department in coma. She had injected herself with cyanide subcutaneously and had severe metabolic acidosis. She underwent sustained haemodialysis in the intensive care unit (ICU) before laboratory confirmation of cyanide poisoning. The serum cyanide concentration was 4.6 microg/ml. After 48 hours the patient, now asymptomatic, was discharged from the ICU. PMID:15843720

  12. Using mineralogy to optimize gold recovery by direct cyanidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, D.; Chryssoulis, S. L.; Mulpeter, T.

    2004-08-01

    The complete and accurate gold deportments of direct cyanide leach residues provide a clear picture of the occurrence of unrecovered gold and identify causes for poor extraction. Based on the independent measurement of each form and carrier of unleached gold, opportunities for recovery optimization can be assessed more accurately by providing meaningful targets and can help identify the means to achieve such targets. In ten of 14 leach plants surveyed, 23% of the unrecovered gold could be extracted without finer grinding.

  13. Separation and removal of metal cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Hammen, R.F.; Van Der Sluys, W.G.

    1995-09-01

    Metal ion capture media have been developed which are capable of rapidly and effectively reducing metal cyanide concentrations to sub- part per million levels. These media were developed to meet the growing need for compliance with increasingly stringent disposal regulations and the need for cost-effective treatment of metal cyanide waste streams produced by the gold mining and electroplating industries. The extraction media are produced by modifying porous silica with covalently attached, long, and hydrophilic spacer molecules. The termini of the spacer molecules are activated and coupled with a variety of ion exchange and chelating reagents. By placing the functionality away from the surface of the solid support, a combination of the benefits of solution phase equilibration kinetics and heterogeneous support media is obtained. This paper describes column extraction tests performed with the media to remove iron, zinc, copper, and gold cyanide complexes from solution to levels below one part per million. Additional tests were performed with these columns to selectively extract these metal cyanides and/or selectively desorb the cyanide complexes from the media. One column was effective in extracting gold cyanide from solution and recovering the gold by elution with carbonate buffer. The other metal cyanides showed distinctively different adsorption isotherms. By using a combination of two extraction media chemistries, it is possible to separate gold cyanide from a complex solution of mixed metal cyanide species.

  14. Non-cyanide silver plating

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-11-07

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work.

  15. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants: development of a flow injection surface-enhanced Raman scatter (FI-SERS) method for determination of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Jrgensen, Kirsten; Mller, Birger Lindberg; Engelsen, Sren Balling

    2004-02-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of the crystal forms of linamarin, linustatin, neolinustatin, amygdalin, sambunigrin, and dhurrin were obtained using a Raman spectrograph microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser. The position of the signal from the C identical with N triple bond of the cyanohydrin group was influenced by the nature of the side group and was above 2240 cm(-1) for the three cyanogenic glucosides that contain a neighboring aromatic ring, and below or partially below 2240 cm(-1) for the non-aromatic cyanoglucosides. Signals from the CN bond of linamarin/lotaustralin in leaves and roots from a medium cyanogenic cassava variety were obtained in situ using a Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) Raman interferometer with a 1064 nm laser, but the signal was very weak and difficult to obtain. A spectrum containing a signal from the CN bond of dhurrin in a freeze-dried sorghum leaf was also obtained using this instrument. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) was demonstrated to be a more sensitive method that enabled determination of the cyanogenic potential of plant tissue. The SERS method was optimized by flow injection (FI) using a colloidal gold dispersion as effluent. Potential problems and pitfalls of the method are discussed. PMID:15000716

  16. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  17. Biosynthetic Pathway for the Cyanide-Free Production of Phenylacetonitrile in Escherichia coli by Utilizing Plant Cytochrome P450 79A2 and Bacterial Aldoxime Dehydratase

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for the production of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), which has a wide variety of uses in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, was constructed in Escherichia coli utilizing enzymes from the plant glucosinolate-biosynthetic and bacterial aldoxime-nitrile pathways. First, the single-step reaction to produce E,Z-phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) from l-Phe was constructed in E. coli by introducing the genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 79A2 and CYP reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana, yielding the E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant. Second, this step was expanded to the production of PAN by further introducing the aldoxime dehydratase (Oxd) gene from Bacillus sp. strain OxB-1, yielding the PAN-producing transformant. The E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant also produced phenethyl alcohol and PAN as by-products, which were suggested to be the metabolites of E,Z-PAOx produced by E. coli enzymes, while the PAN-producing transformant accumulated only PAN in the culture broth, which suggested that the CYP79A2 reaction (the conversion of l-Phe to E,Z-PAOx) was a potential bottleneck in the PAN production pathway. Expression of active CYP79A2 and concentration of biomass were improved by the combination of the autoinduction method, coexpression of groE, encoding the heat shock protein GroEL/GroES, N-terminal truncation of CYP79A2, and optimization of the culture conditions, yielding a >60-fold concentration of E,Z-PAOx (up to 2.9 mM). The concentration of PAN was 4.9 mM under the optimized conditions. These achievements show the potential of this bioprocess to produce nitriles and nitrile derivatives in the absence of toxic chemicals. PMID:25172862

  18. Biosynthetic pathway for the cyanide-free production of phenylacetonitrile in Escherichia coli by utilizing plant cytochrome P450 79A2 and bacterial aldoxime dehydratase.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuta; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-11-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for the production of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), which has a wide variety of uses in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, was constructed in Escherichia coli utilizing enzymes from the plant glucosinolate-biosynthetic and bacterial aldoxime-nitrile pathways. First, the single-step reaction to produce E,Z-phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) from l-Phe was constructed in E. coli by introducing the genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 79A2 and CYP reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana, yielding the E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant. Second, this step was expanded to the production of PAN by further introducing the aldoxime dehydratase (Oxd) gene from Bacillus sp. strain OxB-1, yielding the PAN-producing transformant. The E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant also produced phenethyl alcohol and PAN as by-products, which were suggested to be the metabolites of E,Z-PAOx produced by E. coli enzymes, while the PAN-producing transformant accumulated only PAN in the culture broth, which suggested that the CYP79A2 reaction (the conversion of l-Phe to E,Z-PAOx) was a potential bottleneck in the PAN production pathway. Expression of active CYP79A2 and concentration of biomass were improved by the combination of the autoinduction method, coexpression of groE, encoding the heat shock protein GroEL/GroES, N-terminal truncation of CYP79A2, and optimization of the culture conditions, yielding a >60-fold concentration of E,Z-PAOx (up to 2.9 mM). The concentration of PAN was 4.9 mM under the optimized conditions. These achievements show the potential of this bioprocess to produce nitriles and nitrile derivatives in the absence of toxic chemicals. PMID:25172862

  19. Fiber optic sensing of cyanides in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Li, C.Y.; Guerreiro, P.; Peyghambarian, N.

    1996-12-31

    A novel sol-gel technique was used to immobilize malachite green ions (MG{sup +}) in stable, optically transparent, porous silica gel films. A simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of cyanides in solutions using spectrophotometry to measure changes caused by cyanide ions (CN{sup {minus}}) in the absorption spectra of the green-colored silica gel films. After reaction with cyanide ions, the absorption spectra of the films changed with a typical decrease in absorbance at 620 nm. On the basis of the absorption spectra of the films, a portable and easy to use fiber optic cyanide film sensor was fabricated. Decolorization undergone by the green-colored gel films, as they were exposed to cyanide ions, was detected through a fiber. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of a few ppm are detected using the fiber optic sensor.

  20. An incident of hydrogen cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lam, K K; Lau, F L

    2000-03-01

    Seven cases of hydrogen cyanide gas poisoning which occurred in an industrial building in Hong Kong are presented here. Two of them were more severely injured and required specific antidotal treatment. The other five were mild and responded to supportive treatment alone. All except one patient recovered completely. Cyanide poisoning is relatively uncommon in urbanized area, so high index of suspicion is important for early diagnosis and treatment. We believe that prevention of cyanide poisoning can be achieved by proper storage of chemicals, and by enforcing rescuers to wear special chemical protective clothing to avoid systemic poisoning because of dermal absorption of hydrogen cyanide gas. As there are newer and safer cyanide antidotes available, each emergency department should have a stock of updated products such as hydroxocobalamin. PMID:10750924

  1. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  2. Advances in f-element cyanide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Jean-Claude; Thury, Pierre; Ephritikhine, Michel

    2015-05-01

    This Dalton perspective gives an overview of the development of cyanide chemistry of 4f- and 5f-elements, a field which was poorly explored in contrast to the attention paid to the cyanide complexes of the d transition metals. The use of the cyanide ligand led to the discovery of mono- and polycyanide complexes which exhibit unprecedented and unexpected coordination geometries. A new type of linear metallocenes including [U(Cp*)2(CN)5](3-) (Cp* = C5Me5) and the first bent actinocenes [An(Cot)2(CN)](-) (An = Th, U; Cot = C8H8) were isolated. Thorocene was found to be much more reactive than uranocene since a series of sterically crowded cyanide complexes have been obtained only from [Th(Cot)2]. A series of cyanido-bridged dinuclear compounds and mononuclear mono-, bis- and tris(cyanide) complexes were prepared by addition of cyanide salts to [MN*3] (M = Ce, U) and [UN*3](+) [N* = N(SiMe3)2]. The Ce(III), U(III) and U(IV) ions were clearly differentiated in these reactions by cyanide linkage isomerism, as shown for example by the structures of the cyanide complex [U(III)N*3(CN)2](2-) and of the isocyanide derivatives [Ce(III)N*3(NC)2](2-) and [U(IV)N*3(NC)](-). While the U-CN/NC coordination preference towards the U(III)/U(IV) pair is related to the subtle balance between steric, covalent and ionic factors, DFT computations and in particular the calculated total bonding energies between the metal and the cyanide ligand allowed the observed coordination mode to be predicted. The ability of the cyanide ligand to stabilize the high oxidation states was assessed with the synthesis of U(V) and U(VI) complexes in the inorganic and organometallic series. PMID:25811407

  3. Differences in Michaelis-Menten kinetics for different cultivars of maize during cyanide removal.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the kinetic parameters, the half-saturation constant (K(m)) and the maximum metabolic capacity (v(max)), is very useful for the characterization of enzymes and biochemical processes. Little is known about rates of which vegetation metabolizes environmental chemicals. It is known, however, that vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it into the amino acid asparagine. This study investigated the differences in Michaelis-Menten kinetics of cyanide removal by different cultivars of maize. Detached leaves (1.0 g fresh weight) of seven different cultivars of maize (Zea mays L.) were kept in glass vessels with 100mL of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 25+/-0.5 degrees C for 28 h. Four treatment concentrations of cyanide were used, ranging from 0.43 to 7.67 mgCNL(-1). The disappearance of cyanide from the aqueous solution was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Realistic values of K(m) and v(max) were estimated by a computer program using non-linear regression treatment. Lineweaver-Burk plots were also used to estimate the kinetic parameters for comparison. Using non-linear regression treatments, values of v(max) and K(m) were found to be between 10.80 and 22.80 mgCNkg(-1)h(-1), and 2.57 and 7.09 mgCNL(-1), respectively. The highest v(max) was achieved by the cultivars HengFen 1, followed by NongDa 108. The lowest v(max) was demonstrated by JingKe 8. The highest K(m) was found in NongDa 108, followed by HengFen 1. The lowest K(m) was associated with JingKe 8. Results from this study indicated that significant removal of cyanide from an aqueous solution was observed in the presence of plant materials without apparent phytotoxicity, even at the high concentration of cyanide used in this study. All maize cultivars used in this study were able to metabolize cyanide efficiently, although with different metabolic capacities. Results also showed a small variation of metabolic rates between the different cultivars. This leads to the conclusion that plants can be used as a phytoremediation agent in the detoxification of cyanide, presenting a feasible option for cleaning up soils and water contaminated with cyanide. PMID:17064775

  4. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  5. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  6. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  7. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  8. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  9. Cyanide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ebola virus E. coli Food safety threats Glanders Lassa fever Marburg virus Melioidosis Plague Case Definitions and Report ... Investigation Infection Control Other Resources Typhoid fever Viral hemorrhagic fevers Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ...

  10. Cyanide detoxification by recombinant bacterial rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Visca, Paolo

    2006-05-01

    Cyanide is a major environmental pollutant of the chemical and metallurgical industries. Although extremely toxic, cyanide can enzymatically be converted to the less toxic thiocyanate by rhodaneses (thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferases, EC 2.8.1.1). We engineered a genetic system to express high levels of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhodanese (r-RhdA) in Escherichia coli, and used this organism to test the role of r-RhdA in cyanide detoxification. Inducible expression of the rhdA gene under the control of the hybrid T7-lacO promoter yielded active r-RhdA over a 4-h period, though r-RhdA-expressing E. coli showed decreased viability starting from 1 h post-induction. At this time, Western blot analysis and enzymatic assay showed r-RhdA partition between the cytoplasm (95%) and the periplasm (5%). The accessibility of thiosulfate to r-RhdA was a limiting step for the sulfur transfer reaction in the cellular system, but cyanide conversion to thiocyanate could be increased upon permeabilization of the bacterial membrane. Specific r-RhdA activity was higher in the whole-cell assay than in the in vitro assay with pure enzyme (2154 vs. 816 micromol min-1 mg-1 r-RhdA, respectively), likely reflecting enzyme stability. The r-RhdA-dependent cyanide detoxification resulted in increased resistance of r-RhdA overexpressing E. coli to 5 mM cyanide. Bacterial survival was paralleled by release of thiocyanate into the medium. Our results indicate that cyanide detoxification by engineered E. coli cells is feasible under laboratory conditions, and suggest that microbial rhodaneses may contribute to cyanide transformation in natural environments. PMID:16307778

  11. Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadgar, Ahmad

    1989-12-01

    Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

  12. The reversibility of adsorption of gold cyanide on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deventer, J. S. J.; van der Merwe, P. F.

    1993-06-01

    Much controversy exists about the mechanism by which gold cyanide adsorbs on activated carbon. It is not the purpose of this article to explain the exact adsorption mechanism but, rather, to investigate the factors affecting the reversibility of adsorbed gold cyanide. Whereas Au(CN){2/-} is soluble in water, AuCN and Au require the addition of cyanide to form Au(CN){2/-}. The reversibility of the adsorption of gold onto carbon is a function of the nature of the adsorbed gold and determines the need for cyanide in the elution process, which affects the operating costs of a carbon-in-pulp (CIP) plant. The fraction of adsorbed Au(CN){2/-} that will be decomposed to AuCN was found to be a function of the pH and temperature of the solution and the type of activated carbon used. It was observed that two different batches of carbon from the same manufacturer yielded widely different ratios of AuCN to Au(CN){2/-}, although their specifications did not differ much. These results were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A combination of low pH and high temperature, as is found in the hot acid wash step of an AARL elution, leads to the reduction of both Au(1) species to metallic gold, Au(0). The fraction of the adsorbed Au(CN){2/-} that is converted to AuCN or Au(0) no longer participates in the equilibrium between Au(CN){2/-} in solution and Au(CN){2/-} in the adsorbed phase. It was observed that the isotherm for desorption is higher than the isotherm for adsorption by a percentage which is, on average, equal to the percentage of Au(CN){2/-} converted to AuCN or Au(0).

  13. HSC Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HSC Foundation, the National Youth Transitions Initiative assists youth and young adults with disabilities in creating and living a self- ... Awards Program provides transition resources and services to youth and young adults with disabilities in the expanded Washington area through ...

  14. PKD Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do You Know PKD? New Orleans Saintsations Kriste Lewis, along with others impacted by PKD, helps create ... WITH US The PKD Foundation is a 501 (c)(3), 509 (a)(1) public charity. National Headquarters: ...

  15. Madisons Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Needed Support MADISONS Foundation Shutting Down Dear Friends, Seventeen years ago, after my daughter was diagnosed with ... with the difficulty of their child’s illness. Today, seventeen years later, the Internet is massive. The information ...

  16. Marfan Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Jonathan Larson, the Late RENT Playwright, with Hero with a Heart Award at April 14 Benefit ... Devereux, Leonard Girardi, and Mary Roman with a Hero with Jan 22 The Marfan Foundation to Honor ...

  17. Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. PMID:23568214

  18. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  19. Cyanide toxicosis in goats after ingestion of California Holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia).

    PubMed

    Tegzes, John H; Puschner, Birgit; Melton, Larry A

    2003-09-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are found in many native and naturalized plants throughout North America. The glycosides themselves are not toxic, but they yield hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic or prussic acid) when they are hydrolyzed by beta-glycosidases, either as a result of injury to the plant cells or by microbial action in the rumen. Hydrogen cyanide is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cyanide ion binds with iron in cytochrome oxidase, interfering with cellular respiration. The clinical effects are peracute, often resulting in death less than 1 hour after ingestion. This study describes a case that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in a herd of goats after exposure to California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia). PMID:14535552

  20. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  1. Cyanide and arsenic poisoning by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J; Hall, A H; Drake, R; Rumack, B H

    1989-03-01

    A 29-year-old man was found unresponsive a few minutes after self-injecting undetermined amounts of potassium cyanide and sodium arsenite intravenously in a suicide attempt. Treatment with the Lilly Cyanide Antidote kit rapidly resolved the initial coma, despite a whole blood cyanide level of 4.4 micrograms/mL. A 12-hour urine arsenic collection begun on admission showed 10,065 micrograms arsenic/12 hr. The patient received intramuscular BAL initially, which was followed by two ten-day courses of oral D-penicillamine. Complications included upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding requiring transfusion, transient elevations of liver function tests, self-limited complaints of decreased vision with conjunctival hyperemia and photophobia, and an abscess at the injection site. Although specific antidote therapy completely resolved the cyanide toxicity, early and prolonged arsenic chelation did not prevent a mild sensory peripheral neuropathy from developing with onset about 17 days after self-injection. PMID:2538098

  2. Modeling hydrogen-cyanide absorption in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for predicting blood concentrations of cyanide as functions of exposure time to constant levels of cyanide in the atmosphere. A toxic gas (which may form as a result of decomposition of combustion materials used in transportation vehicles) is breathed into the alveolar space and transferred from the alveolar space to the blood by a first-order process, dependent on the concentration of the toxicant in the alveolar space. The model predicts that blood cyanide levels are more sensitive to the breathing cycle than to blood circulation. A model estimate of the relative effects of CO and HCN atmospheres, generated in an experimental chamber with an epoxy polymer, shows that toxic effects of cyanide occur long before those of carbon monoxide.

  3. Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

    2005-06-01

    It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability. PMID:15910645

  4. Spectroscopic detection of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of features have been identified as absorption lines of hydrogen cyanide in infrared spectra of stratospheric absorption obtained from a high-altitude aircraft. Column amounts of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide have been derived from spectra recorded on eight flights. The average vertical column amount above 12 kilometers is 7.1 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the 14th molecules per square centimeter, corresponding to an average mixing ratio of 170 parts per trillion by volume.

  5. Destruction of cyanogen bromide and inorganic cyanides.

    PubMed

    Lunn, G; Sansone, E B

    1985-05-15

    Cyanogen bromide in water and seven organic solvents and sodium cyanide in water may safely and efficiently (greater than 99.7%) be destroyed using sodium hydroxide (1 M) solution and commercially available sodium or calcium hypochlorite. Details are given of an analytical procedure which can be used to check the final reaction mixture for the presence of residual cyanogen bromide or cyanide. PMID:4025821

  6. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B.

    1998-09-01

    The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

  7. Dynamics of Networked and Metal Cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas; Houchins, Cassidy; Owrutsky, Jeffrey

    2010-03-01

    Time resolved IR spectroscopy was used to characterize the vibrational relaxation dynamics of the CN stretching bands of aqueous molecular metal cyanides and networked metal cyanides in reverse micelles and on surfaces. The vibrational and rotational relaxation dynamics of the CN stretching bands near 2000 cm-1 for aqueous molecular cyanides, Au(CN)2^-, Ag(CN)2^-, Ni(CN)4^2-, Pt(CN)4^2-, Co(CN)6^3-, Mn(CN)6^3-, and Ru(CN)6^4- have been investigated using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. The spectra and dynamics of Ru(CN)6^4- are similar to those previously reported for ferrocyanide. The T1 times are significantly longer (>30 ps) in the other molecules; Mn(CN)6^3- represents an intermediate case with a relaxation time of about 15 ps in water. The spectra and VER dynamics together extend the established theories of metal cyanide bonding and its connection to frequency and intensity. Networked metal cyanides in reverse micelles, including Prussian Blue and analogs with Cu, Ni, Co and Ru were also studied using visible pump-IR probe spectroscopy. Preliminary results suggest that networked metal cyanide VER lifetimes after visible pulse excitation are similar to those from infrared excitation.

  8. Biotransformation of cyanide to methane and ammonia by Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Kao, C M; Liu, J K; Lou, H R; Lin, C S; Chen, S C

    2003-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca, isolated from cyanide-containing industrial wastewater, was shown to be able to biodegrade cyanide to non-toxic endproducts using cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. In this study, ammonia was one of the detected endproduct of cyanide biodegradation by the concentrated resting cells of K. oxytoca. Moreover, cyanide has been shown to be biotransformed to methane through the actions of concentrated resting cells. Biodegradation of cyanide by cell-free extracts was not observed, which might be due to the inactivation of nitrogenase (an oxygen-labial enzyme) caused by the oxygen exposure after cell disruption. Results show that the cyanide consumption by resting cells of K. oxytoca was induced when the pretreatment of these cells with cyanide was conducted. However, the cyanide-degrading capability of resting cells pretreated with ammonia was inhibited. The inhibition of cyanide degradation by resting cells of K. oxytoca was affected by the ammonia concentration. This might result from the suppression of nitrogenase activity of K. oxytoca by ammonia since nitrogenase was suggested to be the sole cyanide-degrading enzyme during the cyanide degradation process. Results from this study also show that the processes of cyanide biodegradation and ammonia production by resting cells occurred simultaneously. This suggests that the utilization of cyanide as nitrogen source by K. oxytoca might proceed using ammonia as an assimilatory substrate. PMID:12531712

  9. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed. PMID:15854827

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  11. Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

  12. C-11 cyanide production system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  13. Hydrogen cyanide polymers on comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, C. N.; Ludicky, R.

    1992-11-01

    The original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. We propose that the non-volatile black crust of comet Halley consists largely of such polymers. Dust emanating from Halley's nucleus, contributing to the coma and tail, would also arise partly from these solids. Indeed, secondary species such as CN have been widely detected, as well as HCN itself and particles consisting only of H, C and N. Our continuing investigations suggest that the yellow-orange-brown-black polymers are of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C--N- bonds, and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. These easily formed macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, as well as on outer solar system bodies such as asteroids, moons and other comets. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers either through cometary bombardment or by terrestrial happenings of the kind that brought about the black crust of Halley. The resulting proteinaceous matrix could have promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life.

