Sample records for cyanide plant foundations

  1. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-53 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-40 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Plant Tissue Extraction Method for Complexed and Free Cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bushey; Stephen D. Ebbs; David A. Dzombak

    2004-01-01

    A method for free cyanide and strongly-complexed cyanide measurement within plant tissue was developed to study uptake and movement of cyanide species separately from cyanide metabolism and metabolite movement by a willow plant (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux). Spike recoveries from solutions with and without plant tissue, using various solvent combinations, and background control tissue contributions were investigated to obtain an

  5. Cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allister Vale

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide gas and liquid, cyanide salts and their derivatives (acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, cyanamide, nitroprusside and thiocyanates) are used widely in industry. Cyanides are components of electroplating solutions, fertilizers, fumigant mixtures, metal polishes and rodenticides. Acrylonitrile is used in the production of synthetic rubber.Cyanide poisoning may occur as a result of inhalation or ingestion of cyanide, or one of its salts

  6. Development of a Plant Uptake Model for Cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bushey; Stephen D. Ebbs; David A. Dzombak

    2006-01-01

    A model for cyanide species uptake by willow (Salix eriocephala L. var. Michaux) was developed to interpret data from hydroponic experiments quantitatively. While the potential for cyanide phytoremediation has been demonstrated, modeling will aid in determining plant processes that contribute to cyanide transport and metabolism in willow and will target specific physiological parameters for field-scale phytoremediation design and optimization. The

  7. Metabolism of Hydrogen Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Conn, Eric E.

    1980-01-01

    A survey has been made of the occurrence and distribution of three enzymes which metabolize cyanide in a variety of higher plants including both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic species. The enzymes investigated were ?-cyanoalanine synthase, rhodanese and formamide hydrolyase. ?-Cyanoalanine synthase was found to be present in every higher plant tested whereas rhodanese was found to occur far less commonly in plants. Formamide hydrolyase activity was not detected in any of the higher plants tested. In addition, quantitative analyses have been made of the potential hydrogen cyanide content of each plant investigated. A general trend was apparent between the hydrogen cyanide potential and cyanide metabolizing activity, in that the higher the hydrogen cyanide potential, in general, the higher the cyanide metabolizing activity. PMID:16661359

  8. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. Development of a plant uptake model for cyanide.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Joseph T; Ebbs, Stephen D; Dzombak, David A

    2006-01-01

    A model for cyanide species uptake by willow (Salix eriocephala L. var. Michaux) was developed to interpret data from hydroponic experiments quantitatively. While the potential for cyanide phytoremediation has been demonstrated modeling will aid in determining plant processes that contribute to cyanide transport and metabolism in willow and will target specific physiological parameters for field-scale phytoremediation design and optimization. The objective of the model development was to gain insight into the relative role of different processes with respect to dissolved free and iron-complexed cyanide transport and assimilation in plants and to determine rates at which these processes occur within the willow plant under the experimental conditions. A physiologically-based model describing plant uptake, transport, and metabolism of cyanide species was developed to reflect the processes that influence the movement of cyanide into and throughout the plant. Plant compartmentalization (root, stem, and leaf) corresponded to the level of detail in the data collected via hydroponic experiments. Inclusion of more detailed intra- and intercellular processes would create a model inconsistent with the macroscale nature of the data. Mass balances around each compartment were developed via kinetic representations for the mass transfer processes and were combined to form a model describing the fate of cyanide species within plant-water systems. PMID:16615306

  10. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

    2009-09-01

    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  11. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  12. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S. [ADVENT Group, Inc., Brentwood, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  13. Cyanide-induced death of cells in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, L A; Vorobyov, A A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2007-05-01

    Destruction of guard cell nuclei in epidermis isolated from leaves of pea, maize, sunflower, and haricot bean, as well as destruction of cell nuclei in leaves of the aquatic plants waterweed and eelgrass were induced by cyanide. Destruction of nuclei was strengthened by illumination, prevented by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and an electron acceptor N,N,N ,N -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and removed by quinacrine. Photosynthetic O2 evolution by the leaf slices of a C3 plant (pea), or a C4 plant (maize) was inhibited by CN- inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and was renewed by subsequent addition of the electron acceptor p-benzoquinone. PMID:17573713

  14. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-09-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes.

  15. Parameter estimation of a plant uptake model for cyanide: application to hydroponic data.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Joseph T; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2006-01-01

    A plant uptake model is applied to describe free cyanide and ferrocyanide transport and fate in willow (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux) grown in hydroponics. The model is applied to experimental data to determine best-fit parameter values, their associated uncertainty, and their relative importance to field-scale phytoremediation applications. The fitted model results, using least-squares optimization of the observed log concentrations, indicate that free cyanide volatilization from leaf tissue and free cyanide cell wall adsorption were negligible. The free cyanide maximum uptake rate and assimilate (noncyanide 15N) first-order leaf loss rate were the only coefficients that significantly affected the model goodness of fit and were concurrently sensitive to data uncertainty in the parameter optimization. Saturation kinetics may be applicable for free cyanide uptake into plants, but not for ferrocyanide uptake, which may occur via preferential protein-mediated or inefficient transpiration stream uptake. Within the free cyanide system, the relative magnitudes of the saturation uptake parameters and the demonstration of an active role for plants in uptake relative to transpiration suggest the potential importance of preferential diffusion through the cell membranes as reported in the literature, rather than protein-mediated uptake. The fitted 13-parameter model matched the observed data well except for the predicted stem and leaf tissue assimilate concentrations, which were significantly underestimated, particularly in the free cyanide system. These low predicted values, combined with the slightly underestimated solution free cyanide removal, suggest that noncyanide 15N redistribution in phloem should be considered. PMID:16615307

  16. Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Noble Foundation, a charitable foundation located in Ardmore, Oklahoma that focuses on agriculture and plant biology, this site contains images of over 600 vascular plants native primarily to the Oklahoma-Texas region. Offered as an educational tool for botanists, natural resource managers, and students, the site divides the images into three main categories: Grasses & grasslike plants; Forbs; and Trees, shrubs & woody vines. Within each, users can browse by common name, scientific name, or via a family or tribe index. Entries include a medium-sized image with some close-up thumbnails and information on species, family, longevity, season, origin, height, and flowers. A keyword/ natural language search engine that indexes the entire database is also available. Overall, this is a clean, fast-loading useful resource.

  17. Vertical movement of iron-cyanide complexes in soils of a former Manufactured Gas Plant site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Germany, soil and groundwater at more than a thousand sites are contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations originate from the gas purification process that was conducted in Manufactured Gas Plants (MGP). The phenomenon of iron-cyanide complexes mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (< 1 mg L-1) under acidic conditions. This study suggests vertical transport of a colloidal ferric ferrocyanide, in the excess of iron and circum-neutral pH conditions, as an alternative process that influences the retardation of the pollutant movement through the soil profile. Preliminary in situ investigations of the two boreholes implied transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). The acidic character of the wastes and the accumulation of the blue patches suggested the potential filter function of a sandy loam material due to colloidal transport of the ferric ferricyanide. Series of batch and column experiments, using sandy loam soil, revealed reduction of CN concentration due to mechanical filtration of precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes and due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  18. Parameter Estimation of a Plant Uptake Model for Cyanide: Application to Hydroponic Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bushey; Mitchell J. Small; David A. Dzombak; Stephen D. Ebbs

    2006-01-01

    A plant uptake model is applied to describe free cyanide and ferrocyanide transport and fate in willow (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux) grown in hydroponics. The model is applied to experimental data to determine best-fit parameter values, their associated uncertainty, and their relative importance to field-scale phytoremediation applications. The fitted model results, using least-squares optimization of the observed log concentrations, indicate

  19. Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Photosynthetic Organs of Freshwater Aquatic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Azcón-Bieto, Joaquim; Murillo, Joaquim; Peñuelas, Josep

    1987-01-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid[SHAM]) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species: six angiosperms, two bryophytes, and an alga. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weight basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant, the percentage of resistance being higher than 50% with very few exceptions. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower and ranged between 25 and 50%. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was not stimulated by sucrose, malate or glycine in the absence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O2 uptake was also increased by the uncoupler. PMID:16665506

  20. Structure of Soybean ?-Cyanoalanine Synthase and the Molecular Basis for Cyanide Detoxification in Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce cyanide (CN?) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN? detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the ?-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form ?-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants. PMID:22739827

  1. Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M. (WU)

    2012-09-07

    Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

  2. Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Stegink, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

  3. Molecular Structure of Cyanide ion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-18

    Cyanide ion CN- is highly toxic to human body that contained in inorganic cyanide. Many foods and plants have cyanides, such as cassava roots and cherries pits. Cyanides are also one of the very few soluble composites of gold, so that they are used in gold mining and electroplating, etc. Small amount of cyanides from foods are converted to the harmless thiocyanate (SCN-). However, cyanides are harmful in a large amount to human body, which can lead to vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness or even death. Because Cyanide ion binds more strongly than oxygen to the Fe+3 in cytochrome a3, it interrupts the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

  4. Elimination of phenols, ammonia and cyanide in wash water from biomass gasification, and nitrogen recycling using planted trickling filters.

    PubMed

    Graber, Andreas; Skvarc, Robert; Junge-Berberovi?, Ranka

    2009-01-01

    Trickling filters were used to treat wash water from a wood gasifier. This wash water contained toxic substances such as ammonium, cyanide, phenols, and PAH. The goal was to develop a system that degraded toxic substances, and achieved full nitrification of ammonia. A 1 kW model wood gasifier plant delivered wash water for the experiments, which was standardised to a conductivity of 3 mS/cm by dilution. Toxicity was assessed by bacterial luminescence detection, germination test with cress (Lepidium sativum), and pot plants cultivated in a hydroponic setup irrigated continuously with the wastewater. Treatment experiments were done in both planted and unplanted trickling filters. Plant yield was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The trickling filters achieved complete detoxification of phenol, PAH and cyanide as well as full nitrification. The specific elimination rates were 100 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for phenols and 90 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for ammonium in planted systems. In unplanted trickling filters circulated for 63 h, phenol concentration decreased from 83.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L and cyanide concentration from 0.32 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. PAH concentrations were reduced from 3,050 microg/L to 0.89 microg/L within 68 days. The assays demonstrated the feasibility of using the technique to construct a treatment system in a partially closed circulation for gasifier wash water. The principal advantage is to convert toxic effluents from biomass gasifiers into a non-toxic, nitrogen-rich fertiliser water, enabling subsequent use in plant production and thus income generation. However, the questions of long-term performance and possible accumulation of phenols and heavy metals in the produce still have to be studied. PMID:19955650

  5. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Characterization and availability of cyanide in solid mine tailings from gold extraction plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérald J. Zagury; Kahina Oudjehani; Louise Deschênes

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the availability and fate of cyanide in gold mill solid tailings. For this purpose, aged (6–9 years) and recently discharged (3 months) tailings were sampled at various depths from two gold mining sites in Quebec (Canada). A physicochemical characterization of the tailings along with a bacterial enumeration was performed and batch-leaching tests

  7. Possible roles of plant sulfurtransferases in detoxification of cyanide, reactive oxygen species, selected heavy metals and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Most, Parvin; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (?-Glu-Cys-Gly) is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (?-Glu-Cys)2-11-Gly (PCs). Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str), also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF) of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR) and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism. PMID:25594348

  8. High performance biofilm process for treating wastewater discharged from coal refining plants containing nitrogen, cyanide and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y; Park, B G; Chung, J S

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater discharge from coal refining plants contains a number of biologically toxic compounds; 2000-2500 mg/l of COD of which 40% is composed of phenol, 100-400 mg/l of thiocyanate, 10-40 mg/l of cyanide, 100-250 mg/l of NH4+-N and 150-300 mg/l of total nitrogen. In order to treat this kind of high strength wastewater, we have developed a high performance biofilm process using fluidizing bio-carriers of the tube chip type. The fluidizing biofilm carriers are made of a composite of polyethylene and several inorganic materials, whose density is controlled at 0.97-0.98 g/ml. The fluidizing biofilm carriers show sound fluidization characteristics inside bioreactors. The wastewater is treated using three consecutive series reactors in oxic-anoxic-oxic arrangement. Each reactor is charged with the fluidizing biofilm carriers of 50 vol%. Furthermore, newly cultured active microorganisms for the thiocyanate biodegradation are added in the biofilm process. At total hydraulic retention time of 2.2 days, this process can achieve steady state removal efficiencies: COD, 99%; thiocyanate, 99%; NH4+-N, 99% and total nitrogen, 90%. PMID:16459807

  9. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point. PMID:26058164

  10. Nitryl cyanide, NCNO?.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Bélanger-Chabot, Guillaume; Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O

    2014-07-01

    The elusive nitryl cyanide, NCNO2, has been synthesized and characterized. It was prepared in good yield, isolated by fractional condensation, characterized by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy, and studied by theoretical calculations. Nitryl cyanide holds promise as a high energy density material (HEDM) and might also prove useful as a HEDM building block. The simplicity and inherent stability of nitryl cyanide, together with the known multitude of nitriles in interstellar space, suggest that the compound might also be a potential candidate for observations in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry. PMID:24861214

  11. Accumulation of cytokinins in roots and their export to the shoots of durum wheat plants treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)

    PubMed Central

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed. PMID:24692646

  12. Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

  13. Covalent and Noncovalent Dimers of the Cyanide-Resistant Alternative Oxidase Protein in Higher Plant Mitochondria and Their Relationship to Enzyme Activity.

    PubMed Central

    Umbach, A. L.; Siedow, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence for a mixed population of covalently and noncovalently associated dimers of the cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase protein in plant mitochondria is presented. High molecular mass (oxidized) species of the alternative oxidase protein, having masses predicted for homodimers, appeared on immunoblots when the sulfhydryl reductant, dithiothreitol (DTT), was omitted from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel sample buffer. These oxidized species were observed in mitochondria from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom), Sauromatum guttatum Schott, and mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] R. Wilcz). Reduced species of the alternative oxidase were also present in the same mitochondrial samples. The reduced and oxidized species in isolated soybean cotyledon mitochondria could be interconverted by incubation with the sulfhydryl reagents DTT and azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide). Treatment with chemical cross-linkers resulted in cross-linking of the reduced species, indicating a noncovalent dimeric association among the reduced alternative oxidase molecules. Alternative pathway activity of soybean mitochondria increased following reduction of the alternative oxidase protein with DTT and decreased following oxidation with diamide, indicating that electron flow through the alternative pathway is sensitive to the sulfhydryl/disulfide redox poise. In mitochondria from S. guttatum floral appendix tissue, the proportion of the reduced species increased as development progressed through thermogenesis. PMID:12231983

  14. Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale (Thoughts on Plant Biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science. PMID:21490417

  15. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Aspects Regarding Soil Investigation and Foundation Design for Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farcas, Vasile; Ilies, Nicoleta

    Between all sources of green energy, the photovoltaic power plants are among the best solutions encountered nowadays. Despite all the advantages given by this solution, the major problem remains the large surface of terrain required to build the entire project. As a result, instead of consuming good agricultural soils for the use of photovoltaic power plants, other categories of soils can be exploited. In order to protect good agricultural terrains the photovoltaic power plants are mostly displaced in areas with difficult soil conditions such as soft soils or height slopes. The paper presents the particularities of photovoltaic panels power plants, designed on difficult soil condition. Moreover, the paper describes special aspects regarding solar power plants foundations and geotechnical investigations on slopes and soft terrain.

  17. Hydrogeotechnical control system on a hydro-electric power plant with a basaltic foundation (Southern Brazil)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Guidicini; P. T. da Cruz; R. M. de Andrade

    1979-01-01

    Summary  The hydroelectrical power plant of Itaúba, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, due to a favourable topographic situation,\\u000a takes advantage of a large curve of the river, in a steep valley. The concrete structures are located on a topographic narrow\\u000a ridge on the right side of the valley.\\u000a \\u000a The rock foundation is formed by a sequence of basalt flows,

  18. Molecular Structure of Hydrogen Cyanide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Hydrogen Cyanide does not exist in many organisms because it can be fatal, although there are a few exceptions: tiger beetles, millipedes and centipedes. When these species are attacked, they release the cyanide to deter and potentially kill the aggressor. These exceptional organisms obtain the cyanogenic compound from their food but rather than being poisoned, they store it in their cells. This unusual phenomenon is still being studied. Hydrogen cyanide is produced in large quantities all over the world by the chemical industry where it is used in tempering steel, dyeing, explosives, engraving, the production of acrylic resin plastic, and other organic chemical products. Hydrogen cyanide can be found in small quantities in fruits that have a pit, such as cherries or apricots. Bitter almonds from which almond oil and flavoring is made also contain hydrogen cyanide.

  19. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Ma; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in

  20. Directed Evolution of Cyanide Degrading Enzymes 

    E-print Network

    Abou Nader, Mary 1983-

    2012-11-12

    cyanide into ammonia and formate. These rare enzymes are found in the very disparate strains of Bacillus pumilus (87), Pseudomonas stutzeri AK61 (146) and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans (60) . On the other hand, cyanide hydratases... to catalyze the reaction, making them ideal for industrial processes. Uses of the native cyanide dihydratase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans and cyanide hydratase from Fusarium lateritium have been patented for industrial cyanide 2...

  1. Effects of ultrasound on the formation of ?-benzoylbenzyl cyanide from benzyl cyanide and alkylphenyl ketone from ?-alkylbenzyl cyanide by potassium superoxide in the presence of crown ether

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Yim; M. K. Park; B. H. Han

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasound accelerates the formation of ?-benzoylbenzyl cyanide and benzoic acid in the reaction of benzyl cyanide with potassium superoxide in the presence of 18-crown-6. Similarly, 4-methylbenzyl cyanide, 4-methoxybenzyl cyanide and 4-chlorobenzyl cyanide gave the corresponding ?-(4-methylbenzoyl)-4-methylbenzyl cyanide, ?-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-4-methoxybenzyl cyanide and ?-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-4-chlorobenzyl cyanide in 25–43% isolated yields under the same reaction conditions. Benzoic, p-toluic, 4-methoxybenzoic and 4-chlorobenzoic acids were also formed

  2. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides.

    PubMed

    Yngard, Ria A; Sharma, Virender K; Filip, Jan; Zboril, Radek

    2008-04-15

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)), were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45 degrees C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN)4(2-) and Ni(CN)4(2-), and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt = k[Fe(VI)][M(CN)4(2-)]n where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN)4(2-) and Ni(CN)4(2-), respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO4(-). The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO4(-) + M(CN)4(2-) + 6H2O --> 4Fe(OH)3 + M(2+) + 4NCO(-) + O2 + 4OH(-). Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. PMID:18497158

  3. a foundation and a philosophy for the future Plants for Ecological Restoration: Plants for Ecological Restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D TERRANCE BOOTH; THOMAS A JONES

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity in cross-pollinated native plants may be achieved by using broad-based populations. This field of P-7 bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve (Poaceae)) is an example of a multiple-origin polycross.

  4. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

  5. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

  6. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  7. The biochemical pathway for the breakdown of methyl cyanide (acetonitrile) in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Firmin, J L; Gray, D O

    1976-01-01

    [2-14C]Methyl cyanide (acetonitrile) is metabolized to citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, glutamate, pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid and aspartate. Non-radioactive acetamide and acetate compete with 14C from methyl cyanide, and [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]methyl cyanide are metabolized at similar rates, giving identical products. This evidence, combined with the inhibitory effect of fluoroacetate and arsenite on methyl cyanide metabolism, indicates that the pathway is: methyl cyanide leads to acetamide leads to acetate leads to tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates. The pathway was investigated in a species of Pseudomonas (group III; N.C.I.B. 10477), but comparison of labelling patterns suggests that it also exists in several higher plants. PMID:985423

  8. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  9. ALTERNATIVES FOR SODIUM CYANIDE FOR FLOTATION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide has long been looked upon as the classical poison and has been listed by EPA as a priority pollutant. The mineral dressing industry has long used cyanide in its concentration and extractive metallurgy operations. Cyanide plays a role of varying importance in the metallurg...

  10. Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

    1985-01-01

    In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

  11. The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Zhang Yu; Pu-Hua Zhou; Yong-Miao Yang

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz × Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 ± 0.5°C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants

  12. Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2011-09-01

    The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

  13. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 ?L, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20?L, 50 ?L). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 ?M. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  14. On the heats of formation of formyl cyanide and thioformyl cyanide Thanh Lam Nguyen

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Minh Tho

    parameters for both formyl and thioformyl cyanides using ab initio molecular orbital theory.7 Geometrical for the sulfur ana- logue Hf,298 0 thioformyl cyanide 222 30 kJ/mol. In view of the large discrepancy and also

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide compounds are used in a number of industrial processes including mining, electroplating, metallurgy, chemical manufacturing, and photography because these compounds can form stable complexes with a range of metals. Hydrogen cyanide is also a component of tobacco smoke, v...

  16. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Sokratova; V. T. Klimova; D. S. Starodubtsev; G. S. Chilikina

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm³ and 1.0 m³ were used, and the concentrations of CN⁻, CNS⁻, and NH\\/sup +\\/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found

  17. Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Sokratova; V. T. Klimova; D. S. Starodubtsev; G. S. Chilikina

    1982-01-01

    Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm³ and 1.0 m³ were used, and the concentrations of CN⁻, CNS⁻, and NH\\/sup +\\/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found

  18. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  19. Dinosaurs victims of cyanide poisoning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    The Eos article, Comets and Life (March 28, 1989), reports on the work of Paul Thomas, Christophere Chyba, Carl Sagan and Leigh Brookshaw on cometary impact production of cyanides and other organics that may have been precursors of life. The article was based on material presented at the 20th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference [Thomas et al, 1989].As pointed out in the article, comets may contain 20% organic matter in the form of a complex interbonded mass. This kerogen-like material contains CN bonds as well as CC and CO bonds. Evidence for cyanide protection from light-element “CHON” solids was observed in the recent Halley's comet encounter in the form of CN plumes [Eberhardt et al., 1986; Schlosser et al., 1986]. An additional, and possibly more important source of cyanide, is HCN, which was observed [Schloerb et al., 1986] to be emitted from Halley's comet as part of the normal neutral gas emission with an abundance equal to 10-3 that of H2O. H2O is the dominant volatile species in comets and appears to constitute 80% or more of the total molecular release [Mendis, 1986].

  20. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

  1. The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate

    PubMed Central

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson’s diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants. PMID:22655035

  2. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    PubMed

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants. PMID:22655035

  3. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  4. Wetland remediation of cyanide and hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy P. Gessner; Robert H. Kadlec; Richard P. Reaves

    2005-01-01

    Cyanide is a common constituent present in groundwater from historical aluminum industry landfills. Aluminum manufacturing produces wastes which contain cyanide, together with fluoride, a variety of metals, and some petroleum hydrocarbons. These leachates pose a moderate threat to receiving ecosystems and human health. Source control is virtually impossible, and physico-chemical removal processes are expensive and energy intensive. This pilot project

  5. Adoption of cyanide fishing practice in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Halim

    2002-01-01

    Cyanide fishing has become a popular environmental issue in the Southeast Asia. Within a short period of time, this innovative practice has diffused throughout the fishing villages in Indonesia where the live reef fish industry occurs. Although this fishing technique poses many risks, and is illegal, the fishermen tend to ignore them. This paper describes the adoption process of cyanide

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Fallon; D. A. Cooper; M. Henson; R. Speece

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of <100 mg liter⁻¹ with a hydraulic retention time of >48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, <70% of the inflow free cyanide was

  7. Molecular Structure of Methyl Cyanide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Methyl Cyanide is a toxic, colorless liquid with an aromatic (ether like) odor and forms explosive mixtures with air. It is a critical solvent for several important processes e.g., it is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in chromatography applications, as a wash solvent and in preparing reagent solutions for oligonucleotide synthesis. It is employed in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, batteries, pesticides, and inorganic salts. It can be utilized to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons, to extract fatty acids from fish liver, animal, and vegetable oils, and to recrystallize steroids.

  8. Fiber optic sensing of cyanides in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Mackenzie, J.D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Li, C.Y.; Guerreiro, P.; Peyghambarian, N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1996-12-31

    A novel sol-gel technique was used to immobilize malachite green ions (MG{sup +}) in stable, optically transparent, porous silica gel films. A simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of cyanides in solutions using spectrophotometry to measure changes caused by cyanide ions (CN{sup {minus}}) in the absorption spectra of the green-colored silica gel films. After reaction with cyanide ions, the absorption spectra of the films changed with a typical decrease in absorbance at 620 nm. On the basis of the absorption spectra of the films, a portable and easy to use fiber optic cyanide film sensor was fabricated. Decolorization undergone by the green-colored gel films, as they were exposed to cyanide ions, was detected through a fiber. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of a few ppm are detected using the fiber optic sensor.

  9. Biosynthetic Pathway for the Cyanide-Free Production of Phenylacetonitrile in Escherichia coli by Utilizing Plant Cytochrome P450 79A2 and Bacterial Aldoxime Dehydratase

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for the production of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), which has a wide variety of uses in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, was constructed in Escherichia coli utilizing enzymes from the plant glucosinolate-biosynthetic and bacterial aldoxime-nitrile pathways. First, the single-step reaction to produce E,Z-phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) from l-Phe was constructed in E. coli by introducing the genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 79A2 and CYP reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana, yielding the E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant. Second, this step was expanded to the production of PAN by further introducing the aldoxime dehydratase (Oxd) gene from Bacillus sp. strain OxB-1, yielding the PAN-producing transformant. The E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant also produced phenethyl alcohol and PAN as by-products, which were suggested to be the metabolites of E,Z-PAOx produced by E. coli enzymes, while the PAN-producing transformant accumulated only PAN in the culture broth, which suggested that the CYP79A2 reaction (the conversion of l-Phe to E,Z-PAOx) was a potential bottleneck in the PAN production pathway. Expression of active CYP79A2 and concentration of biomass were improved by the combination of the autoinduction method, coexpression of groE, encoding the heat shock protein GroEL/GroES, N-terminal truncation of CYP79A2, and optimization of the culture conditions, yielding a >60-fold concentration of E,Z-PAOx (up to 2.9 mM). The concentration of PAN was 4.9 mM under the optimized conditions. These achievements show the potential of this bioprocess to produce nitriles and nitrile derivatives in the absence of toxic chemicals. PMID:25172862

  10. Photochemical destruction of cyanide in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Podsiadlik, D.H.; Hartlund, J.L.; Gaines, W.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Kalis, E.M. [Ford Motor Co., Sandusky, OH (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The Allen Park Clay Mine Landfill, owned by Ford, produces a leachate that occasionally contains cyanide at levels marginally below the discharge limit. The form of the cyanide in the leachate was found to be iron-cyanide complexes that resist oxidation by a conventional treatment method, alkaline oxidation. Furthermore, the leachate also was found to contain a relatively large amount of organics which would exert additional demand for oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine). A study was performed to determine what treatment technology could be employed in the event treatment becomes necessary because of potential changes in the leachate characteristics and/or discharge limits. In this study, among several chemical oxidation methods, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with or without ozone was investigated as a treatment option. The following are the primary findings: (1) UV irradiation alone was effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex in both the leachate and the clean water; (2) the demand for UV or ozone by chemical oxygen demand was relatively low for this leachate; (3) ozone alone was not effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex; and (4) UV irradiation alone and UV irradiation with ozone resulted in the same removal for total cyanide in clean-water experiments, but the UV irradiation alone left some free cyanide whereas the UV irradiation with ozone did not.

  11. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

  12. The respiratory responses to cyanide of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca bacterial strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ssu-Ching Chena; Jong-Kang Liu

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory system of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca was analyzed by monitoring the changes in the cytochrome contents in response to various inhibitors in the presence of various concentrations of cyanide. The cells grown in the medium without cyanide (KCN) have two terminal oxidases, cytochrome d (Ki=10?5 M KCN) and o (Ki=10?3 M KCN). When cells were grown on medium

  13. A novel cyanide ion sensing approach based on Raman scattering for the detection of environmental cyanides.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Gopal Reddy, C V; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a direct optical approach based on Raman scattering for selective and sensitive detection of cyanide ions in aqueous environment without requiring time-consuming sample pretreatment and the formation of hydrogen cyanide. Due to the strong affinity between copper (I) and cyanide ion, evaporated copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films are shown to be excellent substrates for selective recognition of free cyanide ions in aqueous matrices. The amount of cyanide ion retained by the copper (I) in the CuI thin films reflects its actual concentration in tested samples, and the subsequent Raman measurements of the substrate are shown to be capable of detecting toxic cyanide content at levels under international drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Measurements obtained from the same batch of evaporated CuI thin films (approximately 100-nm thickness) show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 microM to 0.15 mM. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides causing a health hazard while avoiding detection of other common interfering anions such as Cl-, Br-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), NO2-, S2- and SCN-. Coupled with portable Raman systems that are commercially available, our detection approach will provide on-site monitoring capability with little sample preparation or instrument supervision, which will greatly expedite the assessment of potential environmental cyanide risks. PMID:20541261

  14. Application of cyanide hydrolase from Klebsiella sp. in a biosensor system for the detection of low-level cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen K. W. Mak; Alex W. C. Law; Shinsuke Tokuda; Hideshi Yanase; Reinhard Renneberg

    2005-01-01

    A partially purified preparation of cyanide hydrolase (cyanidase) from a bacterium, Klebsiella sp., was applied as a biocatalyst in a biosensor system for low-level cyanide detection. In the biosensor system cyanide hydrolase converts cyanide into formate and ammonia. The formate produced in the cyanide degradation was detected with a formate biosensor, in which formate dehydrogenase (FDH; E.C. 1.2.1.2) was co-immobilized

  15. Effect of foundation embedment on the seismic response of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.H.; Thompson, R.W.; Charman, C.M.

    1982-08-01

    The effects of soil-structure interaction during seismic events upon the dynamic response of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant (HTGR) have been investigated for both surface-founded and embedded basemats. The influence from foundation embedment has been quantitatively assessed through a series of theoretical studies on plants of various sizes. The surface-founded analyses were performed using frequency-independent soil impedance parameters; while the embedded plant analyses utilized finite element models simulated on the FLUSH computer program. The seismic response of the surface-founded plants has been used to establish the standard-site design in-structure response spectra. These analyses were performed by using the linear modal formulation based on conventional soil stiffness and damping values. Numerical results are presented in terms of in-structure response spectra along with other pertinent seismic load data at key levels of the plant. Analysis techniques for future studies using viscoelastic halfspace representation and inelastic finite element modeling for soil are also discussed.

  16. Settlements of turbogenerator foundations in the first power unit of the Kura nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Ryzhenkov; A. P. Dubyaga; V. N. Uvarkin; N. A. Ivanov

    1982-01-01

    Conclusions  1. The results of full-scale instrument observations made it possible to establish that the active settlement stage of turbogenerator\\u000a foundations continued for a period of three years after the start of construction. Maximum settlements over the entire period\\u000a amounted to 18–20 mm in contrast to their design value of 58 mm.\\u000a \\u000a 2. After two years of service, the settlements stabilized

  17. Cyanide-degrading enzymes for bioremediation 

    E-print Network

    Basile, Lacy Jamel

    2008-10-10

    of microbial nitrilase found in Alcaligenes faecalis JM3 that is classified as an arylacetonitrilase (24). A. faecalis JM3 can act on acetonitrile and acrylonitrile, which are aromatic and aliphatic nitriles, respectively. These are the only non... to formamide (11). The related cyanide dihydratases (CynD) convert cyanide to formate and ammonia (50) and are found in Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. dentrificans (18), 7 Bacillus pumilus (28), and Pseudomonas stutzeri AK61 (51). As shown in Figure 1...

