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1

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

2

A methodology for determining the deportment of cyanide losses in gold plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a major cost centre in gold processing plants, and establishing the causes of cyanide loss can result in significant savings. The deportment of cyanide is complex, and can include volatilization, precipitation, complexation with metals, oxidation to cyanate or ammonia, and reaction with sulfide minerals to form thiocyanate.This paper presents a simple methodology using thermodynamic constants and solution analyses,

M. D. Adams

2001-01-01

3

Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

4

Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, S.N.

2004-01-01

5

Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Noble Foundation, a charitable foundation located in Ardmore, Oklahoma that focuses on agriculture and plant biology, this site contains images of over 600 vascular plants native primarily to the Oklahoma-Texas region. Offered as an educational tool for botanists, natural resource managers, and students, the site divides the images into three main categories: Grasses & grasslike plants; Forbs; and Trees, shrubs & woody vines. Within each, users can browse by common name, scientific name, or via a family or tribe index. Entries include a medium-sized image with some close-up thumbnails and information on species, family, longevity, season, origin, height, and flowers. A keyword/ natural language search engine that indexes the entire database is also available. Overall, this is a clean, fast-loading useful resource.

6

High-temperature cyanide leaching of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts -- Pilot plant study  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center investigated, developed, and patented a high-temperature cyanide leaching process for recovering platinum-group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. A batch pilot plant was constructed at the center and operated to demonstrate this technology to industry. Approximately 1,600 kg of used pellet, monolith, and metal support catalysts containing 1,700 g (54 tr oz) of PGM was processed. Forty-five-kilogram batches of used catalysts were leached with sodium cyanide solution at 160 C for 1 h in a countercurrent processing sequence. This selectively dissolved the PGM. Average extractions from the used pellet catalyst were 96 pct Pt, 95 pct Pd, and 73 pct Rh. Average extractions from the used monolith catalyst were 84 pct Pt, 81 pct Pd, and 66 pct Rh. Heating the pregnant leach solutions to 275 C for 4 h destroyed the PGM-cyanide complexes, causing over 99.7 pct of the PGM to precipitate from solution. The PGM precipitate was predominantly a metallic powder concentrate, typically analyzing greater than 50 pct PGM. Heating destroyed the cyanide to less than 0.2 mg/l free and total cyanide. Both the pellet and monolith residues were evaluated for disposal using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Kuczynski, R.J.; Atkinson, G.B.; Dolinar, W.J.

1995-09-01

7

Simultaneous determination of cyanide and carbonyls in cyanogenic plants by gas chromatography-electron capture/photoionization detection.  

PubMed

A new method to simultaneously detect cyanide and carbonyl compounds arising from cyanogenic glycosides in plants is described. A portable gas chromatograph.housing two detectors using a single carrier gas is employed to measure the carbonyl compounds (photoionization detector) and cyanide as its cyanogen chloride derivative (electron capture detector) from the headspace of a plant sample. This method affords in-field, rapid screening of plants to determine cyanogenicity. Good agreement was seen between this method for cyanide determination and two traditional field cyanide test kits. Detection of both the cyanide and the carbonyl compound(s) allows for confirmation of the presence of cyanogenic glycosides and eliminates the problem of false positives often seen in traditional cyanide test kits. Gas phase limits of detection for cyanide, acetone, butanone, and benzaldehyde were 69, 41, 105, and 0.39 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), respectively, allowing sensitive detection of cyanogenic glycoside breakdown products. The method's utility for screening cyanogenic plants is demonstrated, and it should be useful for screening cyanogenic foodstuffs to determine suitability for consumption. PMID:12475032

Curtis, Abigale J; Grayless, C Charles; Fall, Ray

2002-11-01

8

A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-01-01

9

A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect

J. S. Goudey; F. L. Tittle; M. S. Spencer

1989-01-01

10

High-temperature cyanide leaching of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts: Pilot plant study. Report of investigations/1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center operated a batch pilot plant to demonstrate high-temperature cyanide leaching or recovering platinum group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. Approximately 1,600 kg of used pellet, monolith, and metal support catalyst containing 1,700 g (54 tr oz) of PGM were processed. Average extractions from the used pellet catalyst were 96 pct Pt, 95 pct Pd, and 73 pct Rh. Heating destroyed cyanide to less than 0.2 mg/L free and total cyanide. Both the pellet and monolith residues were evaluated for disposal using the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Kuczynski, R.J.; Atkinson, G.B.; Dolinar, W.J.

1995-07-01

11

A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.  

PubMed

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

1989-04-01

12

A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to ?-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form ?-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of ?-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

1989-01-01

13

Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants. [Myriophyllum spicatum  

SciTech Connect

The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid(SHAM)) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weigh basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O/sub 2/ uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

Azcon-Bieto, J.; Murillo, J.; Penuelas, J.

1987-07-01

14

A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants  

SciTech Connect

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1989-04-01

15

Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants  

SciTech Connect

Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M. (WU)

2012-09-07

16

Structure of Soybean ?-Cyanoalanine Synthase and the Molecular Basis for Cyanide Detoxification in Plants[W  

PubMed Central

Plants produce cyanide (CN?) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN? detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the ?-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form ?-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants. PMID:22739827

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

17

Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration  

SciTech Connect

Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

Stegink, S.J.

1985-01-01

18

Molecular Structure of Cyanide ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyanide ion CN- is highly toxic to human body that contained in inorganic cyanide. Many foods and plants have cyanides, such as cassava roots and cherries pits. Cyanides are also one of the very few soluble composites of gold, so that they are used in gold mining and electroplating, etc. Small amount of cyanides from foods are converted to the harmless thiocyanate (SCN-). However, cyanides are harmful in a large amount to human body, which can lead to vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness or even death. Because Cyanide ion binds more strongly than oxygen to the Fe+3 in cytochrome a3, it interrupts the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

2002-09-18

19

Transient Transcriptional Regulation of the CYS-C1 Gene and Cyanide Accumulation upon Pathogen Infection in the Plant Immune Response1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme ?-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

2013-01-01

20

Release of iron-cyanide complexes form contaminated soils - Batch and column experiments on substrates from Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are often contaminated with iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes that originate from gas purification process. Cyanide is a potentially toxic substance and its presence in soil and groundwater may cause risk for human health as well as for the environment. MGPs were commonly built on the city suburban areas, which have spread ever since. Nowadays, these sites are typically located in inner cities, causing environmental thread, due to the leaching of pollutants. More recently, columns and batch experiments have been used to study fate and mobility of contaminants is soil. The release of iron-cyanide complexes under unsaturated flow conditions was evaluated with eight columns of 30 cm length and a diameter of 5,4 cm. Cyanide concentrations in the collected leachates were measured with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). Additionally pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and various ion concentrations were determined. In order to compare the release of Fe-CN complexes in saturated conditions a batch experiment was conducted, where in defined time intervals, 1 ml of the extract water phase was analyzed for CN concentration. Study revealed an analogous trend of cyanide release in both experiments indicating primarily the release of formerly dissolved phase (hexacyanoferrates) followed by continual dissolution of ferric ferrocyanide. We conclude that batch experiments, conducted prior to column analysis, can serve as preliminary prediction of the water soluble cyanide fraction under unsaturated conditions.

Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

2013-04-01

21

Do some plant responses to cytokinins involve the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway?  