  14. Hydrogen cyanide polymers on comets.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N; Ludicky, R

    1992-01-01

    The original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. We propose that the non-volatile black crust of comet Halley consists largely of such polymers. Dust emanating from Halley's nucleus, contributing to the coma and tail, would also arise partly from these solids. Indeed, secondary species such as CN have been widely detected, as well as HCN itself and particles consisting only of H, C and N. Our continuing investigations suggest that the yellow-orange-brown-black polymers are of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds, and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. These easily formed macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, as well as on outer solar system bodies such as asteroids, moons and other comets. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers either through cometary bombardment or by terrestrial happenings of the kind that brought about the black crust of Halley. The resulting proteinaceous matrix could have promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life. PMID:11538141

  15. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of sulfur and cyanicides speciation during cyanidation of gold complex sulfidic ores.

    PubMed

    Petre, Catalin Florin; Azizi, Abdelaaziz; Olsen, Caroline; Baçaoui, Abdelaziz; Larachi, Faïçal

    2008-12-01

    A capillary electrophoretic protocol for the separation and quantification of the most important species potentially liberated during the cyanidation of gold sulfide-rich ores was accomplished in this study. The separation of 11 ions: S2O3(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-), Fe(CN)6(4-), Fe(CN)6(3-), SCN(-), Au(CN)2(-), Ag(CN)2(-), SO4(2-), OCN(-), SO3(2-), and HS(-) was achieved using an indirect UV detection method. The robustness of the analytical protocol was tested by analyzing ions speciation during the cyanidation of two gold sulfide-rich ores. The 1-h cyanidation of the two ores released up to six complexes into solution: S2O3(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-), SCN(-), Fe(CN)6(4-), OCN(-), and SO4(2-). The mineralogy of the ore was found to influence directly the nature and the amount of the dissolved species. Conserving the cyanidation solution for 72 h after sampling resulted in 96% total sulfur recovery. These results allow us to conclude that the analytical protocol developed in this study can become very useful for the optimization of precious-metals cyanidation plants. PMID:19009541

  16. Sulfide-resistant respiration in leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx: Comparison with cyanide-resistant respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Azcon-Bieto, J.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Gonzalez-Meler, M.A.; Penuelas, J. )

    1989-08-01

    The rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of Elodea canadensis leaves was titrated with either cyanide or sulfide in the presence and in the absence of 5 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. The inhibition of O{sub 2} uptake by SHAM alone was very small (3-6%), suggesting that actual respiration mainly occurred through the cytochrome pathway. O{sub 2} uptake was slightly stimulated by cyanide at concentrations of 50 micromolar or higher, but in the presence of SHAM respiration was strongly suppressed. The effects of sulfide on O{sub 2} uptake were similar to those of cyanide, except that the percent stimulation of O{sub 2} uptake by sulfide alone was somewhat higher than that of cyanide. However, the estimates of the capacity of the alternative pathway were similar with both inhibitors. Another difference is that maximal inhibition of respiration in the presence of SHAM was observed with lower concentrations of sulfide than cyanide. The results suggest that sulfide can be used as a suitable inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in studies with intact plant tissues, and that sulfide does not apparently inhibit the alternative oxidase.

  17. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  18. Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  19. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  1. DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

  2. A cyanide-aldehyde complex inhibits bacterial luciferase.

    PubMed

    Makemson, J C

    1990-08-01

    Cyanide at high (millimolar) concentrations inhibited in the in vitro Vibrio harveyi luciferase reaction. Cyanide reacted with free aldehyde to form an inhibitor. Inhibitor formation was accelerated by alkaline conditions and bovine serum albumin. PMID:2376571

  3. Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  4. Determination of free cyanide and zinc cyanide complex by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Langeroudi, Elahe Ghasemian; Petre, Catalin Florin; Azizi, Abdelaaziz; Proulx, Eric; Larachi, Faïçal

    2011-07-01

    A capillary electrophoretic (CE) protocol was developed for the separation and quantification of free cyanide and zinc cyanide complex, two key species in gold cyanidation of zinc-bearing sulfidic ores. Several common carrier electrolytes were implemented in an indirect UV detection method. The effect of electric field strength, injection volume, concentration of electro-osmotic flow (EOF) modifier and UV-absorbing agent in background electrolyte (BGE) was examined while peak height, peak area and noise were considered for optimization. The best results were obtained using a BGE that contained 35 mM sodium chromate, 12 mM free cyanide and 0.45 mM hexamethonium bromide at pH 10.5. Free cyanide concentration was compared to that measured with the conventional silver nitrate titration method in solutions containing free cyanides and weak cyano-complexes. The developed CE protocol proved very robust in capturing the concentration of free cyanides (4% error) unlike the titration method which exhibited substantial sensitivity to the interfering weak cyano-complexes (38% error). PMID:21595027

  5. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

  6. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  7. Cyanide detoxification in an insect herbivore: Molecular identification of β-cyanoalanine synthases from Pieris rapae.

    PubMed

    Ohlen, Maike van; Herfurth, Anna-Maria; Kerbstadt, Henrike; Wittstock, Ute

    2016-03-01

    Cyanogenic compounds occur widely in the plant kingdom. Therefore, many herbivores are adapted to the presence of these compounds in their diet by either avoiding cyanide release or by efficient cyanide detoxification mechanisms. The mechanisms of adaptation are not fully understood. Larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores on glucosinolate-containing plants. They are exposed to cyanide during metabolism of phenylacetonitrile, a product of benzylglucosinolate breakdown catalyzed by plant myrosinases and larval nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) in the gut. Cyanide is metabolized to β-cyanoalanine and thiocyanate in the larvae. Here, we demonstrate that larvae of P. rapae possess β-cyanoalanine activity in their gut. We have identified three gut-expressed cDNAs designated PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 which encode proteins with similarity to β-substituted alanine synthases (BSAS). Characterization of recombinant PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 shows that they possess β-cyanoalanine activity. In phylogenetic trees, PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3, the first characterized insect BSAS, group together with a characterized mite β-cyanoalanine synthase and bacterial enzymes indicating a similar evolutionary history. PMID:26714205

  8. Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions.

  9. Contribution of a Cyanide-insensitive Alternate Respiratory System to Increases in Formamide Hydro-lyase Activity and to Growth in Stemphylium loti in Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Rissler, Jane F.; Millar, Roy L.

    1977-01-01

    Stemphylium loti, a pathogen of a cyanogenic plant, possesses a cyanide-insensitive alternate respiratory pathway. In the absence of cytochrome inhibitors, the alternate system had only a minor role in respiration. When S. loti was grown in medium amended with antimycin to block the cytochrome chain, the alternate system accounted for the total oxygen consumption associated with respiration. The contribution of the alternate respiratory system to increases in formamide hydro-lyase (FHL) activity and to growth in S. loti in vitro was assessed. FHL, induced by cyanide, converts cyanide to nontoxic formamide and is partially responsible for the tolerance of S. loti to high concentrations of cyanide in vitro. When the cytochromes were blocked and the cyanide-insensitive respiratory pathway accounted for 100% of the oxygen uptake associated with respiration, FHL activity, but not changes in dry weight, was positively correlated with activity of the alternate pathway. As the alternate pathway activity decreased with increasing concentrations of salicylhydroxamic acid, the level of FHL activity correspondingly decreased. The alternate respiratory system may provide for increases in FHL activity but not for growth. S. loti appears to have two mechanisms for cyanide tolerance in vitro: cyanide-insensitive respiration and FHL activity. The initial activity of FHL for detoxification of cyanide may depend on the alternate respiratory pathway when the cytochromes of the electron transport chain are blocked. PMID:16660201

  10. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Craig A; Grimes, David J; Leinz, Reinhard W; Rye, Robert O

    2008-02-15

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most -persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)6s3- or Fe(CN)6(4-), but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)6(3-) or its dissociation products (Co(CN)(6-x)(H2O)x((3-x)-)). Supporting evidenceforcobalt-cyanide complexationwas found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification atfour separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines. PMID:18351069

  11. BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CYANIDE BY NITROGEN-FIXING CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the ability of nitrogen-fixing Anabaena to biodegrade cyanide in batch reactors. ixed second-order constants were obtained that described the biologically-mediated decrease in cyanide for reactors containing initial cyanide concentrations of 3 ppm. or Anabaena...

  12. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Rye, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most-persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)63- or Fe(CN)64-, but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)63- or its dissociation products (Co(CN)6-x(H2O)x(3-x)-). Supporting evidence for cobalt-cyanide complexation was found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification at four separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  13. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 12, CYANIDE IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode...

  14. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: V. CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cyanide. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cyanide and specific cyanide compounds: physical and chemical pr...

  15. Plantings: A Newsletter of the Bush Foundation-Funded Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorde, Karen L., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Two issues of "Plantings," are presented. The 1986 issue is a panel discussion that considers the results and future plans of faculty development programs in three Minnesota institutions. In addition to the moderator, Robert Young, of the University of North Dakota, the panel consisted of Norman Noonan (Augsburg College), Chandra Mehrotra (College

  16. Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action

    PubMed Central

    Nic Lughadha, E; Baillie, J; Barthlott, W; Brummitt, N.A; Cheek, M.R; Farjon, A; Govaerts, R; Hardwick, K.A; Hilton-Taylor, C; Meagher, T.R; Moat, J; Mutke, J; Paton, A.J; Pleasants, L.J; Savolainen, V; Schatz, G.E; Smith, P; Turner, I; Wyse-Jackson, P; Crane, P.R

    2005-01-01

    Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria are available for only approximately 10 000 species. In response to recommendations from the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to develop biodiversity indicators based on changes in the status of threatened species, and trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species, we examine how existing data, in combination with limited new data collection, can be used to maximum effect. We argue that future work should produce Red List Indices based on a representative subset of plant species so that the limited resources currently available are directed towards redressing taxonomic and geographical biases apparent in existing datasets. Sampling the data held in the world's major herbaria, in combination with Geographical Information Systems techniques, can produce preliminary conservation assessments and help to direct selective survey work using existing field networks to verify distributions and gather population data. Such data can also be used to backcast threats and potential distributions through time. We outline an approach that could result in: (i) preliminary assessments of the conservation status of tens of thousands of species not previously assessed, (ii) significant enhancements in the coverage and representation of plant species on the IUCN Red List, and (iii) repeat and/or retrospective assessments for a significant proportion of these. This would result in more robust Sampled Red List Indices that can be defended as more representative of plant diversity as a whole; and eventually, comprehensive assessments at species level for one or more major families of angiosperms. The combined results would allow scientifically defensible generalizations about the current status of plant diversity by 2010 as well as tentative comments on trends. Together with other efforts already underway, this approach would establish a firmer basis for ongoing monitoring of the status of plant diversity beyond 2010 and a basis for comparison with the trend data available for vertebrates. PMID:15814350

  17. Validation of a general method for activity estimation of cyanide evolving oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Gasteazoro, Francisco; Simaan, Ariane Jalila; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Valderrama, Brenda

    2015-02-15

    Ethylene is a key molecule in organic synthesis currently produced by steam cracking of fossil hydrocarbons. In nature, ethylene is produced in higher plants by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). Biocatalytic alternatives for ethylene production are still far from being competitive with traditional production plants. Furthermore, data dispersion shown in the literature adds uncertainty to the introduction of ACCO as a biocatalyst, especially when larger numbers of isoforms or mutants are to be compared. Here we propose a new method for measuring ACCO activity based on cyanide detection. Data provided here indicate that cyanide detection is more precise, more responsive, and much more stable than any other method tested for ACCO activity estimation so far. Briefly, enzymatically produced cyanide can be detected by its derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehide (NDA) to generate 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI), which is further detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a fluorescence detector. Cyanide can be detected in the range between 0.99 and 60.17pmol, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the currently used ethylene estimation method. PMID:25447496

  18. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

  19. Plant genetic identity of foundation tree species and their hybrids affects a litter-dwelling generalist predator.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Todd; Compson, Zacchaeus G; Lamit, Louis J; Whitham, Thomas G; Gehring, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The effects of plant genetics on predators, especially those not living on the plant itself, are rarely studied and poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of plant hybridization and genotype on litter-dwelling spiders. Using an 18-year-old cottonwood common garden, we recorded agelenid sheet-web density associated with the litter layers of replicated genotypes of three tree cross types: Populus fremontii, Populus angustifolia, and their F1 hybrids. We surveyed 118 trees for agelenid litter webs at two distances from the trees (0-100 and 100-200 cm from trunk) and measured litter depth as a potential mechanism of web density patterns. Five major results emerged: web density within a 1-m radius of P. angustifolia was approximately three times higher than within a 1-m radius of P. fremontii, with F1 hybrids having intermediate densities; web density responded to P. angustifolia and F1 hybrid genotypes as indicated by a significant genotype distance interaction, with some genotypes exhibiting a strong decline in web density with distance, while others did not; P. angustifolia litter layers were deeper than those of P. fremontii at both distance classes, and litter depth among P. angustifolia genotypes differed up to 300%; cross type and genotype influenced web density via their effects on litter depth, and these effects were influenced by distance; web density was more sensitive to the effects of tree cross type than genotype. By influencing generalist predators, plant hybridization and genotype may indirectly impact trophic interactions such as intraguild predation, possibly affecting trophic cascades and ecosystem processes. PMID:25205028

  20. The advantages of biodegradation of cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Jim

    1989-12-01

    The biodegradation of cyanides and the biosorption of toxic metals from mining process effluents are proven technologies which offer many advantages over chemical treatment methods. These advantages include cost effectiveness, treatment performance, resistance to upset, low sludge production, metals removal and recovery, flexible design characteristics, compatibility with effluent-receiving streams and the capability for self-regulation with changing process conditions.

  1. Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

    2012-06-01

    Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. PMID:22672162

  2. Cyanide poisoning from metal cleaning solutions.

    PubMed

    Krieg, A; Saxena, K

    1987-05-01

    We report two cases of cyanide poisoning from accidental ingestion of an imported metal cleaning solution used by some Southeast Asians for shining coins. Both patients received specific therapy and recovered completely after a dramatic sequence of sudden collapse and severe cardiovascular compromise. PMID:2882711

  3. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender K.; Yngard, Ria A.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Clayton Baum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Cyanide (CN -), thiocyanate (SCN -), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN) 43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN -, SCN -, and Cu(CN) 43- by ferrate(VI) (Fe VIO 42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe VO 43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO 42-, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO 4-. Cyanides react 10 3-10 5 times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN - proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN - and Cu(CN) 43-. The toxic CN - species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO -). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

  4. Rapid sodium cyanide depletion in cell culture media: outgassing of hydrogen cyanide at physiological pH.

    PubMed

    Arun, Peethambaran; Moffett, John R; Ives, John A; Todorov, Todor I; Centeno, Jose A; Namboodiri, M A Aryan; Jonas, Wayne B

    2005-04-15

    During the course of in vitro studies on cyanide exposure with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we found that sodium cyanide (NaCN) up to a concentration of 10 mM had no significant toxic effect under our culture conditions. Further investigation of this apparent cyanide resistance revealed that the sodium cyanide was being rapidly depleted from the cell culture medium. Cyanide was interacting with constituents of the cell culture medium and was somehow being detoxified or removed from solution. The reaction of cyanide with cell culture media in 96-well culture plates reduced cyanide concentrations rapidly (80-90% in 2 h at 37 degrees C). Running the same reaction in capped tubes significantly reduced cyanide loss from solution. Incubation of cyanide with individual constituents of the cell culture medium in solution showed that glucose, phenol red, and amino acids all acted to detoxify or remove cyanide from solution. When amino acids or buffers were incubated with sodium cyanide in aqueous solution at pH 7.4, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was found to degas from the solutions. We compared HCN outgassing over a range of pH values. As expected, HCN remained very soluble at high pH, but as the pH was reduced to 7.0, the rate of HCN formation and outgassing increased dramatically. Acid-base reactions involving cyanide and proton donors, such as amino acids and other cell culture media constituents, at physiological pH result in rapid HCN outgassing from solution at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that previous in vitro cyanide toxicity studies done in standard culture media with prolonged incubation times using gas-exchanging culture containers might have to be reevaluated in light of the fact that the effective cyanide concentrations in the culture media were significantly lower than reported. PMID:15797569

  5. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  6. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  7. Degradation of cyanide in agroindustrial or industrial wastewater in an acidification reactor or in a single-step methane reactor by bacteria enriched from soil and peels of cassava.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Winter, J

    1998-09-01

    During cassava starch production, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released and hydrolysed by plant-borne enzymes, leading to cyanide concentrations in the wastewater as high as 200 mg/l. For anaerobic degradation of the cyanide during pre-acidification or single-step methane fermentation, anaerobic cultures were enriched from soil residues of cassava roots and sewage sludge. In a pre-acidification reactor this culture was able to remove up to 4 g potassium cyanide/l of wastewater at a hydraulic retention time (tHR) of 4 days, equivalent to a maximal cyanide space loading of 400 mg CN- 1(-1) day-1. The residual cyanide concentration was 0.2-0.5 mg/l. Concentrated cell suspensions of the mixed culture formed ammonia and formate in almost equimolar amounts from cyanide. Little formamide was generated by chemical decay. A concentration of up to 100 mmol ammonia/l had no inhibitory effect on cyanide degradation. The optimal pH for cyanide degradation was 6-7.5, the optimal temperature 25-37 degrees C. At a pH of 5 or lower, cyanide accumulated in the reactor and pre-acidification failed. The minimal tHR for continuous cyanide removal was 1.5 days. The enriched mixed culture was also able to degrade cyanide in purely mineralic wastewater from metal deburring, either in a pre-acidification reactor with a two-step process or in a one-step methanogenic reactor. It was necessary to supplement the wastewater with a carbon source (e.g. starch) to keep the population active enough to cope with any possible inhibiting effect of cyanide. PMID:9802225

  8. Design of a Prototype of Water Purification by Plasma Technology as the Foundation for an Industrial Wastewater Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillas, L.

    2015-03-01

    In order to mitigate the contamination of water sources due to the spill of sewage without any kind of treatment, mainly generated by the industrial sector; a prototype of water purification by plasma technology has been designed. The prototype will transform liquid water into plasma to eliminate the pathogens from the water, due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, electric fields and shock waves, which aid in the destruction of pollutants. The sewage will be accelerated at high speed to convert it into a liquid-gas mixture in order to transform it into plasma, which is achieved when the electrical discharge (of the type dielectric barrier discharge or DBD) is applied to the water by means of high voltage electrodes, from a source of alternating current (AC). Subsequently, the mixture slows down to be return into liquid phase and obtain clean water, all of these without a significantly rise of temperature. The device also has an automatic power control system. Finally, a short feasibility study was conducted in order to use this type of water cleaner in the future as a basis for a treatment plant of industrial waste water, so it comes to replace the current secondary and tertiary treatments used among the industry. It is intended that this new system will be more efficient and cheaper than the current waste water treatments.

  9. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  10. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.

    PubMed

    Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  11. Severe cyanide toxicity from 'vitamin supplements'.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Brian; Quigg, Catherine; Leong, Tim

    2005-10-01

    The use of alternative medicines is increasing and poorly regulated. We describe a case of severe cyanide poisoning arising from amygdalin, a putative vitamin supplement. A 32-year-old woman arrived in the emergency department by ambulance unresponsive, shocked and with fixed dilated pupils. She was hypothermic and tachycardic but was breathing spontaneously. Despite her age, she had documented breast cancer with hepatic metastases. Conventional treatment having failed, she only took 'vitamin supplements' bought on the Internet, her father said. Over the next 6 h she required mechanical ventilation and increasing doses of inotropes. Diabetes insipidus developed. As the appropriateness of further treatment was considered, a relative arrived with her medications including 'vitamin B 17' or amygdalin. An Internet search identified this as a debunked cancer remedy and cyanogen. Serum thiocyanate level was markedly elevated. She recovered fully over 8 h. While various antidotes to cyanide exist, in this case supportive therapy alone proved effective. PMID:16175068

  12. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  13. Pressure cyanide leaching for precious metals recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Jos R.; Valenzuela, Jess L.; Francisco, Cepeda T.

    2007-10-01

    A novel method demonstrates that the oxidation and dissolution of gold and silver in alkaline cyanide solution can be conducted simultaneously in the same autoclave in less than 90 minutes with a recovery that exceeds 96%. Because mild operating conditions of 80C and 0.6 MPa oxygen pressure are used in this process, low cost materials of construction can be utilized for the autoclave.

  14. [Acute cyanide poisoning in an infant].

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, K; van Vught, A J; Meulenbelt, J; Bergman, L R

    1989-09-01

    An infant of 9 months was admitted to hospital in comatose condition; cyanide poisoning was suspected. This poisoning was caused by the desorption of hydrocyanic acid from building materials after the house had been fumigated with hydrocyanic acid under strict supervision and observed safety measures. Administration of 4-dimethyl-aminophenol, a methaemoglobin inducer, and sodium thiosulphate together with supportive measures, led to complete recovery of the infant, although the general hypotony persisted for a few weeks. PMID:2797290

  15. Comparison of cyanide-degrading nitrilases.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, Dakshina M; Willson, Richard C; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2005-08-01

    Recombinant forms of three cyanide-degrading nitrilases, CynD from Bacillus pumilus C1, CynD from Pseudomonas stutzeri, and CHT from Gloeocercospora sorghi, were prepared after their genes were cloned with C-terminal hexahistidine purification tags and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymes purified using nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. The enzymes were compared with respect to their pH stability, thermostability, metal tolerance, and kinetic constants. The two bacterial genes, both cyanide dihydratases, were similar with respect to pH range, retaining greater than 50% activity between pH 5.2 and pH 8 and kinetic properties, having similar K(m) (6-7 mM) and V(max) (0.1 mmol min(-1) mg(-1)). They also exhibited similar metal tolerances. However, the fungal CHT enzyme had notably higher K(m) (90 mM) and V(max) (4 mmol min(-1) mg(-1)) values. Its pH range was slightly more alkaline (retaining nearly full activity above 8.5), but exhibited a lower thermal tolerance. CHT was less sensitive to Hg(2+) and more sensitive to Pb(2+) than the CynD enzymes. These data describe, in part, the current limits that exist for using nitrilases as agents in the bioremediation of cyanide-containing waste effluent, and may help serve to determine where and under what conditions these nitrilases may be applied. PMID:15703908

  16. Hydroxyapatite nanoarray-based cyanide biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiping; Lei, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Jian; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-03-15

    Here we report a simple, biomolecular-friendly protocol for the fabrication of a hydroxyapatite nanowires array (HANWA) biosensor of spatial positioning, large surface area, and abundant adsorbing sites and its application to cyanide sensing. The fabrication of HANWA is performed by template-assisted electrodeposition. The well-aligned hydroxyapatite nanoarray is composed of vertical nanowires with a diameter of approximately 200 nm and an average length of 1 microm. The electrochemical biosensor for the determination of cyanide through its inhibitory effect on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) encapsulated by chitosan (CHIT) on the platform of HANWA is demonstrated. The current organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure provides excellent enzyme-substrate contact with enzyme activity well maintained. The densely distributed HANWA with large surface area and abundant adsorbing sites can provide a favorable electrochemical interface for the construction of electrochemical biosensor. A sensitive detection limit of 0.6 ng ml(-1) was obtained for cyanide. The proposed CHIT-HRP/HANWA biosensor has the advantages of spatial resolution, high sensitivity, rapid regeneration, and fast response associated with individual nanowires. It broadens the possible applications of chemosensors and biosensors, and it offers an alternative method for toxic substance determination. The new device holds great promise for environmental and food industrial monitoring of toxins. PMID:19944059

  17. The biohazard potential of cyanide poisoning during postmortem examination.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M; Sweeney, E S; Grey, T C; Wetzel, T

    1989-09-01

    A case of suicide by ingestion of cyanide salts provided an opportunity to determine whether personnel involved in postmortem examination of such cases are exposed to any significant degree of biohazard from cyanide remaining in body cavities or tissues of the decedent or both. It was found that potentially toxic concentrations of cyanide can develop in personnel so exposed. These findings have implications not only for the safety of pathologists and pathology assistants, but also for first responders (for example, police, firemen, emergency medical technicians [EMTs], paramedics, R.N.s) and emergency room personnel who may be involved in resuscitation efforts or removal of gastric contents or both in cyanide poisoning victims. Symptoms of cyanide toxicity and recommendations for reducing the potential for clinically significant cyanide exposure in medical settings are briefly reviewed. PMID:2809551

  18. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  19. [Cyanides--treatment beneath the shade of terror].

