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1

Plant Tissue Extraction Method for Complexed and Free Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for free cyanide and strongly-complexed cyanide measurement within plant tissue was developed to study uptake and movement of cyanide species separately from cyanide metabolism and metabolite movement by a willow plant (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux). Spike recoveries from solutions with and without plant tissue, using various solvent combinations, and background control tissue contributions were investigated to obtain an

Joseph T. Bushey; Stephen D. Ebbs; David A. Dzombak

2004-01-01

2

Removal of cyanide by woody plants.  

PubMed

Hydrogen cyanide is a high volume production chemical that causes severe environmental problems. The toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) to basket willow trees (Salix viminalis) was tested. In aqueous solution, 2 mg CN l(-1) as KCN depressed the transpiration after 72 h about 50%. Trees exposed to 0.4 mg CN l(-1) in aqueous solution showed initially a depression of transpiration, but recovered. Doses of 8 and 20 mg CN l(-1) in aqueous solution were quickly mortal to the trees. At the end of the test, almost all cyanide had disappeared from the solutions. Levels of cyanide in plants were related to the toxicity, with no elevated levels of cyanide in plants exposed to 0.4 mg CN l(-1). Willows grown in sand survived 423.5 h irrigation with 20 mg CN l(-1). Willows grown in sand irrigated with 50 mg CN l(-1) died within a few days. The roots of the surviving willows were able to consume about 10 mg CN kg fresh weight(-1)h(-1). Vascular plants possess the enzymes beta-cyanoalanine synthase and beta-cyanoalanine hydrolase, which convert free cyanide to the amino acid asparagine. The in vivo capacity of woody plants (willow, poplar, elder, rose, birch) to remove cyanide was evaluated. Tests were performed with detached leaves and roots in KCN solutions of different concentrations. The highest removal capacity was obtained for basket willow hybrids (Salix viminalis x schwerinii). The Michaelis-Menten kinetics was determined. Realistic values of the half-saturation constant, K(M), were between 0.6 and 1.7 mg CN l(-1); the maximum metabolic capacity, v(max), was around 9.3 mg CN kg fresh weight(-1)h(-1). The removal of cyanide by plants might be useful in phytoremediation and treatment of wastewater from gold mining. PMID:14575745

Larsen, Morten; Trapp, Stefan; Pirandello, Alessandro

2004-01-01

3

Development of a Plant Uptake Model for Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for cyanide species uptake by willow (Salix eriocephala L. var. Michaux) was developed to interpret data from hydroponic experiments quantitatively. While the potential for cyanide phytoremediation has been demonstrated, modeling will aid in determining plant processes that contribute to cyanide transport and metabolism in willow and will target specific physiological parameters for field-scale phytoremediation design and optimization. The

Joseph T. Bushey; Stephen D. Ebbs; David A. Dzombak

2006-01-01

4

MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants  

SciTech Connect

An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan (United States))

1991-05-01

5

Cyanide  

MedlinePLUS

... Info Chemical Emergencies A–Z Abrin Adamsite Ammonia Arsenic Arsine Barium Benzene Brevetoxin Bromine BZ Carbon monoxide ... breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or touching soil that contains cyanide. Cyanide enters water, soil, or ...

6

Development of a plant uptake model for cyanide.  

PubMed

A model for cyanide species uptake by willow (Salix eriocephala L. var. Michaux) was developed to interpret data from hydroponic experiments quantitatively. While the potential for cyanide phytoremediation has been demonstrated modeling will aid in determining plant processes that contribute to cyanide transport and metabolism in willow and will target specific physiological parameters for field-scale phytoremediation design and optimization. The objective of the model development was to gain insight into the relative role of different processes with respect to dissolved free and iron-complexed cyanide transport and assimilation in plants and to determine rates at which these processes occur within the willow plant under the experimental conditions. A physiologically-based model describing plant uptake, transport, and metabolism of cyanide species was developed to reflect the processes that influence the movement of cyanide into and throughout the plant. Plant compartmentalization (root, stem, and leaf) corresponded to the level of detail in the data collected via hydroponic experiments. Inclusion of more detailed intra- and intercellular processes would create a model inconsistent with the macroscale nature of the data. Mass balances around each compartment were developed via kinetic representations for the mass transfer processes and were combined to form a model describing the fate of cyanide species within plant-water systems. PMID:16615306

Bushey, Joseph T; Ebbs, Stephen D; Dzombak, David A

2006-01-01

7

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

8

Differential fractionation of oxygen isotopes by cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive respiration in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable-isotope discrimination factors (D) for the uptake of oxygen during respiration by a variety of plant materials were determined by measuring 18O enrichment in a closed system. Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyer) and mitochondrial preparations from baker's yeast and from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm, all of which are fully sensitive to cyanide, discriminated againt 18O by about 16–18‰.

Robert D. Guy; Joseph A. Berry; Marilyn L. Fogel; Thomas C. Hoering

1989-01-01

9

Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples  

SciTech Connect

Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.

Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

1995-12-31

10

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in\\u000a Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The\\u000a model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and\\u000a linear mass balance relationships to

Ahmad Khodadadi; M. Monjezi; H. Mehrpouya; H. Dehghani

2009-01-01

11

The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S. [ADVENT Group, Inc., Brentwood, TN (United States)

1995-12-31

12

Microorganisms and cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility of cytochrome oxidases to cyanide means that cyanide is toxic to living cells and cyanide pollution causes great damage to microbial and other ecosystems. Cyanide pollution comes from both industrial wastes and a number of plants, many of agricultural importance, which are cyanogenic and release cyanide into the soil. Despite some understanding of the pathway of cyanide assimilation

Knowles

1976-01-01

13

Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes.

Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

1986-09-01

14

Parameter estimation of a plant uptake model for cyanide: application to hydroponic data.  

PubMed

A plant uptake model is applied to describe free cyanide and ferrocyanide transport and fate in willow (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux) grown in hydroponics. The model is applied to experimental data to determine best-fit parameter values, their associated uncertainty, and their relative importance to field-scale phytoremediation applications. The fitted model results, using least-squares optimization of the observed log concentrations, indicate that free cyanide volatilization from leaf tissue and free cyanide cell wall adsorption were negligible. The free cyanide maximum uptake rate and assimilate (noncyanide 15N) first-order leaf loss rate were the only coefficients that significantly affected the model goodness of fit and were concurrently sensitive to data uncertainty in the parameter optimization. Saturation kinetics may be applicable for free cyanide uptake into plants, but not for ferrocyanide uptake, which may occur via preferential protein-mediated or inefficient transpiration stream uptake. Within the free cyanide system, the relative magnitudes of the saturation uptake parameters and the demonstration of an active role for plants in uptake relative to transpiration suggest the potential importance of preferential diffusion through the cell membranes as reported in the literature, rather than protein-mediated uptake. The fitted 13-parameter model matched the observed data well except for the predicted stem and leaf tissue assimilate concentrations, which were significantly underestimated, particularly in the free cyanide system. These low predicted values, combined with the slightly underestimated solution free cyanide removal, suggest that noncyanide 15N redistribution in phloem should be considered. PMID:16615307

Bushey, Joseph T; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A; Ebbs, Stephen D

2006-01-01

15

Subsurface fate and transport of cyanide species at a manufactured-gas plant site  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is present at manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites in oxide-box residuals, which were often managed on-site as fill during active operations. Cyanide can leach from these materials, causing groundwater contamination. Speciation, fate, and transport of cyanide in a sand-gravel aquifer underlying an MGP site in the upper Midwest region of the US were studied through characterization, monitoring, and modeling of a plume of cyanide-contaminated groundwater emanating from the site. Results indicate that cyanide in the groundwater is primarily in the form of iron-cyanide complexes (>98%), that these complexes are stable under the conditions of the aquifer, and that they are transported as nonreactive solutes in the sand-gravel aquifer material. Weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, which represents a minute fraction of total cyanide in the site groundwater, may undergo chemical-biological degradation in the sand-gravel aquifer. It seems that dilution may be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron-cyanide complexes in sand-gravel aquifers at MGP sites.

Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Nakles, D.V.

1999-10-01

16

Cyanide in MGP (manufactured gas plant) wastes: Investigation of analytical methods. Topical report, January 1988-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

Wastes associated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are known to contain various cyanide complexes. Problems exist relative to evaluating the true cyanide content of these solid wastes. These problems are, in general, related to lack of standard laboratory methods for extracting and analyzing leachate or distillates from solid samples. Samples of MGP purifier wastes were analyzed by two university laboratories under carefully controlled conditions to establish absolute levels of total cyanide in the samples. Duplicate samples were submitted to several commercial laboratories for analysis of total cyanide. Results from the university studies and commercial laboratories were compared. Based on the study, an extraction method can be defined that will provide more accurate and reproducible results for total cyanide contained in solid samples. A high alkaline extraction is recommended when analyzing MGP samples for cyanide. When disposing of cyanide-containing wastes, maintaining the natural acidic pH will control leaching of cyanide.

Gould, J.E.; Theis, T.L.; Luthy, R.G.

1989-06-01

17

Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and cyanide in soils from manufactured gas plant sites  

SciTech Connect

The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide which subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.

Ho, YiFong.

1993-01-01

18

High-temperature cyanide leaching of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts -- Pilot plant study  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center investigated, developed, and patented a high-temperature cyanide leaching process for recovering platinum-group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. A batch pilot plant was constructed at the center and operated to demonstrate this technology to industry. Approximately 1,600 kg of used pellet, monolith, and metal support catalysts containing 1,700 g (54 tr oz) of PGM was processed. Forty-five-kilogram batches of used catalysts were leached with sodium cyanide solution at 160 C for 1 h in a countercurrent processing sequence. This selectively dissolved the PGM. Average extractions from the used pellet catalyst were 96 pct Pt, 95 pct Pd, and 73 pct Rh. Average extractions from the used monolith catalyst were 84 pct Pt, 81 pct Pd, and 66 pct Rh. Heating the pregnant leach solutions to 275 C for 4 h destroyed the PGM-cyanide complexes, causing over 99.7 pct of the PGM to precipitate from solution. The PGM precipitate was predominantly a metallic powder concentrate, typically analyzing greater than 50 pct PGM. Heating destroyed the cyanide to less than 0.2 mg/l free and total cyanide. Both the pellet and monolith residues were evaluated for disposal using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Kuczynski, R.J.; Atkinson, G.B.; Dolinar, W.J.

1995-09-01

19

Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods Section Total cyanide determination of plants and foods using the picrate and acid hydrolysis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method has been developed for determination of the total cyanide content of all cyanogenic plants and foods. Ten cyanogenic substrates (cassava, flax seed, sorghum and giant taro leaves, stones of peach, plum, nectarine and apricot, apple seeds and bamboo shoot) were chosen, as well as various model compounds, and the total cyanide contents determined by the acid hydrolysis

M. Rezaul Haque; J. Howard Bradbury

20

Simultaneous determination of cyanide and carbonyls in cyanogenic plants by gas chromatography-electron capture/photoionization detection.  

PubMed

A new method to simultaneously detect cyanide and carbonyl compounds arising from cyanogenic glycosides in plants is described. A portable gas chromatograph.housing two detectors using a single carrier gas is employed to measure the carbonyl compounds (photoionization detector) and cyanide as its cyanogen chloride derivative (electron capture detector) from the headspace of a plant sample. This method affords in-field, rapid screening of plants to determine cyanogenicity. Good agreement was seen between this method for cyanide determination and two traditional field cyanide test kits. Detection of both the cyanide and the carbonyl compound(s) allows for confirmation of the presence of cyanogenic glycosides and eliminates the problem of false positives often seen in traditional cyanide test kits. Gas phase limits of detection for cyanide, acetone, butanone, and benzaldehyde were 69, 41, 105, and 0.39 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), respectively, allowing sensitive detection of cyanogenic glycoside breakdown products. The method's utility for screening cyanogenic plants is demonstrated, and it should be useful for screening cyanogenic foodstuffs to determine suitability for consumption. PMID:12475032

Curtis, Abigale J; Grayless, C Charles; Fall, Ray

2002-11-01

21

Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV/Fe(II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis of the oxidation of cyanides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). A factorial experimental design allowed the determination of the influences of operating variables (initial concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, oxalic acid and Fe(II) and pH) on the degradation kinetics. Temperature and UV-A solar power were also included in the Neural Network fittings. The pH was maintained at a value >9.5 during cyanide oxidation to avoid the formation of gaseous HCN and later lowered to enhance mineralization. Under the optimum conditions ([H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] = 2000 ppm, [Fe(II)] = 8 ppm, pH = 3.3 after cyanide oxidation, and [(COOH){sub 2}] = 60 ppm), it was possible to degrade 100% of the cyanides and up to 92% of Total Organic Carbon. (author)

Duran, A.; Monteagudo, J.M.; San Martin, I.; Aguirre, M. [Grupo IMAES, Department of Chemical Engineering, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela 3, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2010-07-15

22

A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbic, Miodrag; Feyereisen, Rene; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-01-01

23

Parameter Estimation of a Plant Uptake Model for Cyanide: Application to Hydroponic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant uptake model is applied to describe free cyanide and ferrocyanide transport and fate in willow (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux) grown in hydroponics. The model is applied to experimental data to determine best-fit parameter values, their associated uncertainty, and their relative importance to field-scale phytoremediation applications. The fitted model results, using least-squares optimization of the observed log concentrations, indicate

Joseph T. Bushey; Mitchell J. Small; David A. Dzombak; Stephen D. Ebbs

2006-01-01

24

A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to ?-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form ?-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of ?-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

1989-01-01

25

33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

26

Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Photosynthetic Organs of Freshwater Aquatic Plants  

PubMed Central

The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid[SHAM]) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species: six angiosperms, two bryophytes, and an alga. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weight basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant, the percentage of resistance being higher than 50% with very few exceptions. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower and ranged between 25 and 50%. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was not stimulated by sucrose, malate or glycine in the absence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O2 uptake was also increased by the uncoupler. PMID:16665506

Azcon-Bieto, Joaquim; Murillo, Joaquim; Penuelas, Josep

1987-01-01

27

Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants.  

PubMed

THE RATE AND SENSITIVITY TO INHIBITORS (KCN AND SALICYLHYDROXAMIC ACID[SHAM]) OF RESPIRATORY OXYGEN UPTAKE HAS BEEN INVESTIGATED IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANS OF SEVERAL FRESHWATER AQUATIC PLANT SPECIES: six angiosperms, two bryophytes, and an alga. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weight basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant, the percentage of resistance being higher than 50% with very few exceptions. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower and ranged between 25 and 50%. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was not stimulated by sucrose, malate or glycine in the absence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O(2) uptake was also increased by the uncoupler. PMID:16665506

Azcón-Bieto, J; Murillo, J; Peñuelas, J

1987-07-01

28

Regulation and physiological role of cyanide-resistant oxidases in fungi and plants.  

PubMed

Data on the induction and regulation of cyanide-resistant oxidases in eucaryotic microorganisms and higher plants are reviewed. Expression of an alternative oxidase gene can be caused by a decrease in energy charge in cells. Some evidence exists suggesting that cAMP and Ca2+ act as intracellular signals inducing the expression of the alternative oxidase genes. Under certain conditions cells produce alternative oxidases which remain in an inactive state. Activation of the alternative pathway of cell respiration is usually observed when electron transport via cytochromes is inhibited. The physiological role of the alternative oxidase is discussed. PMID:10611527

Medentsev, A G; Arinbasarova, A Y; Akimenko, V K

1999-11-01

29

VIEW OF 1980 POWER PLANT FOUNDATION WITH BAGASSE WAREHOUSE, MACHINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF 1980 POWER PLANT FOUNDATION WITH BAGASSE WAREHOUSE, MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

30

A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants  

SciTech Connect

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1989-04-01

31

Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate  

SciTech Connect

Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

2004-07-01

32

Cyanide analyses for risk and treatability assessments  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide, an EPA priority pollutant and target analyte, is typically measured as total. However, cyanide complexation, information which is not acquired through total cyanide analysis, is often a driver of cyanide toxicity and treatability. A case study of a former manufacture gas plant (MGP) is used to demonstrate the usability of various cyanide analytical methods for risk and treatability assessments. Several analytical methods, including cyanide amenable to chlorination and weak acid dissociable cyanide help test the degree of cyanide complexation. Generally, free or uncomplexed cyanide is more biologically available, toxic, and reactive than complexed cyanide. Extensive site testing has shown that free and weakly dissociable cyanide composes only a small fraction of total cyanide as would be expected from the literature, and that risk assessment will be more realistic considering cyanide form. Likewise, aqueous treatment for cyanide can be properly tested if cyanide form is accounted for. Weak acid dissociable cyanide analyses proved to be the most reliable (and potentially acceptable) cyanide method, as well as represent the most toxic and reactive cyanide forms.

MacFarlane, I.D.; Elseroad, H.J.; Pergrin, D.E. [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc., Sparks, MD (United States); Logan, C.M. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Co., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

33

The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

Raskin, Ilya

1997-09-29

34

Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants  

SciTech Connect

Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M. (WU)

2012-09-07

35

Structure of Soybean ?-Cyanoalanine Synthase and the Molecular Basis for Cyanide Detoxification in Plants[W  

PubMed Central

Plants produce cyanide (CN?) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN? detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the ?-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form ?-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants. PMID:22739827

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

36

OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

37

Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.  

PubMed

Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for irrigation, discharge it to rapid infiltration basins, or, in some cases, discharge it to surface waters. Surface waters are diverted around surface mining operations. Adverse effects of groundwater drawdown include formation of sinkholes within 5 km of groundwater drawdown; reduced stream flows with reduced quantities of wate available for irrigation, stock watering, and domestic, mining and milling, and municipal uses; reduction or loss of vegetation cover for wildlife, with reduced carrying capacity for terrestrial wildlife; loss of aquatic habitat for native fishes and their prey; and disruption of Native American cultural traditions. Surface discharge of excess mine dewatering water and other waters to main waterways may contain excess quantities of arsenic, total dissolved solids, boron, copper, fluoride, and zinc. When mining operations cease, and the water pumps are dismantled, these large open pits may slowly fill with water, forming lakes. The water quality of pit lakes may present a variety of pressing environmental problems. PMID:15369321

Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

2004-01-01

38

Transient transcriptional regulation of the CYS-C1 gene and cyanide accumulation upon pathogen infection in the plant immune response.  

PubMed

Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme ?-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

2013-08-01

39

Molecular Structure of Cyanide ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyanide ion CN- is highly toxic to human body that contained in inorganic cyanide. Many foods and plants have cyanides, such as cassava roots and cherries pits. Cyanides are also one of the very few soluble composites of gold, so that they are used in gold mining and electroplating, etc. Small amount of cyanides from foods are converted to the harmless thiocyanate (SCN-). However, cyanides are harmful in a large amount to human body, which can lead to vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness or even death. Because Cyanide ion binds more strongly than oxygen to the Fe+3 in cytochrome a3, it interrupts the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

2002-09-18

40

Cyanide Hazards to Plants and Animals from Gold Mining and Related Water Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals\\u000a through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the\\u000a Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic

Ronald Eisler; Stanley N. Wiemeyer

41

Cyanide, a Coproduct of Plant Hormone Ethylene Biosynthesis, Contributes to the Resistance of Rice to Blast Fungus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Rice (Oryza sativa) plants carrying the Pi-i resistance gene to blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae restrict invaded fungus in infected tissue via hypersensitive reaction or response (HR), which is accompanied by rapid ethylene production and formation of small HR lesions. Ethylene biosynthesis has been implicated to be important for blast resistance; however, the individual roles of ethylene and cyanide, which are produced from the precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, remain unevaluated. In this study, we found that Pi-i-mediated resistance was compromised in transgenic rice lines, in which ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes were silenced and then ethylene production was inhibited. The compromised resistance in transgenic lines was recovered by exogenously applying cyanide but not ethephon, an ethylene-releasing chemical in plant tissue. In a susceptible rice cultivar, treatment with cyanide or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid induced the resistance to blast fungus in a dose-dependent manner, while ethephon did not have the effect. Cyanide inhibited the growth of blast fungus in vitro and in planta, and application of flavonoids, secondary metabolites that exist ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, enhanced the cyanide-induced inhibition of fungal growth. These results suggested that cyanide, whose production is triggered by HR in infected tissue, contributes to the resistance in rice plants via restriction of fungal growth. PMID:21075959

Seo, Shigemi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Feng, Jiao; Iwai, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Ohashi, Yuko

2011-01-01

42

Elimination of phenols, ammonia and cyanide in wash water from biomass gasification, and nitrogen recycling using planted trickling filters.  

PubMed

Trickling filters were used to treat wash water from a wood gasifier. This wash water contained toxic substances such as ammonium, cyanide, phenols, and PAH. The goal was to develop a system that degraded toxic substances, and achieved full nitrification of ammonia. A 1 kW model wood gasifier plant delivered wash water for the experiments, which was standardised to a conductivity of 3 mS/cm by dilution. Toxicity was assessed by bacterial luminescence detection, germination test with cress (Lepidium sativum), and pot plants cultivated in a hydroponic setup irrigated continuously with the wastewater. Treatment experiments were done in both planted and unplanted trickling filters. Plant yield was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The trickling filters achieved complete detoxification of phenol, PAH and cyanide as well as full nitrification. The specific elimination rates were 100 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for phenols and 90 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for ammonium in planted systems. In unplanted trickling filters circulated for 63 h, phenol concentration decreased from 83.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L and cyanide concentration from 0.32 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. PAH concentrations were reduced from 3,050 microg/L to 0.89 microg/L within 68 days. The assays demonstrated the feasibility of using the technique to construct a treatment system in a partially closed circulation for gasifier wash water. The principal advantage is to convert toxic effluents from biomass gasifiers into a non-toxic, nitrogen-rich fertiliser water, enabling subsequent use in plant production and thus income generation. However, the questions of long-term performance and possible accumulation of phenols and heavy metals in the produce still have to be studied. PMID:19955650

Graber, Andreas; Skvarc, Robert; Junge-Berberovi?, Ranka

2009-01-01

43

Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online interactive lesson, created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama - Huntsville, on foundations provides examples, exercises, and applets which review the algebra of sets and functions, general relations with special emphasis on equivalence relations and partial orders, and some basic combinatorial structures such as permutations and combinations. Overall, this site provides a great overview of these algebra and statistical methods.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-01-05

44

[Isolation of an aboriginal bacterial community capable of utilizing cyanide, thiocyanate, and ammonia from metallurgical plant wastewater].  

PubMed

An aboriginal bacterial community capable of degrading cyanide (10 mg/l) and thiocyanate (2 g/l) and eliminating ammonia (120 mg/l) had been isolated from recycled water samples after blast-furnace gas purification of a metallurgical plant wastewater. It was shown that the optimal conditions for this bacterial community were as follows: temperature, 34 degrees C; pH, 8.8-9.0; available organic matter concentration (glucose equivalent), 5 g/l; and dissolved O2 concentration, 8-10 mg/l. This aboriginal community was formed by the bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. PMID:18822775

Grigor'eva, N V; Smirnova, Iu V; Terekhova, S V; Karava?ko, G I

2008-01-01

45

Characterization and availability of cyanide in solid mine tailings from gold extraction plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the availability and fate of cyanide in gold mill solid tailings. For this purpose, aged (6–9 years) and recently discharged (3 months) tailings were sampled at various depths from two gold mining sites in Quebec (Canada). A physicochemical characterization of the tailings along with a bacterial enumeration was performed and batch-leaching tests

Gérald J. Zagury; Kahina Oudjehani; Louise Deschênes

2004-01-01

46

Evolutionary history of synthesis pathway genes for phloroglucinol and cyanide antimicrobials in plant-associated fluorescent pseudomonads.  

PubMed

Plant-beneficial fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. play important ecological roles. Here, their evolutionary history was investigated by a multilocus approach targeting genes involved in synthesis of secondary antimicrobial metabolites implicated in biocontrol of phytopathogens. Some of these genes were proposed to be ancestral, and this was investigated using a worldwide collection of 30 plant-colonizing fluorescent pseudomonads, based on phylogenetic analysis of 14 loci involved in production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (phlACBDE, phlF, intergenic locus phlA/phlF), hydrogen cyanide (hcnABC, anr) or global regulation of secondary metabolism (gacA, gacS, rsmZ). The 10 housekeeping loci rrs, dsbA, gyrB, rpoD, fdxA, recA, rpoB, rpsL, rpsG, and fusA served as controls. Each strain was readily distinguished from the others when considering allelic combinations for these 14 biocontrol-relevant loci. Topology comparisons based on Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests showed extensive incongruence when comparing single-locus phylogenetic trees with one another, but less when comparing (after sequence concatenation) trees inferred for genes involved in 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol synthesis, hydrogen cyanide synthesis, or secondary metabolism global regulation with trees for housekeeping genes. The 14 loci displayed linkage disequilibrium, as housekeeping loci did, and all 12 protein-coding loci were subjected to purifying selection except for one positively-selected site in HcnA. Overall, the evolutionary history of Pseudomonas genes involved in synthesis of secondary antimicrobial metabolites important for biocontrol functions is in fact similar to that of housekeeping genes, and results suggest that they are ancestral in pseudomonads producing hydrogen cyanide and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. PMID:22426436

Frapolli, Michele; Pothier, Joël F; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

2012-06-01

47

Covalent and Noncovalent Dimers of the Cyanide-Resistant Alternative Oxidase Protein in Higher Plant Mitochondria and Their Relationship to Enzyme Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for a mixed population of covalently and noncovalently associated dimers of the cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase pro- tein in plant mitochondria is presented. High molecular mass (oxidized) species of the alternative oxidase protein, having masses predicted for homodimers, appeared on immunoblots when the sulfhydryl reductant, dithiothreitol (DTT), was omitted from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel sample buffer. These oxidized species were

James N. Siedow

48

Aspects Regarding Soil Investigation and Foundation Design for Photovoltaic Power Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between all sources of green energy, the photovoltaic power plants are among the best solutions encountered nowadays. Despite all the advantages given by this solution, the major problem remains the large surface of terrain required to build the entire project. As a result, instead of consuming good agricultural soils for the use of photovoltaic power plants, other categories of soils can be exploited. In order to protect good agricultural terrains the photovoltaic power plants are mostly displaced in areas with difficult soil conditions such as soft soils or height slopes. The paper presents the particularities of photovoltaic panels power plants, designed on difficult soil condition. Moreover, the paper describes special aspects regarding solar power plants foundations and geotechnical investigations on slopes and soft terrain.