PubMed

A disengagement of the cyanide-resistant, alternative respiratory pathway in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) callus tissue was observed prior to the start of deoxyisoflavone production stimulated by addition of the cytokinin benzyladenine. To test whether this loss of alternativepathway activity was part of the response to cytokinin, inhibitors of the alternative pathway were assayed for their ability to elicit cytokinin-like responses. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) was found to produce a deoxyisoflavone difference spectrum similar to that observed following treatment of the callus tissue with benzyladenine, while propyl gallate (PG) was without effect. Both SHAM and PG were further tested for cytokinin-like activity in other bioassays. In two anti-senescence bioassays using leaf tissue (of Avena sativa L. and Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallr.) and in the Cucumis sativus L. bioassay which measures stimulation of weight gain by excised cotyledons, both SHAM and PG were effective "cytokinins" at 1 mM and 0.1 mM, respectively. In two other bioassays (betacyanin formation in Amaranthus caudatus L. seedlings and the soybean-callus celldivision assay), SHAM appeared to be toxic. These results substantiate the suggestion that effects on the alternative pathway may play a role in some cytokinin responses and further raise the question of what should be considered a true cytokinin response. PMID:24225916

Musgrave, M E; Miller, C O; Siedow, J N

1987-11-01

22

Exotic plants increase and native plants decrease with loss of foundation species in sagebrush steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant plant species, or foundation species, are recognized to have a disproportionate control over resources in ecosystems,\\u000a but few studies have evaluated their relationship to exotic invasions. Loss of foundation species could increase resource\\u000a availability to the benefit of exotic plants, and could thereby facilitate invasion. The success of exotic plant invasions\\u000a in sagebrush steppe was hypothesized to benefit from

Janet S. Prevéy; Matthew J. Germino; Nancy J. Huntly; Richard S. Inouye

2010-01-01

23

Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online interactive lesson, created by Kyle Siegrist of the University of Alabama - Huntsville, on foundations provides examples, exercises, and applets which review the algebra of sets and functions, general relations with special emphasis on equivalence relations and partial orders, and some basic combinatorial structures such as permutations and combinations. Overall, this site provides a great overview of these algebra and statistical methods.

Siegrist, Kyle

2009-01-05

24

Foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

Harteveld, Casper

25

Occupational cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

26

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

27

Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

28

Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology  

PubMed Central

In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale (Thoughts on Plant Biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science. PMID:21490417

2010-01-01

29

Cyanide Formation by Chromobacterium violaceum  

PubMed Central

Michaels, Ruth (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), and W. A. Corpe. Cyanide formation by Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 89:106–112. 1965.—The formation of cyanide by a Chromobacterium violaceum strain was studied with growing cultures and with nonproliferating cells grown in complex and chemically defined media. Most of the cyanide was produced during the log-phase growth of the organism, and accumulated in the culture supernatant fluid. A synergistic effect of glycine and methionine on cyanide formation in a chemically defined medium was observed, and the amount of cyanide formed was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the two substances. Cyanide formation by nonproliferating cells was stimulated by preincubation with glycine and methionine. Cyanide formation by adapted cells in the presence of glycine and methionine was stimulated by succinate, malate, or fumarate, and depressed by azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Methionine could be replaced by betaine, dimethylglycine, and choline. PMID:14255648

Michaels, Ruth; Corpe, W. A.

1965-01-01

30

Cyanide resistant respiration is involved in temperature rise in ripening mangoes.  

PubMed

Thermogenesis is attributed to the cyanide resistant respiration in the inflorescence of Arum lilies. Although cyanide resistant respiration is ubiquitously operative in the plant systems, it has never been correlated with thermogenesis except for the above example. Internal temperature of the ripening mango increased from 29.0 degrees C to 38.9 degrees C during its ripening process. Concomitantly, it was coupled with the increase in total respiration and cyanide resistant respiration as well. Implication of cyanide resistant respiration in thermogenesis has been discussed in relation to the ripening fruit. PMID:2334438

Kumar, S; Patil, B C; Sinha, S K

1990-04-30

31

Semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of Three Hapalemur species in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Three sympatric Hapalemur species (H. g. griseus, H. aureus, and H. (Prolemur) simus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar are known to eat bamboo food parts that contain cyanide. How these lemurs avoid cyanide poisoning remains unknown. In this study, we tested for the presence/absence of cyanide in bamboo lemur foods and excreta to (1) document patterns of cyanide consumption among species with respect to diet, (2) identify routes of elimination of cyanide from the gastrointestinal tract, and (3) determine whether cyanide is absorbed from the diet. We tested 102 food, urine, and fecal samples for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during two "pre-dry" seasons (April 2006, May 2007) using commercially available Cyantesmo test strips. The test strips changed color in the presence of HCN, and we recorded color change on a scale of 0 (no change) to 5 (cobalt) at preset intervals with a final score taken at 24 hr. We detected cyanide in bamboo food parts and urine of all three Hapalemur species. Time to color change of the test strips ranged from almost instantaneous to >12 hr incubation. Of the foods tested, only bamboo contained cyanide, but results differed among bamboo species and plant parts of the same species. Specifically, branch shoot and culm pith of the giant bamboo produced strong, immediate reactions to the test paper, whereas parts of liana bamboos produced either weak or no color change. Cyanide was present in almost all urine samples but rarely in fecal samples. This suggests that dietary cyanide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the Hapalemur species and excreted, at least in part, by the kidneys. Samples from H. griseus exhibited lower, though still detectable, cyanide levels compared with H. simus and H. aureus. Differences among lemur species appear to be related to the specific bamboo parts consumed. PMID:19790190

Yamashita, Nayuta; Tan, Chia L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Cathy

2010-01-01

32

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

33

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

34

Directed Evolution of Cyanide Degrading Enzymes  

E-print Network

. However, application of these enzymes in industry requires improving their characteristics. The goal of this dissertation is to better understand cyanide nitrilases, in particular the cyanide dihydratase from of Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas stutzeri...

Abou Nader, Mary 1983-

2012-11-12

35

The biochemical pathway for the breakdown of methyl cyanide (acetonitrile) in bacteria.  

PubMed Central

[2-14C]Methyl cyanide (acetonitrile) is metabolized to citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, glutamate, pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid and aspartate. Non-radioactive acetamide and acetate compete with 14C from methyl cyanide, and [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]methyl cyanide are metabolized at similar rates, giving identical products. This evidence, combined with the inhibitory effect of fluoroacetate and arsenite on methyl cyanide metabolism, indicates that the pathway is: methyl cyanide leads to acetamide leads to acetate leads to tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates. The pathway was investigated in a species of Pseudomonas (group III; N.C.I.B. 10477), but comparison of labelling patterns suggests that it also exists in several higher plants. PMID:985423

Firmin, J L; Gray, D O

1976-01-01

36

Biodegradation of cyanide by a new isolated strain under alkaline conditions and optimization by response surface methodology (RSM)  

PubMed Central

Background Biodegradation of free cyanide from industrial wastewaters has been proven as a viable and robust method for treatment of wastewaters containing cyanide. Results Cyanide degrading bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant for coke-oven-gas condensate by enrichment culture technique. Five strains were able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions and among them; one strain (C2) was selected for further studies on the basis of the higher efficiency of cyanide degradation. The bacterium was able to tolerate free cyanide at concentrations of up to 500 ppm which makes it a good potentially candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide contaminated residues. Cyanide degradation corresponded with growth and reached a maximum level 96% during the exponential phase. The highest growth rate (1.23?×?108) was obtained on day 4 of the incubation time. Both glucose and fructose were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth. No growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. Four control factors including, pH, temperature, agitation speed and glucose concentration were optimized according to central composite design in response surface method. Cyanide degradation was optimum at 34.2°C, pH 10.3 and glucose concentration 0.44 (g/l). Conclusions Bacterial species degrade cyanide into less toxic products as they are able to use the cyanide as a nitrogen source, forming ammonia and carbon dioxide as end products. Alkaliphilic bacterial strains screened in this study evidentially showed the potential to possess degradative activities that can be harnessed to remediate cyanide wastes. PMID:24921051

2014-01-01

37

Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.  

PubMed

The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

2011-09-01

38

A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor  

PubMed Central

Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 ?L, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20?L, 50 ?L). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 ?M. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

2013-01-01

39

The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows.  