    PubMed

    Krivoy, Amir; Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Layish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Schein, Ophir; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2007-03-01

    Although the use of cyanides as warfare agents has not been documented since the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, there are rising fears of cyanide being used by terrorists. An Al-Qaeda terror plot to use cyanide gas in the London Underground was foiled in 2002. The threat of similar events becomes more imminent in light of the terror attacks in our country and worldwide, accompanied by statements and threats by fundamentalist leaders to employ chemical weapons. Therefore, mass-intoxication with cyanides is not merely a hypothetical scenario. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is under constant evaluation and there is no international consensus on the subject. The medical treatment of victims at the scene and in hospitals should be rapid and efficient. Current treatment dictates establishing an intravenous line and a slow rate of administration of antidotes. Both demands are not feasible in this specific mass casualty event. The clinical signs of cyanide poisoning are complex, variable and not necessarily obvious for the medical team. There is great interest in reconsidering the existing treatment protocols for cyanide intoxication in light of current research. This review describes the mechanisms of cyanide toxicity, clinical signs of exposure, and current treatment protocols in use worldwide. On the basis of this evidence we suggest a medical treatment protocol for a mass casualty event caused by cyanide. PMID:17460933

  20. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    DOEpatents

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  1. Subnanomolar cyanide detection at polyphenol oxidase/clay biosensors.

    PubMed

    Shan, Dan; Mousty, Christine; Cosnier, Serge

    2004-01-01

    A novel, inexpensive, and simple amperometric biosensor based on immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides, also called anionic clays, is applied for determination of cyanide. The detection of cyanide was performed via its inhibiting action on the PPO electrode. Measurement was carried out with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as enzyme substrate, the enzymatically generated quinoid products being electroreduced at -0.2 V. An extremely sensitive detection limit (0.1 nM) was obtained for cyanide. Enzyme immobilization into an anionic exchanger clay seems to cause an increase in cyanide inhibition effects because of anion accumulation in the clay matrix. PMID:14697048

  2. Increased ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (?Atnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids. PMID:23825089

  3. Cyanide Toxicokinetics: The Behavior of Cyanide, Thiocyanate and 2-Amino-2-Thiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Multiple Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Raj K.; Oda, Robert P.; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E.; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Bebarta, Vikhyat S.; Rockwood, Gary A.; Logue, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN?) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.54.2 kg) and (iii) swine (4754 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN?. Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN? t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN? concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN? in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant. PMID:24711295

  4. National Osteonecrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

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    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Directors National Office Staff Foundation Videos Blog Strategic Planning and Oversight Newsletter Living with NF Recently Diagnosed ... date articles about the Foundation and NF advances. Strategic Planning and Research Oversight Discover the Children's Tumor Foundation's ...

  6. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

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  7. A reproducible nonlethal animal model for studying cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vick, J; Marino, M T; von Bredow, J D; Kaminskis, A; Brewer, T

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies using bolus intravenous injections of sodium cyanide have been used to model the sudden exposure to high concentrations of cyanide that could occur on the battlefield. This study was designed to develop a model that would simulate the type of exposure to cyanide gas that could happen during actual low-level continuous types of exposure and then compare it with the bolus model. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings taken from anesthetized dogs have been used previously to characterize the lethal effects of cyanide. The intravenous, bolus injection of 2.5 mg/kg sodium cyanide provides a model in which a greater than lethal concentration is attained. In contrast, our model uses a slow, intravenous infusion of cyanide to titrate each animal to its own inherent end point, which coincides with the amount of cyanide needed to induce death through respiratory arrest. In this model, therapeutic intervention can be used to restore respiration and allow for the complete recovery of the animals. After recovery, the same animal can be given a second infusion of cyanide, followed again by treatment and recovery, providing a reproducible end point. This end point can then be expressed as the total amount of cyanide per body weight (mg/kg) required to kill. In this study, the average dose of sodium cyanide among 12 animals was 1.21 mg/kg, which is approximately half the cyanide used in the bolus model. Thus, titration to respiratory arrest followed by resuscitation provides a repetitive-use animal model that can be used to test the efficacy of various forms of pretreatment and/or therapy without the loss of a single animal. PMID:11149071

  8. Photo/photochemical oxidation of cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes: ultraviolet A versus ultraviolet C.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ercan; Gok, Zehra; Yel, Esra

    2012-09-01

    Degradation of free cyanide (CN(-)), weak-acid dissociable (WAD) (Zn(CN)4(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-)) and strong-acid dissociable (SAD) (Fe(CN)6(4-) cyanide complexes by photo and photochemical oxidation with ultraviolet (UV) light and H2O2 was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch reactors under ultraviolet A (UVA; 395 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC; 254 nm) light; the degradation efficiency was followed in terms of free cyanide, complex and metal concentrations. UVC and UVA photo-oxidations were found to be equally effective in CN(-) and WAD degradation, while the degradation of the SAD complex was more difficult for both UV wavelengths, and UVC was more effective. The initial pH of the solution has influenced the degradation of all cyanide species and the optimum initial pH was evaluated as 10.5 for CN(-) and Cu(CN)3(2-); 12.0 for Zn(CN)4(2-) and 9.0 for Fe(CN)6(4-) degradation. Photochemical oxidation using H202 provided higher degradation at shorter durations with both UVA and UVC. Time-dependent variations in free cyanide and metal concentrations have indicated that metal-cyanide complexes are firstly degraded into metal and CN(-) ions, followed by oxidation of CN(-) ions, while metals in the system were partially removed as hydroxide precipitates. Therefore, depending upon the effluent requirements, the studied UV photo/photochemical oxidations were offered as either a pre-treatment method for the separation of metal and the cyanide, or as an oxidation technology to degrade especially WAD complexes and CN(-). Estimated operational cost of photo-oxidation by UVC was 1.6-2.5-fold higher than UVA degradation, although degradation times were close. In the photochemical oxidation with H2O2, the operational costs of UVC and UVA degradation were closer, owing to peroxide costs, but UVC was still more expensive. PMID:23240184

  9. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  10. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, J.; Lucas, T. C.; Cairns, A. B.; Funnell, N. P.; Tucker, M. G.; Kleppe, A. K.; Hriljac, J. A.; Goodwin, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN)2. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN)2 does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  11. Hydrogen Cyanide in the Murchison Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts <= 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF ZINC CYANIDE RECOVERY USING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field test was conducted to demonstrate closed-loop recovery of zinc cyanide at a job plating facility. Since the zinc cyanide bath operates at room temperature with very little evaporation from the bath, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of the rinsewater must be supplemented by ...

  13. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. )

    1991-06-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

  14. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Ingvorsen, K; Hjer-Pedersen, B; Godtfredsen, S E

    1991-06-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H2O----HCOOH + NH3) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN-) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The soluble enzyme was purified approximately 160-fold, and the first 25 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by automated Edman degradation. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, greater than 97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be greater than 300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles. PMID:1872607

  15. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  16. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond. PMID:17976798

  18. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater. PMID:25306785

  19. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ (1)H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N(+)CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions. PMID:26921604

  20. Hydrogen cyanide poisoning in a prison environment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Judic-Peureux, Virginie; Desmettre, Thibault; Manzon, Cyril; Grimon, Daniel; Hostalek, Ulrike; Fétro, Christine; Capellier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning is an important source of morbidity and mortality from smoke exposure in structural fires. This case involved administration of a cyanide antidote to a prisoner (male, 23 years) in France, discovered in cardiorespiratory arrest after about 30 minutes exposure to smoke from a burning mattress during an apparent suicide attempt. Smoke exposure, circulatory failure during initial resuscitation, and elevated blood cyanide and lactate led to the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit®), 5 g intravenous) was given immediately and on arrival at the hospital. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation restored cardiovascular function after 33 minutes. There were no neurological or other sequelae. Timely hydroxocobalamin administration contributed to full recovery from cardiorespiratory arrest secondary to cyanide poisoning from smoke inhalation. Hydroxocobalamin should be available to emergency medical teams attending fire scenes. PMID:21278317

  1. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims. PMID:22828651

  2. Foundation Grants Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Jennifer

    A handbook of foundation grants information is provided. Today, there are nearly 25,000 foundations that support a wide variety of activities. On the average, foundations give educational institutions 37% of each grant dollar for requests ranging from capital support to program development and research. Because every foundation is unique, it is

  3. Hydrogen cyanide polymers: from laboratory to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Clifford N.

    1995-02-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers - heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to red to black - may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the solar system The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley for example, may consist largely of such polymers. It seems likely. too, that HCN polymers are a major constituent of the dark. CN bearing solids identified tentatively by IR spectra in the dust of some other comets. HCN polymerization could also account for some of the yellow-orange-red coloration of Jupiter and Saturn, and perhaps for the orange haze high in Titan's atmosphere. Studies of these polymers show that a yellow-brown powder can be extracted by water and further hydrolyzed to vield α-amino acids. Several instrumental methods used for the separation and identification of these intriguing materials. including pyrolysis mass spectrometry, Fourier transform IR photoacoustic spectroscopy and supercritical fluid extraction chromatography, reveal fragmentation patterns and chemical functionalities consistent with the presence of polymeric peptide precursors - polyamidines - in HCN polymers. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers and other organic products through bolide bombardment or terrestrial synthesis, producing a proteinaceous matrix able to bring about the molecular interactions leading to the emergence or life. Cyanide polymerization could also he a preferred pathway beyond Earth and the solar system, on planetary bodies and satellites around other stars and in the dusty molecular clouds of spiral galaxies.

  4. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  5. Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1990-01-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

  6. High velocity extraction of metal cyanides from water

    SciTech Connect

    Hammen, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    High velocity metal ion capture and exchange media have been developed which are capable of rapidly and effectively extracting metal cyanide complexes from water to sub-ppm levels. These media were developed to meet the growing need for compliance with increasingly stringent disposal regulations and the need for cost-effective treatment of metal cyanide waste streams produced by the gold mining and electroplating industries. The extraction media are produced by modifying porous silica with covalently attached, long, and hydrophilic spacer molecules. The termini of the spacer molecules are activated and coupled with a variety of cation or anion exchange and chelating reagents. By placing the ion interactive functionality away from the surface of the solid support, a combination of the benefits of solution phase equilibration kinetics and heterogeneous support media is obtained. This paper describes column extraction tests performed with the media to remove iron, zinc, copper, and gold cyanide complexes from solution to levels below one part per million. Additional tests were performed with these columns to selectively extract these metal cyanides and/or selectively desorb the cyanide complexes from the media. One column was effective in extracting gold cyanide from solution and recovering the gold by elution with a carbonate buffer. The other metal cyanides showed distinctively different adsorption isotherms.

  7. Biogenic production of cyanide and its application to gold recovery.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S C; Olson, G J; Clark, T R; McFeters, G

    2001-03-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a cyanogenic (cyanide-producing) microorganism. Cyanide is used on an industrial scale to complex and recover gold from ores or concentrates of ores bearing the precious metal. A potentially useful approach in gold mining operations could be to produce cyanide biologically in relatively small quantities at the ore surface. In this study, C. violaceum grown in nutrient broth formed a biofilm and could complex and solubilize 100% of the gold on glass test slides within 4-7 days. Approximately 50% of the cyanide- recoverable gold could be mobilized from a biooxidized sulfidic-ore concentrate. Complexation of cyanide in solution by gold appeared to have a beneficial effect on cell growth--viable cell counts were nearly two orders of magnitude greater in the presence of gold-coated slides or biooxidized ore substrates than in their absence. C. violaceum was cyanogenic when grown in alternative feedstocks. When grown in a mineral salt solution supplemented with 13.3% v/v swine fecal material (SFM), cells exhibited pigmentation and suspended cell concentrations comparable to cultures grown in nutrient broth. Glycine supplements stimulated production of cyanide in 13.3% v/v SFM. In contrast, glycine was inhibitory when added at the time of inoculation in the more concentrated SFM, decreasing cell numbers and reducing ultimate bulk-solution cyanide concentrations. However, aeration and addition of glycine to stationary phase cells grown on 13.3% v/v SFM anaerobically resulted in rapid production and high concentrations (up to 38 mg l(-1)) of cyanide. This indicates that biogenesis of cyanide may be supported in remote areas using locally produced and inexpensive agricultural feedstocks in place of commercial media. PMID:11420652

  8. The mechanism of elution of gold cyanide from activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Deventer, J. S. J.; van der Merwe, P. F.

    1994-12-01

    Numerous articles have appeared on the mechanism of the adsorption of gold cyanide onto activated carbon. In contrast, little information is available on the mechanism of elution of the adsorbed gold. It is the objective of this article to formulate such a mechanism on the basis of batch and column elution tests without analyzing adsorbed species on the carbon directly. The presence of spectator cations (M n+) enhances the formation of M n+{Au(CN){2/-}} n ion pairs on the carbon, which in turn suppress the elution of gold cyanide. The dynamics of removal of these cations determine the horizontal position of the gold peak in an elution profile. When the concentration of cations in the eluant is high and no cyanide is present in the solution or on the carbon, very little desorption of gold is observed. The quantitative effect of the concentration of spectator cations on the equilibrium for desorption of aurocyanide can be estimated from the elution profiles for gold and cations. Free cyanide in the eluant, which causes some competitive adsorption of cyanide with aurocyanide, therefore plays a minor role at the elevated temperatures used in industry. A more important effect of cyanide is its reaction with functional groups on the carbon, the products of which passivate the surface for adsorption of aurocyanide, and thereby cyanide promotes the elution of aurocyanide. The degree of passivation, which is determined to a large extent by the temperature of pretreatment, also affects the elution of cations and the degradation/adsorption of cyanide itself. Reactivation of the carbon surface occurs when the adsorbed/decomposed cyanide is removed by the eluant. At high temperatures of pretreatment, such as used in practice, it is not necessary to include a reactivation term in the mathematical model for elution.

  9. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Zelder, Felix H; Boss, Gerry R

    2012-07-29

    Diaquacobinamide (H(2)O)(2)Cbi(2+) or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+))) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+) is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) is virtually the same as that of OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+). It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+), (CN)(2)Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+). This understanding implies that CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic-charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 ?M, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h(-1). The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds. PMID:22769008

  10. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Zelder, Felix H.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Diaquacobinamide (H2O)2Cbi2+ or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H2O)Cbi+)) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H2O)Cbi+ is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H2O)Cbi+ should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H2O)Cbi+ is virtually the same as that of OH(H2O)Cbi+. It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H2O)Cbi+, (CN)2Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H2O)Cbi+. This understanding implies that CN(H2O)Cbi+ will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic - charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 ?M, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h?1. The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds. PMID:22769008

  11. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  12. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, Jos R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vzquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  13. Bromine cyanide as titrimetric oxidant in non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Chand Paul, R; Kumar Chauman, R; Parkash, R

    1974-06-01

    Bromine cyanide has been used for the potentiometric determination of sulphide, sulphite, thiocyanate, iodide, tin(II), arsenic(III),hydrazine hydrate, phenylhydrazine, 1,1-methylphenyldrazine and chloralhydrazine in glacial acetic acid and 1 : 1 acetic acid-acetic anhydride mixture, of thiourea, ethylthiourea, isopropylthiourea, benzylthiourea, alpha-phenylthiourea and o-tolythiourea in methanol, and of sodium methyl-, ethyl-,dimethyl-, diehtyl- and isopropyldithiocarbamates in ehtanol and acetonitrile media. The behaviour of bromine cyanide in these non- aqueous solvents has been compared with its behaviour in aqueous medium and with that of iodine cyanide in these non-aqueous solvents. PMID:18961514

  14. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-03-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed. PMID:25386729

  15. Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M S; Davis, J W; Wolfram, J H; Chapatwala, K D

    1991-01-01

    A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase. PMID:1929388

  16. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  17. National Emphysema Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) Skip to content Jump to main navigation and login Nav view search Navigation Connect with ... ru - free templates joomla Welcome to the National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) This site is for the benefit ...

  18. National Alopecia Areata Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their families. Research Summits The National Alopecia Areata Foundation conducts research summits every two years, bringing together ... to their company through the National Alopecia Areata Foundation, each company listed has generously offered to contribute ...

  19. Melanoma International Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD May 09, 2015 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  20. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports a wide array of research and ...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) hexasulfide/Dimethyldithiocarbamate + sulfur Fluorescent brighteners/Coumarin based Ethyl acetate/Redox.../Hydroquinone dimethyl ether + Hydrogen cyanide, hydrolysis Benzyl cyanide/Benzyl chloride + Sodium cyanide...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) hexasulfide/Dimethyldithiocarbamate + sulfur Fluorescent brighteners/Coumarin based Ethyl acetate/Redox.../Hydroquinone dimethyl ether + Hydrogen cyanide, hydrolysis Benzyl cyanide/Benzyl chloride + Sodium cyanide...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) hexasulfide/Dimethyldithiocarbamate + sulfur Fluorescent brighteners/Coumarin based Ethyl acetate/Redox.../Hydroquinone dimethyl ether + Hydrogen cyanide, hydrolysis Benzyl cyanide/Benzyl chloride + Sodium cyanide...

  4. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as we Grow, Give and MOVE to raise awareness and critical funds for prostate cancer research. 10.01.2015 Foundation News 6 New ... 20 th Annual Home Run Challenge to Raise Awareness and Fund Research for Prostate Cancer 06.18.2015 Foundation News Prostate Cancer Foundation ...

  5. Structural Foundations; Carpentry: 901891.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to help the student become proficient in the skills of planning, layout, and building foundations. The course to be presented in grades 11 and 12 contains six blocks of study (introduction to foundations, forming concrete, piling, marine foundations, applied mathematics, and a quinmester post-test)

  6. SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

  7. Severe keloids caused by hydrogen cyanide injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jian, Xiangdong; Guo, Guangran; Ruan, Yanjun; Lin, Dawei; Zhao, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report severe keloids caused by hydrogen cyanide injury. Hydrogen cyanide poisoning is still a problem as an occupational disease in China. We report a 37-year-old man with severe hydrogen cyanide poisoning. The patient fell on the floor after inhalation of hydrogen cyanide and was burned on his back by hydrocyanic acid. Sequential treatment included amyl nitrite by inhalation, intravenous sodium nitrite 3%, and intravenous sodium thiosulfate 25%. Other treatment consisted of incision of the trachea, mannitol and furosemide, antibiotics, and nutrient support measures. The patient also received hyperbaric oxygen therapy; during the first treatment, he became apneic and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was supplied in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber. He eventually recovered, but a large amount of keloids developed on his back and buttocks. PMID:18568895

  8. Rhizobium daejeonense sp. nov. isolated from a cyanide treatment bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhe-Xue; Bae, Hee-Sung; Baek, Jong-Hwan; Chen, Wen-Feng; Im, Wan-Taek; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2005-11-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to determine the taxonomic position of two aerobic, cyanide-degrading bacterial strains, designated L61T and L22, which had been isolated from a bioreactor for the treatment of nickel-complexed cyanide. The two isolates exhibited almost identical taxonomic characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from comparative 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates fall in a sublineage of the genus Rhizobium comprising the type strains of Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium rubi, Rhizobium larrymoorei, Rhizobium vitis, Rhizobium undicola, Rhizobium loessense, Rhizobium galegae and Rhizobium huautlense. Cells of the two isolates are Gram-negative, aerobic, motile and non-spore-forming rods (0.6-0.7x1.1-1.3 microm), with peritrichous flagella. The DNA G+C content is 60.1-60.9 mol%. Cellular fatty acids are C(16 : 0) (2.2-3.3 %), C(18 : 0) (2.1-3.2 %), C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c (9.9-16.8 %), C(20 : 3)omega6,9,12c (2.7-3.3 %), summed feature 3 (7.2-7.7 %) and summed feature 7 (67.8-73.7 %). The strains formed nodules on a legume plant, Medicago sativa. A nifH gene encoding denitrogenase reductase, the key component of the nitrogenase enzyme complex, was detected in L61T by PCR amplification by using a nifH-specific primer system. Strains L61T and L22 were distinguished from the type strains of recognized Rhizobium species in the same sublineage based on low DNA-DNA hybridization values (2-4 %) and/or a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value of less than 96 %. Moreover, some phenotypic properties with respect to substrate utilization as a carbon or nitrogen source, antibiotic resistance and growth conditions could be used to discriminate L61T and L22 from Rhizobium species in the same sublineage. Based on the results obtained in this study, L61T and L22 are considered to be representatives of a novel species of Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium daejeonense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L61T (=KCTC 12121T=IAM 15042T=CCBAU 10050T). PMID:16280524

  9. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  10. Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-07-01

    An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

  11. Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Frdric; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 mol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae. PMID:22675114

  12. Heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted microbial nitrilase enzymes increases cyanide tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Molojwane, E; Adams, N; Sweetlove, L J; Ingle, R A

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in cyanide (CN) contamination of both soil and water in many areas of the globe. While plants possess a detoxification pathway that serves to degrade endogenously generated CN, this system is readily overwhelmed, limiting the use of plants in bioremediation. Genetic engineering of additional CN degradation pathways in plants is one potential strategy to increase their tolerance to CN. Here we show that heterologous expression of microbial nitrilase enzymes targeted to the mitochondria increases CN tolerance in Arabidopsis. Root length in seedlings expressing either a CN dihydratase from Bacillus pumilis or a CN hydratase from Neurospora crassa was increased by 45% relative in wild-type plants in the presence of 50?m KCN. We also demonstrate that in contrast to its strong inhibitory effects on seedling establishment, seed germination of the Col-0 ecotype of Arabidopsis is unaffected by CN. PMID:25711239

  13. Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Nawaz, M.S.; Davis, J.W.; Chapatwala, K.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Most nitriles are health hazard materials. It has been reported that shale oil contains high concentrations of nitriles. Disposal of effluents containing nitriles is therefore of concern. A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase.