Farcas, Vasile; Ilies, Nicoleta

49

Microbial destruction of cyanide wastes in gold mining: process review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial destruction of cyanide and its related compounds is one of the most important biotechnologies to emerge in the last two decades for treating process and tailings solutions at precious metals mining operations. Hundreds of plant and microbial species (bacteria, fungi and algae) can detoxify cyanide quickly to environmentally acceptable levels and into less harmful by-products. Full-scale bacterial processes have

Ata Akcil; Terry Mudder

2003-01-01

50

Accumulation of cytokinins in roots and their export to the shoots of durum wheat plants treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed. PMID:24692646

Kudoyarova, Guzel R.

2014-01-01

51

Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

52

Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese in Protection from Cyanide Toxicity?  

PubMed Central

Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a ?rhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the ?rhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:17098912

Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

2007-01-01

53

Novel, Orally Effective Cyanide Antidotes  

PubMed Central

A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally. PMID:18038966

Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Goon, David J. W.; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E.

2007-01-01

54

Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge  

SciTech Connect

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

White, J.M.

1987-01-01

55

Prediction of cyanide recovery from silver leaching tailings with AVR using multivariable regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the tailings of the silver leaching plant, Eti Gumus AS, Turkey, containing high amounts of cyanide were tested to determine optimum recovery of cyanide, using packed columns for volatilization stage of AVR (acidification, volatilization or stripping, reneutralization). All recovery tests were performed in a pilot plant constructed using random packing with column internals and practised for mass

Huseyin Vapur; Oktay Bayat

2007-01-01

56

Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor  

SciTech Connect

A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States)] [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States)

1996-03-15

57

Conversion of cyanide to formate and ammonia by a pseudomonad obtained from industrial wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A cyanide-degrading pseudomonad was isolated by selective enrichment in a chemostat inoculated with coke-plant activated sludge and maintained at a dilution rate of 0.042\\/h for 60 days with a feed of 10 mg\\/l cyanide. The isolate, a facultative methylotroph capable of growth on methanol and methylamine, degraded cyanide to formate and ammonia; it could utilize the released ammonia as

J. M. White; D. D. Jones; D. Huang; J. J. Gauthier

1988-01-01

58

Delayed cyanide induced dystonia.  

PubMed Central

A 16 year old man ingested 1 g potassium cyanide in 1969. A few days after an apparently full recovery he developed a severe dystonia syndrome. He had a positive response to an apomorphine test and showed improvement with levodopa treatment. A 21 year follow up showed minimal neurological sequelae; CT showed bilateral putaminal lucencies. Visual and brain stem auditory evoked potentials were normal. Images PMID:1564480

Valenzuela, R; Court, J; Godoy, J

1992-01-01

59

The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.  

PubMed

Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants. PMID:22655035

Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J

2012-01-01

60

ABC Foundation Adler Family Foundation  

E-print Network

Family Trust The Colonna Family Foundation Community Foundation of Greater Greenville, Inc. Community Foundation Inc. Edward and Helene Hills Foundation Hilltop Foundation, Inc. Michael F. and Joan G. Hoben. and Wilma T. Horner Foundation The G. and B. Horowitz Family Foundation, Inc. The Hoxie Family Trust Howard

Napier, Terrence

61

Molecular Structure of Hydrogen Cyanide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydrogen Cyanide does not exist in many organisms because it can be fatal, although there are a few exceptions: tiger beetles, millipedes and centipedes. When these species are attacked, they release the cyanide to deter and potentially kill the aggressor. These exceptional organisms obtain the cyanogenic compound from their food but rather than being poisoned, they store it in their cells. This unusual phenomenon is still being studied. Hydrogen cyanide is produced in large quantities all over the world by the chemical industry where it is used in tempering steel, dyeing, explosives, engraving, the production of acrylic resin plastic, and other organic chemical products. Hydrogen cyanide can be found in small quantities in fruits that have a pit, such as cherries or apricots. Bitter almonds from which almond oil and flavoring is made also contain hydrogen cyanide.

2003-05-08

62

Microbes and microbial enzymes for cyanide degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, cyanide is a natural product generated by fungi and bacteria, and as a result microbial systems have evolved for the degradation of cyanide to less toxic compounds. The enzymes which utilize cyanide as a substrate can be categorized into the following

Scott A. Raybuck

1992-01-01

63

Cholinergic aspects of cyanide intoxication  

SciTech Connect

The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest in the presence of cyanide induced respiratory arrest are assumed to be due to anoxia and therefore unresponsive to cardiotonic agents. Pretreatment or treatment with atropine sulfate or methyl atropine nitrate provides a marked reduction in the cardiovascular irregularities, bradycardia and hypotension. The cyanide induced cardiovascular effect can also be prevented by bilateral vagotomy. An intramuscularly injected combination of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 1 mg/kg of atropine sulfate ensured recovery of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs exposed to lethal concentrations (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) of sodium cyanide.

Von Bredow, J.D.; Vick, J.A.

1993-05-13

64

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology

2008-04-15

65

Erection of the Vilyuiskaya III Hydropower Plant on Permafrost Semirock Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large hydroelectric plants, e.g., Vilyuiskaya I and II, Khantaiskaya, Kolymskaya, and Kureiskaya, have been built and operated under the Northern climate of Russia on permafrost soils. The Vilyuiskaya III and Ust’-Srednekanskaya hydropower plants (HPP) are in the stage of erection. All of the mentioned hydrotechnical structures except for the Vilyuiskaya III HPP are based on permafrost rock. The dams of

V. N. Frumkin; M. M. Sherman

2003-01-01

66

ELECTRODIALYSIS FOR CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Full scale demonstration of electrodialysis for closed loop treatment of brass plating cyanide rinse waters was conducted in the Keystone Lamp Manufacturing plant at Slatington, Pa. In treatment of actual rinse water, the system was only one-quarter as effective as anticipated. N...

67

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

68

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

69

Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1986-01-01

70

Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds.  

PubMed

Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy. PMID:3503141

Wiemeyer, S N; Hill, E F; Carpenter, J W; Krynitsky, A J

1986-10-01

71

The First Precise Molecular Structure of a Monomeric Transition Metal Cyanide, Copper(I) Cyanide  

E-print Network

The First Precise Molecular Structure of a Monomeric Transition Metal Cyanide, Copper(I) Cyanide, Arizona 85721 Received September 27, 2001 Abstract: Copper(I) cyanide is an important reagent in organic, organometallic, and supramolecular chemistry because of both the copper center and the versatile cyanide ligand

Ziurys, Lucy M.

72

Measurements of the Engagement of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana with the Use of On-Line Oxygen Isotope Discrimination 1  

PubMed Central

Discrimination against 18O during dark respiration in tissues of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, Medicago sativa, and Glycine max was measured using an on-line system that enabled direct measurements of the oxygen fractionation of samples in a gas-phase leaf disk electrode unit. Discrimination factors for cytochrome pathway respiration were 18.6 to 19.8%o for all tissues. However, discrimination in cyanide-resistant respiration was significantly higher in green tissues (30.4-31.2%o) compared with nongreen tissues (25.3-25.9%o). Using these discrimination factors, the partitioning of electron transport to these pathways was calculated from measurements of discrimination in the absence of inhibitors. Changes in flux through the alternative pathway were measured during the light and dark phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism in leaf disks of K. daigremontiana. The flux of electrons through the alternative pathway was higher during deacidification than during the other phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism. The increase in alternative pathway electron flux accounted for all of the increased respiration in the light phase. Despite this increase, simultaneous measurements of malate concentration and respiratory flux confirm that only a small proportion of the total malate decarboxylation occurs in the mitochondria. PMID:16653089

Robinson, Sharon A.; Yakir, Dan; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Giles, Larry; Osmond, C. Barry; Siedow, James N.; Berry, Joseph A.

1992-01-01

73

Directed Evolution of Cyanide Degrading Enzymes  

E-print Network

. However, application of these enzymes in industry requires improving their characteristics. The goal of this dissertation is to better understand cyanide nitrilases, in particular the cyanide dihydratase from of Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas stutzeri...

Abou Nader, Mary 1983-

2012-11-12

74

CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

75

Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

1985-01-01

76

ALTERNATIVES FOR SODIUM CYANIDE FOR FLOTATION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanide has long been looked upon as the classical poison and has been listed by EPA as a priority pollutant. The mineral dressing industry has long used cyanide in its concentration and extractive metallurgy operations. Cyanide plays a role of varying importance in the metallurg...

77

Cyanides and their toxicity: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a potent and rapidly?acting asphyxiant which prevents tissue utilization of oxygen by inhibition of the cellular respiratory enzyme, cytochrome oxidase. Inhalation or ingestion of cyanide produces reactions within a few seconds and death within minutes. Cyanide toxicity of dietary origin has been implicated in acute animal deaths and as major etiologic factors in toxic ataxic neuropathy in man

John O. Egekeze; Frederick W. Oehme

1980-01-01

78

Tests for Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential source of dangerous concentrations of hydrogen cyanide exists in the plating room of the Machine Shop where open plating baths containing cyanide salts are maintained and where solid cyanide salts are stored. Also the use of hydrogen sulfide in certain steps of the waste disposal process has lead to noticeable and sometimes objectionable concentrations of this gas in

Joy

1949-01-01

79

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

80

The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz × Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 ± 0.5°C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants

Xiao-Zhang Yu; Pu-Hua Zhou; Yong-Miao Yang

2006-01-01

81

H NMR Investigation of the Heme Cavity and Substrate Binding Site in Cyanide-Inhibited Horseradish Peroxidase  

E-print Network

Solution 1 H NMR Investigation of the Heme Cavity and Substrate Binding Site in Cyanide on cyanide-inhibited horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC-CN) to explore the scope and limitations cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) (15, 16) and later plant peanut peroxidase, PNP (17). HRP has also proven

Mandal, Pravat K.

82

Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

1977-01-01

83

Foundations LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 ABC Foundation  

E-print Network

Laughlin Family Foundation McLeod Blue Sky Charitable Foundation Meerwarth Family Foundation Trust The Michaels Fred & Ester Kucklinsky Foundation Doug and Gay Lane Charitable Foundation Lee Family Foundation Lehigh

Gilchrist, James F.

84

Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters  

PubMed Central

Background: The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples (57) were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages – March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer's protocols. Results: Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 ± 0.0007, 0.0070 ± 0.0018, 0.0008 ± 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 ± 2.80, 7.20 ± 1.80, 7.50 ± 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001), whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5). Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 ± 0.0130, 0.0077 ± 0.0025, 0.0087 ± 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 ± 8.12, 8.04 ± 3.99, 8.40 ± 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754) and nitrate (P = 0.705) concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 ± 0.033, 0.1180 ± 0.033, 0.1200 ± 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 ± 40.74, 279.00 ± 152.17, 298.40 ± 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731) and nitrate (P = 0.187) concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Conclusion: Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water were within the standard range (0.07 mg/L for cyanide and 50 mg/L for nitrate) and was not a health problem at the time of our study, regular estimation of the toxic chemicals due to the development of industrial plants in this area is recommended. PMID:23900450

Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Sadeghi, Mahmood

2013-01-01

85

The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows.  

PubMed

Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Uptake of ferrocyanide from the aqueous solution by plants was evident for all treatments and varied with plant species, ranging from 8.64 to 15.67% of initial mass. The uptake processes observed from hydroponic solution showed exponential disappearance kinetics. Very little amounts of the applied ferrocyanide were detected in all parts of plant materials, confirming passage of ferrocyanide through the plants. No ferrocyanide in air was found due to plant transpiration. Mass balance analysis showed that a large fraction of the reduction of initial mass in hydroponic solution was metabolized during transport within the plant materials. The difference in the metabolic rate of ferrocyanide between the three plant species was comparably small, indicating transport of ferrocyanide from hydroponic solution to plant materials and further transport within plant materials was a limiting step for assimilating this iron cyanide complex. In conclusion, phytoremediation of ferrocyanide by the plants tested in this study has potential field application. PMID:16703454

Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhou, Pu-Hua; Yang, Yong-Miao

2006-07-01

86

Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.  

PubMed

This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis. PMID:18810551

Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

2008-10-01

87

Mechanism, regulation, and ecological role of bacterial cyanide biosynthesis.  

PubMed

A few bacterial species are known to produce and excrete hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase and several other metalloenzymes. In the producer strains, HCN does not appear to have a role in primary metabolism and is generally considered a secondary metabolite. HCN synthase of proteobacteria (especially fluorescent pseudomonads) is a membrane-bound flavoenzyme that oxidizes glycine, producing HCN and CO2. The hcnABC structural genes of Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. aeruginosa have sequence similarities with genes encoding various amino acid dehydrogenases/oxidases, in particular with nopaline oxidase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Induction of the hcn genes of P. fluorescens by oxygen limitation requires the FNR-like transcriptional regulator ANR, an ANR recognition sequence in the -40 region of the hcn promoter, and nonlimiting amounts of iron. In addition, expression of the hcn genes depends on a regulatory cascade initiated by the GacS/GacA (global control) two-component system. This regulation, which is typical of secondary metabolism, manifests itself during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Cyanide produced by P. fluorescens strain CHA0 has an ecological role in that this metabolite accounts for part of the biocontrol capacity of strain CHA0, which suppresses fungal diseases on plant roots. Cyanide can also be a ligand of hydrogenases in some anaerobic bacteria that have not been described as cyanogenic. However, in this case, as well as in other situations, the physiological function of cyanide is unknown. PMID:10763748

Blumer, C; Haas, D

2000-03-01

88

In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater.

Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

1999-10-01

89

Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii  

SciTech Connect

The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

Seefeldt, L.C.; Arp, D.J. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1989-06-01

90

Cyanide detoxification by the cobalamin precursor cobinamide.  

PubMed

Cyanide is a highly toxic agent that inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome-c oxidase, thereby depleting cellular ATP. It contributes to smoke inhalation deaths in fires and could be used as a weapon of mass destruction. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) binds cyanide with a relatively high affinity and is used in Europe to treat smoke inhalation victims. Cobinamide, the penultimate compound in cobalamin biosynthesis, binds cyanide with about 10(10) greater affinity than cobalamin, and we found it was several-fold more effective than cobalamin in (i) reversing cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian cells; (ii) rescuing mammalian cells and Drosophila melanogaster from cyanide toxicity; and (iii) reducing cyanide inhibition of Drosophila Malpighian tubule secretion. Cobinamide could be delivered by oral ingestion, inhalation, or injection to Drosophila, and it was as effective when administered up to 5 mins post-cyanide exposure as when given pre-exposure. We conclude that cobinamide is an effective cyanide detoxifying agent that has potential use as a cyanide antidote, both in smoke inhalation victims and in persons exposed to cyanide used as a weapon of mass destruction. PMID:16636313

Broderick, Kate E; Potluri, Prasanth; Zhuang, Shunhui; Scheffler, Immo E; Sharma, Vijay S; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

2006-05-01

91

IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (2010 Final)  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanide compounds are used in a number of industrial processes including mining, electroplating, metallurgy, chemical manufacturing, and photography because these compounds can form stable complexes with a range of metals. Hydrogen cyanide is also a component of tobacco smoke, v...

92

Assay development status report for total cyanide  

SciTech Connect

A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

93

Shodor Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Shodor Foundation is a nonprofit research and education organization dedicated to the advancement of science and math education, specifically through the use of modeling and simulation technologies. The foundation's website features a collection of instructional resources, software, interactive lessons, explorations and many other items. The collection is seachable by grade level and keyword or term. There is also information about professional development opportunities for teachers and enrichment materials for students. Other materials include information about foundation staff, promotional videos, and overviews of foundation projects.

94

CODE OF PRACTICE For the Use of CYANIDES  

E-print Network

CODE OF PRACTICE For the Use of CYANIDES HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT SPRING 2012 #12;CONTENTS CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE USE OF CYANIDES ........................................... 2 INFORMATION SHEET........................................................................... 3 1 CYANIDE.................................................................................... 3 2

95

Foundations LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 ABC Foundation  

E-print Network

Family Trust The Colonna Family Foundation Community Foundation of Greater Greenville, Inc. Community Cundey Foundation Cuscela Family Foundation George J. and Mary T. D'Angelo Foundation Janet G. Davidson. Michael F. & Joan G. Hoben Family Foundation The Holliday Foundation Holt Family Foundation Daniel M

Napier, Terrence

96

Separation and removal of metal cyanides  

SciTech Connect

Metal ion capture media have been developed which are capable of rapidly and effectively reducing metal cyanide concentrations to sub- part per million levels. These media were developed to meet the growing need for compliance with increasingly stringent disposal regulations and the need for cost-effective treatment of metal cyanide waste streams produced by the gold mining and electroplating industries. The extraction media are produced by modifying porous silica with covalently attached, long, and hydrophilic spacer molecules. The termini of the spacer molecules are activated and coupled with a variety of ion exchange and chelating reagents. By placing the functionality away from the surface of the solid support, a combination of the benefits of solution phase equilibration kinetics and heterogeneous support media is obtained. This paper describes column extraction tests performed with the media to remove iron, zinc, copper, and gold cyanide complexes from solution to levels below one part per million. Additional tests were performed with these columns to selectively extract these metal cyanides and/or selectively desorb the cyanide complexes from the media. One column was effective in extracting gold cyanide from solution and recovering the gold by elution with carbonate buffer. The other metal cyanides showed distinctively different adsorption isotherms. By using a combination of two extraction media chemistries, it is possible to separate gold cyanide from a complex solution of mixed metal cyanide species.

Hammen, R.F. [ChromatoChem, Inc., Missoulam, MT (United States); Van Der Sluys, W.G. [Gonzaga Univ., Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-09-01

97

New fungal biomasses for cyanide biodegradation.  

PubMed

Cyanide, a hazardous substance, is released into the environment as a result of natural processes of various industrial activities which is a toxic pollutant according to Environmental Protection Agency. In nature, some microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of cyanide, but there is only limited information about the degradation characteristics of Basidiomycetes for cyanide. The aim of the present study is to determine cyanide degradation characteristics in some Basidiomycetes strains including Polyporus arcularius (T 438), Schizophyllum commune (T 701), Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Pleurotus eryngii (M 102), Ganoderma applanatum (M 105), Trametes versicolor (D 22), Cerrena unicolor (D 30), Schizophyllum commune (D 35) and Ganoderma lucidum (D 33). The cyanide degradation activities of P. arcularius S. commune and G. lucidum were found to be more than that of the other fungi examined. The parameters including incubation time, amount of biomass, initial cyanide concentration, temperature, pH and agitation rate were optimized for the selected three potential fungal strains. The maximum cyanide degradation was obtained after 48 h of incubation at 30°C by P. arcularius (T 438). The optimum pH and agitation rate were measured as 10.5 and 150 rev/min, respectively. The amount of biomass was found as 3.0 g for the maximum cyanide biodegradation with an initial cyanide concentration of 100mg/L. In this study, agar was chosen entrapment agent for the immobilization of effective biomass. We suggested that P. arcularius (T 438) could be effective in the treatment of contaminated sites with cyanide due to capability of degrading cyanide. PMID:20547364

Ozel, Yasemin Kevser; Gedikli, Serap; Aytar, P?nar; Unal, Arzu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Cabuk, Ahmet; Kolankaya, Nazif

2010-10-01

98

Cyanide-degrading enzymes for bioremediation  

E-print Network

and Cyanide Dihydratase ....................................................... 7 Figure 2 Model of Pseudomonas stutzeri AK61 Nitrilase..................................... 12 Figure 3 Alignment of Our Sequences of the Four Fungal Cyanide... Thermal Stabilities of CHT from G. sorghi, N. crassa, G. zeae, and A. nidulans.......................................................................... 26 Figure 6 Enzyme Inhibition at High Substrate Concentrations...

Basile, Lacy Jamel

2008-10-10

99

CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

100

Catalytic oxidation of cyanide-contaminated wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide-contaminated wastewaters are commonly generated in the chemical, mining, electroplating, and hydrogen cyanide production industries. Although alkaline chlorination and a number of other techniques are currently used to treat such waste streams, researchers at the UOP Research Center in Des Plains, Illinois are developing a catalytic oxidation process that may result in favorable economics and more environmentally benign end products. Laboratory and pilot-scale test results indicate that cyanide conversions of up to 99.9% are possible with less than 0.1 ppmw cyanide remaining in the effluent. Metal-complexed cyanides, which are the most difficult to treat, are also amendable to treatment in this process. Finally, organic constituents in the wastewaters are oxidized by the process before they have a chance to foul or poison the catalyst. 1 ref., 2 figs.

NONE

1995-03-01

101

Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor  

SciTech Connect

A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30{degrees}C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 pM and 150 {mu}m CN{sup -}. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Nakanishi, Keijiro; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Karube, Isao [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1996-08-01

102

Annenberg Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would you do if you had an extra $1.2 billion lying around? Walter H. Annenberg, the publisher of TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine, decided to create one of the largest philanthropic organizations in the world. Now stewarded by his children and grandchildren, the Annenberg Foundation grants millions of dollars a year to educational, arts, environmental, and other initiatives. You can read about many of these inspiring works on the foundationâÂÂs visually appealing website. From the homepage, click About the Foundation and then Our Story to watch a three-minute video outlining the foundationâÂÂs history and current projects. From there have a look at Directorsâ Activities where you can read up on projects like the Annenberg Challenge, a $500 million grant to improve public schools, or explore.org, a multimedia campaign that documents extraordinary causes from around the world.

103

Biosynthetic Pathway for the Cyanide-Free Production of Phenylacetonitrile in Escherichia coli by Utilizing Plant Cytochrome P450 79A2 and Bacterial Aldoxime Dehydratase.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic pathway for the production of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), which has a wide variety of uses in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, was constructed in Escherichia coli utilizing enzymes from the plant glucosinolate-biosynthetic and bacterial aldoxime-nitrile pathways. First, the single-step reaction to produce E,Z-phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) from l-Phe was constructed in E. coli by introducing the genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 79A2 and CYP reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana, yielding the E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant. Second, this step was expanded to the production of PAN by further introducing the aldoxime dehydratase (Oxd) gene from Bacillus sp. strain OxB-1, yielding the PAN-producing transformant. The E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant also produced phenethyl alcohol and PAN as by-products, which were suggested to be the metabolites of E,Z-PAOx produced by E. coli enzymes, while the PAN-producing transformant accumulated only PAN in the culture broth, which suggested that the CYP79A2 reaction (the conversion of l-Phe to E,Z-PAOx) was a potential bottleneck in the PAN production pathway. Expression of active CYP79A2 and concentration of biomass were improved by the combination of the autoinduction method, coexpression of groE, encoding the heat shock protein GroEL/GroES, N-terminal truncation of CYP79A2, and optimization of the culture conditions, yielding a >60-fold concentration of E,Z-PAOx (up to 2.9 mM). The concentration of PAN was 4.9 mM under the optimized conditions. These achievements show the potential of this bioprocess to produce nitriles and nitrile derivatives in the absence of toxic chemicals. PMID:25172862

Miki, Yuta; Asano, Yasuhisa

2014-11-01

104

Foundation Fieldbus Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a series of 17 courses offered by Emerson Process Management - PlantWeb University on Foundation Fieldbus Technologies. These courses begin by teaching the basics, and ends by showing installation and troubleshooting procedures. For each course, an examination is given, and the student receives a certificate upon completion.

2011-08-25

105

Foundations LEHIGH UNIVERSITY 1 ABC Foundation  

E-print Network

. Casparian Trust The Martin D. Cohen Family Foundation Collin Family Trust The Colonna Family Foundation Foundation The G. & B. Horowitz Family Foundation, Inc. The Hoxie Family Trust Howard Hughes Medical

Gilchrist, James F.

106

Genome mining of cyanide-degrading nitrilases from filamentous fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fungal species are known to degrade cyanide through the action of cyanide hydratases, a specialized subset of\\u000a nitrilases which hydrolyze cyanide to formamide. In this paper, we report on two previously unknown and uncharacterized cyanide\\u000a hydratases from Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans. Recombinant forms of four cyanide hydratases from N. crassa, A. nidulans, Gibberella zeae, and Gloeocercospora

Lacy J. Basile; Richard C. Willson; B. Trevor Sewell; Michael J. Benedik

2008-01-01

107

Cyanide toxicosis in goats after ingestion of California Holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia).  

PubMed

Cyanogenic glycosides are found in many native and naturalized plants throughout North America. The glycosides themselves are not toxic, but they yield hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic or prussic acid) when they are hydrolyzed by beta-glycosidases, either as a result of injury to the plant cells or by microbial action in the rumen. Hydrogen cyanide is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cyanide ion binds with iron in cytochrome oxidase, interfering with cellular respiration. The clinical effects are peracute, often resulting in death less than 1 hour after ingestion. This study describes a case that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in a herd of goats after exposure to California holly (Heteromeles arbutifolia). PMID:14535552

Tegzes, John H; Puschner, Birgit; Melton, Larry A

2003-09-01

108

Knight Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by John S. Knight, the Knight Foundation "supports transformational ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities, and foster the arts." On the Foundation's homepage, visitors can learn about grant activities via the What We Fund area. A good place to start here is the Featured Funding Initiatives, which profile the Community Foundations Program, the Knight Arts Challenge, and other ongoing projects. The projects are quite exciting, as they are focused on a broad range of participatory media ventures, arts outreach initiatives, and like-minded activities. The What We're Learning area is perhaps the most compelling one for most visitors as it contains a range of publications that report on the ingredients of successful new media projects, best practices for addressing the digital divide, and the possible uses of mobile applications designed to increase civic engagement in marginalized communities.

2013-06-20

109

Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

Dadgar, Ahmad

1989-12-01

110

Interaction of Cyanide and Nitric Oxide with Cytochrome c Oxidase: Implications for Acute Cyanide Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute cyanide toxicity is attributed to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX), the oxygen-reducing component of mitochon- drial electron transport; however, the mitochondrial action of cyanide is complex and not completely understood. State-3 oxygen consumption and CcOX activity were studied in rat N27 mesencephalic cells to examine the functional interaction of cyanide and nitric oxide (NO). KCN produced a concentration-

Heather B. Leavesley; Krishnan Prabhakaran; Joseph L. Borowitz; Gary E. Isom

2008-01-01

111

The respiratory responses to cyanide of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca bacterial strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiratory system of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca was analyzed by monitoring the changes in the cytochrome contents in response to various inhibitors in the presence of various concentrations of cyanide. The cells grown in the medium without cyanide (KCN) have two terminal oxidases, cytochrome d (Ki=10?5 M KCN) and o (Ki=10?3 M KCN). When cells were grown on medium

Ssu-Ching Chena; Jong-Kang Liu

1999-01-01

112

The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in

Olivia Molenda; Anya Reid; Christopher J. Lortie

2012-01-01

113

Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

114

Surfrider Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Surfrider Foundation USA is a non-profit environmental organization working to preserve the oceans, waves & beaches. Website with numerous pages including mission, a blog, news, a bimonthly publication online, the video "Shifting Baselines in the Surf", online store, campaigns, programs, membership information, and chapters. Located in San Onofre State Beach, CA.