  18. Sodium nitroprusside, a convenient source of dietary cyanide for the study of chronic cyanide toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Elzubeir; R. H. Davis

    1988-01-01

    1. The suitability of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source of dietary cyanide has been tested with growing chicks and with hens by measuring plasma or urinary thiocyanate, the major detoxication product of cyanide.2. Growth and food intake were depressed and plasma thiocyanate concentration was increased in chicks in a progressive manner as the dietary concentration of SNP was increased

  19. Hydrogen cyanide polymers on comets.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N; Ludicky, R

    1992-01-01

    The original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. We propose that the non-volatile black crust of comet Halley consists largely of such polymers. Dust emanating from Halley's nucleus, contributing to the coma and tail, would also arise partly from these solids. Indeed, secondary species such as CN have been widely detected, as well as HCN itself and particles consisting only of H, C and N. Our continuing investigations suggest that the yellow-orange-brown-black polymers are of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds, and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. These easily formed macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, as well as on outer solar system bodies such as asteroids, moons and other comets. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers either through cometary bombardment or by terrestrial happenings of the kind that brought about the black crust of Halley. The resulting proteinaceous matrix could have promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life. PMID:11538141

  20. Foundations 3M Foundation

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    ://sloan.org/ The Foundation makes grants to support original research and broad-based education related to science, technology Grants (HPTGs). HPTGs include both grants and scholarships awarded to nurses, physicians, and oncology/en_US/CommunityAffairs/CommunityGiving/US/Apply/ The 3M foundation is a non-profit organization that funds the following areas: K-12 Education, Higher

  1. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil contamination in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is a worldwide known environmental issue. The pollutants, in form of iron-cyanide complexes, originating from the gas purification process, create a risk for human health due to potential release of toxic free cyanide, CN(aq) and HCN(g), (aq).The management and remediation of cyanide contaminated soil can be very challenging due to the complex chemistry and toxicity of CN compounds. The employment of phytoremediation to remove or stabilize contaminants at a former MGP site is an inexpensive process, but can be limited through shallow rotting, decreased biomass, poor growing and the risk of secondary accumulation. However, this adaptation may be enhanced via arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) activity, which may cooperate on the degradation, transformation or uptake of the contaminants. We would like to present our preliminary results from the ongoing project concerning toxic substrate-AMF-plant relation, based on studying the site of a former MGP site. In situ experiments contributed to identifying those fungi that are likely to persist in extremely acidic and toxic conditions. Subsequently, commercially available Rhizophagus irregularis was grown in sterilized, un-spiked soil with the roots of the host plant Calamagrostis epigejos. Extracted roots and AMF hyphae were used in the batch experiment, were the potential of this association on degradation of iron-cyanide complexes, in form of potassium ferrocyanide solution, was assessed.

  2. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  3. Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  4. The adsorption of silver cyanide on activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eung Ha Cho; Charles H. Pitt

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the adsorption of silver cyanide on charcoal from solution having various concentrations\\u000a of sodium, calcium, free cyanide, and hydrogen ion. It has been found that sodium and calcium ions enhance the adsorption\\u000a of silver cyanide on charcoal while free cyanide ions reduce the adsorption. A qualitative description of the adsorption based\\u000a on the structure

  5. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using

  6. Determination of free cyanide and zinc cyanide complex by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Langeroudi, Elahe Ghasemian; Petre, Catalin Florin; Azizi, Abdelaaziz; Proulx, Eric; Larachi, Faïçal

    2011-07-01

    A capillary electrophoretic (CE) protocol was developed for the separation and quantification of free cyanide and zinc cyanide complex, two key species in gold cyanidation of zinc-bearing sulfidic ores. Several common carrier electrolytes were implemented in an indirect UV detection method. The effect of electric field strength, injection volume, concentration of electro-osmotic flow (EOF) modifier and UV-absorbing agent in background electrolyte (BGE) was examined while peak height, peak area and noise were considered for optimization. The best results were obtained using a BGE that contained 35 mM sodium chromate, 12 mM free cyanide and 0.45 mM hexamethonium bromide at pH 10.5. Free cyanide concentration was compared to that measured with the conventional silver nitrate titration method in solutions containing free cyanides and weak cyano-complexes. The developed CE protocol proved very robust in capturing the concentration of free cyanides (4% error) unlike the titration method which exhibited substantial sensitivity to the interfering weak cyano-complexes (38% error). PMID:21595027

  7. ABC Foundation Adler Family Foundation

    E-print Network

    Napier, Terrence

    of Allentown Baer-Kaelin Foundation Dexter F. and Dorothy H. Baker Foundation The David M. and Barbara Baldwin. Keller Family Foundation Robert P. Kelly Family Foundation Letha J. Kemper Family Trust Philip I. Kent

  8. A micro-chemiluminescence determination of cyanide in whole blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiagen Lv; Zhujun Zhang; Jindong Li; Lirong Luo

    2005-01-01

    A reactant volume self-controlled micro-device was presented and applied to the flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) for determination of cyanide in whole blood. A mini distiller was fabricated for cyanide extraction from the blood samples with the extraction efficiencies of cyanide ?98%. A fluidic control platform with air driving was fabricated. The described system showed the features of easy fabrication, undiluted

  9. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: V. CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cyanide. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cyanide and specific cyanide compounds: physical and chemical pr...

  10. Chemical speciation and behaviour of cyanide in contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. L. Meeussen

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is present as a contaminant of the soil on several hundred (former) industrial sites in the Netherlands. The risk for the occurrence of adverse effects on human health and the environment strongly depends on the chemical form in which cyanide is present and on the behaviour of this cyanide in soils.The research reported in this thesis aimed to elucidate

  11. SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory

    E-print Network

    SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois as a fish poison. At concentrations of 1 p. p.m. sodium cyanide and at a variety of temperature and p

  12. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

  13. Degradation of cyanide in agroindustrial or industrial wastewater in an acidification reactor or in a single-step methane reactor by bacteria enriched from soil and peels of cassava.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Winter, J

    1998-09-01

    During cassava starch production, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released and hydrolysed by plant-borne enzymes, leading to cyanide concentrations in the wastewater as high as 200 mg/l. For anaerobic degradation of the cyanide during pre-acidification or single-step methane fermentation, anaerobic cultures were enriched from soil residues of cassava roots and sewage sludge. In a pre-acidification reactor this culture was able to remove up to 4 g potassium cyanide/l of wastewater at a hydraulic retention time (tHR) of 4 days, equivalent to a maximal cyanide space loading of 400 mg CN- 1(-1) day-1. The residual cyanide concentration was 0.2-0.5 mg/l. Concentrated cell suspensions of the mixed culture formed ammonia and formate in almost equimolar amounts from cyanide. Little formamide was generated by chemical decay. A concentration of up to 100 mmol ammonia/l had no inhibitory effect on cyanide degradation. The optimal pH for cyanide degradation was 6-7.5, the optimal temperature 25-37 degrees C. At a pH of 5 or lower, cyanide accumulated in the reactor and pre-acidification failed. The minimal tHR for continuous cyanide removal was 1.5 days. The enriched mixed culture was also able to degrade cyanide in purely mineralic wastewater from metal deburring, either in a pre-acidification reactor with a two-step process or in a one-step methanogenic reactor. It was necessary to supplement the wastewater with a carbon source (e.g. starch) to keep the population active enough to cope with any possible inhibiting effect of cyanide. PMID:9802225

  14. Feasibility of field portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine cyanide concentrations in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Fischer, Thomas; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In Germany, at more than 1000 sites, soil is polluted with an anthropogenic contaminant in form of iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations are caused by former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs), where electricity for lighting was produced in the process of coal gasification. The production of manufactured gas was restrained in 1950, which caused cessation of MGPs. Our study describes the application of Polychromix Handheld Field Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer to predict the cyanide concentrations in soil. In recent times, when the soil remediation is of major importance, there is a need to develop rapid and non-destructive methods for contaminant determination in the field. In situ analysis enables determination of 'hot spots', is cheap and time saving in comparison to laboratory methods. This paper presents a novel usage of NIR spectroscopy, where a calibration model was developed, using multivariate calibration algorithms, in order to determine NIR spectral response to the cyanide concentration in soil samples. As a control, the contaminant concentration was determined using conventional Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The experiments revealed that portable near-infrared spectrometers could be a reliable device for identification of contamination 'hot spots', where cyanide concentration are higher than 2400 mg kg-1 in the field and >1750 mg kg-1 after sample preparation in the laboratory, but cannot replace traditional laboratory analyses due to high limits of detection.

  15. Ultratrace determination of total and available cyanides in industrial wastewaters through a rapid headspace-based sample preparation and gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection analysis.

    PubMed

    Marton, Daniele; Tapparo, Andrea; Di Marco, Valerio B; Repice, Carla; Giorio, Chiara; Bogialli, Sara

    2013-07-26

    A new analytical method for the determination of both available (free and weak acid dissociable, WAD) and total cyanides in industrial wastewaters has been developed. It is based on the static headspace (HS) sampling procedure followed by a GC separation and the selective nitrogen-phosphorous detection (NPD), in which different thermal treatment allows the speciation of total and available cyanides. Detection limits (0.5?g/L), recovery (84.7-114.6% for free and 76.8-121.5% for total cyanides) and precision (5% at 5?g/L), evaluated on both real and synthetic samples, were fit-for-purpose for the legal requirement (5?g/L) enforced in the Venice lagoon, without significant interfering species. In addition, analytical results of the HS-GC-NPD method have been compared with those obtained using the 4500 CN and EN ISO 14403 official methods for the determination of total and free cyanides, respectively. The new method has been successfully applied for the determination of cyanide concentrations in main influent and final effluent to the Venice lagoon to verify the efficiency of the industrial wastewater treatment plant of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy). The capability of the proposed method to detect the WAD cyanides has been tested by studying the acid dissociation of K2[Ni(CN)4]. An unexpected speciation picture was obtained for this complex, which suggests that the present definition and analytical strategy of this cyanide class should be reconsidered. PMID:23522617

  16. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  17. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

    1984-01-01

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress. PMID:6610725

  18. Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

  19. Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Green, S.

    1986-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent. 11 references.

  20. Oxidative methods of removing sulfur and cyanide from coke-oven gas and prospects for their utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Lebedeva; G. D. Panferova; A. A. Tverskov; L. E. Shelyakin

    1980-01-01

    The experimental investigation on oxidative ammonia removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from a coke-oven gas typical of plants in the East showed that not less than 95% purification of the gas is achieved when using a catalyst of the quinone group at the normally recommended concentrations. The efficiency of the absorption apparatus should be not below 3 to

  1. Hydroxyapatite nanoarray-based cyanide biosensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiping; Lei, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Jian; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2010-03-15

    Here we report a simple, biomolecular-friendly protocol for the fabrication of a hydroxyapatite nanowires array (HANWA) biosensor of spatial positioning, large surface area, and abundant adsorbing sites and its application to cyanide sensing. The fabrication of HANWA is performed by template-assisted electrodeposition. The well-aligned hydroxyapatite nanoarray is composed of vertical nanowires with a diameter of approximately 200 nm and an average length of 1 microm. The electrochemical biosensor for the determination of cyanide through its inhibitory effect on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) encapsulated by chitosan (CHIT) on the platform of HANWA is demonstrated. The current organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure provides excellent enzyme-substrate contact with enzyme activity well maintained. The densely distributed HANWA with large surface area and abundant adsorbing sites can provide a favorable electrochemical interface for the construction of electrochemical biosensor. A sensitive detection limit of 0.6 ng ml(-1) was obtained for cyanide. The proposed CHIT-HRP/HANWA biosensor has the advantages of spatial resolution, high sensitivity, rapid regeneration, and fast response associated with individual nanowires. It broadens the possible applications of chemosensors and biosensors, and it offers an alternative method for toxic substance determination. The new device holds great promise for environmental and food industrial monitoring of toxins. PMID:19944059

  2. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  3. Pseudolaminar necrosis in cyanide intoxication: a neuropathology case report.

    PubMed

    Riudavets, Miguel Angel; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Troncoso, Juan C

    2005-06-01

    We describe the gross and microscopic neuropathological changes in the brain of a 17-year-old male who died 4 days after being poisoned with cyanide. Previous reports indicate that following cyanide intoxication, the brain develops diffuse hypoxic/ischemic changes, predominantly of the basal ganglia. The case we describe here had similar features but in addition showed striking laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex. This finding in cyanide poisoning has been previously demonstrated by neuroimaging, but not pathologically. PMID:15894858

  4. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  5. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    DOEpatents

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  6. Cyanide Toxicokinetics: The Behavior of Cyanide, Thiocyanate and 2-Amino-2-Thiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Multiple Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Raj K.; Oda, Robert P.; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E.; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Bebarta, Vikhyat S.; Rockwood, Gary A.; Logue, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN?) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250–300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5–4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47–54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN?. Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN? t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN? concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN? in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant. PMID:24711295

  7. Long-range effect of cyanide on mercury methylation in a gold mining area in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davée; Betancourt, Oscar; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; Barriga, Ramiro; Cueva, Edwin; Betancourt, Sebastián

    2011-11-01

    Small-scale gold mining in Portovelo-Zaruma, Southern Equador, performed by mercury amalgamation and cyanidation, yields 9-10 t of gold/annum, resulting in annual releases of around 0.65 t of inorganic mercury and 6000 t of sodium cyanide in the local river system. The release of sediments, cyanide, mercury, and other metals present in the ore such as lead, manganese and arsenic significantly reduces biodiversity downstream the processing plants and enriches metals in bottom sediments and biota. However, methylmercury concentrations in sediments downstream the mining area were recently found to be one order of magnitude lower than upstream or in small tributaries. In this study we investigated cyanide, bacterial activity in water and sediment and mercury methylation potentials in sediments along the Puyango river watershed, measured respectively by in-situ spectrophotometry and incubation with (3)H-leucine and (203)Hg(2+). Free cyanide was undetectable (<1 ?g·L(-1)) upstream mining activities, reached 280 ?g·L(-1) a few km downstream the processing plants area and was still detectable about 100 km downstream. At stations with detectable free cyanide in unfiltered water, 50% of it was dissolved and 50% associated to suspended particles. Bacterial activity and mercury methylation in sediment showed a similar spatial pattern, inverse to the one found for free cyanide in water, i.e. with significant values in pristine upstream sampling points (respectively 6.4 to 22 ?gC·mg wet weight(-1)·h(-1) and 1.2 to 19% of total (203) Hg·gdry weight(-1)·day(-1)) and undetectable downstream the processing plants, returning to upstream values only in the most distant downstream stations. The data suggest that free cyanide oxidation was slower than would be expected from the high water turbulence, resulting in a long-range inhibition of bacterial activity and hence mercury methylation. The important mercury fluxes resultant from mining activities raise concerns about its biomethylation in coastal areas where many mangrove areas have been converted to shrimp farming. PMID:21908015

  8. Foundations LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 ABC Foundation

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Foundation Dexter F. and Dorothy H. Baker Foundation Elaine and Vincent Bell Foundation The Benzien Family. Kelly Family Foundation Ruth and Seymour Klein Foundation, Inc. The Charles and Figa Kline Foundation

  9. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater. PMID:25306785

  10. Foundations LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 ABC Foundation

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Bachro Foundation, Inc. Dexter F. and Dorothy H. Baker Foundation Helen S. and Merrill L. Bank Foundation and Else Blum Private Foundation Jeffrey Bosland Family Foundation The Dietrich W. Botstiber Foundation Foundation The Jandon Foundation Jewish Communal Fund The Joelson Foundation The Jones Trust Kaelber Private

  11. Canavan Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Where to Go for Screening About the Canavan Foundation Support our Work News & Updates CANAVAN FOUNDATION 450 West End Avenue #6A, New York, NY ... Fax Toll Free: 866-907-1847 © 2015 Canavan Foundation | Sitemap | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Take our ...

  12. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF ZINC CYANIDE RECOVERY USING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field test was conducted to demonstrate closed-loop recovery of zinc cyanide at a job plating facility. Since the zinc cyanide bath operates at room temperature with very little evaporation from the bath, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of the rinsewater must be supplemented by ...

  14. Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond. PMID:17976798

  15. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  17. Hydrogen cyanide polymers: from laboratory to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Clifford N.

    1995-02-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers - heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to red to black - may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the solar system The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley for example, may consist largely of such polymers. It seems likely. too, that HCN polymers are a major constituent of the dark. C?N bearing solids identified tentatively by IR spectra in the dust of some other comets. HCN polymerization could also account for some of the yellow-orange-red coloration of Jupiter and Saturn, and perhaps for the orange haze high in Titan's atmosphere. Studies of these polymers show that a yellow-brown powder can be extracted by water and further hydrolyzed to vield ?-amino acids. Several instrumental methods used for the separation and identification of these intriguing materials. including pyrolysis mass spectrometry, Fourier transform IR photoacoustic spectroscopy and supercritical fluid extraction chromatography, reveal fragmentation patterns and chemical functionalities consistent with the presence of polymeric peptide precursors - polyamidines - in HCN polymers. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers and other organic products through bolide bombardment or terrestrial synthesis, producing a proteinaceous matrix able to bring about the molecular interactions leading to the emergence or life. Cyanide polymerization could also he a preferred pathway beyond Earth and the solar system, on planetary bodies and satellites around other stars and in the dusty molecular clouds of spiral galaxies.

  18. Nanoscale complex metal cyanides and thermolysis thereof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchold, Daniel H. M.; Feldmann, Claus

    2008-10-01

    The complex metal cyanides Co 3[Co(CN) 6] 2, 'Ni(CN) 2', 'Cu(CN)' and M 2[Fe(CN) 6] (with M = Co 2+, Ni 2+, Cu 2+) were prepared as nanomaterials via a microemulsion approach. As-prepared materials turned out to be non-agglomerated and crystalline. In addition, particle size and shape, size distribution and color were investigated. The as-prepared complex cyanides were used as precursors for thermal decomposition to generate the pertinent oxide materials, namely Co 3O 4, NiO, CuO and CoFe 2O 4. Despite the thermal treatment, which was carried out at 520 °C, the resulting oxide particles were still on the nanoscale. Even a redispersion was possible and led to comparably low degree of agglomeration. When aiming at 'Ni(CN) 2' and 'Cu(CN)' nanoscale solids have been gained, whose chemical composition and crystal structure have not been described and verified till now.

  19. Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

    1990-01-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

  20. The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia Molenda; Anya Reid; Christopher J. Lortie

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in

  1. A micro-chemiluminescence determination of cyanide in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jiagen; Zhang, Zhujun; Li, Jindong; Luo, Lirong

    2005-02-10

    A reactant volume self-controlled micro-device was presented and applied to the flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) for determination of cyanide in whole blood. A mini distiller was fabricated for cyanide extraction from the blood samples with the extraction efficiencies of cyanide > or = 98%. A fluidic control platform with air driving was fabricated. The described system showed the features of easy fabrication, undiluted sample injection, safe analysis operation, and suitability for automatic cyanide analysis. The calibration curve showed linearity in the cyanide concentration range of 5.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) with the detection limits (3sigma) of 2.3 x 10(-7) mol l(-1). CL peak-height precision was 1.9% R.S.D. (n = 11) at the 1.0 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) cyanide level. The new devices were applied to the analysis of cyanide in rabbit whole blood samples and the results agreed well with those obtained from official method. PMID:15607585

  2. Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Nic Lughadha; J. Baillie; W. Barthlott; N. A. Brummitt; M. R. Cheek; A. Farjon; R. Govaerts; K. A. Hardwick; C. Hilton-Taylor; T. R. Meagher; J. Moat; J. Mutke; A. J. Paton; L. J. Pleasants; V. Savolainen; G. E. Schatz; P. Smith; I. Turner; P. Wyse-Jackson; P. R. Crane

    2005-01-01

    Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria

  3. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids. PMID:12656253

  4. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  5. DBU catalyzed cyanoacylation of ketones with acyl cyanides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Shi, Min

    2006-05-01

    The reaction of cyclohexanone with benzoyl cyanide catalyzed by amines provides the corresponding O-benzoyl cyanohydrin adducts in moderate to good yields under mild conditions. Among the catalysts, DBU was found to be the most effective promoter allowing the reaction to proceed smoothly at room temperature and to give the corresponding O-acyl cyanohydrin adducts in higher yields for a variety of substituted cyclohexanones, cyclopentanone, acetone or pentan-3-one and various acyl cyanides. PMID:16633559

  6. Cyanide intoxication in the rat: physiological and neuropathological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, J B; Brown, A W; Calverley, J

    1976-01-01

    Sodium cyanide was given to rats by intravenous infusion at a rate that would avert apnoea (the first sign of overdosage) in the majority. There was full physiological monitoring in a group under anaesthesia and more limited monitoring in an unanaesthetized group. White matter was damaged in six animals and grey matter additionally in only one. It was concluded that cyanide can damage neurones only through the medium of secondary effects on circulation and respiration. Images PMID:4588

  7. Ion exchange resins for the treatment of cyanidation tailings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Fernando; F. Lucien; T. Tran; M. L. Carter

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative acid eluents comprising of H2O2 and H2SO4 have been proven to be effective in eluting base metal cyanide complexes from strong base resins. This study found that the repeated cycling between alkaline cyanide conditions and oxidative acid conditions does not affect the strong base or the total base capacity of strong base resins. However, it was found that a

  8. Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Baud, Frédéric; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 µmol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae. PMID:22675114

  9. Heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted microbial nitrilase enzymes increases cyanide tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Molojwane, E; Adams, N; Sweetlove, L J; Ingle, R A

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in cyanide (CN) contamination of both soil and water in many areas of the globe. While plants possess a detoxification pathway that serves to degrade endogenously generated CN, this system is readily overwhelmed, limiting the use of plants in bioremediation. Genetic engineering of additional CN degradation pathways in plants is one potential strategy to increase their tolerance to CN. Here we show that heterologous expression of microbial nitrilase enzymes targeted to the mitochondria increases CN tolerance in Arabidopsis. Root length in seedlings expressing either a CN dihydratase from Bacillus pumilis or a CN hydratase from Neurospora crassa was increased by 45% relative in wild-type plants in the presence of 50 ?m KCN. We also demonstrate that in contrast to its strong inhibitory effects on seedling establishment, seed germination of the Col-0 ecotype of Arabidopsis is unaffected by CN. PMID:25711239

  10. Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  11. Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action

    PubMed Central

    Nic Lughadha, E; Baillie, J; Barthlott, W; Brummitt, N.A; Cheek, M.R; Farjon, A; Govaerts, R; Hardwick, K.A; Hilton-Taylor, C; Meagher, T.R; Moat, J; Mutke, J; Paton, A.J; Pleasants, L.J; Savolainen, V; Schatz, G.E; Smith, P; Turner, I; Wyse-Jackson, P; Crane, P.R

    2005-01-01

    Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200?000 to 422?000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria are available for only approximately 10?000 species. In response to recommendations from the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to develop biodiversity indicators based on changes in the status of threatened species, and trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species, we examine how existing data, in combination with limited new data collection, can be used to maximum effect. We argue that future work should produce Red List Indices based on a representative subset of plant species so that the limited resources currently available are directed towards redressing taxonomic and geographical biases apparent in existing datasets. Sampling the data held in the world's major herbaria, in combination with Geographical Information Systems techniques, can produce preliminary conservation assessments and help to direct selective survey work using existing field networks to verify distributions and gather population data. Such data can also be used to backcast threats and potential distributions through time. We outline an approach that could result in: (i) preliminary assessments of the conservation status of tens of thousands of species not previously assessed, (ii) significant enhancements in the coverage and representation of plant species on the IUCN Red List, and (iii) repeat and/or retrospective assessments for a significant proportion of these. This would result in more robust Sampled Red List Indices that can be defended as more representative of plant diversity as a whole; and eventually, comprehensive assessments at species level for one or more major families of angiosperms. The combined results would allow scientifically defensible generalizations about the current status of plant diversity by 2010 as well as tentative comments on trends. Together with other efforts already underway, this approach would establish a firmer basis for ongoing monitoring of the status of plant diversity beyond 2010 and a basis for comparison with the trend data available for vertebrates. PMID:15814350

  12. Hydrolysis of hydrogen cyanide in ammonia liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamennykh, B.M.; Nazarov, V.G.; Rus'yanova, N.D.; Lebedeva, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis was performed on the conversion of hydrocyanic acid to anhydrous ammonia in concentrated ammonia liquors obtained from overall purification schemes used for coke oven gas. The temperature range of treatment (90 to 140/sup 0/C) was chosen in view of the standard low pressure (to 588 kPa) available for the process, and with consideration for the industrial liquor regeneration regime. Samples were collected while retaining the liquor in the reactor without agitation at a constant temperature. Changes in the HCN concentration as a function of retention time are described by logarithmic functions. An effective rate constant was calculated. Results show that in comprehensive schemes for gas treatment by cyclic methods with production of anhydrous ammonia and with ammonia, sulfur and cyanide removal, the principal part of the HCN extracted from the gas in the regneration of the wash liquors and treatment of the NH/sub 3/ liquors will be hydrolyzed at high temperature, and the hydrolysis products will be removed. 4 figures, 1 table.

  13. Isolation of Cyanide Hydratase Mutants from Gloeocerospora Sorghi at alkaline pH 

    E-print Network

    Lessen, Henry Joseph

    2013-02-04

    naturally occurring substance, several organisms contain enzymes capable of oxidizing cyanide into less toxic compounds. Despite the effectiveness of these proteins, they lack stability and functionality at the alkaline pH levels industrial cyanide...

  14. Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

  15. Cyanide-induced neurotoxicity: mechanisms of attenuation by chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Johnson, J D; Ardelt, B K; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    1988-10-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an effective cyanide antidote, with its greatest efficacy displayed when combined with the antidotes, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate. Since the central nervous system is a primary target organ in cyanide toxicity, the objective of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which CPZ prevents cyanide-induced damage in neural systems. KCN (10 mM) increased cytosolic free calcium in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as indicated by the fluorescent dye quin 2. This was blocked by addition of CPZ (0.1 mM) to the cells 15 min prior to addition of KCN. Incubation of cells with KCN (0.1 mM) increased the levels of lipid conjugated dienes and this was blocked by addition of CPZ (1 microM). Peroxidation of brain lipids in mice administered KCN (7-15 mg/kg, sc) was also attenuated by pretreatment with CPZ. Furthermore, production of lipid peroxidation in fresh mouse brain slices, following incubation with 0.1 mM KCN, was blocked by simultaneous addition of CPZ. These observations indicate CPZ prevents cyanide-induced calcium influx and decreases peroxidation of membrane lipids. Thus the antidotal activity of CPZ in cyanide toxicity appears to be related to maintenance of cellular calcium homeostasis and membrane integrity. PMID:3188027

  16. Oxidative methods of removing sulfur and cyanide from coke-oven gas and prospects for their utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedeva, G.M.; Panferova, G.D.; Tverskov, A.A.; Shelyakin, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental investigation on oxidative ammonia removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from a coke-oven gas typical of plants in the East showed that not less than 95% purification of the gas is achieved when using a catalyst of the quinone group at the normally recommended concentrations. The efficiency of the absorption apparatus should be not below 3 to 4 theoretical stages. The degree of purification is regulated by the specific irrigation depending on the temperature. At temperatures not exceeding 30/sup 0/C a specific irrigation rate of 12 l/m/sup 3/ is sufficient, while at 40/sup 0/C it should be increased to 40 l/m/sup 3/. The principal product of the reaction is ammonium thiocyanate. The consumption of hydrogen sulfide for its formation is determined by the hydrogen cyanide concentration in the gas. The residual hydrogen sulfide is oxidized to sulfur, thiosulfate and sulfate. For eastern plants a system of combined removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide should be used. The prospects for using the oxidative method are related to the utilization of the resulting salts. Possible utilization methods are decomposition of the salts by one of the methods used in other countries, separation of commercial products such as thiocyanate from the salts, and use of the salts in the coking process. All these examples require special development, especially since the problem of utilization of the salts should also be solved to eliminate wastes in cyclic gas purification methods.

  17. Biosorption of iron(III)–cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus: application of adsorption isotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Aksu; A. Çalik; A. Y. Dursun; Z. Demircan

    1999-01-01

    The biosorption of iron(III)–cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus was investigated. The iron(III)–cyanide complex ion binding capacity of the biosorbent was a function of initial pH, initial iron(III)–cyanide complex ion and biosorbent concentration. These results indicated that a significant reduction of iron(III)–cyanide complex ions was achieved at pH 13, a highly alkaline condition. The maximum loading capacity of biosorbent was

  18. The Analysis of Cyanide and its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian A. Logue; Diane M. Hinkens; Steven I. Baskin; Gary A. Rockwood

    2010-01-01

    Cyanide is a toxic chemical that may be introduced into living organisms as a result of natural processes and\\/or anthropogenic uses (legal or illicit). Exposure to cyanide can be verified by analysis of cyanide or one of its breakdown products from biological samples. This verification may be important for medical, law-enforcement, military, forensic, research, or veterinary purposes. This review will

  19. Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Alkyl Cyanides Using Nickel(0)

    E-print Network

    Jones, William D.

    Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Alkyl Cyanides Using Nickel(0) Juventino J. Garci´a,*, Alma Are of alkyl cyanides afforded nickel(0) compounds of the type [(dippe)Ni(2 -RCN)], where R ) Me, Et, Pr, i Pr cyanides using [(dippe)NiH]2, leading to the formation of an 2- nitrile complex of nickel(0), which

  20. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Kitis; Emine Karakaya; Nevzat O. Yigit; Gokhan Civelekoglu; Ata Akcil

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all

  1. Solvent Extraction of Cadmium from Alkaline Cyanide Solutions with Quaternary Amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Moore

    1975-01-01

    Quaternary amines are unique in their ability to extract metal cyanides from highly alkaline solutions. Cadmium cyanide extracts essentially quantitatively at both the subnanogram and macro levels. Regeneration of the amine solvent is achieved by stripping the cadmium with sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite, or alkaline or acidic formaldehyde solutions. Because they readily extract free cyanide as well as anionic metal

  2. Selective elution of copper and iron cyanide complexes from ion exchange resins using saline solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C Lukey; J. S. J van Deventer; D. C Shallcross

    2000-01-01

    Numerous reagents for the elution of metal cyanide complexes from ion exchange resins have been proposed previously. However, a simple and cost-effective elution procedure has not been developed that is able to selectively strip metal cyanide complexes from the resin. The results of the current study show that highly saline solutions can be used to selectively elute copper cyanide and

  3. Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

  4. Surfrider Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Surfrider Foundation USA is a non-profit environmental organization working to preserve the oceans, waves & beaches. Website with numerous pages including mission, a blog, news, a bimonthly publication online, the video "Shifting Baselines in the Surf", online store, campaigns, programs, membership information, and chapters. Located in San Onofre State Beach, CA.