  14. Alpha One Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Programs Scientific Meetings & Conferences Education CME-CRCE Credits Publications Education Days Big Fat Reference Guide Helpful ... Foundation | Privacy Statement | Terms Of Use | Admin | Website Credits

  15. Foundation Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, John; Mosiman, Garrett; Handeen, Daniel; Huelman, Patrick; Christian, Jeffery

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

  16. Alport Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alport Syndrome through education, empowerment, advocacy, and funding research. 2015 Alport Syndrome Foundation Inc. All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy | Sitemap | Disclaimer Arizona Web Design by Artistik Designs ")});

  17. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constant for hydrogen cyanide. Generation of trace standard gaseous hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-04-15

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry's Law constant (K(H), M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00 +/- 0.03 at 296.6 +/- 0.1 K) from 287-311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The K(H) of HCN may be expressed as ln K(H) (M/atm) = (8205.7 +/- 341.9)/T - (25.323 +/- 1.144); r(2) = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 degrees C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 degrees C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted. PMID:20302333

  18. Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Almagro, Vctor M.; Huertas, Mara-J.; Martnez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivin, Conrado; Roldn, M. Dolores; Garca-Gil, L. Jess; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Coleccin Espaola de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded. PMID:15691951

  19. Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants--A review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Erust, Ceren; Gahan, Chandra Sekhar; Ozgun, Mehmet; Sahin, Merve; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    Waste generated by the electrical and electronic devices is huge concern worldwide. With decreasing life cycle of most electronic devices and unavailability of the suitable recycling technologies it is expected to have huge electronic and electrical wastes to be generated in the coming years. The environmental threats caused by the disposal and incineration of electronic waste starting from the atmosphere to the aquatic and terrestrial living system have raised high alerts and concerns on the gases produced (dioxins, furans, polybrominated organic pollutants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) by thermal treatments and can cause serious health problems if the flue gas cleaning systems are not developed and implemented. Apart from that there can be also dissolution of heavy metals released to the ground water from the landfill sites. As all these electronic and electrical waste do posses richness in the metal values it would be worth recovering the metal content and protect the environmental from the pollution. Cyanide leaching has been a successful technology worldwide for the recovery of precious metals (especially Au and Ag) from ores/concentrates/waste materials. Nevertheless, cyanide is always preferred over others because of its potential to deliver high recovery with a cheaper cost. Cyanidation process also increases the additional work of effluent treatment prior to disposal. Several non-cyanide leaching processes have been developed considering toxic nature and handling problems of cyanide with non-toxic lixiviants such as thiourea, thiosulphate, aqua regia and iodine. Therefore, several recycling technologies have been developed using cyanide or non-cyanide leaching methods to recover precious and valuable metals. PMID:25704926

  20. Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

  1. Disulfiram inhibition of cyanide formation after acetonitrile poisoning.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Peter; Colin, Pieter; Depuydt, Pieter; Decavele, An-Sofie; De Smet, Julie; Boussery, Koen; Stove, Christophe; Benoit, Dominique; Verstraete, Alain; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Buylaert, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Context Cyanide poisoning may be caused by acetonitrile, a common industrial organic solvent and laboratory agent. Objective To describe the potential use of disulfiram in treating acetonitrile poisoning in a human clinical case and to further study its effect in human liver microsomes in vitro. Case details A 30-year-old man initially presented with a cholinergic toxic syndrome following ingestion of aldicarb. Toxicological analysis revealed coingestion of ethanol. He subsequently developed severe metabolic acidosis caused by the cyanogenic compound acetonitrile which was erroneously interpreted as acetone in the chromatogram. After three treatments with hydroxocobalamin (5 g i.v.) and sodium thiosulfate (12.5 g i.v.) on days 2, 3, and 5, he had transient improvement but recurrent lactic acidosis. Treatment with disulfiram was associated on day 7 with resolution of metabolic acidosis and slowing of the decrease in acetonitrile concentration. He recovered from acetonitrile toxicity completely. The time course of acetonitrile, thiocyanate, and cyanide concentrations suggested that disulfiram inhibited cyanide formation. Results In vitro experiments with human liver microsomes showed the cyanide concentration was significantly lower after incubation with acetonitrile and disulfiram than acetonitrile alone (a mean 60% reduction in cyanide level). Discussion Although disulfiram was given late in the course of the poisoning it is possible that it contributed to the recovery. PMID:26623950

  2. National Science Foundation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kent K.

    Established by Congressional Act in 1950, the National Science Foundation (NSF) is charged with a variety of responsibilities in the areas of education, research, applications of research, data gathering, and information dissemination. The foundation is governed by an appointed director and a national board and is primarily funded by the federal

  3. Foundations for Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.

    2015-01-01

    "Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher

  4. Cooley's Anemia Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History Medical Research Board/Staff Contact the ... Gabriella was diagnosed with thalassemia, and the Cooley’s Anemia Foundation continues to play an almost-daily role ...

  5. Utilizing Foundational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundations, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles that utilize an array of foundational perspectives that give reader insight into the organization of schools, the viewpoints of children and parents, the ideological and political nature of community organizing, and mathematics instruction in the Soviet Union. In "Cooperative

  6. Foundations for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2002-01-01

    Discusses private fundraising initiatives for public libraries, often through special foundations with full-time fundraisers. Highlights include experiences at the Public Library of Des Moines Foundation; metropolitan, suburban, and small public library initiatives; fundraising on the Web; effects on public support; outreach programs; bequests;

  7. Seeking Foundation Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Barbara Stewart

    Institutions seeking supplementary funding should not be afraid of approaching foundations for grants but should be sure that they understand the grant-seeking process so they do not waste time and effort sending inadequate proposals to uninterested foundations. This booklet, a guide to grantsmanship intended primarily for Catholic educators,

  8. Establishing a School Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Juanita; Stewart, G. Kent

    2002-01-01

    A school foundation is a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization that finances school projects not covered by the district budget. Legal requirements and accounting procedures; the board of trustees and fund manager; use of volunteers; capitalization and sources of capital (gifts, bequests, fundraising activities); marketing the foundation; examples of

  9. Spectroscopic study of acetylene and hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozario, Hoimonti Immaculata

    High-resolution molecular spectroscopy has been used to study acetylene line parameters and emission spectra of hydrogen cyanide. All acetylene spectra were recorded in our laboratory at the University of Lethbridge using a 3-channel tuneable diode laser spectrometer. N2-broadened line widths and N2-pressure induced line shifts have been measured for transitions in the v1+v3 band of acetylene at seven temperatures in the range 213-333K to obtain the temperature dependences of broadening and shift coefficients. The Voigt and hard-collision line profile models were used to retrieve the line parameters. The line-broadening and line-shift coefficients as well as their temperature-dependent parameters have been also evaluated theoretically, in the frame work of a semi-classical approach based on an exponential representation of the scattering operator, an intermolecular potential composed of electrostatic quadrupole--quadrupole and pairwise atom--atom interactions as well as on exact trajectories driven by an effective isotropic potential. The experimental results for both N2-broadening and shifting show good agreement with the theoretical results. We have studied the line intensities of the 1vl 20?0v120 band system from the HCN emission spectrum. The infrared emission spectrum of H12C 14N was measured at the Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. The emission spectrum was analyzed with the spectrum analysis software Symath running using Mathematica as a platform. This approach allowed us to retrieve information on band intensity parameters.

  10. Recovery of cyanide in gold leach waste solution by volatilization and absorption.

    PubMed

    Gönen, N; Kabasakal, O S; Ozdil, G

    2004-09-10

    In this study, the effects of pH, time and temperature in regeneration of cyanide in the leaching waste solution of gold production from disseminated gold ore by cyanidation process were investigated and the optimum conditions, consumptions and cyanide recovery values were determined. The sample of waste solution containing 156 mg/l free CN- and 358 mg/l total CN-, that was obtained from Gümüşhane-Mastra/Turkey disseminated gold ores by cyanidation and carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process under laboratory conditions was used in the experiments. Acidification with H2SO4, volatilization of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) with air stripping and absorption of HCN in a basic solution stages were applied and under optimum conditions, 100% of free cyanide and 48% of complex cyanide and consequently 70% of the total cyanide in the liquid phase of gold leach effluent are recovered. PMID:15363536

  11. 1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN ASSEMBLY PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event

    PubMed Central

    Meillier, Andrew; Heller, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide's metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use of both antidotes separately used with differing outcomes. PMID:26543483

  13. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular cobinamide sulfite rapidly and effectively reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide poisoning, suggesting that a compact cyanide antidote kit can be developed for mass casualty cyanide exposures. PMID:20045579

  14. Encapsulation of thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase by mouse erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, P.; Ray, L.E.; Sander, C.; Way, J.L.; Sylvester, D.M.; Way, J.L.

    1986-03-30

    Murine carrier erythrocytes, prepared by hypotonic dialysis, were employed in the encapsulation of several compounds including (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and bovine thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese), a mitochondrial enzyme which converts cyanide to thiocyanate. Approximately 30% of the added (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and rhodanese was encapsulated by predialyzed erythrocytes, and a decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin was observed. In the encapsulation of rhodanese a recovery of 95% of the erythrocytes was achieved and an 85% equilibrium was established. The addition of potassium cyanide (50 mM) to intact, rhodanese-loaded erythrocytes containing sodium thiosulfate resulted in its metabolism to thiocyanate. These results establish the potential use of erythrocytes as biodegradable drug carrier in drug antagonism.

  15. Cardiorespiratory response to cyanide of arterial chemoreceptors in fetal lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Itskovitz, J.; Rudolph, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Cardiorespiratory response to the stimulation of the carotid and aortic receptors by sodium cyanide was examined in fetal lambs in utero at 0.8 (120 days) gestation. Injections of 50-400 ..mu..g cyanide into the inferior vena cava or the carotid artery of intact fetuses elicited bradycardia and respiratory responses that varied from a single gasp to rhythmic respiratory movements but no significant change in arterial blood pressure. Carotid sinus denervation eliminated the cardiorespiratory response to intracarotid injection of cyanide and sinoaortic denervation abolished the response to inferior vena caval injection. It is concluded that in fetal lamb in utero the aortic and carotid bodies are active, and hypoxic stimulation of these chemoreceptors results in cardiorespiratory response characterized by slowing of fetal heart rate, respiratory effort, and no consistent change in arterial blood pressure.

  16. Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels.

    PubMed

    Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

    2011-09-01

    Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. PMID:21856998

  17. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  18. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  19. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  20. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  1. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  2. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  3. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  4. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  5. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  6. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  7. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  8. Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes.

  9. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation

  11. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  12. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child's treatment. LEARN MORE More children die of brain tumors than any other cancer, so more research ... it up with Trey Canard Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  13. National Ataxia Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation’s web site; Here... 2016 NAF Annual Ataxia Conference Invitation The National Ataxia Foundation (NAF) is pleased ... Now! Ataxia Events The 59th NAF Annual Ataxia Conference Orlando, FL April 1-3, 2016 2016 AAC ...

  14. Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can Help Contact Us The Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy works to educate the public and healthcare professionals, ... of-the-art treatment for patients with peripheral neuropathy, and will be the catalyst for advancing innovative ...

  15. Scleroderma Research Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... short list of America's most respected nonprofit organizations. downloads NBC Today.com: Bob Saget on losing his ... Foundation's new 2015 Annual Report is available for download. This 13 MB PDF file features the SRF ...

  16. Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs Urge your congressional rep to ... Percentage Donations Tribute Wall Other Giving/Fundraising Opportunities Bitcoin Donation Form FAQs 2013 Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation, ...

  17. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  18. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action Honor a Loved ... taking place nationwide. Join Us We Are Ending Blindness The urgent mission of the Foundation Fighting Blindness ...

  19. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the country. View all Events Current Campaigns Rodeo Anti-Tobacco Campaign Learn More "I'm Part Of ... Resources Overview Oral Cancer News OCF Press Releases Social © 2016 The Oral Cancer Foundation. All rights reserved. ...

  20. United Leukodystrophy Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or Renew Your Membership Patients & Family What is Leukodystrophy Types of Leukodystrophy Become a Member or Renew Your Membership Testimonials ... they require funding to keep going. The United Leukodystrophy Foundation has increased its goal for research funding ...

  1. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News CF Foundation Recognizes Community Leaders at Volunteer Leadership Conference Blog Post Meet Jordan Scott Blog Post ... Post My 3 Takeaways From the 2016 Volunteer Leadership Conference My advice to all of you … CONNECT, ...

  2. National Parkinson Foundation, Inc.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Power of Exercise During Parkinson’s Disease Awareness Month March 21, 2016 The National Parkinson Foundation (NPF) ... Learn More Upcoming Events Upcoming Events Parkinson's Awareness Month! Friday, April 1 - April 30 Learn More Moving ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10.2016 PCF Spotlight Lands’ End launches Blue Oxford campaign to help raise funds for the Prostate ... News More » Foundation News Lands’ End launches Blue Oxford campaign to help raise funds for the Prostate ...

  4. Investigation of the potential active site of a cyanide dihydratase using site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Yano, K; Ikebukuro, K; Karube, I

    1998-01-15

    Cyanide dihydratase has conserved residues in the amino acid sequence with nitrilase, and cyanide hydratase. The conserved amino acid residues in the cyanide dihydratase from Pseudomonas stutzeri AK61 were altered by site-directed mutagenesis. The enzyme completely lost its activity of the cyanide hydrolysis by the replacement of cysteine-163 to serine. The replacement of tyrosine-53 to phenylalanine caused an increase of the K(m) value of the enzyme for cyanide. Substitution of nine other residues seemed to affect the structure of the enzyme. PMID:9507047

  5. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Virus Medicare Part D Medicaid Expansion » The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Twitter Facebook Email topics topics ... 2016 Kaiser Family Foundation Privacy Policy The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Headquarters: 2400 Sand Hill Road, ...

  6. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  7. Empiric management of cyanide toxicity associated with smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Walsh, Donald W; Terriff, Colleen M; Hall, Alan H

    2011-10-01

    Enclosed-space smoke inhalation is the fifth most common cause of all unintentional injury deaths in the United States. Increasingly, cyanide has been recognized as a significant toxicant in many cases of smoke inhalation. However, it cannot be emergently verified. Failure to recognize the possibility of cyanide toxicity may result in inadequate treatment. Findings suggestive cyanide toxicity include: (1) a history of an enclosed-space fire scene in which smoke inhalation was likely; (2) the presence of oropharyngeal soot or carbonaceous expectorations; (3) any alteration of the level of consciousness, and particularly, otherwise inexplicable hypotension (systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg in adults). Prehospital studies have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for patients with suspected smoke inhalation cyanide toxicity. Although United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved since 2006, the lack of efficacy data has stymied the routine use of this potentially lifesaving antidote. Based on a literature review and on-site observation of the Paris Fire Brigade, emergency management protocols to guide empiric and early hydroxocobalamin administration in smoke inhalation victims with high-risk presentations are proposed. PMID:22336184

  8. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  9. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:20402491

  10. The oxidative disposition of potassium cyanide in mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J D; Isom, G E

    1985-12-01

    The role of oxidative metabolism in the disposition of potassium cyanide (KCN), was investigated in mice administered KCN, (4.6 mg/kg, s.c.) containing 4.5 microCi [14C]KCN. The expired pulmonary metabolites, [14C]hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and 14CO2, were collected and analyzed. Approximately 1% and 2% of the KCN dose was expired as [14C]HCN and 14CO2, respectively. Expiration of the pulmonary metabolites was decreased following pretreatment with sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, oxygen, or a combination of cyanide antidotes. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide lowered the amount of [14C]HCN expired and did not alter the expiration of 14CO2. Treatment with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (catalase inhibitor), superoxide dismutase, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (superoxide dismutase inhibitor) did not change the amount of [14C]HCN expired. However, superoxide dismutase significantly increased the amount of 14CO2 expired, whereas diethyldithiocarbamic acid decreased 14CO2 expiration. The results from these studies suggest that in vivo cyanide can be oxidized to CO2 and treatment with agents that alter the availability of endogenous superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide can alter the rate of cyanide oxidation. PMID:3000027

  11. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM REFINERY WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the removal of low level cyanide in petroleum refinery wastewater by the addition of powdered activated carbon and cupric chloride to an activated sludge unit. The activated carbon and cupric chloride act as a catalyst in the oxidatio...

  12. 90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. 169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  14. Antibody-guided enzyme therapy of cancer producing cyanide results in necrosis of targeted cells.

    PubMed

    Kousparou, Christina A; Epenetos, Agamemnon A; Deonarain, Mahendra P

    2002-05-01

    A number of enzyme/prodrug activation approaches for the treatment of cancer have been reported to date with varying success. We describe progress in the development of a system based on a beta-glucosidase enzyme in combination with a naturally occurring "prodrug," the sugar linamarin, which releases the cytotoxin cyanide. A recombinant fusion protein, composed of an scFv (MFE-23) reactive against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a plant-derived beta-glucosidase (linamarase), was produced and its cytotoxic potential was investigated. The fusion protein was expressed in a supersecretory mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified by affinity chromatography. Extensive functional in vitro characterisation of the fusion protein showed that it retained antigen binding activity but that its catalytic activity was impaired, a problem not related to its fusion with the scFv. Nevertheless, we demonstrated complete tumour cell killing at doses of prodrug that are completely nontoxic to nontargeted cells. Preliminary in vivo characterisation showed that extensive glycosylation of the fusion protein caused its rapid clearance through the hepatic route. Aggregational properties also led to poor pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, we present some data analysing the mode of cell death resulting from exposure to this system. Enzymic catalysis of the substrate generates cyanide, a metabolic poison that asphyxiates cells and leads them to a necrotic-like cell death. This system has been called antibody-guided enzyme nitrile therapy (AGENT). PMID:11948505

  15. Cyanide Degradation under Alkaline Conditions by a Strain of Fusarium solani Isolated from Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Dumestre, A; Chone, T; Portal, J; Gerard, M; Berthelin, J

    1997-07-01

    Several cyanide-tolerant microorganisms have been selected from alkaline wastes and soils contaminated with cyanide. Among them, a fungus identified as Fusarium solani IHEM 8026 shows a good potential for cyanide biodegradation under alkaline conditions (pH 9.2 to 10.7). Results of K(sup14)CN biodegradation studies show that fungal metabolism seems to proceed by a two-step hydrolytic mechanism: (i) the first reaction involves the conversion of cyanide to formamide by a cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme, cyanide hydratase (EC 4.2.1.66); and (ii) the second reaction consists of the conversion of formamide to formate, which is associated with fungal growth. No growth occurred during the first step of cyanide degradation, suggesting that cyanide is toxic to some degree even in cyanide-degrading microorganisms, such as F. solani. The presence of organic nutrients in the medium has a major influence on the occurrence of the second step. Addition of small amounts of yeast extract led to fungal growth, whereas no growth was observed in media containing cyanide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The simple hydrolytic detoxification pathway identified in the present study could be used for the treatment of many industrial alkaline effluents and wastes containing free cyanide without a prior acidification step, thus limiting the risk of cyanhydric acid volatilization; this should be of great interest from an environmental and health point of view. PMID:16535647

  16. Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  17. Cyanide Degradation under Alkaline Conditions by a Strain of Fusarium solani Isolated from Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Dumestre, A.; Chone, T.; Portal, J.; Gerard, M.; Berthelin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several cyanide-tolerant microorganisms have been selected from alkaline wastes and soils contaminated with cyanide. Among them, a fungus identified as Fusarium solani IHEM 8026 shows a good potential for cyanide biodegradation under alkaline conditions (pH 9.2 to 10.7). Results of K(sup14)CN biodegradation studies show that fungal metabolism seems to proceed by a two-step hydrolytic mechanism: (i) the first reaction involves the conversion of cyanide to formamide by a cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme, cyanide hydratase (EC 4.2.1.66); and (ii) the second reaction consists of the conversion of formamide to formate, which is associated with fungal growth. No growth occurred during the first step of cyanide degradation, suggesting that cyanide is toxic to some degree even in cyanide-degrading microorganisms, such as F. solani. The presence of organic nutrients in the medium has a major influence on the occurrence of the second step. Addition of small amounts of yeast extract led to fungal growth, whereas no growth was observed in media containing cyanide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The simple hydrolytic detoxification pathway identified in the present study could be used for the treatment of many industrial alkaline effluents and wastes containing free cyanide without a prior acidification step, thus limiting the risk of cyanhydric acid volatilization; this should be of great interest from an environmental and health point of view. PMID:16535647

  18. Destruction of cyanide in waste waters: review and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weathington, B.C.

    1988-05-01

    This report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness, and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process to convert simple cyanides, iron cyanides and thiocyanates to cyanate using (TiO/sub 2/) and ultraviolet radiation. The scope of the problem of cyanide in waste water or leachate and the effectiveness of twelve different technologies that have been applied to the destruction of cyanide were assessed by review of available literature and discussions with industry and government authorities. Brief summaries of the problem and the current technologies are contained in the report. In general, the primary concern with cyanide effluent is its propensity to form complexes difficult to remove and that can later break down to highly toxic forms.

  19. Volatile-Mediated Killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by Bacteria Is Mainly Due to Hydrogen Cyanide?