115

CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

116

Modeling hydrogen-cyanide absorption in fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model is developed for predicting blood concentrations of cyanide as functions of exposure time to constant levels of cyanide in the atmosphere. A toxic gas (which may form as a result of decomposition of combustion materials used in transportation vehicles) is breathed into the alveolar space and transferred from the alveolar space to the blood by a first-order process, dependent on the concentration of the toxicant in the alveolar space. The model predicts that blood cyanide levels are more sensitive to the breathing cycle than to blood circulation. A model estimate of the relative effects of CO and HCN atmospheres, generated in an experimental chamber with an epoxy polymer, shows that toxic effects of cyanide occur long before those of carbon monoxide.

Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.

1981-01-01

117

Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.  

PubMed Central

Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

1997-01-01

118

Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.  

PubMed

It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability. PMID:15910645

Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

2005-06-01

119

Spectroscopic detection of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of features have been identified as absorption lines of hydrogen cyanide in infrared spectra of stratospheric absorption obtained from a high-altitude aircraft. Column amounts of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide have been derived from spectra recorded on eight flights. The average vertical column amount above 12 kilometers is 7.1 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the 14th molecules per square centimeter, corresponding to an average mixing ratio of 170 parts per trillion by volume.

Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

1981-01-01

120

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-09-01

121

GENETIC OPTIMIZATION FOR ALKALINE pH OF A CYANIDE DIHYDRATASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI  

E-print Network

in the respiratory pathway. Surprisingly, several microorganisms can degrade and even survive cyanide’s presence. These microbes, fungi and bacteria, count on a variety of cyanide degrading enzymes that break cyanide into less toxic compounds. An example...

Rodriguez Mendoza, Alvaro

2011-08-08

122

Kress Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Samuel H. Kress Foundation "devotes its resources to advancing the history, conservation, and enjoyment of the vast heritage of European art, architecture, and archaeology from antiquity to the early 19th century." To achieve this goal, the Foundation makes grants, offers fellowships, and also reports on its operations and various research initiatives. Scholars and policy makers should begin by looking over the Sponsored Research. Here, they can look over key documents that include "The Campus Art Museum: A Qualitative Study" and "Copyright, Museums and Licensing of Art Images.â The Grants area brings together complete information for scholars looking to apply for a grant in thematic areas such as History of Art and Conservation. Finally, the Kress Collection contains a detailed repository list of the more than 3,000 works in this rather comprehensive collection spanning four centuries.

123

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

124

The mitochondrial cyanide-resistant oxidase: structural conservation amid regulatory diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria from all plants, many fungi and some protozoa contain a cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase that functions in parallel with cytochrome c oxidase as the terminal oxidase on the electron transfer chain. Characterization of the structural and potential regulatory features of the alternative oxidase has advanced considerably in recent years. The active site is proposed to contain a di-iron center belonging

James N Siedow; Ann L Umbach

2000-01-01

125

Sulfide-resistant respiration in leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx: Comparison with cyanide-resistant respiration  

SciTech Connect

The rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of Elodea canadensis leaves was titrated with either cyanide or sulfide in the presence and in the absence of 5 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. The inhibition of O{sub 2} uptake by SHAM alone was very small (3-6%), suggesting that actual respiration mainly occurred through the cytochrome pathway. O{sub 2} uptake was slightly stimulated by cyanide at concentrations of 50 micromolar or higher, but in the presence of SHAM respiration was strongly suppressed. The effects of sulfide on O{sub 2} uptake were similar to those of cyanide, except that the percent stimulation of O{sub 2} uptake by sulfide alone was somewhat higher than that of cyanide. However, the estimates of the capacity of the alternative pathway were similar with both inhibitors. Another difference is that maximal inhibition of respiration in the presence of SHAM was observed with lower concentrations of sulfide than cyanide. The results suggest that sulfide can be used as a suitable inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in studies with intact plant tissues, and that sulfide does not apparently inhibit the alternative oxidase.

Azcon-Bieto, J.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Gonzalez-Meler, M.A.; Penuelas, J. (Universitat de Barcelona (Spain))

1989-08-01

126

Allotopic expression of a mitochondrial alternative oxidase confers cyanide resistance to human cell respiration.  

PubMed

Human mitochondrial respiration is distinct from that of most plants, microorganisms and even some metazoans in that it reduces molecular oxygen only through the highly cyanide-sensitive enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Here we show that expression of the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX), recently identified in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, is well tolerated by cultured human cells and confers spectacular cyanide resistance to mitochondrial substrate oxidation. The expressed AOX seems to be confined to mitochondria. AOX involvement in electron flow is triggered by a highly reduced redox status of the respiratory chain (RC) and enhanced by pyruvate; otherwise, the enzyme remains essentially inactive. AOX expression promises to be a valuable tool to limit the deleterious consequences of RC deficiency in human cells and whole animals. PMID:16322757

Hakkaart, Gerrit A J; Dassa, Emmanuel P; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

2006-03-01

127

Allotopic expression of a mitochondrial alternative oxidase confers cyanide resistance to human cell respiration  

PubMed Central

Human mitochondrial respiration is distinct from that of most plants, microorganisms and even some metazoans in that it reduces molecular oxygen only through the highly cyanide-sensitive enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Here we show that expression of the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX), recently identified in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, is well tolerated by cultured human cells and confers spectacular cyanide resistance to mitochondrial substrate oxidation. The expressed AOX seems to be confined to mitochondria. AOX involvement in electron flow is triggered by a highly reduced redox status of the respiratory chain (RC) and enhanced by pyruvate; otherwise, the enzyme remains essentially inactive. AOX expression promises to be a valuable tool to limit the deleterious consequences of RC deficiency in human cells and whole animals. PMID:16322757

Hakkaart, Gerrit A J; Dassa, Emmanuel P; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

2006-01-01

128

Interaction of cyanide and nitric oxide with cytochrome c oxidase: implications for acute cyanide toxicity.  

PubMed

Acute cyanide toxicity is attributed to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX), the oxygen-reducing component of mitochondrial electron transport; however, the mitochondrial action of cyanide is complex and not completely understood. State-3 oxygen consumption and CcOX activity were studied in rat N27 mesencephalic cells to examine the functional interaction of cyanide and nitric oxide (NO). KCN produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of cellular respiration. Cyanide's median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oxygen consumption (13.2 +/- 1.8microM) was higher than the CcOX IC50 (7.2 +/- 0.1microM). Based on respiratory threshold analysis, 60% inhibition of CcOX was necessary before oxygen consumption was decreased. Addition of high levels of exogenous NO (100microM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine) attenuated cyanide inhibition of both respiration and CcOX. On the other hand, when endogenous NO generation was blocked by an NOS inhibitor (N(omega)-monomethyl-L-arginine ester), the cyanide IC50 for both respiration and CcOX increased to 59.6 +/- 0.9microM and 102 +/- 10microM, respectively, thus showing constitutive, low-level NO production enhanced cyanide inhibition. Laser scanning cytometry showed that cyanide elevated mitochondrial NO, which then was available to interact with CcOX to enhance the inhibition. It is concluded that the rapid, potent action of cyanide is due in part to mitochondrial generation of NO, which enhances inhibition of CcOX. At low mitochondrial oxygen tensions, the cyanide-NO interaction would be increased. Also, the antidotal action of sodium nitrite is partly explained by generation of high mitochondrial levels of NO, which antagonizes the CcOX inhibition. PMID:17906319

Leavesley, Heather B; Li, Li; Prabhakaran, Krishnan; Borowitz, Joseph L; Isom, Gary E

2008-01-01

129

Cyanide phytoremediation by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes).  

PubMed

Although cyanide is highly toxic, it is economically attractive for extracting gold from ore bodies containing only a few grams per 1000 kg. Most of the cyanide used in industrial mining is handled without observable devastating consequences, but in informal, small-scale mining, the use is poorly regulated and the waste treatment is insufficient. Cyanide in the effluents from the latter mines could possibly be removed by the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes because of its high biomass production, wide distribution, and tolerance to cyanide (CN) and metals. We determined the sodium cyanide phytotoxicity and removal capacity of E. crassipes. Toxicity to 5-50 mg CN L(-1) was quantified by measuring the mean relative transpiration over 96 h. At 5 mgCNL(-1), only a slight reduction in transpiration but no morphological changes were observed. The EC(50) value was calculated by probit analysis to be 13 mgCNL(-1). Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that cyanide at 5.8 and 10 mgL(-1) was completely eliminated after 23-32 h. Metabolism of K(14)CN was measured in batch systems with leaf and root cuttings. Leaf cuttings removed about 40% of the radioactivity from solution after 28 h and 10% was converted to (14)CO(2); root cuttings converted 25% into (14)CO(2) after 48 h but only absorbed 12% in their tissues. The calculated K(m) of the leaf cuttings was 12 mgCNL(-1), and the V(max) was 35 mg CN(kg fresh weight)(-1)h(-1). Our results indicate that E. crassipes could be useful in treating cyanide effluents from small-scale gold mines. PMID:16870228

Ebel, Mathias; Evangelou, Michael W H; Schaeffer, Andreas

2007-01-01

130

Privacy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Privacy Foundation conducts "research into communications technologies and services that may pose a threat to personal privacy." Its Web site has a large amount of information to raise awareness of privacy related issues and help the public understand them. For people wanting to learn some basic terminology in digital privacy, a glossary describes things like firewalls and cookies. There are detailed articles that answer many common questions about Web Bugs and suggest guidelines for how they should be used by companies. A large section of the site discusses workplace surveillance, and a legal database documents several important court cases.

131

Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

Santana, Maria Angelica; Vasquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

2002-01-01

132

DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

133

IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database....

134

A cyanide-aldehyde complex inhibits bacterial luciferase.  

PubMed Central

Cyanide at high (millimolar) concentrations inhibited in the in vitro Vibrio harveyi luciferase reaction. Cyanide reacted with free aldehyde to form an inhibitor. Inhibitor formation was accelerated by alkaline conditions and bovine serum albumin. PMID:2376571

Makemson, J C

1990-01-01

135

Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

2012-10-10

136

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action  

PubMed Central

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200?000 to 422?000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria are available for only approximately 10?000 species. In response to recommendations from the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to develop biodiversity indicators based on changes in the status of threatened species, and trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species, we examine how existing data, in combination with limited new data collection, can be used to maximum effect. We argue that future work should produce Red List Indices based on a representative subset of plant species so that the limited resources currently available are directed towards redressing taxonomic and geographical biases apparent in existing datasets. Sampling the data held in the world's major herbaria, in combination with Geographical Information Systems techniques, can produce preliminary conservation assessments and help to direct selective survey work using existing field networks to verify distributions and gather population data. Such data can also be used to backcast threats and potential distributions through time. We outline an approach that could result in: (i) preliminary assessments of the conservation status of tens of thousands of species not previously assessed, (ii) significant enhancements in the coverage and representation of plant species on the IUCN Red List, and (iii) repeat and/or retrospective assessments for a significant proportion of these. This would result in more robust Sampled Red List Indices that can be defended as more representative of plant diversity as a whole; and eventually, comprehensive assessments at species level for one or more major families of angiosperms. The combined results would allow scientifically defensible generalizations about the current status of plant diversity by 2010 as well as tentative comments on trends. Together with other efforts already underway, this approach would establish a firmer basis for ongoing monitoring of the status of plant diversity beyond 2010 and a basis for comparison with the trend data available for vertebrates. PMID:15814350

Nic Lughadha, E; Baillie, J; Barthlott, W; Brummitt, N.A; Cheek, M.R; Farjon, A; Govaerts, R; Hardwick, K.A; Hilton-Taylor, C; Meagher, T.R; Moat, J; Mutke, J; Paton, A.J; Pleasants, L.J; Savolainen, V; Schatz, G.E; Smith, P; Turner, I; Wyse-Jackson, P; Crane, P.R

2005-01-01

137

Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most-persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)63- or Fe(CN)64-, but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)63- or its dissociation products (Co(CN)6-x(H2O)x(3-x)-). Supporting evidence for cobalt-cyanide complexation was found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification at four separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

Johnson, Craig A.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Rye, Robert O.

2008-01-01

138

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 12, CYANIDE IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode...

139

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130...Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a...

2010-07-01

140

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

SODIUM CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON Marine Biological Laboratory APR 2 '^ 1958 WOODS HOLE, MASS CYANIDE AS A FISH POISON By W. R. Bridges Cooperative Fishery Research Laboratory Southern Illinois 1958 #12;ABSTRACT Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of sodium cyanide

141

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130...Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a...

2011-07-01

142

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130...Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a...

2013-07-01

143

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130...Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General...for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a...

2012-07-01

144

Possible reaction mechanisms of hydrogen cyanide formation from oxime blocked isocyanates and related organic compounds during total cyanide analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent reports by paint manufactures of hydrogen cyanide detection in waste contaminated with oxime blocked isocyanates lead to an investigation of possible hydrogen cyanide generating reaction pathways. GC?MS is empolyed to analyze traces of byproducts of the total cyanide analysis. A Beckmann Rearrangement of oxime blocked isocyanates has been detected. The formation of ??ketocyanides and their hydrolysis to free hydrogen

H. Modler; M. Nonomura

1995-01-01

145

Investigation of the physiological relationship between the cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cyanide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which demonstrates considerable respiratory versatility, possessing up to five terminal oxidases. One oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), has been previously shown to be resistant to the potent respiratory inhibitor cyanide, a toxin that is synthesized by this bacterium. This study investigated the physiological relationship between hydrogen cyanide production and the CIO. It was found

James E. A. Zlosnik; Gholam Reza Tavankar; Jacob G. Bundy; Dimitris Mossialos; Ronan O'Toole; Huw D. Williams

2006-01-01

146

Argosy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The private Argosy Foundation is based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and was started in 1997 by the co-founder of Boston Scientific. The "Who We Are" link on the homepage provides an excellent overview of how they choose to fund projects, and the "Frequently Asked Questions" section informs visitors about the special programs they fund. For example, the "Contemporary Music Fund" is "designed to promote the proliferation and awareness of contemporary classical or 'non-pop' music." The world-famous Kronos Quartet is one of the partners of the Contemporary Music Fund. Visitors interested in the depth of research the staff of Argosy do when deciding to fund an issue or program, should check out the "Resources" link to several of the reports and briefs they've written. Some of the briefs include affordable housing, use of grass pellets as a heat and energy source, xeriscaping, and lessening the environmental impact of the freight and commercial trucking industry. An abstract and brief are provided for each topic featured here.

147

Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanide (CN -), thiocyanate (SCN -), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN) 43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN -, SCN -, and Cu(CN) 43- by ferrate(VI) (Fe VIO 42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe VO 43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO 42-, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO 4-. Cyanides react 10 3-10 5 times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN - proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN - and Cu(CN) 43-. The toxic CN - species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO -). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

Sharma, Virender K.; Yngard, Ria A.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Clayton Baum, J.

2008-06-01

148

Promotion of Seed Germination by Cyanide  

PubMed Central

Potassium cyanide at 3 ?m to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form ?-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. ?-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 ?-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from ?-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-14C is much lower than of cyanide. Radioactive tracer in K14CN shows uptake of about 1.5 ?moles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high 14C activity in ?-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN3 at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN3 inhibit O2 consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form ?-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis. PMID:16658492

Taylorson, R. B.; Hendricks, S. B.

1973-01-01

149

Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.  

PubMed

Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis. PMID:16658492

Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

1973-07-01

150

A Good Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the effects of regional geology on bridge foundation, including the variety of soil conditions found beneath foundations. They learn about shallow and deep foundations, as well as the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

151

Hydrogen cyanide polymerization: a preferred cosmochemical pathway.  

PubMed

Current research in cosmochemistry shows that crude organic solids of high molecular weight are readily formed in planetary, interplanetary and interstellar environments. Underlying much of this ubiquitous chemistry is a low energy route leading directly to the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide and its polymers. Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial investigations suggests that these polymers plus water yield heteropolypeptides, a truly universal process that accounts not only for the past synthesis of protein ancestors on Earth but also for reactions proceeding elsewhere today within our solar system, on planetary bodies and satellites around other stars and in the dusty molecular clouds of spiral galaxies. The existence of this preferred pathway - hydrogen cyanide polymerization - surely increases greatly the probability that carbon-based life is widespread in the universe. PMID:11539467

Matthews, C N

1992-01-01

152

Unexpected Alternated Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly  

E-print Network

1 Unexpected Alternated Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether Radical Copolymerization of Vinylidene cyanide with a Vinyl ether for Superhydrophobic and Highly) Abstract The synthesis and the characterization of original copolymers based on vinylidene cyanide (VCN

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This...

2014-07-01

154

Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

Green, Sheldon

1986-01-01

155

The atmospheric chemistry of hydrogen cyanide (HCN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, three groups have reported spectroscopic detections and measurements of hydrogen cyanide in the atmosphere. HCN concentrations (volume mixing ratios) of (1.5-1.7) x 10 to the -10th appear to characterize the stratosphere and the Northern Hemisphere's nonurban troposphere. In this paper, the atmospheric behavior of HCN is explored by examining its chemical and photochemical properties. Its principal sinks are

R. J. Cicerone; R. Zellner

1983-01-01

156

Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

1986-01-01

157

Effect of chronic cyanide intoxication on memory in albino rats.  

PubMed

Cyanide is a chemical widely used in industry, and is a major environmental pollutant. Its toxicity is caused by inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The effect of sublethal doses of cyanide on memory and hippocampal neurotransmitters was studied in male Wistar strain albino rats. Cyanide reduced the memory along with reduction in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hippocampus. Pre-existing malnutrition in the animals exaggerated these effects. PMID:10685013

Mathangi, D C; Namasivayam, A

2000-01-01

158

Supramolecular Ferric Porphyrins as Cyanide Receptors in Aqueous Solution  

PubMed Central

All fundamental data about binding of the cyanide to a supramolecular complex composed of a per-O-methylated ?-cyclodextrin dimer having an imidazole linker (Im3CD) and an anionic ferric porphyrin (Fe(III)TPPS) indicate that the Fe(III)TPPS/Im3CD complex is much better as an cyanide receptor in vivo than hydroxocobalamin, whose cyanide binding ability is lowered by its strong binding to serum proteins in the blood. PMID:24900285

2011-01-01

159

Increased ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (?Atnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids. PMID:23825089

O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

2014-01-01

160

[Cyanides--treatment beneath the shade of terror].  

PubMed

Although the use of cyanides as warfare agents has not been documented since the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, there are rising fears of cyanide being used by terrorists. An Al-Qaeda terror plot to use cyanide gas in the London Underground was foiled in 2002. The threat of similar events becomes more imminent in light of the terror attacks in our country and worldwide, accompanied by statements and threats by fundamentalist leaders to employ chemical weapons. Therefore, mass-intoxication with cyanides is not merely a hypothetical scenario. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is under constant evaluation and there is no international consensus on the subject. The medical treatment of victims at the scene and in hospitals should be rapid and efficient. Current treatment dictates establishing an intravenous line and a slow rate of administration of antidotes. Both demands are not feasible in this specific mass casualty event. The clinical signs of cyanide poisoning are complex, variable and not necessarily obvious for the medical team. There is great interest in reconsidering the existing treatment protocols for cyanide intoxication in light of current research. This review describes the mechanisms of cyanide toxicity, clinical signs of exposure, and current treatment protocols in use worldwide. On the basis of this evidence we suggest a medical treatment protocol for a mass casualty event caused by cyanide. PMID:17460933

Krivoy, Amir; Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Layish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Schein, Ophir; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

2007-03-01

161

Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.  

PubMed

Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant. PMID:24711295

Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

2014-05-01

162

Shallow & Deep Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the critical nature of foundations as they learn differences between shallow and deep foundations, including the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement. Using models representing a shallow foundation and a deep pile foundation, they test, see and feel the effects in a cardboard box test bed composed of layers of pebbles, soil and sand. They also make bearing pressure calculations and recommendations for which type of foundations to use in various engineering scenarios.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

163

Coordination Chemistry Reviews 249 (2005) 26422648 Magnetism of metal cyanide networks assembled at interfaces  

E-print Network

Coordination Chemistry Reviews 249 (2005) 2642­2648 Review Magnetism of metal cyanide networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2648 Abstract Studies of metal cyanide thin films prepared directly at interfaces are reviewed

Meisel, Mark W.

164

Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics  

E-print Network

Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Thierry Coquand Luminy, April 7, 2014 #12;Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics References on univalent foundation V. Voevodsky Univalent foundation home page and "Experimental library of univalent foundation of mathematics" B. Ahrens. C. Kapulkin

Coquand, Thierry

165

Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.  

PubMed

The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra. PMID:21303323

Niederer, Peter F

2010-01-01

166

Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.  

PubMed

A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater. PMID:25306785

Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

2014-08-01

167

Photo/photochemical oxidation of cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes: ultraviolet A versus ultraviolet C.  

PubMed

Degradation of free cyanide (CN(-)), weak-acid dissociable (WAD) (Zn(CN)4(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-)) and strong-acid dissociable (SAD) (Fe(CN)6(4-) cyanide complexes by photo and photochemical oxidation with ultraviolet (UV) light and H2O2 was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch reactors under ultraviolet A (UVA; 395 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC; 254 nm) light; the degradation efficiency was followed in terms of free cyanide, complex and metal concentrations. UVC and UVA photo-oxidations were found to be equally effective in CN(-) and WAD degradation, while the degradation of the SAD complex was more difficult for both UV wavelengths, and UVC was more effective. The initial pH of the solution has influenced the degradation of all cyanide species and the optimum initial pH was evaluated as 10.5 for CN(-) and Cu(CN)3(2-); 12.0 for Zn(CN)4(2-) and 9.0 for Fe(CN)6(4-) degradation. Photochemical oxidation using H202 provided higher degradation at shorter durations with both UVA and UVC. Time-dependent variations in free cyanide and metal concentrations have indicated that metal-cyanide complexes are firstly degraded into metal and CN(-) ions, followed by oxidation of CN(-) ions, while metals in the system were partially removed as hydroxide precipitates. Therefore, depending upon the effluent requirements, the studied UV photo/photochemical oxidations were offered as either a pre-treatment method for the separation of metal and the cyanide, or as an oxidation technology to degrade especially WAD complexes and CN(-). Estimated operational cost of photo-oxidation by UVC was 1.6-2.5-fold higher than UVA degradation, although degradation times were close. In the photochemical oxidation with H2O2, the operational costs of UVC and UVA degradation were closer, owing to peroxide costs, but UVC was still more expensive. PMID:23240184

Ozcan, Ercan; Gok, Zehra; Yel, Esra

2012-09-01

168

Inhibition of aerobic respiration and dissimilatory perchlorate reduction using cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low concentrations of cyanide on dissimilatory perchlorate and chlorate reduction and aerobic respiration was examined using pure cultures of Azospira sp. KJ. Cyanide at a concentration of 38 ?M inhibited cell growth on perchlorate, chlorate and molecular oxygen, but it did not inhibit the activity of chlorite dismutase. When oxygen accumulation was prevented by adding an oxygen

Yanguang Song; Bruce E. Logan

2004-01-01

169

Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

1994-01-01

170

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CYANIDES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on cyanide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of cyanides; Toxicokinetics and human expos...

171

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

172

38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

173

Coulometric Titration of Free Cyanide with Electrogenerated Hypobromite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and sensitive method is described for the direct determination of cyanide by coulometric titration with electrogenerated hypobromite. A biamperometric end point was utilized. From 0.498 – 9.980 ueq of cyanide were analyzed with an average error of 0.36% and an average standard deviation of 0.045.

R. A. Gibbs; R. J. Palma Sr

1974-01-01

174

Aminoacid Synthesis from Hydrogen Cyanide under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE formation of adenine from hydrogen cyanide has been recently reported from this laboratory1. Continuing the work on the synthesis of biochemical compounds under possible primitive Earth conditions2, we now have investigated the direct formation of amino-acids from hydrogen cyanide.

J. Oró; S. S. Kamat

1961-01-01

175

Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans  

SciTech Connect

A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

1991-06-01

176

Cyanide inhibits respiration yet stimulates aerobic growth of Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium cyanide at submillimolar concentrations (20-500 lM) inhibited the high respiration rates of aerobic cultures of Zymomonas mobilis but, remarkably, stimulated culture growth. In batch culture, after an extended lag phase, exponential growth persisted longer, resulting in higher biomass densities. In aerobic chemostat cultures, elevated biomass concentration was observed in the presence of cyanide. This growth stimulation effect is attributed

Uldis Kalnenieks; Nina Galinina; Malda M. Toma; Robert K. Poole

177

Mechanisms of cyanide neurotoxicity: A role for Bcl2 proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore the mechanisms underlying cyanide cytotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons. Previous in vivo studies suggested that cyanide induced different modes of cell death in different brain area: necrosis was observed in substantia nigra while cells died mainly through apoptosis in cortex. Based upon morphological and biochemical criteria, cell death induced by

Yan Shou

2002-01-01

178

Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.  

PubMed

Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims. PMID:22828651

Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

2013-02-01

179

Lung injury and renal failure caused by potassium cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Our objective is to show that cyanide poisoning presents with various symptoms, and that recognition of these symptoms is required for appropriate management of the condition. A 54-year-old man drank about 2.5 times the normal fatal dose of potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt. On arrival at hospital (day 0), the patient was restless and in a state of shock. We administered 100% oxygen and performed immediate detoxification. Ground-glass attenuation appeared on the evening of day 1 and lung injury due to cyanide was suspected. Inflammation improved slowly with the use of artificial ventilation, but anuria continued and sudden renal failure occurred on day 2. We suspected that renal failure was due to cyanide metabolites, and continuous haemodiafiltration (CHDF) was initiated. Renal function improved slowly and CHDF was discontinued on the sixth day. Symptoms of cyanide poisoning may include lung injury and renal damage, in addition to disturbance of consciousness. PMID:22162737

Matsuoka, Yoshinori; Yasuda, Mitsuhiro; Hashizume, Makoto

2009-01-01

180

A New Facile Method to Measure Cyanide in Blood  

PubMed Central

Cyanide, a well-known toxic substance that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction, is likely responsible for a substantial percentage of smoke inhalation deaths. The vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide binds cyanide with high affinity, changing color and, correspondingly, its spectrophotometric spectrum in the ultraviolet/visible light range. Based on these spectral changes, we developed a new facile method to measure cyanide in blood using cobinamide. The limit of detection was 0.25 nmol, while the limit of quantitation was ~ 0.5 nmol. The method was reliable, requires minimal equipment, and correlated well with a previously established method. Moreover, we adapted it for rapid qualitative assessment of cyanide concentration, which could be used in the field to identify cyanide-poisoned subjects for immediate treatment. PMID:20420400

Blackledge, William C.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Griesel, Alexa; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

2010-01-01

181

A review of acute cyanide poisoning with a treatment update.  