  5. The origin of proteins: Heteropolypeptides from hydrogen cyanide and water.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N

    1975-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial chemistry is presented consistent with the hypothesis that the original heteropolypeptides on Earth were synthesized spontaneously from hydrogen cyanide and water without the intervening formation of chi-amino acids, a key step being the direct polymerization of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide to polyaminomalononitrile (IV) via dimeric HCN. Molecular orbital calculations (INDO) show that the most probable structure for (HCN)2 is azacyclopropenylidenimine. Successive reactions of hydrogen cyanide with the reactive nitrile side chains of IV then yield heteropolyamidines which are converted by water to heteropolypeptides. To study this postulated modification of a homopolymer to a heteropolymer, poly-chi-cyanoglycine (IX) was prepared from the N-carboxyanhydride of chi-cyanoglycine. Hydrolysis of IX, a polyamide analog of the polyamidine IV, yielded glycine. However, when IX was hydrolysed after being treated with hydrogen cyanide, other chi-amino acids were also obtained including alanine, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, suggesting that the nitrile groups of IX (and therfore of IV) are indeed readily attacked by hydrogen cyanide as predicted. Further theoretical and experimental studies support the view that hydrogen cyanide polymerization along these lines is a universal process that accounts not only for the past formation of primitive proteins on Earth, but also for the yellow-brown-orange colors of Jupiter today and for the presence of water-soluble compounds hydrolyzable to chi-amino acids in materials obtained from environments as diverse as the moon, carbonaceous chondrites and the reaction chambers used to simulate organic synthesis in planetary atmospheres. PMID:168535

  6. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes.

  8. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure. PMID:23345455

  9. Urinary thiocyanate levels as a biomarker for the generation of inorganic cyanide from benzyl cyanide in the rat.

    PubMed

    Potter, J; Smith, R L; Api, A M

    2001-02-01

    A colorimetric procedure was developed and validated for the determination of thiocyanate in rat urine over the concentration range of 7-7000 microg/ml. It was applied to the determination of thiocyanate following its oral administration to male and female rats. The mean percentage urinary recoveries of sodium thiocyanate given by oral gavage at 10 and 100 mg/kg were 60 and 39%, respectively, for male rats and 89 and 73% for females over a period of 3 days. Most of the elimination occurred in the 0-48-h period post-dosing but significant amounts were still being excreted in the 48-72-h period. It was concluded from these results that the recoveries of urinary thiocyanate were such that this anion was suitable for use as a biomarker for the release of cyanide from organonitriles such as benzyl cyanide. Benzyl cyanide (150 mg/kg) administered orally to rats led to markedly increased urinary thiocyanate levels; for male rats this was equivalent to 54% of the dose and for females this was 65% over a period of 3 days. When adjusted for incomplete recoveries of the marker, thiocyanate, these values equated to 61 and 89%, respectively. It was concluded that this validated assay could be used to assess cyanide release from topically applied fragrance organonitriles (Potter, J., Smith, R.L., Api, A.M., 2000. An assessment of the release of inorganic cyanide from the fragrance materials, benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile applied dermally to the rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 39, 147-151). PMID:11267707

  10. AWARE Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

  11. Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Einar J; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by ?-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

  12. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent ?-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 ?M, and the limit of detection was 0.78 ?M. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  13. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

  14. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed FA; Kosslick, Hendrik

    2013-12-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant ( k).

  15. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed Fa; Kosslick, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

  16. Volatile-Mediated Killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by Bacteria Is Mainly Due to Hydrogen Cyanide? †

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Dirk; Fabbri, Carlotta; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

    2011-01-01

    The volatile-mediated impact of bacteria on plant growth is well documented, and contrasting effects have been reported ranging from 6-fold plant promotion to plant killing. However, very little is known about the identity of the compounds responsible for these effects or the mechanisms involved in plant growth alteration. We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains. Using a collection of environmental and clinical strains differing in cyanogenesis, as well as a defined HCN-negative mutant, we demonstrate that bacterial HCN accounts to a significant extent for the deleterious effects observed when growing Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of certain bacterial volatiles. The environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 was less cyanogenic and less plant growth inhibiting than the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Quorum-sensing deficient mutants of C. violaceum CV0, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa PUPa3 showed not only diminished HCN production but also strongly reduced volatile-mediated phytotoxicity. The double treatment of providing plants with reactive oxygen species scavenging compounds and overexpressing the alternative oxidase AOX1a led to a significant reduction of volatile-mediated toxicity. This indicates that oxidative stress is a key process in the physiological changes leading to plant death upon exposure to toxic bacterial volatiles. PMID:21115704

  17. REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

  18. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0?mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0?mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

  20. Cyanide recycling using strong-base ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Versiane Albis Leão; Virgínia S. T. Ciminelli; Renato De Souza Costa

    1998-01-01

    Among the techniques available to recover cyanide and metal cyanocomplexes from diluted streams, ion-exchange resins seem attractive because of the possibility of treating either pulps or clear solutions with this process. This article discusses the results of adsorption and elution of metal cyanocomplexes obtained with industrial effluents and selected data from the literature. The behavior of iron and copper cyanocomplexes

  1. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM REFINERY WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the removal of low level cyanide in petroleum refinery wastewater by the addition of powdered activated carbon and cupric chloride to an activated sludge unit. The activated carbon and cupric chloride act as a catalyst in the oxidatio...

  2. 14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE KEYS IN FOREBAY ABUTMENT TO INTERLOCK WITH POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION, March 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  3. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  4. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  5. An assessment of the release of inorganic cyanide from the fragrance materials benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile applied dermally to the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Potter; R. L Smith; A. M Api

    2001-01-01

    Organonitriles are widely used as components of fragrances that are incorporated into consumer products, many of which are for human topical use. Some organontriles are readily broken down metabolically to potentially toxic inorganic cyanide. Studies were therefore undertaken to assess whether this occurs with three representative fragrance nitriles, namely, benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile when applied dermally to

  6. Development and introduction of methods for extracting hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, M.S.; Zaichenko, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The progress between 1933 and the present in desulfurizing coal gas from coke ovens and making use of the by-products to produce sulfuric acid, thioyanates, etc. is described. The vacuum carbonate process and the monoethanolamine method are apparently now preferred, but some plants are still using modified arsenic-soda processes. More recently additional by-products have been thiocyanates (for producing acrylonitrile fiber) and hydrogen xanthanates. The production of other organic sulfur and cyanide compounds has been investigated for use as herbicides, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (LTN)

  7. Pattern of the Cyanide-Potential in Developing Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Frehner, Marco; Scalet, Mario; Conn, Eric E.

    1990-01-01

    The absolute cyanide content of developing fruits was determined in Costa Rican wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus), oil flax (Linum usitatissimum), and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus). The cyanide potential (HCN-p) of the lima bean and the almond fruit began to increase shortly after anthesis and then stopped before fruit maturity. In contrast, the flax inflorescence had a higher HCN-p in absolute terms than the mature flax fruit. At all times of its development the bean fruit contained the monoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The almond and the flax fruits contained, at anthesis, the monoglucosides prunasin, and linamarin and lotaustralin, respectively, while, at maturity, only the corresponding diglucosides amygdalin, and linustatin and neolinustatin, respectively, were present. PMID:16667698

  8. Sequential determination of free and total cyanide by flow injection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Maria Angélica Bonadiman; Ganzarolli, Edgard Moreira; Lehmkuhl, Arilson; de Souza, Ivan Gonçlves; de Queiróz, Roldão Roosevelt Urzêdo

    1999-01-01

    This study presents a flow injection system for the sequential determination of free (CN-) and total (CN-+ HCN) cyanide using a potentiometric method which employs two different processes for the determination of these two chemical species. The first process is based on direct detection of CN- using an ion-selective electrode for cyanide. In the second process, the sample is mixed with acid, and the released HCN is transferred across a PTFE membrane. The flow system employs three solenoid valves, a gas diffusion chamber, an ion-selective electrode, a potentiometer, and a computer with an AID conversion card. A Turbo Pascal® computer program automatically performs all the steps involved in data acquisition and processing. The standard deviation for the results obtained with the proposed method was 0.5%. PMID:18924840

  9. Foundation Year Aguideforstudents

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    Foundation Year Aguideforstudents #12;2 Contents TheFoundationYears 5 Engineering/Physics/Geophysics FoundationYear 6 ScienceFoundationYear 7 EntryRequirements 8 Moneymatters 10 Universitylife 10 TheUniversity 10 Thecity 10 Accommodation 10 Studentaccommodation MontefioreHouse4.. #12;3 OurFoundation

  10. AALTO UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION CONSTITUTION

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    AALTO UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION CONSTITUTION Section 1. Name and domicile of the Foundation The Foundation shall be called Aalto-korkeakoulusäätiö (Swedish: Stiftelsen för Aaltohögskolan, English: Aalto University Foundation) and its domicile shall be the City of Helsinki. Section 2. Purpose of the Foundation

  11. Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents #12;2 Contents TheFoundationYears 5 Engineering/Physics/Geophysics FoundationYear 6 ScienceFoundationYear 7 EntryRequirements 8 Moneymatters 10 Universitylife 10 The-termcommitmentandabig investmentinyourfuture.OurFoundationYearsare designedtoprepareyouforundergraduatestudyandto

  12. Draft whole genome sequence of the cyanide-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Acera, Felipe; Igeño, Ma Isabel; Wibberg, Daniel; Roldán, Ma Dolores; Sáez, Lara P; Hennig, Magdalena; Quesada, Alberto; Huertas, Ma José; Blom, Jochen; Merchán, Faustino; Escribano, Ma Paz; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Estepa, Jessica; Guijo, Ma Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Macías, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Becerra, Gracia; Ramirez, Silvia; Carmona, Ma Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oscar; Manso, Isabel; Pühler, Alfred; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Schlüter, Andreas; Blasco, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a Gram-negative bacterium able to tolerate cyanide and to use it as the sole nitrogen source. We report here the first draft of the whole genome sequence of a P.?pseudoalcaligenes strain that assimilates cyanide. Three aspects are specially emphasized in this manuscript. First, some generalities of the genome are shown and discussed in the context of other Pseudomonadaceae genomes, including genome size, G?+?C content, core genome and singletons among other features. Second, the genome is analysed in the context of cyanide metabolism, describing genes probably involved in cyanide assimilation, like those encoding nitrilases, and genes related to cyanide resistance, like the cio genes encoding the cyanide insensitive oxidases. Finally, the presence of genes probably involved in other processes with a great biotechnological potential like production of bioplastics and biodegradation of pollutants also is discussed. PMID:22998548

  13. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horita, Juske [ORNL; Moran, James J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Janszen, Derek B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carman, April [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  14. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  15. Acute cyanide poisoning in prehospital care: new challenges, new tools for intervention.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee

    2006-01-01

    Effective management of cyanide poisoning from chemical terrorism, inhalation of fire smoke, and other causes constitutes a critical challenge for the prehospital care provider. The ability to meet the challenge of managing cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting may be enhanced by the availability of the cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin, currently under development for potential introduction in the United States. This paper discusses the causes, recognition, and management of acute cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting with emphasis on the emerging profile of hydroxocobalamin, an antidote that may have a risk:benefit ratio suitable for empiric, out-of-hospital treatment of the range of causes of cyanide poisoning. If introduced in the U.S., hydroxocobalamin may enhance the role of the U.S. prehospital responder in providing emergency care in a cyanide incident. PMID:16771011

  16. A protein kinase C inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward U. Maduh; Eric W. Nealley; Huafu Song; Paul C. Wang; Steven I. Baskin

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg\\/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs© (6–10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, 1

  17. Cyanide regeneration by AVR process using ion exchange polymeric resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L Silva; R. A Costa; A. H Martins

    2003-01-01

    This work presents laboratory bench scale results for cyanide regeneration from pure alkaline aqueous solutions of gold, copper and iron cyanocomplexes using an innovative option of the AVR process associated to the ion exchange polymeric resins Imac HP555s® ((Room&Haas––USA) and Amberlite IRA-420® (Room&Haas Brasil Ltda.) in columns. The resin Imac HP555s® adsorbed 64.5% CN from the alkaline solution containing metal

  18. Cyanide recycling using strong-base ion-exchange resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Versiane Albis Leão; Virgínia S. T. Ciminelli; Renato de Souza Costa

    1998-01-01

    Among the techniques available to recover cyanide and metal cyanocomplexes from diluted streams, ion-exchange resins seem\\u000a attractive because of the possibility of treating either pulps or clear solutions with this process. This article discusses\\u000a the results of adsorption and elution of metal cyanocomplexes obtained with industrial effluents and selected data from the\\u000a literature. The behavior of iron and copper cyanocomplexes

  19. Cyanide-induced hyperthyroidism in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Adeniyi Temadiyo; Adekilekun, Tijani Ahmad; Adewale, Musa Adbus-Semiu; Adekemi, Abayomi Taiwo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cyanide is one of the major environmental pollutants termed thyroid disruptor. Regardless of its origin, it is a primary toxic agent. This study was designed to understand the impact of prolonged low dose cyanide exposure on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods: Twelve F1 male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into two groups of six animals each. The first group served as the control group and received 0.25M sucrose while the second group being the treated group received 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) potassium hexacyanoferrate III solution. The treatment duration was 56 days following which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were drawn to determine serum FT3, FT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The thyroid gland was also excised and processed for light microscopic studies. Result: An increase in serum FT3 and FT4 with decrease serum TSH was obtained in the treated group. Application of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis showed that there were highly significant differences (P < 0.05) in the activities of FT3, FT4 and TSH when compared with those of the control group. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland from the treated group revealed marked epithelial hyperplasia with cellular degeneration and scanty cytoplasm while the control group revealed normal thyroid architecture. Conclusion: Results obtained revealed that hyperthyroidism was induced by cyanide. PMID:25013258

  20. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  1. Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

  2. A Series of Cyanide-Bridged Binuclear Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Michael T.; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T.; Popescu, Codrina V.; Gasda, Patrick; Yap, Glenn P. A.

    2009-01-01

    A series of cyanide-bridged binuclear complexes, (‘S3’)Ni–CN–M[TptBu] (‘S3’ = bis(2-mercaptophenyl)sulfide, TptBu = hydrotris(3-tert-butylpyrazolyl)borate, M = Fe (2-Fe), Co (2-Co), Ni (2-Ni), Zn (2-Zn)) was prepared by the coupling of K[(‘S3’)Ni(CN)] with [TptBu]MX. The isostructural series of complexes was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. A similar coupling strategy was used to synthesize the anionic copper(I) analogue, Et4N{(‘S3’)Ni–CN–Cu[TptBu]}, 2-Cu. An alternative synthesis was devised for the preparation of the linkages isomers of 2-Zn, i.e. of cyanide-bridged linkage isomers. X-ray diffraction, 13C NMR and IR spectral studies established that isomerization to the more stable Ni–CN–Zn isomer occurs. DFT computational results buttressed the experimental observations indicating that the cyanide-bridged isomer is ca. 5 kcal/mol more stable than its linkage isomer. PMID:20161111

  3. Development of a method for estimating an accurate equivalence point in nickel titration of cyanide ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiro Suzuki; Akiharu Hioki; Masayasu Kurahashi

    2003-01-01

    In a nickel titration of cyanide ions using murexide as indicator, an accurate equivalence point was determined by a non-linear least-squares curve-fitting for a titration curve. This method was developed to establish a standard solution for cyanide ions. In a curve-fitting procedure, a theoretical titration curve was calculated, assuming that nickel ion formed only a 1:4 Ni2+:CN? complex with cyanide

  4. Bioaugmentation of cyanide-degrading microorganisms in a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donghee Park; Dae Sung Lee; Young Mo Kim; Jong Moon Park

    2008-01-01

    To enhance biological removal efficiency of total cyanides, bioaugmentation was applied to a full-scale cokes wastewaters treatment process. After a laboratorial-scale cultivation (up to 1.2m3) of a cyanide-degrading yeast (Cryptococcus humicolus) and unidentified cyanide-degrading microorganisms, the microbial consortium was inoculated into a fluidized-bed type process (1280m3), and then enriched for two months with a huge supply of glucose, KCN and

  5. Gold cyanidation with potassium persulfate in the presence of a thallium (I) salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Guzman; J. M Chimenos; M. A Fernandez; M Segarra; F Espiell

    2000-01-01

    The use of potassium persulfate as oxidant in gold cyanidation is proposed at pH values between 10 and 11. The addition of thallium (I) ions enables high cyanidation rates to be maintained at pH values higher than 11, as it acts as a catalyst of the process. When gold cyanidation is performed in the simultaneous presence of 10 mM persulfate

  6. EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES Foundation FOUNDATION EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES are used primarily by Accounting Services for Foundation

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES ­ Foundation 2-J page 1 FOUNDATION EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES are used primarily by Accounting Services for Foundation transactions. 3080 Foundation Service Fee: Allocation of administrative costs to Foundation beneficiary departmental accounts. 3120 LSU Magazine Costs - Foundation

  7. Cyanide-induced lipid peroxidation in different organs: subcellular distribution and hydroperoxide generation in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Ardelt, B K; Borowitz, J L; Maduh, E U; Swain, S L; Isom, G E

    1994-04-18

    To evaluate hydroperoxide generation as a potential mechanism of cyanide neurotoxicity, mice were treated with KCN (7 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and the level of lipid peroxidation (expressed as conjugated dienes) was measured later in various organs. Brain showed elevated conjugated diene levels after cyanide but the liver, which is not considered a target for cyanide toxicity, showed no increase. The heart also showed no increase, whereas kidney conjugated dienes slowly increased to a peak 1 h after cyanide. In vitro studies show elevation of peroxidized lipids in mouse brain cortical slices following incubation with KCN (0.1 mM). Omission of calcium from the medium or pretreatment of brain slices with diltiazem (a calcium channel blocker) prevented formation of conjugated dienes by KCN. Calcium thus appears to play a critical role in cyanide-induced generation of peroxidized lipids in neuronal cells. Subcellular fractionation of brains from mice treated with cyanide showed that lipid peroxidation increased in the microsomal fraction but not in the mitochondrial fraction. Fluorescent studies using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (a hydroperoxide sensitive fluorescent dye) show that hydroperoxides are generated rapidly after cyanide treatment of PC12 cells, a neuron-like cell, and hydroperoxide levels remain elevated for many minutes in the presence of cyanide. These results suggest that hydroperoxide generation with subsequent peroxidation of lipids may lead to changes in structure and function of certain membranes and contribute to the neurotoxic damage produced by cyanide. PMID:8197590

  8. Hydrogen cyanide in ambient air near a gold heap leach field: Measured vs. modeled concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orloff, Kenneth G.; Kaplan, Brian; Kowalski, Peter

    To extract gold from low-grade ores, a solution of sodium cyanide is trickled over pads of crushed ore. During this operation, small quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas may escape to the ambient air. To assess these emissions, we collected air samples at monitoring stations located on opposite sides of a gold heap leach field at distances ranging from 1100 to 1500 ft from the center of the field. Hydrogen cyanide was detected in 6 of 18 ambient air samples at concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 1.86 parts per billion (ppb). Ambient air samples collected at residential properties located within 2600 ft of the leach field did not contain detectable concentrations of cyanide (detection level of 0.2 ppb). We used site-specific data and two steady-state air dispersion models, ISCST3 and AERMOD, to predict ambient air concentrations of cyanide at the sampling points. The ISCST3 model over-predicted the measured 8-h concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 2.4, on average, and the AERMOD model under-predicted the air concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 0.76, on average. The major sources of uncertainty in the model predictions were the complex terrain of the area and the uncertainty in the emission rates of cyanide from the leach field. The measured and predicted concentrations of cyanide in the air samples were not at levels that would pose a human health hazard for acute or chronic exposures.

  9. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Welcome 11/12/2014 LAUNCH: Proteus Foundation Patient Contact Registry. READ MORE. Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation, a 501c3 not-for-profit organization, is dedicated improving the ...

  10. A Good Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students explore the effects of regional geology on bridge foundation, including the variety of soil conditions found beneath foundations. They learn about shallow and deep foundations, as well as the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement.

  11. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    PubMed

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,?)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. PMID:25980658

  12. Preliminaries Some Foundations

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Edward L.

    Foundations Minimum Description Length Principle for Statistics Two-stage Code Redundancy and Resolvability Some Foundations Minimum Description Length Principle for Statistics Two-stage Code Redundancy

  13. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, Matthew, E-mail: mbrenner@uci.ed [Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612-1475 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868 (United States); Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca [Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612-1475 (United States); Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0652 (United States); Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E. [Center for Drug Design, The Academic Health Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0213 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  14. FOUNDATION REVENUE OBJECT CODES LSU Foundation Revenue Object Codes

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    FOUNDATION REVENUE OBJECT CODES 4 page 1 LSU Foundation Revenue Object Codes 0F00 Foundation - Balance Forward 0F01 Foundation - Other Contributions 0F02 Foundation - State of Louisiana 0F03 Foundation - Corporate Contributions 0F04 Foundation - Corporate Match Contributions 0F05 Foundation - Individual

  15. A near-infrared fluorescent sensor for detection of cyanide in aqueous solution and its application for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiang; Nam, Seong-Won; Kim, Gun-Hee; Song, Nari; Jeong, Yongsuk; Shin, Injae; Kim, Seog K; Kim, Jinheung; Park, Sungsu; Yoon, Juyoung

    2010-12-21

    A new NIR fluorescent sensor based on an amine-substituted heptamethine cyanine dye displayed a highly selective fluorescence enhancement with cyanide in aqueous solutions, and was applied for the imaging of anthropogenic and biogenic cyanide. PMID:20976329

  16. Cyanogenesis in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen. PMID:16667728

  17. Effect of sub-acute oral cyanide administration in rats: Protective efficacy of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Tulsawani; M. Debnath; S. C. Pant; Om Kumar; A. O. Prakash; R. Vijayaraghavan; R. Bhattacharya

    2005-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cyanide in humans and animals has been previously described. Alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) and sodium thiosulfate (STS) are known to confer remarkable protection against acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. Their efficacy against sub-acute or chronic cyanide exposure is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the sub-acute toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) in female rats

  18. PEPTIDE FORMATION MEDIATED BY HYDROGEN CYANIDE TETRAMER: A POSSIBLE PREBIOTIC PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sherwood; Flores, Jose; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1969-01-01

    Chemical evolution on the primitive earth must have involved condensation of ?-amino acids to peptides. Under aqueous conditions consistent with current conceptions of primordial waters, heating glycerine with the hydrogen cyanide tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile, yields dipeptide. If nitrogen was cycled through primordial waters as cyanide, peptide synthesis by stepwise tetramer-mediated condensation of ?-amino acids would have been a plausible process. PMID:5264133

  19. Unexpected Alternated Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Unexpected Alternated Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl vinyl ether (FAVE8) are presented. While VCN is known to be very reactive

  20. The Mechanisms Involved in Seed Dormancy Alleviation by Hydrogen Cyanide Unravel the Role of Reactive

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    is associated with a marked increase in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion generation in the embryonic axes. This increase results from an inhibition of catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and also involves germination and are second messengers of cyanide in seed dormancy release. The effect of cyanide (potassium

  1. An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Musshoff; K. M. Kirschbaum; B. Madea

    2011-01-01

    An uncommon suicide by oral ingestion of potassium cyanide salts and contemporaneous inhalation of hydrogen cyanide is presented. A 48-year-old tradesman was found dead sitting in his car. A penetrating odor of bitter almonds was noticed when opening the doors. A camping stove and a cooking pot containing large amounts of dark blue crystals were found in the footwell of

  2. Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

    1993-01-01

    A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

  3. Gold-cyanide biosorption with L-cysteine Hui Niu and Bohumil Volesky*

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Gold-cyanide biosorption with L-cysteine Hui Niu and Bohumil Volesky* Department of Chemical gold-cyanide biosorption by protonated Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Sargassum ¯uitans a positive charge when protonated [(biomass±cysteine±H )±(AuCN2 À )]. Deposited gold could be eluted from Au

  4. Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, G.E.

    1996-02-01

    Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

  5. Hydrogen cyanide in ambient air near a gold heap leach field: Measured vs. modeled concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth G. Orloff; Brian Kaplan; Peter Kowalski

    2006-01-01

    To extract gold from low-grade ores, a solution of sodium cyanide is trickled over pads of crushed ore. During this operation, small quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas may escape to the ambient air. To assess these emissions, we collected air samples at monitoring stations located on opposite sides of a gold heap leach field at distances ranging from 1100 to

  6. The redox couple of the cytochrome c cyanide complex: The contribution of heme iron ligation to

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    The redox couple of the cytochrome c cyanide complex: The contribution of heme iron ligation to the structural stability, chemical reactivity, and physiological behavior of horse cytochrome c ABEL SCHEJTER,1 to most heme proteins, ferrous cytochrome c does not bind ligands such as cyanide and CO. In order

  7. Synthesis of 3-cyanoindole derivatives mediated by copper(I) iodide using benzyl cyanide.

    PubMed

    Yuen, On Ying; Choy, Pui Ying; Chow, Wing Kin; Wong, Wing Tak; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2013-04-01

    Copper-mediated direct and regioselective C3-cyanation of indoles using benzyl cyanide as the cyanide anion source is presented. A wide range of indoles undergo cyanation smoothly by employing a reaction system of copper(I) iodide under open-to-air vessels. PMID:23448701

  8. Turn-on fluorescent detection of cyanide based on the inner filter effect of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shang, Li; Qin, Chuanjiang; Jin, Lihua; Wang, Lixiang; Dong, Shaojun

    2009-07-01

    A simple, sensitive fluorescent method for detecting cyanide has been developed based on the inner filter effect (IFE) of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). With a high extinction coefficient and tunable plasmon absorption feature, Ag NPs are expected to be a powerful absorber to tune the emission of the fluorophore in the IFE-based fluorescent assays. In the present work, we developed a turn-on fluorescent assay for cyanide based on the strong absorption of Ag NPs to both excitation and emission light of an isolated fluorescence indicator. In the presence of cyanide, the absorber Ag NPs will dissolve gradually, which then leads to recovery of the IFE-decreased emission of the fluorophore. The concentration of Ag NPs in the detection system was found to affect the fluorescence response toward cyanide greatly. Under the optimum conditions, the present IFE-based approach can detect cyanide ranging from 5.0 x 10(-7) to 6.0 x 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10(-7) M, which is much lower than the corresponding absorbance-based approach and compares favorably with other reported fluorescent methods. In addition, the present method possesses a good selectivity for cyanide over other common anions and further application in cyanide-spiked water samples suggested a recovery between 98.2 and 101.4%. Therefore, our proposed IFE-based fluorescent method is expected to be applied for cyanide determination in practical applications. PMID:19562218

  9. Shallow & Deep Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students investigate the critical nature of foundations as they learn differences between shallow and deep foundations, including the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement. Using models representing a shallow foundation and a deep pile foundation, they test, see and feel the effects in a cardboard box test bed composed of layers of pebbles, soil and sand. They also make bearing pressure calculations and recommendations for which type of foundations to use in various engineering scenarios.

  10. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. Aerobic degradation of phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons in presence of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy; Murty Bhallamudi, S

    2012-10-01

    Present study focused on the degradation of a mixture of phenol, cresol, xylenol, quinoline, and indole along with cyanide, commonly found in coke oven wastewater, using aerobic mixed culture. It was found that xylenol and indole were difficult to degrade, when the concentrations were above 250 mg/L. It was observed that free cyanide (2.5mg/L and above) has the potency to holdup the oxidation of organics (250 mg/L) until the cyanide concentration drops to a minimum level. Final TOC in the mixed pollutant system was less than 4 mg/L, indicating the absence of other organic byproducts. Experimental results highlight effect of free cyanide on removal of organics and the combined toxic influence of cyanide and organics on the microbes treating coking wastewater. The proposed mathematical model was able to predict the biodegradation of mixed pollutant system satisfactorily. PMID:22858495

  12. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ?1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  13. An assessment of the release of inorganic cyanide from the fragrance materials benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile applied dermally to the rat.

    PubMed

    Potter, J; Smith, R L; Api, A M

    2001-02-01

    Organonitriles are widely used as components of fragrances that are incorporated into consumer products, many of which are for human topical use. Some organontriles are readily broken down metabolically to potentially toxic inorganic cyanide. Studies were therefore undertaken to assess whether this occurs with three representative fragrance nitriles, namely, benzyl cyanide, geranyl nitrile and citronellyl nitrile when applied dermally to the rat. The nitriles (benzyl cyanide, 150 mg/kg; geranyl and citronellyl nitriles, 400 mg/kg) were applied to the shaved backs of rats and maintained under occlusion for 24 h. Urine samples were collected for 0-24 h, 24-48 h and 48-72 h from the time of first application. These samples were analysed for thiocyanate, a biomarker for cyanide formation in vivo, as described previously (Potter, J., Smith, R.L., Api, A.M., 2000. Urinary thiocyanate levels as a biomarker for the generation of inorganic cyanide from benzyl cyanide in the rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 39, 141-146). In the case of benzyl cyanide, there was a marked increase in urinary thiocyanate levels attributable to the release of cyanide in vivo. The amount of thiocyanate recovered was equivalent to 37% of the dose for males and 32% for females. For geranyl nitrile there was no significant increase in urinary thiocyanate excretion and there was only a marginal increase in the case of citronellyl nitrile that was equivalent to 0.40% of the applied dose for males and 0.29% for females. PMID:11267708

  14. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). PMID:25692407

  15. Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M.; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R.; Bigby, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, since current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. Objective We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide, the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B12), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cobinamide has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. Materials and Methods We studied cobinamide in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. Results We found cobinamide more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over two minutes. In range finding studies, cobinamide sulfite at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. Discussion and Conclusion These studies demonstrate that cobinamide is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as cobinamide sulfite. Based on these animal data cobinamide sulfite appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties. PMID:20704457

  16. Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L; Whelan, H T; Eells, J T; Meng, H; Buchmann, E; Lerch-Gaggl, A; Wong-Riley, M

    2006-05-12

    Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously. PMID:16464535

  17. Packed cage rotating biological contactor system for treatment of cyanide wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chuamkaew, Chollada

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of the packed cage rotating biological contactor (RBC) system with synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing 800 mg/l BOD(5) with various cyanide residue concentrations and hydraulic loading time. The results showed that cyanide had a negative effect to both the system's efficiency and bio-film quality. An increase in cyanide concentration led to a decrease in bio-film growth and the consequent reduction in the removal efficiency of the system. Also, the effluent suspended solids (SS) of the system was increased with increasing cyanide concentrations because the bio-film detached from the media due to the toxicity of the cyanide residue. The system showed the highest COD, BOD(5), TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 94.0 +/- 1.6%, 94.8 +/- 0.9%, 59.1 +/- 2.8% and 95.5 +/- 0.6%, respectively, with SWW containing 5 mg/l cyanide under HRT of 8 days, while they were only 88.8 +/- 0.7%, 89.5 +/- 0.5%, 40.3 +/- 1.1% and 93.60 +/- 0.09%, respectively, with SWW containing 40 mg/l cyanide. In addition, the effluent ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were increased with increases in cyanide concentration or loading. However, the system with SWW containing the highest cyanide concentration of 40 mg/l showed almost constant COD and BOD(5) removal efficiencies of 89% and 90%, even when the system was controlled under the lowest HRT of 8 h. PMID:16530409

  18. Host-plant selectivity of rhizobacteria in a crop/weed model system.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Simon L; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

  19. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Berneski

    2011-12-10

    Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

  20. The toxicokinetics of cyanide and mandelonitrile in the horse and their relevance to the mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, Levent; Hughes, Charlie; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; Bosken, Jeff; Lehner, Fritz; Troppmann, Amy; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Sebastian, Manu M; Harrison, Lenn; Crutchfield, James; Baskin, Steven I; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiological association between black cherry trees and mare reproductive loss syndrome has focused attention on cyanide and environmental cyanogens. This article describes the toxicokinetics of cyanide in horses and the relationships between blood cyanide concentrations and potentially adverse responses to cyanide. To identify safe and humane blood concentration limits for cyanide experiments, mares were infused with increasing doses (1-12 mg/min) of sodium cyanide for 1 h. Infusion at 12 mg/min produced clinical signs of cyanide toxicity at 38 min; these signs included increased heart rate, weakness, lack of coordination, loss of muscle tone, and respiratory and behavioral distress. Peak blood cyanide concentrations were about 2500 ng/mL; the clinical and biochemical signs of distress reversed when infusion stopped. Four horses were infused with 1 mg/min of sodium cyanide for 1 h to evaluate the distribution and elimination kinetics of cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations peaked at 1160 ng/mL and then declined rapidly, suggesting a two-compartment, open model. The distribution (alpha) phase half-life was 0.74 h, the terminal (beta phase) half-life was 16.16 h. The mean residence time was 12.4 h, the steady-state volume of distribution was 2.21 L/kg, and the mean systemic clearance was 0.182 L/h/kg. Partitioning studies showed that blood cyanide was about 98.5% associated with the red cell fraction. No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these infusion experiments. Mandelonitrile was next administered orally at 3 mg/kg to four horses. Cyanide was rapidly available from the orally administered mandelonitrile and the C max blood concentration of 1857 ng/mL was observed at 3 min after dosing; thereafter, blood cyanide again declined rapidly, reaching 100 ng/mL by 4 h postadministration. The mean oral bioavailability of cyanide from mandelonitrile was 57% +/- 6.5 (SEM), and its apparent terminal half-life was 13 h +/- 3 (SEM). No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these experiments. These data show that during acute exposure to higher doses of cyanide (~600 mg/horse; 2500 ng/mL of cyanide in blood), redistribution of cyanide rapidly terminated the acute toxic responses. Similarly, mandelonitrile rapidly delivered its cyanide content, and acute cyanide intoxications following mandelonitrile administration can also be terminated by redistribution. Rapid termination of cyanide intoxication by redistribution is consistent with and explains many of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of acute, high-dose cyanide toxicity. On the other hand, at lower concentrations (<100 ng/mL in blood), metabolic transformation of cyanide is likely the dominant mechanism of termination of action. This process is slow, with terminal half-lives ranging from 12-16 hours. The large volume of distribution and the long terminal-phase-elimination half-life of cyanide suggest different mechanisms for toxicities and termination of toxicities associated with low-level exposure to cyanide. If environmental exposure to cyanide is a factor in the cause of MRLS, then it is likely in the more subtle effects of low concentrations of cyanide on specific metabolic processes that the associations will be found. PMID:20021160

  1. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN- anion over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SCN- and ClO4- by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN- in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN- is down to 8.8 × 10-8 M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9 × 10-6 M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN- test kit to detect CN- in pure water for “in-the-field” measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  2. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN).