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Dirk; Fabbri, Carlotta; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2011-01-01

    The volatile-mediated impact of bacteria on plant growth is well documented, and contrasting effects have been reported ranging from 6-fold plant promotion to plant killing. However, very little is known about the identity of the compounds responsible for these effects or the mechanisms involved in plant growth alteration. We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains. Using a collection of environmental and clinical strains differing in cyanogenesis, as well as a defined HCN-negative mutant, we demonstrate that bacterial HCN accounts to a significant extent for the deleterious effects observed when growing Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of certain bacterial volatiles. The environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 was less cyanogenic and less plant growth inhibiting than the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Quorum-sensing deficient mutants of C. violaceum CV0, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa PUPa3 showed not only diminished HCN production but also strongly reduced volatile-mediated phytotoxicity. The double treatment of providing plants with reactive oxygen species scavenging compounds and overexpressing the alternative oxidase AOX1a led to a significant reduction of volatile-mediated toxicity. This indicates that oxidative stress is a key process in the physiological changes leading to plant death upon exposure to toxic bacterial volatiles. PMID:21115704

  20. Engineering pH-tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Watermeyer, Jean M; Mulelu, Andani E; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Cyanide dihydratase is an enzyme in the nitrilase family capable of transforming cyanide to formate and ammonia. This reaction has been exploited for the bioremediation of cyanide in wastewater streams, but extending the pH operating range of the enzyme would improve its utility. In this work, we describe mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 cyanide dihydratase (CynD(pum)) with improved activity at higher pH. Error-prone PCR was used to construct a library of CynD(pum) mutants, and a high-throughput screening system was developed to screen the library for improved activity at pH 10. Two mutant alleles were identified that allowed cells to degrade cyanide in solutions at pH 10, whereas the wild-type was inactive above pH 9. The mutant alleles each encoded three different amino acid substitutions, but for one of those, a single change, E327G, accounted for the phenotype. The purified proteins containing multiple mutations were five times more active than the wild-type enzyme at pH 9, but all purified enzymes lost activity at pH 10. The mutation Q86R resulted in the formation of significantly longer fibers at low pH, and both E327G and Q86R contributed to the persistence of active oligomeric assemblies at pH 9. In addition, the mutant enzymes proved to be more thermostable than the wild type, suggesting improved physical stability rather than any change in chemistry accounts for their increased pH tolerance. PMID:21993481

  1. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

  2. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed FA; Kosslick, Hendrik

    2013-12-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant ( k).

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE CYANIDES, TOTAL CYANIDE, AND THIOCYANATE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven methods for the analysis of simple cyanides have been investigated. Included are (1) an ion-exchange procedure, (2) a continuous-flow distillation, (3) and EDTA electrode method, (4) the American Iron and Steel Institute aeration method, (5) an EDTA aeration method, (6) the...

  4. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  5. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  6. Alternative routes of enzymic cyanide metabolism in Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764.

    PubMed

    Kunz, D A; Wang, C S; Chen, J L

    1994-07-01

    Cell-free extracts from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 catalysed the degradation of cyanide into products that included CO2, formic acid, formamide and ammonia. Cyanide-degrading activity (CDA) was localized to cytosolic cell fractions and was observed at substrate concentrations as high as 100 mM (2600 mg CN-I-1). At least two different CDAs could be distinguished by: (i) the determination of reaction product stoichiometries, (ii) requirements for NADH and oxygen, and (iii) kinetic analysis. The first activity produced CO2 and NH3 as reaction products, was dependent on oxygen and NADH for activity, and displayed an apparent Km for cyanide of 1.2 mM. The second activity generated formic acid (and NH3) plus formamide as reaction products, was oxygen independent, and had an apparent Km of 12 mM for cyanide. The first enzymic activity was identified as cyanide oxygenase as previously described [Harris, R. E. & Knowles, C. J. (1983) FEMS Microbiol Lett 20, 337-341] whereas the second activity is believed to consist of two enzymes, a cyanide nitrilase (dihydratase) and hydratase (EC 4.2.1.66). In addition to these enzymes, cyanide-grown cells were also induced for formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) thereby providing a means of recycling NADH utilized by cyanide oxygenase. A mutant strain having lost the ability to grow on cyanide as a nitrogen source was isolated and shown to be defective in cyanide oxygenase, but not the cyanide nitrilase/hydratase enzymes. This finding together with results showing that the substrate affinity of cyanide oxygenase was tenfold greater than for the nitrilase/hydratase enzymes, indicates that it is this enzyme that is most important in cyanide assimilation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075806

  7. Terrorism involving cyanide: the prospect of improving preparedness in the prehospital setting.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2006-01-01

    The potential for domestic or international terrorism involving cyanide has not diminished and in fact may have increased in recent years. This paper discusses cyanide as a terrorist weapon and the current state of readiness for a cyanide attack in the United States. Many of the factors that render cyanide appealing to terrorists are difficult to modify sufficiently to decrease the probability of a cyanide attack. For example, the relative ease with which cyanide can be used as a weapon without special training, its versatile means of delivery to intended victims, and to a large degree, its ready availability cannot be significantly modified through preparedness efforts. On the other hand, the impact of an attack can be mitigated through preparedness measures designed to minimize the physical, psychological, and social consequences of cyanide exposure. Although the nation remains ill-equipped to manage a cyanide disaster, significant progress is being realized in some aspects of preparedness. Hydroxocobalamin-a cyanide antidote that may be appropriate for use in the prehospital setting for presumptive cases of cyanide poisoning-currently is under development for potential introduction in the US. If it becomes available in the US, hydroxocobalamin could enhance the role of the prehospital emergency responder in providing care to victims of a cyanide disaster. Additional progress is required in the areas of ensuring local and regional availability of antidotal treatment and supportive interventions, educating emergency healthcare providers about cyanide poisoning and its management, and raising public awareness of the potential for a cyanide attack and how to respond. PMID:16771013

  8. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  9. Cell-free extract(s) of Pseudomonas putida catalyzes the conversion of cyanides, cyanates, thiocyanates, formamide, and cyanide-containing mine waters into ammonia.

    PubMed

    Babu, G R; Vijaya, O K; Ross, V L; Wolfram, J H; Chapatwala, K D

    1996-03-01

    Our isolate, Pseudomonas putida, is known to be capable of utilizing cyanides as the sole source of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) both in the form of free cells and cells immobilized in calcium alginate. In the present study, the cell-free extract(s) were prepared from the cells of P. putida grown in the presence of sodium cyanide. The ability of enzyme(s) to convert cyanides, cyanates, thiocyanates, formamide and cyanide-containing mine waters into ammonia (NH3) was studied at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5. The kinetic analysis of cyanide and formamide conversion into NH3 at pH 7.5 and pH 9.5 by the cell-free extract(s) of P. putida was also studied. The Km and Vmax values for cyanide/formamide were found to be 4.3/8 mM and 142/227 mumol NH3 released mg protein-1 min-1 respectively at pH 7.5 and 5/16.67 mM and 181/434 mumol NH3 released mg protein-1 h-1 respectively at pH 9.5. The study thus concludes that the cell-free extract(s) of P. putida is able to metabolize not only cyanides, cyanates, thiocyanates, and formamide but also cyanide-containing mine waters to NH3. PMID:8920201

  10. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32?gL(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p?cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20mgL(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ?3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution. PMID:25467414

  11. Moebius Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... want to miss it! View Buy MSF Apparel Online! T-shirts, long sleeve t-shirts and hoodies now available! All proceeds benefit the Moebius Syndrome Foundation. Click here to start shopping. What is Moebius syndrome? Moebius syndrome is a ...

  12. Foundation at Visitor Center

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows workers creating the foundation for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The new facility, funded by the Recovery Act, will replace a building that has developed and exposed some serious health and safety problems, including asbestos, extensive rodent encroachment, water leakage, ...

  13. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and

  14. The Broad Foundations, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was

  15. Foundations of Biomolecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Kaplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for “Development of Multiscale Models for Complex Chemical Systems”. The honored work from the 1970s has provided a foundation for the widespread activities today in modeling organic and biomolecular systems. PMID:24315087

  16. Carcinoid Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Facebook Twitter YouTube RSS JOIN OUR MAILING LIST Search Home About About The Foundation Our Founder Mission Statement Board Members Medical ... patients in the future. (Click on the words YouTube in the bottom right of the video to ...

  17. Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

  18. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 253-8690 info@curesarcoma.org Follow @CureSarcoma on Twitter 10h Please check out the new issue of ... to the extent permitted by law. Facebook Google+ Twitter LinkedIn YouTube © 2016 Sarcoma Foundation of America | All ...

  19. Foundations/History/Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 20 syllabi for courses on educational foundations, history, and philosophy are discussed, and five sample syllabi are presented. These courses are offered as part of graduate level studies in the field of higher education administration. The review revealed the following profile: the history of higher education…

  20. Si cleaning method without surface morphology change by cyanide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masao; Liu, Yueh-Ling; Narita, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2008-04-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) aqueous solutions can remove copper contaminants from Si surfaces more effectively than hydrochloric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (HPM) and sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM). When pH of the HCN solutions is adjusted at 9, Si surface morphology is not changed, while when pH exceeds 10, the Si surfaces are considerably roughed. AFM measurements show that Cu contaminants are present in the form of particles on the bare Si surfaces. XPS measurements show that the particles consist of metallic Cu. The Cu particle height decreases almost linearly with the cleaning time, and the Cu surface concentration decreases exponentially with it. It is concluded that Cu particles gradually dissolve into the HCN aqueous solutions by the direct reaction with cyanide ions at the surface of the Cu particles.

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide in the hydrocyclone cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dhamo, N.

    1996-12-31

    A diluted electroplating cyanide rinse water has been used to test the use of the hydrocyclone cell (HCC) in batch recycle mode of operation for the simultaneous oxidation of cyanide during the electrodeposition of silver. The results obtained in this work with regard to the final products, current efficiency and the number of transferred electrons per CN{sup {minus}} helped to establish a probable reaction scheme. According to this, the process occurs mainly with one-electron transfer, through cyanate and cyanogen as intermediate species. Meanwhile, under conditions where the electrolyte circulates in an open bath and flows successively through the cathodic and the anodic compartments, as in the case of the HCC system, the cyanate could be produced by the direct oxidation through air and/or generated peroxide and CN could be lost as HCN (g).

  2. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  3. Biodegradation of cyanide by a white rot fungus, Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Cabuk, Ahmet; Unal, Arzu Taspinar; Kolankaya, Nazif

    2006-08-01

    The cyanide degradation abilities of three white rot fungi, Trametes versicolor ATCC 200801, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 496 and Pleurotus sajor-caju, were examined. T. versicolor was the most effective with 0.35 g dry cell/100 ml degrading 2 mM KCN (130 mg/l) over 42 h, at 30 degrees C, pH 10.5 with stirring at 150 rpm. PMID:16802095

  4. Cyanide recycling using strong-base ion-exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Versiane Albis; Ciminelli, Virgnia S. T.; Costa, Renato De Souza

    1998-10-01

    Among the techniques available to recover cyanide and metal cyanocomplexes from diluted streams, ion-exchange resins seem attractive because of the possibility of treating either pulps or clear solutions with this process. This article discusses the results of adsorption and elution of metal cyanocomplexes obtained with industrial effluents and selected data from the literature. The behavior of iron and copper cyanocomplexes during elution is emphasized.

  5. The Millimeterwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordu, Matthias H.; Mller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Nez, Marc Nu; Walters, Adam

    2011-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of n-butyl cyanide (C_4H_9CN) was measured between 75 and 130 GHz using a novel all-solid-state spectrometer with a total absorption path of 44 m. In the course of the analysis of the spectrum, about 3000 transitions were assigned and a full set of quartic centrifugal distortion parameters with some sextic and octic terms could be determined for each of the three known conformers (anti-anti, anti-gauche(methyl end) and gauche(CN end)-anti). The work was motivated by the fact that n-butyl cyanide is likely to be found in interstellar hot core environments. This is indicated by the discovery of n-propyl cyanide (C_3H_7CN), the next smaller alkyl cyanide, in the ISM. The increased accuracy of the model, which will be additionally extended by future laboratory measurements around 200 GHz, may now be employed for a prediction of the spectrum up to 300 GHz with a feasible uncertainty for astronomic line surveys. Furthermore, there are two less abundant conformers, cis-gauche-gauche and trans-gauche-gauche, which have not yet been detected in the rotational spectrum. Due to the increased sensitivity of the new spectrometer, it seems possible now for the first time to identify their sectroscopic fingerprints in the recorded data. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P.Mller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke, Astronomy & Astrophysics 499, 215 (2009) R. K. Bohn, J. L. Pardus, J. August, T. Brupbacher, W. Jger, J. Mol. Struct. 413-414, 293 (1997)

  6. Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company`s (WHC`s) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described.

  7. A Series of Cyanide-Bridged Binuclear Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Michael T.; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T.; Popescu, Codrina V.; Gasda, Patrick; Yap, Glenn P. A.

    2009-01-01

    A series of cyanide-bridged binuclear complexes, (S3)NiCNM[TptBu] (S3 = bis(2-mercaptophenyl)sulfide, TptBu = hydrotris(3-tert-butylpyrazolyl)borate, M = Fe (2-Fe), Co (2-Co), Ni (2-Ni), Zn (2-Zn)) was prepared by the coupling of K[(S3)Ni(CN)] with [TptBu]MX. The isostructural series of complexes was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. A similar coupling strategy was used to synthesize the anionic copper(I) analogue, Et4N{(S3)NiCNCu[TptBu]}, 2-Cu. An alternative synthesis was devised for the preparation of the linkages isomers of 2-Zn, i.e. of cyanide-bridged linkage isomers. X-ray diffraction, 13C NMR and IR spectral studies established that isomerization to the more stable NiCNZn isomer occurs. DFT computational results buttressed the experimental observations indicating that the cyanide-bridged isomer is ca. 5 kcal/mol more stable than its linkage isomer. PMID:20161111

  8. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  9. Cyanide-induced hyperthyroidism in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Adeniyi Temadiyo; Adekilekun, Tijani Ahmad; Adewale, Musa Adbus-Semiu; Adekemi, Abayomi Taiwo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cyanide is one of the major environmental pollutants termed thyroid disruptor. Regardless of its origin, it is a primary toxic agent. This study was designed to understand the impact of prolonged low dose cyanide exposure on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods: Twelve F1 male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into two groups of six animals each. The first group served as the control group and received 0.25M sucrose while the second group being the treated group received 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) potassium hexacyanoferrate III solution. The treatment duration was 56 days following which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were drawn to determine serum FT3, FT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The thyroid gland was also excised and processed for light microscopic studies. Result: An increase in serum FT3 and FT4 with decrease serum TSH was obtained in the treated group. Application of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis showed that there were highly significant differences (P < 0.05) in the activities of FT3, FT4 and TSH when compared with those of the control group. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland from the treated group revealed marked epithelial hyperplasia with cellular degeneration and scanty cytoplasm while the control group revealed normal thyroid architecture. Conclusion: Results obtained revealed that hyperthyroidism was induced by cyanide. PMID:25013258

  10. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism. PMID:25766371

  11. Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

  12. Biological treatment of gold ore cyanidation wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Dictor, M C; Battaglia-Brunet, F; Morin, D; Bories, A; Clarens, M

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of a cyanidation effluent containing thiocyanate, free cyanide, and complexed cyanide was continuously performed for a period of 6 months. Activated carbon, pozzolana, and a mixture of pumice stone and zeolite were tested as supports in fixed bed reactors. Activated carbon adsorbed the different forms of cyanide. In contrast, the other supports did not remove any pollutants from the effluent during an adsorption experiment. All supports successfully allowed fixation of bacteria. More than 90% of the thiocyanate was biologically decomposed into NH4+, CO2 and SO4(2-), even when increasing the feed flow-rate and the pollutant concentrations. Free and complexed cyanides were eliminated, probably through a combination of precipitation and biological degradation. The oxidation of ammonium into nitrate was only performed by the activated carbon-containing column and with the more diluted feeding. The nitrification process was inhibited in all reactors when the cyanide concentrations and feed flow-rates were increased. PMID:15093367

  13. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  14. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  15. Draft whole genome sequence of the cyanide-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Acera, Felipe; Igeño, Ma Isabel; Wibberg, Daniel; Roldán, Ma Dolores; Sáez, Lara P; Hennig, Magdalena; Quesada, Alberto; Huertas, Ma José; Blom, Jochen; Merchán, Faustino; Escribano, Ma Paz; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Estepa, Jessica; Guijo, Ma Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Macías, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Becerra, Gracia; Ramirez, Silvia; Carmona, Ma Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oscar; Manso, Isabel; Pühler, Alfred; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Schlüter, Andreas; Blasco, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a Gram-negative bacterium able to tolerate cyanide and to use it as the sole nitrogen source. We report here the first draft of the whole genome sequence of a P. pseudoalcaligenes strain that assimilates cyanide. Three aspects are specially emphasized in this manuscript. First, some generalities of the genome are shown and discussed in the context of other Pseudomonadaceae genomes, including genome size, G + C content, core genome and singletons among other features. Second, the genome is analysed in the context of cyanide metabolism, describing genes probably involved in cyanide assimilation, like those encoding nitrilases, and genes related to cyanide resistance, like the cio genes encoding the cyanide insensitive oxidases. Finally, the presence of genes probably involved in other processes with a great biotechnological potential like production of bioplastics and biodegradation of pollutants also is discussed. PMID:22998548

  16. Differential mitochondrial electron transport through the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathways in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile, male fertile, and restored petunia. [Petunia parodii L. S. M

    SciTech Connect

    Connett, M.B.; Hanson, M.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydoxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.

  17. A novel stereospecific synthesis of glycosyl cyanides from 1,2-O-sulfinyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Benksim, Abdelhafid; Beaupère, Daniel; Wadouachi, Anne

    2004-10-28

    [reaction: see text] An efficient synthesis of 1,2-trans-glycosyl cyanides via 1,2-O-sulfinyl monosaccharides is described. Such S(N)2-type displacements at the anomeric center are stereospecific and are best performed with sodium cyanide in the presence of ytterbium triflate. Significantly, the resulting 1,2-trans-glycosyl cyanides have a free hydroxyl group at C-2 ready for further modification. PMID:15496062

  18. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  19. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass.more » It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.« less

  20. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  1. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. Thermochemolysis GC-MS studies show that cleavage products of the polymer include alpha-amino acids, nitrogen heterocycles such as purines and pyrimidines, and provide evidence for peptide linkages. Hydrogen cyanide polymers are a plausible link between cosmochemistry and the origin of informational macromolecules. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Following persistent bolide bombardment, primitive Earth may have been covered by water and carbonaceous compounds, particularly HCN polymers which would have supplied essential components for establishing protein/nucleic acid life. PMID:17191459

  2. Bacterial cyanide degradation is under review: Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344, a case of an alkaliphilic cyanotroph.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Victor M; Blasco, Rafael; Martnez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivin, Conrado; Castillo, Francisco; Roldn, M Dolores

    2011-01-01

    There are thousands of areas in the U.S.A. and Europe contaminated with cyanide-containing wastes as a consequence of a large number of industrial activities such as gold mining, steel and aluminium manufacturing, electroplating and nitrile pesticides used in agriculture. Chemical treatments to remove cyanide are expensive and generate other toxic products. By contrast, cyanide biodegradation constitutes an appropriate alternative treatment. In the present review we provide an overview of how cells deal in the presence of the poison cyanide that irreversible binds to metals causing, among other things, iron-deprivation conditions outside the cell and metalloenzymes inhibition inside the cell. In this sense, several systems must be present in a cyanotrophic organism, including a siderophore-based acquisition mechanism, a cyanide-insensitive respiratory system and a cyanide degradation/assimilation pathway. The alkaliphilic autochthonous bacterium Pseudomonas pseudocaligenes CECT5344 presents all these requirements with the production of siderophores, a cyanide-insensitive bd-related cytochrome [Cio (cyanide-insensitive oxidase)] and a cyanide assimilation pathway that generates ammonium, which is further incorporated into organic nitrogen. PMID:21265786

  3. Amygdalin toxicity studies in rats predict chronic cyanide poisoning in humans.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Newton GW; Schmidt ES; Lewis JP; Conn E; Lawrence R

    1981-02-01

    Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels of cyanide in excess of that associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy in people of underdeveloped countries where food containing cyanogenic glycosides is a staple part of the diet.

  4. Physicochemical basis of the ion-exchange separation of gold cyanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, O. N.; Kononov, Yu. S.

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism of the separation of gold cyanide complexes is discussed, along with ion exchanger selection, selectivity, elution, and industrial applications. The ion-exchange mechanism for the sorption of gold cyanide complexes is established, and a criterion is suggested for selecting the anion exchanger for their extraction (specifically, the p K a of the anion exchanger). The selectivity of the sorption of gold cyanide complexes by anion exchangers with rarely distributed ionogenic groups is demonstrated. A procedure for the elution of gold cyanide complexes using alkaline solutions is developed.

  5. Hydrogen cyanide in ambient air near a gold heap leach field: Measured vs. modeled concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orloff, Kenneth G.; Kaplan, Brian; Kowalski, Peter

    To extract gold from low-grade ores, a solution of sodium cyanide is trickled over pads of crushed ore. During this operation, small quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas may escape to the ambient air. To assess these emissions, we collected air samples at monitoring stations located on opposite sides of a gold heap leach field at distances ranging from 1100 to 1500 ft from the center of the field. Hydrogen cyanide was detected in 6 of 18 ambient air samples at concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 1.86 parts per billion (ppb). Ambient air samples collected at residential properties located within 2600 ft of the leach field did not contain detectable concentrations of cyanide (detection level of 0.2 ppb). We used site-specific data and two steady-state air dispersion models, ISCST3 and AERMOD, to predict ambient air concentrations of cyanide at the sampling points. The ISCST3 model over-predicted the measured 8-h concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 2.4, on average, and the AERMOD model under-predicted the air concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 0.76, on average. The major sources of uncertainty in the model predictions were the complex terrain of the area and the uncertainty in the emission rates of cyanide from the leach field. The measured and predicted concentrations of cyanide in the air samples were not at levels that would pose a human health hazard for acute or chronic exposures.

  6. Destruction of cyanide in gold mill effluents: biological versus chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata

    2003-09-01

    In gold mining, cyanide has been the preferred lixiviant worldwide since 1887. Although cyanide can be destroyed and recovered by several processes, it is still widely discussed and examined due to its potential toxicity and environmental impact. Biological treatment of cyanide is a well-established process and has been commercially used at gold mining operations in North America. Biological treatment processes facilitate growth of microorganisms that are essential for the treatment. The present review describes the advances in the use of biological treatment for the destruction of cyanide in gold mill effluents. PMID:14499151

  7. Kinetics and mechanism of ozonation of free cyanide species in water

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, M.D.; Bremen, W.M.

    1985-09-01

    The reaction rates of ozone with free cyanide species were determined by a stopped-flow spectrophotometer in the pH range 2.5-12.0. The direct reaction of molecular ozone and the free radical reactions which contribute to the overall reaction were identified. A reaction mechanism consistent with the observations was proposed. The rate constant for the direct reaction of molecular ozone with cyanide ion was calculated to be 2600 +/- 700 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. Batch and bubble-column experiments indicated stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to cyanate and an ozone consumption of 1.2 +/- 0.2 mol/mol of oxidized cyanide.