PubMed

Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Uptake of ferrocyanide from the aqueous solution by plants was evident for all treatments and varied with plant species, ranging from 8.64 to 15.67% of initial mass. The uptake processes observed from hydroponic solution showed exponential disappearance kinetics. Very little amounts of the applied ferrocyanide were detected in all parts of plant materials, confirming passage of ferrocyanide through the plants. No ferrocyanide in air was found due to plant transpiration. Mass balance analysis showed that a large fraction of the reduction of initial mass in hydroponic solution was metabolized during transport within the plant materials. The difference in the metabolic rate of ferrocyanide between the three plant species was comparably small, indicating transport of ferrocyanide from hydroponic solution to plant materials and further transport within plant materials was a limiting step for assimilating this iron cyanide complex. In conclusion, phytoremediation of ferrocyanide by the plants tested in this study has potential field application. PMID:16703454

Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhou, Pu-Hua; Yang, Yong-Miao

2006-07-01

40

Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters  

PubMed Central

Background: The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples (57) were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages – March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer's protocols. Results: Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 ± 0.0007, 0.0070 ± 0.0018, 0.0008 ± 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 ± 2.80, 7.20 ± 1.80, 7.50 ± 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001), whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5). Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 ± 0.0130, 0.0077 ± 0.0025, 0.0087 ± 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 ± 8.12, 8.04 ± 3.99, 8.40 ± 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754) and nitrate (P = 0.705) concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 ± 0.033, 0.1180 ± 0.033, 0.1200 ± 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 ± 40.74, 279.00 ± 152.17, 298.40 ± 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731) and nitrate (P = 0.187) concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Conclusion: Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water were within the standard range (0.07 mg/L for cyanide and 50 mg/L for nitrate) and was not a health problem at the time of our study, regular estimation of the toxic chemicals due to the development of industrial plants in this area is recommended. PMID:23900450

Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Sadeghi, Mahmood

2013-01-01

41

Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.  

PubMed

This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis. PMID:18810551

Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

2008-10-01

42

Microwave Spectrum of Fluorine Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A FRACTION of the product of fluorination of cyanogen, in which fluorine cyanide was detected by infra-red spectroscopy1, has now been shown to absorb in the microwave regions of 21,000, 42,000 and 63,000 Mc.\\/s. The absorptions occur in the frequency-ranges expected from the resolved rotational structure of the infra-red band, nu3, centred on 1,077 cm.-1. Their Stark effects and nuclear

J. Sheridan; J. K. Tyler; E. E. AYNSLEY; R. E. DODD; R. LITTLE

1960-01-01

43

Transport of complexed cyanide in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of soil with cyanide, generally in the form of iron cyanide complexes [Fe(CN)63? and Fe(CN)64?], is commonly found at several types of industrial sites. The risks for human health or the environment posed by such sites are largely determined by the chemical behaviour and transport of complexed cyanide in soil. In acidic soil this behaviour is probably dominated by

J. C. L. Meeussen; W. H. van Riemsdijk; S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee

1995-01-01

44

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

2014-07-01

45

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

2013-07-01

46

Molecular Structure of Methyl Cyanide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl Cyanide is a toxic, colorless liquid with an aromatic (ether like) odor and forms explosive mixtures with air. It is a critical solvent for several important processes e.g., it is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in chromatography applications, as a wash solvent and in preparing reagent solutions for oligonucleotide synthesis. It is employed in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, batteries, pesticides, and inorganic salts. It can be utilized to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons, to extract fatty acids from fish liver, animal, and vegetable oils, and to recrystallize steroids.

2003-06-03

47

Wetland remediation of cyanide and hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a common constituent present in groundwater from historical aluminum industry landfills. Aluminum manufacturing produces wastes which contain cyanide, together with fluoride, a variety of metals, and some petroleum hydrocarbons. These leachates pose a moderate threat to receiving ecosystems and human health. Source control is virtually impossible, and physico-chemical removal processes are expensive and energy intensive. This pilot project

Timothy P. Gessner; Robert H. Kadlec; Richard P. Reaves

2005-01-01

48

Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

1991-01-01

49

Genome mining of cyanide-degrading nitrilases from filamentous fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fungal species are known to degrade cyanide through the action of cyanide hydratases, a specialized subset of\\u000a nitrilases which hydrolyze cyanide to formamide. In this paper, we report on two previously unknown and uncharacterized cyanide\\u000a hydratases from Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans. Recombinant forms of four cyanide hydratases from N. crassa, A. nidulans, Gibberella zeae, and Gloeocercospora

Lacy J. Basile; Richard C. Willson; B. Trevor Sewell; Michael J. Benedik

2008-01-01

50

40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.  

... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

2014-07-01

51

40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

2013-07-01

52

1 Research supported by the Virginia Corn Board, the Foundation for Agronomic Research, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Early-planted corn generally produces higher yields than  

E-print Network

1 Research supported by the Virginia Corn Board, the Foundation for Agronomic Research, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Early-planted corn generally produces higher yields than later-planted corn due to improved utilization of sunlight during the long days of June and July, assuming moisture

Liskiewicz, Maciej

53

CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

54

Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.  

PubMed

It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability. PMID:15910645

Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

2005-06-01

55

Cyanide-degrading enzymes for bioremediation  

E-print Network

CYANIDE-DEGRADING ENZYMES FOR BIOREMEDIATION A Thesis by LACY JAMEL BASILE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 2008 Major Subject: Microbiology CYANIDE-DEGRADING ENZYMES FOR BIOREMEDIATION A Thesis by LACY JAMEL BASILE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Basile, Lacy Jamel

2008-10-10

56

DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

57

Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Ĺstot, C

2012-10-10

58

Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Freshly Cut Potato Slices  

PubMed Central

Treating intact white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber with ethylene in air or O2 made it possible to obtain freshly cut slices which exhibit cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant path requires induction in whole tubers. The data also indicate that high O2 concentration is necessary for the full development of cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:16660359

Rychter, Anna; Janes, Harry W.; Frenkel, Chaim

1978-01-01

59

Cyanide distribution in five fatal cyanide poisonings and the effect of storage conditions on cyanide concentration in tissue.  

PubMed

The cyanide distribution in five fatal cyanide poisonings was analyzed by the pyridine-pyrazolone method using a Conway diffusion cell. In order to study the effect of storage conditions on cyanide concentration in tissue samples, the cyanide concentrations were first measured immediately after collection of the samples at autopsy, then measured again after storage in a refrigerator (4 degrees C) or in a freezer (-20 degrees C) for periods ranging from 1 day to 3 weeks. Concentrations in all but three of the blood samples stored at 4 degrees C or -20 degrees C increased, with concentration ratios based on measurement made before and after storage ranging from 0.71 to 1.46. The concentrations in the liver, kidney, and brain samples either increased or decreased, with ratios of from 0.2 to 8.8. The concentrations in the stomach contents samples decreased rapidly at 4 degrees C, but hardly changed at all at -20 degrees C. PMID:3192140

Chikasue, F; Yashiki, M; Kojima, T; Miyazaki, T; Okamoto, I; Ohtani, M; Kodama, K

1988-09-01

60

Adsorption of cyanide-containing species from potassium cyanide solutions on gold electrodeposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of cyanide-containing species on gold electrodeposits from alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide was studied by the radioactive labelling (14C) method. In the potential E region in which gold does not dissolve or the dissolution rate is comparatively low (approximately up to ?0.2 V(SHE)), the adsorption ? shows little variation with the nature of the supporting electrolyte (0.1 M

D. Poškus; G. Agafonovas

1995-01-01

61

Validation of a general method for activity estimation of cyanide evolving oxidoreductases.  

PubMed

Ethylene is a key molecule in organic synthesis currently produced by steam cracking of fossil hydrocarbons. In nature, ethylene is produced in higher plants by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). Biocatalytic alternatives for ethylene production are still far from being competitive with traditional production plants. Furthermore, data dispersion shown in the literature adds uncertainty to the introduction of ACCO as a biocatalyst, especially when larger numbers of isoforms or mutants are to be compared. Here we propose a new method for measuring ACCO activity based on cyanide detection. Data provided here indicate that cyanide detection is more precise, more responsive, and much more stable than any other method tested for ACCO activity estimation so far. Briefly, enzymatically produced cyanide can be detected by its derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehide (NDA) to generate 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI), which is further detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a fluorescence detector. Cyanide can be detected in the range between 0.99 and 60.17pmol, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the currently used ethylene estimation method. PMID:25447496

Gasteazoro, Francisco; Simaan, Ariane Jalila; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Valderrama, Brenda

2015-02-15

62

TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

2003-03-31

63

Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.  

PubMed

Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis. PMID:16658492

Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

1973-07-01

64

Promotion of Seed Germination by Cyanide  

PubMed Central

Potassium cyanide at 3 ?m to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form ?-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. ?-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 ?-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from ?-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-14C is much lower than of cyanide. Radioactive tracer in K14CN shows uptake of about 1.5 ?moles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high 14C activity in ?-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN3 at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN3 inhibit O2 consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form ?-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis. PMID:16658492

Taylorson, R. B.; Hendricks, S. B.