  3. The Foundation Center Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Foundation Center: An independent nonprofit organization established by foundations in 1956 to increase public understanding of the foundation field. The Center provides a comprehensive and up-to-date database on foundations and corporate giving programs, and publishes The Foundation Directory--the classic reference work for grantseekers--and some 50 other directories, guides and research reports. Information from the database is available electronically through custom searching and online services. Center information is provided free to the public at five Foundation Center libraries and approximately 200 cooperating libraries across the country. The Center introduces thousands of grantseekers each year to the funding research process.

  4. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

  5. Scale-up study of a multiphase photocatalytic reactor--degradation of cyanide in water over TiO2.

    PubMed

    Motegh, Mahsa; van Ommen, J Ruud; Appel, Peter W; Kreutzer, Michiel T

    2014-02-01

    This paper provides an integrated view on various aspects of reactor design for photocatalytic reactions and presents a scale-up study of photocatalytic reactors. This study focuses on degrading organic pollutants in the effluent of an integrated gasification coal combustion plant over TiO2, with the target of degrading cyanide to below its allowable emission threshold set by European legislation. Here, we show the interplay of different efficiencies that affect the overall apparent photonic efficiency and the reactor volume required to achieve a certain objective in conversion. The chosen reactor configuration is rectangular slurry-bubble-columns-in-series to ensure a good mass transfer rate per photoreactor while approaching plug-flow behavior as a sum, and a high reactor surface-area-to-volume ratio for a good capture of incident photons. We consider a simple 1D photonic description of a photoreactor, in the direction of incident solar light, and implement a bidirectional scattering model for photocatalytic particles and bubbles to calculate the local rate of photon absorption and the photon absorption efficiency in the photoreactor. We show that, implementing the principles of process intensification, the large scale degradation of cyanide to below European emission limits is achievable. PMID:24359022

  6. Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

  7. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

    1994-01-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

  8. Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt

    SciTech Connect

    Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

  9. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... asking ... Sarcoma Foundation of America Awarded Prestigious 4-Star Rating from Charity Navigator SARCOMA FOUNDATION OF AMERICA AWARDED PRESTIGIOUS 4-STAR RATING FROM CHARITY NAVIGATOR DAMASCUS, Md. – June 23, ...

  10. Melanoma International Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PhD December 01, 2014 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  11. United Leukodystrophy Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... support. Shop Merchandise You can give to the foundation by shopping our merchandise. Home Registration is now ... our discounted rate. Our Mission: The United Leukodystrophy Foundation serves individuals and families affected by leukodystrophy by ...

  12. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports research and programs throughout the nation ... POLICY TERMS AND CONDITIONS © 2001–2015 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

  13. MacArthur Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The MacArthur Foundation Gopher includes general information about the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, such as how to apply for grants, the names of staff members, and the history of the Foundation. It also includes information specific to each of the Foundation's eight program areas, such as recent program activities, application guidelines, contact information, and a listing of grants made in the previous calendar year.

  14. Simultaneous removal and recovery of cadmium and cyanide ions in synthetic wastewater by ion exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Jai Kim; Ki Hyun Lira; Yueng Guen Park; Jin Hwan Kim; Sung Yong Cho

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous removal and recovery of cyanide and cadmium ions using a strong-base anion exchange resin was studied on the\\u000a basis of formation of Cd-CN complexes at high pH in synthetic wastewater containing cyanide and cadmium ions. Strong-base\\u000a anion exchange resin particles, of Dowex1X8-50, were contacted with synthetic aqueous solutions. For different molar ratios\\u000a between cyanide and cadmium, ion exchange characteristics

  15. Structure and stability of neutral cyanide complexes of copper and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Rayón, Víctor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    A theoretical study of neutral Zn[CN] n and Cu[CN] n complexes has been carried out, as representative examples of cyanide complexes of late transition metals. Both complexes prefer the cyanide arrangement over the isocyanide form, in agreement with the experimental evidence for the monocyanide compounds. The successive complexation energies suggest that the preferred complex in the case of copper is the monocyanide, CuCN, whereas for zinc the most favourable complex seems to be Zn(CN) 2. Both Zn and Cu have preference for low coordination numbers, since mixed complexes with cyanide and cyanogen ligands are preferred over homoleptic M(CN) n complexes for n > 2.

  16. Acute cyanide intoxication treated with a combination of hydroxycobalamin, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Mannaioni, Guido; Vannacci, Alfredo; Marzocca, Cosimo; Zorn, Anna Monica; Peruzzi, Sandro; Moroni, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    An 80-year-old diabetic patient was admitted to the hospital because of sudden unconsciousness and severe metabolic acidosis. His son reported the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Clinical data and the detection of cyanide in blood and gastric material confirmed this possibility. Supportive therapy and the following antidotes--sodium nitrite two doses 300 mg i.v., sodium thiosulfate 3 g i.v., and hydroxocobalamin 4 g in 24 hours--were administered immediately and the patient completely recovered in 48 hours. Our observations suggest that timely and appropriate use of antidotes for cyanide intoxication may prevent death, even in aged diabetic patients. PMID:12126191

  17. DSMBs: Foundations and Fundamentals

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    DSMBs: Foundations and Fundamentals Frederick W. Luthardt, M.A., M.A. Manager, Compliance for efficacy and risks · Overall regulatory compliance, Data QC Overall Project compliance #12;Research Ethics throughout industry sponsored trials · Foundations (e.g., Cystic Fibrosis Foundation) · FDA guidance on DMCs

  18. University of Wisconsin Foundation

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    University of Wisconsin Foundation Payroll Deduction Authorization "Philanthropy will mean Statement, UW Foundation Iwish to ensure the continuation of educational excellence at Wisconsin of the funds indicated on the reverse side of this card. Please send to: University of Wisconsin Foundation

  19. Class Notes FOUNDATION SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    CEE 6443 Class Notes FOUNDATION SYSTEMS Applied Geotechnical Analysis and Evaluation by Paul W: 404-894-6226; Fax-2281 January 2004 #12;CEE 6443 FOUNDATION SYSTEMS Paul W. Mayne, PhD, P.E. Professor) ! Shallow Foundations ` Spread Footings ` Structural Mats/Rafts ` Deformations (deflections, displacements

  20. Two dimensional heteronuclear complexes with cyanide and 4-aminomethylpyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaa?aç, Dursun; Kürkçüo?lu, Güne? Süheyla; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; MuratTa?

    2014-09-01

    Two new cyano-bridged two-dimensional heteronuclear complexes, [Cd(NH3)2(?-ampy)Ni(?-CN)2(CN)2]n (1) and [Cd(H2O)2(?-ampy)Pt(?-CN)2(CN)2]n (2) (ampy = 4-aminomethylpyridine), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic, thermal (TG, DTG and DTA) and elemental analyses and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. They crystallize in the triclinic system and P-1 space group. The Ni(II) or Pt(II) ions are four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry and the Cd(II) ion exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination by two different N-atoms from two symmetrically equivalent ampy ligands, two ammine or aqua ligands and two bridging cyano groups.The most important features of the complexes are the presence of obvious M⋯? (M = Ni(II) or Pt(II)) interactions.

  1. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S=45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  2. Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Coquand, Thierry

    Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Thierry Coquand Oberwolfach, November 18, 2014 #12;Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Univalent Foundations Voevodsky's program to express mathematics in type theory instead of set theory 1 #12;Univalent Foundation and Constructive

  3. Cryptography Foundations RSA Sebastian Pauli

    E-print Network

    Pauli, Sebastian

    Cryptography Foundations RSA RSA Sebastian Pauli Sebastian Pauli RSA #12;Cryptography Foundations RSA Overview Public Key Cryptography Mathematical Foundations of RSA The Cryptosystem RSA Sebastian Pauli RSA #12;Cryptography Foundations RSA with private keys with public key Realization Cryptography

  4. A protein kinase C inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Nealley, E W; Song, H; Wang, P C; Baskin, S I

    1995-06-26

    We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Telsa horizontal bore magnet. H-7, 1 mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN-). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN- administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN- antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication. PMID:7624870

  5. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anne Barron

    2011-04-14

    What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

  6. APPLICATION AND EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR TRACE METALS, TOTAL CYANIDES AND PHENOLICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical procedures for the determination of trace metals, total cyanides and phenolics were systematically evaluated for their applicability industry-wide. Matrix interferences, methods equivalency, and analytical precision were investigated through a series of duplicate and s...

  7. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Craig A; Leinz, Reinhard W; Grimes, David J; Rye, Robert O

    2002-03-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities. PMID:11918005

  8. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  9. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

  10. MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

  11. Electrolytic Recovery of Cadmium from Cyanide Washing Solutions on Filtering Carbon-Graphite Electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Varentsov

    2003-01-01

    Electrorecovery of cadmium(II) on filtering carbon-graphite electrodes from washing cyanide solutions formed in cadmium-plating of articles in a cyanide electrolyte was studied. The effect of the dilution factor of the supporting electrolyte on the run of cathodic polarization curves, pH value, and solution resistivity was analyzed. The influence exerted by the efficiency of cadmium(II) recovery on the carbon-graphite electrodes was

  12. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 °C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 °C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways. PMID:18448476

  13. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 degrees C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 degrees C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways. PMID:18448476

  14. Multiparameter Behavioral Analyses Provide Insights to Mechanisms of Cyanide Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Parashar, Archana; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Environmental toxicants influence development, behavior, and ultimately survival. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an exceptionally powerful model for toxicological studies. Here, we develop novel technologies to describe the effects of cyanide toxicity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Importantly, we use these methods to examine the genetic underpinnings of cyanide resistance. Caenorhabditis elegans that lack the EGL-9 oxygen sensing enzyme have been shown to be resistant to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrate that the cyanide resistance exhibited by egl-9 mutants is completely dependent on the HIF-1 hypoxia-inducible factor and is mediated by the cysl-2 cysteine synthase, which likely functions in metabolic pathways that inactivate cyanide. Further, the expression of cysl-2 correlates with the degree of cyanide resistance exhibited in each genetic background. We find that each mutant exhibits similar relative resistance to HCN gas on plates or to aqueous potassium cyanide in microfluidic chambers. The design of the microfluidic devices, in combination with real-time imaging, addresses a series of challenges presented by mutant phenotypes and by the chemical nature of the toxicant. The microfluidic assay produces a set of behavioral parameters with increased resolution that describe cyanide toxicity and resistance in C. elegans, and this is particularly useful in analyzing subtle phenotypes. These multiparameter analyses of C. elegans behavior hold great potential as a means to monitor the effects of toxicants or chemical interventions in real time and to study the biological networks that underpin toxicant resistance. PMID:23805000

  15. How does cyanide inhibit superoxide reductase? Insight from synthetic FeIII

    E-print Network

    Kovacs, Julie

    structures of azide- ligated [FeIII(SMe2N4(tren))(N3)] (3), dimeric cyanide-bridged ([FeIII(SMe2N4(tren))]2- -CN)3 (5), and acetate-ligated [FeIII(SMe2N4- (tren))(OAc)] (6) are described, in addition to x-ray absorption spectrum-derived and preliminary crystallographic structures of cyanide-ligated [FeIII(SMe2N4(tren

  16. Cyanide-free Net-caught Fish for the Marine Aquarium Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand Cruz; Vaughan Pratt; Richard Oellers; Brian McCullough; Frank Lallo

    2001-01-01

    The International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) has been training collectors in the Philippines and Indonesia to use barrier-nets rather than sodium cyanide to capture marine-aquarium fish. Despite the training, collectors have been slow to switch to using nets because they can earn more using cyanide. A new Philippine export company has agreed to pay the collectors more for net-caught fish and

  17. Cyanide exposure affects the production and excretion of ammonia by the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddaerti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shit F Chew; Elaine Goh; Cheng B Lim; Yuen K Ip

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of ammonia in the plasma of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddaerti exposed to cyanide for 1–6 days were significantly greater than the respective values of the controls. This was due to an increase in the production of NH3 in the muscle and an increase in the retention of NH3 and\\/or NH4+ in the blood of the cyanide-exposed fish when

  18. Plasma membrane hyperpolarization by cyanide in chromaffin cells: role of potassium channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Latha; J. L. Borowitz; G. K. W. Yim; A. Kanthasamy; G. E. Isom

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to cyanide produces elevation of cytosolic calcium, impaired Na+?H+ exchange, membrane lipid peroxidation and release of neurotransmitters. Since these observations suggested cyanide alters\\u000a plasma membrane function, the present study examined the effect of NaCN on the membrane potential of undifferentiated PC12\\u000a cells in suspension. In PC12 cells loaded with the voltage sensitive fluorescent dye,

  19. Comparison of activated carbon and ion-exchange resins in recovering copper from cyanide leach solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Dai; P. L. Breuer; M. I. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The use of activated carbon and ion-exchange resins for recovering copper cyanide from gold leach solutions is compared in detail. When using activated carbon, the overall cyanide-to-copper ratio should be reduced to ?2 to achieve the most effective adsorption. This can be accomplished by dissolving metallic copper into the leach solution. However when using ion-exchange resins to recover the copper,

  20. Multiparameter behavioral analyses provide insights to mechanisms of cyanide resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Jenifer N; Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2013-09-01

    Environmental toxicants influence development, behavior, and ultimately survival. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an exceptionally powerful model for toxicological studies. Here, we develop novel technologies to describe the effects of cyanide toxicity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Importantly, we use these methods to examine the genetic underpinnings of cyanide resistance. Caenorhabditis elegans that lack the EGL-9 oxygen sensing enzyme have been shown to be resistant to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrate that the cyanide resistance exhibited by egl-9 mutants is completely dependent on the HIF-1 hypoxia-inducible factor and is mediated by the cysl-2 cysteine synthase, which likely functions in metabolic pathways that inactivate cyanide. Further, the expression of cysl-2 correlates with the degree of cyanide resistance exhibited in each genetic background. We find that each mutant exhibits similar relative resistance to HCN gas on plates or to aqueous potassium cyanide in microfluidic chambers. The design of the microfluidic devices, in combination with real-time imaging, addresses a series of challenges presented by mutant phenotypes and by the chemical nature of the toxicant. The microfluidic assay produces a set of behavioral parameters with increased resolution that describe cyanide toxicity and resistance in C. elegans, and this is particularly useful in analyzing subtle phenotypes. These multiparameter analyses of C. elegans behavior hold great potential as a means to monitor the effects of toxicants or chemical interventions in real time and to study the biological networks that underpin toxicant resistance. PMID:23805000

  1. Raman study on the speciation of copper cyanide complexes in highly saline solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C Lukey; J. S. J van Deventer; S. T Huntington; R. L Chowdhury; D. C Shallcross

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have established that the following three copper(I)-cyanide complexes form in aqueous solution: [Cu(CN)2]?, [Cu(CN)3]2? and [Cu(CN)4]3?. The distribution of these complexes in solution at equilibrium is highly dependent upon the CN\\/Cu molar ratio. The speciation of copper cyanide complexes in highly saline solutions is of interest to Australian mining companies because of the unusually highly saline process water

  2. Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Olajire A.; Adesuji, Temitope E.; Thomas, Olusegun E.

    2014-07-01

    The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30 °C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN- concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN- in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution.

  3. Cyanide-induced neurotoxicity: calcium mediation of morphological changes in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Turek, J J; Borowitz, J L; Rebar, A; Isom, G E

    1990-04-01

    Calcium channel blockade decreases the elevation of brain calcium as well as the tremors produced by cyanide in mice. To determine if cyanide-induced morphological changes could also be inhibited by calcium channel blockade, the effect of diltiazem was studied in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a neuronal model. Incubation with KCN (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) caused depletion of secretory granules, alignment of remaining granules along the plasma membrane, and mitochondrial swelling. All these effects were inhibited by pretreatment with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cyanide (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) produced loss of microvilli and bleb formation in PC12 cells. These changes were partially inhibited by preincubation with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Incubation of cells with 10 mM cyanide increased release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture media at 60 and 120 min. A decrease in cell viability, as determined by trypan blue dye exclusion, paralleled the release of LDH. At 120 min of cyanide incubation, 24% of the cells excluded dye. Both the release of LDH and decreased cell viability were attenuated by pretreatment with diltiazem. The results indicate that the influx of extracellular calcium is an important factor mediating cyanide-induced morphologic changes in neuronal cells. PMID:2330585

  4. Plant for the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young Voices on Climate Change

    This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

  5. Electron transport properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube in the presence of hydrogen cyanide: first-principles analysis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anurag; Sharma, Vikash; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Khan, Md Shahzad; Ahuja, Rajeev; Rao, V K

    2015-07-01

    First-principles analysis based on density functional theory was performed to compute the electronic and transport properties of a single-walled carbon nanotube in the presence of hydrogen cyanide. A chiral (4,1) carbon nanotube was found to become less metallic as the number of hydrogen cyanide molecules nearby increased. When there were a sufficient number of hydrogen cyanide molecules close to the nanotube, it became semiconducting. This metallic to semiconducting transformation of the nanotube was verified by analyzing its conductance and current as a function of the number of molecules of hydrogen cyanide present. The conductivity of the carbon nanotube was very high when no hydrogen cyanide molecules were present, but decreased considerably when even just a single hydrogen cyanide molecule approached the surface of the nanotube. Graphical Abstract SWCNT based HCN sensor and its Current vs Bias voltage characteristics. PMID:26072123

  6. The Rockefeller Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation is one of the largest private philanthropic entities in the United States. In the past year, it awarded over $140 million in grants to numerous organizations working and researching topics of interest to the Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation currently has five primary program themes: creativity and culture, food security, health equity, working communities, and global inclusion. While the Foundation typically operates as "a proactive grantmaker," persons working for organizations that perform work or research in these five thematic areas will find perusing this website to be quite helpful. Here visitors can find out about current grant recipients, search the contents of the entire site, and learn more about the Foundation's overall mission and vision. Additionally, quite a few of the foundation's publications and papers are available for download here, including important works on HIV prevention in the developing world, inequities in health care, nonprofit capital, and inner city renewal in the United States.

  7. Arbor Day Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arbor Day was first observed in 1872, and the Arbor Day Foundation was founded in 1972 in Nebraska. The Arbor Day website contains a trove of information for visitors to peruse, make plans around, and learn from. The "Trees" section of the website includes "What Tree is That?", an online guide for tree identification; a "Tree Guide", that covers more than 200 different species of trees; and a quiz called "The Right Tree in the Right Place", about how and why to first make a simple plan, considering size and shape, when planting trees around a house. The "Programs" section of the website is an excellent resource for visitors such as teachers, parents and students. "Nature Explore" helps connect kids with nature via the "Resource Guide", which contains "field-tested resources developed to bring nature into children's daily learning in sustainable, significant, positive and joyful ways." Interested visitors can use the link entitled "Request a Resource Guide", to get a free copy. "Nature Explore Classroom Certification" links teachers to the certification process and examples of certified classrooms and classrooms in-progress.

  8. Removal of toxic cyanide and Cu(II) Ions from water by illuminated TiO 2 catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Barakat; Y. T Chen; C. P Huang

    2004-01-01

    Due to its strong complex formation potential, cyanide (CN?) has been used in a variety of metal processing and metal extracting processes. As a result, the wastewaters generated from such processes always contain a mixture of cyanide and metal ions. Photocatalytic degradation using ultraviolet-irradiated TiO2 suspension has been investigated for destroying both free and complex cyanide with a concurrent removal

  9. Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

  10. Kessler Foundation Research Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers & Families | Media your support matters -> Announcing the Employment Survey Results! Results from the 2015 Kessler Foundation National Employment & Disability Survey were announced on June 3rd, on ...

  11. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy) [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  12. Oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution by chemical and photochemical process.

    PubMed

    Sarla, M; Pandit, M; Tyagi, D K; Kapoor, J C

    2004-12-10

    Cyanide waste is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated from metallurgical operations. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper, oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution was investigated using chemical and photochemical process. Chemical oxidation was studied at room temperature using H2O2 as oxidant and Cu2+ as catalyst. Photochemical oxidation was studied in an annular type batch photoreactor of 1l capacity using 25 W low-pressure (81.7% transmission at 254 nm wavelength) ultraviolet (UV) lamp along with H2O2 as oxidant. The effect of Cu2+ catalysis was also studied. It was observed that in absence of UV source, the degradation of cyanide by H2O2 alone was very slow, whereas copper ions accelerated the rate of reaction thereby acting as catalyst. Copper formed a complex with cyanide ion, i.e. tetracyanocuprate which had greater affinity for H2O2. Cyanate hydrolysis was also favoured by copper ions. As Cu2+ ion concentration was increased, rate of degradation also increased. Photochemical oxidation by H2O2 and Cu2+ was found to be the best system for cyanide degradation. CN- (100 mg/l) was degraded to non-detectable level in 9 min at pH 10.0 with optimum H2O2 dose of 35.5 mM and Cu2+ dose of 19 mg/l. Reaction kinetics of cyanide oxidation was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant has been determined for different processes. PMID:15561362

  13. Foundations and Piles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrate Publishing provides this engineering information site, which is an excellent resource for anyone who needs background information on building structures. This specific page offers an introduction to some of the common types of foundations and piles used for building construction. Both definitions and illustrations of common foundation types are included here for your perusal.

  14. BUILDING A STRONG FOUNDATION.

    E-print Network

    Linsley, Braddock K.

    information, including non-discriminatory policies, safety and security, Clery Act, etc., can be foundBUILDING A STRONG FOUNDATION. UALBANY FACTS. Enrollment: 12,822 undergraduates 4,516 graduate) (MAAC) #12;STUDY. LISTEN. CHALLENGE. LEARN. A STRONG FOUNDATION The University at Albany puts the world

  15. Foundations of Laser Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stig Stenholm; John E. Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents the theoretical foundations of steady state laser spectroscopy at an elementary level. General foundations and specific features of nonlinear effects are summarized, laser operation and laser spectroscopy are presented, and laser field fluctuations and the effects of field quantization are dealt with. It gives detailed derivations so the reader can work out all results. References are collected in separate

  16. Seeking Foundation Grants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Barbara Stewart

    Institutions seeking supplementary funding should not be afraid of approaching foundations for grants but should be sure that they understand the grant-seeking process so they do not waste time and effort sending inadequate proposals to uninterested foundations. This booklet, a guide to grantsmanship intended primarily for Catholic educators,…

  17. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  18. The William Penn Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1945, Otto and Phoebe Haas created the Phoebe Waterman Foundation in order to respond to a variety of social problems. Some of their first work included funds given for European relief and scholarships for fatherless children. In 1974, the Foundation changed its name to the William Penn Foundation to honor its association with the city of Philadelphia. Today, the Foundation's mission is "to advance a vital, just, and caring community." Their website provides great details on their work, and by extension, it also provides helpful material on the state of the Philadelphia region. Visitors can start their journey through the materials via the three primary sections of the site, which include "Arts & Culture" and "Environment & Communities". Along with the information about the grants available in each category, users will find reports and news updates regarding each thematic area. Moving on, the "Newsroom" contains briefs on the Foundation's activities and initiatives with other organizations and government agencies.

  19. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife, including bats, is capping the concentration of cyanide in tailings discharged to open impoundments at 50 mg/L WAD. PMID:24566971

  20. Engineering pH tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus C1 and identifying constraints on substrate specificity in nitrilases 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    2009-05-15

    are true nitrilases and convert cyanide to the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia. Cyanide dihydratases have been found in only a few bacteria including Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. Denitrificans DF3 (16), Bacillus pumilus C1 (22), and P...

  1. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  2. Disruption of cochlear potentials by chemical asphyxiants. Cyanide and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Tawackoli, W; Chen, G D; Fechter, L D

    2001-01-01

    While ischemia, hypoxic hypoxia, and carbon monoxide (CO) have received extensive study designed to characterize mechanisms by which they disrupt cochlear function, little data are available concerning cyanide's potential to disrupt auditory function. In this study, disruption of the compound action potential (CAP) and endocochlear potential (EP) by cyanide and CO was compared in rats treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) (7 mg/kg ip), saline, CO (35 ml/kg ip), and air. Acute KCN administration significantly suppressed CAP and EP transiently. The effect was seen initially on EP with CAP impairment occurring a few minutes later. Acute CO injection also suppressed the CAP significantly, but the effect was far smaller, occurred later in time, and lasted longer than the effect of KCN. The effect of CO on EP was equivocal. There was a good correspondence between blood cyanide levels and impairment of cochlear function; carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) levels were elevated during the period when cochlear function was impaired, but recovery of cochlear function preceded the return of normal oxyhemoglobin. Both KCN and CO had somewhat preferential effects on high-frequency tones. Repeated cyanide administration caused a persistent CAP threshold elevation despite the rapid recovery of EP and CAP observed following acute KCN administration. The data suggest that acute KCN administration has a prominent disruptive effect at the stria vascularis presumably by disrupting the electron transport chain in this metabolically active structure. The principal target for acute CO ototoxicity in the cochlea is probably not the stria vascularis. PMID:11348833

  3. Cyanide-induced alteration of cytosolic pH: involvement of cellular hydrogen ion handling processes.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    1990-11-01

    Neuronal cells exposed to cyanide rapidly lose the capacity to regulate internal Ca2+ homeostasis, thereby accumulating an excess cytosolic Ca2+ load. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of KCN on another important ion: hydrogen ion. KCN (1-10 mM) rapidly decreased intracellular pH (pHi) of cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as indicated by the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Removal of Ca2+ from the media or pretreating the cells with diltiazem (10(-5) M), a calcium channel blocker, delayed the onset and reduced the magnitude of the drop in pHi. Lowering the pH of the incubation medium (pHo) to 6.9 exaggerated the drop in pHi, while raising it to 7.9 attenuated the change in pHi. Removal of Na+ from the media enhanced the cyanide effect. Reintroduction of Na+ or substitution with Li+ reversed the cytosolic acidification, suggesting involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger in the cyanide action. Pretreatment of cells with amiloride, 0.2 mM, blunted the cytosolic acidification induced by KCN, possibly by decreasing intracellular Na+ accumulation and disrupting H+ efflux. Cyanide thus produces a rapid dysfunction of hydrogen ion handling mechanisms and this may play a role in cyanide neurotoxicity. PMID:2256111

  4. Cyanide-induced alteration of the adenylate energy pool in a rat neurosecretory cell line.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    1991-04-01

    Cultures of a rat PC12 pheochromocytoma neurosecretory cell line were used to determine the responsiveness of oxidative energy status of isolated neuronal cells to cyanide exposure. Intracellular levels of ATP and its immediate metabolites, ADP and AMP, were measured in monolayer cultures of PC12 cells incubated for 0-30 min with KCN (10 mM). Over the period 2.5-30 min. cyanide treatment decreased ATP levels by 32-51% but ADP and AMP levels were not altered significantly. Additionally, ATP/ADP and ATP/AMP ratios were significantly reduced in KCN-intoxicated cells. These alterations in energy status may explain the prompt ablation of ion homeostasis reported previously in this model upon exposure to KCN. The energy-depleting actions of cyanide were not modified by pretreatment of cells with diltiazem, a calcium channel antagonist demonstrated to possess cytoprotective activity against histotoxic hypoxia induced by cyanide. Since PC12 cells rapidly respond to cyanide, with predictable depletions of the cell adenylate energy pool, this cell line can serve as a suitable in vitro model for studies of neurotoxicity involving ischemic/hypoxic conditions. PMID:2061557

  5. QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

  6. Determination of cyanide based upon its reaction with colloidal silver in the presence of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, T.; Ganguly, A.; Maity, D.S.

    1986-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of silver-gelatin complex are reduced in the presence of ascorbic acid to silver sol. The quantitative reduction may be followed by spectrophotometric determination of silver metal or by the dissolution of yellow silver sol in air. The dissolution has been used for the spectrophotometric, conductometric, and volumetric determination of cyanide in aqueous medium in the presence of protein and cellulose materials. The colored silver sol becomes colorless at the end point. The reagent solution is fairly stable over the experimental time scale, and the change in absorbance at 415 nm or the sharp increase in specific conductance values gives a good measure of the concentration of cyanide present in the solution. Under the experimental conditions, the minimum amounts of cyanide that can be determined are 0.05 mg/L by spectrophotometry, 6.0 mg/L by conductometry, and 10.0 mg/L by volumetric procedure; the relative standard deviations are 0.16%, 5.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The method does show a remarkable freedom from interferences and is found suitable for the determination of cyanide in industrial effluent water. In addition, the biological samples containing cyanide may be easily determined without any pretreatment.