  8. Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning with a jewellery-cleaning solution

    PubMed Central

    Coentro, Lus; Neves, Aida; Moura, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion is often severe and lethal among jewellery industry workers. Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin alone in severe acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 50-year-old goldsmith who tried suicide by ingestion of a jewellery cleaner solution containing approximately 1.2 g of potassium cyanide. He presented unconsciousness, with severe lactic acidosis and arteriolisation of venous blood gases. Following hydroxocobalamin treatment, neurologic and metabolic disorders rapidly improved. He was discharged home 4 days later, without neurological sequelae. The case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. PMID:22752701

  9. Amygdalin toxicity studies in rats predict chronic cyanide poisoning in humans.

    PubMed

    Newton, G W; Schmidt, E S; Lewis, J P; Conn, E; Lawrence, R

    1981-02-01

    Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels of cyanide in excess of that associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy in people of underdeveloped countries where food containing cyanogenic glycosides is a staple part of the diet. PMID:7222669

  10. Amygdalin Toxicity Studies in Rats Predict Chronic Cyanide Poisoning in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Newton, George W.; Schmidt, Eric S.; Lewis, Jerry P.; Lawrence, Ruth; Conn, Eric

    1981-01-01

    Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels of cyanide in excess of that associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy in people of underdeveloped countries where food containing cyanogenic glycosides is a staple part of the diet. PMID:7222669

  11. Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for You Have questions? Need support? The CdLS Foundation staff is here to listen and help. Call ... Site Map The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) Foundation is a family support organization that exists to ...

  12. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

    2007-10-01

    Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining industry. Cyanide concentrations below 50 mg/L weak-acid-dissociable (WAD) are deemed safe to wildlife but are considered an interim benchmark for discharge into tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Cyanide is a fast acting poison, and its toxicity is related to the types of cyanide complexes that are present. Cyanide in biota binds to iron, copper and sulfur-containing enzymes and proteins required for oxygen transportation to cells. The accurate determination of cyanide concentrations in the field is difficult to achieve due to sampling techniques and analytical error associated with loss and interferences following collection. The main WAD cyanide complexes in gold mine tailings are stable in the TSF environment but can release cyanide ions under varying environmental conditions including ingestion and absorption by wildlife. Therefore distinction between free, WAD and total cyanide forms in tailings water for regulatory purposes is justified. From an environmental perspective, there is a distinction between ore bodies on the basis of their copper content. For example, wildlife deaths are more likely to occur at mines possessing copper-gold ores due to the formation of copper-cyanide complexes which is toxic to birds and bats. The formation of copper-cyanide complex occurs preferentially to gold cyanide complex indicating the relative importance of economic vs. environmental considerations in the tailings water. Management of cyanide to a perceived threshold has inherent risks since cyanide has a steep toxicity response curve; is difficult to accurately measure in the field; and is likely to vary due to variable copper content of ore bodies and ore blending. Consequently, wildlife interaction needs to be limited to further reduce the risks. A gap in knowledge exists to design or manage cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions to render such facilities unattractive to at-risk wildlife species. This gap may be overcome by understanding the wildlife behaviour and habitat usage of cyanide-bearing solutions. PMID:17540445

  13. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as

  14. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  15. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  16. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

  17. Foundation fieldbus economics comparison

    PubMed

    Verhappen

    2000-01-01

    This paper will provide a life cycle cost comparison between installations of three different control system configurations. 1. Conventional analogue instruments. 2. HART protocol instruments with a parallel asset management system. 3. Foundation fieldbus installation. Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and ongoing maintenance costs will be included as part of the analysis. Data for the analysis includes equipment from multiple manufacturers so a range of expected expenses will also be provided to indicate the sensitivity of the economic calculations to supplier. All calculations will be based on the median equipment values. PMID:10871221

  18. Cyanogenesis in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen. PMID:16667728

  19. FOUNDATION PAPER FOR THE PLANT OIL FLAGSHIP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last century we have become dependent on fossil fuels not just as an energy source for transportation and heating but also for the provision of industrial feedstocks for a multitude of products that we use in every aspect of our daily lives. Fossil fuels are a finite resource and as this re...

  20. Valence-differential spectroscopy of Co-Fe cyanide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Y.; Nakada, F.; Kurihara, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Electrochromism is extensively investigated for practical application of display and memory devices. To develop the material, reliable information on the optical and electronic properties of the solid film is indispensable. Here, we propose valence-differential spectroscopy that can selectively extract the spectral components related to the oxidized/reduced metal site. We applied the spectroscopy to Co2+-Fe2+? and Co2+?-Fe2+ cyanide films with finely control of averaged valence (?) of the transition metal by external electric pulses. The spectroscopy revealed transition energy E, width ?, and oscillator strength f of the spectral components related to the transition metal.

  1. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE REMAINS OF THREE TEN FOOT DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS ARE AT CENTER. THE SCATTER IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND IS THE REMAINS OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR HOLDING TANK POSSIBLY A SETTLING TANK. THIS AREA WAS MOST LIKELY CONSTRUCTED LATER IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AFTER MINING HAD CEASED AND ONLY TAILINGS WERE BEING RECLAIMED. AN EXACT DATE CANNOT BE DETERMINED HOWEVER THESE WORKS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT. THE SANDY AREA THAT OCCUPIES THE FOREGROUND AND THE CENTER ARE TAILINGS. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. [A method of cleaning overalls contaminated with sodium cyanide].

    PubMed

    Beliakov, A A; Mironov, L A

    1990-01-01

    The contributors propose a new technique of cleaning overalls in galvanic shops from crystalline natrium cyanide (NC) and alkaline solutions. The technique includes washing in hot 0.05% syntamide-5 solution for 4-5 min., double rinsing and centrifuging. The remaining quantity of NC on washed overalls does not exceed 0.02 mg/m2 (evaluated in hydrocyanic acid). Subsequent contaminations of the overalls with NC do not entail the accumulation of NC residual content. The physical and chemical characteristics of this type of overall washing are more preferable as compared to those attained through soaking in ferric sulfate solution. PMID:2161780

  4. Reactive photonic film for label-free and selective sensing of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuesong; Peng, Lihua; Cui, Jiecheng; Li, Weina; Lin, Changxu; Xu, Dan; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing; Li, Guangtao

    2012-02-20

    Three-dimensional ordered inverse-opal films bearing a reactive trifluoroacetyl group are successfully constructed. Through the specific reaction between cyanide and trifluoroacetyl, the photonic films can selectively detect sub-micromolar levels of cyanide by distinct structural color change. Labeled molecules are not necessary for the sensing mechanism. PMID:22282395

  5. PEPTIDE FORMATION MEDIATED BY HYDROGEN CYANIDE TETRAMER: A POSSIBLE PREBIOTIC PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sherwood; Flores, Jose; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1969-01-01

    Chemical evolution on the primitive earth must have involved condensation of ?-amino acids to peptides. Under aqueous conditions consistent with current conceptions of primordial waters, heating glycerine with the hydrogen cyanide tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile, yields dipeptide. If nitrogen was cycled through primordial waters as cyanide, peptide synthesis by stepwise tetramer-mediated condensation of ?-amino acids would have been a plausible process. PMID:5264133

  6. Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

    1993-01-01

    A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

  7. ZINC SLUDGE RECYCLING AFTER KASTONE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE-BEARING RINSE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of reclaiming sludge. The sludge was produced by the destruction of cyanide by Kastone in zinc-cyanide dragout rinse water. The clear supernatant was discharged to the municipal sewer and the sludge eventually recycle...

  8. Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, G.E.

    1996-02-01

    Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

  9. Simultaneous degradation of cyanide and phenol in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Mishra, Ram Sushil; Jadhav, Shilpa V; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, T

    2011-07-01

    Coal coking, precious metals mining and nitrile polymer industries generate over several billion liters of cyanide-containing waste annually. Economic and environmental considerations make biological technologies attractive for treatment of wastes containing high organic content, in which the microbial cultures can remove concentrations of organics and cyanide simultaneously. For cyanide and phenol bearing waste treatment, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor has been developed, which successfully removed free cyanide 98% (with feed concentration of 20 mg 1(-1)) in presence of phenol. The effect of cyanide on phenol degradation was studied with varying concentrations of phenol as well as cyanide under anaerobic conditions. This study revealed that the methanogenic degradation of phenol can occur in the presence of cyanide concentration 30-38 mg 1(-1). Higher cyanide concentration inhibited the phenol degradation rate. The inhibition constant Ki was found to be 38 mg 1(-1) with phenol removal rate of 9.09 mg 1(-1.) x h. PMID:23029928

  10. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495

  11. The cyanide hydratase from Neurospora crassa forms a helix which has a dimeric repeat.

    PubMed

    Dent, Kyle C; Weber, Brandon W; Benedik, Michael J; Sewell, B Trevor

    2009-02-01

    The fungal cyanide hydratases form a functionally specialized subset of the nitrilases which catalyze the hydrolysis of cyanide to formamide with high specificity. These hold great promise for the bioremediation of cyanide wastes. The low resolution (3.0 nm) three-dimensional reconstruction of negatively stained recombinant cyanide hydratase fibers from the saprophytic fungus Neurospora crassa by iterative helical real space reconstruction reveals that enzyme fibers display left-handed D(1) S(5.4) symmetry with a helical rise of 1.36 nm. This arrangement differs from previously characterized microbial nitrilases which demonstrate a structure built along similar principles but with a reduced helical twist. The cyanide hydratase assembly is stabilized by two dyadic interactions between dimers across the one-start helical groove. Docking of a homology-derived atomic model into the experimentally determined negative stain envelope suggests the location of charged residues which may form salt bridges and stabilize the helix. PMID:18946669

  12. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  13. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  14. Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2015-02-26

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ?1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  15. Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

    2012-09-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 μg cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 μg cyanide/g and 200 μg amygdalin/g. PMID:22564183

  16. Foundations of Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy

    The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

  17. Biodegradation of cyanide by acetonitrile-induced cells of Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Ibrahim, Abdul Latif; Cass, Anthony E G

    2013-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M isolate was shown to detoxify cyanide successfully, suggesting the presence of an intrinsic property in the bacterium which required no prior cyanide exposure for induction of this property. However, in order to promote growth, Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M was fully acclimatized to cyanide after 7 successive subcultures in 0.1 mM KCN for 30 days. To further shorten the lag phase and simultaneously increase the tolerance towards higher cyanide concentrations, the bacterium was induced with various nitrile compounds sharing a similar degradatory pathway to cyanide. Acetonitrile emerged as the most favored inducer and the induced cells were able to degrade 0.1 mM KCN almost completely within 18 h. With the addition of subsequent aliquots of 0.1 mM KCN a shorter period for complete removal of cyanide was required, which proved to be advantageous economically. Both resting cells and crude enzyme of Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M were able to biodegrade cyanide to ammonia and formate without the formation of formamide, implying the identification of a simple hydrolytic cyanide degradation pathway involving the enzyme cyanidase. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Since the recent advancement in the application of biological methods in treating cyanide-bearing wastewater has been promising, the discovery of this new bacterium will add value by diversifying the existing microbial populations capable of cyanide detoxification. PMID:24492598

  18. Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L; Whelan, H T; Eells, J T; Meng, H; Buchmann, E; Lerch-Gaggl, A; Wong-Riley, M

    2006-05-12

    Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously. PMID:16464535

  19. Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M.; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R.; Bigby, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, since current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. Objective We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide, the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B12), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cobinamide has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. Materials and Methods We studied cobinamide in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. Results We found cobinamide more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over two minutes. In range finding studies, cobinamide sulfite at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. Discussion and Conclusion These studies demonstrate that cobinamide is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as cobinamide sulfite. Based on these animal data cobinamide sulfite appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties. PMID:20704457

  20. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). PMID:25692407

  1. Hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria kill subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) by cyanide poisoning under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Kanchana; Seth, Nidhi; Kothamasi, Shalini; Kothamasi, David

    2007-01-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus is an important pest of the Indian subcontinent, causing extensive damage to major agricultural crops and forest plantation trees. Control of termites by strategies employing their parasites has limitations because they have evolved a complex social structure, immune responses, and adaptive behavior toward pathogen-infected individuals. Nonparasitic rhizobacteria that produce harmful metabolites might facilitate the biocontrol of termites. In the present investigation, three different species of hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria were tested for their potential to kill O. obesus. The three bacterial species were found to be effective in killing the termites under in vitro conditions. PMID:17171461

  2. Biological properties of extremely acidic cyanide-laced mining waste.

    PubMed

    Feketeová, Zuzana; Sládkovičová, Veronika Hulejová; Mangová, Barbara; Pogányová, Andrea; Šimkovic, Ivan; Krumpál, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    With respect to acidic, cyanide-laced tailings, the data about in situ toxicity and biological activity in highly polluted environment are often lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial characteristics, composition of oribatid mite species, and level of genotoxic impact on plants in the area of inactive tailings pond (Horná Ves, Kremnica region). Sampling of the tailings, soils and selected plant species was carried out in spring of 2012. Trace element analysis (inductively coupled plasma emission and mass spectrometry) showed that concentration of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the tailings is approximately in thousands of ppm (mg kg(-1)). Amount of lead exceeded 16,000 mg kg(-1), which is perceived as the biggest threat with respect to possible toxicity. The risk is accentuated by extremely acidic pH of the tailings material which approached 2. In such conditions great mobility of (divalent) heavy metal cations is expected. The total cyanide concentration in the tailings was 472 mg kg(-1). Results of performed tests and measurements suggest that microbial activity at the tailings site (and its close environment) is hampered markedly. In the sludge material we detected low abundance of soil bacteria (2.08 × 10(4) CFU) and predominance of slowly growing K-strategists. On the other hand, the content of microbial C in the sludge sample was not too low, considering its extreme acidity and high amount of risk elements. In the same sample, just one mite species, Oppiella (O.) uliginosa (Willmann 1919), was identified. Also in case of the dam site the abundance of mites was considerably lower in comparison to reference sample. Values of Oribatida abundance were in positive correlation with values of microbial biomass carbon. Results of the pollen grain abortivity test, applied in situ on chosen plant species, indicated substantial presence of genotoxicity in the environment. Total induction index of tailings pond reached 3.59(±2.4) which expresses also total load of locality, comparing to natural biotope. In case of the technogenic sediment, the value was more than three times higher. PMID:26547873

  3. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN).

  4. Washout kinetics of inhaled hydrogen cyanide in breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Nord, Pierre; Johanson, Gunnar

    2008-06-10

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) intoxication causes or contributes significantly to many of the fatalities among fire victims. To enable fast treatment of HCN poisoning, a more rapid diagnostic method than currently available is required. One possibility would be measurement in exhaled air. However, as HCN is highly water soluble, it may be absorbed during inhalation and reabsorbed during exhalation. If this, so-called, washin-washout effect is substantial it may interfere with the diagnosis, as a major part of breath HCN may originate from the respiratory tract, due to recent exposure, and not from systemic exposure. The aim of this study was to estimate the importance of the washin-washout effect of HCN. The time-course of cyanide in exhaled air was measured with an electrochemical detector in 10 volunteers during and after a 1 min x 10 ppm exposure to HCN. The experiment revealed an average half-life of 16s (range 10-24s) in breath. Extrapolating the results to higher exposures suggests that the contribution from washin-washout from the airways will be negligible even at fatal exposures. The results support the use of breath HCN as a potential indicator of systemic intoxication. PMID:18490114

  5. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN- anion over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SCN- and ClO4- by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN- in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN- is down to 8.8 × 10-8 M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9 × 10-6 M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN- test kit to detect CN- in pure water for “in-the-field” measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  6. Treatment of cyanide containing wastewater using cavitation based approach.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Rajashree H; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2014-07-01

    Industrial wastewater streams containing high concentrations of biorefractory materials like cyanides should ideally be treated at source. In the present work, degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) as a model pollutant has been investigated using cavitational reactors with possible intensification studies using different approaches. Effect of different operating parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH on the extent of degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated. For the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, flow characteristics of cavitating device (venturi) have been established initially followed by the effect of inlet pressure and pH on the extent of degradation. Under the optimized set of operating parameters, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of K4Fe(CN)6:H2O2 varied from 1:1 to 1:30 mol basis) as process intensifying approach has been investigated. The present work has conclusively established that under the set of optimized operating parameters, cavitation can be effectively used for degradation of potassium ferrocyanide. The comparative study of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy efficient and gives higher degradation as compared to acoustic cavitation for equivalent power/energy dissipation. The present work is the first one to report comparison of cavitation based treatment schemes for degradation of cyanide containing wastewaters. PMID:24529614

  7. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinek; Stres, Bla

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. PMID:23726700

  8. The toxicokinetics of cyanide and mandelonitrile in the horse and their relevance to the mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, Levent; Hughes, Charlie; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; Bosken, Jeff; Lehner, Fritz; Troppmann, Amy; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Sebastian, Manu M; Harrison, Lenn; Crutchfield, James; Baskin, Steven I; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiological association between black cherry trees and mare reproductive loss syndrome has focused attention on cyanide and environmental cyanogens. This article describes the toxicokinetics of cyanide in horses and the relationships between blood cyanide concentrations and potentially adverse responses to cyanide. To identify safe and humane blood concentration limits for cyanide experiments, mares were infused with increasing doses (1-12 mg/min) of sodium cyanide for 1 h. Infusion at 12 mg/min produced clinical signs of cyanide toxicity at 38 min; these signs included increased heart rate, weakness, lack of coordination, loss of muscle tone, and respiratory and behavioral distress. Peak blood cyanide concentrations were about 2500 ng/mL; the clinical and biochemical signs of distress reversed when infusion stopped. Four horses were infused with 1 mg/min of sodium cyanide for 1 h to evaluate the distribution and elimination kinetics of cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations peaked at 1160 ng/mL and then declined rapidly, suggesting a two-compartment, open model. The distribution (alpha) phase half-life was 0.74 h, the terminal (beta phase) half-life was 16.16 h. The mean residence time was 12.4 h, the steady-state volume of distribution was 2.21 L/kg, and the mean systemic clearance was 0.182 L/h/kg. Partitioning studies showed that blood cyanide was about 98.5% associated with the red cell fraction. No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these infusion experiments. Mandelonitrile was next administered orally at 3 mg/kg to four horses. Cyanide was rapidly available from the orally administered mandelonitrile and the C max blood concentration of 1857 ng/mL was observed at 3 min after dosing; thereafter, blood cyanide again declined rapidly, reaching 100 ng/mL by 4 h postadministration. The mean oral bioavailability of cyanide from mandelonitrile was 57% +/- 6.5 (SEM), and its apparent terminal half-life was 13 h +/- 3 (SEM). No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these experiments. These data show that during acute exposure to higher doses of cyanide (~600 mg/horse; 2500 ng/mL of cyanide in blood), redistribution of cyanide rapidly terminated the acute toxic responses. Similarly, mandelonitrile rapidly delivered its cyanide content, and acute cyanide intoxications following mandelonitrile administration can also be terminated by redistribution. Rapid termination of cyanide intoxication by redistribution is consistent with and explains many of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of acute, high-dose cyanide toxicity. On the other hand, at lower concentrations (<100 ng/mL in blood), metabolic transformation of cyanide is likely the dominant mechanism of termination of action. This process is slow, with terminal half-lives ranging from 12-16 hours. The large volume of distribution and the long terminal-phase-elimination half-life of cyanide suggest different mechanisms for toxicities and termination of toxicities associated with low-level exposure to cyanide. If environmental exposure to cyanide is a factor in the cause of MRLS, then it is likely in the more subtle effects of low concentrations of cyanide on specific metabolic processes that the associations will be found. PMID:20021160

  9. Temperature Dependence of Henrys Law Constant for Hydrogen Cyanide. Generation of Trace Standard Gaseous Hydrogen Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henrys Law constant (KH, M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.000.03 at 296.60.1 K) from 287311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The KH of HCN may be expressed as ln KH (M/atm) = (8205.7341.9)/T ? (25.3231.144); r2 = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted. PMID:20302333

  10. Host-Plant Selectivity of Rhizobacteria in a Crop/Weed Model System

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Simon L.; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

  11. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

  12. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful

  13. Turning the ‘Mustard Oil Bomb’ into a ‘Cyanide Bomb’: Aromatic Glucosinolate Metabolism in a Specialist Insect Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, Einar J.; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as ‘coevolutionary armsrace’. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

  14. Ford Foundation Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ford Foundation is sponsoring 40 three-year predoctoral fellowships and 10 one-year dissertation fellowships for minorities for 1987. The predoctoral fellowships include an annual stipend of $10,000 and an annual grant of $6000 to the fellow's institution in lieu of tuition and fees. Dissertation Fellows will receive a stipend of $18,000 and no institutional grant.The program is designed to increase the presence of under represented minorities in the nation's college and university faculties. The minority groups to be considered under this program are: American Indians, Alaskan Natives (Eskimo or Aleut), Black Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. The competition is open to any U.S. citizen who is a member of one of these groups, who is a beginning graduate student or is within 1 year of completing the dissertation, and who expects to work toward a Ph.D. or Sc.D. degree. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and biological sciences. The National Research Council, which is administering the fellowships, can provide more information on which fields of study are and are not eligible for this program.

  15. South Asian Physics Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfelder, Jessica; Ramachandran, Vidhya

    2011-04-01

    The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in a South Asian country other than that of their university or citizenship. During the program's first year we funded one student from Bangladesh to attend a conference in India, and during it's second year we funded eight students to attend two different conferences. Our expanding activities underscore a need for facilitating such exchanges in developing regions of the world. We discuss issues related to offering this type of program as well as the challenges and satisfactions of implementing programs that foster regional scientific cooperation. We also solicit suggestions and ideas for further developing and broadening our activities. SAPF's website is www.southasianphysicsfoundation.org.