1973-01-01

65

Feasibility of field portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine cyanide concentrations in soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Germany, at more than 1000 sites, soil is polluted with an anthropogenic contaminant in form of iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations are caused by former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs), where electricity for lighting was produced in the process of coal gasification. The production of manufactured gas was restrained in 1950, which caused cessation of MGPs. Our study describes the application of Polychromix Handheld Field Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer to predict the cyanide concentrations in soil. In recent times, when the soil remediation is of major importance, there is a need to develop rapid and non-destructive methods for contaminant determination in the field. In situ analysis enables determination of 'hot spots', is cheap and time saving in comparison to laboratory methods. This paper presents a novel usage of NIR spectroscopy, where a calibration model was developed, using multivariate calibration algorithms, in order to determine NIR spectral response to the cyanide concentration in soil samples. As a control, the contaminant concentration was determined using conventional Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The experiments revealed that portable near-infrared spectrometers could be a reliable device for identification of contamination 'hot spots', where cyanide concentration are higher than 2400 mg kg-1 in the field and >1750 mg kg-1 after sample preparation in the laboratory, but cannot replace traditional laboratory analyses due to high limits of detection.

Sut, Magdalena; Fischer, Thomas; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

2013-04-01

66

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup  

PubMed Central

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

2013-01-01

67

Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

1981-09-01

68

Designer magnets containing cyanides and nitriles.  

PubMed

Magnets synthesized from molecules have contributed to the renaissance in the study of magnetic materials. Three-dimensional network solids exhibiting magnetic ordering have been made from several first-row metal ions and bridging unsaturated cyanide, tricyanomethanide, and/or dicyanamide ligands. These materials possess several different structural motifs, and the shorter the bridge, the stronger the interaction (i.e., -Ctriple bondN- > -Ntriple bondC-N- > Ntriple bondC-N-Ctriple bondN- = Ntriple bondC-C-Ctriple bondN-). Cyanide additionally has the ability to discriminate between C- and N-bonding to form ordered heterobimetallic magnets, and the strong coupling can lead to ferro- or ferrimagnetic ordering substantially above room temperature. Tricoordination of tricyanomethanide results in spin-frustrated systems, which possess interpenetrating rutile-like networks. In contrast, single rutile-like frameworks are formed by mu(3)-bonded dicyanamide, which leads to ferromagnetics and weak ferromagnetics. PMID:11456474

Miller, J S; Manson, J L

2001-07-01

69

Survival of fish upon removal of cyanide from water.  

PubMed

The effects of potassium cyanide and the removal of cyanide from water in vivo on the survival of fish were investigated. This research was initiated because of the catastrophe that took place at the end of January 2000 in the Carpathian basin, when an enormous amount of cyanide pollution swept through the Samos and Tisza rivers, and then to the Danube. Since nothing was done against the disaster, we have suggested a chemical solution to remove cyanide from waterways (Chem. Innovat. 30 (2000b) 53). Based on experiments, we describe that the most effective and harmless way to remove cyanide and to save the lives of fish from 40 to 160 x the lethal doses of cyanide is to use carbogen gas containing 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen followed by aeration with air. PMID:15589238

Gacsi, Mariann; Czegeny, Ildiko; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

2005-03-01

70

Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, S.N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

1986-01-01

71

Effects of Long-term Cyanide Ingestion by Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal performance and health status are adversely affected by long-term cyanide ingestion; however, the effects of cyanide\\u000a ingestion by pigs have not been fully determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged exposure\\u000a to different doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) in growing-finishing swine. Twenty-four pigs, 45 days of age, were divided into\\u000a four equal

H. Manzano; A. Benedito de Sousa; B. Soto-Blanco; J. L. Guerra; P. C. Maiorka; S. L. Górniak

2007-01-01

72

Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.  

PubMed

Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant. PMID:24711295

Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

2014-05-01

73

HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

2012-08-01

74

DEMONSTRATION OF ZINC CYANIDE RECOVERY USING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND EVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test was conducted to demonstrate closed-loop recovery of zinc cyanide at a job plating facility. Since the zinc cyanide bath operates at room temperature with very little evaporation from the bath, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of the rinsewater must be supplemented by ...

75

Inhibition of aerobic respiration and dissimilatory perchlorate reduction using cyanide  

E-print Network

Inhibition of aerobic respiration and dissimilatory perchlorate reduction using cyanide Yanguang reduction and aerobic respiration was examined using pure cultures of Azospira sp. KJ. Cyanide reduction; Respiration pathway 1. Introduction Perchlorate (ClOĂ? 4 ) has been detected in impacted ground

76

Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.  

PubMed

A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater. PMID:25306785

Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

2014-08-01

77

Designer magnets containing cyanides and nitriles.  

SciTech Connect

Magnets synthesized from molecules have contributed to the renaissance in the study of magnetic materials. Three-dimensional network solids exhibiting magnetic ordering have been made from several first-row metal ions and bridging unsaturated cyanide, tricyanomethanide, and/or dicyanamide ligands. These materials possess several different structural motifs, and the shorter the bridge, the stronger the interaction (i.e., {sup {single_bond}}C{sub {triple_bond}}N{sup {single_bond}} > {sup {single_bond}}N{sub {triple_bond}}C{sup {single_bond}}{sup {single_bond}}N{sup {single_bond}} >> N{sub {triple_bond}}C{sup {single_bond}}N{sup {single_bond}}C{sub {triple_bond}}N{sup {single_bond}} = N{sub {triple_bond}}C{sup {single_bond}}C{sup {single_bond}}C{sub {triple_bond}}N{sup {single_bond}}). Cyanide additionally has the ability to discriminate between C- and N-bonding to form ordered heterobimetallic magnets, and the strong coupling can lead to ferro- or ferrimagnetic ordering substantially above room temperature. Tricoordination of tricyanomethanide results in spin-frustrated systems, which possess interpenetrating rutile-like networks. In contrast, single rutile-like frameworks are formed by {mu}{sub 3}-bonded dicyanamide, which leads to ferromagnetics and weak ferromagnetics.

Miller, J. S.; Manson, J. L.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Utah

2001-07-01

78

CARES Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... HappyNewYear #2015 #CARES http://t.co/Jl8m2AU5VA 3 days ago Merry Christmas from CARES Foundation #CARES #CAH #Holidays #Christmas http://t.co/uzPbUUxIzM 1 week ago Sign Up for Our Newsletter Copyright 2014 CARES Foundation | All Rights Reserved | Website by Gattuso Media Design

79

Glaucoma Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Bruce E. Spivey, MD, MS, MEd , a most distinguished member of the world ophthalmic community, received The Glaucoma Foundation’s Kitty Carlisle ... battle against glaucoma and was presented to Dr. Spivey by the late Ms. Hart’s daughter, New York ...

80

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium. PMID:11591663

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

81

Spectrophotometric determination of aqueous cyanide using a revised phenolphthalin method.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on a revision of the phenolphthalin method for cyanide analysis, with the intent of producing a robust and sensitive spectrophotometric method. Limitations of the phenolphthalin chemistry were overcome by the addition of EDTA to the reagent. The revised reagent was found to have suitably fast kinetics, a linear dynamic range of 0.01-3.0 ppm cyanide, and a detection limit of 5 ppb. The method was tested for interferences and applied to the determination of cyanide in environmental waters. PMID:17397664

Cacace, David; Ashbaugh, Heidi; Kouri, Naomi; Bledsoe, Sara; Lancaster, Sean; Chalk, Stuart

2007-04-18

82

Foundation Fieldbus Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a series of 17 courses offered by Emerson Process Management - PlantWeb University on Foundation Fieldbus Technologies. These courses begin by teaching the basics, and ends by showing installation and troubleshooting procedures. For each course, an examination is given, and the student receives a certificate upon completion.