  7. Cyanide quantification in post-mortem biological matrices by headspace GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Desharnais, Brigitte; Huppé, Geneviève; Lamarche, Martine; Mireault, Pascal; Skinner, Cameron D

    2012-10-10

    Cyanide is a powerful chemical asphyxiant found in some forensic cases following voluntary (suicide) or involuntary ingestion (fire, accidental exposure). A quantification method for cyanide that is specifically suited to post-mortem forensic purposes was developed. Determination was performed by headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using a GS-GASPRO column on an HP-6890 gas chromatograph with an HP-5973N mass detector. The biological sample was treated with an internal standard, frozen, glacial acetic acid was added and the sample was then incubated at 60°C for 15 min. The headspace was sampled with a disposable syringe, and analyzed to quantify hydrogen cyanide. Isotopically labeled cyanide ((13)C(15)N) was used as the internal standard to minimize matrix effect and sampling error. The method produced an extended linear dynamic range (0.07-50 ?g/mL), and a method detection limit of 0.02 ?g/mL. Identical calibration curves were obtained when blood, gastric contents and aqueous solutions were used as the calibration standard matrix. This method was also successful in quantitating cyanide in gastric contents, one of the most variable biological fluids. The method has been validated and is being used for current forensic cases such as fire victims and suicides. PMID:22771200

  8. UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA ENGINEERING FOUNDATION

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA ENGINEERING FOUNDATION I __________________________________________ pledge to contribute or make possible a gift to the University of Virginia Engineering Foundation for the University: ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Please make check payable to the Engineering Foundation and return to the University of Virginia

  9. FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION June 30, 2010 and 2009 #12;FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS To the Board of Directors Florida Atlantic University Foundation, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida We have audited

  10. Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation Administrative Assistant to the AVP Information Representative Tower Foundation Charitable Gifts Officer Gift Analyst Gift Analyst Gift Analyst Senior Analyst Tower Foundation Stewardship Director Graphic Designer Administrative Assistant Web Communications

  11. NATIONALSCIENCE FOUNDATION 4201 WILSON BOULEVARD

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    NATIONALSCIENCE FOUNDATION 4201 WILSON BOULEVARD ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22230 January 29,2007 OFFICE Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) have agreed upon the following Deputy Director National Institutes of Health National ScienceFoundation #12;

  12. FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION June 30, 2011 and 2010 #12;FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AUDITORS' REPORT To the Board of Directors Florida Atlantic University Foundation, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida

  13. 9. May 20, 1963 SEED BUILDING FOUNDATION WALLS Under Construction. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. May 20, 1963 SEED BUILDING FOUNDATION WALLS Under Construction. Looking southeast showing north and west walls of Machinery Shed - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide bilayer vesicle-catalyzed and uranine-sensitized chemiluminescence for determination of free cyanide at picogram levels by flow injection method

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Yamada, M.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence system, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide-uranine-sodium hydroxide, is described for the determination of ultratraces of free cyanide by flow injection method. Organized surfactant assemblies(bilayer vesicles) incorporated with a sensitizer(uranine) permit the determination of free cyanide very selectively with a limit of determination of 1 pg(20-3=l sample injection). Sulfide, the strongest CL inducer after free cyanide, provides a signal 0.1% of that for free cyanide.

  15. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, where is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Atmospheric and planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early atmospheres of Earth as dinitrogen (N2 ), an inert gas under normal atmospheric conditions. To be available for prebiotic synthesis it must be converted into hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3 ) and/or nitric oxide (NO), in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. Due to the strength of the triple bond in N2 , nitrogen fixation, while thermodynamically favored is kinetically restricted. In a reducing atmosphere dominated by CH4 -N2 , thunderstorm lightning efficiently produces HCN and NH3 (Stribling and Miller, 1987). Nevertheless, photochemical and geochemical constraints strongly suggest that the early atmosphere was weakly reducing, dominated by CO2 and N2 with traces of CH4 , CO, and H2 (Kasting, 1993). Under these conditions, HCN is no longer synthesized in the lightning channel and instead NO is formed (Navarro-Gon?lez, et al., 2001). In volcanic plumes, where magmatic gases a were more reducing than in the atmosphere, NO can also be formed by the lava heat (Mather et al., 2004) or volcanic lightning (Navarro-Gon?lez et al., 1998). Surprisingly, dinitrogen can be a reduced to NH3 in hydrothermal systems (Brandes et al., 1998), but the formation of HCN and its derivates were not investigated. The present work explores the possibility of the formation of HCN as well as other nitrile derivatives catalyzed by mineral surfaces in hydrothermal vents. To simulate a hydrothermal atmosphere, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel Parr R minireactor with a 0.1 M NH4 HCO3 solution (200 ml) with or without a mineral surface exposed at 1 bar at temperatures ranging from 100 to 375° C. Different mineral matrices are been investigated. Our preliminary results have been conducted with pyrite and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results indicate that catalysis induced by the mineral surface under hydrothermal conditions does not stop with the production of HCN, but the reaction continues leading to more complex nitriles. The experiments also reveal a clear trend between time and the production of more complex molecules, which are measurable by the chromatographic method. Brandes, J.A., Boctor, N.Z., Cody, G.D., Cooper, B. A., Hazen, R. M. and Yoder Jr, H.S. (1998). Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early Earth. Nature 395, 365-367. Kasting J.F. (1993) Earth's early atmosphere. Science 259, 920-926. Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., and Allen, A.G. (2004) Volcanic source of fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geology 32, 905-908. Navarro-Gon?lez, R., Molina, M.J. and. Molina, L.T. (1998) Nitrogen fixation by volcanic a lightning in the early Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3123-3126. Navarro-Gon?lez, R., McKay, C.P. and Nna Mvondo, D. ( 2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for a Archean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412, 61-64. Stribling, R., and Miller, S.L. (1987) Energy yields for the hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde synthesis: the HCN and amino acid concentrations in the primitive ocean. Origins Life 17, 261-273.

  16. Past, present and future of cyanide antagonism research: From the early remedies to the current therapies

    PubMed Central

    Petrikovics, Ilona; Budai, Marianna; Kovacs, Kristof; Thompson, David E

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews milestones in antidotal therapies for cyanide (CN) spanning early remedies, current antidotal systems and research towards next generation therapies. CN has been a part of plant defense mechanisms for millions of years. It became industrially important in the nineteenth century with the advent of CN assisted gold mining and the use of CN as a pest control agent. The biochemical basis of CN poisoning was actively studied and key mechanisms were understood as early as 1929. These fundamental studies led to a variety of antidotes, including indirect CN binders that generate methemoglobin, direct CN binders such as hydroxocobalamin, and sulfur donors that convert CN to the less toxic thiocyanate. Research on blood gases at the end of the twentieth century shed new light on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. The discovery of NO’s ability to compete with CN for enzymatic binding sites provided a previously missed explanation for the rapid efficacy of NO generating antidotes such as the nitrites. Presently used CN therapies include: methemoglobin/NO generators (e.g., sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and dimethyl aminophenol), sulfur donors (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and glutathione), and direct binding agents [(e.g., hydroxocobalamin and dicobalt salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (dicobalt edetate)]. A strong effort is being made to explore novel antidotal systems and to formulate them for rapid administration at the point of intoxication in mass casualty scenarios. New antidotes, formulations, and delivery systems are enhancing bioavailability and efficacy and hold promise for a new generation of improved CN countermeasures. PMID:26140275

  17. The Influence of Cyanide on the Carbonylation of Iron(II): Synthesis of Fe-SR-CN-CO Centers

    E-print Network

    Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    The Influence of Cyanide on the Carbonylation of Iron(II): Synthesis of Fe-SR-CN-CO Centers Related that iron sulfides catalyze carbonylation reactions leading to the formation of peptides and thioesters.2 in the prebiotic context,3 but the influence of cyanide on the carbonyl chemistry of iron has received scant

  18. The Effect of Functional Group Structure on the Elution of Metal Cyanide Complexes from Ion-Exchange Resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. LUKEY; J. S. J. van DEVENTER; D. C. SHALLCROSS

    2000-01-01

    Previous investigations have established that the thiocyanate anion and the zinc cyanide complex are suitable eluants for the simultaneous recovery of metal cyanide complexes from ion-exchange resins. However, the effect of the ionic density of the resin and the stereochemistry of the functional group on metal recovery has never been systematically studied. The present study investigated the elution properties of

  19. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of hydrogen cyanide levels in human breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Mörk, Anna-Karin; Johanson, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a potent and fast-acting toxin increasingly recognized as an important cause of death in fire victims. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of cyanide poisoning are essential to avoid fatalities. Unfortunately, there are at present few rapid diagnostic methods. A noninvasive methodology would be to use HCN in exhaled air as a marker for systemic exposure. To explore this possibility, we developed a preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The model suggests that breath HCN levels following inhalation exposure at near-lethal and lethal conditions are 0.1-1 ppm, i.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the background breath level of about 0.01 ppm in unexposed subjects. Hence, our results imply that breath analysis may be used as a rapid diagnostic method for cyanide poisoning. PMID:25069802

  20. Rapid quantitation of cyanide in whole blood by automated headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Stanfill, Stephen B

    2002-05-25

    Cyanide (CN), a chemical asphyxiant, is a rapidly acting and powerful poison. We have developed a sensitive, rapid, simple, and fully automated method for measuring CN in whole blood. The assay is based on the use of gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection and acetonitrile as an internal reference. Following the automated addition of phosphoric acid to the blood sample, the released hydrogen cyanide is analyzed using a fully automated headspace GC system. The assay, validated on human blood samples spiked with potassium cyanide and on clinical samples from fire victims who had smoke inhalation injury, can detect CN at a wide range of concentrations (30-6000 microg/l) in about 17 min (including incubation and GC run time, and <2 min for manual sample preparation). This automated, high-throughput, simple, and sensitive method is suitable for the rapid diagnosis of CN in clinical and forensic specimens. PMID:12016024

  1. Cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. A rapid-freeze e.p.r. investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, P; Wilson, M T; Aasa, R; Malmström, B G

    1984-01-01

    The inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by cyanide, starting either with the resting or the pulsed enzyme, was studied by rapid-freeze quenching followed by quantitative e.p.r. It is found that a partial reduction of cytochrome oxidase by transfer of 2 electron equivalents from ferrocytochrome c to cytochrome a and CuA will induce a transition from a closed to an open enzyme conformation, rendering the cytochrome a3-CuB site accessible for cyanide binding, possibly as a bridging ligand. A heterogeneity in the enzyme is observed in that an e.p.r. signal from the cytochrome a3 3+-HCN complex is only found in 20% of the molecules, whereas the remaining cyanide-bound a3-CuB sites are e.p.r.-silent. PMID:6098268

  2. Corrin-based chemosensors for the ASSURED detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zelder, Felix; Tivana, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for more than 500 million people, especially in Africa and South America. However, its consumption bears risks as it contains cyanogenic glycosides that convert enzymatically to toxic cyanide during cell damage. To avoid serious health problems by unintentional cyanide intake, this dangerous product of decomposition must be removed before consumption. For monitoring such food processing procedures and for controlling the quality and safety of cassava products on the market, a convenient and reliable analytical method for routine applications without laboratory equipment is required. This Perspective summarizes the authors' work on corrin-based chemosensors for the ('naked-eye') detection of endogenous cyanide in cassava samples. Considering selectivity, sensitivity, handling and speed of detection, these systems are superior to currently applied methods. Based on these properties, the development of a test kit for application by rural farmers in remote locations is proposed. PMID:25317920

  3. Protonation Studies of the New Iron Carbonyl Cyanide trans-[Fe(CO)3(CN)2]2-: Implications with Respect to Hydrogenases

    E-print Network

    Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    Protonation Studies of the New Iron Carbonyl Cyanide trans-[Fe(CO)3(CN)2]2-: ImplicationsVersity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received April 30, 2003 The new iron carbonyl cyanide by the hydrogenase enzymes, which also feature H-Fe- CN-CO centers. Iron carbonyl cyanide complexes1-7 have assumed

  4. Non-lethal, repeated testing, anesthetized canine model for the evaluation of effectiveness of new forms of prophylaxis and therapy for cyanide intoxication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Von Bredow; J. Vick; A. Kaminskis; T. Brewer

    1993-01-01

    Acute cyanide intoxication has most often been modeled through the bolos intravenous administration of a lethal amount of sodium or potassium cyanide which provides reproducible effects and represents the most severe challenge to any new form of prophylaxis and therapy. Inhalation of cyanide leads to a similar acute onset of toxic signs which is controlled by the rate and depth

  5. Set Theory and Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brown, Kevin

    About 90 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on set theory and foundations: what is fuzzy logic, fractal logic, Cantor's diagonal proof, are all triangles isosceles, on Gauss's mountains, problems with the luminiferous aether, and many more.

  6. Foundations 6% Federal 49%

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Aeronautics and Space Administration National Cancer Institute National Center on Minority Health and Health Administration Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NASA Headquarters NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory National Administration National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Science Foundation National Security Agency Naval

  7. Ammonium boranes for the selective complexation of cyanide or fluoride ions in water.

    PubMed

    Hudnall, Todd W; Gabbaï, François P

    2007-10-01

    With the recognition of aqueous fluoride and cyanide ions as an objective, we have investigated the anion binding properties of two isomeric ammonium boranes, namely [p-(Mes2B)C6H4(NMe3)]+ ([1]+) and [o-(Mes2B)C6H4(NMe3)]+ ([2]+). These cationic boranes, which could be obtained by reaction of the known 4- and 2-dimesitylboryl-N,N-dimethylaniline with MeOTf, have been investigated both experimentally and computationally. They both react with fluoride and cyanide ions in organic solvents to afford the corresponding fluoroborate/ or cyanoborate/ammonium zwitterions 1F, 1CN, 2F, and 2CN. In aqueous solution, however, these cationic boranes behave as remarkably selective receptors. Indeed, [1]+ only complexes cyanide ions while [2]+ only complexes fluoride ions. In H2O/DMSO 60:40 vol (HEPES 6 mM, pH 7), the cyanide binding constant of [1]+ and the fluoride binding constant of [2]+ are respectively equal to 3.9 (+/-0.1) x 108 and 910 (+/-50) M-1. Structural and computational studies indicate that both steric and electronic effects contribute to the unusual selectivity displayed by these cationic boranes. Owing to favorable Coulombic effects, the para-derivative [1]+ has a very high affinity for cyanide; yet these effects are not sufficiently intense to allow complexation of the more efficiently hydrated and less basic fluoride anion. In the case of the ortho-derivative [2]+, the proximity of the ammonium moiety leads to an increase in the Lewis acidity of the boron center thus making fluoride binding possible. However, steric effects prevent cyanide coordination to the boron center of [2]+. Finally, cation [1]+ and [2]+ bind their dedicated anions reversibly and show a negligible response in the presence of other common anions including Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, OAc-, H2PO4-, and HSO4-. PMID:17845043

  8. Birth of a foundation.

    PubMed

    Crahan, E S

    1970-10-01

    In order to attract competent students with backgrounds in biology to the field of medical librarianship, the Medical Library Group of Southern California decided to expand their scholarship program. Funds were appropriated to establish a nonprofit, tax exempt foundation whose objective is to provide two full annual scholarships for the Master's degree program in librarianship. Details of the procedure followed in establishing the foundation are described along with criteria for selecting students. PMID:5496242

  9. Different reactivity of hydroxylamine with carbamoyl azides and carbamoyl cyanides: synthesis of hydroxyureas and carbamoyl amidoximes.

    PubMed

    Paz, Jairo; Pérez-Balado, Carlos; Iglesias, Beatriz; Muñoz, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The carbamoylating agents carbamoyl azides and carbamoyl cyanides (aka cyanoformamides) react with hydroxylamine in different ways, leading in the first case to N-hydroxyureas and, in the case of carbamoyl cyanides, to carbamoyl amidoxime derivatives. The synthetic procedure developed for the latter type of compound, which represents an interesting precursor for heterocyclic structures, allowed the highly efficient preparation of a wide selection of examples. The Z configuration of the double bond in the amidoxime moiety was proposed on the basis of comparison between experimental and calculated (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shift values for the isopropyl and benzyl derivatives. PMID:21049914

  10. Private Foundations. SPEC Kit 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Because of the variety in the nature and interests of foundations, libraries often seek an understanding of several foundations' interests, funding history, future plans, and strategies in terms of their own needs before approaching a single foundation. A review of foundation giving within the past few years shows that construction and expansion…

  11. Foundation Science Undergraduate study 2014

    E-print Network

    Brown, Andrew Leigh

    Foundation Science Undergraduate study 2014 www.nottingham.ac.uk/foundationscience For general.nottingham.ac.uk/faqs #12;Foundation science at The University of Nottingham Contents 2 Foundation science at The University to various degrees and have found the one year course hard work but an advantage! Foundation science offers

  12. The cyanogenic syndrome in rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis: tissue-damage-dependent activation of linamarase and hydroxynitrile lyase accelerates hydrogen cyanide release

    PubMed Central

    Kadow, Daniel; Voß, Karsten; Selmar, Dirk; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from injured plant tissue affects multiple ecological interactions. Plant-derived HCN can act as a defence against herbivores and also plays an important role in plant–pathogen interactions. Crucial for activity as a feeding deterrent is the amount of HCN generated per unit time, referred to as cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Strong intraspecific variation in HCNc has been observed among cyanogenic plants. This variation, in addition to genotypic variability (e.g. in Trifolium repens), can result from modifications in the expression level of the enzymes involved in either cyanogenic precursor formation or HCN release (as seen in Sorghum bicolor and Phaseolus lunatus). Thus, a modification or modulation of HCNc in reaction to the environment can only be achieved from one to the next generation when under genetic control and within days or hours when transcriptional regulations are involved. In the present study, it is shown that in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) HCNc is modulated by post-translational activity regulation of the key enzymes for cyanide release. Methods Linamarase (LIN) and hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) activity was determined by colorimetric assays utilizing dissociation of the substrates p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside and acetone cyanohydrin, respectively. Key Results In rubber tree leaves, LIN and HNL show up to ten-fold increased activity in response to tissue damage. This enzyme activation occurs within seconds and results in accelerated HCN formation. It is restricted to the damaged leaf area and depends on the severity of tissue damage. Conclusions LIN and HNL activation (in contrast to genetic and transcriptional regulations) allows an immediate, local and damage type-dependent modulation of the cyanogenic response. Accordingly, this post-translational activation plays a decisive role in the defence of H. brasiliensis against herbivores as well as pathogens and may allow more flexible reactions in response to these different antagonists. PMID:22451599

  13. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  14. The National Book Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The charge of the National Book Foundation has been to highlight great American writers and writings. As the preeminent organization devoted to literature "the Foundation has sought to fulfill this mission in two ways. Through The National Book Awards -- the nation's preeminent literary prize -- the Foundation recognizes books of exceptional merit written by Americans. Through its unique outreach programs featuring National Book Award authors, communities participate in the writing life of the nation by reading and writing together." Over the years, the awards have featured the names of such exemplary and inimitable authors as Saul Bellow, Rachel Carson, Thornton Wilder, William Faulkner, and Lauren Bacall, and include such genres as autobiography, poetry, religion, history, fiction, and more. With September 2003 came the addition of Stephen King -- the author of numerous short stories and books that take the reader through twisted, snaring plots in stories such as Carrie, Christine, and Misery -- to this illustrious list of honorees by receiving the foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. At this Web site, visitors can peruse a listing of all of the award winners, learn about the annual National Book Month (celebrated in October), and explore the many other offerings of the foundation including workshops, writing camps, and available resources.

  15. Modified activated carbon for the removal of copper, zinc, chromium and cyanide from wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotfi Monser; Nafaâ Adhoum

    2002-01-01

    Modified activated carbon are carbonaceous adsorbents which have tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (TBAI) and sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (SDDC) immobilised at their surface. This study investigates the adsorption of toxic ions, copper, zinc, chromium and cyanide on these adsorbents that have undergone surface modification with tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) and SDDC in wastewater applications. The modification technique enhance the removal capacity of carbon

  16. Elimination of sodium cyanide and vapor degreasing from the passivation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Stimetz; W. P. McKay

    1993-01-01

    This report is an examination of the vapor degreasing and alkaline descaling steps in the passivation process. Since parts that are to be passivated are fairly clean, the vapor degreasing step may be redundant. Sodium cyanide is a component of the alkaline descaling solution and would be desirable to eliminate because of environmental concerns. Evaluations were performed to determine if

  17. Initial loss of cyanide, thiocyanate, and thiosulfate adjuvants following amendment to an oxidic gold ore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Ebbs; Spas D. Kolev; Robert C. R. Piccinin; Ian E. Woodrow; Alan J. M. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Gold extraction and gold phytomining involve the use of adjuvants such as cyanide, thiocyanate, or thiosulfate to facilitate the dissolution of gold and its subsequent recovery. The adjuvants can be applied at high rates, in excess of 1kgt?1 for some ores. At these concentrations, concerns have been expressed about adjuvant persistence and associated detrimental repercussions for the environment. The incubation

  18. Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

  19. Structural analysis of urate oxidase in complex with its natural substrate inhibited by cyanide: Mechanistic implications

    PubMed Central

    Gabison, Laure; Prangé, Thierry; Colloc'h, Nathalie; El Hajji, Mohamed; Castro, Bertrand; Chiadmi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Background Urate oxidase (EC 1.7.3.3 or UOX) catalyzes the conversion of uric acid and gaseous molecular oxygen to 5-hydroxyisourate and hydrogen peroxide, in the absence of cofactor or particular metal cation. The functional enzyme is a homo-tetramer with four active sites located at dimeric interfaces. Results The catalytic mechanism was investigated through a ternary complex formed between the enzyme, uric acid, and cyanide that stabilizes an intermediate state of the reaction. When uric acid is replaced by a competitive inhibitor, no complex with cyanide is formed. Conclusion The X-ray structure of this compulsory ternary complex led to a number of mechanistic evidences that support a sequential mechanism in which the two reagents, dioxygen and a water molecule, process through a common site located 3.3 Å above the mean plane of the ligand. This site is built by the side chains of Asn 254, and Thr 57, two conserved residues belonging to two different subunits of the homo-tetramer. The absence of a ternary complex between the enzyme, a competitive inhibitor, and cyanide suggests that cyanide inhibits the hydroxylation step of the reaction, after the initial formation of a hydroperoxyde type intermediate. PMID:18638417

  20. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

  1. 35. DETAIL OF TRAMWAY/WALKWAY OVER CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST. CLASSIFIED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL OF TRAMWAY/WALKWAY OVER CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST. CLASSIFIED SANDS WERE LOADED INTO SMALL TRAM CARS FROM THE SPOUT OF THE CLASSIFIER IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER AND CONVEYED BY HAND TO BE DUMPED INTO THE TANKS BELOW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. Modelling potential ß-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava, a staple crop in Africa, can be crossbred to improve its pro-vitamin A (PVA) content and used as an alternative to capsule supplementation. However it contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic...

  3. Calcium mediation of cyanide-induced catecholamine release: implications for neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, A G; Maduh, E U; Peoples, R W; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    1991-09-01

    Exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to KCN (1.0-10 mM) over a 30-min period stimulated secretion of dopamine (DA) and decreased intracellular DA content. Addition of KCN (10 mM) to rat frontal cortex slices preloaded with 1-[7-3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) increased secretion of NE over a 10- to 30-min incubation period. In PC12 cells release of DA by KCN was nearly abolished in calcium-free media or by prior addition of diltiazem, a calcium channel antagonist. Release of [3H]NE from rat cortical slices by cyanide was only partly inhibited by diltiazem suggesting that intracellular calcium may be involved in this response. In PC12 cells KCN also produced a dose-related release of the DA precursor dihydroxyphenylalanine, without altering intracellular stores. Levels of the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were enhanced at lower concentrations of KCN. These observations indicate cyanide elicits exocytotic release of neurotransmitters in a calcium-dependent manner and also show that cyanide alters catecholamine metabolism. These actions of cyanide may be important in CNS symptoms of intoxication. PMID:1909818

  4. Effect of lead nitrate on cyanidation of gold ores: progress on the study of the mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Deschenes; R. Lastra; J. R. Brown; S. Jin; O. May; E. Ghali

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the latest efforts to improve the understanding of the use of lead nitrate in cyanidation. The study is based on an electrochemical approach to establish the nature of the mechanisms related to gold, a surface analysis study, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to determine the modifications on gold and sulphide minerals (pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite)

  5. Determination of cyanide based upon its reaction with colloidal silver in the presence of oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarasankar. Pal; Ashes. Ganguly; Durga S. Maity

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of silver-gelatin complex are reduced in the presence of ascorbic acid to silver sol. The quantitative reduction may be followed by spectrophotometric determination of silver metal or by the dissolution of yellow silver sol in air. The dissolution has been used for the spectrophotometric, conductometric, and volumetric determination of cyanide in aqueous medium in the presence of protein

  6. Rapid quantitation of cyanide in whole blood by automated headspace gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia M Calafat; Stephen B Stanfill

    2002-01-01

    Cyanide (CN), a chemical asphyxiant, is a rapidly acting and powerful poison. We have developed a sensitive, rapid, simple, and fully automated method for measuring CN in whole blood. The assay is based on the use of gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen–phosphorus detection and acetonitrile as an internal reference. Following the automated addition of phosphoric acid to the blood sample,

  7. Efficient biodegradation of cyanide and ferrocyanide by Na-alginate beads immobilized with fungal cells of Trichoderma koningii.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Liu, Lixing; Chen, Yunpeng; Xu, Shufa; Chen, Jie

    2007-09-01

    Cyanide or metal cyanide contaminations have become serious environmental and food-health problems. A fungal mutant of Trichoderma koningii, TkA8, constructed by restriction enzyme-mediated integration, has been verified to have a high cyanide degradation ability in our previous study. In this study, the mutant cells were entrapped in sodium-alginate (Na-alginate) immobilization beads to degrade cyanide and ferrocyanide in a liquid mineral medium. The results showed that the fungus in immobilization beads consisting of 3% Na-alginate and 3% CaCl2 could degrade cyanide more efficiently than a nonimmobilized fungal culture. For maximum degradation efficiency, the optimal ratio of Na-alginate and wet fungal biomass was 20:1 (m/m) and the initial pH was 6.5. In comparison, cell immobilization took at least 3 and 8 days earlier, respectively, to completely degrade cyanide and ferrocyanide. In addition, we showed that the immobilized beads could be easily recovered from the medium and reused for up to 5 batches without significant losses of fungal remediation abilities. The results of this study provide a promising alternative method for the large-scale remediation of soil or water systems from cyanide contamination. PMID:18026223

  8. Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

  9. The Commonwealth Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created in 1965, the Commonwealth Foundation was created with a mandate to strengthen civil society in all of the member nations. Membership of the Foundation is open to all Commonwealth countries and as of 2006 membership stood at 45 governments. Over the past four decades, they have worked on issues including human rights, gender equality, poverty eradication, and good governance. As might be expected, the site contains ample material on their various initiatives, along with information for those who might be seeking funding for their own projects (if they happen to be a citizen of a member Commonwealth). The "Resource Material" includes audiovisual materials that include some very fun and interesting short stories submitted for the annual Commonwealth Short Story Competition and their in-house publication, "Commonwealth People". For visitors who wish to stay abreast of the Foundation's work, there is a place here to sign up to receive their electronic newsletter.

  10. The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Foundation was founded "by an international group of physicians and researchers to provide an ongoing exchange of information about MDS." For those unfamiliar with this condition, MDS "is a collection of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells." The MDS Foundation website offers free resources for clinicians, information for patients, international research updates, and information about upcoming and past symposia. The site also provides an extensive list of MDS Centers of Excellence throughout the United States and around the world. Other MDS Foundation services include an International MDS Patient Registry; online forums for patients and professional members; downloadable newsletters; links to related articles and archived abstracts; and related links.

  11. Film Noir Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

  12. Russell Sage Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1907 by Mrs. Margaret Olivia Sage, the Russell Sage Foundation was established for "the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States". Located in New York City, the Foundation is a source of funds for scholars at various institutions around the country and is also an active research center. Currently, the Foundation is pursuing three principal programs, including one on the future of work, another on current U.S. immigration, and a final program that deals with understanding and improving relations between racial and ethnic groups in schools, workplaces, and neighborhood settings. As might be expected, the publication section is quite strong, and includes a number of working papers available at no charge as .pdf files. Some of the titles include studies of welfare recipients and the rise of markets in the Western world.

  13. The Eurasia Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Under the banner of â??Engaging Citizens, Empowering Communitiesâ?, the Eurasia Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Incorporated in 1992, the Eurasia Foundation has made over $335 million in grants to countries in the region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. In general, the Foundation works within three broad mandate areas, including private enterprise development, public administration and policy and civil society. Visitors are invited to learn about their activities on the website, and they may do so by browsing by geographical region, or by looking within the â??Publicationsâ? area. This area contains annual reports, news briefs, and feature reports, which include recent titles such as â??Opening the Georgian Militaryâ? and â??Promoting the Non-Profit Sector in the Pamirsâ?.

  14. The Asia Foundation: Multimedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Asia Foundation counts 21 countries as members of the Asia-Pacific region that it concerns itself with, to "build a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region." The "Multimedia" section of their website contains both slideshows and videos. There are many short videos that highlight the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program, which provides books to schoolchildren whose schools and families have limited access. The video "Return to Khishig Undur: The Tale of Peter Rabbit" is worth watching, as it tells the heartwarming story of students in a 4th grade class in a remote village in Mongolia who each received a copy of The Tale of Peter Rabbit from the Asia Foundation. This book was chosen as a result of the over 10,000 people who voted for a children's book in the "Choose a Book. Change a Life" campaign.

  15. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1966, the Kauffman Foundation was the brainchild of Ewing Kauffman who displayed a great curiosity about the world and who also happened to be a great believer in the importance of philanthropy. Over the past forty years, the Foundation has worked on a variety of initiatives, including work on supporting early education, entrepreneurship, and school reform. On the homepage, visitors will find five primary sections, including "Advancing Innovation", "Education", and "Research & Policy". The first place to start is the "Research & Policy" area. Here, visitors can find data reports and analysis papers on national entrepreneurship trends and technology innovation strategies. In each section, visitors can also view media clips featuring commentary from Kauffman Foundation scholars and experts. Moving on, the "Grants" area is a great way to learn about grant opportunities and recipients listed by date and name. Finally, the "Stay Connected" area contains a place where visitors can sign up to receive their various e-newsletters.

  16. The Groundwater Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Groundwater Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. The section Groundwater Basics contains numerous information on groundwater issues, including the following subjects: what is groundwater; how much do we depend on groundwater; groundwater protection, hydrologic cycle, contamination and concerns, sources of groundwater contamination, wells and how they work, ten ways to help conserve and protect groundwater, groundwater ABCs - a glossary of groundwater-related terminology, and source water assessment and protection guide and training materials. Also of interest are kids and youth sections with activities and games, as well as a listing of the foundation's publications and events.

  17. Cytotoxic mechanisms of hydrosulfide anion and cyanide anion in primary rat hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rodney W; Valentine, Holly L; Valentine, William M

    2003-06-30

    Hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide are known to compromise mitochondrial respiration through inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and this is generally considered to be their primary mechanism of toxicity. Experimental studies and the efficiency of current treatment protocols suggest that H(2)S may exert adverse physiological effects through additional mechanisms. To evaluate the role of alternative mechanisms in H(2)S toxicity, the relative contributions of electron transport inhibition, uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration, and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to hydrosulfide and cyanide anion cytotoxicity in primary hepatocyte cultures were examined. Supplementation of hepatocytes with the glycolytic substrate, fructose, rescued hepatocytes from cyanide anion induced toxicity, whereas fructose supplementation increased hydrosulfide anion toxicity suggesting that hydrosulfide anion may compromise glycolysis in hepatocytes. Although inhibitors of the MPTP opening were protective for hydrosulfide anion, they had no effect on cyanide anion toxicity, consistent with an involvement of the permeability transition pore in hydrosulfide anion toxicity but not cyanide anion toxicity. Exposure of isolated rat liver mitochondria to hydrosulfide did not result in large amplitude swelling suggesting that if H(2)S induces the permeability transition it does so indirectly through a mechanism requiring other cellular components. Hydrosulfide anion did not appear to be an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in hepatocytes based upon the inability of oligomycin and fructose to protect hepatocytes from hydrosulfide anion toxicity. These findings support mechanisms additional to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in hydrogen sulfide toxicity. Further investigations are required to assess the role of the permeability transition in H(2)S toxicity, determine whether similar affects occur in other cell types or in vivo and evaluate whether this may provide a basis for the design of more effective therapeutic measures for hydrogen sulfide intoxication. PMID:12767687

  18. Rapid Point of Care Analyzer for the Measurement of Cyanide in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K.; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H3PO4 and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide Hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (?max = 510 nm) to violet (?max = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10x when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improve the limit of detection by 4x to ~ 0.5 ?M for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (? 10 ?M) can be accurately measured in ~ 2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample – smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 ?M CN was 1.09% (n=5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r2 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

  19. California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom works with K-12 teachers, students, and community leaders, to enhance education using agricultural examples. This site provides information about teacher training, student programs, agriculture weblinks, and many resource materials for the classroom. Those materials include downloadable curriculum units covering topics such as heredity, cycles, food, plants, health, engineering and insects. Also included are fact sheets, a quiz, an education newsletter and much more.