  16. Scale-up study of a multiphase photocatalytic reactor--degradation of cyanide in water over TiO2.

    PubMed

    Motegh, Mahsa; van Ommen, J Ruud; Appel, Peter W; Kreutzer, Michiel T

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an integrated view on various aspects of reactor design for photocatalytic reactions and presents a scale-up study of photocatalytic reactors. This study focuses on degrading organic pollutants in the effluent of an integrated gasification coal combustion plant over TiO2, with the target of degrading cyanide to below its allowable emission threshold set by European legislation. Here, we show the interplay of different efficiencies that affect the overall apparent photonic efficiency and the reactor volume required to achieve a certain objective in conversion. The chosen reactor configuration is rectangular slurry-bubble-columns-in-series to ensure a good mass transfer rate per photoreactor while approaching plug-flow behavior as a sum, and a high reactor surface-area-to-volume ratio for a good capture of incident photons. We consider a simple 1D photonic description of a photoreactor, in the direction of incident solar light, and implement a bidirectional scattering model for photocatalytic particles and bubbles to calculate the local rate of photon absorption and the photon absorption efficiency in the photoreactor. We show that, implementing the principles of process intensification, the large scale degradation of cyanide to below European emission limits is achievable. PMID:24359022

  17. Toxicity and degradation of metal-complexed cyanide by a bacterial consortium under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhe-Xue; Bae, Jin-Woo; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Cho, Yong-Gyun; Lee, Sung-Taik

    2004-06-01

    Free cyanide at 1 mm decreased the initial sulfate reduction rate of a batch culture of granular sludge from 0.3 to 0.14 mmol d(-1) g(-1) SS (suspended solid), whereas 0.5 mm cyanide had a minimal effect (0.25 mmol d(-1) g(-1) SS). The order of toxicity of metal-complexed cyanides to the sludge was as follows: zinc-complexed cyanide (most toxic) > free cyanide = nickel-complexed cyanide > copper-complexed cyanide (least toxic), which also corresponds well with the order of the stability (dissociation) constants of the metal-cyanide complexes. A consortium degrading cyanide was enriched using nickel cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. This consortium completely removed 0.5 mm of nickel-complexed cyanide under sulfate-reducing conditions in 11 d. Analysis of clone library of 16S rRNA genes shows that the consortium was composed of three major phylotypes including Desulfovibrio. PMID:15269528

  18. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin.

    PubMed

    Arrhenius, T; Arrhenius, G; Paplawsky, W

    1994-02-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to form ferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperature (approximately 0 degrees C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolonitrile and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives. PMID:11536656

  19. Indirect determination of cyanide compounds by ion chromatography with conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Nonomura, M.

    1987-09-01

    Ion chromatography (IC) is a suitable analytical technique for the determination of anions. The cyanide is not detected by the conductivity detector of the ion chromatograph due to its low dissolution constant (pK = 9.2). This paper describes an IC procedure for the determination of free cyanide and metal cyanide complexes that uses a conductivity detector. It is based on the oxidation of cyanide ion by sodium hypochlorite to cyanate ion (pK = 3.66). Therefore, cyanide ion can now be measured indirectly by the conductivity detector. In this procedure, optimum operating conditions were examined. In addition, the interferences from anions and reducing agents were investigated. The method was applied to the determination of metal cyanide complexes. The coefficients of variation (%) for CN/sup -/ (1.05 mg/L), Zn(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.80 mg/L), and Ni(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.96 mg/L) were 1.1%, 1.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. The proposed method proved to be useful for the determination of cyanide compounds in natural water and waste water.

  20. The role of nitrogenase in a cyanide-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, J K; Liu, C H; Lin, C S

    1997-04-01

    It is well known that the major function of nitrogenase is to fix atmospheric nitrogen. However, cyanide can also serve as a subtrate for nitrogenase and can be reduced to CH4 and NH4+. A cyanide-degrading Klebsiella oxytoca strain was isolated from cyanide contaminated water. This isolate was also found to have a nitrogen-fixation capability. Nitrogenase activities in this organism could be induced by KCN. However, there was no significant difference of the induction effect between 1 mM KCN and 5 mM KCN. It was found that the cyanide-degrading ability of this isolate could be inhibited by multicopy hybrid pGR112 nif-containing plasmids. Comparing the wild type K. oxytoca strain with the pGR112 plasmid transformed strain, a typical diauxic growth of the wild type strain was observed in a medium containing NH4Cl and KCN. Although the nif plasmid transformed strain also exhibited diauxic growth in the same medium, a much longer second lag phase was noted. In addition, methane, the nitrogenase reduction end product of cyanide, could be detected on cyanide-containing growth cultures. Ammonium chloride, a repressor of nitrogenase gene expression, was consumed prior to KCN in both strains. Again, the degradation of KCN in the pGR112 transformed strain occurred only under loose control of the nitrogenase gene. These findings strongly suggest that nitrogenase may be the sole cyanide-degrading enzyme in this organism. PMID:9276965

  1. Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt

    SciTech Connect

    Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

  2. Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

  3. Essential Role of Cytochrome bd-Related Oxidase in Cyanide Resistance of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344?

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Alberto; Guijo, M. Isabel; Merchn, Faustino; Blzquez, Blas; Igeo, M. Isabel; Blasco, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 grows in minimal medium containing cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under these conditions, an O2-dependent respiration highly resistant to cyanide was detected in cell extracts. The structural genes for the cyanide-resistant terminal oxidase, cioA and cioB, are clustered and encode the integral membrane proteins that correspond to subunits I and II of classical cytochrome bd, although the presence of heme d in the membrane could not be detected by difference spectra. The cio operon from P. pseudoalcaligenes presents a singular organization, starting upstream of cioAB by the coding sequence of a putative ferredoxin-dependent sulfite or nitrite reductase and spanning downstream two additional open reading frames that encode uncharacterized gene products. PCR amplifications of RNA (reverse transcription-PCR) indicated the cyanide-dependent up-regulation and cotranscription along the operon. The targeted disruption of cioA eliminates both the expression of the cyanide-stimulated respiratory activity and the growth with cyanide as the nitrogen source, which suggests a critical role of this cytochrome bd-related oxidase in the metabolism of cyanide by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344. PMID:17574992

  4. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

    1994-01-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

  5. Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

  6. Depletion of host-derived cyanide in the gut of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Jeffers, P M; Mantella, D

    2002-02-01

    Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 +/- 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found at the tips of growing branches, which the caterpillars preferred, had a significantly higher HCN-p (3032 +/- 258 ppm) than older leaves found at the middle (1542 +/- 243 ppm) or base of the shoot (1131 +/- 159 ppm). Following a bout of overnight feeding on young leaves, the cyanide content of the foregut and midgut boluses of early sixth-instar caterpillars averaged 631 +/- 161 ppm, and 14 +/- 3 ppm, respectively, indicating that host-derived cyanide is rapidly depleted as the bolus transits the gut. Some cyanide, however, remains. In three studies, the mean cyanide content of fresh fecal pellets ranged from approximately 20 to 38 ppm, while the dried, compacted pellets ranged from 63 to 85 ppm. Food in the foreguts of mature caterpillars dispersing over the ground in search of pupation sites had 417 +/- 99 ppm cyanide. The potential impact of this egested and caterpillar-transported cyanide on the consumer and detritivore communities is discussed. PMID:11925066

  7. Nickel-specific, slow-binding inhibition of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Ensign, S.A.; Hyman, M.R.; Ludden, P.W. )

    1989-06-13

    The inhibition of purified carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide was investigated in both the presence and absence of CO and electron acceptor. The inhibition was a time-dependent process exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics under both sets of conditions. The true second-order rate constants for inhibition were 72.2 M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} with both substrates present and 48.9 and 79.5 M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, for the reduced and oxidized enzymes incubated with cyanide. CO partially protected the enzyme against inhibition after 25-min incubation with 100 {mu}M KCN. Dissociation constants of 8.46 {mu}M (KCN) and 4.70 {mu}M (CO) were calculated for the binding of cyanide and CO to the enzyme. Cyanide inhibition was fully reversible under an atmosphere of CO after removal of unbound cyanide. N{sub 2} was unable to reverse the inhibition. The competence of nickel-deficient (apo) CO dehydrogenase to undergo activation by NiCl{sub 2} was unaffected by prior incubation with cyanide. Cyanide inhibition of holo-CO dehydrogenase was not reversed by addition of NiCl{sub 2}. {sup 14}CN{sup {minus}} remained associated with holoenzyme but not with apoenzyme through gel filtration chromatography. These findings suggest that cyanide is a slow-binding, active-site-directed, nickel-specific, reversible inhibitor of CO dehydrogenase. The authors propose that cyanide inhibits CO dehydrogenase by being a analogue of CO and by binding through enzyme-bound nickel.

  8. Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Latif Ibrahim, Abdul; Cass, Anthony E G

    2015-01-01

    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20mM KCN within 80min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant. PMID:25723061

  9. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  10. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  11. Report of the investigation committee into the cyanide poisonings of Providence firefighters.

    PubMed

    Varone, J Curtis; Warren, Thomas N; Jutras, Kevin; Molis, Joseph; Dorsey, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In the afternoon of March 23, 2006 a Providence firefighter was diagnosed as having cyanide poisoning after working at a building fire. In the aftermath of three fires at commercial and residential sites that day, eight additional firefighters (out of 28 tested) were found to have elevated levels of cyanide. Numerous other members reported symptoms consistent with cyanide poisoning, including headaches, weakness and fatigue, nausea, and shortness of breath. The Providence Fire Department (PFD) established a joint union management committee to review the situation. PMID:18375373

  12. Mammal mortality at Arizona, California, and Nevada gold mines using cyanide extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Hothem, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Five-hundred nineteen mammals were reported dead at cyanide-extraction gold mines in Arizona [USA], California, and Nevada from 1984 through 1989. Most numerous were rodents (34.9%) and bats (33.7%); 'bat' was the most often reported category among 24 species or species groups. There are an estimated 160 cyanide-extraction gold mines in these three states, and the number is increasing. Ten mammal species listed as endangered, threatened, rare, protected, or species of special concern are known to have cyanide-extraction gold mines within their geographic ranges.

  13. Metal loaded zeolite adsorbents for hydrogen cyanide removal.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ping; Qiu, Juan; Wang, Xueqian; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Metal (Cu, Co, or Zn) loaded ZSM-5 and Y zeolite adsorbents were prepared for the adsorption of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) toxic gas. The results showed that the HCN breakthrough capacity was enhanced significantly when zeolites were loaded with Cu. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents that influence the HCN adsorption capacity were analyzed. The maximal HCN breakthrough capacities were about the same for both zeolites at 2.2 mol of HCN/mol of Cu. The Cu2p XPS spectra showed that the possible species present were Cu2O and CuO. The N1s XPS data and FT-IR spectra indicated that CN(-) would be formed in the presence of Cu+/Cu2+ and oxygen gas, and the reaction product could be adsorbed onto Cu/ZSM-5 zeolite more easily than HCN. PMID:23923791

  14. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S = 45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  15. Ground-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, P. L.; Goldman, A.; Brault, J. W.; Stokes, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A number of lines of the nu-3 band of hydrogen cyanide have been detected in solar absorption spectra recorded near sunrise and sunset at Kitt Peak National Observatory (elevation 2095 m) with a 0.01/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Analysis of two of the strongest and best isolated lines has led to a value of 2.73 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm for the vertical column abundance of HCN above Kitt Peak. The accuracy of this value is estimated as + or - 25%. This result, combined with the stratospheric concentration of HCN derived by Coffey, Mankin, and Cicerone (1981), yields 166 parts per trillion by volume for the average mixing ratio of HCN between 2 and 12 km. This is the first determination of the HCN concentration in the nonurban troposphere.

  16. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S=45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  17. The Submillimeter Wave Spectrum of Isotopic Methyl Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Mueller, H. S. P.

    1996-01-01

    The laboratory submillimeter wave rotational spectrum of the 13CH3CN, CH3C13CN, and CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide has been observed in natural abundance in the 294 to 607 GHz region. The maximum J and K values are 34 and 14, respectively. Fifteen additional CH3CN transitions up to K = 21 were also measured. The transitions of all four species are fitted to a symmetric top Hamiltonian, and the rotation and distortion constants are determined. The 14N quadrupole and spin rotation coupling constants are also calculated and presented. Suggested values for many other parameters, which could not be directly determined from the isotope spectra, are calculated from the normal species values and isotope relationships. The determined and calculated constants should predict the spectrum of the three isotopomers to well over 1 THz accurately enough for astronomical assignments.

  18. NEWS: Solid foundations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark statements should help students to make informed choices about their degree and subsequent employability, as well as informing employers about the skills and knowledge of the graduates they propose to employ. Academics from each discipline have agreed the statements for their areas of expertise to a common framework.

  19. MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

  20. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

  1. Determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette mainstream smoke by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Nicolas; Jeanneret, Florent; Rotach, Michel

    2010-01-01

    An LC/MS/MS method is presented for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette mainstream smoke. Cyanide is derivatized with 2,3'-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde and taurine to form a benzo[f]isoindole derivative, which is then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Isotopic KCN (K13C15N) was used as an internal standard. The regression equation was linear within the range 2.4-331 ng/mL for cyanide with a correlation coefficient > 0.999. The LOD was calculated as 4.1 ng/cigarette. The influence of the sodium hydroxide trapping solution concentration on the results is discussed. A 1 M solution showed the best results in terms of sample stability and trapping efficiency. The method proved to be robust, reliable, and more selective than current methods, making it a logical choice for determination of total cyanide in cigarette smoke. PMID:20629410

  2. A coumarin-indole based colorimetric and 'turn on' fluorescent probe for cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu; Dai, Xi; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel coumarin-indole based chemodosimeter with a simple structure was designed and prepared via a condensation reaction in high yield. The probe exhibited very high selectivity towards cyanide on both fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, which allowed it to quantitatively detect and imaging cyanide ions in organic-aqueous solution by either fluorescence enhancement or colorimetric changes. Confirmed by 1H NMR and HRMS spectra, the detection mechanism was proved to be related with the Michael addition reaction induced by cyanide ions, which blocked the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the probe. Moreover, the probe was able to be utilized efficiently in a wide pH range (7.5-10) with negligible interference from other anions and a low detection limit of 0.51 μM. Application in 5 kinds of natural water source and accurate detection of cyanide in tap water solvent system also indicated the high practical significance of the probe.

  3. APPLICATION AND EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR TRACE METALS, TOTAL CYANIDES AND PHENOLICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical procedures for the determination of trace metals, total cyanides and phenolics were systematically evaluated for their applicability industry-wide. Matrix interferences, methods equivalency, and analytical precision were investigated through a series of duplicate and s...

  4. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  5. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  6. Geotechnical design of bucket foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Bye, A.; Erbrich, C.; Rognlien, B.; Tjelta, T.I.

    1995-12-01

    The successful installation of the Europipe 16/11E Riser jacket in July 1994 and the coming installation of Sleipner T jacket in spring 1996 proves that suction installed skirted plate foundations (buckets), may not only be a competitive alternative to piles, but also a complementary foundation solution both for noncohesive and cohesive soils. This paper presents the background for the design analyses of the Europipe 16/11E and Sleipner T foundations in terms of the performed field and model tests, as well as the theoretical models and practical analysis tools utilized for design.

  7. Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)-induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8+/-7.1 min compared to 75.4+/-25.1 and 76.4+/-42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS.

  8. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of cyanide and thiocyanate after separation on a melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Gm?, G; Demirata, B; Apak, R

    2000-11-01

    A simple indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide, based on the oxidation of the cyanide with chlorine (Cl(2)) is described. The residual chlorine is determined by the color reaction with o-tolidine (3,3'-dimethylbenzidine). The maximum absorbance for Cl(2) is at 437 nm. A linear calibration graph (0-4.0x10(-5) M CN(-)) is obtained under optimal reaction conditions at room temperature and pH 11-12. The stoichiometric mole ratio of chlorine to cyanide is 1:1. The effective molar absorptivity for cyanide is 5.87x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) at pH 1.6. The limit of quantification (LOQ) is 3.6x10(-7) M or 9.4 ppb. Effects of pH, excess reagent, sensitivity, reaction time and tolerance limits of interferent ions are reported. The method was applied to the determination of cyanide in a real sample. The basic interferent usually accompanying CN(-), i.e. thiocyanate, is separated from cyanide by sorption on a melamine-formaldehyde resin at pH 9 while cyanide is not retained. Thiocyanate is eluted with 0.4 M NaOH from the column and determined spectrophotometrically using the acidic FeCl(3) reagent. The initial column effluent containing cyanide was analyzed by both the developed chlorine-o-tolidine method and the conventional barbituric acid-pyridine (Spectroquant 14800) procedure, and the results were statistically compared. The developed method is relatively inexpensive and less laborious than the standard (Spectroquant) procedure, and insensitive to the common interferent, cyanate (CNO(-)). PMID:18968116

  9. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins' active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes. PMID:25449264

  10. Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

    1992-04-01

    The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

  11. Source Attribution of Cyanides Using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S; Fraga, Carlos G; Carman, April J; Moran, James J

    2016-02-01

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs), such as cyanides, are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. Herein, stocks of KCN and NaCN were analyzed for trace anions by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), carbon stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The collected analytical data were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least-squares (iPLS), genetic algorithm-based partial least-squares (GAPLS), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminant analysis (SVMDA). HCA of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported countries of origin resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries each having one known solid cyanide factory: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). Classification errors for two validation studies using anion impurity profiles collected over five years on different instruments were as low as zero for KNN and SVMDA, demonstrating the excellent reliability associated with using anion impurities for matching a cyanide sample to its factory using our current cyanide stocks. Variable selection methods reduced errors for those classification methods having errors greater than zero; iPLS-forward selection and F-ratio typically provided the lowest errors. Finally, using anion profiles to classify cyanides to a specific stock or stock group for a subset of United States stocks resulted in cross-validation errors ranging from 0 to 5.3%. PMID:26708009

  12. Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Olajire A.; Adesuji, Temitope E.; Thomas, Olusegun E.

    2014-07-01

    The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30 C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN- concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN- in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution.

  13. Changes in glucose metabolism and cyanide sensitivity in Schistosoma mansoni during development.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D P; Morrison, D D; Pax, R A; Bennett, J L

    1984-09-01

    Schistosoma mansoni was studied by biochemical and electrophysiological techniques to follow the physiological changes occurring during transformation in the mammalian host. Volume conducted electrical potentials and measurement of CO2 evolution indicate that 3 h post-transformational schistosomula are highly sensitive to cyanide. By 24 h after transformation, evolution of CO2 under control conditions is reduced by 77% from 3 h levels, while lactate excretion rises by 84%. Cyanide does not affect the frequency or magnitude of endogenous electrical transients, but does eliminate 83% of the already reduced levels of CO2 evolved in 24 schistosomula. Electrophysiological analyses indicate that the timecourse of metabolic changes in skin- and mechanically transformed schistosomula are similar, and incubation of schistosomula in 200 micrograms ml-1 puromycin does not alter the onset of cyanide insensitivity. The adult parasite evolves a low level of CO2 which is reduced by 88% in the presence of 1 mM cyanide. No significant Pasteur effect is detected, however, and endogenous electrical activity as well as mechanical responses of the adult musculature are unaffected by cyanide exposure. Our results indicate that schistosomula continue to rely on cyanide-sensitive respiratory components for at least 3 h after transformation; by 24 h, however, the parasites are metabolically similar to the adult stage, i.e., they depend on lactate fermentation for most of their energy requirements. PMID:6513987

  14. An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Madea, B

    2011-01-30

    An uncommon suicide by oral ingestion of potassium cyanide salts and contemporaneous inhalation of hydrogen cyanide is presented. A 48-year-old tradesman was found dead sitting in his car. A penetrating odor of bitter almonds was noticed when opening the doors. A camping stove and a cooking pot containing large amounts of dark blue crystals were found in the footwell of the car. White powder adhered to his fingers and to the area around the mouth. Furthermore bottles containing potassium ferrocyanide and different kinds of acid and leach were found in the car together with internet information about, e.g. potassium ferrocyanide and potassium cyanide. At autopsy hemorrhages and erosions of the mucosa of the respiratory tract, esophagus and stomach were found. Concentrations of cyanide were 0.2mg/l in stomach contents, 0.96mg/kg in brain tissue, 2.79mg/kg in lungs, and 5.3mg/l in blood. The white and toxic powder potassium cyanide was formed by heating of the yellow crystals of potassium ferrocyanide on the camping stove. This powder was probably ingested orally. Addition of acid converted the salt into the highly toxic gas hydrogen cyanide. Oxidation with atmospheric oxygen built the dark blue ferrous compound Prussian blue. This case report of a person who was not familiar with chemicals demonstrates the acquisition of professional information via the internet, enabling a suicide with a complex procedure. PMID:20541881

  15. Foundation Walls at Visitor Center

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows workers constructing the foundation walls for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The visitor contact wing will include an 884 square foot exhibit hall and a 1,038 square foot multipurpose room....

  16. Health On the Net Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reliable medical/health topics The Health On the Net Foundation (HON) promotes and guides the deployment of ... unprecedented volume of healthcare information available on the Net, the HONcode of conduct offers a multi-stakeholder ...

  17. Willis-Ekbom Disease Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Care Center Connect with Others Become a Member Discussion Board Facebook & Twitter Find a Healthcare Provider Support ... essential features must be present Facebook Foundation Blog Discussion Board Support Groups Healthcare Providers Publications Symptom Diary ...

  18. American Foundation for the Blind

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to AFB Shop AFB About Us Our Impact Leadership and Staff Helen Keller Press Room Events and ... saluting Carl Augusto for 25 years of outstanding leadership and service to the American Foundation for the ...

  19. [Assessment of exposure to hydrogen cyanide in fire fatalities in the aspects of endogenous hydrogen cyanide production as a result of putrefaction processes in the deceased].