2011-08-25

83

Cyanide Resistance in Achromobacter I. Induced Formation of Cytochrome a2 and Its Role in Cyanide-Resistant Respiration  

PubMed Central

Arima, Kei (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan), and Tetuo Oka. Cyanide resistance in Achromobacter. I. Induced formation of cytochrome a2 and its role in cyanide-resistant respiration. J. Bacteriol. 90:734–743. 1965.—By following the cytochrome concentrations during the growth cycle and under various conditions (aerobic, aerobic plus KCN, reduced aeration, anaerobic plus NaNO3) in Achromobacter strain D, a close relationship between the formation of cytochrome a2 (and a1) and the difficulty of oxygen utilization was demonstrated. Cytochrome o, which was the only oxidase found in aerobic log-phase cells, was present in bacterial cells grown under various conditions; the amount present had no relation to the degree of cyanide resistance. On the other hand, cytochrome a2 (and a1) was inducible, and a close relation was observed between the amount of cytochrome and resistance to cyanide. Spectrophotometric observations indicated that, among the cytochromes present in resistant cells, cytochrome a2 could be oxidized most easily in the presence of cyanide and that cytochrome b1 could be oxidized without the oxidation of cytochrome a1. We concluded that cytochrome a2 is a cyanide-resistant oxidase capable of catalyzing the oxidation of cytochromes in the presence of cyanide. Cytochrome a2 is also resistant to azide, an inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase. PMID:16562075

Arima, Kei; Oka, Tetuo

1965-01-01

84

The role of nitric oxide in the cyanide-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide causes rapid-onset neurotoxicity by inhibiting cellular respiration at cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). Cyanide primarily targets the brain, where it promotes dopaminergic cell death. Acute cyanide toxicity has been associated with a late-onset Parkinson-like neuropathy. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous CcOX inhibitor, has been implicated in the cyanide-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons. We recently found that the cyanide-mediated increase in

Heather B Leavesley

2009-01-01

85

LAM Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Foundation is pleased to offer LAM patients an electronic copy of Personal Journeys With LAM, a collection ... these personal stories of courage and determination. An electronic copy was emailed to all LAM patients who ...

86

Annenberg Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What would you do if you had an extra $1.2 billion lying around? Walter H. Annenberg, the publisher of TV Guide and Seventeen Magazine, decided to create one of the largest philanthropic organizations in the world. Now stewarded by his children and grandchildren, the Annenberg Foundation grants millions of dollars a year to educational, arts, environmental, and other initiatives. You can read about many of these inspiring works on the foundationâÂÂs visually appealing website. From the homepage, click About the Foundation and then Our Story to watch a three-minute video outlining the foundationâÂÂs history and current projects. From there have a look at Directorsâ Activities where you can read up on projects like the Annenberg Challenge, a $500 million grant to improve public schools, or explore.org, a multimedia campaign that documents extraordinary causes from around the world.

87

Dysautonomia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... most people have never heard of ... Familial Dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic neurological disorder that effects ... life-threatening medical complications from birth. (More about FD .) Research funded by the Dysautonomia Foundation has led ...

88

SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

89

Chronic Toxicity of Hydrogen Cyanide to the Bluegill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, was subjected to various concentrations of hydrogen cyanide to determine the effects on long-term survival, growth, egg production, and egg hatchability. Intermittent-flow experiments were conducted using adults, juveniles, and newly hatched eggs in separate tests. Egg production was most sensitive to hydrogen cyanide, and the highest concentration with no adverse effect was below 5.2 ?g\\/liter

Gary L. Kimball; Lloyd L. Smith Jr; Steven J. Broderius

1978-01-01

90

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria

E. Nic Lughadha; J. Baillie; W. Barthlott; N. A. Brummitt; M. R. Cheek; A. Farjon; R. Govaerts; K. A. Hardwick; C. Hilton-Taylor; T. R. Meagher; J. Moat; J. Mutke; A. J. Paton; L. J. Pleasants; V. Savolainen; G. E. Schatz; P. Smith; I. Turner; P. Wyse-Jackson; P. R. Crane

2005-01-01

91

Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

Not Available

2007-02-01

92

Knight Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by John S. Knight, the Knight Foundation "supports transformational ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities, and foster the arts." On the Foundation's homepage, visitors can learn about grant activities via the What We Fund area. A good place to start here is the Featured Funding Initiatives, which profile the Community Foundations Program, the Knight Arts Challenge, and other ongoing projects. The projects are quite exciting, as they are focused on a broad range of participatory media ventures, arts outreach initiatives, and like-minded activities. The What We're Learning area is perhaps the most compelling one for most visitors as it contains a range of publications that report on the ingredients of successful new media projects, best practices for addressing the digital divide, and the possible uses of mobile applications designed to increase civic engagement in marginalized communities.

2013-06-20

93

Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

SciTech Connect

Most nitriles are health hazard materials. It has been reported that shale oil contains high concentrations of nitriles. Disposal of effluents containing nitriles is therefore of concern. A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase.

Nawaz, M.S.; Davis, J.W.; Chapatwala, K.D. [Selma Univ., AL (United States); Wolfram, J.H. [EG& G, Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1991-12-31

94

Surfrider Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Surfrider Foundation USA is a non-profit environmental organization working to preserve the oceans, waves & beaches. Website with numerous pages including mission, a blog, news, a bimonthly publication online, the video "Shifting Baselines in the Surf", online store, campaigns, programs, membership information, and chapters. Located in San Onofre State Beach, CA.

95

Plantings: A Newsletter of the Bush Foundation-Funded Faculty Development Programs in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two issues of "Plantings," are presented. The 1986 issue is a panel discussion that considers the results and future plans of faculty development programs in three Minnesota institutions. In addition to the moderator, Robert Young, of the University of North Dakota, the panel consisted of Norman Noonan (Augsburg College), Chandra Mehrotra (College…

Jorde, Karen L., Ed.; Young, Robert E., Ed.

1987-01-01

96

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action.  

PubMed

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200000 to 422000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria are available for only approximately 10000 species. In response to recommendations from the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to develop biodiversity indicators based on changes in the status of threatened species, and trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species, we examine how existing data, in combination with limited new data collection, can be used to maximum effect. We argue that future work should produce Red List Indices based on a representative subset of plant species so that the limited resources currently available are directed towards redressing taxonomic and geographical biases apparent in existing datasets. Sampling the data held in the world's major herbaria, in combination with Geographical Information Systems techniques, can produce preliminary conservation assessments and help to direct selective survey work using existing field networks to verify distributions and gather population data. Such data can also be used to backcast threats and potential distributions through time. We outline an approach that could result in: (i) preliminary assessments of the conservation status of tens of thousands of species not previously assessed, (ii) significant enhancements in the coverage and representation of plant species on the IUCN Red List, and (iii) repeat and/or retrospective assessments for a significant proportion of these. This would result in more robust Sampled Red List Indices that can be defended as more representative of plant diversity as a whole; and eventually, comprehensive assessments at species level for one or more major families of angiosperms. The combined results would allow scientifically defensible generalizations about the current status of plant diversity by 2010 as well as tentative comments on trends. Together with other efforts already underway, this approach would establish a firmer basis for ongoing monitoring of the status of plant diversity beyond 2010 and a basis for comparison with the trend data available for vertebrates. PMID:15814350

Nic Lughadha, E; Baillie, J; Barthlott, W; Brummitt, N A; Cheek, M R; Farjon, A; Govaerts, R; Hardwick, K A; Hilton-Taylor, C; Meagher, T R; Moat, J; Mutke, J; Paton, A J; Pleasants, L J; Savolainen, V; Schatz, G E; Smith, P; Turner, I; Wyse-Jackson, P; Crane, P R

2005-02-28

97

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action  

PubMed Central

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200?000 to 422?000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria are available for only approximately 10?000 species. In response to recommendations from the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to develop biodiversity indicators based on changes in the status of threatened species, and trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species, we examine how existing data, in combination with limited new data collection, can be used to maximum effect. We argue that future work should produce Red List Indices based on a representative subset of plant species so that the limited resources currently available are directed towards redressing taxonomic and geographical biases apparent in existing datasets. Sampling the data held in the world's major herbaria, in combination with Geographical Information Systems techniques, can produce preliminary conservation assessments and help to direct selective survey work using existing field networks to verify distributions and gather population data. Such data can also be used to backcast threats and potential distributions through time. We outline an approach that could result in: (i) preliminary assessments of the conservation status of tens of thousands of species not previously assessed, (ii) significant enhancements in the coverage and representation of plant species on the IUCN Red List, and (iii) repeat and/or retrospective assessments for a significant proportion of these. This would result in more robust Sampled Red List Indices that can be defended as more representative of plant diversity as a whole; and eventually, comprehensive assessments at species level for one or more major families of angiosperms. The combined results would allow scientifically defensible generalizations about the current status of plant diversity by 2010 as well as tentative comments on trends. Together with other efforts already underway, this approach would establish a firmer basis for ongoing monitoring of the status of plant diversity beyond 2010 and a basis for comparison with the trend data available for vertebrates. PMID:15814350