  20. FOUNDATION PAPER FOR THE PLANT OIL FLAGSHIP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last century we have become dependent on fossil fuels not just as an energy source for transportation and heating but also for the provision of industrial feedstocks for a multitude of products that we use in every aspect of our daily lives. Fossil fuels are a finite resource and as this re...

  1. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePLUS

    ... profit organization established in 1994 working to eradicate chronic hepatitis for 400 million people globally. HFI is also ... Your Information. Our best hope for treatments and cures is your participation in the Hepatitis Foundation International Registry. Whether you are affected, a ...

  2. International Myeloma Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... us New & Noteworthy Register for the "Myeloma Updates 2015: Post ASCO/EHA/IMWG” teleconference >> The International Myeloma Foundation Applauds Bipartisan Introduction of Oral Parity Legislation >> ICYMI: Watch the replay of the IMWG Conference series. >> MORE NEWS >> Support the IMF Newly Diagnosed? ...

  3. Foundation for Enterprise Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Foundation for Enterprise Development: a comprehensive resource on equity compensation, employee involvement and other leading business strategies. Descriptions of equity compensation methods, the latest research and statistics, and case studies of successful employee owned firms such as Polaroid and Avis.

  4. Foundation for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

  5. The Broad Foundations, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was…

  6. The Foundations of Morality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryann Gilbert-Lovell

    1993-01-01

    Beginning in preschool, moral education should provide children with a foundation for making good and reasonable decisions as well as the motivation to act with integrity. In a complex and changing world, figuring out what is good or what is the 'right' thing to do is often difficult, and decisions often require highly developed critical and creative thinking skills and

  7. Planetary Coral Reef Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

  8. National Film Preservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

  9. Foundation Vibration Isolation Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ASHWANI JAIN; D. K. SONI

    2007-01-01

    All machine foundations except very small ones should be regarded as engineering problem to be dealt with cautiously. The larger ones give rise to enormous dynamic loads, causing vibrations, which the designer must take into account. Care must be taken to ensure smooth running of machine by avoiding harmful vibrations in the base or in the sub-soil or if the

  10. Foundations/History/Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 20 syllabi for courses on educational foundations, history, and philosophy are discussed, and five sample syllabi are presented. These courses are offered as part of graduate level studies in the field of higher education administration. The review revealed the following profile: the history of higher education…

  11. Reconceiving Social Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredo, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Discusses Tozer's position paper on the social foundations of education (SFE), relating SFE more strongly to teachers' public rather than their private problems, suggesting a different approach to the relation of liberal arts theory and educational practice that is less driven by vocational concerns, and examining social relationships and social…

  12. Foundations of International Macroeconomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice Obstfeld; Kenneth S. Rogoff

    1996-01-01

    Foundations of International Macroeconomics is an innovative text that offers the first integrative modern treatment of the core issues in open economy macroeconomics and finance. With its clear and accessible style, it is suitable for first-year graduate macroeconomics courses as well as graduate courses in international macroeconomics and finance. Each chapter incorporates an extensive and eclectic array of empirical evidence.

  13. Foundation Day Meeting

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; Haufler, Marsha

    2007-11-28

    War occurred on National Foundation Day? Hard to say but it must have pleased Tangun who founded Korea 4,340 years ago. Tangun is believed to be the son of a god and a woman transformed from a bear and is said to have established his kingdom...

  14. Logical Foundations Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Sattler, Ulrike

    Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

  15. Foundations of logic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lloyd

    1984-01-01

    The author provides an account of the mathematical foundations of logic programming. The reader should have a strong background in mathematics and be familiar with a logic programming language such as PROLOG. Includes chapter problems, references for further study, and a subject index. Contents: Declarative semantics. Procedural semantics. Negation. Perpetual processes. Index.

  16. Foundation at Visitor Center

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows workers creating the foundation for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The new facility, funded by the Recovery Act, will replace a building that has developed and exposed some serious health and safety problems, including asbestos, extensive rodent encroachment, water leakage, ...

  17. Knowledge & Skills Foundations

    E-print Network

    Hood, Craig

    #12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning process. Basic Knowledge & Skills Students who are ready for entry-level courses are familiar

  18. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the insurance coverage they need. Hear how the Foundation helped the Cox family. Facebook ... Industry Meet to Discuss Advances and Challenges in CF Research 05/27/15 CFF Announces New National Advocacy Chairs 05/15/15 Tens of Thousands ...

  19. Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    CHAPTER 1 Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS JAMES J. GROSS ROSS A. THOMPSON Standing, paper or plastic are made. Quotidian acts of emotion regulation such as this constitute one important- changes that require us to regulate how emotions are experienced and expressed. But what do people do

  20. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

  1. Willis-Ekbom Disease Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Scale Text [ - ] [ + ] Reset RLS News & Updates Become a Foundation Member Join us today to receive great benefits ... RLS? Five essential features must be present Facebook Foundation Blog Discussion Board Support Groups Healthcare Providers Publications ...

  2. Sonochemical Enhancement of Cyanide Ion Degradation from Wastewater in the Wastewater in the W Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Iordache; M. T. Nechita; N. Aelenei; I. Rosca; G. Apostolescu; M. Peptanariu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the capacity of some oxidizing agents: hydrogen peroxide, atmospheric oxygen and barium peroxide to destroy cyanide ions under ultrasound irradiation. Special at- tention was directed towards hydrogen peroxide activity with or without sonication.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Cyanide-Bridged Molecular Clusters and Extended Networks Using the Building-Block Approach 

    E-print Network

    Karadas, Ferdi

    2011-02-22

    The cyanide ligand has frequently been used to prepare clusters with novel magnetic properties due to its ability to provide an efficient pathway for superexchange between metal centers that are bound in an end-to-end ...

  4. Synthesis of potential prophylactic agents against cyanide intoxication. Annual report, 3 September 1991-3 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, J.R.

    1992-04-10

    The goal of the proposed research is to identify through synthesis and testing compounds that may provide prophylaxis against cyanide intoxication. Our review of the literature for both cyanide prophylactics and antidotes suggested that the following strategies for sequestration of cyanide ion through covalent bond formation should be effective at preventing the toxic reaction thereto: (1) administration of sulfur-rich compounds (e.g., polysulfides and cysteine derivatives) which could serve as sulfane sulfur donors to the principal cyanide detoxification enzyme system, rhodanese, and other sulfur transferases; (2) administration of compounds containing multiple carbonyl moieties, such as analogs of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, which can bind cyanide through cyanohydrin formation; and (3) exploration of additional classes of compounds which can directly react with cyanide, including (i) N-alkoxy and N-alkylthio heterocycles, and (ii) phthalocyanines and porphyrins, as well as similar compounds which can covalently eliminate cyanide. results are shaping our current synthetic program. During this report period we-prepared examples of all three compound types just described. The 57 new compounds prepared and submitted this period were distributed among these compound classes as follows: sulfur-rich species, 34; polycarbonyl compounds, 14; alkyl- and alkoxy-substituted small nitrogenous heterocycles, 7; and phthalocyanines, 2. Some of these compounds, particularly among the nitrogenous heterocycles, contained ancillary functionality such as carbonyl, which could also neutralize cyanide. In addition to these novel compounds, samples of several materials were re-submitted because of decomposition of the original supply prior to testing, or because additional quantities were required.

  5. Acute effects of road salts and associated cyanide compounds on the early life stages of the unionid mussel Villosa iris.

    PubMed

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Young, George B; Jones, Jess W; Hua, Dan; Lingenfelser, Susan F

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of cyanide to the early life stages of freshwater mussels (order Unionida) has remained unexplored. Cyanide is known to be acutely toxic to other aquatic organisms. Cyanide-containing compounds, such as sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide, are commonly added to road deicing salts as anticaking agents. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of three cyanide compounds (sodium cyanide, sodium ferrocyanide, and ferric ferrocyanide), two road salts containing cyanide anticaking agents (Morton and Cargill brands), a brine deicing solution (Liquidow brand), and a reference salt (sodium chloride) on glochidia (larvae) and juveniles of the freshwater mussel Villosa iris. Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide were not acutely toxic to glochidia and juvenile mussels at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for these two chemicals ranged from 10 to >1,000 mg/L. Sodium cyanide was acutely toxic to juvenile mussels, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.10 mg/L, although glochidia tolerated concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The EC50s for sodium chloride, Liquidow brine, Morton road salt, and Cargill road salt were not significantly different for tests within the same life stage and test duration (range, 1.66-4.92 g/L). These results indicate that cyanide-containing anticaking agents do not exacerbate the toxicity of road salts, but that the use of road salts and brine solutions for deicing or dust control on roads may warrant further investigation. PMID:22573519

  6. Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

  7. Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Coquand, Thierry

    Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Thierry Coquand Oberwolfach, November 21, 2014 #12;Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Family of sets over a set Cf. Exercice 3,Richman and Ruitenburg 1 #12;Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Family of sets over a set We have

  8. The Role of the Foundations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Beckmann

    1964-01-01

    Foundation encouragement and support of the development of non-Western studies in American higher educa tion has been crucial if not decisive. Beginning with the modest pioneer grants of the Rockefeller Foundation in the 1930's in support of language and area programs, the foundation contribution to this revolutionary educational advance has steadily increased decade by decade and has helped universities more

  9. Irish Architecture Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.

  10. Mind Science Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The potential within the human mind and its connection to the rest of the human body is a subject that has consumed many of the world's brightest scientists. The Mind Science Foundation, founded by Thomas Baker Slick, is a place that is intimately concerned with such matters, and their website is a good way to learn about some of the issues surrounding their work and broader notions about how consciousness arises in human beings. It's a tall research order, and the website responds admirably by presenting a number of speeches from experts on the subject, along with links to the results of various research endeavors sponsored with funds from the Foundation. The site also contains an interactive database of researchers who are working in the area of consciousness and a library of books that might be of interest to those looking for additional resources.

  11. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation is dedicated to an agenda of education reform not unlike the President George W. Bush: testing and accountability, charter schools, school choice, and the like. Its Website provides a number of recently written reports and papers relating to these issues. Recent documents include a "Memo to the New President," offering advice on how to bridge the "partisan divide" and enact reform, a history of teacher certification that examines the rise to political power of professional teacher organizations, a critique of whole language reading instruction, and The State of the State Standards, 2000, a comprehensive assessment of state standards. The publications section includes selected readings on school reform, teacher quality, charter schools, and more. The site features a search engine and a detailed site map. All in all, a fine resource for materials in the school reform debate from what many would characterize as the conservative perspective. The foundation is affiliated with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

  12. Foundation for Child Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Foundation for Child Development \\"is a national, private philanthropy dedicated to the principle that all families should have the social and material resources to raise their children to be healthy, educated and productive members of their communities.\\" The Foundation seeks to help the disadvantaged especially, and works with families, schools, other non-profits, businesses and government. On the site, those interested in Child Development will find links to Public Policy at both the state and national level. Information about immigrant children as well as their own Child Well-Being Index. Also on the site are the archives of their in house publication \\"Learning Curve\\" where users can find articles on a plethora of topics ranging from \\"Fighting Fade-Out by advancing PK-3 Alignment\\" and \\"PK-3 Indicators available on Child Trends DataBank\\". Overall, a useful tool for students, instructors and professionals involved in Child Development.

  13. National Energy Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Energy Foundation (NEF) is a nonprofit educational organization that provides a host of educational materials and programs primarily related to discussing natural resources, technology, conservation, and the environment. The NEF also provides a number of teacher training and student programs that complement their existing work. Young people visiting the site will want to look over the student section which provides four purpose-built sites that provide information on earth sciences activities, environmental stewardship, and several other topical areas. Educators will want to take a look at the section provided for them, as it contains links to the NEFâ??s educational catalog and information about upcoming workshops of interest. The site is rounded out by a links page that offers a host of topical links to other relevant science education sites, such as one on alternate fuel vehicles and the Captain Planet Foundation.

  14. The Wallace Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in New York, the Wallace Foundation is a national philanthropy that seeks "to improve education and enrichment for disadvantaged children." Visitors to their website can learn more about their outreach and research programs through their Primary Topics area. Here, they can read about recent findings that deal with the importance of strong school leaderships, informal learning outside of the classroom, and resources for nonprofit financial management. Moving on, the Knowledge Center contains links to fact sheets, white papers, and databases that deal with arts education, summer learning programs, and four other topical areas. Additionally, visitors shouldn't miss the Latest News area, which contains press releases about the Wallace Foundation's work and advocacy programs crafted through partnerships with other organizations, such as school districts, government agencies, and so on.

  15. Eudora Welty Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the summer of 2001, noted author Eudora Welty passed away in her home state of Mississippi. Throughout her ninety-years she made significant contributions to the art of the short story and other literary forms, and she remains the subject of scholarship and admiration in many quarters. Fortunately, the Eudora Welty Foundation was established in 1999 to celebrate her works and also to make sure that her various writings remain an essential part of academic curricula in high schools and colleges. On their site, visitors can view an interactive timeline of Welty's life and also peruse a calendar of events sponsored by the Foundation and other related entities. Most visitors will benefit greatly from a trip over to the "Resources" area of the site, which includes a complete bibliography of her works, along with information on the Eudora Welty House and links to other Welty societies and organizations.

  16. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  17. Fractal Topology Foundations

    E-print Network

    Helene Porchon

    2012-01-25

    In this paper, we introduce the foundation of a fractal topological space constructed via a family of nested topological spaces endowed with subspace topologies, where the number of topological spaces involved in this family is related to the appearance of new structures on it. The greater the number of topological spaces we use, the stronger the subspace topologies we obtain. The fractal manifold model is brought up as an illustration of space that is locally homeomorphic to the fractal topological space.

  18. Mathematical foundations of neurocomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Amari, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-09-01

    Neurocomputing makes use of parallel dynamical interactions of modifiable neuron-like elements. It is important to show, by mathematical treatments, the capabilities and limitations of information processing by various architectures of neural networks. This paper, gives mathematical foundations to neurocomputing. It considers the capabilities of transformations by layered networks, statistical neurodynamics, the dynamical characteristics of associative memory, a general theory of neural learning, and self-organization of neural networks.

  19. A comparative study of the biosorption of iron(III)-cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus and Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Aksu, Z.; Calik, A. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-03-01

    In this study a comparative biosorption of iron(III)-cyanide complex anions from aqueous solutions to Rhizopus arrhizus and Chlorella vulgaris was investigated. The iron(III)-cyanide complex ion-binding capacities of the biosorbents were shown as a function of initial pH, initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion, and biosorbent concentrations. The results indicated that a significant reduction of iron(III)-cyanide complex ions was achieved at pH 13, a highly alkaline condition for both the biosorbents. The maximum loading capacities of the biosorbents were found to be 612.2 mg/g for R.arrhizus at 1,996.2 mg/L initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion concentration and 387.0 mg/g for C. vulgaris at 845.4 mg/L initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion concentration at this pH. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson adsorption models were fitted to the equilibrium data at pH 3, 7, and 13. The equilibrium data of the biosorbents could be best fitted by all the adsorption models over the entire concentration range at pH 13.

  20. Zero thermal expansion in a flexible, stable framework : tetramethylammonium copper(I) zinc(II) cyanide.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A. E.; Halder, G. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Goodwin, A. L.; Kepert, C. J.; Univ. Sydney; Univ. Cambridge

    2010-01-13

    Tetramethylammonium copper(I) zinc(II) cyanide, which consists of N(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup +} ions trapped within a cristobalite-like metal cyanide framework, has been studied by variable-temperature powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is approximately zero over the temperature range 200-400 K and comparable with the best commercial zero thermal expansion materials. The atomic displacement parameters, apparent bond lengths, and structure of a low-temperature, low-symmetry phase reveal that the low-energy vibrational modes responsible for this behavior maintain approximately rigid Zn coordination tetrahedra but involve significant distortion of their Cu counterparts.

  1. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3.5 cyanide species analytical methods development. FY 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

  2. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3. 5 cyanide species analytical methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

  3. Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

  4. Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc. AndAndAndAnd

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc. AndAndAndAnd San Antonio REQUIREMENTSELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTSELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTSELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Students receiving a Texas Wildlife

  5. Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

    2014-01-01

    Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Mechanism of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by an association of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Grigor’eva; T. F. Kondrat’eva; E. N. Krasil’nikova; G. I. Karavaiko

    2006-01-01

    The intermediate and terminal products of cyanide and thiocyanate decomposition by individual strains of the genus Pseudomonas, P. putida strain 21 and P. stutzeri strain 18, and by their association were analyzed. The activity of the enzymes of nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in these\\u000a strains was compared with that of the collection strains P. putida VKM B-2187T and P. stutzeri

  7. The effects of grain moisture content and grain temperature on the penetration of hydrogen cyanide 

    E-print Network

    Kunz, Sidney E

    1962-01-01

    dosage of 16 ounces of hydrogen cyanide per 1000 cubic feet was not sufficient to contzol heavy cigarette beetle, ~ggggi ~EE~g@ (Fabricius), infestations in tobacco warehouses. Crumb and Chamberlin (1936) had previously stated that 24 ounces... (Creen)). Jour. Econ. Ent. 25:483&. Childs, D. P. 1958. Warehouse fumigation of flu cured tobacco with HCN to control the cigarette beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent. 51:417-21. Chisholm, R. D. 1952. Nature and uses of fumigants. The Yearbook of Agric. House...

  8. Conversion of sodium cyanide to carbon dioxide and ammonia by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. V. Babu; James H. Wolfram; Kirit D. Chapatwala

    1992-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas putida, isolated from contaminated industrial wastewaters and soil sites, was found to utilize sodium cyanide (NaCN) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Cells, immobilized in calcium alginate beads (1–2 mm diameter) were aerated in air-uplift-type fluidized batch bioreactor containing 100–400 ppm of NaCN. Degradation of NaCN was monitored for 168 h by analyzing gaseous and dissolved

  9. The comet-like composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Furuya, Kenji; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Loomis, Ryan; Wilner, David J.

    2015-04-01

    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the solar nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the solar nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01 per cent of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can readily be explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry (to form, for example, HCN) and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in solar nebula analogues, indicating that they survive disk formation or are re-formed in situ. It has hitherto been unclear whether the same holds for more complex organic molecules outside the solar nebula, given that recent observations show a marked change in the chemistry at the boundary between nascent envelopes and young disks due to accretion shocks. Here we report the detection of the complex cyanides CH3CN and HC3N (and HCN) in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480. We find that the abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas phase are similar to those in comets, which suggests an even higher relative abundance of complex cyanides in the disk ice. This implies that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique.

  10. The comet-like composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides.

    PubMed

    Öberg, Karin I; Guzmán, Viviana V; Furuya, Kenji; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M; Loomis, Ryan; Wilner, David J

    2015-04-01

    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the solar nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the solar nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01 per cent of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can readily be explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry (to form, for example, HCN) and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in solar nebula analogues, indicating that they survive disk formation or are re-formed in situ. It has hitherto been unclear whether the same holds for more complex organic molecules outside the solar nebula, given that recent observations show a marked change in the chemistry at the boundary between nascent envelopes and young disks due to accretion shocks. Here we report the detection of the complex cyanides CH3CN and HC3N (and HCN) in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480. We find that the abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas phase are similar to those in comets, which suggests an even higher relative abundance of complex cyanides in the disk ice. This implies that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. PMID:25855455

  11. Selective electrowinning of mercury from gold cyanide solutions. Report of investigations\\/1988

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. N. Sheya; J. H. Maysilles; R. G. Sandberg

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken by the Bureau of Mines to develop techniques for removing mercury from cyanide mill solutions by selective electrowinning to reduce the potential hazards. Sixty-five percent of the mercury was selectively electrowon from synthetic-carbon strip solution at applied potentials of 1.00 to 1.50 V when using a mercury-coated platinum or copper-plate cathode. Increasing the active surface area

  12. THE EXTRACTION OF SILVER FROM CYANIDE SOLUTIONS WITH ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Riveros; W. Charles Cooper

    1985-01-01

    The ability of various ion exchange resins to extract silver from synthetic cyanide solutions was evaluated. It was found that weak base resins such as DUOLITE A-7, DOWEX WGR-2, DOWEX MWA-1, DOWEX XFS-4195, and AMBERLITE IRA-35 extract silver significantly only when the pH is lower than 8. At higher pH, the same resins exhibited little or no silver extraction. A

  13. In vitro activation of dibromoacetonitrile to cyanide: role of xanthine oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. Mohamadin; Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim

    2003-01-01

    Dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) is a disinfection byproduct of chlorination of drinking water. Epidemiological studies indicate that it might present a potential hazard to human health. The present work provides evidence for DBAN activation to cyanide (CN-) by the hypoxanthine (HX)\\/xanthine oxidase (XO)\\/iron (Fe) system in vitro. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of DBAN to CN-were characterized. Addition of the sulfhydryl compounds

  14. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    DOEpatents

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  15. Elution and decomposition of cyanide in soil contaminated with various cyanocompounds.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Mitsuo; Kojima, Toshinori

    2003-02-28

    Standard soil samples contaminated with various standard cyanocompounds were prepared. Column elution experiments and analyses were conducted. Compounds with an easy capacity for dissociation to ions, such as KCN and potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), were found to be eluted by forming free cyanide even in fresh water. Hexacyanoferrate(II) salts, such as potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) and iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II), were found not to be dissociated in water, but were dissociated and diffused under alkaline conditions (pH >13). Hexacyanoferrate(II) ion was found to be more easily dissociated in water with a higher pH. Column tests as above were also conducted for soil samples taken from a former paint ink factory using iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II), cyanogen chloride, potassium cyanate, copper cyanide, as well as potassium cyanide, as raw materials. It was demonstrate that iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II) was dissociated and eluted under alkaline conditions. The elution rate was reduced when the contaminated soil was sandwiched with standard soil layers.Further, it was found that the Fe(CN)(6)(4-) ion eluted with NaOH from hexacyanoferrate acid in soil, were easily decomposed into cyanic acid or other byproducts by UV with the addition of ozone and H(2)O(2). PMID:12573832

  16. Pediatric cyanide intoxication and death from an acetonitrile-containing cosmetic

    SciTech Connect

    Caravati, E.M.; Litovitz, T.L. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1988-12-16

    Two cases of pediatric accidental ingestion of an acetonitrile-containing cosmetic are reported. One of the children, a 16-month-old boy, was found dead in bed the morning after ingesting the product. No therapy had been undertaken, as the product was mistakenly assumed to be an acetone-containing nail polish remover. The second child, a 2-year-old boy, experienced signs of severe cyanide poisoning, but survived with vigorous supportive care. Both children had blood cyanide levels in the potentially lethal range. The observed delayed onset of severe toxic reactions supports the proposed mechanism of acetonitrile conversion to inorganic cyanide via hepatic microsomal enzymes. Physicians and poison centers should be alerted to the existence of this highly toxic product, sold for removal of sculptured nails and likely to be confused with the less toxic acetone-containing nail polish removers. The authors urge regulatory agencies to reconsider the wisdom of marketing a cosmetic that poses such an extreme health hazard.

  17. Pretreatment of cyanided tailings by catalytic ozonation with Mn2+/O3.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Li, Dengxin; Li, Jiebing; wang, Jin; Hussain, Asif; Ji, Hao; Zhai, Yijie

    2015-02-01

    The increasing amount of cyanided tailings produced as a by-product has gained significant attention in recent years because of the rapid development of the gold industry and extensive exploitation of gold mineral resources. The effective use of these secondary resources is becoming an important and urgent problem for all environmental protection staff. Manganese-catalyzed ozonation for the pre-oxidation of cyanided tailings was studied and the effects of Mn2+ dosage, initial sulfuric acid concentration, ozone volume flow, temperature and agitation speed on pretreatment were examined. The optimum reaction conditions were observed to be: ore pulp density 2.5%, agitation speed 700 r/min, temperature 60°C, Mn2+ dosage 40 g/L, ozone volume flow 80 L/hr, initial sulfuric acid concentration 1 mol/L, and reaction time 6 hr. Under these conditions, the leaching rate of Fe and weight loss could reach 94.85% and 48.89% respectively. The leaching process of cyanided tailings by Mn2+/O3 was analyzed, and it was found that the leaching of pyrite depends on synergetic oxidation by high-valent manganese and O3, in which the former played an important part. PMID:25662233

  18. Elimination of sodium cyanide and vapor degreasing from the passivation process

    SciTech Connect

    Stimetz, C.J.; McKay, W.P.

    1993-04-01

    This report is an examination of the vapor degreasing and alkaline descaling steps in the passivation process. Since parts that are to be passivated are fairly clean, the vapor degreasing step may be redundant. Sodium cyanide is a component of the alkaline descaling solution and would be desirable to eliminate because of environmental concerns. Evaluations were performed to determine if the vapor degreasing step could be eliminated and the cyanide removed from the descaling solution. The stainless steels used in these evaluations were 15-5 PH and 303 SE wrought materials and 17-4 PH casting material. Samples of these stainless steels were contaminated with five materials normally encountered prior to the passivation process. The contaminated samples were then passivated with the standard process and the modified process in which the vapor degreasing step was eliminated and the sodium cyanide removed from the descaling solution. After the passivation of these contaminated samples, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to measure the effectiveness of the standard and modified passivation processes.

  19. Laboratory Characterization and Astrophysical Detection in Orion KL of Higher Excited Vibrational States of Vinyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alicia; Tercero, Belén; Cernicharo, Jose; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczó?kowski, Lech; Bermúdez, Celina; Alonso, José L.; Medvedev, Ivan; Neese, Christopher F.; Drouin, Brian; Daly, Adam M.; Marcelino, Nuria; Viti, Serena; Calcutt, Hannah

    2014-06-01

    Vinyl cyanide (acrylonitrile, H_2C=CHC?N) is an interstellar molecule that was classified as a 'weed' since transitions in its isotopic species and vibrationally excited states have already been detected and need to be accounted for in searches for complex organic molecules. Presently we extend the systematic analysis of the laboratory rotational spectrum of vinyl cyanide to 9 new excited vibrational states with vibrational energies above 550 cm-1 (785K). The spectroscopic analysis is based on the broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum combined from results from the participating spectroscopic laboratories and covering a total of 1235 GHz. The studied states come in the form of polyads of perturbing vibrational states, and such perturbations also affect the strong, low-K_a transitions used for astrophysical detection. It is therefore crucial to account for such effects in order to produce reliable linelists. The experimental data for three new polyads were fitted to experimental accuracy using Coriolis and Fermi perturbation models. Multiple transitions in the lowest of these polyads (and in other excited vibrational states and isotopic species of vinyl cyanide) were detected in the millimetre survey of the Orion-KL Nebula made with the IRAM 30-m radiotelescope.

  20. Hydrogen cyanide polymers from the impact of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to brown to black--may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the Solar System. The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley, for example, as well as the extensive orange-brown streaks in the atmosphere of Jupiter, might consist largely of such polymers synthesized from HCN formed by photolysis of methane and ammonia. Laboratory studies of these ubiquitous compounds point to the presence of polyamidine structures synthesized directly from hydrogen cyanide. These would be converted by water to polypeptides which can be further hydrolyzed to alpha-amino acids. Other polymers and multimers with ladder structures derived from HCN would also be present and might well be the source of the many nitrogen heterocycles, adenine included, detected by thermochemolytic analysis. The dark brown color arising from the impacts of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter could therefore be mainly caused by the presence of HCN polymers, whether originally present, deposited by the impactor or synthesized from freshly formed HCN. Spectroscopic detection of these predicted macromolecules and their hydrolytic and pyrolytic by-products would strengthen significantly the hypothesis that cyanide polymerization is a preferred pathway for prebiotic and extraterrestrial chemistry. PMID:11541337

  1. VUV photoionization and dissociative photoionization of the prebiotic molecule acetyl cyanide: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellili, A.; Schwell, M.; Bénilan, Y.; Fray, N.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Mogren Al-Mogren, M.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Poisson, L.; Hochlaf, M.

    2014-10-01

    The present combined theoretical and experimental investigation concerns the single photoionization of gas-phase acetyl cyanide and the fragmentation pathways of the resulting cation. Acetyl cyanide (AC) is inspired from both the chemistry of cyanoacetylene and the Strecker reaction which are thought to be at the origin of medium sized prebiotic molecules in the interstellar medium. AC can be formed by reaction from cyanoacetylene and water but also from acetaldehyde and HCN or the corresponding radicals. In view of the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) experimental data obtained using synchrotron radiation, we explored the ground potential energy surface (PES) of acetyl cyanide and of its cation using standard and recently implemented explicitly correlated methodologies. Our PES covers the regions of tautomerism (between keto and enol forms) and of the lowest fragmentation channels. This allowed us to deduce accurate thermochemical data for this astrobiologically relevant molecule. Unimolecular decomposition of the AC cation turns out to be very complex. The implications for the evolution of prebiotic molecules under VUV irradiation are discussed.

  2. Respiratory system of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5. Evidence for a cyanide-sensitive cytochrome bb and cyanide-resistant cytochrome ba quinol oxidases.

    PubMed

    González, B; Martínez, S; Chávez, J L; Lee, S; Castro, N A; Domínguez, M A; Gómez, S; Contreras, M L; Kennedy, C; Escamilla, J E

    2006-12-01

    In highly aerobic environments, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus uses a respiratory protection mechanism to preserve nitrogenase activity from deleterious oxygen. Here, the respiratory system was examined in order to ascertain the nature of the respiratory components, mainly of the cyanide sensitive and resistant pathways. The membranes of G. diazotrophicus contain Q(10), Q(9) and PQQ in a 13:1:6.6 molar ratios. UV(360 nm) photoinactivation indicated that ubiquinone is the electron acceptor for the dehydrogenases of the outer and inner faces of the membrane. Strong inhibition by rotenone and capsaicin and resistance to flavone indicated that NADH-quinone oxidoreductase is a NDH-1 type enzyme. KCN-titration revealed the presence of at least two terminal oxidases that were highly sensitive and resistant to the inhibitor. Tetrachorohydroquinol was preferentially oxidized by the KCN-sensitive oxidase. Neither the quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase nor its associated cytochromes c were instrumental components of the cyanide resistant pathway. CO-difference spectrum and photodissociation of heme-CO compounds suggested the presence of cytochromes b-CO and a(1)-CO adducts. Air-oxidation of cytochrome b (432 nm) was arrested by concentrations of KCN lower than 25 microM while cytochrome a(1) (442 nm) was not affected. A KCN-sensitive (I(50)=5 microM) cytochrome bb and a KCN-resistant (I(50)=450 microM) cytochrome ba quinol oxidases were separated by ion exchange chromatography. PMID:16934215

  3. Determination of Cyanogenic Compounds in Edible Plants by Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN?/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  4. Determination of cyanogenic compounds in edible plants by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN(-)/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  5. Quantum chemical study of mechanisms of dissociation and isomerization reactions in some molecules and radicals of astrophysical significance: Cyanides and related molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, V. P.; Sharma, Archna

    2006-09-01

    A theoretical study of the mechanism of photodecomposition in carbonyl cyanide, diethynyl ketone, acetyl cyanide and formyl cyanide has been conducted using density functional and MP2 theories. A complete analysis of the electronic spectra of these molecules in terms of nature, energy and intensity of electronic transitions has been provided by time-dependent density functional theory. Mixing coefficients and main configurations of the electronic states have been used to identify the states leading to the photodecomposition process. While the Rydberg state ^1(n,3s) is involved in the dissociation of formyl cyanide and acetyl cyanide, the ?^*_{CC}/?^*_{CN} states are involved in the case of carbonyl cyanide and diethynyl ketone. In all cases, however, stepwise decomposition process is preferred over the concerted reaction process. Based on potential energy curves for bond dissociation and the transition state and IRC studies, it is found that besides the direct dissociation of carbonyl cyanide, a photoisomerization process through a non-planar transition state may also occur resulting in the formation of a stable and planar isomer CNC(O)CN. A complete vibrational analysis of the higher energy isomer has been conducted and several new fundamental bands are predicted. Some of the earlier experimental results on the photodecomposition mechanism and energies of photofragments in carbonyl cyanide and acetyl cyanide have also been rationalized.