PubMed

Cyanide causes intracellular hypoxia by reversibly binding to mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase a(3). Signs and symptoms of cyanide poisoning usually occur less than 1 minute after inhalation and within a few minutes after ingestion. Early manifestations include anxiety, headache, giddiness, inability to focus the eyes, and mydriasis. As hypoxia progresses, progressively lower levels of consciousness, seizures, and coma can occur. Skin may look normal or slightly ashen, and arterial oxygen saturation may be normal. Early respiratory signs include transient rapid and deep respirations. As poisoning progresses, hemodynamic status may become unstable. The key treatment is early administration of 1 of the 2 antidotes currently available in the United States: the well-known cyanide antidote kit and hydroxocobalamin. Hydroxocobalamin detoxifies cyanide by binding with it to form the renally excreted, non-toxic cyanocobalamin. Because it binds with cyanide without forming methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin can be used to treat patients without compromising the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin. PMID:21285466

Hamel, Jillian

2011-02-01

182

American Vitiligo Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation Poem written by Victoria about being Different " ... a cure through alternatives to animal testing. American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

183

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in La Junta, CO more info 06 2014 Multiple Sclerosis Foundation Gala honoring Dr. Daniel Kantor, MD in ... LLC. Website Design by SimplexWeb © Copyright 2000-2013 Multiple Sclerosis Foundation - All Rights Reserved

184

Prostate Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Kenneth May, Jr., MD, PhD; Second in a Series: Postcard from the Cutting Edge: ASCO in Chicago ... 11.2014 Foundation News Cancer Survivor, Physician, Radio/TV Personality to Join Prostate Cancer Foundation Board of ...

185

Axial ligation and polypeptide matrix effects on the reduction potential of heme proteins probed on their cyanide adducts.  

PubMed

The enthalpic and entropic changes accompanying the reduction reaction of the six-coordinate cyanide adducts of cytochrome c, microperoxidase-11 and a few plant peroxidases were measured electrochemically. Once the compensating changes in reduction enthalpy and entropy due to solvent reorganization effects are factorized out, it is found that cyanide binding stabilizes enthalpically the ferriheme following the order: cyochrome c > peroxidase > microperoxidase-11. The effect is inversely correlated to the solvent accessibility of the heme. Comparison of the reduction thermodynamics for the cyanide adducts of cytochrome c and plant peroxidases with those for microperoxidase-11 and myoglobin, respectively, yielded an estimate of the consequences of protein encapsulation and of the anionic character of the proximal histidine on the reduction potential of the heme-cyanide group. Insertion of the heme-CN group into the folded peptide chain of cyt c induces an enthalpy-based decrease in E degrees ' of approximately 100 mV, consistent with the lower net charge of the oxidized as compared to the reduced iron center, whereas a full imidazolate character of the proximal histidine stabilizes enthalpically the ferriheme by approximately 400 mV. The latter value should be best considered as an upper limit since it also includes some solvation effects arising from the nature of the protein systems being compared. PMID:16133205

Battistuzzi, G; Bellei, M; Borsari, M; Di Rocco, G; Ranieri, A; Sola, M

2005-10-01

186

MacArthur Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MacArthur Foundation Gopher includes general information about the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, such as how to apply for grants, the names of staff members, and the history of the Foundation. It also includes information specific to each of the Foundation's eight program areas, such as recent program activities, application guidelines, contact information, and a listing of grants made in the previous calendar year.

187

The Future of Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On account of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (taxing income of a foundation) foundations have developed more rationale grant-making philosophies, longer term grants, more evaluation of grantees, and greater responsibility on the part of the foundations for grantee survival. (Author/PG)

Kramer, Lawrence

1974-01-01

188

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

189

Direct determination of free cyanide in drinking water by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a regulated contaminant in drinking water in the United States. This paper describes an ion chromatography method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) that directly determines free cyanide in drinking water. Samples are treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize cyanide and with a cation-exchange cartridge to remove transition metals. Cyanide is separated by anion-exchange chromatography and detected by PAD

Terri T. Christison; Jeffrey S. Rohrer

2007-01-01

190

Differential Mitochondrial Electron Transport through the Cyanide-Sensitive and Cyanide-Insensitive Pathways in Isonuclear Lines of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile, Male Fertile, and Restored Petunia1  

PubMed Central

Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida [Hook] Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines. PMID:16667667

Connett, Marie B.; Hanson, Maureen R.

1990-01-01

191

High velocity extraction of metal cyanides from water  

SciTech Connect

High velocity metal ion capture and exchange media have been developed which are capable of rapidly and effectively extracting metal cyanide complexes from water to sub-ppm levels. These media were developed to meet the growing need for compliance with increasingly stringent disposal regulations and the need for cost-effective treatment of metal cyanide waste streams produced by the gold mining and electroplating industries. The extraction media are produced by modifying porous silica with covalently attached, long, and hydrophilic spacer molecules. The termini of the spacer molecules are activated and coupled with a variety of cation or anion exchange and chelating reagents. By placing the ion interactive functionality away from the surface of the solid support, a combination of the benefits of solution phase equilibration kinetics and heterogeneous support media is obtained. This paper describes column extraction tests performed with the media to remove iron, zinc, copper, and gold cyanide complexes from solution to levels below one part per million. Additional tests were performed with these columns to selectively extract these metal cyanides and/or selectively desorb the cyanide complexes from the media. One column was effective in extracting gold cyanide from solution and recovering the gold by elution with a carbonate buffer. The other metal cyanides showed distinctively different adsorption isotherms.

Hammen, R.F. [ChelaTech, Inc., Missoula, MT (United States)

1997-12-31

192

Cyanide inhibits respiration yet stimulates aerobic growth of Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

Potassium cyanide at submillimolar concentrations (20-500 microM) inhibited the high respiration rates of aerobic cultures of Zymomonas mobilis but, remarkably, stimulated culture growth. In batch culture, after an extended lag phase, exponential growth persisted longer, resulting in higher biomass densities. In aerobic chemostat cultures, elevated biomass concentration was observed in the presence of cyanide. This growth stimulation effect is attributed to decreased production of the inhibitory metabolite acetaldehyde at lowered respiration rates, when more reducing equivalents are channelled to alcohol dehydrogenase. Growth in the presence of cyanide did not alter the membrane cytochrome content. In non-growing cyanide-preincubated cells, with ethanol as the respiratory substrate, cyanide increased ATP levels; in such cells, a large part of the cyanide-sensitive respiration was inhibited within a few seconds after ethanol addition, while inhibition of the rest of respiration took several minutes. The more cyanide-sensitive respiration was apparently energy-nongenerating, and was absent in membrane preparations. Pelleting of membranes from cell-free extracts produced 'soluble' fractions in which a b-type haem was detectable by reduced minus oxidized difference spectroscopy. The function of the Z. mobilis respiratory chain in cell growth and respiratory protection, and the possible physiological role of aerobic generation of inhibitory metabolites, are discussed. PMID:10846205

Kalnenieks, U; Galinina, N; Toma, M M; Poole, R K

2000-06-01

193

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

194

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 kills Caenorhabditis elegans by cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

Gallagher, L A; Manoil, C

2001-11-01

195

The role of nitric oxide in the cyanide-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide causes rapid-onset neurotoxicity by inhibiting cellular respiration at cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). Cyanide primarily targets the brain, where it promotes dopaminergic cell death. Acute cyanide toxicity has been associated with a late-onset Parkinson-like neuropathy. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous CcOX inhibitor, has been implicated in the cyanide-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons. We recently found that the cyanide-mediated increase in

Heather B Leavesley

2009-01-01

196

Isolation, selection and characterization of a cyanide-degrading fungus from an industrial effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amongst 14 fungi isolates from a cyanide-containing industrial effluent, a strain of Fusarium oxysporum developed a particularly high tolerance for cyanide when incubated in a medium containing cyanide. Tolerance apparently involves the ability of the fungus to convert cyanide to non-toxic formamide by formamide hydro-lyase enzyme. The contribution of the alternate cyanide insensitive respiratory system to ensure the formamide hydro-lyase

P. T. Pereira; J. D. Arrabaça; M. T. Amaral-Collaço

1996-01-01

197

Foundations for Designing Secure Architectures  

E-print Network

Foundations for Designing Secure Architectures Jan Jürjens Competence Center for IT Security, TU Munich: Foundations for Designing Secure Architectures 2 Foundations for Designing Secure Architectures This talk: foundations for designing software architectures for secure systems, based

Jurjens, Jan

198

AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

199

Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

1978-01-01

200

The Rockefeller Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation is one of the largest private philanthropic entities in the United States. In the past year, it awarded over $140 million in grants to numerous organizations working and researching topics of interest to the Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation currently has five primary program themes: creativity and culture, food security, health equity, working communities, and global inclusion. While the Foundation typically operates as "a proactive grantmaker," persons working for organizations that perform work or research in these five thematic areas will find perusing this website to be quite helpful. Here visitors can find out about current grant recipients, search the contents of the entire site, and learn more about the Foundation's overall mission and vision. Additionally, quite a few of the foundation's publications and papers are available for download here, including important works on HIV prevention in the developing world, inequities in health care, nonprofit capital, and inner city renewal in the United States.

201

Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

Lohrmann, R.

1972-01-01

202

National technology foundation proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bill that would combine sections of the National Science Foundation and the Department of Commerce into a National Technology Foundation was introduced in June by Rep. George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee. Purpose of the foundation would be to ‘promote the advance of technology, technological innovation, technology utilization, and the supply of technological manpower for the improvement of the economic, environmental, and social well-being of the United States.’ The bill has been sent to congressional committee.‘Among other things, the National Technology Foundation would recognize the importance of engineering and help harness its potential,’ Brown told the House.

Richman, Barbara T.

203

Cyanide binding to cytochrome c peroxidase (H52L).  

PubMed

Cyanide binding to a cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) variant in which the distal histidine has been replaced by a leucine residue, CcP(H52L), has been investigated as a function of pH using spectroscopic, equilibrium, and kinetic methods. Between pH 4 and 8, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant for the CcP(H52L)/cyanide complex varies by a factor of 60, from 135 microM at pH 4.7 to 2.2 microM at pH 8.0. The binding kinetics are biphasic, involving bimolecular association of the two reactants, followed by an isomerization of the enzyme/cyanide complex. The association rate constant could be determined up to pH 8.9 using pH-jump techniques. The association rate constant increases by almost 4 orders of magnitude over the pH range investigated, from 1.8 x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 4 to 9.2 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 8.6. In contrast to wild-type CcP, where the binding of HCN is the dominant binding pathway, CcP(H52L) preferentially binds the cyanide anion. Above pH 8, cyanide binding to CcP(H52L) is faster than cyanide binding to wild-type CcP. Cyanide dissociates 4 times slower from the mutant protein although the pH dependence of the dissociation rate constant is essentially identical for CcP(H52L) and CcP. Isomerization of the CcP(H52L)/cyanide complex is observed between pH 4 and 8 and stabilizes the complex. The isomerization rate constant has a similar magnitude and pH dependence as the cyanide dissociation rate constant, and the two reactions are coupled at low cyanide concentrations. This isomerization has no counterpart in the wild-type CcP/cyanide complex. PMID:12962501

Bidwai, Anil; Witt, Misty; Foshay, Miriam; Vitello, Lidia B; Satterlee, James D; Erman, James E

2003-09-16

204

1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN ASSEMBLY PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

205

Radiochromic dye cyanides and the dosimetric characteristics of their dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new methods of synthesis and purification of two radiochromic leucodyes[pararosaniline cyanide (PR-CN) and hexahydroxyethyl pararosaniline cyanide (HPR-CN)] are outlined. Structure and purity of the products have been confirmed by elementary analysis, infrared spectrometry, ultraviolet spectrometry, field desorpt mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. Two leucodyes have been evaluated and used in solution dosimeters, film dosimeters, optical waveguide dosimeters.

Xiangrui, Guan; Kezhong, Li; Jianping, Li; Hongchun, Tang; Weigang, Li; Jianhuan, Zhu

206

Arbor Day Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arbor Day was first observed in 1872, and the Arbor Day Foundation was founded in 1972 in Nebraska. The Arbor Day website contains a trove of information for visitors to peruse, make plans around, and learn from. The "Trees" section of the website includes "What Tree is That?", an online guide for tree identification; a "Tree Guide", that covers more than 200 different species of trees; and a quiz called "The Right Tree in the Right Place", about how and why to first make a simple plan, considering size and shape, when planting trees around a house. The "Programs" section of the website is an excellent resource for visitors such as teachers, parents and students. "Nature Explore" helps connect kids with nature via the "Resource Guide", which contains "field-tested resources developed to bring nature into children's daily learning in sustainable, significant, positive and joyful ways." Interested visitors can use the link entitled "Request a Resource Guide", to get a free copy. "Nature Explore Classroom Certification" links teachers to the certification process and examples of certified classrooms and classrooms in-progress.

2011-01-21

207

Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science] [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1998-07-01

208

Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication.  

PubMed

Cyanide and carbon monoxide, which are often found in fire victims, are toxic gases emitted from fires. Cyanide and carbon monoxide have similar molecular structure. Cyanide binds to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase a, a3 similar to carbon monoxide, thus blocking the mitochondrial respiration chain causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1 and intra-arterially in Group 2. Blood samples were taken immediately after poisoning, and at one and a half, three and five hours. Blood was drawn from a jugular vein in Group 1 and from a femoral artery in Group 2. Group 1 rats were divided into a control group of 12 rats without HBO2, 10 rats had acute HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly less as compared to controls and acute HBO2-treated rats. Group 2 controls whole-blood-cyanide concentration decreased towards zero throughout the observation period. However, in Group 2 acute HBO2-treated rats a secondary rise in whole-blood-cyanide was observed. The study indicates that HBO2 can move cyanide from tissue to blood. These findings may be of clinical importance, as combined HBO2 and antidote treatment, may accelerate detoxification. PMID:21384760

Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, L; Johnsen, A H; Hyldegaard, O

2011-01-01

209

AALTO UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION CONSTITUTION  

E-print Network

, art and education. Section 3. Fulfilling the purpose The Foundation shall fulfill its purpose by executing university tasks relating to science, art and education in the fields of technology, economics intrinsic to it, which are requisites for the freedom of education, research and art. The Foundation may

Kaski, Samuel

210

Open Bioinformatics Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers can share their open source code software on websites such as this one from the Open Bioinformatics Foundation. Here, visitors can find information about the Foundation's projects (including BioJava, BioPerl, and BioRuby), board of directors, applications for membership, and bioinformatics newsletters.

2007-12-28

211

Foundations of Software Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on the Foundations of Software Testing including: basic terminology, the mission of testing, the oracle problem, the measurement problem, the impossibility of complete testing, and relevant foundational concepts from the computer science field.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

212

Foundation Development Abstracts, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of brief two-page essays is published quarterly by the Network of California Community College Foundations to address topics related to development activities typically conducted by educational foundations. Volume 1 includes "Your Message is as Clear as Your Mission Statement," by Pat Rasmussen and James M. Anderson, which suggests…

Anderson, James M., Ed.

1991-01-01

213

DSMBs: Foundations and Fundamentals  

E-print Network

of Helsinki (1964 ­ Present) ­ The Belmont Report (1979) ­ Federal Regulations (e.g., 21 CFR Part 50, 45 CFR codes and regulations enjoin investigators and IRBs to design and conduct studies with the wellbeing throughout industry sponsored trials · Foundations (e.g., Cystic Fibrosis Foundation) · FDA guidance on DMCs

Nguyen, Danh

214

Copper(I) Cyanide Networks: Synthesis, Structure, and Luminescence Behavior. Part 2. Piperazine Ligands and Hexamethylenetetramine1  

E-print Network

Copper(I) Cyanide Networks: Synthesis, Structure, and Luminescence Behavior. Part 2. Piperazine-organic network chemistry of copper(I) cyanide with bridging nitrogen ligands (L).1­3 Because a single cyanide

Pike, Robert D.

215

Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

216

Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded. PMID:15691951

Luque-Almagro, Victor M.; Huertas, Maria-J.; Martinez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivian, Conrado; Roldan, M. Dolores; Garcia-Gil, L. Jesus; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

2005-01-01

217

Temperature Dependence of Henry's Law Constant for Hydrogen Cyanide. Generation of Trace Standard Gaseous Hydrogen Cyanide  

PubMed Central

Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry’s Law constant (KH, M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00±0.03 at 296.6±0.1 K) from 287–311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The KH of HCN may be expressed as ln KH (M/atm) = (8205.7±341.9)/T ? (25.323±1.144); r2 = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 °C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 °C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted. PMID:20302333

Ma, Jian; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

2010-01-01

218

Effective Charge Transfer Distances in Cyanide-Bridged Mixed-Valence Transition Metal Complexes  

E-print Network

Effective Charge Transfer Distances in Cyanide-Bridged Mixed-Valence Transition Metal Complexes theory (Oh; Boxer J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 8161). Stark spectra are reported for a series of cyanide

Boxer, Steven G.

219

Oxidative removal of cyanide from aqueous streams abetted by ultraviolet irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of reducing the concentration of complexed cyanide in an aqueous stream containing at least one complexed cyanide which dissociates to afford less than 10% of the total cyanide present in the complexed cyanide as free cyanide ions. The method comprises the following: irradiating the aqueous stream with light of a wavelength effective to dissociate the complexed cyanide and afford free cyanide ions, and oxidizing the cyanide to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and isocyanate with an oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of oxygen ozone, and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a metal chelate at oxidation conditions. The metal chelate is selected from the group consisting of metal compounds of tetrapyridinoporphyrazine, porphyrin, corrinoid materials, and the phthalocyanines.

Frame, R.R.; Kalnes, T.N.; Moser, M.D.

1993-08-24

220

cyanides using a rhodiumtrispyrazolylborate complex Coordination Chemistry of Saturated Molecules Special Feature: The activation of alkyl  

E-print Network

cyanides using a rhodiumtrispyrazolylborate complex Coordination Chemistry of Saturated Molecules.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;The activation of alkyl cyanides using a rhodiumtrispyrazolylborate

Jones, William D.

221

Diagnosis of cyanide intoxication by measurement of cytochrome c oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a mitochondrial enzyme, is inactivated by cyanide or carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. We measured CCO activity, in the major organs of the rat at various times after death caused by cyanide intoxication. Tissue samples were homogenized, and the CCO activity in the mitochondrial fraction was measured using ferrous cytochrome c as the substrate. The CCO activity inhibition was highest in the brain, although the cyanide concentration was lowest level. As a result of this and the clinical symptoms displayed, we consider the brain to be the primary organ of cyanide intoxication. As cyanide is highly toxic to humans, in small amounts and many patients and victims have already had some medical care, it is difficult to detect cyanide in criminal investigations. The CCO activities in various organs remained significantly low for 2 days after the cyanide intoxication, suggesting that the diagnosis may be possible by measuring not only the cyanide concentration but also the CCO activity. PMID:11311573

Ikegaya, H; Iwase, H; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Yoshida, K; Takatori, T

2001-02-28

222

Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

Arrhenius, G.

1991-01-01

223

Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7% Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.0 M sodium hydroxide was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1% sodium cyanide and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95% Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50%. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.

1995-06-01

224

Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7 pct Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.OM sodium hydroxide solution was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1 pct sodium cyanide and 0.1M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95 pct Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50 pct. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B. [Bureau of Mines, Reno, NV (United States). Reno Research Center

1995-12-31

225

Effects of cyanide on selenium metabolism in rats  

SciTech Connect

Adult male rats were given drinking water containing either 0 or 150 ppm cyanide for 2 weeks. They were then injected with 5 microCi /sup 75/Se-selenite, and excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces was determined. No difference in excretion of /sup 75/Se occurred during the rapid phase, but the cyanide-treated rats (T1/2 28 days) excreted significantly more /sup 75/Se in urine than control (T1/2 38 days) rats. Cyanide had no effect on excretion of /sup 75/Se in feces or on the distribution of /sup 75/Se in cytosolic proteins in liver, kidney, muscle or testes. In a second experiment weanling male rats were given water with either 0 or 150 ppm cyanide and were killed for glutathione peroxidase assay and selenium analysis in blood, kidney, liver, muscle and testes after 3, 6 or 9 weeks of treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium concentrations were significantly reduced by cyanide in all tissues except testes.

Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D.

1984-05-01

226

Building a Foundation  

E-print Network

Building a Foundation examines my personal history growing up in a Midwestern, conservative, farming community, within a family of boys. This exhibition of drawings and prints explores ideas of identity and the American male experience...

Metzger, Jonathan David

2013-05-31

227

National Psoriasis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... psoriasis has significant quality of life impact » Get Social National Psoriasis Foundation Our Mission: To drive efforts ... Info For Media NPF Staff Board of Directors Corporate Partners Volunteers Health Care Providers Researchers Our Sites ...

228

National Keratoconus Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... keratoconus... More Stay Informed Upcoming Events Designated Great NonProfit Materials for Doctors Request KC Info Packet Corneal ... The Discovery Eye Foundation , a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization. Internet Marketing by ITC | Operated by Catherine ...

229

Parkinson's Disease Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... View All News PDF Champions: Atlantic City Half Marathon Sunday, October 19 (Atlantic City, NJ) Katherine Lewis will run the Atlantic City Half Marathon to benefit the Parkinson's Disease Foundation. Learn More ...

230

Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.

1980-01-01

231

Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

The Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation, Inc. (HSF) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation, dedicated to improving research, education, ... and care for individuals and families affected by Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). HS is an inflammatory skin disease affecting ...

232

National Reye's Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Packages - Free! Talking to Tweens and Teens About Aspirin and Other Medications Join the Effort to Eradicate ... Foundation's LinkedIn profile Spread Awareness with the Kids & Aspirin Don't Mix car magnet ribbon. Get News & ...

233

Proteus Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... to Help Thank you for donating to the Proteus Syndrome Foundation. Learn More Medical Research Dr. Leslie Biesecker has discovered the cause of Proteus syndrome. See our FAQ section for more information. ...

234

American Macular Degeneration Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... A + A Search Search Welcome Welcome to the American Macular Degeneration Foundation web site where you can ... the United States, affecting more than ten million Americans. This time-lapse animation illustrates the central vision ...

235

Angelman Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Syndrome Clinics Newsletter Privacy Policy Transparency Honoring Your Investment 50% of individuals with Angelman syndrome are originally ... Syndrome Clinics Newsletter Privacy Policy Transparency Honoring Your Investment Angelman Syndrome Foundation, Inc. (800-432-6435) 75 ...

236

Oxidative methods of removing sulfur and cyanide from coke-oven gas and prospects for their utilization  

SciTech Connect

The experimental investigation on oxidative ammonia removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from a coke-oven gas typical of plants in the East showed that not less than 95% purification of the gas is achieved when using a catalyst of the quinone group at the normally recommended concentrations. The efficiency of the absorption apparatus should be not below 3 to 4 theoretical stages. The degree of purification is regulated by the specific irrigation depending on the temperature. At temperatures not exceeding 30/sup 0/C a specific irrigation rate of 12 l/m/sup 3/ is sufficient, while at 40/sup 0/C it should be increased to 40 l/m/sup 3/. The principal product of the reaction is ammonium thiocyanate. The consumption of hydrogen sulfide for its formation is determined by the hydrogen cyanide concentration in the gas. The residual hydrogen sulfide is oxidized to sulfur, thiosulfate and sulfate. For eastern plants a system of combined removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide should be used. The prospects for using the oxidative method are related to the utilization of the resulting salts. Possible utilization methods are decomposition of the salts by one of the methods used in other countries, separation of commercial products such as thiocyanate from the salts, and use of the salts in the coking process. All these examples require special development, especially since the problem of utilization of the salts should also be solved to eliminate wastes in cyclic gas purification methods.

Lebedeva, G.M.; Panferova, G.D.; Tverskov, A.A.; Shelyakin, L.E.

1980-01-01

237

The cyanide hydratase from Neurospora crassa forms a helix which has a dimeric repeat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal cyanide hydratases form a functionally specialized subset of the nitrilases which catalyze the hydrolysis of cyanide\\u000a to formamide with high specificity. These hold great promise for the bioremediation of cyanide wastes. The low resolution\\u000a (3.0 nm) three-dimensional reconstruction of negatively stained recombinant cyanide hydratase fibers from the saprophytic\\u000a fungus Neurospora crassa by iterative helical real space reconstruction reveals that

Kyle C. Dent; Brandon W. Weber; Michael J. Benedik; B. Trevor Sewell

2009-01-01

238

Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

239

Biosorption of iron(III)–cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus: application of adsorption isotherms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption of iron(III)–cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus was investigated. The iron(III)–cyanide complex ion binding capacity of the biosorbent was a function of initial pH, initial iron(III)–cyanide complex ion and biosorbent concentration. These results indicated that a significant reduction of iron(III)–cyanide complex ions was achieved at pH 13, a highly alkaline condition. The maximum loading capacity of biosorbent was

Z. Aksu; A. Çalik; A. Y. Dursun; Z. Demircan

1999-01-01

240

Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular cobinamide sulfite rapidly and effectively reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide poisoning, suggesting that a compact cyanide antidote kit can be developed for mass casualty cyanide exposures. PMID:20045579

Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

2009-01-01

241

INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

242

First application of cyanidation process in Turkish gold mining and its environmental impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of Turkey the first use of cyanide for gold recovery has been at the Ovacik Gold Mine. During one-year test period, this mine has successfully been mining and processing after a complicated and extensive environmental impact procedure. In Turkey about 2500 ton of sodium cyanide are used with about 240 ton of sodium cyanide being used at

A Akcil

2002-01-01

243

MERCURY CYANIDE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER FROM GOLD MINING AND PROSPECTS FOR REMOVAL  

E-print Network

extraction. When cyanide salts are used to extract gold, mercury cyanide complexes that form enhance mercuryMERCURY CYANIDE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER FROM GOLD MINING AND PROSPECTS FOR REMOVAL Cynthia A ABSTRACT Ore bodies from which gold is mined are often composed of minerals containing sulfur, sellenium

Coles, Cynthia

244

Characterizing the later 3d cyanides: The submillimeter spectrum of CoCN,,X 3  

E-print Network

Characterizing the later 3d cyanides: The submillimeter spectrum of CoCN,,X 3 i... P. M. Sheridan that this species is linear in its ground electronic state and has the cyanide, as opposed to the isocyanide molecule in the 3d transition metal series to exhibit the linear cyanide structure, along with the Zn, Cu

Ziurys, Lucy M.