Nic Lughadha, E; Baillie, J; Barthlott, W; Brummitt, N.A; Cheek, M.R; Farjon, A; Govaerts, R; Hardwick, K.A; Hilton-Taylor, C; Meagher, T.R; Moat, J; Mutke, J; Paton, A.J; Pleasants, L.J; Savolainen, V; Schatz, G.E; Smith, P; Turner, I; Wyse-Jackson, P; Crane, P.R

2005-01-01

98

Spectroscopic study of acetylene and hydrogen cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution molecular spectroscopy has been used to study acetylene line parameters and emission spectra of hydrogen cyanide. All acetylene spectra were recorded in our laboratory at the University of Lethbridge using a 3-channel tuneable diode laser spectrometer. N2-broadened line widths and N2-pressure induced line shifts have been measured for transitions in the v1+v3 band of acetylene at seven temperatures in the range 213-333K to obtain the temperature dependences of broadening and shift coefficients. The Voigt and hard-collision line profile models were used to retrieve the line parameters. The line-broadening and line-shift coefficients as well as their temperature-dependent parameters have been also evaluated theoretically, in the frame work of a semi-classical approach based on an exponential representation of the scattering operator, an intermolecular potential composed of electrostatic quadrupole--quadrupole and pairwise atom--atom interactions as well as on exact trajectories driven by an effective isotropic potential. The experimental results for both N2-broadening and shifting show good agreement with the theoretical results. We have studied the line intensities of the 1vl 20?0v120 band system from the HCN emission spectrum. The infrared emission spectrum of H12C 14N was measured at the Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. The emission spectrum was analyzed with the spectrum analysis software Symath running using Mathematica as a platform. This approach allowed us to retrieve information on band intensity parameters.

Rozario, Hoimonti Immaculata

99

49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).  

...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). 173.195 Section...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen...consist of passing a piece of Guignard's sodium picrate paper over the...

2014-10-01

100

49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). 173.195 Section...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen...consist of passing a piece of Guignard's sodium picrate paper over the...

2013-10-01

101

Kress Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Samuel H. Kress Foundation "devotes its resources to advancing the history, conservation, and enjoyment of the vast heritage of European art, architecture, and archaeology from antiquity to the early 19th century." To achieve this goal, the Foundation makes grants, offers fellowships, and also reports on its operations and various research initiatives. Scholars and policy makers should begin by looking over the Sponsored Research. Here, they can look over key documents that include "The Campus Art Museum: A Qualitative Study" and "Copyright, Museums and Licensing of Art Images.â The Grants area brings together complete information for scholars looking to apply for a grant in thematic areas such as History of Art and Conservation. Finally, the Kress Collection contains a detailed repository list of the more than 3,000 works in this rather comprehensive collection spanning four centuries.

102

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

103

Structure of the trypanosome cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase.  

PubMed

In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In T. brucei, a parasite that causes human African sleeping sickness, AOX plays a critical role in the survival of the parasite in its bloodstream form. Because AOX is absent from mammals, this protein represents a unique and promising therapeutic target. Despite its bioenergetic and medical importance, however, structural features of any AOX are yet to be elucidated. Here we report crystal structures of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase in the absence and presence of ascofuranone derivatives. All structures reveal that the oxidase is a homodimer with the nonhaem diiron carboxylate active site buried within a four-helix bundle. Unusually, the active site is ligated solely by four glutamate residues in its oxidized inhibitor-free state; however, inhibitor binding induces the ligation of a histidine residue. A highly conserved Tyr220 is within 4 Ĺ of the active site and is critical for catalytic activity. All structures also reveal that there are two hydrophobic cavities per monomer. Both inhibitors bind to one cavity within 4 Ĺ and 5 Ĺ of the active site and Tyr220, respectively. A second cavity interacts with the inhibitor-binding cavity at the diiron center. We suggest that both cavities bind ubiquinol and along with Tyr220 are required for the catalytic cycle for O2 reduction. PMID:23487766

Shiba, Tomoo; Kido, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Tsuge, Chiaki; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Gen; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Moore, Anthony L; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

2013-03-19

104

Colorimetric fluorescent cyanide chemodosimeter based on triphenylimidazole derivative.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrated a highly selective colorimetric chemodosimeter for cyanide anion detection. This chemodosimeter having a triphenylimidazole group as a fluorescent signal unit and a dicyano-vinyl group as a reaction unit was synthesized by the Knoevenagel condensation of 4-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzaldehyde with malononitrile in a reasonable yield. The probe exhibited an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) absorption band at 420 nm and emission band at 620 nm, respectively. Upon the addition of cyanide anion, the probe displayed a blue-shifted spectrum and loss in color due to the disruption of conjugation. With the aid of the fluorescence spectrometer, the chemodosimeter exhibited a detection limit of 0.11 ?M (S/N=3). Interferences from other common anions associated with cyanide anion analysis were effectively inhibited. PMID:24463246

Zheng, Wei; He, Xiangzhu; Chen, Hongbiao; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming

2014-04-24

105

Chronic cyanide exposure: a clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study.  

PubMed Central

The effect of chronic cyanide exposure in the electroplating sections of three factories employing 36 workers was studied and compared with a control group. The concentration of cyanides to which the workers were exposed was measured. The regression line showing the relationship between thiocyanates in urine and the concentration of cyanides in the air was plotted. Increased percentages of haemoglobin and lymphocyte count were present in all exposed workers, in addition to punctate basophilia in 28 workers. Cyanmethaemoglobin was found to be characteristic. Apart from other complaints, two men with psychosis similar to one case reported in therapeutic thiocyanate intoxication were found. Twenty of the workers had thyroid enlargements to a variable degree and consistency, in two of whom it resembled lymphadenoid goitre. Thyroid 131I uptakes at 4 and 24 hours were significantly higher than in the controls, while 131PBI was unchanged. The reason for this iodine deficiency-like action is discussed. PMID:1156569

El Ghawabi, S H; Gaafar, M A; El-Saharti, A A; Ahmed, S H; Malash, K K; Fares, R

1975-01-01

106

Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels  

PubMed Central

Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. PMID:22694886

Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

2011-01-01

107

Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all

Mehmet Kitis; Emine Karakaya; Nevzat O. Yigit; Gokhan Civelekoglu; Ata Akcil

2005-01-01

108

Improved derivatisation methods for the determination of free cyanide and cyanate in mine effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, the level of cyanide in waste effluents is too high to be discharged into the environment. Consequently, treatment regimes are necessary in order to protect the environment. However, the cost of most of the treatment methods is expensive and not sensitive enough and, therefore, cannot always be justified. In this research, cyanide speciation products, free cyanide (CN?) and cyanate

Caliphs M. Zvinowanda; Jonathan O. Okonkwo; Rogers C. Gurira

2008-01-01

109

Privacy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Privacy Foundation conducts "research into communications technologies and services that may pose a threat to personal privacy." Its Web site has a large amount of information to raise awareness of privacy related issues and help the public understand them. For people wanting to learn some basic terminology in digital privacy, a glossary describes things like firewalls and cookies. There are detailed articles that answer many common questions about Web Bugs and suggest guidelines for how they should be used by companies. A large section of the site discusses workplace surveillance, and a legal database documents several important court cases.

110

Reactions of Hćms with Cyanides, Isocyanides and Amino-Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

HĆ (ferrous protoporphyrin) combines with nitrogenous bases to form hćmochromogens showing, in the visible region of the spectrum, two sharp absorption bands, alpha 557 mµ and beta 525 mµ, of which the alpha-band is much the stronger. It has been shown that in hćmochromogens two molecules of base are linked with each iron atom of hćm1. Potassium cyanide, however, differs

Joan Keilin

1950-01-01

111

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

112

Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.  