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Teresa; Nowicka, Joanna; Kulikowska, Joanna; Kabiesz-Neniczka, Stanisława

    2011-01-01

    On account of endogenous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production in the deceased, it is not easy to assess exposure to HCN in people who died in fire involving closed rooms (flats, garages, cellars, etc). In the paper, the authors present the results of blood determinations of hydrogen cyanide in fatalities of explosions and fires occurring in coal-mines, as well as fires in closed rooms. It has been demonstrated that the time of exposure to a high temperature and the temperature itself hamper autolysis processes that lead to production of endogenous HCN in fire fatalities. PMID:22117488

  20. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

  1. Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

    2014-01-01

    Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  3. Private Foundations: Quiet Partners in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Sanctis, Vincent

    1982-01-01

    Reviewing evidence of private foundation support of adult education, the author finds that the number of contributing foundations is increasing, the range of grant recipients is broadening, and that foundations have an impact on legislation. (SK)

  4. Electron transport properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube in the presence of hydrogen cyanide: first-principles analysis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anurag; Sharma, Vikash; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Khan, Md Shahzad; Ahuja, Rajeev; Rao, V K

    2015-07-01

    First-principles analysis based on density functional theory was performed to compute the electronic and transport properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube in the presence of hydrogen cyanide. A chiral (4,1) carbon nanotube was found to become less metallic as the number of hydrogen cyanide molecules nearby increased. When there were a sufficient number of hydrogen cyanide molecules close to the nanotube, it became semiconducting. This metallic to semiconducting transformation of the nanotube was verified by analyzing its conductance and current as a function of the number of molecules of hydrogen cyanide present. The conductivity of the carbon nanotube was very high when no hydrogen cyanide molecules were present, but decreased considerably when even just a single hydrogen cyanide molecule approached the surface of the nanotube. PMID:26072123

  5. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    PubMed

    Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Meagher, Robert L; Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2011-12-01

    The generalist moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) consists of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that differ in their distribution among host plant species. The corn strain prefers crop plants such as corn, sorghum, and cotton, while the rice strain is found in small grasses such as Cynodon spp. and rice. Little is known about the physiological factors that drive this host preference. Here, we report a feeding study with natural host plants and an artificial diet containing cyanide. We found that corn, two Cynodon spp. (bermudagrass C. dactylon (L.) Persoon, 'NuMex Sahara', and stargrass C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis Vanderyst, 'Florona'), and a hybrid between bermudagrass and stargrass, 'Tifton 85', exhibited differences in the concentration of the cyanogenic precursors or cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and the release of hydrogen cyanide per unit time or cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Corn plants released low levels of hydrogen cyanide, while stargrass had greater HCNp/HCNc than bermudagrass and 'Tifton 85'. Feeding studies showed that corn strain larvae experienced higher mortality than the rice strain when fed stargrass or artificial diet supplemented with cyanide. Also, corn strain larvae excreted higher levels of cyanogenic compounds than the rice strain when fed Cynodon spp. These differences in excretion suggest potential disparities in cyanide metabolism between the two strains. We hypothesize that differences in the susceptibility to cyanide levels in various host plants could play a role in driving strain divergence and what appears to be the incipient speciation of this moth. PMID:22173887

  6. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    It may be useful to know if a meteorite was found at the site where it fell. For instance, the polymict ureilites North Haig and Nilpena were found 1100 km apart, yet are petrologically identical [1]. Could this distance represent transport from a single strewn field, or does it represent distinct fall sites? A meteorite may contain sufficient clues to suggest some characteristics of its fall site. If these inferences are inconsistent with the find site, one may infer that the meteorite has been transported. It will likely be impossible to determine the exact fall site of a transported meteorite. Data relevant to a meteorite's fall site may be intrinsic to the meteorite, or acquired at the site. For instance, an intrinsic property is terrestrial residence age (from abundances of cosmogenic radioisotopes and their decay products); a meteorite's terrestrial residence age must be the same or less than that of the surface on which it fell. After falling, a meteorite may acquire characteristic telltales of terrestrial geological, geochemical, and biological processes. These telltale clues may include products of chemical weathering, adhering geological materials, biological organisms living (or once living) on the meteorite, and biological materials adhering to (but never living on) the meteorite. The effects of chemical weathering, present in all but the freshest finds, range from slight rusting to extensive decomposition and veining The ages of weathering materials and veins, as with terrestrial residence ages above, must be less than the age of the fall surface. The mineralogy and chemistry, elemental and isotopic, of weathering materials will differ according to the mineralogy and composition of the meteorite, and the mineralogy, geochemistry, hydrology, and climate of the fall site. Weathering materials may also vary as climate changes and may vary among the microenvironments associated with a meteorite on the Earth's surface. Geological materials (rock, sediment, soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for availability of samples. References: 1. Prinz et al. (1986) Lunar Planet. Sci. XVII, 681. [2] Koeberl and Schultz (1992) Lunar Planet. Sci. XXIII, 707.

  7. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma ; Leboffe, Loris; Polticelli, Fabio

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  8. Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

  9. Cyanide intoxication as part of smoke inhalation--a review on diagnosis and treatment from the emergency perspective.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire victims. Treatment against cyanide poisoning in the emergency setting should be given based on the clinical diagnosis only. Oxygen in combination with a recommended antidote should be given immediately, the first to reduce cellular hypoxia and the second to eliminate cyanide. A specific antidote is hydroxycobalamin, which can be given iv. and has few side effects. PMID:21371322

  10. Cyanide conversion to thiocyanate by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST)

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, S.I.; Wing, D.A.; Kirby, S.D.

    1990-02-26

    Cyanide (CN) metabolism by MPST may detoxify CN to its less harmful product thiocyanate (SCN). In addition, MPST displays greater activity than rhodanese in extramitochondrial sites and in other organs which may play an important role in CN's toxicity. A 3% (W/V) homogenate of bovine kidney MPST was prepared. It was assayed using CN and mercaptopyruvate. The buffered (pH 9.5) suspension was incubated for 10 minutes. The reaction was stopped with 38% formaldehyde containing 20% ferric nitrate in nitric acid and measured at 460 nm. Phosphate buffer decreased the apparent rate of conversion of CN to SCN by 90% compared with glycine, borate, or bistris propane buffers. Hypotaurine and propanethiosulfate, but not taurine or thiomallic acid, increased the activity of MPST in a dose-related manner; e.g., hypotaurine, 0.1, 1 and 10 mmole, increased MPST indicates that several compounds increase the rate of formation of SCN from CN and may provide a potential new class of antidotes against the toxicity of CN.

  11. Ethyl Cyanide On Titan: Spectroscopic Detection and Mapping Using Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Kisiel, Z.; Serigano, J.; Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Wang, K.-S.

    2015-02-01

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C2H5CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C2H5CNH+. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C2H5CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at \\gt 3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222-241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC3N, CH3CN, and CH3CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC3N, CH3CN, and CH3CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C2H5CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C2H5CN. Radiative transfer models show that C2H5CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳ 200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1-5) × 1014 cm-2.

  12. Dark matter in the solar system: Hydrogen cyanide polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Clifford N.

    1991-09-01

    In the presence of a base such as ammonia liquid HCN (bp 25 °C) polymerizes readily to a black solid from which a yellow-brown powder can be extracted by water and further hydrolyzed to yieldα-amino acids. These macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies in the outer solar system. The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley, for example, may consist largely of such polymers, since the original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia, and water makes them possible sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. It seems likely, too, that HCN polymers are among the dark —C≡N bearing solids identified spectroscopically by Cruikshanket al. in the dust of some other comets, on the surfaces of several asteroids of spectral class D, within the rings of Uranus, and covering the dark hemisphere of Saturn's satellite Iapetus. HCN polymerization could account also for the yellow-orange-brown coloration of Jupiter and Saturn, as well as for the orange haze high in Titan's atmosphere. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers through cometary bombardment or terrestrial synthesis, producing a proteinaceous matrix that promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life.

  13. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae. PMID:12735955

  14. Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in Cathariostachys madagascariensis-the main food plant of bamboo lemurs in Southeastern Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny P

    2009-04-01

    Giant bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis) is a major food plant for three sympatric species of bamboo-eating lemurs (Hapalemur aureus, H. griseus, and Prolemur simus) in the rain forests of southeastern Madagascar. This plant species is strongly cyanogenic. However, quantitative data on cyanide concentration in C. madagascariensis are scarce. Previous studies reported 15 mg cyanide per 100 g fresh shoot material (corresponding to approx. 57 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight). However, we found mean concentrations (+/-SE) ranging from 139.3+/-19.32 in ground shoots to 217.7+/-16.80 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight in branch shoots. Thus, cyanogenesis of C. madagascariensis was up to four times higher than reported before. In contrast to the strongly cyanogenic shoots no cyanide could be detected in differently aged leaves of C. madagascariensis confirming earlier studies. Within individual shoots fine-scaled analysis revealed a characteristic ontogenetic pattern of cyanide accumulation. Highest concentrations were found in youngest parts near the apical meristem, whereas concentrations decreased in older shoot parts. Beyond the general intra-individual variability of cyanogenic features analyses indicated site-specific variability of both, the ontogenetic pattern of cyanide concentration as well as the total amount of cyanide accumulated in shoots. Additionally, analyses of soluble proteins-one important nutritive measure affecting food plant quality-demonstrated a converse quantitative relation of protein concentrations in leaves to cyanide concentration in shoots at the site-specific level. We, thus, suggest integrative analyses on quantitative variation of cyanogenesis together with nutritive plant parameters in future studies. This approach would allow obtaining more detailed insights into spatial variability of giant bamboo's overall browse quality and its impact on lemur herbivores. PMID:19132732

  15. Foundation + Collaboration + Inspiration. The Joyce Foundation 2009 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Among the great strengths of a policy-oriented foundation like Joyce is the willingness to take a long view, to be patient investors in ideas that take time to have impact, and to take chances on projects that may not work out. But in times of crisis, Joyce team and partners also have an obligation to be responsive to immediate challenges in their…

  16. Foundation design and construction. Sixth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    This is an up-to-date and authoritative guide on the design of foundations for buildings and bridges. Backed up by the author`s 25-plus years of experience as a contractor`s engineer and consulting engineer specializing in foundations and earthworks, the book covers all types of foundations: shallow strip, pad and raft, basement structures, driven and bored piles, and deep shafts. One will find practical advice on foundation design; explanation of new techniques of construction; examples of new techniques of foundation construction; a general update for design methods; and a special chapter on bridge foundations. There is also important information on foundation design for swelling and shrinking clays, filled ground, and mining subsidences. Contents include: site investigations and soil mechanics; the general principles of foundation design; foundation design in relation to ground movements; spread deepshaft foundations; buoyancy rafts and basements (box foundations); bridge foundation; piled foundations 1 -- the carrying capacity of piles and pile groups; piled foundations 2 -- structural design and construction methods; foundation construction; cofferdams; geotechnical processes; shoring and underpinning; protection of foundation structures against attack by soils and groundwater; appendices -- properties of materials; and conversion tables.

  17. But…What about My Epistemological Foundations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curin, Raquel Isabel Barrera

    2015-01-01

    At one time or another, all researchers in mathematics education must face the rather complex question of their epistemological foundations. Discussing epistemological foundations naturally leads to a conversation about theories. Theories and epistemological foundations work in a circular fashion: theories can have epistemological foundations and…

  18. Effects of foundation modeling on dynamic response of a soil- structure system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Tabatabaie, M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents the results of our investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of different foundation modeling techniques used in soil-structure interaction analyses. The study involved analysis of three different modeling techniques applied to two different foundation configurations (one with a circular and one with a square shape). The results of dynamic response of a typical nuclear power plant structure supported on such foundations are presented.

  19. Potentiometric determination of chlorides with an "Air-Gap" cyanide sensor.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, R; Kubik, T

    1993-09-01

    A new electroanalytical method for determining chloride ions with an Air-Gap cyanide sensor system is described. The method is based on the reaction of chloride with mercury(II) cyanide in dilute sulphuric acid. This reaction leads to hydrogen cyanide which can be determined with an Air-Gap cyanide sensor. Optimum concentrations of mercury(II) cyanide and sulphuric acid were established and an analytical curve was prepared for 1 x 10(-1)-1 x 10(-5)M Cl(-). The slope of the calibration curve was equal to 62.8 mV/log C. The correlation coefficient (R) was equal to 0.9992. The method can determine chloride with good results in high saline solutions and in the presence of surfactants, which is in contrast to direct potentiometry with a chloride electrode. The method was applied for chloride determination in fuses used for initiating explosions. The chlorides were determined both in the raw materials used to prepare the fuse braids and in the other fuse components. Chloride was also determined in drinking water and river water. In dependence of source, chloride amount analyzed in drinking water was in the range 2.18-182.6 mg/l. and 25.8 mg/l. in river water. A comparative analysis was carried out. In the first case, chloride was determined by a turbidimetric method, whereas in the second one by potentiometric titration against a chloride-ISE. PMID:18965807

  20. QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

  1. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.4410(-6) to 2.5910(-5)M with a detection limit of 1.7010(-7)M at pH11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl(-), Br(-), F(-), I(-), IO3(-), ClO4(-), BrO3(-), CO3(2-), NO2(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), S2O4(2-), C2O4(2-), SCN(-), N3(-), citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy. PMID:24433896

  2. Histopathological alterations in spleen of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio exposed to sublethal concentration of sodium cyanide

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Kartheek, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems in areas with intense mining activity are often subject to cyanide contamination; the present study was aimed to evaluate the harmful effects of sodium cyanide on histoarchitechtural aspect of spleen of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio using an in vivo approach. The fishes were exposed to a sublethal concentration of 0.2 mg/L of sodium cyanide for duration of 10 and 20 days and were further allowed to undergo recovery for 14 days in a toxicant free medium. From the present investigation findings like occurrence of haemosiderin pigment, melanomacrophage centers, vacuolation and necrotic eosinophils were evident in all the fishes exposed to sodium cyanide. However, changes were more pronounced in fish subjected to 10 days of exposure, which was followed by 20 days of exposure and 14 days of recovery. The study revealed that there seemed to be the presence of homeostatic mechanism in fish that allows them to stabilize and overcome stress, which in present case is caused by sublethal concentration of sodium cyanide. Since the recovery phenomenon may be adaptive and even strategic, the present investigation also throws a light on adaptive behaviour of fish under stressful environments. PMID:26623354

  3. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  4. Poisoning and suicide by cyanide jewelry cleaner in the US Hmong community: a case series.

    PubMed

    Garlich, Fiona M; Alsop, Judith Ann; Anderson, Deborah L; Geller, Richard J; Kalugdan, Theresa Thao; Roberts, David J; Thomas, Lindsey C

    2012-02-01

    Over 200?000 persons of Hmong ethnicity live in the United States. The majority of this Southeast Asian ethnic group live in California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Tradition plays a strong role in the Hmong population, and difficulty in assimilation into "Western ways" has been reported to result in depression and suicide attempts. Some products sold at Southeast Asian ethnic markets are well-known within the Hmong community to be lethal but are essentially unknown to the outside community. We describe eight cases in which cyanide-containing products were ingested by Hmong patients. Seven cases were suicide attempts involving the ingestion of a locally-purchased substance intended for cleaning metal, coins, or jewelry. One case involved the fatal ingestion of a cyanide-containing "herbal" cure. In the majority of the cases, cyanide was not initially suspected, and treatment was delayed due to lack of information regarding the product ingested. In the two patients who survived, the cyanide antidote kit (sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) was administered early. Clinicians should be aware that unusual and potentially lethal products are easily available at ethnic markets. Cyanide toxicity should be suspected, and empiric antidote therapy initiated early, in patients of Hmong or Southeast Asian descent who present with sudden and unexplained cardiovascular collapse and metabolic acidosis, especially in the setting of a suspected suicidal ingestion. PMID:22292976

  5. Forward genetics by genome sequencing reveals that rapid cyanide release deters insect herbivory of Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P; Tuinstra, Mitchell R

    2013-10-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  6. Operating conditions for the continuous bioremediation of free cyanide contaminated wastewater using Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Santos, B A Q; Ntwampe, S K O; Doughari, J H; Muchatibaya, G

    2014-01-01

    Generation of cyanide-containing wastewater is a growing problem worldwide as numerous cyanide complexes are highly unstable and degrade to form free cyanide (F-CN), the most toxic form of cyanide. Agro-waste materials, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste from the citrus industry, are rich in readily metabolisable carbohydrates that can supplement microbial activity and thus support biodegradation of toxic compounds in wastewater. This study reports on optimal operating conditions for the continuous biodegradation of F-CN in wastewater using an Aspergillus awamori isolate in a process supported solely using C. sinensis waste extract. The optimal degradation conditions were pH 8.75 and 37.02 °C with the isolate's F-CN tolerance being observed up to 430 mg F-CN/L. Furthermore, the ammonium produced as a by-product of F-CN degradation was also metabolised by the A. awamori, with negligible residual citric acid and formate being observed in the effluent post treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using agricultural waste as a primary and sole carbon source for the cultivation of a cyanide-degrading A. awamori species for F-CN degradation under alkaline conditions. PMID:24622547

  7. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources. PMID:23395455

  8. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, where is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Atmospheric and planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early atmospheres of Earth as dinitrogen (N2 ), an inert gas under normal atmospheric conditions. To be available for prebiotic synthesis it must be converted into hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3 ) and/or nitric oxide (NO), in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. Due to the strength of the triple bond in N2 , nitrogen fixation, while thermodynamically favored is kinetically restricted. In a reducing atmosphere dominated by CH4 -N2 , thunderstorm lightning efficiently produces HCN and NH3 (Stribling and Miller, 1987). Nevertheless, photochemical and geochemical constraints strongly suggest that the early atmosphere was weakly reducing, dominated by CO2 and N2 with traces of CH4 , CO, and H2 (Kasting, 1993). Under these conditions, HCN is no longer synthesized in the lightning channel and instead NO is formed (Navarro-Gonźlez, et al., 2001). In volcanic plumes, where magmatic gases a were more reducing than in the atmosphere, NO can also be formed by the lava heat (Mather et al., 2004) or volcanic lightning (Navarro-Gonźlez et al., 1998). Surprisingly, dinitrogen can be a reduced to NH3 in hydrothermal systems (Brandes et al., 1998), but the formation of HCN and its derivates were not investigated. The present work explores the possibility of the formation of HCN as well as other nitrile derivatives catalyzed by mineral surfaces in hydrothermal vents. To simulate a hydrothermal atmosphere, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel Parr R minireactor with a 0.1 M NH4 HCO3 solution (200 ml) with or without a mineral surface exposed at 1 bar at temperatures ranging from 100 to 375° C. Different mineral matrices are been investigated. Our preliminary results have been conducted with pyrite and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results indicate that catalysis induced by the mineral surface under hydrothermal conditions does not stop with the production of HCN, but the reaction continues leading to more complex nitriles. The experiments also reveal a clear trend between time and the production of more complex molecules, which are measurable by the chromatographic method. Brandes, J.A., Boctor, N.Z., Cody, G.D., Cooper, B. A., Hazen, R. M. and Yoder Jr, H.S. (1998). Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early Earth. Nature 395, 365-367. Kasting J.F. (1993) Earth's early atmosphere. Science 259, 920-926. Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., and Allen, A.G. (2004) Volcanic source of fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geology 32, 905-908. Navarro-Gonźlez, R., Molina, M.J. and. Molina, L.T. (1998) Nitrogen fixation by volcanic a lightning in the early Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3123-3126. Navarro-Gonźlez, R., McKay, C.P. and Nna Mvondo, D. ( 2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for a Archean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412, 61-64. Stribling, R., and Miller, S.L. (1987) Energy yields for the hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde synthesis: the HCN and amino acid concentrations in the primitive ocean. Origins Life 17, 261-273.

  9. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Kisiel, Z.; Wang, K.-S.

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  10. Turn-off-on chemiluminescence determination of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Wang, Jianbo; Jia, Shize

    2015-02-01

    A flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of cyanide (CN(-) ) based on the recovered CL signal by Cu(2+) inhibiting a glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) and hydrogen peroxide system. In an alkaline medium, strong CL signals were observed from the reaction of CdTe QDs and H2O2 , and addition of Cu(2+) could cause significant CL inhibition of the CdTe QDs-H2O2 system. In the presence of CN(-) , Cu(2+) can be removed from the surface of CdTe QDs via the formation of particularly stable [Cu(CN)n ]((n-1)-) species, and the CL signal of the CdTe QDs-H2O2 system was efficiently recovered. Thus, the CL signals of CdTe QDs-H2O2 system were turned off and turned on by the addition of Cu(2+) and CN(-) , respectively. Further, the results showed that among the tested ions, only CN(-) could recover the CL signal, which suggested that the CdTe QDs-H2O2 -Cu(2+) CL system had highly selectivity for CN(-) . Under optimum conditions, the CL intensity and the concentration of CN(-) show a good linear relationship in the range 0.0-650.0?ng/mL (R(2) ?=?0.9996). The limit of detection for CN(-) was 6.0?ng/mL (3?). This method has been applied to detect CN(-) in river water and industrial wastewater with satisfactory results. PMID:24804930

  11. Simple Organics in Comets: Formaldehyde, Methyl Cyanide, and Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Ziurys, Lucy M.; Wyckoff, Susan

    Millimeter observations of simple organic molecules have been conducted towards comets Hale-Bopp, T7/Linear, and Q4/Neat with the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 m telescope on Kitt Peak, AZ. Formaldehyde (H2CO) was detected in all three comets with column densities on the order of ~2 x 1012 cm-2. The production rate (Q) of H2CO in Hale-Bopp is ~1028 s-1, while Q ~1027 s-1 for Q4/Neat and Q ~7 x 1026 s-1 for T7/Linear. Methyl cyanide (CH3CN) and methanol (CH3OH) were both observed towards Hale-Bopp in March 1997. The total column density derived for CH3CN from a rotational diagram analysis was 2.01 x 1012 cm-2 with a rotational temperature of ~200 K and Q = 7 x 1026 s-1. Five transitions of methanol were observed over the period from March 10-21, 1997 with Ntot ~4 x 1014 cm-2 and Q ~3 x 1029 s-1. Comparisons have been made between observed abundances in comets and in molecular clouds. For example, in Hale-Bopp the ratio of CH3OH/H2CO is ~200, CH3CN/H2CO ~1, and CH3OH/CH3CN ~200, while for Orion-KL CH3OH/H2CO is ~2-21, CH3CN/H2CO ~25-271, and CH3OH/CH3CN ~12 (i.e. Lee et al. 2001). The variations in abundances between comets and molecular clouds will be discussed.

  12. Epistemological Foundations of School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

    2003-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework that provides foundations for school science and defines some research problems. Begins with what is already known about students' models and cognition in order to construct proposals of didactical intervention. Proposes an analogous model for school science in which experimentation and language play the key roles.

  13. Principles for Foundations of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, John

    The significance of the foundations of education approach to teaching is apparent in the ideas of John Henry Newman, Karl Jaspers, Jose Ortega y Gasset, and Mortimer Adler. Newman maintained that there is a circle of knowledge and once this unity is ignored the result is distortion in the learners and in the knowledge. To retain the whole, the

  14. Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;

  15. Nursery Rhymes: Foundation for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The article considers nursery rhymes as the foundation for learning. It is said that nursery rhymes carry all the parts of language that lead to speaking and reading. Because rhymes are short, they are easy for children to repeat, and become some of the first sentences children utter. The rhymes expand vocabulary, exposing children to words they…

  16. Foundational Issues in Evolution Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reviews evidence that demonstrates the need for effective evolution education and analyzes the foundational, semantic, epistemological, and philosophical issues involved. Emphasizes the scientific meaning of the terms theory, hypothesis, fact, proof, evidence, and truth, and focuses on the difference between religious belief and acceptance of

  17. Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Melvin J.

    The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

  18. Sociolinguistic Foundations of Language Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein-Galicia, Jacob L.

    An answer to the question of what sociolinguistics has to offer to the art of language assessment is sought in exploration of the following topics: (1) a history of the development of sociolinguistics and an outline of the research on dialectology; (2) a review of basic sociolinguistic foundations and theories about language, society, domains of

  19. Sociolinguistic Foundations of Language Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein-Galicia, Jacob L.

    An answer to the question of what sociolinguistics has to offer to the art of language assessment is sought in exploration of the following topics: (1) a history of the development of sociolinguistics and an outline of the research on dialectology; (2) a review of basic sociolinguistic foundations and theories about language, society, domains of…

  20. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…