245

DNA Alkylation by Leinamycin Can Be Triggered by Cyanide and Phosphines  

E-print Network

DNA Alkylation by Leinamycin Can Be Triggered by Cyanide and Phosphines Hong Zang, Leonid Breydo of the antibiotic with thiols. Here, it is shown that other soft nucleophiles such as cyanide and phosphines can also trigger DNA alkylation by leinamycin. Overall, the results suggest that reactions of cyanide

Gates, Kent. S.

246

Effect of intensity on fragment internal state distributions in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl cyanide  

E-print Network

dissociation of vinyl cyanide Charles M. Miller,a) John S. McKillop, and Richard N. Zare Department of in the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl cyanide CH, = CHCN in a low pressure flowing gas. The rotational to this problem. This paper describes work on the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl cyanide, CH2=CHCN

Zare, Richard N.

247

The Mechanisms Involved in Seed Dormancy Alleviation by Hydrogen Cyanide Unravel the Role of Reactive  

E-print Network

The Mechanisms Involved in Seed Dormancy Alleviation by Hydrogen Cyanide Unravel the Role ethylene or hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during imbibition. The aim of this work was to provide a comprehensive after- ripening or by HCN treatment, and the effect of cyanide on gene expression is likely

Leubner, Gerhard

248

PHASE TRANSITIONS IN LAYER-INTERCALATION COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL CYANIDE WITH n-ALKYLAMINES  

E-print Network

L-243 PHASE TRANSITIONS IN LAYER-INTERCALATION COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL CYANIDE WITH n-ALKYLAMINES Y modification phenomenon is observed, upon heating, within the inter- calated chain system of the nickel cyanide by their polar end-groups to the N-coordinated Ni atoms ofnickel cyanide complexes leads to solid layer interca

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Fluorescence excitation spectroscopic study of the jet-cooled acetyl cyanide  

E-print Network

Fluorescence excitation spectroscopic study of the jet-cooled acetyl cyanide Min-Chul Yoon, Young S Received 21 October 1998; accepted 19 January 1999 Fluorescence excitation spectrum of acetyl cyanide (CH3 Institute of Physics. S0021-9606 99 00515-2 I. INTRODUCTION Photochemistry of acetyl cyanide

Kim, Sang Kyu

250

Destruction of cyanide in gold mill effluents: biological versus chemical treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In gold mining, cyanide has been the preferred lixiviant worldwide since 1887. Although cyanide can be destroyed and recovered by several processes, it is still widely discussed and examined due to its potential toxicity and environmental impact. Biological treatment of cyanide is a well-established process and has been commercially used at gold mining operations in North America. Biological treatment processes

Ata Akcil

2003-01-01

251

Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Alkyl Cyanides Using Nickel(0)  

E-print Network

Cleavage of Carbon-Carbon Bonds in Alkyl Cyanides Using Nickel(0) Juventino J. Garci´a,*, Alma Are of alkyl cyanides afforded nickel(0) compounds of the type [(dippe)Ni(2 -RCN)], where R ) Me, Et, Pr, i Pr, the use of alkyl and aryl cyanides as substrates has been scarcely studied. Relevant examples

Jones, William D.

252

Three-Dimensional Heterometallic Chiral Cr-Mn Compound Constructed by Cyanide and Dicyanamide Bridges  

E-print Network

Three-Dimensional Heterometallic Chiral Cr-Mn Compound Constructed by Cyanide and Dicyanamide metamagnet with a three- dimensional homochiral framework containing both cyanide and dicyanamide bridges), cyanide (CN- ), or azide (N3 - ), the most effective mediators of magnetic couplings, are studied much

Gao, Song

253

The redox couple of the cytochrome c cyanide complex: The contribution of heme iron ligation to  

E-print Network

The redox couple of the cytochrome c cyanide complex: The contribution of heme iron ligation to most heme proteins, ferrous cytochrome c does not bind ligands such as cyanide and CO. In order to quantify this observation, the redox potential of the ferric/ferrous cytochrome c­cyanide redox couple

Reid, Scott A.

254

On the absence of correlation between cyanide-resistant respiration and cytochrome d content in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regularity of appearance of cyanide-resistant respiration and cytochrome d in various bacteria as well as the relationship between the degree of resistance of respiration to cyanide and cytochrome d content was studied. Bacteria able to synthesize cyanide-resistant respiration were shown to appear during transition of culture to the stationary phase of growth caused by the exhaustion of carbon source.

V. K. Akimenko; S. M. Trutko

1984-01-01

255

A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the

D. B. Donato; O. Nichols; H. Possingham; M. Moore; P. F. Ricci; B. N. Noller

2007-01-01

256

Structure of the trypanosome cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase  

PubMed Central

In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In T. brucei, a parasite that causes human African sleeping sickness, AOX plays a critical role in the survival of the parasite in its bloodstream form. Because AOX is absent from mammals, this protein represents a unique and promising therapeutic target. Despite its bioenergetic and medical importance, however, structural features of any AOX are yet to be elucidated. Here we report crystal structures of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase in the absence and presence of ascofuranone derivatives. All structures reveal that the oxidase is a homodimer with the nonhaem diiron carboxylate active site buried within a four-helix bundle. Unusually, the active site is ligated solely by four glutamate residues in its oxidized inhibitor-free state; however, inhibitor binding induces the ligation of a histidine residue. A highly conserved Tyr220 is within 4 Å of the active site and is critical for catalytic activity. All structures also reveal that there are two hydrophobic cavities per monomer. Both inhibitors bind to one cavity within 4 Å and 5 Å of the active site and Tyr220, respectively. A second cavity interacts with the inhibitor-binding cavity at the diiron center. We suggest that both cavities bind ubiquinol and along with Tyr220 are required for the catalytic cycle for O2 reduction. PMID:23487766

Shiba, Tomoo; Kido, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Tsuge, Chiaki; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Gen; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Moore, Anthony L.; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

257

Red-shifted cyanide stretching frequencies in cyanide-bridged transition metal donor-acceptor complexes. Support for vibronic coupling  

SciTech Connect

Patterns in the cyanide stretching frequencies have been examined in several series of monometal- and CN{sup {minus}} bridged transition metal complexes. Metal-to-cyanide back-bonding can be identified as a major factor contributing to red shifts of v{sub CN} in monometal complexes. This effect is complicated in cyanide-bridged complexes in two ways: (a) when both metals can back-bond to cyanide, the net interaction is repulsive and results in a blue shift of v{sub CN}: and (b) when a donor and acceptor are bridged, V{sub CN} undergoes a substantial red shift (sometimes more than 60 cm{sup {minus}1} lower in energy than the parent monometal complex). These effects can be described by simple perturbational models for the electronic interactions. Monometal cyanide complexes and CN{sup {minus}}-bridged backbonding metals can be treated in terms of their perturbations of the CN{sup {minus}} {pi} and {pi}* orbitals by using a simple, Hueckel-like, three-center perturbational treatment of electronic interactions. However, bridged donor-acceptor pairs are best described by a vibronic model in which it is assumed that the extent of electronic delocalization is in equilibrium with variations of some nuclear coordinates. Consistent with this approach, it is found that (a) the oscillator strength of the donor-acceptor charge transfer (DACT) absorption is roughly proportional to the red shift of v{sub CN} and (b) there are strong symmetry constraints on the coupling.

Watzky, M.A.; Endicott, J.F.; Song, X. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)] [and others] [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); and others

1996-06-05

258

Reversal of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by the auxiliary substrate nitric oxide: an endogenous antidote to cyanide poisoning?  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is shown to overcome the cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of excess ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. Addition of NO to the partially reduced cyanide-inhibited form of the bovine enzyme is shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to result in substitution of cyanide at ferriheme a3 by NO with reduction of the heme. The resulting nitrosylferroheme a3 is a 5-coordinate structure, the proximal bond to histidine having been broken. NO does not simply act as a reversibly bound competitive inhibitor but is an auxiliary substrate consumed in a catalytic cycle along with ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. The implications of this observation with regard to estimates of steady-state NO levels in vivo is discussed. Given the multiple sources of NO available to mitochondria, the present results appear to explain in part some of the curious biomedical observations reported by other laboratories; for example, the kidneys of cyanide poisoning victims surprisingly exhibit no significant irreversible damage, and lethal doses of potassium cyanide are able to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase activity by only approximately 50% in brain mitochondria. PMID:14534303

Pearce, Linda L; Bominaar, Emile L; Hill, Bruce C; Peterson, Jim

2003-12-26

259

NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE  

SciTech Connect

The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: Carolyn.S.Brauer@jpl.nasa.gov

2009-09-01

260

Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels  

PubMed Central

Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. PMID:22694886

Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

2011-01-01

261

Colorimetric fluorescent cyanide chemodosimeter based on triphenylimidazole derivative.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrated a highly selective colorimetric chemodosimeter for cyanide anion detection. This chemodosimeter having a triphenylimidazole group as a fluorescent signal unit and a dicyano-vinyl group as a reaction unit was synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation of 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzaldehyde with malononitrile in a reasonable yield. The probe exhibited an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band at 420 nm and emission band at 620 nm, respectively. Upon the addition of cyanide anion, the probe displayed a blue-shifted spectrum and loss in color due to the disruption of conjugation. With the aid of the fluorescence spectrometer, the chemodosimeter exhibited a detection limit of 0.11 ?M (S/N=3). Interferences from other common anions associated with cyanide anion analysis were effectively inhibited. PMID:24463246

Zheng, Wei; He, Xiangzhu; Chen, Hongbiao; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming

2014-04-24

262

Influence of cyanide on the anaerobic degradation of glucose.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the anaerobic degradation process convert the substrate to the final products methane and carbon dioxide. Toxic substances can change the process substantially. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of toxic cyanide on biogas production in anaerobic degradation of glucose at 40°C. The OxiTop respirometric system offers a quick and simple method for measurement of the biogas formed. Concentrations of cyanide (CN(-)) added to 640?mg?COD/L of glucose varied from 0.325 up to 31.000?mg/L. The inhibition of anaerobic degradation of glucose was evaluated from the lag phase, the coefficient of anaerobic degradation (D(h)), the volume and composition of the biogas and degradation of COD in the liquid phase. If the concentration of cyanide was above 2.600?mg/L inhibition of the anaerobic process was substantial. PMID:20962395

Pirc, E Tratar; Levstek, Meta; Bukovec, Peter

2010-01-01

263

Horizontal displacements of rock foundations of dams  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses geodetic survey methods to assess the horizontal displacements of dam foundations for several hydroelectric power plants in the Soviet Union. The effects of filling the reservoirs are outlined and the dependence of the degree of displacement on dam height is analyzed. The results are tabulated.

Karlson, A.A.

1987-08-01

264

On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

Hollis, J. M.

1982-01-01

265

Triphenylene based copper ensemble for the detection of cyanide ions.  

PubMed

The binding behavior of triphenylene based copper ensemble prepared in situ has been investigated toward various anions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), CH(3)COO(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), NO(3)(-), OH(-), ClO(4)(-), CN(-), CO(3)(-) and SO(4)(-)) by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Among various anions tested, 1-Cu(2+) ensemble shows selective and sensitive response towards cyanide ions and responds to CN(-) ions even in the presence of bovine serum albumin and in blood serum milieu. Further, as practical application of compound 1, we utilized the TLC strips coated with THF solution of 1 for the solid state detection of copper and cyanide ions. PMID:22890983

Bhalla, Vandana; Singh, Hardev; Kumar, Manoj

2012-10-01

266

Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure  

PubMed Central

Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure. PMID:23345455

Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

2013-01-01

267

The National Book Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charge of the National Book Foundation has been to highlight great American writers and writings. As the preeminent organization devoted to literature "the Foundation has sought to fulfill this mission in two ways. Through The National Book Awards -- the nation's preeminent literary prize -- the Foundation recognizes books of exceptional merit written by Americans. Through its unique outreach programs featuring National Book Award authors, communities participate in the writing life of the nation by reading and writing together." Over the years, the awards have featured the names of such exemplary and inimitable authors as Saul Bellow, Rachel Carson, Thornton Wilder, William Faulkner, and Lauren Bacall, and include such genres as autobiography, poetry, religion, history, fiction, and more. With September 2003 came the addition of Stephen King -- the author of numerous short stories and books that take the reader through twisted, snaring plots in stories such as Carrie, Christine, and Misery -- to this illustrious list of honorees by receiving the foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. At this Web site, visitors can peruse a listing of all of the award winners, learn about the annual National Book Month (celebrated in October), and explore the many other offerings of the foundation including workshops, writing camps, and available resources.

268

The Influence of Cyanide on the Carbonylation of Iron(II): Synthesis of Fe-SR-CN-CO Centers  

E-print Network

The Influence of Cyanide on the Carbonylation of Iron(II): Synthesis of Fe-SR-CN-CO Centers Related The two best characterized Fe-S-CO enzymes (the hydrogenases) also feature cyanide, and it is likely that cyanide has a decisive stabilizing effect on the CO binding. Cyanide has been previously considered

Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

269

Rotational spectroscopy of 3d transition-metal cyanides: Millimeter-wave studies of ZnCN ,,X 2  

E-print Network

Rotational spectroscopy of 3d transition-metal cyanides: Millimeter-wave studies of ZnCN ,,X 2. These measurements indicate that the most stable form of zinc and the cyanide moiety is the linear cyanide structureCN is weaker than in CuCN or NiCN. The tendency of these metals to form the linear cyanide geometry, as opposed

Ziurys, Lucy M.

270

Field observations on the use of sodium cyanide in stream surveys  

SciTech Connect

Sodium cyanide has been an effective method for sampling the stream fish populations in Eastern Tennessee. Its portability makes it a practical stream management tool. Cyanide is an excellent cold weather sampling method. Three ounces of cyanide in trout streams and 6 ounces in warmwater streams per cubic foot a second flow will sample 100 yards. In water colder than 55/sup 0/F mortality of fish is not acute. Rainbow trout and various warmwater fish collected with cyanide and held in aquaria showed no deleterious effects from exposure to the chemical. Reduction in stream invertebrate populations after cyanide application is evident. 3 references, 1 table.

Tatum, W.R.

1984-01-01

271

The Chemical Heritage Foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This first in a series of articles on the Chemical Heritage Foundation will outline a brief history of the foundation and give an overview of its present programs, with emphasis on the Othmer Library of Chemical History. The Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) is a unique asset and unique partnership of the chemical community. It had its origins in a simple written agreement some 15 years ago, in January 1982. CHF's mission of recording, preserving, and making known the heritage of chemical achievement does not reflect the concerns of the chemical corporations or of anyone directly concerned with the "image" or economic and political future of the chemical sciences. Rather, it was an idea of academics and professional scientists. Thus it was appropriate that the three founding organizations were the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the University of Pennsylvania.

Orna, Mary Virginia

1998-04-01

272

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1966, the Kauffman Foundation was the brainchild of Ewing Kauffman who displayed a great curiosity about the world and who also happened to be a great believer in the importance of philanthropy. Over the past forty years, the Foundation has worked on a variety of initiatives, including work on supporting early education, entrepreneurship, and school reform. On the homepage, visitors will find five primary sections, including "Advancing Innovation", "Education", and "Research & Policy". The first place to start is the "Research & Policy" area. Here, visitors can find data reports and analysis papers on national entrepreneurship trends and technology innovation strategies. In each section, visitors can also view media clips featuring commentary from Kauffman Foundation scholars and experts. Moving on, the "Grants" area is a great way to learn about grant opportunities and recipients listed by date and name. Finally, the "Stay Connected" area contains a place where visitors can sign up to receive their various e-newsletters.

273

The Eurasia Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the banner of âÂÂEngaging Citizens, Empowering CommunitiesâÂÂ, the Eurasia Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Incorporated in 1992, the Eurasia Foundation has made over $335 million in grants to countries in the region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. In general, the Foundation works within three broad mandate areas, including private enterprise development, public administration and policy and civil society. Visitors are invited to learn about their activities on the website, and they may do so by browsing by geographical region, or by looking within the âÂÂPublicationsâ area. This area contains annual reports, news briefs, and feature reports, which include recent titles such as âÂÂOpening the Georgian Militaryâ and âÂÂPromoting the Non-Profit Sector in the PamirsâÂÂ.

274

The Commonwealth Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1965, the Commonwealth Foundation was created with a mandate to strengthen civil society in all of the member nations. Membership of the Foundation is open to all Commonwealth countries and as of 2006 membership stood at 45 governments. Over the past four decades, they have worked on issues including human rights, gender equality, poverty eradication, and good governance. As might be expected, the site contains ample material on their various initiatives, along with information for those who might be seeking funding for their own projects (if they happen to be a citizen of a member Commonwealth). The "Resource Material" includes audiovisual materials that include some very fun and interesting short stories submitted for the annual Commonwealth Short Story Competition and their in-house publication, "Commonwealth People". For visitors who wish to stay abreast of the Foundation's work, there is a place here to sign up to receive their electronic newsletter.

275

The Asia Foundation: Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia Foundation counts 21 countries as members of the Asia-Pacific region that it concerns itself with, to "build a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region." The "Multimedia" section of their website contains both slideshows and videos. There are many short videos that highlight the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program, which provides books to schoolchildren whose schools and families have limited access. The video "Return to Khishig Undur: The Tale of Peter Rabbit" is worth watching, as it tells the heartwarming story of students in a 4th grade class in a remote village in Mongolia who each received a copy of The Tale of Peter Rabbit from the Asia Foundation. This book was chosen as a result of the over 10,000 people who voted for a children's book in the "Choose a Book. Change a Life" campaign.

276

Turning the 'Mustard Oil Bomb' into a 'Cyanide Bomb': Aromatic Glucosinolate Metabolism in a Specialist Insect Herbivore  

PubMed Central

Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as ‘coevolutionary armsrace’. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by ?-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

Stauber, Einar J.; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

2012-01-01

277

The Groundwater Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Groundwater Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. The section Groundwater Basics contains numerous information on groundwater issues, including the following subjects: what is groundwater; how much do we depend on groundwater; groundwater protection, hydrologic cycle, contamination and concerns, sources of groundwater contamination, wells and how they work, ten ways to help conserve and protect groundwater, groundwater ABCs - a glossary of groundwater-related terminology, and source water assessment and protection guide and training materials. Also of interest are kids and youth sections with activities and games, as well as a listing of the foundation's publications and events.

278

Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation.  

PubMed

Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed Fa; Kosslick, Hendrik

2013-01-01

279

Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

Parga, J.R.; Shukla, S.S.; Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R

2003-07-01

280

Volatile-Mediated Killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by Bacteria Is Mainly Due to Hydrogen Cyanide? †  

PubMed Central

The volatile-mediated impact of bacteria on plant growth is well documented, and contrasting effects have been reported ranging from 6-fold plant promotion to plant killing. However, very little is known about the identity of the compounds responsible for these effects or the mechanisms involved in plant growth alteration. We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains. Using a collection of environmental and clinical strains differing in cyanogenesis, as well as a defined HCN-negative mutant, we demonstrate that bacterial HCN accounts to a significant extent for the deleterious effects observed when growing Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of certain bacterial volatiles. The environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 was less cyanogenic and less plant growth inhibiting than the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Quorum-sensing deficient mutants of C. violaceum CV0, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa PUPa3 showed not only diminished HCN production but also strongly reduced volatile-mediated phytotoxicity. The double treatment of providing plants with reactive oxygen species scavenging compounds and overexpressing the alternative oxidase AOX1a led to a significant reduction of volatile-mediated toxicity. This indicates that oxidative stress is a key process in the physiological changes leading to plant death upon exposure to toxic bacterial volatiles. PMID:21115704

Blom, Dirk; Fabbri, Carlotta; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

2011-01-01

281

90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

282

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM REFINERY WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the removal of low level cyanide in petroleum refinery wastewater by the addition of powdered activated carbon and cupric chloride to an activated sludge unit. The activated carbon and cupric chloride act as a catalyst in the oxidatio...

283

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOEpatents

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

284

169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

285

Cyanide intoxication in the rat: physiological and neuropathological aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide was given to rats by intravenous infusion at a rate that would avert apnoea (the first sign of overdosage) in the majority. There was full physiological monitoring in a group under anaesthesia and more limited monitoring in an unanaesthetized group. White matter was damaged in six animals and grey matter additionally in only one. It was concluded that

J B Brierley; A W Brown; J Calverley

1976-01-01

286

Mechanism, regulation, and ecological role of bacterial cyanide biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few bacterial species are known to produce and excrete hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase and several other metalloenzymes. In the producer strains, HCN does not appear to have a role in primary metabolism and is generally considered a secondary metabolite. HCN synthase of proteobacteria (especially fluorescent pseudomonads) is a membrane-bound flavoenzyme that oxidizes glycine,

Caroline Blumer; Dieter Haas

2000-01-01

287

Cyanide dose in mg/kg body weight Recovery Time  

E-print Network

) is taken as the endpoint and recorded. Premature testing of an animal without full neuromuscular to be tested include bodily appearance, both eyes open and bright, head up and moving, steady on feet, un test paradigm that allowed for maximal survival of cyanide- treated animals with greatly reduced

Thomas, David D.

288

Alteration in the Colours of Flowers by Cyanide Fumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that the yellows of some insects are turned to red by the fumes from potassium cyanide; but I have not, after some inquiry, been able to obtain any literature describing the effects of such fumes upon the colours of flowers. The reactions I have observed are very curious, and while it seems improbable that they are

T. D. A. Cockerell

1895-01-01

289

Binding of isotopically labeled substrates, inhibitors, and cyanide by protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase  

SciTech Connect

Binding of ligands to the active site Fe3+ of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase is investigated using EPR-detected transferred hyperfine coupling from isotopically labeled substrates, inhibitors, and cyanide. Broadening is observed in EPR resonances from the anaerobic enzyme complex with homoprotocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate), a slow substrate, enriched with 17O (I = 5/2) in either the 3-OH or the 4-OH group. This shows that this substrate binds directly to the Fe3+ and strongly suggests that an iron chelate can be formed. Cyanide is known to bind to the enzyme in at least two steps, forming first a high spin and then a low spin complex. Hyperfine broadening from (13C)cyanide (I = 1/2) is observed in the EPR spectra of both complexes, showing that cyanide is an Fe3+ ligand in each case. Cyanide binding is also at least biphasic in the presence of protocatechuate (PCA). The initial high spin enzyme-PCA-cyanide complex forms rapidly and exhibits a unique EPR spectrum. Broadening from PCA enriched with 17O in either the 3-OH or the 4-OH group is detected showing that PCA binds to the iron, probably as a chelate complex. In contrast, no broadening from (13C)cyanide is detected for this complex suggesting that cyanide binds at a site away from the Fe3+. Steady state kinetic measurements of cyanide inhibition of PCA turnover are consistent with two rapidly exchanging cyanide binding sites that inhibit PCA binding and which can be simultaneously occupied. Formation of the nearly irreversible, low spin enzyme-PCA-cyanide complex is competitively inhibited by PCA. Transient kinetics of the formation of this complex are second order in cyanide implying that two cyanides bind. Broadening in the EPR spectrum of this complex is detected from (13C)cyanide, but not from (17O)PCA, suggesting that PCA is displaced.

Orville, A.M.; Lipscomb, J.D.

1989-05-25

290

Foundations of Multidimensional and  

E-print Network

Foundations of Multidimensional and Metric Data Structures Hanan Samet University of Maryland may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means our Web site at www.mkp.com or www.books.elsevier.com Printed in the United States of America 06 07 08

Yorke, James

291

National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

292

The Foundations of Morality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in preschool, moral education should provide children with a foundation for making good and reasonable decisions as well as the motivation to act with integrity. In a complex and changing world, figuring out what is good or what is the 'right' thing to do is often difficult, and decisions often require highly developed critical and creative thinking skills and

Maryann Gilbert-Lovell

1993-01-01

293

National Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the National Science Foundation is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense. The NSF supports research and education in science and engineering through funding of a wide range of grants and contracts.

2003-10-10

294

Foundation for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

295

Planetary Coral Reef Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

296

Nobel Foundation's Centennial Speech  

Cancer.gov

The following talk was given as part of the Nobel Foundation's Centennial Symposia at which Nobel Laureates and other prominent researchers offered scientific, scholarly and popular talks. Dr. Varmus spoke as part of the program "Beyond Genes," held December 6-8, 2001, at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.

297

The Broad Foundations, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

Broad Foundation, 2006

2006-01-01

298

Logical Foundations Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

Sattler, Ulrike

299

Supergravity:. Foundations and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We briefly discuss the foundations of Supergravity as a gauge theory of supersymmetry, its mathematical structure and the basic lagrangians for N-extended supersymmetry. As applications, we describe the basic elements of the supersymmetry breaking mechanism and various aspects of the physics of extremal black holes.