PubMed

In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:20402491

Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

2010-05-15

113

Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite. PMID:23356016

Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

2012-11-01

114

Cyanide Degradation under Alkaline Conditions by a Strain of Fusarium solani Isolated from Contaminated Soils  

PubMed Central

Several cyanide-tolerant microorganisms have been selected from alkaline wastes and soils contaminated with cyanide. Among them, a fungus identified as Fusarium solani IHEM 8026 shows a good potential for cyanide biodegradation under alkaline conditions (pH 9.2 to 10.7). Results of K(sup14)CN biodegradation studies show that fungal metabolism seems to proceed by a two-step hydrolytic mechanism: (i) the first reaction involves the conversion of cyanide to formamide by a cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme, cyanide hydratase (EC 4.2.1.66); and (ii) the second reaction consists of the conversion of formamide to formate, which is associated with fungal growth. No growth occurred during the first step of cyanide degradation, suggesting that cyanide is toxic to some degree even in cyanide-degrading microorganisms, such as F. solani. The presence of organic nutrients in the medium has a major influence on the occurrence of the second step. Addition of small amounts of yeast extract led to fungal growth, whereas no growth was observed in media containing cyanide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The simple hydrolytic detoxification pathway identified in the present study could be used for the treatment of many industrial alkaline effluents and wastes containing free cyanide without a prior acidification step, thus limiting the risk of cyanhydric acid volatilization; this should be of great interest from an environmental and health point of view. PMID:16535647

Dumestre, A.; Chone, T.; Portal, J.; Gerard, M.; Berthelin, J.

1997-01-01

115

Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure  

PubMed Central

Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent ?-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 ?M, and the limit of detection was 0.78 ?M. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

2015-01-01

116

Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.  

PubMed

Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by ?-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

Stauber, Einar J; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

2012-01-01

117

Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant ( k).

Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed FA; Kosslick, Hendrik

2013-12-01

118

Investigations of cyanide as an infrared probe of hemeprotein ligand binding sites.  

PubMed

The measurement of infrared spectra for cyanide liganded to hemeproteins and hemins has been investigated. The hemeproteins included human methemoglobin A, lamprey methemoglobin, metchlorocruorin, horse metmyoglobin, and horseradish peroxidase. The hemins were dicyanide and monopyridine monocyanide species of deuteroporphyrin IX iron(III) and its 2,4-divinyl(proto) and 2,4-diacetyl derivatives. C-N stretch bands of low intensity detected near 2100 cm-1 exhibit changes in frequency, width, intensity, and isotope shift with changes in cyanide compound structure. Infrared band parameters are particularly sensitive to a change in oxidation state (Fe2+ versus Fe3+) and are affected to a lesser extent by changes in porphyrin ring substituent, ligand trans to the cyanide, and protein structure. Evidence of multiple conformers (i.e. multiple C-N stretch bands) was found for several hemeproteins. The cyanide infrared spectra provide direct evidence for cyanide binding as a metal cyanide (Fe--C identical to N) and against HCN being the ligand in nitrile-like bonding (Fe--N identical to C--H) in all the hemeprotein and hemin cyanides studied. With the reduced horseradish peroxidase cyanide, differences between infrared spectra for D2O and H2O solutions can result from hydrogen bonding between a protein amino acid residue and the distal atom of the cyanide (Fe--C identical to N...H+--R). The binding of cyanide to reduced iron (Fe2+) of a hemeprotein was only observed in the case of the reduced peroxidase. These findings demonstrate that cyanide infrared spectra can not only determine when cyanide is bound to a metalloprotein but can also provide information on how the cyanide is bonded to metal and on characteristics of the ligand binding site. PMID:3972836

Yoshikawa, S; O'Keeffe, D H; Caughey, W S

1985-03-25

119

The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

2013-01-01

120

Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.  

PubMed

Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 ?g L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p?cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ?3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution. PMID:25467414

Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

2015-01-01

121

Argosy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The private Argosy Foundation is based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and was started in 1997 by the co-founder of Boston Scientific. The "Who We Are" link on the homepage provides an excellent overview of how they choose to fund projects, and the "Frequently Asked Questions" section informs visitors about the special programs they fund. For example, the "Contemporary Music Fund" is "designed to promote the proliferation and awareness of contemporary classical or 'non-pop' music." The world-famous Kronos Quartet is one of the partners of the Contemporary Music Fund. Visitors interested in the depth of research the staff of Argosy do when deciding to fund an issue or program, should check out the "Resources" link to several of the reports and briefs they've written. Some of the briefs include affordable housing, use of grass pellets as a heat and energy source, xeriscaping, and lessening the environmental impact of the freight and commercial trucking industry. An abstract and brief are provided for each topic featured here.

122

Doping potassium ions in silver cyanide complexes for green luminescence.  

PubMed

Doping potassium ions in silver cyanide complexes leads to two heterometallic silver-potassium cyanide complexes, namely, [Me4N]2[KAg3(CN)6] (1) with a typical NaCl-type framework containing distinct ligand-unsupported argentophilic interactions, and [Ag3(H2O)3][K(CN)2]3 (2) with an unprecedented 3-D (4,4,6,6)-connected framework formed by unique [Ag3(H2O)3] clusters connecting concave-convex [K(CN)2] layers. The two complexes exhibit green luminescence, and the relationships between their structures and photoluminescence, as well as the regulating effect on the luminescence by doping of potassium ions are well investigated via density functional theory analysis. PMID:24457829

Liu, Xi; Li, Lin; Yang, Yun-Zhi; Huang, Kun-Lin

2014-03-14

123

The Millimeterwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational spectrum of n-butyl cyanide (C_4H_9CN) was measured between 75 and 130 GHz using a novel all-solid-state spectrometer with a total absorption path of 44 m. In the course of the analysis of the spectrum, about 3000 transitions were assigned and a full set of quartic centrifugal distortion parameters with some sextic and octic terms could be determined for each of the three known conformers (anti-anti, anti-gauche(methyl end) and gauche(CN end)-anti). The work was motivated by the fact that n-butyl cyanide is likely to be found in interstellar hot core environments. This is indicated by the discovery of n-propyl cyanide (C_3H_7CN), the next smaller alkyl cyanide, in the ISM. The increased accuracy of the model, which will be additionally extended by future laboratory measurements around 200 GHz, may now be employed for a prediction of the spectrum up to 300 GHz with a feasible uncertainty for astronomic line surveys. Furthermore, there are two less abundant conformers, cis-gauche-gauche and trans-gauche-gauche, which have not yet been detected in the rotational spectrum. Due to the increased sensitivity of the new spectrometer, it seems possible now for the first time to identify their sectroscopic fingerprints in the recorded data. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P.Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke, Astronomy & Astrophysics 499, 215 (2009) R. K. Bohn, J. L. Pardus, J. August, T. Brupbacher, W. Jäger, J. Mol. Struct. 413-414, 293 (1997)

Ordu, Matthias H.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Nez, Marc Nu; Walters, Adam

2011-06-01

124

Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company`s (WHC`s) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described.

Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L. [and others] [and others

1995-07-01

125

Chemical bird repellents: Possible use in cyanide ponds  

SciTech Connect

Regulatory agencies are pressuring the mining industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of dump leachate pond water containing cyanide. Using European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as an avian model, we tested the effectiveness of 5 chemical bird repellents at reducing consumption of pond water containing cyanide. The repellents, which were previously shown to be good bird repellents, were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone (2A45DAP), methyl anthranilate (MA), 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT), and veratryl amine (VA). Despite the high pH (10.6) and presence of chelating metals, conditions which we hypothesized might destroy the activity of repellents, each of the additives reduced pond water intake relative to controls for up to 5 weeks. The rank order (from best to worst) of repellents was: OAP, 2A45DAP, VA, MA and 4KBT, although only OAP and 4KBT differed at the P < 0.05 level. These candidate repellents hold promise as a strategy to reduce bird losses at cyanide ponds and should be tested in the field.

Clark, L. (Denver Wildlife Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Shah, P.S. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-07-01

126

A Series of Cyanide-Bridged Binuclear Complexes  

PubMed Central

A series of cyanide-bridged binuclear complexes, (‘S3’)Ni–CN–M[TptBu] (‘S3’ = bis(2-mercaptophenyl)sulfide, TptBu = hydrotris(3-tert-butylpyrazolyl)borate, M = Fe (2-Fe), Co (2-Co), Ni (2-Ni), Zn (2-Zn)) was prepared by the coupling of K[(‘S3’)Ni(CN)] with [TptBu]MX. The isostructural series of complexes was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. A similar coupling strategy was used to synthesize the anionic copper(I) analogue, Et4N{(‘S3’)Ni–CN–Cu[TptBu]}, 2-Cu. An alternative synthesis was devised for the preparation of the linkages isomers of 2-Zn, i.e. of cyanide-bridged linkage isomers. X-ray diffraction, 13C NMR and IR spectral studies established that isomerization to the more stable Ni–CN–Zn isomer occurs. DFT computational results buttressed the experimental observations indicating that the cyanide-bridged isomer is ca. 5 kcal/mol more stable than its linkage isomer. PMID:20161111

Mock, Michael T.; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T.; Popescu, Codrina V.; Gasda, Patrick; Yap, Glenn P. A.