  6. National Science Foundation: Publications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Every year, the National Science Foundation (NSF) researches a broad swath of topics ranging from graduate education in geography to the viability of sustainable agriculture. Visitors can scan through these documents here, on a website which includes recent publications like "Collections in Support of Biological Research" and "Baccalaureate Origins of U.S.-trained S&E Doctorate Recipients." The archive contains over 3,200 documents, which visitors search by publication type or specific organization within NSF. Visitors can also elect to sign up to receive notices about newly added publications via RSS feed or email.

  7. The African Conservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry Harnwell

    2001-08-15

    This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

  8. Deeplinks: Electronic Frontier Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has crafted this great resource for people interested in the world of online rights and privacy matters. A quick glance through the site will reveal a range of key commentaries on issues of copyright, moral privacy rights, and government intervention. Visitors can scroll through recent posts and then look over some of their additional projects, which include Bloggers' Rights, and HTTPS Everywhere. Also, visitors can offer comment and search posts by keywords, such as "International,� "Copyright,� and "Free Speech.� It's an exciting new project and one that will be of great interest to policy aficionados and others.

  9. Organic Farming Research Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

  10. Foundations of isomathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2013-10-01

    Santilli's isomathematics has a strong foundation in the early literature of mathematics surveyed by R.H. Bruck in his land mark book `A Survey of Binary Systems' [1] dating back to 1958. This work aims at exploring the very basics of Isomathematics as suggested by Santilli [7] and [8]. The concept of `Isotopy' plays a vital role in the development of this new age mathematics. Starting with Isotopy of groupoids we develop the study of Isotopy of quasi groups and loops via Partial Planes, Projective planes, 3-nets and multiplicative 3-nets.

  11. Planting Brassica rapa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UW-Madison Biocore

    This video resource explains and demonstrates how to plant Fast Plants in a bottle growing system made from recycled soda/water bottles was made by the instructors at UW-Madison who teach Biocore (a foundational undergraduate biology course). In this planting approach, vermiculite is used along with a soil-less potting mix (e.g. Redi-Earth).

  12. Biodegradation of free cyanide and subsequent utilisation of biodegradation by-products by Bacillus consortia: optimisation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Karabo Obed; Jackson, Vanessa Angela

    2015-07-01

    A mesophilic alkali-tolerant bacterial consortium belonging to the Bacillus genus was evaluated for its ability to biodegrade high free cyanide (CN(-)) concentration (up to 500 mg CN(-)/L), subsequent to the oxidation of the formed ammonium and nitrates in a continuous bioreactor system solely supplemented with whey waste. Furthermore, an optimisation study for successful cyanide biodegradation by this consortium was evaluated in batch bioreactors (BBs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The input variables, that is, pH, temperature and whey-waste concentration, were optimised using a numerical optimisation technique where the optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pH 9.88, temperature 33.60 °C and whey-waste concentration of 14.27 g/L, under which 206.53 mg CN(-)/L in 96 h can be biodegraded by the microbial species from an initial cyanide concentration of 500 mg CN(-)/L. Furthermore, using the optimised data, cyanide biodegradation in a continuous mode was evaluated in a dual-stage packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) connected in series to a pneumatic bioreactor system (PBS) used for simultaneous nitrification, including aerobic denitrification. The whey-supported Bacillus sp. culture was not inhibited by the free cyanide concentration of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L, with an overall degradation efficiency of ?99 % with subsequent nitrification and aerobic denitrification of the formed ammonium and nitrates over a period of 80 days. This is the first study to report free cyanide biodegradation at concentrations of up to 500 mg CN(-)/L in a continuous system using whey waste as a microbial feedstock. The results showed that the process has the potential for the bioremediation of cyanide-containing wastewaters. PMID:25721526

  13. The Freedom Trail Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâ??s primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâ??s most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the â??See the 16 sitesâ? section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul Revereâ??s House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

  14. The W. M. Keck Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The funding mission of the W. M. Keck Foundation is "to make grants designed to provide far-reaching benefits for humanity in the fields of science, engineering, and medical research." In a recent announcement, the Keck Foundation will consider proposals for "research which opens new directions and could lead to breakthrough discoveries and the development of new technologies." Proposal deadlines are November 15, 1998, and May 15, 1999. Interested parties should contact the Keck Foundation.

  15. Intravenous Cobinamide Versus Hydroxocobalamin for Acute Treatment of Severe Cyanide Poisoning in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    PubMed Central

    Bebarta, Lt Col Vikhyat S.; Tanen, David A.; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A.; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration–approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Methods Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an ? of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (P<.001 between the 2 treated groups and the saline solution group). Time to return of spontaneous breathing after antidote was similar between hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide (1 minute 48 seconds versus 1 minute 49 seconds, respectively). Blood cyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Conclusion Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. PMID:24746273

  16. THE COMPLETE, TEMPERATURE-RESOLVED EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRUM OF VINYL CYANIDE (H{sub 2}CCHCN) BETWEEN 210 AND 270 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Fortman, Sarah M.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Medvedev, Ivan R., E-mail: fcd@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2011-08-10

    The results of an experimental approach to the identification and characterization of the astrophysical weed vinyl cyanide in the 210-270 GHz region are reported. This approach is based on spectrally complete, intensity-calibrated spectra taken at more than 400 different temperatures in the 210-270 GHz region and is used to produce catalogs in the usual astrophysical format: line frequency, line strength, and lower state energy. As in our earlier study of ethyl cyanide, we also include the results of a frequency point-by-point analysis, which is especially well suited for characterizing weak lines and blended lines in crowded spectra. This study shows substantial incompleteness in the quantum-mechanical (QM) models used to calculate astrophysical catalogs, primarily due to their omission of many low-lying vibrational states of vinyl cyanide, but also due to the exclusion of perturbed rotational transitions. Unlike ethyl cyanide, the QM catalogs for vinyl cyanide include analyses of perturbed excited vibrational states, whose modeling is more challenging. Accordingly, we include an empirical study of the frequency accuracy of these QM models. We observe modest frequency differences for some vibrationally excited lines.

  17. Determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified glassy carbon electrode with immobilized silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Taheri, Aboozar

    2011-01-15

    The sensitive determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified GC electrode with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was reported. The immobilization of SHFNPs on MWCNT was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image showed that the SHFNPs retained the spherical morphology after immobilized on MWCNT. The size of SHFNPs was examined around 27 nm. The GC/MWCNT-SHFNPs was used for the determination of cyanide in borax buffer (BB) solution (pH 8.0). Using square wave voltammetry, the current response of cyanide increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 40.0 nM to 150.0 ?M and a detection limit was found to be 8.3 nM (S/N=3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 5.0 ?M cyanide in the presence of common contaminants at levels presenting in industrial wastewaters. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of cyanide in industrial wastewater samples. Moreover, the studied sensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability. PMID:20951497

  18. Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedgepeth, Royster C.

    1999-01-01

    This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

  19. Foundations and Light Compass Foundations and Light Compass

    E-print Network

    Wong, Jennifer L.

    Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Jennifer L. WongQuantitative Sensor--centric Designcentric Design Light CompassLight Compass ­­ Models and Abstractions Contaminant Transport Marine Microorganisms Ecosystems, Biocomplexity What is a Light Compass?What is a Light

  20. American Architectural Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Those who have scoured the web for architecture sites may have come across the homepage of the American Architectural Foundation (AAF), but those who haven't will find this site to be quite a find. Founded in 1943, the AAF "seeks to educate individuals and community leaders about the power of architecture to improve lives and transform the places where we live, learn, work, and play." Visitors to the site can take advantage of a number of online resources, including their online publications. These publications include findings from their design study charrettes and their investigations into creating effective learning spaces for students in the 21st century. Within the "Video" section of the site, visitors can look at short films made to complement some of their publications. The site is rounded out by the "News" area where visitors can learn about their well-regarded conferences, which include the National Summit on School Design.

  1. Sunlight Foundation's Party Time!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 2006, the Sunlight Foundation employs and develops new internet technologies "to create greater political transparency and to foster more openness and accountability in government." This website focuses on the political partying circuit, also known as fundraising. These parties reveal, "the relationships between lobbyists, congressional candidates, issues being lobbied and campaign money received." Thus, the parties are an excellent resource for citizen journalists, activists, and other interested members of the public. Visitors can view the invitations to the latest parties by clicking on "Upcoming Events". Some of the invitations include a golf tournament for Rep. Loretta Sanchez, a BBQ for Rep. Chet Edwards, and a "Crabs and Spaghetti Dinner" for Rep. Frank LoBiondo at Strategic Healthcare Townhouse. The "PARTYFINDER" allows visitors to search for parties by "beneficiary", "host", "venue name" or "entertainment type". Finally, there are several widgets visitors can put on their website or blog to display "Upcoming parties", "Upcoming leadership PAC parties", and "Parties by candidate state".

  2. USC Shoah Foundation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the University of Southern California's Shoah Foundation Institute is "to overcome prejudice, intolerance, and bigotry-and the suffering they cause-through the educational use of the Institute's visual history testimonies." On their homepage, visitors can watch testimonies from Holocaust survivors and others, along with learning more about their "Featured Resources". These resources include the Education Portal, which brings together lesson plans for teaching about the Holocaust and guidelines for using primary documents in the classroom. Scholars and others will appreciate the "Scholarship & Research" area which includes information on upcoming conferences, research stipends offered through the Institute, and events. Also, it is worth noting that the site also has many resources in other languages, including German, Spanish, French, Italian, Polish, and Russian.

  3. Foundation for Landscape Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geographers, historians, landscape designers, urban planners, and poets have all been fascinated with both natural and human-made landscapes for centuries. The mission statement of the Foundation for Landscape Studies might resonate with many of these groups of people: "To foster an active understanding of the importance of place in human life.� From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn more about their organization, read about their overarching goals, and examine their photo gallery. In the gallery, they will find photo essays that include "Ancient Sites of the Andean Desert" and "New Orleans After the Flood". The site is rounded out by their in-house journal, "Site/Lines". Visitors can look over the complete run of the journal, which includes pieces on landscape architecture, landscape management, and the portrayal of idealized landscapes.

  4. National Collegiate EMS Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located on campuses around the country, emergency response teams that draw on their student populations and other professionals are growing in popularity. They also have a national organization to coordinate some of their educational outreach activities, the National Collegiate Emergency Services Foundation (NCEMSF). While much of the site is dedicated to providing information for member institutions, persons entering the field of emergency services (and those who teach them) will find several parts of the site germane to their work. First, the site has a number of electronic discussion areas where visitors can learn about updated techniques for dealing with scenarios including cardiac arrest and trauma. Additionally, the site contains a link to a set of standard operating procedures maintained at different colleges, including Brandeis University and Western Illinois University.

  5. Will Durant Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    While Will Durant is most well-known for his massive 11 volume Story of Civilization, the Will Durant Foundation Web site tells visitors about some of his other projects and life achievements, along with those of his wife, Ariel Durant. The site begins with a short essay offering a brief synopsis of Durant's life, including his relationship with his wife and the publishing icons Dick Simon and Max Schuster. The site contains articles written by Will Durant on a variety of subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the nature of civilization. For those interested in asking questions about Durant and his work, there is also an open and moderated discussion forum, along with a place for interested visitors to purchase any number of volumes authored by Mr. Durant and his wife.

  6. Environmental Research Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Research Foundation (ERF) provides "understandable scientific information about the influence of toxic substances on human health and the environment." ERF aims to inform journalists, community activists, librarians, environmentalists, and others concerned with toxins and environmental justice. The ERF site contains an online library of pertinent documents under such categories as agriculture & food security, global concerns, chemicals & health, human rights, and more. ERF also offers a database of related sites under the categories of biodiversity, cancer, children/youth, and food safety, to name a few. Site visitors can sign up for a free electronic subscription to the informative _Rachel's Environment & Health News_ (named in honor of renowned ecologist Rachel Carson). A Spanish-language edition of the publication is available as well. The website is also available in both Spanish and English.

  7. National Science Foundation: Disasters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

  8. National Science Foundation: Current

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Current, is a newsletter published monthly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the scope of each newsletter is to highlight the research and education that is supported by NSF. One of the goals of NSF is "to promote the progress of science and to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare of the nation." Current provides a good view of the breadth of the NSF's funding activities. For example, a recent newsletter offers reports on sun spot models, exoplanets, the Nanoscience Center, supernovae, and robots in the Senate. The NSF in the News section highlights "newsworthy" research that was funded in whole or in part by the NSF. Each issue can be viewed or downloaded, and an online archive that dates back to 2005 is available on the site. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive the newsletter by email.

  9. Role of cyanide-resistant respiration in the response of two pea hybrids to CO/sub 2/ enrichment. [Pisum sativum

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, M.E.; Strain, B.R.; Siedow, J.N.

    1986-04-01

    Two cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum L., cvs. Alaska and Progress No. 9) were reciprocally crossed to yield hybrids differing in the presence or absence of the cyanide-resistant (alternative) pathway of respiration. The growth of this material in greenhouses maintained at either 350 or 650 ppm CO/sub 2/ was compared. The objective was to assess the significance of the alternative pathway to whole plant carbon budgets and further to use CO/sub 2/ enrichment as a means of testing the hypothesis that the alternative pathway might be important in oxidizing excess carbohydrates. More structural and storage carbohydrates were available in the cross lacking the pathway than in the reciprocal cross as shown by greater plant height, leaf area, specific leaf weight, branching, total dry matter and seed production. Specific leaf weight increased strongly under CO/sub 2/ enrichment in the hybrid lacking the pathway while it was the same at 350 and 650 ppm in the reciprocal cross. These results suggest that respiration via the alternative pathway may be energetically wasteful in terms of whole plant carbon budgets.

  10. Engineering pH tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus C1 and identifying constraints on substrate specificity in nitrilases

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lan

    2009-05-15

    This study generated two cyanide dihydratase (CynD) mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 with improved activity at higher pH by random mutagenesis. The purpose of this study was to create enzyme variants better suited to degrade cyanide under the harsh...

  11. Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcela C. M. Vaz; Teresa A. P. Rocha-Santos; Rui J. M. Rocha; Isabel Lopes; Ruth Pereira; Armando C. Duarte; Peter J. Rubec; Ricardo Calado

    2012-01-01

    Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the

  12. Engineering and Design - Rock Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provides general guidance for factors to be considered in the construction of foundations and cut slopes excavated in rock masses. Divided into five sections with general topic areas to include: Excavation; Dewatering and Ground Water Control; Ground Control; Protection of Sensitive Foundation Materials; and Excavation Mapping and Monitoring.

  13. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been replaced or…

  14. Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

  15. THE UNLV FOUNDATION MONETARY TRANSFER FORM

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    THE UNLV FOUNDATION MONETARY TRANSFER FORM (Use one form for each account) Date Department Amount Transfer from Foundation Account Name UNLV Foundation Foundation Account Number Transfer to University contributions to this fund were accepted. If Foundation account number does not equal BOR account number

  16. THE UNLV FOUNDATION MONETARY TRANSFER FORM

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    THE UNLV FOUNDATION MONETARY TRANSFER FORM (Use one form for each account) Date Department Amount Transfer from Foundation Account Name UNLV Foundation Foundation Account Number Transfer to University contributions to this fund were accepted. Multiple Transfer A monetary transfer from the UNLV Foundation

  17. Photodissociation of vinyl cyanide at 193 nm: Nascent product distributions of the molecular elimination channels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, Michael J.; Nikow, Matthew; Letendre, Laura [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Dai Hailung [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2009-01-28

    The photodissociation dynamics of vinyl cyanide (H{sub 2}CCHCN, acrylonitrile) and deuterated vinyl cyanide (D{sub 2}CCDCN) at 193 nm are examined using time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. Prior photofragment translational spectroscopy studies [D. A. Blank et al., J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5784 (1998)] of the dissociation have observed the presence of four main dissociation channels; two molecular and two radical in nature. However, with the exception of a<0.01 quantum yield determined for the CN radical loss channel, the branching ratios of the remaining three elimination channels were not measured. The time-resolved emission spectra, including those from the deuterated samples, revealed the presence of acetylene, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), as well as the energetically less stable isomer hydrogen isocyanide (HNC). Acetylene is found in two distinct energetic distributions, suggesting that both three- and four-centered elimination reactions are occurring significantly in the dissociation. In contrast to prior ab initio studies that have suggested the dominant nature of the three-center elimination of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and cyanovinylidene (:C=CHCN), we find this reaction channel to be of little importance as there is no evidence to support any significant presence of rovibrationally excited cyanoacetylene. Spectral modeling of the product distributions allows for the first experimental determination of the relative occurrence of the three-centered (resulting in HCN+vinylidene) versus four-centered (HNC+acetylene) elimination channels as 3.34 to 1.00, in contrast to the previously calculated value of 126:1. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus analysis depicts that the transition state energy of the four-centered reaction should be about 10 kcal mole{sup -1} lower than the three-centered reaction.

  18. Microwave, infrared, and Raman spectra, structure, vibrational assignment, and normal coordinate analysis of disilanyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durig, J. R.; Brletic, P. A.; Church, J. S.; Li, Y. S.

    1982-03-01

    The microwave spectra of SiH3SiH2 12C14N and SiH3SiH2 12C15N have been recorded from 18.0 to 26.5 GHz. Only a-type transitions were observed and R-branch assignments have been made for the ground vibrational state. The rotational constants were found to have the following values: for SiH3SiH2 12C14N, A = 8996.72±5.91, B = 2203.95±0.05, and C = 1844.03±0.05 MHz; for SiH3SiH2 12C15N, A = 8896.08±5.70, B = 2145.15±0.04, and C = 1798.63±0.03 MHz. From a diagnostic least-squares adjustment to fit the six rotational constants, the following structural parameters were obtained: r(Si-Si) = 2.332±0.014 Å; r(Si-C) = 1.841±0.015 Å; r(C?N) = 1.156±0.010 Å; and ?SiSiC = 107.4±0.1°. These parameters are compared to the corresponding ones in some other silanes and cyanide molecules. The infrared (2500 to 80 cm-1) and the Raman (2500 to 10 cm-1) spectra of the solid phase have been recorded for disilanyl cyanide-d0 and -d5. Additionally, the infrared spectrum of the gaseous phase and the Raman spectrum of the liquid phase were recorded and qualitative depolarization values were obtained. All of the normal modes have been assigned based upon band contours, depolarization ratios, and group frequencies but the assignment of the SiH3 torsional mode must be considered tentative. A normal coordinate calculation has been carried out by utilizing a modified valence force field to calculate the frequencies and the potential energy distribution. These results are compared to similar quantities in some corresponding molecules.

  19. Evaluation of a non-cyanide gold plating process for switch tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Norwood, D.P.; Martinez, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switch tubes are used in nuclear weapon firing sets and are required to be reliable and impervious to gas permeation for many years. To accomplish this, a gold plated coating of approximately 25 microns is required over all metal surfaces on the tube exterior. The gold has historically been plated using gold cyanide plating chemistry. In this work we proposed to replace the cyanide plating bath with an environmentally friendlier sulfite gold plating bath. Low and high pH sulfite plating chemistries were investigated as possible replacements for the cyanide gold plating chemistry. The low pH plating chemistry demonstrated a gold plated coating which met the high purity, grain size, and hardness requirements for switch tubes. The high pH chemistry was rejected primarily because the hardness of the gold plated coatings was too high and exceeded switch tube coating requirements. A problem with nodule formation on the gold plated surface using the low pH chemistry had to be resolved during this evaluation. The nodule formation was postulated to be produced by generation of SO{sub 2} in the low pH bath causing gold to be precipitated out when the sulfite concentration falls below a minimum level. The problem was resolved by maintaining a higher sulfite concentration and providing an active filtration system during plating. In this initial study, there were no major obstacles found when using a sulfite gold bath for switch tube plating, however, further work is needed on bath control and bath life before adopting it as the primary plating chemistry.

  20. A simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide in equine blood.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Charlie; Lehner, Fritz; Dirikolu, Levent; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Crutchfield, James; Sebastian, Manu; Harrison, Lenn; Baskin, Stephen I

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological association among black cherry trees (Prunus serotina), eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americana), and the spring 2001 episode of mare reproductive loss syndrome in central Kentucky focused attention on the potential role of environmental cyanogens in the causes of this syndrome. To evaluate the role of cyanide (CN (-)) in this syndrome, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for determination of low parts per billion concentrations of CN (-) in equine blood and other biological fluids was developed. The analytical method is an adaptation of methods commonly in use and involves the evolution and trapping of gaseous hydrogen cyanide followed by spectrophotometric determination by autoanalyzer. The limit of quantitation of this method is 2 ng/mL in equine blood, and the standard curve shows a linear relationship between CN (-) concentration and absorbance (r >. 99). The method throughput is high, up to 100 samples per day. Normal blood CN (-) concentrations in horses at pasture in Kentucky in October 2001 ranged from 3-18 ng/mL, whereas hay-fed horses showed blood CN (-) levels of 2-7 ng/mL in January 2002. Blood samples from a small number of cattle at pasture showed broadly similar blood CN (-) concentrations. Intravenous administration of sodium cyanide and oral administration of mandelonitrile and amygdalin yielded readily detectable increases in blood CN (-) concentrations. This method is sufficiently sensitive and specific to allow the determination of normal blood CN (-) levels in horses, as well as the seasonal and pasture-dependent variations. The method should also be suitable for investigation of the toxicokinetics and disposition of subacutely toxic doses of CN (-) and its precursor cyanogens in the horse as well as in other species. PMID:20021191

  1. High catalytic activity of heteropolynuclear cyanide complexes containing cobalt and platinum ions: visible-light driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Oyama, Kohei; Gates, Rachel; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2015-05-01

    A near-stoichiometric amount of O2 was evolved as observed in the visible-light irradiation of an aqueous buffer (pH?8) containing [Ru(II) (2,2'-bipyridine)3 ] as a photosensitizer, Na2 S2 O8 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, and a heteropolynuclear cyanide complex as a water-oxidation catalyst. The heteropolynuclear cyanide complexes exhibited higher catalytic activity than a polynuclear cyanide complex containing only Co(III) or Pt(IV) ions as C-bound metal ions. The origin of the synergistic effect between Co and Pt ions is discussed in relation to electronic and local atomic structures of the complexes. PMID:25866203

  2. The effect of lipoic acid administration on the urinary excretion of thiocyanate in rats exposed to potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; W?odek, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation of cyanide (CN-) to a much less toxic thiocyanate (SCN-) is the main in vivo biochemical pathway for CN- detoxification. SCN- is excreted mainly in urine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of lipoic acid (LA) on the urinary excretion of thiocyanate (SCN-; rhodanate) in rats. Groups of the animals were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) as follows: group 1: potassium cyanide (KCN) (1 mg/kg); group 2: KCN (1 mg/kg) + LA (100 mg/kg). Urine was collected for 24 h and the pooled samples were examined for SCN- levels. The obtained results indicated that the treatment of animals with potassium cyanide and LA in combination significantly increased the urinary excretion of SCN- in comparison with the respective values in the KCN-alone-treated group. It indicates that LA increased the rate of CN- detoxification in rats. PMID:25850200

  3. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

  4. Synergistic effect of NADH on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in liver microsomes and its inhibition by cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chifumi; Marumo, Fumiaki (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effects of NADH and cyanide on NADPH-dependent acetaminophen activation in rat and mouse liver microsomes were studied. In both rat and mouse microsomes, NADPH-dependent acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate production was synergistically enhanced by the addition of NADH, whereas NADH alone did not initiate this reaction. The data suggest that the second electron in this reaction may be transferred from NADH. The present findings are different from a previous report in a reconstituted system that NADH decreases covalent binding of acetaminophen to proteins. This reaction was inhibited by low concentrations of sodium cyanide. The role of the cyanide sensitive factor in this reaction in liver microsomes remains to be further clarified.

  5. Biosynthesis of benzoylformic acid from benzoyl cyanide with a new bacterial isolate of Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Pan, Xue-He; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 with high nitrilase activity could effectively hydrolyze benzoyl cyanide into benzoylformic acid. After the culture optimization, the preferred carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inducer were glucose (10 g/L), a composite of peptone (10 g/L) plus yeast extract (2.5 g/L), and ?-caprolactam (2.0 mM), respectively. After the reaction optimization, the optimum reaction temperature, reaction pH, organic cosolvent, and metal ion were 30 °C, 7.0, ethanol (2%, v/v), and Ca(2+) (0.1 mM), respectively. At biotransformation of 120-mM benzoyl cyanide for 24 h, the yield of benzoylformic acid reached 91.8%. Moreover, the microbial nitrilase from Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 could hydrolyze various nitriles, and it significantly exhibited high nitrilase activity against benzoyl cyanide, 3-cyanopyridine, and ?-cyclohexyl-mandelonitrile. PMID:24504691

  6. 2. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 2, FOUNDATION PLAN; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 2, FOUNDATION PLAN; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineators: H. C. B. and T. J. M. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  7. Metal–metal interaction in polynuclear complexes with cyanide bridges: synthesis, characterisation, and theoretical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J Calhorda; Michael G. B Drew; Vitor Félix; Lu??s P Fonseca; Carla A Gamelas; Sofia S. M. C Godinho; Isabel S Gonçalves; E Hunstock; João P Lopes; A Jorge Parola; Fernando Pina; Carlos C Romão; A Gil Santos

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of the cyanide anion [M(CO)5CN]? (M=Cr or Mo) with metallocenes of Groups 4 and 6 produced polynuclear complexes of the type [CpCp?M(CO){?NC?M?(CO)5}]BF4 (M=Mo, W; M?=Mo, Cr; Cp?=Cp, Ind), Cp2TiCl{?NC?Mo(CO)5} and Cp2Ti{?NC?Mo(CO)5}2. These complexes were characterised by 1H-, 13C- and 95Mo-NMR, IR and UV–vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and examined by cyclic voltammetry. These methods show that the [M(CO)5CN]? ligands

  8. Corporate/Foundation Relations CORPORATE AND FOUNDATION RELATIONS The Offices of Corporate and

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Corporate/Foundation Relations - 1 - CORPORATE AND FOUNDATION RELATIONS The Offices of Corporate and Foundation Relations (CR, FR) are responsible for coordinating with OSP on applications to key University development and institutional advancement prospects. Applying to Foundations or Corporations. Faculty

  9. Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Toxicology Surveillance System of the Intoxications Working Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Mintegi, Santiago; Clerigue, Nuria; Tipo, Vincenzo; Ponticiello, Eduardo; Lonati, Davide; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Delvau, Nicolas; Anseeuw, Kurt

    2013-11-01

    Most fire-related deaths are attributable to smoke inhalation rather than burns. The inhalation of fire smoke, which contains not only carbon monoxide but also a complex mixture of gases, seems to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in fire victims, mainly in enclosed spaces. Cyanide gas exposure is quite common during smoke inhalation, and cyanide is present in the blood of fire victims in most cases and may play an important role in death by smoke inhalation. Cyanide poisoning may, however, be difficult to diagnose and treat. In these children, hydrogen cyanide seems to be a major source of concern, and the rapid administration of the antidote, hydroxocobalamin, may be critical for these children.European experts recently met to formulate an algorithm for prehospital and hospital management of adult patients with acute cyanide poisoning. Subsequently, a group of European pediatric experts met to evaluate and adopt that algorithm for use in the pediatric population. PMID:24196100

  10. Synthesis of potential prophylactic agents against cyanide intoxication. Annual report, 3 September 1992-3 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, J.R.

    1993-04-12

    The goal of the proposed research is to provide prophylaxis against cyanide through its sequestration by covalent bond formation. Three strategies were pursued: (1) sulfur-rich compounds which could serve as sulfane sulfur donors to rhodanese and other sulfur transferases; (2) compounds containing multiple carbonyl moieties, including analogs of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, which can bind cyanide through cyanohydrin formation; and (3) additional classes of compounds that can directly react with cyanide, such as (1) N-alkoxy and N-alkylthio heterocycles, and (2) phthalocyanines and porphyrins. During this report period we prepared examples of all compound types just described. The 33 new compounds submitted this period were distributed among these compound classes as follows: sulfur-rich species, 12; polycarbonyl compounds, 13; nitrogenous heterocycles, 1; and metal complexes, 7. Some of these compounds contained multiple functionality that could react with cyanide. One of the sulfur compounds was prepared at the request of the CO and was a re-submission of an additional quantity of a previously submitted sample which had displayed positive biological results during screening (SoRI 7638; WR 268831). We have received biological testing data for 20 compounds during this same period, and now have demonstrated activity in three of our four primary target classes (no phthalocyanines have been tested for efficacy at this point). Of these 20 screened compounds, the S-sulfo derivative of cysteine (SoRI 7913; WR000125AC) was found to have potential as an improved pretreatment for NaCN poisoning. Anticyanide agents, Polysulfides, Sulfurtransferases (Rhodanese), Cyanohydrin formation, Compounds reactive toward cyanide, Cyanide removal through covalent bonding, RA V.

  11. Cyanide toxicosis in Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinereus) secondary to ingestion of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica).

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Garner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Two Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinereus) died acutely in their exhibit within a 4-day period. Neither animal had significant gross lesions at necropsy. Histologic findings were consistent with acute vascular shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and a toxic etiology was suspected. The animals' exhibit contained opened, uneaten loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruit with the seeds removed and large quantities of undigested loquat seed material in the feces of the remaining animals. Cyanide was detected in the stomach contents collected at necropsy and in fresh loquat seeds from the exhibit. Loquat is related to other cyanide-containing fruit trees, including cherries, peaches, and almonds. PMID:12398304

  12. Foundation Course Appeal Name (Last, First): _____________________________ G #: ____________________________

    E-print Network

    , the Information Security & Assurance, Information Systems and Software Engineering graduate programs require fourFoundation Course Appeal Name (Last, First): _____________________________ G foundation courses or their equivalents. Foundation courses do not earn credit toward these MS degrees

  13. Ford Foundation Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ford Foundation is sponsoring 40 three-year predoctoral fellowships and 10 one-year dissertation fellowships for minorities for 1987. The predoctoral fellowships include an annual stipend of $10,000 and an annual grant of $6000 to the fellow's institution in lieu of tuition and fees. Dissertation Fellows will receive a stipend of $18,000 and no institutional grant.The program is designed to increase the presence of under represented minorities in the nation's college and university faculties. The minority groups to be considered under this program are: American Indians, Alaskan Natives (Eskimo or Aleut), Black Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. The competition is open to any U.S. citizen who is a member of one of these groups, who is a beginning graduate student or is within 1 year of completing the dissertation, and who expects to work toward a Ph.D. or Sc.D. degree. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and biological sciences. The National Research Council, which is administering the fellowships, can provide more information on which fields of study are and are not eligible for this program.