Ceresole, Anna; Ferrara, Sergio

2012-12-01

300

Knowledge & Skills Foundations  

E-print Network

#12;Knowledge & Skills Foundations In the social sciences, incoming students succeed when they are armed with specific knowledge and skills--but above all, when they are ready to embrace the learning process. Basic Knowledge & Skills Students who are ready for entry-level courses are familiar

Hood, Craig

301

Interaction of dimeric horse cytochrome c with cyanide ion.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that methionine-heme iron coordination is perturbed in domain-swapped dimeric horse cytochrome c. To gain insight into the effect of methionine dissociation in dimeric cytochrome c, we investigated its interaction with cyanide ion. We found that the Soret and Q bands of oxidized dimeric cytochrome c at 406.5 and 529 nm redshift to 413 and 536 nm, respectively, on addition of 1 mM cyanide ion. The binding constant of dimeric cytochrome c and cyanide ion was obtained as 2.5 × 10(4) M(-1). The Fe-CN and C-N stretching (? (Fe-CN) and ? (CN)) resonance Raman bands of CN(-)-bound dimeric cytochrome c were observed at 443 and 2,126 cm(-1), respectively. The ? (Fe-CN) frequency of dimeric cytochrome c was relatively low compared with that of other CN(-)-bound heme proteins, and a relatively strong coupling between the Fe-C-N bending and porphyrin vibrations was observed in the 350-450-cm(-1) region. The low ? (Fe-CN) frequency suggests weaker binding of the cyanide ion to dimeric cytochrome c compared with other heme proteins possessing a distal heme cavity. Although the secondary structure of dimeric cytochrome c did not change on addition of cyanide ion according to circular dichroism measurements, the dimer dissociation rate at 45 °C increased from (8.9 ± 0.7) × 10(-6) to (3.8 ± 0.2) × 10(-5) s(-1), with a decrease of about 2 °C in its dissociation temperature obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. The results show that diatomic ligands may bind to the heme iron of dimeric cytochrome c and affect its stability. PMID:23412550

Nugraheni, Ari Dwi; Nagao, Satoshi; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Ogura, Takashi; Hirota, Shun

2013-03-01

302

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE CYANIDES, TOTAL CYANIDE, AND THIOCYANATE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven methods for the analysis of simple cyanides have been investigated. Included are (1) an ion-exchange procedure, (2) a continuous-flow distillation, (3) and EDTA electrode method, (4) the American Iron and Steel Institute aeration method, (5) an EDTA aeration method, (6) the...

303

A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

2012-06-01

304

The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

2013-01-01

305

The Ford Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford, The Ford Foundation has distributed over $15.6 billion in monies for organizations working on issues such as human rights, social justice philanthropy, and access to education. For visitors new to the site, it's worth starting out by clicking on the "Issues" section. Here they can learn about the eight primary areas of focus within the Foundation, and also learn about some of their specific initiatives, like the "Advancing Public Service Media" initiative and the "Economic Opportunities for the Rural Poor" initiative. Moving on, visitors should check out the "Newsroom" area for a quick overview of recent success stories and reports, including their work on creating land banks as a way to fight urban blight and how iPhone apps could save public radio. Visitors can also use the interactive map on the homepage (and in the "Regions" section) to focus in on the different programs across the globe.

306

The Bruner Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rudy Bruner Foundation and Award for Urban Excellence was created in 1986 by Simeon Bruner to honor his late father. The award seeks to honor those urban places that "are developed with such vision and imagination that they transform urban problems into creative solutions." The award is given every two years, and one gold medal prize is awarded (along with a $50,000 prize) and several silver medal winners are also awarded. On this site, visitors can learn about previous award winners, such as the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, the Camino Nuevo Charter Academy, and the Pike Place Market. Additionally, the Bruner Foundation makes a number of its publications available online, including compilations of materials about the winning places from 1991 to 2003.

307

Thomas B. Fordham Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation is dedicated to an agenda of education reform not unlike the President George W. Bush: testing and accountability, charter schools, school choice, and the like. Its Website provides a number of recently written reports and papers relating to these issues. Recent documents include a "Memo to the New President," offering advice on how to bridge the "partisan divide" and enact reform, a history of teacher certification that examines the rise to political power of professional teacher organizations, a critique of whole language reading instruction, and The State of the State Standards, 2000, a comprehensive assessment of state standards. The publications section includes selected readings on school reform, teacher quality, charter schools, and more. The site features a search engine and a detailed site map. All in all, a fine resource for materials in the school reform debate from what many would characterize as the conservative perspective. The foundation is affiliated with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

308

Eudora Welty Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the summer of 2001, noted author Eudora Welty passed away in her home state of Mississippi. Throughout her ninety-years she made significant contributions to the art of the short story and other literary forms, and she remains the subject of scholarship and admiration in many quarters. Fortunately, the Eudora Welty Foundation was established in 1999 to celebrate her works and also to make sure that her various writings remain an essential part of academic curricula in high schools and colleges. On their site, visitors can view an interactive timeline of Welty's life and also peruse a calendar of events sponsored by the Foundation and other related entities. Most visitors will benefit greatly from a trip over to the "Resources" area of the site, which includes a complete bibliography of her works, along with information on the Eudora Welty House and links to other Welty societies and organizations.

309

Mind Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potential within the human mind and its connection to the rest of the human body is a subject that has consumed many of the world's brightest scientists. The Mind Science Foundation, founded by Thomas Baker Slick, is a place that is intimately concerned with such matters, and their website is a good way to learn about some of the issues surrounding their work and broader notions about how consciousness arises in human beings. It's a tall research order, and the website responds admirably by presenting a number of speeches from experts on the subject, along with links to the results of various research endeavors sponsored with funds from the Foundation. The site also contains an interactive database of researchers who are working in the area of consciousness and a library of books that might be of interest to those looking for additional resources.

310

Foundation for Child Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Foundation for Child Development \\"is a national, private philanthropy dedicated to the principle that all families should have the social and material resources to raise their children to be healthy, educated and productive members of their communities.\\" The Foundation seeks to help the disadvantaged especially, and works with families, schools, other non-profits, businesses and government. On the site, those interested in Child Development will find links to Public Policy at both the state and national level. Information about immigrant children as well as their own Child Well-Being Index. Also on the site are the archives of their in house publication \\"Learning Curve\\" where users can find articles on a plethora of topics ranging from \\"Fighting Fade-Out by advancing PK-3 Alignment\\" and \\"PK-3 Indicators available on Child Trends DataBank\\". Overall, a useful tool for students, instructors and professionals involved in Child Development.

2006-12-19

311

The International Crane Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Baraboo, Wisconsin, the "International Crane Foundation (ICF) works worldwide to conserve cranes and the wetland and grassland ecosystems on which they depend." The ICF website provides a variety of information about the Foundation as well as great resources like the Species Field Guide which contains photos, range maps, and information about all 15 types of crane. The site also includes information about conservation and research projects in North America, Asia, and Africa. For teachers and students, the ICF's Education Department offers several online resources including instructions for making an origami crane; a list of related books; a downloadable six-page Crane Behavior Guide, and information about participating in an International Art Exchange. Be sure not to miss the What's New link for updates regarding the Whooping Cranes ongoing migration from Wisconsin to Florida.

312

Irish Architecture Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.

313

Electronic Frontier Foundation: Biometrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since September 11, 2001 the U.S. government has been actively searching for ways to improve surveillance at airports and U.S. borders. The Electronic Frontier Foundation is concerned that biometric technologies are being promoted as the silver bullet when very little independent, objective scientific testing of biometrics has been done. This evolving website discusses what is known and raises issues for concern regarding recent government proposals for using biometric systems in surveillance.

314

The Foundation of Kinship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as\\u000a critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing\\u000a and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households\\u000a evolved. With conscious recognition of

Donna L. Leonetti; Benjamin Chabot-Hanowell

2011-01-01

315

Fractal Topology Foundations  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce the foundation of a fractal topological space constructed via a family of nested topological spaces endowed with subspace topologies, where the number of topological spaces involved in this family is related to the appearance of new structures on it. The greater the number of topological spaces we use, the stronger the subspace topologies we obtain. The fractal manifold model is brought up as an illustration of space that is locally homeomorphic to the fractal topological space.

Helene Porchon

2012-01-25

316

Vice President CEO, Tower Foundation  

E-print Network

Business Director of Development Education Director of Development Science Director of Development Social Administrative Assistant Tower Foundation HR Director Tower Foundation Accounts Payable Technician Director Media and Budgets Associate Vice President Marketing and Communications Director of Development Athletics Managing

Su, Xiao

317

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Newsletters  

MedlinePLUS

... Fall Tweet Thanks to Our Sponsors The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Together, Reaching For A Cure Links Home ... Policy Disclosures Contact About Copyright © 2012 The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

318

The Stuttering Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stuttering has entered popular culture with the release of, and critical acclaim for, the recent movie "The King's Speech", which is about King George VI of England's problem with stuttering. Since 1947, the Stuttering Foundation has focused on preventing and improving the treatment of stuttering. The Foundation's website provides a series of podcasts, which include a recent interview with the scriptwriter of The King's Speech, David Seidler. Visitors will also enjoy the website's other podcasts, which address topics as varied as recently identified genes for stuttering; helping children who stutter, by the Foundation's president, Jane Fraser; and famous people who didn't let stuttering prevent them from achieving their goals, such as John Stossel, Mel Tillis, and basketball star Bob Love. There is also a podcast that visitors should not miss, entitled "Women Who Stutter: Our Stories". Clicking on it will take visitors to a list of over three dozen podcasts with the stories of women from around the world, of all ages and ethnicities, who stutter, or work with stutterers, or do both. There are many touching, helpful and humorous stories among their number.

319

Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

320

The Foundations of Applied Mathematics  

E-print Network

The Foundations of Applied Mathematics John Baez Category-Theoretic Foundations of Mathematics Workshop May 5, 2013 #12;We often picture the flow of information about mathematics a bit like this: SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLIED MATHEMATICS PURE MATHEMATICS FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS #12;Of course

Baez, John

321

UNLV Research Foundation PUBLIC NOTICE  

E-print Network

UNLV Research Foundation PUBLIC NOTICE Audit Committee Meeting September 26, 2013 2:00 p.m. ­ 3 not appearing on this agenda to the attention of the UNLV Research Foundation Board. The UNLV Research Research Foundation Board desires, the matters may be placed on a future agenda for action. A time

Hemmers, Oliver

322

Black Foundations: Meeting Vital Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of philanthropic activity in the Black community. Explores the historical roots and misconceptions. Presents four categories of foundations and discusses the first foundations founded and supported by Blacks. Considers the issue of racism in the direction of foundations. Comments on future activities. (JS)

Kessel, Felicia

1989-01-01

323

Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

2012-01-01

324

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

2012-01-03

325

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kruzer, Helen W [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horita, Juske [ORNL; Moran, James J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Janszen, Derek B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carman, April [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2012-01-01

326

Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company`s (WHC`s) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described.

Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L. [and others] [and others

1995-07-01

327

Ground-based Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Atmospheric Hydrogen Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of lines of the v3 band of hydrogen cyanide have been detected in solar absorption spectra recorded near sunrise and sunset at Kitt Peak National Observatory (elevation 2095 m) with a 0.01cm - resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Analysis of two of the strongest and best isolated lines has led to a value of 2.73 x 10 5 molecules

C. P. Rinsland; M. A. H. Smith; P. L. Rinsland; A. Goldman; J. W. Brault; G. M. Stokes

1982-01-01

328

Mechanism of Superoxide Anion Generation in Intact Mitochondria in the Presence of Lucigenin and Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of cyanide and various respiratory substrates (succinate or pyruvate + malate) addition of high concentrations of lucigenin (400 µM; Luc2+) to rat liver mitochondria can induce a short-term flash of high amplitude lucigenindependent chemiluminescence (LDCL). Under conditions of cytochrome oxidase inhibition by cyanide the lucigenininduced cyanide-resistant respiration (with succinate as substrate) was not inhibited by uncouplers (FCCP)

I. S. Yurkov; A. G. Kruglov; Yu. V. Evtodienko; L. S. Yaguzhinsky

2003-01-01

329

Essential Role of Cytochrome bd-Related Oxidase in Cyanide Resistance of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 grows in minimal medium containing cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under these conditions, an O2-dependent respiration highly resistant to cyanide was detected in cell extracts. The structural genes for the cyanide-resistant terminal oxidase, cioA and cioB, are clustered and encode the integral membrane proteins that correspond to subunits I and II of classical cytochrome bd, although

Alberto Quesada; M. Isabel Guijo; Faustino Merchan; Blas Blazquez; M. Isabel Igeno; Rafael Blasco

2007-01-01

330

Characterization of cyanide binding to cytochrome c oxidase immobilized in electrode-supported lipid bilayer membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine cytochrome c oxidase has been successfully immobilized in electrode-supported lipid bilayer membranes to investigate the effect of cyanide binding on the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c and the electroreduction of dioxygen. Cyanide binding to oxidase was found to be reversible and exhibited 1:1 stoichiometry. Binding constants (Ki) were also determined for binding of cyanide to the reduced (62?M) and oxidized

Lianyong Su; James B. Kelly; Fred M. Hawkridge; Melissa C. Rhoten; Steven I. Baskin

2005-01-01

331

Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

1993-12-31

332

A Series of Cyanide-Bridged Binuclear Complexes  

PubMed Central

A series of cyanide-bridged binuclear complexes, (‘S3’)Ni–CN–M[TptBu] (‘S3’ = bis(2-mercaptophenyl)sulfide, TptBu = hydrotris(3-tert-butylpyrazolyl)borate, M = Fe (2-Fe), Co (2-Co), Ni (2-Ni), Zn (2-Zn)) was prepared by the coupling of K[(‘S3’)Ni(CN)] with [TptBu]MX. The isostructural series of complexes was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. A similar coupling strategy was used to synthesize the anionic copper(I) analogue, Et4N{(‘S3’)Ni–CN–Cu[TptBu]}, 2-Cu. An alternative synthesis was devised for the preparation of the linkages isomers of 2-Zn, i.e. of cyanide-bridged linkage isomers. X-ray diffraction, 13C NMR and IR spectral studies established that isomerization to the more stable Ni–CN–Zn isomer occurs. DFT computational results buttressed the experimental observations indicating that the cyanide-bridged isomer is ca. 5 kcal/mol more stable than its linkage isomer. PMID:20161111

Mock, Michael T.; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T.; Popescu, Codrina V.; Gasda, Patrick; Yap, Glenn P. A.

2009-01-01

333

Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival  

PubMed Central

A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour. PMID:25024476

Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

2014-01-01

334

Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour. PMID:25024476

Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

2014-05-01

335

Chemical bird repellents: Possible use in cyanide ponds  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory agencies are pressuring the mining industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of dump leachate pond water containing cyanide. Using European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as an avian model, we tested the effectiveness of 5 chemical bird repellents at reducing consumption of pond water containing cyanide. The repellents, which were previously shown to be good bird repellents, were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone (2A45DAP), methyl anthranilate (MA), 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT), and veratryl amine (VA). Despite the high pH (10.6) and presence of chelating metals, conditions which we hypothesized might destroy the activity of repellents, each of the additives reduced pond water intake relative to controls for up to 5 weeks. The rank order (from best to worst) of repellents was: OAP, 2A45DAP, VA, MA and 4KBT, although only OAP and 4KBT differed at the P < 0.05 level. These candidate repellents hold promise as a strategy to reduce bird losses at cyanide ponds and should be tested in the field.

Clark, L. (Denver Wildlife Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Shah, P.S. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-07-01

336

Deeplinks: Electronic Frontier Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has crafted this great resource for people interested in the world of online rights and privacy matters. A quick glance through the site will reveal a range of key commentaries on issues of copyright, moral privacy rights, and government intervention. Visitors can scroll through recent posts and then look over some of their additional projects, which include Bloggers' Rights, and HTTPS Everywhere. Also, visitors can offer comment and search posts by keywords, such as "International,â "Copyright,â and "Free Speech.â It's an exciting new project and one that will be of great interest to policy aficionados and others.

337

Chemical Heritage Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) is dedicated to preserving and sharing the history and heritage of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and allied industries." This Web site illustrates how chemistry has shaped our world. Students can discover the chemical history of Innovations and Industry, Ancients and Alchemists, and much more. Through the Online Exhibits, visitors can view the pictures of Walter J. Hamer's collection of early batteries. In the Classroom Resources, educators will find online tools discussing molecular science and pharmaceutical achievers and many Chemistry Web Quests including Evidence for Atoms and The Great MTBE Controversy. Graduate students may want to take advantage of the many fellowships offered on the site.

2003-01-01

338

Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

339

Foundations of isomathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santilli's isomathematics has a strong foundation in the early literature of mathematics surveyed by R.H. Bruck in his land mark book `A Survey of Binary Systems' [1] dating back to 1958. This work aims at exploring the very basics of Isomathematics as suggested by Santilli [7] and [8]. The concept of `Isotopy' plays a vital role in the development of this new age mathematics. Starting with Isotopy of groupoids we develop the study of Isotopy of quasi groups and loops via Partial Planes, Projective planes, 3-nets and multiplicative 3-nets.

Muktibodh, A. S.

2013-10-01

340

Physicochemical basis of the ion-exchange separation of gold cyanide complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of the separation of gold cyanide complexes is discussed, along with ion exchanger selection, selectivity, elution, and industrial applications. The ion-exchange mechanism for the sorption of gold cyanide complexes is established, and a criterion is suggested for selecting the anion exchanger for their extraction (specifically, the p K a of the anion exchanger). The selectivity of the sorption of gold cyanide complexes by anion exchangers with rarely distributed ionogenic groups is demonstrated. A procedure for the elution of gold cyanide complexes using alkaline solutions is developed.

Kononova, O. N.; Kononov, Yu. S.

2014-10-01

341

Bacterial cyanide degradation is under review: Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344, a case of an alkaliphilic cyanotroph.  

PubMed

There are thousands of areas in the U.S.A. and Europe contaminated with cyanide-containing wastes as a consequence of a large number of industrial activities such as gold mining, steel and aluminium manufacturing, electroplating and nitrile pesticides used in agriculture. Chemical treatments to remove cyanide are expensive and generate other toxic products. By contrast, cyanide biodegradation constitutes an appropriate alternative treatment. In the present review we provide an overview of how cells deal in the presence of the poison cyanide that irreversible binds to metals causing, among other things, iron-deprivation conditions outside the cell and metalloenzymes inhibition inside the cell. In this sense, several systems must be present in a cyanotrophic organism, including a siderophore-based acquisition mechanism, a cyanide-insensitive respiratory system and a cyanide degradation/assimilation pathway. The alkaliphilic autochthonous bacterium Pseudomonas pseudocaligenes CECT5344 presents all these requirements with the production of siderophores, a cyanide-insensitive bd-related cytochrome [Cio (cyanide-insensitive oxidase)] and a cyanide assimilation pathway that generates ammonium, which is further incorporated into organic nitrogen. PMID:21265786

Luque-Almagro, Victor M; Blasco, Rafael; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Castillo, Francisco; Roldán, M Dolores

2011-01-01

342

Ferrate(VI): a green chemical for the oxidation of cyanide in aqueous/waste solutions.  

PubMed

The higher oxidation state of iron, i.e. Fe(VI), was employed for the oxidation of the important toxic ion cyanide in aqueous/waste waters. Cyanide was oxidized to cyanate, which is 1,000 times less toxic than cyanide, and can often be accepted for its ultimate disposal. It was noted that Fe(VI) is a very powerful oxidizing agent, and can oxidize most of the cyanide within a few minutes, ca 5 minutes, of contact. The extent of the reduction of Fe(VI) was obtained using the UV-Visible measurements. Further, the UV-Visible data was used to explain the reaction kinetics involved in the redox reaction between ferrate(VI) and cyanide. The pseudo-first-order rate constant was calculated by maintaining the cyanide concentration in excess, with the overall second order rate constant values obtained for initial Fe(VI) concentrations of 1.0 and 0.1 mmol/L. The oxidation of cyanide was again confirmed using a cyanide probe. Fe(VI) was further employed for its possible application in the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing cyanide, along with some heavy metals, such as those obtained from electroplating industries. PMID:17474007

Tiwari, Diwakar; Kim, Hyoung-Uk; Choi, Bong-Jong; Lee, Seung-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Heung; Choi, Kyu-Man; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2007-05-01

343

The Freedom Trail Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâÂÂs primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâÂÂs most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the âÂÂSee the 16 sitesâ section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul RevereâÂÂs House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

344

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

345

Substrate-regulated cyanide hydratase (chy) gene expression in Fusarium solani: the potential of a transcription-based assay for monitoring the biotransformation of cyanide complexes.  

PubMed

The fungus Fusarium solani detoxifies cyanide through induction of the cyanide hydratase gene activity (chy) in the presence of either KCN or the metal-complexed cyanides, K2Ni(CN)4 or K4Fe(CN)6, at pH 7.0 and 4.0 respectively. Sequence analysis of the chy gene identified primers for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-directed analysis of mRNA transcripts, which demonstrated that activity correlated to the substrate-specific induction of gene expression. chy transcription was initiated 30-60 min after exposure of F. solani cultures to cyanide complexes. Maximum expression was detected within 4.5 h, after which chy mRNA synthesis declined below the limits of detection within 26 h. A lag period of approximately 2 h, following initial transcription, was recorded before cyanide complexes were converted to formamide. mRNA transcripts of chy were not detected in the absence of cyanide or cyanide complexes. The presence of introns within the gene resulted in a difference in size of 100 bp for DNA compared with mRNA of the corresponding 5' region. This size difference facilitated PCR detection of gene and transcript respectively. Comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequence of the F. solani chy gene and those of Gloeocerospora sorghi, Fusarium lateritium and Leptosphaeria maculans demonstrate that cyanide hydratase genes are highly conserved and of a similar evolutionary origin. These data predict that the functional assay described here to monitor the induction of chy gene expression and, potentially, cyanide degradation would be applicable to a variety of polluted environments. PMID:12000318

Barclay, M; Day, J C; Thompson, I P; Knowles, C J; Bailey, M J

2002-03-01

346

A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.  

PubMed

Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining industry. Cyanide concentrations below 50 mg/L weak-acid-dissociable (WAD) are deemed safe to wildlife but are considered an interim benchmark for discharge into tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Cyanide is a fast acting poison, and its toxicity is related to the types of cyanide complexes that are present. Cyanide in biota binds to iron, copper and sulfur-containing enzymes and proteins required for oxygen transportation to cells. The accurate determination of cyanide concentrations in the field is difficult to achieve due to sampling techniques and analytical error associated with loss and interferences following collection. The main WAD cyanide complexes in gold mine tailings are stable in the TSF environment but can release cyanide ions under varying environmental conditions including ingestion and absorption by wildlife. Therefore distinction between free, WAD and total cyanide forms in tailings water for regulatory purposes is justified. From an environmental perspective, there is a distinction between ore bodies on the basis of their copper content. For example, wildlife deaths are more likely to occur at mines possessing copper-gold ores due to the formation of copper-cyanide complexes which is toxic to birds and bats. The formation of copper-cyanide complex occurs preferentially to gold cyanide complex indicating the relative importance of economic vs. environmental considerations in the tailings water. Management of cyanide to a perceived threshold has inherent risks since cyanide has a steep toxicity response curve; is difficult to accurately measure in the field; and is likely to vary due to variable copper content of ore bodies and ore blending. Consequently, wildlife interaction needs to be limited to further reduce the risks. A gap in knowledge exists to design or manage cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions to render such facilities unattractive to at-risk wildlife species. This gap may be overcome by understanding the wildlife behaviour and habitat usage of cyanide-bearing solutions. PMID:17540445

Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

2007-10-01

347

Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

Brenner, Matthew, E-mail: mbrenner@uci.ed [Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612-1475 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868 (United States); Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca [Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612-1475 (United States); Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0652 (United States); Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E. [Center for Drug Design, The Academic Health Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0213 (United States)

2010-11-01

348

Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

2010-01-01

349

Foundations of Quantum Decoherence  

E-print Network

The conventional interpretation of quantum mechanics, though it permits a correspondence to classical physics, leaves the exact mechanism of transition unclear. Though this was only of philosophical importance throughout the twentieth century, over the past decade new technological developments, such as quantum computing, require a more thorough understanding of not just the result of quantum emergence, but also its mechanism. Quantum decoherence theory is the model that developed out of necessity to deal with the quantum-classical transition explicitly, and without external observers. In this thesis, we present a self-contained and rigorously argued full derivation of the master equation for quantum Brownian motion, one of the key results in quantum decoherence theory. We accomplish this from a foundational perspective, only assuming a few basic axioms of quantum mechanics and deriving their consequences. We then consider a physical example of the master equation and show that quantum decoherence successfully represents the transition from a quantum to classical system.

John Gamble

2008-05-20

350

The Heritage Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Heritage Foundation is one of the best known conservative think tanks in the U.S., and its Web site offers voluminous information on various topics. Its publications library offers full text in twelve subject categories from its "FYI," "Heritage Lecture," "Backgrounder," and "Executive Memorandum" series. Selected stories from "Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship," are available, as well as articles from "The Insider Newsletter." Its "Congressional District Ranking Book" gives rankings based on census figures for vital statistics, education, housing, and employment. It also provides an "Index for Economic Freedom" for over 100 countries. Links to conservative public policy organizations are provided, as well as a job bank and internship program. This is a powerhouse site for conservative (and other) internauts.

1998-01-01

351

Foundations of Geomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

Jackson, Andy

352

International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

353

Environmental Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Research Foundation (ERF) provides "understandable scientific information about the influence of toxic substances on human health and the environment." ERF aims to inform journalists, community activists, librarians, environmentalists, and others concerned with toxins and environmental justice. The ERF site contains an online library of pertinent documents under such categories as agriculture & food security, global concerns, chemicals & health, human rights, and more. ERF also offers a database of related sites under the categories of biodiversity, cancer, children/youth, and food safety, to name a few. Site visitors can sign up for a free electronic subscription to the informative _Rachel's Environment & Health News_ (named in honor of renowned ecologist Rachel Carson). A Spanish-language edition of the publication is available as well. The website is also available in both Spanish and English.

354

National Science Foundation: Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Current, is a newsletter published monthly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the scope of each newsletter is to highlight the research and education that is supported by NSF. One of the goals of NSF is "to promote the progress of science and to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare of the nation." Current provides a good view of the breadth of the NSF's funding activities. For example, a recent newsletter offers reports on sun spot models, exoplanets, the Nanoscience Center, supernovae, and robots in the Senate. The NSF in the News section highlights "newsworthy" research that was funded in whole or in part by the NSF. Each issue can be viewed or downloaded, and an online archive that dates back to 2005 is available on the site. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive the newsletter by email.

2009-10-19

355

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

356

Foundation for Landscape Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographers, historians, landscape designers, urban planners, and poets have all been fascinated with both natural and human-made landscapes for centuries. The mission statement of the Foundation for Landscape Studies might resonate with many of these groups of people: "To foster an active understanding of the importance of place in human life.ïÿý From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn more about their organization, read about their overarching goals, and examine their photo gallery. In the gallery, they will find photo essays that include "Ancient Sites of the Andean Desert" and "New Orleans After the Flood". The site is rounded out by their in-house journal, "Site/Lines". Visitors can look over the complete run of the journal, which includes pieces on landscape architecture, landscape management, and the portrayal of idealized landscapes.

357

Electronic Frontier Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1990, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an organization that is dedicated to preserving the various freedoms and rights within the digital "frontier", which includes blogs, online intellectual property, and so on. On their homepage, visitors can learn about news items of particular relevance, and also read about some of the cases they are currently working on. For those who might have an inkling of what they are looking for, a "Topics" section includes links to information about bloggers' rights, file-sharing, e-voting, and surveillance. Other visitors might want to take a look at their white papers, which include such titles as "Noncommercial Email Lists: Collateral Damage in the Fight Against Spam" and "Dangerous Terms-A User's Guide to End User License Agreements". Finally, visitors should also note that a number of the materials are available in Spanish, and that RSS feeds are available as well.

Foundation, Electronic F.

358

Plant for the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

Change, Young V.

359

The mitochondrial cyanide-resistant oxidase: structural conservation amid regulatory diversity.  

PubMed

Mitochondria from all plants, many fungi and some protozoa contain a cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase that functions in parallel with cytochrome c oxidase as the terminal oxidase on the electron transfer chain. Characterization of the structural and potential regulatory features of the alternative oxidase has advanced considerably in recent years. The active site is proposed to contain a di-iron center belonging to the ribonucleotide reductase R2 family and modeling of a four-helix bundle to accommodate this active site within the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein has been carried out. The structural features of this active site are conserved among all known alternative oxidases. The post-translational regulatory features of the alternative oxidase are more variable among organisms. The plant oxidase is dimeric and can be stimulated by either alpha-keto acids or succinate, depending upon the presence or absence, respectively, of a critical cysteine residue found in a conserved block of amino acids in the N-terminal region of the plant protein. The fungal and protozoan alternative oxidases generally exist as monomers and are not subject to organic acid stimulation but can be stimulated by purine nucleotides. The origins of these diverse regulatory features remain unknown but are correlated with sequence differences in the N-terminal third of the protein. PMID:11004460

Siedow, J N; Umbach, A L

2000-08-15

360

Host-plant selectivity of rhizobacteria in a crop/weed model system.  

PubMed

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

Zeller, Simon L; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

2007-01-01

361

Host-Plant Selectivity of Rhizobacteria in a Crop/Weed Model System  

PubMed Central

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

Zeller, Simon L.; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

2007-01-01

362

Foundations and Light Compass Foundations and Light Compass  

E-print Network

Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Jennifer L. WongQuantitative Sensor--centric Designcentric Design Light CompassLight Compass ­­ Models and Abstractions Contaminant Transport Marine Microorganisms Ecosystems, Biocomplexity What is a Light Compass?What is a Light

Wong, Jennifer L.

363

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

364

Creating a Successful Affiliated Foundation. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education offers guidelines for the creation of effective affiliated foundations. An introductory section notes the increased use of such foundations by public colleges and universities for institutional fund-raising and management of property and endowments. The booklet finds that successful…

Hedgepeth, Royster C.

1999-01-01

365

Effects of cyanide and dissolved oxygen concentration on biological Au recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of discarded electric devices containing traces of Au is currently increasing. It is desirable to recover this Au because of its valuable physicochemical properties. Au is usually dissolved with relatively high concentrations of cyanide, which is associated with environmental risk. Chromobacterium violaceum is able to produce and detoxify small amounts of cyanide, and may thus be able to

Yoshito Kita; Hiroshi Nishikawa; Tadashi Takemoto

2006-01-01

366

Gold-cyanide biosorption with L-cysteine Hui Niu and Bohumil Volesky*  

E-print Network

Gold-cyanide biosorption with L-cysteine Hui Niu and Bohumil Volesky* Department of Chemical gold-cyanide biosorption by protonated Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Sargassum ¯uitans a positive charge when protonated [(biomass±cysteine±H )±(AuCN2 � )]. Deposited gold could be eluted from Au

Volesky, Bohumil

367

How does cyanide inhibit superoxide reductase? Insight from synthetic FeIII  

E-print Network

the enzyme from turning over. Cyanide inhibits activity in the metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase via the superoxide dismutase catalyzed disproportionation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen (2How does cyanide inhibit superoxide reductase? Insight from synthetic FeIII N4S model complexes

Kovacs, Julie

368

EFFECT OF CYANIDE RESIDUE ON VEGETATION BORDERING A BLACK HILLS STREAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a study of the impact of cyanide from mining waste on riparian communities, primarily vegetation, near Whitewood Creek, downstream from Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Cyanide is used in gold processing, and the effluent, until fairly recently, was discharged directly into Gold Run Creek which empties into Whitewood Creek. Vegetation, soil, and water were collected from

Marmion Howe; Dan Noble

1985-01-01

369

Chronic cyanide poisoning of rainbow trout and its effects on growth, respiration, and liver histopathology.  

PubMed

Cyanide markedly affected growth and resting metabolic rate while causing degenerative hepatic necrosis in juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri, Richardson). This was revealed during two experiments performed in continuously renewed water at 12.5 degree C with fish fed a restricted artificial diet and exposed to assayed cyanide concentrations of 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, or 0.03 mg/L hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for 18 days. At 0.02 and 0.03 mg/L, HCN growth was reduced by 40 to 95% after 18 days. At all concentrations, cyanide caused a severe initial repression of specific growth rate, followed by a highly significant increase which was insufficient to compensate for the original repression. Previous exposure to cyanide promoted a higher resting metabolic rate during the six days following exposure, the effect increasing with cyanide concentration. At all concentrations tested, widespread cyanide-induced degenerative necrosis of hepatocytes was observed; it was more intense at higher cyanide concentrations and well established even at 0.01 mg/L HCN. PMID:6263193

Dixon, D G; Leduc, G

1981-01-01

370

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of

M. G. Paschka; R. S. Ghosh; D. A. Dzombak

1999-01-01

371

Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the

J. M. Cervino; R. L. Hayes; M. Honovich; T. J. Goreau; S. Jones; P. J. Rubec

2003-01-01

372

Preg-robbing phenomena in the cyanidation of sulphide gold ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pyrite and chalcopyrite to adsorb gold was examined. Experiments were conducted in cyanide deficient solutions with and without activated carbon. Chalcopyrite was shown to be very strongly preg-robbing. It competed with activated carbon to remove the majority of gold from solution. Pyrite was also strongly preg-robbing, and in cyanide deficient solutions adsorbed the majority of the gold

K. L. Rees; J. S. J. van Deventer

2000-01-01

373

Biodegradation of metal cyanides by mixed and pure cultures of fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former gasworks sites are sometimes be heavily contaminated with spent oxide which contains cyanide complexed to metals (especially iron). In this study, mixed fungal cultures have been isolated from acidic gasworks soil by their ability to utilize iron or nickel cyanide as the sole source of nitrogen at acidic or neutral pH, respectively. A mixed culture comprising Fusarium solani and

Michelle Barclay; Alwyn Hart; Christopher J. Knowles; Johannes C. L. Meeussen; Vanessa A. Tett

1998-01-01

374

Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

1995-12-31

375

Isolation and characterization of a cyanide dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus C1.  

PubMed Central

A cyanide-degrading enzyme from Bacillus pumilus C1 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme consisted of three polypeptides of 45.6, 44.6, and 41.2 kDa; the molecular mass by gel filtration was 417 kDa. Electron microscopy revealed a multimeric, rod-shaped protein approximately 9 by 50 nm. Cyanide was rapidly degraded to formate and ammonia. Enzyme activity was optimal at 37 degrees C and pH 7.8 to 8.0. Activity was enhanced by Sc3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Tb3+; enhancement was independent of metal ion concentration at concentrations above 5 microM. Reversible enhancement of enzymatic activity by azide was maximal at 4.5 mM azide and increased with time. No activity was recorded with the cyanide substrate analogs CNO-, SCN-, CH3CN, and N3- and the possible degradation intermediate HCONH2. Kinetic studies indicated a Km of 2.56 +/- 0.48 mM for cyanide and a Vmax of 88.03 +/- 4.67 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. The Km increased approximately twofold in the presence of 10 microM Cr3+ to 5.28 +/- 0.38 mM for cyanide, and the Vmax increased to 197.11 +/- 8.51 mmol of cyanide per min/mg/liter. We propose naming this enzyme cyanide dihydratase. Images PMID:8407782

Meyers, P R; Rawlings, D E; Woods, D R; Lindsey, G G

1993-01-01

376

Salicylic Acid Induces Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Tobacco Cell-Suspension Cultures 1  

PubMed Central

Cyanide-resistant, alternative respiration in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc was analyzed in liquid suspension cultures using O2 uptake and calorimetric measurements. In young cultures (4-8 d after transfer), cyanide inhibited O2 uptake by up to 40% as compared to controls. Application of 20 ?m salicylic acid (SA) to young cells increased cyanide-resistant O2 uptake within 2 h. Development of KCN resistance did not affect total O2 uptake, but was accompanied by a 60% increase in the rate of heat evolution from cells as measured by calorimetry. This stimulation of heat evolution by SA was not significantly affected by 1 mm cyanide, but was reduced by 10 mm salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of cyanide-resistant respiration. Treatment of SA-induced or uninduced cells with a combination of cyanide and SHAM blocked most of the O2 consumption and heat evolution. Fifty percent of the applied SA was taken up within 10 min, with most of the intracellular SA metabolized in 2 h. 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids also induced cyanide-resistant respiration. These data indicate that in tobacco cell-suspension culture, SA induces the activity and the capacity of cyanide-resistant respiration without affecting the capacity of the cytochrome c respiration pathway. PMID:16653218

Kapulnik, Yoram; Yalpani, Nasser; Raskin, Ilya

1992-01-01

377

Diagnosis of cyanide intoxication by measurement of cytochrome c oxidase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a mitochondrial enzyme, is inactivated by cyanide or carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. We measured CCO activity, in the major organs of the rat at various times after death caused by cyanide intoxication. Tissue samples were homogenized, and the CCO activity in the mitochondrial fraction was measured using ferrous cytochrome c as the substrate. The CCO activity

Hiroshi Ikegaya; Hirotaro Iwase; Kazuhito Hatanaka; Koichi Sakurada; Ken-ichi Yoshida; Takehiko Takatori

2001-01-01

378

Destruction of cyanide by hydrogen peroxide in tailings slurries from low bearing sulphidic gold ores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to determine the effectiveness and kinetics of hydrogen peroxide in destroying cyanide in the tailings slurry from a gold mine with low sulphide and heavy metal content. The impacts of catalyst (Cu) and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, temperature and pH on the extent and rate of weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide destruction were investigated.

M. Kitis; A. Akcil; E. Karakaya; N. O. Yigit

2005-01-01

379

High-Nuclearity Metal-Cyanide Clusters: Synthesis, Magnetic Properties, and Inclusion Behavior of Open-Cage Species Incorporating  

E-print Network

High-Nuclearity Metal-Cyanide Clusters: Synthesis, Magnetic Properties, and Inclusion Behavior) as a capping ligand in generating metal-cyanide cage clusters with accessible cavities is demonstrated a cubic arrangement of eight metal ions linked through edge-spanning cyanide bridges. This geometry

Shores, Matthew P.

380

Preparative and Structural Studies on the Carbonyl Cyanides of Iron, Manganese, and Ruthenium: Fundamentals Relevant to the  

E-print Network

Preparative and Structural Studies on the Carbonyl Cyanides of Iron, Manganese, and Ruthenium 61801 Received October 4, 2001 The reaction of cyanide, carbon monoxide, and ferrous derivatives led. Introduction While cyanide is often discussed in terms of its -acceptor properties, the most dominant

Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

381

Cyanide-Limited Complexation of Molybdenum(III): Synthesis of Octahedral [Mo(CN)6]3-  

E-print Network

Cyanide-Limited Complexation of Molybdenum(III): Synthesis of Octahedral [Mo(CN)6]3- and Cyano. Recently, this effect has been demonstrated with the substitution of MoIII for CrIII in molecular metal-cyanide of octahedral [Mo(CN)6]3-. Owing to its size, molybdenum tends to form cyanide complexes with coordination

382

Preparation, structure, and dynamics of a nickel p-allyl cyanide Nicole M. Brunkan, William D. Jones *  

E-print Network

Preparation, structure, and dynamics of a nickel p-allyl cyanide complex Nicole M. Brunkan, William(h3 - allyl)]' [3] and Ni(phosphine)2(h3 -allyl)(halide) [4Á/7] are known, and a cyanide complex numerous allyl cyanide complexes of nickel during studies of the reaction of butadiene with HCN using Ni

Jones, William D.

383

Photoluminescence of silver(I) and gold(I) cyanide 1D coordination polymers Craig A. Bayse a,  

E-print Network

Photoluminescence of silver(I) and gold(I) cyanide 1D coordination polymers Craig A. Bayse a Keywords: Time-dependent density functional theory Photoluminescence Coinage metal cyanides a b s t r a c t Silver(I) and gold(I) cyanides exist as 1D coordination polymers and are photoluminescent on the edge

Pike, Robert D.

384

The distribution and natural degradation of cyanide in goldmine tailings and polluted soil in arid and semiarid areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmlands and rivers have been seriously polluted by cyanide from a goldmine tailings dam that collapsed in early spring of 1995 in Yining County, Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China. The cyanide distribution in the polluted farmland and the abandoned tailings dam was studied, three and 4 years after the accident occurred. The results indicated that natural degradation of cyanide in soils

Li Shehong; Zheng Baoshan; Zhu Jianming; Yu xiaoying

2005-01-01

385

Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium  

SciTech Connect

In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

386

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

387

Bacterial Cyanide Oxygenase Is a Suite of Enzymes Catalyzing the Scavenging and Adventitious Utilization of Cyanide as a Nitrogenous Growth Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide oxygenase (CNO) from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 catalyzes the pterin-dependent oxygenolytic cleavage of cyanide (CN) to formic acid and ammonia. CNO was resolved into four protein components (P1 to P4), each of which along with a source of pterin cofactor was obligately required for CNO activity. Component P1 was characterized as a multimeric 230-kDa flavoprotein exhibiting the properties of

Ruby F. Fernandez; D. A. Kunz

2005-01-01

388

History, Development, and Modern Applications of the Cyanide Process  

E-print Network

. This solution was intended par­ ticularly to dissolve the sulphuretts of gold, silver, and copper. The metals dissolved in the salt solution were precipitated by means of zinc, suspended therein in tho form of pieces or plates. Simpson was aware that cyanide..., in connection with an electric current, had been used for dissolving metal, and also that zinc had been employed as a precipitant. What he claimed as new was;(l) the process of sep- 3 arating gold and silver from their ores, which consists in subject­ ing...

Cone, Victor M.

1906-06-01

389

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE REMAINS OF THREE TEN FOOT DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS ARE AT CENTER. THE SCATTER IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND IS THE REMAINS OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR HOLDING TANK POSSIBLY A SETTLING TANK. THIS AREA WAS MOST LIKELY CONSTRUCTED LATER IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AFTER MINING HAD CEASED AND ONLY TAILINGS WERE BEING RECLAIMED. AN EXACT DATE CANNOT BE DETERMINED HOWEVER THESE WORKS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT. THE SANDY AREA THAT OCCUPIES THE FOREGROUND AND THE CENTER ARE TAILINGS. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

390

Valence-differential spectroscopy of Co-Fe cyanide films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochromism is extensively investigated for practical application of display and memory devices. To develop the material, reliable information on the optical and electronic properties of the solid film is indispensable. Here, we propose valence-differential spectroscopy that can selectively extract the spectral components related to the oxidized/reduced metal site. We applied the spectroscopy to Co2+-Fe2+? and Co2+?-Fe2+ cyanide films with finely control of averaged valence (?) of the transition metal by external electric pulses. The spectroscopy revealed transition energy E, width ?, and oscillator strength f of the spectral components related to the transition metal.

Moritomo, Y.; Nakada, F.; Kurihara, Y.

2009-03-01

391

Symmetry reduction in the phase transitions of alkali cyanides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the Landau type phase transitions of alkali cyanides the symmetry of the order parameter and general relevant structural changes including orientational distribution of the CN molecules have been found. All phase transitions are driven by the representation of either the elastic dipol or the elastic quadrupol of the CN molecule and this leads to either ordered or disordered head-tail distribution at CN molecules. It is shown that the monoclinic phase Aa would be the result of condensation of at least two irreducible representations of Fm3m space group and that the CN molecules in this phase can be still disordered with respect to head-tail orientation.

Parlinski, K.

1984-03-01

392

Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Context Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, since current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. Objective We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide, the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B12), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cobinamide has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. Materials and Methods We studied cobinamide in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. Results We found cobinamide more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over two minutes. In range finding studies, cobinamide sulfite at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. Discussion and Conclusion These studies demonstrate that cobinamide is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as cobinamide sulfite. Based on these animal data cobinamide sulfite appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties. PMID:20704457

Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M.; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R.; Bigby, Timothy D.

2011-01-01

393

Cyanide induces different modes of death in cortical and mesencephalon cells.  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted in rat primary cortical (CX) and mesencephalic (MC) neurons to investigate intracellular cascades activated during cyanide-induced injury and to determine the point at which the cascades diverge to produce either apoptosis or necrosis. Cyanide treatment (400 microM) for 24 h produced primarily apoptosis in CX cells, whereas the same concentration of cyanide induced predominantly necrosis in MC cells as indicated by increased propidium iodide staining and cellular lactate dehydrogenase efflux. Cyanide increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both CX and MC cells, but the rate of formation and nature of the oxidative species varied with cell type. Catalase decreased cyanide-induced ROS generation in CX but not in MC cells. Nitric oxide generation was more prominent after cyanide treatment of MC compared with CX cells. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors were more involved in CX apoptosis than in MC necrosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential decreased moderately in CX cells on exposure to cyanide, whereas MC cells responded with a more pronounced reduction in potential. In CX cells cyanide produced a concentration-dependent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and increased caspase activity, whereas little change was seen in MC neurons. Thus, cyanide-induced necrosis of MC cells involved generation of excessive amounts of nitric oxide and superoxide accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization. In contrast cyanide causes a lower level of oxidative stress in CX cells, involving mainly hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, and a moderate change in mitochondrial membrane potential that lead to cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and apoptosis. PMID:12388630

Prabhakaran, K; Li, L; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

2002-11-01

394

Nitrite-mediated antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Cyanide inhibits aerobic metabolism by binding to the binuclear heme center of cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). Amyl nitrite and sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) antagonize cyanide toxicity in part by oxidizing hemoglobin to methemoglobin (mHb), which then scavenges cyanide. mHb generation is thought to be a primary mechanism by which the NO(2)(-) ion antagonizes cyanide. On the other hand, NO(2)(-) can undergo biotransformation to generate nitric oxide (NO), which may then directly antagonize cyanide inhibition of CcOX. In this study, nitrite-mediated antagonism of cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation was examined in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. NaNO(2) produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in whole-cell and mitochondrial levels of NO. The NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxy 3-oxide (PTIO) reversed this increase in cellular and mitochondrial NO. NO generated from NaNO(2) decreased cellular oxygen consumption and inhibited CcOX activity. PTIO reversed the NO-mediated inhibition, thus providing strong evidence that NO mediates the action of NaNO(2). Under similar conditions, KCN (20muM) inhibited cellular state-3 oxygen consumption and CcOX activity. Pretreatment with NaNO(2) reversed KCN-mediated inhibition of both oxygen consumption and CcOX activity. The NaNO(2) antagonism of cyanide was blocked by pretreatment with the NO scavenger PTIO. It was concluded that NaNO(2) antagonizes cyanide inhibition of CcOX by generating of NO, which then interacts directly with the binding of KCN x CcOX to reverse the toxicity. In vivo antagonism of cyanide by NO(2)(-) appears to be due to both generation of mHb and direct displacement of cyanide from CcOX by NO. PMID:20335280

Leavesley, Heather B; Li, Li; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Borowitz, Joseph L; Isom, Gary E

2010-06-01

395

Nitrite-Mediated Antagonism of Cyanide Inhibition of Cytochrome c Oxidase in Dopamine Neurons  

PubMed Central

Cyanide inhibits aerobic metabolism by binding to the binuclear heme center of cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). Amyl nitrite and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) antagonize cyanide toxicity in part by oxidizing hemoglobin to methemoglobin (mHb), which then scavenges cyanide. mHb generation is thought to be a primary mechanism by which the NO2? ion antagonizes cyanide. On the other hand, NO2? can undergo biotransformation to generate nitric oxide (NO), which may then directly antagonize cyanide inhibition of CcOX. In this study, nitrite-mediated antagonism of cyanide inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation was examined in rat dopaminergic N27 cells. NaNO2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in whole-cell and mitochondrial levels of NO. The NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxy 3-oxide (PTIO) reversed this increase in cellular and mitochondrial NO. NO generated from NaNO2 decreased cellular oxygen consumption and inhibited CcOX activity. PTIO reversed the NO-mediated inhibition, thus providing strong evidence that NO mediates the action of NaNO2. Under similar conditions, KCN (20?M) inhibited cellular state-3 oxygen consumption and CcOX activity. Pretreatment with NaNO2 reversed KCN-mediated inhibition of both oxygen consumption and CcOX activity. The NaNO2 antagonism of cyanide was blocked by pretreatment with the NO scavenger PTIO. It was concluded that NaNO2 antagonizes cyanide inhibition of CcOX by generating of NO, which then interacts directly with the binding of KCN × CcOX to reverse the toxicity. In vivo antagonism of cyanide by NO2? appears to be due to both generation of mHb and direct displacement of cyanide from CcOX by NO. PMID:20335280

Leavesley, Heather B.; Li, Li; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Borowitz, Joseph L.; Isom, Gary E.

2010-01-01

396

Accumulation of ?-Keto Acids as Essential Components in Cyanide Assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate (Pyr) and ?-ketoglutarate (?Kg) accumulated when cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 were cultivated on growth-limiting amounts of ammonia or cyanide and were shown to be responsible for the nonenzymatic removal of cyanide from culture fluids as previously reported (J.-L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61–67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 ?mol of cyanide removed min?1 ml of culture fluid?1) being recovered after 72 h of cultivation, at which time the keto acid concentration was 23 mM. The reaction products that formed between the biologically formed keto acids and cyanide were unambiguously identified as the corresponding cyanohydrins by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the Pyr and ?-Kg cyanohydrins were further metabolized by cell extracts and served also as nitrogenous growth substrates. Radiotracer experiments showed that CO2 (and NH3) were formed as enzymatic conversion products, with the keto acid being regenerated as a coproduct. Evidence that the enzyme responsible for cyanohydrin conversion is cyanide oxygenase, which was shown previously to be required for cyanide utilization, is based on results showing that (i) conversion occurred only when extracts were induced for the enzyme, (ii) conversion was oxygen and reduced-pyridine nucleotide dependent, and (iii) a mutant strain defective in the enzyme was unable to grow when it was provided with the cyanohydrins as a growth substrate. Pyr and ?Kg were further shown to protect cells from cyanide poisoning, and excretion of the two was directly linked to utilization of cyanide as a growth substrate. The results provide the basis for a new mechanism of cyanide detoxification and assimilation in which keto acids play an essential role. PMID:9797306

Kunz, Daniel A.; Chen, Jui-Lin; Pan, Guangliang

1998-01-01

397

Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been replaced or…

Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

1999-01-01

398

Aalto University Foundation Board Report  

E-print Network

­21 Introduction 4 Purpose of the Foundation 5 Governance 6 Research, Education, and Artistic Activities 7 were transferred to the ownership of the foundation, thus form- ing the Aalto University Group, with the Finnish state remaining the minor- ity shareholder through Senate Properties. In addition, full ownership

Kaski, Samuel

399

Establishing a Local Education Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the process of establishing local education foundations for the purpose of raising revenues to supplement, not supplant, existing school programs. Plans to identify funding sources and define the purpose of the foundation tied to student and academic achievement must emerge in order to solicit private individuals or groups,…

Pressley, James S.; Markland, Maureen S.

400

A New Foundation for Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern physics describes the mechanics of the Universe. We have discovered a new foundation for physics, which explains the components of the Universe with precision and depth. We quantify the existence of Aether, subatomic particles, and the force laws. Some aspects of the theory derive from the Standard Model, but much is unique. A key discovery from this new foundation

David W. Thomson; Jim D. Bourassa

401

Broadening the Educational Technology Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the role of educational technology (ET), particularly in second language teaching and learning, examines some theoretical foundations of ET and suggests why and how those foundations should be broadened. It first reviews the assets and shortcomings of three theories to which ET has been closely linked: behaviorism; neo-behaviorism;…

Borras, Isabel

402

Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

Rowley, Jennifer

2005-01-01

403

PROGRAMME HANDBOOK FOUNDATION CERTIFICATE IN  

E-print Network

PROGRAMME HANDBOOK FOUNDATION CERTIFICATE IN ECONOMICS, FINANCE AND MANAGEMENT (FEFM) COHORT 1, write, speak and listen to the English language. Our Foundation Programme has been designed with great wish you a very happy stay in Exeter and look forward to working with you. John Hoskin Programme

Mumby, Peter J.

404

Quantum Computation Models Foundational Problems  

E-print Network

Quantum Computation Models Foundational Problems Qualitative Questions Conjectural Answer to All Questions Locality in Quantum Computation, II Eric Rowell1 with Z. Wang2, C. Galindo3, S.-M. Hong4 1:Texas A Computation, II #12;Quantum Computation Models Foundational Problems Qualitative Questions Conjectural Answer

Rowell, Eric C.

405

Case 55 The Enterprise Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy. The Enterprise Foundation was conceived as an intermediary organization that would harness private and government capital to help build affordable housing for the poor. It would offer grants, low-interest loans, and equity investments, and would not shy away from the hardest cases: people with dim financial prospects and neighborhoods with histories of violence and poverty. Today, the Enterprise Foundation

Scott Kohler

406

Foundation Shifts Tack on Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years into an eight-year study of its high school improvement efforts, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is shifting its strategy for evaluating the $1.3 billion grant program. The foundation's initiative, which is underwriting change efforts in more than 1,800 schools, is the nation's largest privately funded attempt to improve high…

Viadero, Debra

2006-01-01

407

Engineering and Design - Rock Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides general guidance for factors to be considered in the construction of foundations and cut slopes excavated in rock masses. Divided into five sections with general topic areas to include: Excavation; Dewatering and Ground Water Control; Ground Control; Protection of Sensitive Foundation Materials; and Excavation Mapping and Monitoring.

2008-06-13

408

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-14

409

Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.  