  14. South Asian Physics Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfelder, Jessica; Ramachandran, Vidhya

    2011-04-01

    The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in a South Asian country other than that of their university or citizenship. During the program's first year we funded one student from Bangladesh to attend a conference in India, and during it's second year we funded eight students to attend two different conferences. Our expanding activities underscore a need for facilitating such exchanges in developing regions of the world. We discuss issues related to offering this type of program as well as the challenges and satisfactions of implementing programs that foster regional scientific cooperation. We also solicit suggestions and ideas for further developing and broadening our activities. SAPF's website is www.southasianphysicsfoundation.org.

  15. Turkey liver xanthine dehydrogenase. Reactivation of the cyanide-inactivated enzyme by sulphide and by selenide

    PubMed Central

    Cleere, William F.; Coughlan, Michael P.

    1974-01-01

    1. Turkey liver xanthine dehydrogenase engaged in catalysing the oxidation of xanthine by dichlorophenol–indophenol was progressively inactivated by methanol. This inactivation was reversible by NAD+. 2. Reaction with arsenite and with cyanide, in each case first-order with respect to enzyme, resulted in characteristic alterations in the visible absorption spectrum of the enzyme. The rate of spectral change on reaction with either agent paralleled the rate of loss of enzyme activity. 3. Cyanide inactivation was accompanied by elimination from the enzyme of sulphur as thiocyanate. Partial restoration of activity was effected by incubation with sulphide or with selenide. The results suggest that turkey liver xanthine dehydrogenase, like milk xanthine oxidase (Massey & Edmonson, 1970), contains at the active centre a cyanolysable persulphide group essential to catalytic activity and that selenium may replace sulphur in this group to give an active enzyme. 4. Incubation of the native enzyme with sulphide or with selenide resulted in the rapid loss of half of the xanthine-oxidizing activity, apparently by disrupting the molybdenum and (Fe/S)II loci. This may indicate non-equivalence of the intramolecular electron-transfer systems. PMID:4462558

  16. Insufficient stocking of cyanide antidotes in US hospitals that provide emergency care

    PubMed Central

    Gasco, Lucas; Rosbolt, Margaret B.; Bebarta, Vikhyat S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the influence of catchment area, trauma center designation, hospital size, subspecialist employment, funding source, and other hospital characteristics on cyanide antidote stocking choice in US hospitals that provides emergency care. Materials and Methods: A web-based survey was sent out to pharmacy managers through two listservs; the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. A medical marketing company also broadcasted the survey to 2,659 individuals. We collected data on hospital characteristics (size, state, serving population, etc.,) to determine what influenced the hospital's stocking choice. Results: The survey response rate was approximately 10% (n = 286). Thirty-eight hospitals (16%) stocked at least 4 antidote kits. Safety profile, recommendations from a poison control center, and ease of use had the strongest influence on stocking decisions. Conclusions: Survey of 286 US hospital pharmacy managers, 38/234 (16%) hospitals had sufficient stocking of cyanide antidotes. Antidote preference was based on safety, ease of use, and recommendations by the local poison center, over cost. PMID:23761707

  17. Aqueous Phase Non Enzymatic Chemistry of Cyanide, Formaldehyde and RNH2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, Narcinda R.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    It is postulated that amino acids were produced on the early earth from dilute aqueous solution of cyanide, carbonyls and ammonia (the Strecker synthesis RNH2 + R"R""C=O + KCN yields H-N(R)-C(R")(R"")-CO2H. We have studied the products obtained from dilute aqueous solutions of cyanide, formaldehyde (R"=R""=H), ammonia (R=H) and amino acids. Solutions in the pH range from 8 to 10. at room temperature and at reactant concentrations from 0.001 M to 0.3 M have been studied. With R= H product yields were low (less than 3%). Only with R"=R""=H and R represented by the following: CH2CO2H (glycine); CH(CH3)CO2H (alanine); CH(CH2CH3)CO2H (a-amino n=butyric acids); C(CH3)2(CO2H) (a-aminoisobutyric acid); CH(CH(CH3)2)CO2H (valine); and CH(CH2CO2H)CO2H (aspartic acid), were product yields high (greater than 10%). The yields of glycine were larger with R not equal to H. The prebiotic implications of these findings will be discussed.

  18. Anionic forensic signatures for sample matching of potassium cyanide using high performance ion chromatography and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Carlos G; Farmer, Orville T; Carman, April J

    2011-01-30

    Potassium cyanide was used as a model toxicant to determine the feasibility of using anionic impurities as a forensic signature for matching cyanide salts back to their source. In this study, portions of eight KCN stocks originating from four countries were separately dissolved in water and analyzed by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) using an anion exchange column and conductivity detection. Sixty KCN aqueous samples were produced from the eight stocks and analyzed for 11 anionic impurities. Hierarchal cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to demonstrate that KCN samples cluster according to source based on the concentrations of their anionic impurities. The Fisher-ratio method and degree-of-class separation (DCS) were used for feature selection on a training set of KCN samples in order to optimize sample clustering. The optimal subset of anions needed for sample classification was determined to be sulfate, oxalate, phosphate, and an unknown anion named unk5. Using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and the optimal subset of anions, KCN test samples from different KCN stocks were correctly determined to be manufactured in the United States. In addition, KCN samples from stocks manufactured in Belgium, Germany, and the Czech Republic were all correctly matched back to their original stocks because each stock had a unique anionic impurity profile. The application of the Fisher-ratio method and DCS for feature selection improved the accuracy and confidence of sample classification by KNN. PMID:21215851

  19. Novel chitosan derivative for the removal of cadmium in the presence of cyanide from electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Sharma, Ajit Kumar; Sanghi, Rashmi

    2007-09-01

    Chitosan was chemically modified by introducing xanthate group onto its backbone using carbondisulfide under alkaline conditions. The chemically modified chitosan flakes (CMC) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of cadmium ions from electroplating waste effluent under laboratory conditions. CMC was found to be far more efficient than the conventionally used adsorbent activated carbon. The maximum uptake of cadmium by CMC in batch studies was found to be 357.14 mg/g at an optimum pH of 8.0 whereas for plain chitosan flakes it was 85.47 mg/g. Since electroplating wastewater contains cyanide in appreciable concentrations, interference of cyanide ions in cadmium adsorption was found to be very significant. This problem could be easily overcome by using higher doses of CMC, however, activated carbon was not found to be effective even at higher doses. Due to the high formation constant of cadmium with xanthate and adsorption was carried out at pH 8, cations like Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) did not interfere in the adsorption. Dynamics of the sorption process were studied and the values of rate constant of adsorption were calculated. Desorption of the bound cadmium from CMC was accomplished with 0.01 N H(2)SO(4). The data from regeneration efficiencies for 10 cycles evidenced the reusability of CMC in the treatment of cadmium-laden wastewater. PMID:17397997

  20. Ocular scanning instrumentation: confirmation of biomarkers for anticholinesterase and cyanide exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Lance R.; Henry, Kurt A.; Odom, James V.; Kolanko, Christopher J.

    2003-09-01

    The sensitivity of the eye"s reaction to a wide variety of chemicals/toxins and its role as a gauge for internal homeostasis (e.g., cardiovascular and neurophysiological imbalances) has been extensively researched via many scientific disciplines. New techniques and equipment are both harnessing and utilizing this information to define a modern approach to the field of non-invasive early detection of a vast range of physical abnormalities, injuries, and illnesses. Early detection provides an invaluable tool in the subsequent success of treating such conditions. The application of these techniques to the detection of exposure to chemical threat agents such as organophosphate nerve agents and cyanide provides an important advancement in the ability to limit the deleterious effects of these agents. The Ocular Scanning Instrumentation (OSI) technology involves the use of an automated device for the continuous or programmed monitoring of optically apparent characteristic(s) and attributes of the eye that may serve as an early-warning system for possible complications based upon generalized information obtained from ocular biomarkers. Described herein is the analysis of primary ocular biomarkers for organophosphate (miosis) and cyanide (venous blood coloration) exposure.

  1. The cometary composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides

    E-print Network

    Oberg, Karin I; Furuya, Kenji; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M; Loomis, Ryan; Wilner, David J

    2015-01-01

    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the Solar Nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface, seeding its early chemistry. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the Solar Nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01% of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can be readily explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry to form e.g. HCN and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity[3]. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in Solar Nebula analogues - protoplanetary disks around young stars - indicating that they survive disk formation or are reformed in situ. It has been hitherto unclear whether the s...

  2. Laboratory Characterization and Astrophysical Detection of Vibrationally Excited States of Ethyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; López, A.; Tercero, B.; Pearson, J. C.; Marcelino, N.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.

    2013-05-01

    Ethyl cyanide, CH3CH2CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, ?12 and ?20, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz Toyama: 26-200 GHz Emory: 200-240 GHz Ohio State: 258-368 GHz and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in Ka up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH3CH2CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

  3. Cyanide clusters of ReII with 3d metal ions and their magnetic properties: incorporating anisotropic ions into metal-cyanide clusters with high spin magnetic ground states

    E-print Network

    Schelter, Eric John

    2005-08-29

    , we successfully employed transition metal cyanide chemistry using the ReII building blocks to prepare a family of isostructural, cubic clusters of the general formula {[MCl]4[Re(triphos)(CN)3]4} M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn whose 3d ions adopt local...

  4. Foundation Walls at Visitor Center

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photo shows workers constructing the foundation walls for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The visitor contact wing will include an 884 square foot exhibit hall and a 1,038 square foot multipurpose room....

  5. American Foundation for the Blind

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All Message Boards Follow Us: Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Helen Keller A Driving Force Behind AFB Learn ... York, NY 10121 Follow Us Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google+ Copyright© 2015 American Foundation for the Blind. All ...

  6. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEEN THOMSEN

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing, non-profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world-class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen

  7. Role of cyanide-resistant respiration in the response of two pea hybrids to COâ enrichment. [Pisum sativum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Musgrave; B. R. Strain; J. N. Siedow

    1986-01-01

    Two cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum L., cvs. Alaska and Progress No. 9) were reciprocally crossed to yield hybrids differing in the presence or absence of the cyanide-resistant (alternative) pathway of respiration. The growth of this material in greenhouses maintained at either 350 or 650 ppm COâ was compared. The objective was to assess the significance of the alternative pathway

  8. Visual & reversible sensing of cyanide in real samples by an effective ratiometric colorimetric probe & logic gate application.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Shubhrajyotsna; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-15

    A novel anion probe 3 (2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-((2(2,4-dinitrophenyl) hydrazono) methyl) phenol) has been unveiled as an effective ratiometric and colorimetric sensor for selective and rapid detection of cyanide. The sensing behavior was demonstrated by UV-vis experiments and NMR studies. This sensory system exhibited prominent visual color change toward cyanide ion over other testing anions in DMSO (90%) solvent, with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and a detection limit down to 3.6×10(-8)molL(-1). Sensor reveals specific anti-jamming activity and reversible in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. This concept has been applied to design a logic gate circuit at the molecular level. Further we developed coated graphite electrode using probe 3 as ionophore and studied the performance characteristics of electrode. The sensitivity of ratiometric-based colorimetric assay is below the 1.9?M, accepted by the World Health Organization as the highest permissible cyanide concentration in drinking water. So it can be applied for both quantitative determination and qualitative supervising of cyanide concentrations in real samples. PMID:25913671

  9. Cyanide-catalyzed C-C bond formation: synthesis of novel compounds, materials and ligands for homogeneous catalysis 

    E-print Network

    Reich, Blair Jesse Ellyn

    2007-04-25

    Cyanide-catalyzed aldimine coupling was employed to synthesize compounds with 1,2-ene-diamine and �±-imine-amine structural motifs: 1,2,N,N'- tetraphenyletheylene-1,2-diamine (13) and (+/-)-2,3-di-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2 ...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE HSA (HIGH SURFACE AREA) REACTOR FOR METAL RECOVERY AND CYANIDE OXIDATION IN METAL PLATING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrochemical removal of heavy metals and cyanide from the wastewaters from electroplating shops is one alternative available to plating shops in achieving compliance with effluent regulations. The report is the result of a brief survey of the effectiveness of several of th...

  11. Characterization of cyanide in a natural stream impacted by gold mining activities in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Bakatula; E. M. Cukrowska; L. Chimuka; H. Tutu

    2012-01-01

    Water systems in the Witwatersrand Basin are heavily contaminated with pollutants from gold-mine tailing leachates and spillages. Cyanide speciation was studied in relation to the Natalspruit, a natural stream within a gold mining area of Johannesburg. The part of the studied stream was adjacent to an abandoned gold-mine tailings dump. The results of this study pointed to a variation in

  12. Characterization of cyanide in a natural stream impacted by gold mining activities in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. N. Bakatula; E. M. Cukrowska; L. Chimuka; H. Tutu

    2011-01-01

    Water systems in the Witwatersrand Basin are heavily contaminated with pollutants from gold-mine tailing leachates and spillages. Cyanide speciation was studied in relation to the Natalspruit, a natural stream within a gold mining area of Johannesburg. The part of the studied stream was adjacent to an abandoned gold-mine tailings dump. The results of this study pointed to a variation in

  13. Effects of suspended particles on the rate of mass transfer to a rotating disk electrode. [Ferric cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roha

    1981-01-01

    Limiting currents for the reduction of ferric cyanide at a rotating disk were determined in the presence of 0 to 40 percent by volume of spherical glass beads. Experiments were conducted with six different particle diameters, and with rotation speeds in the range of 387 to 270 rpm, usong both a 0.56 cm and a 1.41 cm radius disk electrode.

  14. Synthesis of Nanoporous Ni-Co Mixed Oxides by Thermal Decomposition of Metal-Cyanide Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamed B; Hu, Ming; Pramanik, Malay; Li, Cuiling; Tang, Jing; Aldalbahi, Ali; Alshehri, Saad M; Malgras, Victor; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-07-01

    A straightforward strategy to prepare nanoporous metal oxides with well-defined shapes is highly desirable. Through thermal treatment and a proper selection of metal-cyanide coordination polymers, nanoporous nickel-cobalt mixed oxides with different shapes (i.e., flakes and cubes) can be easily prepared. Our nanoporous materials demonstrate high electrocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction. PMID:25968597

  15. Molecular simulation studies of adsorption of hydrogen cyanide and methyl ethyl ketone on zeolite NaX and activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Kotdawala; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Robert W. Thompson

    2008-01-01

    In the present research study the primary aim is to understand and characterize the physical adsorption of polar molecules namely, hydrogen cyanide and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in zeolite NaX, and activated carbon through detailed Monte–Carlo simulations and computational quantum chemistry techniques. The sorption capacity and affinity of the zeolite is compared with activated carbon with different acid site concentrations,

  16. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  17. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis of cyanide and thiocyanate from swine plasma.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Raj K; Manandhar, Erica; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in swine plasma was developed and validated. Cyanide and thiocyanate were simultaneously analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode after rapid and simple sample preparation. Isotopically labeled internal standards, Na(13)C(15)N and NaS(13)C(15)N, were mixed with swine plasma (spiked and nonspiked), proteins were precipitated with acetone, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed and dried. The dried samples were reconstituted in 10 mM ammonium formate. Cyanide was reacted with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and taurine to form N-substituted 1-cyano[f]benzoisoindole, while thiocyanate was chemically modified with monobromobimane to form an SCN-bimane product. The method produced dynamic ranges of 0.1-50 and 0.2-50 ?M for cyanide and thiocyanate, respectively, with limits of detection of 10 nM for cyanide and 50 nM for thiocyanate. For quality control standards, the precision, as measured by percent relative standard deviation, was below 8 %, and the accuracy was within ±10 % of the nominal concentration. Following validation, the analytical procedure successfully detected cyanide and thiocyanate simultaneously from the plasma of cyanide-exposed swine. PMID:24327078

  18. NEWS: Solid foundations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark statements should help students to make informed choices about their degree and subsequent employability, as well as informing employers about the skills and knowledge of the graduates they propose to employ. Academics from each discipline have agreed the statements for their areas of expertise to a common framework.

  19. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States); Isom, G.E. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States)], E-mail: geisom@purdue.edu

    2009-07-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  20. Contribution of artifacts to N-methylated piperazine cyanide adduct formation in vitro from N-alkyl piperazine analogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minli; Resuello, Christina M; Guo, Jian; Powell, Mark E; Elmore, Charles S; Hu, Jun; Vishwanathan, Karthick

    2013-05-01

    In the liver microsome cyanide (CN)-trapping assays, piperazine-containing compounds formed significant N-methyl piperazine CN adducts. Two pathways for the N-methyl piperazine CN adduct formation were proposed: 1) The ?-carbon in the N-methyl piperazine is oxidized to form a reactive iminium ion that can react with cyanide ion; 2) N-dealkylation occurs followed by condensation with formaldehyde and dehydration to produce N-methylenepiperazine iminium ion, which then reacts with cyanide ion to form the N-methyl CN adduct. The CN adduct from the second pathway was believed to be an artifact or metabonate. In the present study, a group of 4'-N-alkyl piperazines and 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl-labeled piperazines were used to determine which pathway was predominant. Following microsomal incubations in the presence of cyanide ions, a significant percentage of 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl group in the CN adduct was replaced by an unlabeled natural methyl group, suggesting that the second pathway was predominant. For 4'-N-alkyl piperazine, the level of 4'-N-methyl piperazine CN adduct formation was limited by the extent of prior 4'-N-dealkylation. In a separate study, when 4'-NH-piperaziens were incubated with potassium cyanide and [¹³C]-labeled formaldehyde, 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl piperazine CN-adduct was formed without NADPH or liver microsome suggesting a direct Mannich reaction is involved. However, when [¹³C]-labeled methanol or potassium carbonate was used as the one-carbon donor, 4'-N-[¹³C]methyl piperazine CN adduct was not detected without liver microsome or NADPH present. The biologic and toxicological implications of bioactivation via the second pathway necessitate further investigation because these one-carbon donors for the formation of reactive iminium ions could be endogenous and readily available in vivo. PMID:23431111

  1. Characterization of the Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 Cyanase, an Enzyme That Is Not Essential for Cyanide Assimilation?

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M.; Huertas, María-J.; Sáez, Lara P.; Luque-Romero, Manuel Martínez; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Castillo, Francisco; Roldán, M. Dolores; Blasco, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Cyanase catalyzes the decomposition of cyanate into CO2 and ammonium, with carbamate as an unstable intermediate. The cyanase of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 was negatively regulated by ammonium and positively regulated by cyanate, cyanide, and some cyanometallic complexes. Cyanase activity was not detected in cell extracts from cells grown with ammonium, even in the presence of cyanate. Nevertheless, a low level of cyanase activity was detected in nitrogen-starved cells. The cyn gene cluster of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 was cloned and analyzed. The cynA, cynB, and cynD genes encode an ABC-type transporter, the cynS gene codes for the cyanase, and the cynF gene encodes a novel ?54-dependent transcriptional regulator which is not present in other bacterial cyn gene clusters. The CynS protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by following a simple and rapid protocol. The P. pseudoalcaligenes cyanase showed an optimal pH of 8.5°C and a temperature of 65°C. An insertion mutation was generated in the cynS gene. The resulting mutant was unable to use cyanate as the sole nitrogen source but showed the same resistance to cyanate as the wild-type strain. These results, in conjunction with the induction pattern of the enzymatic activity, suggest that the enzyme has an assimilatory function. Although the induction of cyanase activity in cyanide-degrading cells suggests that some cyanate may be generated from cyanide, the cynS mutant was not affected in its ability to degrade cyanide, which unambiguously indicates that cyanate is not a central metabolite in cyanide assimilation. PMID:18708510

  2. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPAR{alpha} activation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Prabhakaran, K.; Zhang, L.; Leavesley, H.B.; Borowitz, J.L. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States); Isom, G.E. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States)], E-mail: geisom@purdue.edu

    2007-08-15

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPAR{alpha} antagonist) or PPAR{alpha} knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPAR{alpha} activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPAR{alpha} did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPAR{alpha}-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPAR{alpha}-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPAR{alpha}-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPAR{alpha} mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. IBM Lotus Foundations ISV Solutions Handbook

    E-print Network

    IBM Lotus Foundations ISV Solutions Handbook #12;IBM Updated: 07.06.09 Lotus Foundations business applications have been developed for the Lotus Foundations platform by Partners that cater to the small the business applications currently available for the Lotus Foundations platform. More applications are being

  4. UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC.

    E-print Network

    Hall, Daniel

    UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. Compliance Reports For the Year Ended June 30, 2010 #12;UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA RESEARCH FOUNDATION, INC. Table of Contents Page Financial Statements Foundation, Inc. Athens, Georgia Compliance We have audited the University of Georgia Research Foundation

  5. October 10 10 26 UNLV FOUNDATION

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    October 10 10 26 UNLV FOUNDATION Transfer Dates for School Year 2012 - 2013 The UNLV Foundation: This policy allows the Foundation to have sufficient time to request funds from Investment Managers. In order semester must be received by the UNLV Foundation no later than June 25, 2012 for requests of $25

  6. Protein kinase C modulation of rhodanese-catalyzed conversion of cyanide to thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Maduh, E U; Baskin, S I

    1994-11-01

    Detoxification of cyanide is catalyzed by a sulfurtransferase, rhodanese, a phosphoprotein regulated by unknown protein kinases. In this study, we determined if a Ca2+/phospholipid-modulated phosphotransferase, protein kinase C (PKC) could modify rhodanese activity. Thiocyanate (SCN-) production as an estimate of rhodanese activity in vitro was measured in the presence or absence of exogenously added purified PKC, or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA), a pharmacologic activator of the endogenous PKC. HI-6 (1-(2-(hydroximino)methyl))pyridinium-2-(4-(aminocarbonyl) pyridinium dimethylether) is an oxime that may dephosphorylate phosphoproteins due to the proposed phosphatase-like activity of the oximes. We examined HI-6's effect on rhodanese-catalyzed SCN- production. Bovine kidney rhodanese (0.40 mg/ml protein) was reacted with 4 mM KCN and SCN- production determined spectrophotometrically following the method of Westley (1981). Preincubating rhodanese with 20 or 100 ng of purified PKC (alpha, beta, gamma isozymes) for 5 min before initiating the reaction with 4 mM KCN as the substrate increased SCN- production by 17 or 40%, respectively, over the control (P < 0.05). Rhodanese formation of SCN- decreased when the preincubation was conducted with 1 nM or 100 nM of TPA. With HI-6 at 1 or 10 microM used in place of PKC, or TPA, rhodanese activity was increased by 6 or 14% (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to control. Under the conditions examined, exogenous PKC acting as a possible phosphate acceptor, and HI-6, a potential dephosphorylating compound, increased rhodanese activity. These data are consistent with the observation that rhodanese can exist as a phosphorylated enzyme which is not active and a dephosphorylated form which is active. It is suggested that addition of purified, exogenous PKC may accept phosphate from phosphorylated rhodanese or HI-6 may dephosphorylate rhodanese, both of which stimulate the conversion of cyanide anion to the less toxic SCN-. These observations support the possibility that rhodanese may be regulated by protein phosphorylation and treatments that alter the phosphorylation state of rhodanese may affect cyanide detoxification via SCN- formation. PMID:7881866

  7. Foundation for the adequacy of the licensing bases. A supplement to the statement of considerations for the rule on nuclear power plant license renewal (10 CFR Part 54): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the regulatory processes that assures that any plant-specific licensing bases will provide reasonable assurance that the operation of nuclear power plants will not be inimical to the public health and safety to the end of the renewal period. It is on the adequacy of this process that the Commission has determined that a formal renewal licensing review against the full range of current safety requirements would not add significantly to safety and is not needed to assure that continued operation throughout the renewal term is not inimical to the public health and safety or common defense and security. This document illustrates in general terms how the regulatory process has evolved in major safety issue areas. It also provides examples illustrating why it is unnecessary to re-review an operating plant`s basis, except for age-related degradation unique to license renewal, at the time of license renewal. The report is a supplement to the Statement of Considerations for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s rule (10 CFR Part 54) that established the criteria and standards governing nuclear power plant license renewal.

  8. Manganese hexacyanomanganate: Magnetic interactions via cyanide in a mixed valence Prussian blue type compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klenze, R.; Kanellakopulos, B.; Trageser, G.; Eysel, H. H.

    1980-06-01

    A Prussian blue type compound of the stoichiometric composition Mn(CN)3?xH2O (x=0.57) is formed as the final product of hydrolysis of Na3[Mn(CN)6] in perchloric acid. IR and visible spectra as well as structural and magnetic data show that it is a mixed valence compound consisting of sixfold N-coordinated Mn(II) and sixfold C-coordinated Mn(IV) in a cubic face-centered lattice. The compound exhibits ferrimagnetism with a Curie temperature of 48.7 K. A molecular field treatment assuming two collinear spin sublattices provides an adequate description of the observed magnetic behavior. The calculation of exchange integrals, which was based on a Heisenberg model, reveals that the magnetic ordering is almost exclusively induced by an antiferromagnetic interaction between Mn(II) and Mn(IV) ions. This interaction is described in terms of a super exchange involving cyanide as bridging ligand.

  9. Novel Porous Polymorphs of Zinc Cyanide with Rich Thermal and Mechanical Behavior

    E-print Network

    Trousselet, Fabien; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of four-connected nets as hypothetical zinc cyanide polymorphs, as well as their thermal and mechanical properties, through quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. We confirm the metastability of the two porous phases recently discovered experimentally (Lapidus, S. H.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 7621-7628), suggest the existence of seven novel porous phases of Zn(CN)2, and show that isotropic negative thermal expansion is a common occurrence among all members of this family of materials, with thermal expansion coefficients close to that of the dense dia-c phase. In constrast, we find a wide variety in the mechanical behavior of these porous structures with framework-dependent anisotropic compressibilities. All porous structures, however, show pressure-induced softening leading to a structural transition at modest pressure.

  10. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  11. Implications Based on the Hydrolytic Stabilities of Hydrogen Cyanide and Formamide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyakawa, Shin; Cleaves, H. James; Miller, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) would not have been present in sufficient concentration to polymerize in the primitive ocean to produce nucleic acid bases and amino acids. We have measured the hydrolysis rates of HCN and formamide over the range of 30-150 C and pH 0-14, and estimated the steady state concentrations in the primitive ocean. At 100 C and pH 8, the steady state concentration of HCN and formamide were calculated to be 7 x 10(exp -13) M and 1 x 10(exp -15) M, respectively. Thus, it seems unlikely that HCN could have polymerized in a warm primitive ocean. It is suggested that eutectic freezing might have been required to have concentrated HCN sufficiantly for it to polymerize. If the HCN polymerization was important for the origin of life, some regions of the primitive earth might have been frozen.

  12. Method for near-real-time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattin, Frank G.; Paul, Donald G.

    1996-11-01

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-sit use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  13. A method for near real time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, F.G. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Paul, D.G. [Dynatherm, Inc., Kelton, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-site use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average (TW) concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  14. Electrodeposition of CuZn Alloys from the Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Hu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Shuhan; Yang, Yejiong; Miao, Qinfang

    2015-10-01

    Effect of copper sulfate on CuZn alloys electroplating from non-cyanide baths are investigated by different electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry and current transient measurements are used to characterize the CuZn alloys electroplating system in order to analyze the nucleation and growth mechanism. The reduction of Cu and CuZn alloy on sheet iron substrates shows an instantaneous nucleation process. However, the reduction of Zn on sheet iron substrates shows a progressive nucleation process. The structure and surface morphology of CuZn alloys are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of CuZn alloys obtained with 50 g L-1 copper sulfate presents a smooth and compact deposit and the size of crystal particle is uniform.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF KCN IN IRC+10216: EVIDENCE FOR SELECTIVE CYANIDE CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, R. L.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Astronomy, Department of Chemistry and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Savage, C. [Applied Electromagnetics (IAT-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Agundez, M. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Cernicharo, J. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de AstrobiologIa, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. De Torrejon a Ajalvir km 4, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Guelin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d'Heres (France)

    2010-12-20

    A new interstellar molecule, KCN, has been identified toward the circumstellar envelope of the carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star, IRC+10216-the fifth metal cyanide species to be detected in space. Fourteen rotational transitions of this T-shaped, asymmetric top were searched for in the frequency range of 83-250 GHz using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12 m Kitt Peak antenna, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the ARO Submillimeter Telescope. Distinct lines were measured for 10 of these transitions, including the K{sub a} = 1 and 2 asymmetry components of the J = 11 {yields} 10 and J = 10 {yields} 9 transitions, i.e., the K-ladder structure distinct to an asymmetric top. These data are some of the most sensitive astronomical spectra at {lambda} {approx} 1 and 3 mm obtained to date, with 3{sigma} noise levels {approx}0.3 mK, made possible by new ALMA technology. The line profiles from the ARO and IRAM telescopes are consistent with a shell-like distribution for KCN with r{sub outer} {approx} 15'', but with an inner shell radius that extends into warmer gas. The column density for KCN in IRC+10216 was found to be N{sub tot} {approx} 1.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} with a rotational temperature of T{sub rot} {approx} 53 K. The fractional abundance was calculated to be f(KCN/H{sub 2}) {approx} 6 x 10{sup -10}, comparable to that of KCl. The presence of KCN in IRC+10216, along with MgNC, MgCN, NaCN, and AlNC, suggests that cyanide/isocyanide species are the most common metal-containing molecules in carbon-rich circumstellar gas.

  16. 2 National Research Foundation National Research Foundation 3 Step by StepGuideliNedocumeNtFoRApplicANtS

    E-print Network

    Jarrett, Thomas H.

    2 National Research Foundation National Research Foundation 3 Step by Step Foundation National Research Foundation 5 coNteNtS 1. important information .............................6 2)............................23 29. Additional Research outputs.................23 #12;6 National Research Foundation National

  17. The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) "Foundation was formed to support education, research, treatment and cure for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus." One notable NDI Foundation website service is a sizable glossary of medical terminology with definitions for such terms as apoenzyme, basal nuclei, neuroglia, valine, and many more. The website also contains numerous abstracts of related journal articles. The article references and abstracts can be located by browsing extensive lists organized by Date, Author, and Journal. In addition to abstracts, some of the article references also link to less technical Lay Translations. The Foundation has requested permission from publishers to display full-text articles, and some of these versions are currently available as well. The referenced articles span more than a decade, and have appeared in such journals as _Endocrinology_, _American Journal of Physiology_, _Journal of Biological Chemistry_, and _Nature_, to name a few. An additional website service is the Researcher Directory which lists related researchers alphabetically, as well as by Institution, and Country.

  18. The abbreviations used are: FCCP, carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; IPC, ischemic preconditioning; L-NAME, L-NG-Nitroarginine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The abbreviations used are: FCCP, carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; H2O2, mitochondria from TG mice showed a reduction in both oxidative phosphorylation and H2O2 production, an effect

  19. Ammonia from iron(II) reduction of nitrite and the Strecker synthesis: do iron(II) and cyanide interfere with each other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.; Lerner, N.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, effect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The reduction of nitrite and the Strecker can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, to yield glycine from a mixture of nitrite, Fe+2, formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  20. Ammonia from Iron(II) Reduction of Nitrite and the Strecker Synthesis: Do Iron(II) and Cyanide Interfere with Each Other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Lerner, Narcinda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, affect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The two reactions can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, forming glycine from nitrite, Fe(+2), formaldehyde, and cyanide.