PubMed

In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. PMID:23726700

Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

2013-07-01

410

The Electronic Literature Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Literature teachers, scholars, and lovers of the classics will warmly welcome this excellent online project. ELF's mission is to provide advanced, free electronic texts from world literature in several formats and languages. For instance, the ELF site includes four full editions of The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri: "the original Italian text, and English translations by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Rev. H.F. Cary, and Allen Mandelbaum. Annotations from the Cary and Longfellow editions are also available." As with ELF's Canterbury Tales, which is offered in Middle and Modern English, the texts can be read line-by-line or in enface ("facing page") format, which juxtaposes the original text and translation. The Foundation currently features two other texts: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, offered in three editions, and a preliminary version of Milton's Paradise Lost (the complete version is scheduled for April 1). All of the ELF texts include internal search engines and numerous contemporary and modern illustrations. Works in development include The Arabian Nights (scheduled for May 1), the works of Thomas Hardy, and Goethe's Faust.

1999-01-01

411

Foundations of Dynamic Geometry  

E-print Network

Although it is known that Calvin and Hobbes tell the truth about life, I was surprised that Bill Watterson knew in 1988 what Jürgen Richter-Gebert and I had to learn ten years later: Sometimes it is necessary to use imaginary numbers even for seemingly trivial tasks. This thesis shall explain the details of a method called complex tracing, and lay the foundations of Dynamic Geometry, a new field of research that opened up after we solved the continuity problem for interactive geometry software. I came into this project right after I decided not to write my thesis on Cinderella, the interactive geometry software which at that time was a project of Jürgen Richter-Gebert and Henry Crapo, but on neighborly polytopes. After the first few weeks of implementing the new version of Cinderella in Java I understood why it is really hard to write “just another geometry software. ” I had to try to implement a dynamic geometry software in order to understand why it is difficult to create a software that “behaves as expected. ” It needs a mathematical theory, and it was not clear to us what to do three years ago. It was in early 1998 when we had our “ultimate break-through. ” The time since then was spent for the implementation of the theory, and it is nice to see that this implementation

Ulrich Kortenkamp

1999-01-01

412

Foundations of resilience thinking.  

PubMed

Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

2014-08-01

413

South Asian Physics Foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in a South Asian country other than that of their university or citizenship. During the program's first year we funded one student from Bangladesh to attend a conference in India, and during it's second year we funded eight students to attend two different conferences. Our expanding activities underscore a need for facilitating such exchanges in developing regions of the world. We discuss issues related to offering this type of program as well as the challenges and satisfactions of implementing programs that foster regional scientific cooperation. We also solicit suggestions and ideas for further developing and broadening our activities. SAPF's website is www.southasianphysicsfoundation.org.

Hirschfelder, Jessica; Ramachandran, Vidhya

2011-04-01

414

Hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria kill subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) by cyanide poisoning under in vitro conditions.  

PubMed

The subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus is an important pest of the Indian subcontinent, causing extensive damage to major agricultural crops and forest plantation trees. Control of termites by strategies employing their parasites has limitations because they have evolved a complex social structure, immune responses, and adaptive behavior toward pathogen-infected individuals. Nonparasitic rhizobacteria that produce harmful metabolites might facilitate the biocontrol of termites. In the present investigation, three different species of hydrogen cyanide-producing rhizobacteria were tested for their potential to kill O. obesus. The three bacterial species were found to be effective in killing the termites under in vitro conditions. PMID:17171461

Devi, K Kanchana; Seth, Nidhi; Kothamasi, Shalini; Kothamasi, David

2007-01-01

415

Cyanide Safe Use Guidelines Procedure: 6.07 Created: 3.1.2013 Version: 1.0 Effective 5.7.2013  

E-print Network

Cyanide Safe Use Guidelines Procedure: 6.07 Created: 3.1.2013 Version: 1.0 Effective 5 for the purchase, storage and safe use and response to occupational exposure to Cyanide in Columbia University, who store, handle or use cyanide or cyanide compounds. C. Responsibilities 1. Principal Investigators

Jia, Songtao

416

Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1980-March 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Mar 92  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 119 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1992-02-01

417

Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1970-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 126 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

418

Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN- anion over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SCN- and ClO4- by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN- in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN- is down to 8.8 × 10-8 M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9 × 10-6 M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN- test kit to detect CN- in pure water for “in-the-field” measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

2014-12-01

419

Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.  

PubMed

In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo. PMID:20654676

Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

2011-03-01

420

Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

2014-01-01

421

Effect of harvesting frequency, variety and leaf maturity on nutrient composition, hydrogen cyanide content and cassava foliage yield.  

PubMed

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

2012-12-01

422

Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield  

PubMed Central

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Sporndly, Eva

2012-01-01

423

Cyanide-insensitive oxidation of ascorbate + NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine mixture by mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria. An energy-linked function.  

PubMed Central

Freshly prepared washed or purified mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria utilize oxygen with ascorbate/tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine mixture as electron donor in the presence of KCN. ATP control of the oxygen uptake can be observed with very fresh mitochondria. The electron flow, which is inhibited by antimycin A, salicylhydroxamic acid or octylguanidine, takes place by reversed electron transport through phosphorylation site II and thence to oxygen through the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Oligomycin and low concentrations of uncoupler partially inhibit the oxygen uptake in a manner similar to that observed for other energy-linked functions of plant mitochondria. An antimycin A-insensitive oxygen uptake occurs if high concentrations of uncoupler are used, indicating that the pathway of electron flow has been altered. The process of cyanide-insensitive ascorbate oxidation is self-starting, and, since it occurs in the presence of oligomycin, it is concluded that the reaction can be energized by a single energy-conservation site associated with the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. PMID:728100

Wilson, S B

1978-01-01

424

Cyanide-insensitive oxidation of ascorbate + NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine mixture by mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria. An energy-linked function.  

PubMed

Freshly prepared washed or purified mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria utilize oxygen with ascorbate/tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine mixture as electron donor in the presence of KCN. ATP control of the oxygen uptake can be observed with very fresh mitochondria. The electron flow, which is inhibited by antimycin A, salicylhydroxamic acid or octylguanidine, takes place by reversed electron transport through phosphorylation site II and thence to oxygen through the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Oligomycin and low concentrations of uncoupler partially inhibit the oxygen uptake in a manner similar to that observed for other energy-linked functions of plant mitochondria. An antimycin A-insensitive oxygen uptake occurs if high concentrations of uncoupler are used, indicating that the pathway of electron flow has been altered. The process of cyanide-insensitive ascorbate oxidation is self-starting, and, since it occurs in the presence of oligomycin, it is concluded that the reaction can be energized by a single energy-conservation site associated with the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. PMID:728100

Wilson, S B

1978-10-15

425

Electrokinetic improvement of offshore foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore and near-shore structures for energy exploration and production, harbour work and other facilities are often situated on very soft marine clay deposits that have shear strengths of a few kilopascals. The design of foundations embedded in these soft deposits often poses a challenge for geotechnical engineers, i.e., to satisfy the bearing capacity requirement, while at the same time minimizing the embedment depth and dimensions of the foundation due to cost considerations. The present study investigates the possibility of using electrokinetics to strengthen the soil adjacent to skirted foundations embedded in soft marine deposits and, thus, to improve the load carrying capacity of the foundations. The innovative feature of this approach as compared to soil improvement methods commonly adopted in practice is that the focus of strengthening is on the interface between the soil and embedded foundation, in terms of enhancement of adhesion and cementation. The thesis presents a summary of the method and results of a series of electrokinetic tests conducted on natural and simulated marine clays in small-scale and large-scale laboratory testing facilities. Steel plates and steel cylinders are used to simulate skirted foundations. A low dc voltage is applied via steel electrodes installed around the foundation models. The effects of electrokinetics are evaluated through changes in the geotechnical properties of the soil and load carrying capacities of the foundation model after treatment. The results demonstrate that the load carrying capacity of the skirted foundation model and the undrained shear strength of the adjacent soil increase by a factor of three after electrokinetic treatment. The clay adheres strongly to the inside and outside walls of the foundation model, indicating bonding occurs between the soil and steel after treatment. The treatment increases the soil undrained modulus and also induces a preconsolidation pressure of the remoulded clay, thereby reducing potential settlement of the foundation. The new technology described in this thesis has potential application in offshore engineering for increasing the load carrying capacity of skirted foundations installed in soft clayey sediments, as well as for rehabilitation of existing offshore structures.

Micic, Silvana

426

Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

1994-01-01

427

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

1999-10-01

428

Correlation of atmospheric and inhaled blood cyanide levels in miniature pigs  

SciTech Connect

The LCT5O (exposure time and atmospheric concentration needed to produce 50% lethality) has been commonly used to quantify the toxicity of a gas such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Few studies have been performed in which blood cyanide concentrations were measured simultaneously in animals at Imown exposure concentrations and time. This study was an attempt to correlate which blood cyanide levels would cause lethality in miniature pigs when exposed to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for a fixed time. An automated microdistillation assay (1) was used to continuously monitor arterial blood cyanide before, during and after the exposures to a HCN/air mixture. Seven animals were exposed to a HCN/air mixture for two minutes each, four to 1176 + or - SD 70 mg/m3, and three animals to 2125 + or - SD 91 mg/m3. Two of the three animals exposed to the high HCN/air mixture died with a peak blood cyanide concentration of about 4.1 + or - SD 0.38 ug/mL. Four animals exposed to the low HCN/air mixture had a peak blood cyanide concentration of 2.94 i SD 0.71 ug/mL. All four survived for a 24-bour post-exposure observation period before they were sacrificed. Several physiological parameters were also monitored.

Stemler, F.W.; Kaminskis, A.; Tezak-Reid, T.M.; Stotts, R.R.; Moran, T.S.

1995-12-31

429

Essential Role of Cytochrome bd-Related Oxidase in Cyanide Resistance of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344? †  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 grows in minimal medium containing cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under these conditions, an O2-dependent respiration highly resistant to cyanide was detected in cell extracts. The structural genes for the cyanide-resistant terminal oxidase, cioA and cioB, are clustered and encode the integral membrane proteins that correspond to subunits I and II of classical cytochrome bd, although the presence of heme d in the membrane could not be detected by difference spectra. The cio operon from P. pseudoalcaligenes presents a singular organization, starting upstream of cioAB by the coding sequence of a putative ferredoxin-dependent sulfite or nitrite reductase and spanning downstream two additional open reading frames that encode uncharacterized gene products. PCR amplifications of RNA (reverse transcription-PCR) indicated the cyanide-dependent up-regulation and cotranscription along the operon. The targeted disruption of cioA eliminates both the expression of the cyanide-stimulated respiratory activity and the growth with cyanide as the nitrogen source, which suggests a critical role of this cytochrome bd-related oxidase in the metabolism of cyanide by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344. PMID:17574992

Quesada, Alberto; Guijo, M. Isabel; Merchan, Faustino; Blazquez, Blas; Igeno, M. Isabel; Blasco, Rafael

2007-01-01

430

Essential role of cytochrome bd-related oxidase in cyanide resistance of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 grows in minimal medium containing cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under these conditions, an O2-dependent respiration highly resistant to cyanide was detected in cell extracts. The structural genes for the cyanide-resistant terminal oxidase, cioA and cioB, are clustered and encode the integral membrane proteins that correspond to subunits I and II of classical cytochrome bd, although the presence of heme d in the membrane could not be detected by difference spectra. The cio operon from P. pseudoalcaligenes presents a singular organization, starting upstream of cioAB by the coding sequence of a putative ferredoxin-dependent sulfite or nitrite reductase and spanning downstream two additional open reading frames that encode uncharacterized gene products. PCR amplifications of RNA (reverse transcription-PCR) indicated the cyanide-dependent up-regulation and cotranscription along the operon. The targeted disruption of cioA eliminates both the expression of the cyanide-stimulated respiratory activity and the growth with cyanide as the nitrogen source, which suggests a critical role of this cytochrome bd-related oxidase in the metabolism of cyanide by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344. PMID:17574992

Quesada, Alberto; Guijo, M Isabel; Merchán, Faustino; Blázquez, Blas; Igeño, M Isabel; Blasco, Rafael

2007-08-01

431

Alternative cyanide-binding modes to the haem iron in haem oxygenase  

PubMed Central

Cyanide is a well known potent inhibitor of haem proteins, including haem oxygenase (HO). Generally, cyanide coordinates to the ferric haem iron with a linear binding geometry; the Fe—C—N angle ranges from 160 to 180°. The Fe—­C—N angle observed in the crystal structure of haem–HO bound to cyanide prepared at alkaline pH was 166°. Here, it is reported that cyanide can bind to the haem iron in HO in a bent mode when the ternary complex is prepared at neutral pH; a crystal structure showed that the Fe—C—N angle was bent by 47°. Unlike the ternary complex prepared at alkaline pH, in which the haem group, including the proximal ligand and the distal helix, was displaced upon cyanide binding, the positions of the haem group and the distal helix in the complex prepared at neutral pH were nearly identical to those in haem–HO. Cyanide that was bound to haem–HO with a bent geometry was readily photodissociated, whereas that bound with a linear geometry was not photodissociated. Thus, alternative cyanide-binding modes with linear and bent geometries exist in the crystalline state of haem–HO. PMID:17554165

Sugishima, Masakazu; Oda, Kenji; Ogura, Takashi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Masato; Fukuyama, Keiichi

2007-01-01

432

Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

2013-01-01

433

Nickel-specific, slow-binding inhibition of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The inhibition of purified carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum by cyanide was investigated in both the presence and absence of CO and electron acceptor. The inhibition was a time-dependent process exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics under both sets of conditions. The true second-order rate constants for inhibition were 72.2 M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} with both substrates present and 48.9 and 79.5 M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, respectively, for the reduced and oxidized enzymes incubated with cyanide. CO partially protected the enzyme against inhibition after 25-min incubation with 100 {mu}M KCN. Dissociation constants of 8.46 {mu}M (KCN) and 4.70 {mu}M (CO) were calculated for the binding of cyanide and CO to the enzyme. Cyanide inhibition was fully reversible under an atmosphere of CO after removal of unbound cyanide. N{sub 2} was unable to reverse the inhibition. The competence of nickel-deficient (apo) CO dehydrogenase to undergo activation by NiCl{sub 2} was unaffected by prior incubation with cyanide. Cyanide inhibition of holo-CO dehydrogenase was not reversed by addition of NiCl{sub 2}. {sup 14}CN{sup {minus}} remained associated with holoenzyme but not with apoenzyme through gel filtration chromatography. These findings suggest that cyanide is a slow-binding, active-site-directed, nickel-specific, reversible inhibitor of CO dehydrogenase. The authors propose that cyanide inhibits CO dehydrogenase by being a analogue of CO and by binding through enzyme-bound nickel.

Ensign, S.A.; Hyman, M.R.; Ludden, P.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1989-06-13

434

Development and activation of cyanide-resistant respiration in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Changes in respiratory activity and in the contents of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) were studied in cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica during the development of cyanide-resistant respiration. The transition of the yeast from the logarithmic to the stationary growth phase due to exhaustion of glucose was associated with decreased endogenous respiration and with the activation of a cyanide-resistant oxidase. Cyanide activated cell respiration during the stationary growth phase. The cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. In the absence of cyanide, BHA had no effect on the cells which had the cyanide-resistant oxidase. This indicates that the cells do not use the alternative pathway in vivo. The decreased endogenous respiration of the cells was accompanied by decreased contents of adenine nucleotides. Addition of cyanide resulted in a sharp decrease in the content of ATP, in a twofold increase in the content of ADP, and in a fivefold increase in the content of AMP. In the absence of cyanide, BHA had virtually no effect on the contents of adenine nucleotides. The decreased rate of oxygen consumption during the transition of the cells to the stationary growth phase was caused by the decreased activity of the main cytochrome-containing respiratory chain (2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) stimulated respiration). The alternative oxidase was synthesized in the cell but was inactive. Cyanide stimulated respiration due to activation of the alternative oxidase via the AMP produced. The decrease in the cell content of ATP is suggested to be a factor inducing the synthesis of the alternative oxidase. PMID:10498813

Medentsev, A G; Akimenko, V K

1999-08-01

435

NEWS: Solid foundations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark statements should help students to make informed choices about their degree and subsequent employability, as well as informing employers about the skills and knowledge of the graduates they propose to employ. Academics from each discipline have agreed the statements for their areas of expertise to a common framework.

2000-07-01

436

Mammal mortality at Arizona, California, and Nevada gold mines using cyanide extraction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five-hundred nineteen mammals were reported dead at cyanide-extraction gold mines in Arizona [USA], California, and Nevada from 1984 through 1989. Most numerous were rodents (34.9%) and bats (33.7%); 'bat' was the most often reported category among 24 species or species groups. There are an estimated 160 cyanide-extraction gold mines in these three states, and the number is increasing. Ten mammal species listed as endangered, threatened, rare, protected, or species of special concern are known to have cyanide-extraction gold mines within their geographic ranges.

Clark, D.R., Jr.; Hothem, R.L.

1991-01-01

437

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... information on national health issues… Trending on kff Ebola Marketplaces Enrollment » The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation ... More perspectives policy insights Measuring the Impact of Ebola: Will it Reach 1.4 Million? The Mystery ...

438

Foundation Walls at Visitor Center  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows workers constructing the foundation walls for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The visitor contact wing will include an 884 square foot exhibit hall and a 1,038 square foot multipurpose room....

2009-09-17

439

Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

The Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google Donate Today Search Home About Us Contact Us ... Suite 300, McLean VA 22102 Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google Donate Today Search Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google Donate ...

440

Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).  

PubMed

The generalist moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) consists of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that differ in their distribution among host plant species. The corn strain prefers crop plants such as corn, sorghum, and cotton, while the rice strain is found in small grasses such as Cynodon spp. and rice. Little is known about the physiological factors that drive this host preference. Here, we report a feeding study with natural host plants and an artificial diet containing cyanide. We found that corn, two Cynodon spp. (bermudagrass C. dactylon (L.) Persoon, 'NuMex Sahara', and stargrass C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis Vanderyst, 'Florona'), and a hybrid between bermudagrass and stargrass, 'Tifton 85', exhibited differences in the concentration of the cyanogenic precursors or cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and the release of hydrogen cyanide per unit time or cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Corn plants released low levels of hydrogen cyanide, while stargrass had greater HCNp/HCNc than bermudagrass and 'Tifton 85'. Feeding studies showed that corn strain larvae experienced higher mortality than the rice strain when fed stargrass or artificial diet supplemented with cyanide. Also, corn strain larvae excreted higher levels of cyanogenic compounds than the rice strain when fed Cynodon spp. These differences in excretion suggest potential disparities in cyanide metabolism between the two strains. We hypothesize that differences in the susceptibility to cyanide levels in various host plants could play a role in driving strain divergence and what appears to be the incipient speciation of this moth. PMID:22173887

Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Meagher, Robert L; Nagoshi, Rodney N

2011-12-01

441

Ground-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of lines of the nu-3 band of hydrogen cyanide have been detected in solar absorption spectra recorded near sunrise and sunset at Kitt Peak National Observatory (elevation 2095 m) with a 0.01/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Analysis of two of the strongest and best isolated lines has led to a value of 2.73 x 10 to the 15th molecules/sq cm for the vertical column abundance of HCN above Kitt Peak. The accuracy of this value is estimated as + or - 25%. This result, combined with the stratospheric concentration of HCN derived by Coffey, Mankin, and Cicerone (1981), yields 166 parts per trillion by volume for the average mixing ratio of HCN between 2 and 12 km. This is the first determination of the HCN concentration in the nonurban troposphere.

Rinsland, C. P.; Smith, M. A. H.; Rinsland, P. L.; Goldman, A.; Brault, J. W.; Stokes, G. M.

1982-01-01

442

The Submillimeter Wave Spectrum of Isotopic Methyl Cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory submillimeter wave rotational spectrum of the 13CH3CN, CH3C13CN, and CH3C15N isotopomers of methyl cyanide has been observed in natural abundance in the 294 to 607 GHz region. The maximum J and K values are 34 and 14, respectively. Fifteen additional CH3CN transitions up to K = 21 were also measured. The transitions of all four species are fitted to a symmetric top Hamiltonian, and the rotation and distortion constants are determined. The 14N quadrupole and spin rotation coupling constants are also calculated and presented. Suggested values for many other parameters, which could not be directly determined from the isotope spectra, are calculated from the normal species values and isotope relationships. The determined and calculated constants should predict the spectrum of the three isotopomers to well over 1 THz accurately enough for astronomical assignments.

Pearson, J. C.; Mueller, H. S. P.

1996-01-01

443

Protein kinase c inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, l-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 3/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, I mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

Maduh, E.U.; Nealley, E.W.; Song, H.; Wang, P.C.; Baskin, S.I.

1995-12-31

444

Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring  

PubMed Central

Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)–induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8±7.1 min compared to 75.4±25.1 and 76.4±42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS. PMID:20210475

Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

2010-01-01

445

Recent progress in the development of fluorometric and colorimetric chemosensors for detection of cyanide ions.  

PubMed

The presence of cyanide ions in surface water is not only caused by industrial waste but also by biological processes. Owing to the extreme toxicity of cyanide in physiological systems and its widespread presence in the environment, considerable attention has been given to the development of methods for the detection of cyanide. Among the most simple, inexpensive and rapid methods to detect cyanide ions are chemosensors that rely on fluorometric and colorimetric responses. This review, which focuses on CN(-) fluorescence and colorimetric chemosensors that have been developed since 2010, follows a format in which the sensors are classified according to their structural features and reaction mechanisms. Finally, a general overview of the design of fluorometric and colorimetric chemosensors for CN(-) is provided. PMID:24668230

Wang, Fang; Wang, Li; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Yoon, Juyoung

2014-07-01

446

Determination of 15N/14N and 13C/12C in Solid and Aqueous Cyanides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stable isotopic compositions of nitrogen and carbon in cyanide compounds can be determined by combusting aliquots in sealed tubes to form N2 gas and CO2 gas and analyzing the gases by mass spectrometry. Free cyanide (CN-aq + HCNaq) in simple solutions can also be analyzed by first precipitating the cyanide as copper(II) ferrocyanide and then combusting the precipitate. Reproducibility is ??0.5??? or better for both ??15N and ??13C. If empirical corrections are made on the basis of carbon yields, the reproducibility of ??13C can be improved to ??0.2???. The analytical methods described herein are sufficiently accurate and precise to apply stable isotope techniques to problems of cyanide degradation in natural waters and industrial process solutions.

Johnson, C.A.

1996-01-01

447

APPLICATION AND EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR TRACE METALS, TOTAL CYANIDES AND PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical procedures for the determination of trace metals, total cyanides and phenolics were systematically evaluated for their applicability industry-wide. Matrix interferences, methods equivalency, and analytical precision were investigated through a series of duplicate and s...

448

Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

2002-01-01

449

DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE IN ALUMINUM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the results obtained from conv...

450

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-05-01

451

Novel sensitive spectrophotometric method for the trace determination of cyanide in industrial effluent.  

PubMed

The high toxicity of the cyanide ion at low concentration necessitates its analysis in a variety of environmental samples with a very low cyanide content. A new sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the trace determination of cyanide with ninhydrin (NH) in an alkaline medium. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of cyanide concentration 0.04-0.24 microg cm(-3), and the molar absorptivity at 590 nm is 2.20 x 10(5) dm3 mol(-1) cm(-1). The Sandell's sensitivity of the product is 0.000118 microg cm(-2). The optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters have been investigated. The results obtained by using the proposed method for environmental samples agree well with those obtained by the Aldridge standard method. PMID:12243398

Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Hemantha Kumar, Mattighatta S; Yathirajan, Hemmige S; Prakash, Jainara S

2002-09-01

452

Mechanism of Synthesis of Adenine from Hydrogen Cyanide under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has recently been shown that adenine and the purine precursors 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamidine and formamidine are formed spontaneously from hydrogen cyanide in water-ammonia systems under conditions assumed to have existed on the primitive Earth1.

J. Oró

1961-01-01

453

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

454

Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K = 0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para)abundance ratio N(E)/N(A) = 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is N(total) = 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J = 1-0 lines.

Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saito, S.; Kaifu, N.

1993-01-01

455

Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus Not Linked to the Sequestration of Host-derived Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473?±?130 ppm and 1,058?±?98 ppm,\\u000a respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released

T. D. Fitzgerald; M. A. Stevens; S. Miller; P. Jeffers

2008-01-01

456

Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

1992-04-01

457

Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway  

PubMed Central

Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 °C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 °C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways. PMID:18448476

Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Bailly, Christophe

2008-01-01

458

Multiparameter Behavioral Analyses Provide Insights to Mechanisms of Cyanide Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Environmental toxicants influence development, behavior, and ultimately survival. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an exceptionally powerful model for toxicological studies. Here, we develop novel technologies to describe the effects of cyanide toxicity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Importantly, we use these methods to examine the genetic underpinnings of cyanide resistance. Caenorhabditis elegans that lack the EGL-9 oxygen sensing enzyme have been shown to be resistant to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrate that the cyanide resistance exhibited by egl-9 mutants is completely dependent on the HIF-1 hypoxia-inducible factor and is mediated by the cysl-2 cysteine synthase, which likely functions in metabolic pathways that inactivate cyanide. Further, the expression of cysl-2 correlates with the degree of cyanide resistance exhibited in each genetic background. We find that each mutant exhibits similar relative resistance to HCN gas on plates or to aqueous potassium cyanide in microfluidic chambers. The design of the microfluidic devices, in combination with real-time imaging, addresses a series of challenges presented by mutant phenotypes and by the chemical nature of the toxicant. The microfluidic assay produces a set of behavioral parameters with increased resolution that describe cyanide toxicity and resistance in C. elegans, and this is particularly useful in analyzing subtle phenotypes. These multiparameter analyses of C. elegans behavior hold great potential as a means to monitor the effects of toxicants or chemical interventions in real time and to study the biological networks that underpin toxicant resistance. PMID:23805000

Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Parashar, Archana; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

2013-01-01

459

The effects of grain moisture content and grain temperature on the penetration of hydrogen cyanide  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS QF CRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT AND GRAIN TEMiPERATURE ON THE &NETRATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE A Thesis SIDNEY EDMUND KUNZ Submitted to the Graduate School of ths Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (Mionth) 1262 (Year) Mayor Subject ghtdlggllQJLK THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT JBD GRAIN TEMPERATURE ON THE PENETRATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE A Thesis SIDNEY EDNUND KUNZ Approved as to style...

Kunz, Sidney E

2012-06-07

460

Prevention reference manual: chemical specific. Volume 10. Control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide. Final report, November 1986-June 1987  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN involves identifying some of the potential causes of accidental releases that apply to the process facilities that use HCN. The manual identifies examples of potential causes and measures that may be taken to reduce the accidental release risk. Such measures include recommendations on: plant design practice