2009-01-01

127

Cyanide-induced hyperthyroidism in male Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cyanide is one of the major environmental pollutants termed thyroid disruptor. Regardless of its origin, it is a primary toxic agent. This study was designed to understand the impact of prolonged low dose cyanide exposure on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods: Twelve F1 male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into two groups of six animals each. The first group served as the control group and received 0.25M sucrose while the second group being the treated group received 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) potassium hexacyanoferrate III solution. The treatment duration was 56 days following which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were drawn to determine serum FT3, FT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The thyroid gland was also excised and processed for light microscopic studies. Result: An increase in serum FT3 and FT4 with decrease serum TSH was obtained in the treated group. Application of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis showed that there were highly significant differences (P < 0.05) in the activities of FT3, FT4 and TSH when compared with those of the control group. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland from the treated group revealed marked epithelial hyperplasia with cellular degeneration and scanty cytoplasm while the control group revealed normal thyroid architecture. Conclusion: Results obtained revealed that hyperthyroidism was induced by cyanide. PMID:25013258

Daniel, Adeniyi Temadiyo; Adekilekun, Tijani Ahmad; Adewale, Musa Adbus-Semiu; Adekemi, Abayomi Taiwo

2014-01-01

128

Draft whole genome sequence of the cyanide-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a Gram-negative bacterium able to tolerate cyanide and to use it as the sole nitrogen source. We report here the first draft of the whole genome sequence of a P.?pseudoalcaligenes strain that assimilates cyanide. Three aspects are specially emphasized in this manuscript. First, some generalities of the genome are shown and discussed in the context of other Pseudomonadaceae genomes, including genome size, G?+?C content, core genome and singletons among other features. Second, the genome is analysed in the context of cyanide metabolism, describing genes probably involved in cyanide assimilation, like those encoding nitrilases, and genes related to cyanide resistance, like the cio genes encoding the cyanide insensitive oxidases. Finally, the presence of genes probably involved in other processes with a great biotechnological potential like production of bioplastics and biodegradation of pollutants also is discussed. PMID:22998548

Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Acera, Felipe; Igeńo, Ma Isabel; Wibberg, Daniel; Roldán, Ma Dolores; Sáez, Lara P; Hennig, Magdalena; Quesada, Alberto; Huertas, Ma José; Blom, Jochen; Merchán, Faustino; Escribano, Ma Paz; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Estepa, Jessica; Guijo, Ma Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Macías, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Becerra, Gracia; Ramirez, Silvia; Carmona, Ma Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oscar; Manso, Isabel; Pühler, Alfred; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Schlüter, Andreas; Blasco, Rafael

2013-01-01

129

Protein synthesis in isolated castor bean mitochondria is stimulated by cyanide.  

PubMed

Cyanide added to isolated castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) mitochondria supplemented with ATP and succinate (or NADH) significantly enhanced the rate and extent of organellar protein synthesis. Cyanide stimulated mitochondrial protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner with an optimum stimulation of over twofold at 1 millimolar cyanide. At this concentration of cyanide, the mitochondrial respiratory activity, in the presence of succinate (or NADH) and ADP was inhibited by 90%. The stimulatory effect of cyanide on mitochondrial translation was reflected in the increased synthesis of all the proteins synthesized within the organelle. Preliminary evidence indicates a role for the alternative, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive, oxidase in the cyanide stimulation of protein synthesis. PMID:16666599

Kaderbhai, M A; Beechey, R B; Kaderbhai, N

1989-02-01

130

Ion chromatographic determination of cyanide released from flaxseed under autohydrolysis conditions.  

PubMed

Flaxseed is increasingly being used in some food products because of its high content of alpha-linolenic acid and dietary fibre. However, flaxseed contains cyanogenic glycosides which release toxic hydrogen cyanide in the presence of water (autohydrolysis). A method for estimation of cyanide in flaxseed under these conditions is described. The determination is carried out by homogenizing the sample with water, letting it stand, filtering it through a membrane and then injecting the filtrate into an HPLC system consisting of an anion exchange column and an electrochemical (amperometric, oxidation) detector. The homogenate is analysed at various intervals until a maximum value of cyanide is observed. The cyanide content of ten cultivars of flaxseed, when analysed by this method, was found to range from 124 to 196 micrograms/g. The release of cyanide showed a maximum at about 3 h of hydrolysis. Virtually no cyanide was detected on boiling the homogenate or the flaxseed before determination. PMID:7589716

Chadha, R K; Lawrence, J F; Ratnayake, W M

1995-01-01

131

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

2012-01-03

132

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kruzer, Helen W [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horita, Juske [ORNL; Moran, James J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Janszen, Derek B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carman, April [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2012-01-01

133

A new technique for extraction of platinum group metals by pressure cyanidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

At room temperature and pressures, the reaction between sodium cyanide and platinum group metals (PGMs) does not occur because of poor kinetics. However, at elevated temperatures between 120 and 180 °C, PGMs can be leached by sodium cyanide like the reaction of gold. In this work, a new technique to treat Pt–Pd sulfide flotation concentrates and spent auto-catalysts by pressure cyanidation

Jing Chen; Kun Huang

2006-01-01

134

Bioaugmentation of cyanide-degrading microorganisms in a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance biological removal efficiency of total cyanides, bioaugmentation was applied to a full-scale cokes wastewaters treatment process. After a laboratorial-scale cultivation (up to 1.2m3) of a cyanide-degrading yeast (Cryptococcus humicolus) and unidentified cyanide-degrading microorganisms, the microbial consortium was inoculated into a fluidized-bed type process (1280m3), and then enriched for two months with a huge supply of glucose, KCN and

Donghee Park; Dae Sung Lee; Young Mo Kim; Jong Moon Park

2008-01-01

135

Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.  

PubMed

Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. Thermochemolysis GC-MS studies show that cleavage products of the polymer include alpha-amino acids, nitrogen heterocycles such as purines and pyrimidines, and provide evidence for peptide linkages. Hydrogen cyanide polymers are a plausible link between cosmochemistry and the origin of informational macromolecules. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Following persistent bolide bombardment, primitive Earth may have been covered by water and carbonaceous compounds, particularly HCN polymers which would have supplied essential components for establishing protein/nucleic acid life. PMID:17191459

Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

2006-01-01

136

Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

2010-01-01

137

Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

Brenner, Matthew, E-mail: mbrenner@uci.ed [Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612-1475 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92868 (United States); Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca [Laser Microbeam and Medical Program, Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92612-1475 (United States); Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0652 (United States); Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E. [Center for Drug Design, The Academic Health Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0213 (United States)

2010-11-01

138

Effects of Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis on the Distribution of Cyanide into the Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether respiratory acidosis favors the cerebral distribution of cyanide, and con- versely, if respiratory alkalosis limits its distribution. The phar- macokinetics of a nontoxic dose of cyanide were first studied in a group of 7 rats in order to determine the distribution phase. The pharmacokinetics were found to best fit a 3-compartment

Amina Djerad; Claire Monier; Pascal Houze; Stephen W. Borron; Jeanne-Marie Lefauconnier; Frederic J. Baud

2001-01-01

139

Cyanide leaching chemistry of platinum-group metals. Report of investigations\\/1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has shown that autoclave cyanide leaching of used automobiles exhaust catalysts for recovery of platinum group metals (PGM) is technically feasible. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemistry of the dissolution of PGM in cyanide solutions, in more detail. Where possible, samples of pure, elemental PGM powders or foils

P. L. Sibrell; G. B. Atkinson; L. A. Walters

1994-01-01

140

Platinum recovery from a spent industrial dehydrogenation catalyst using cyanide leaching followed by ion exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery of platinum from a selective linear paraffin dehydrogenation spent catalyst is reported using cyanide leaching method followed by adsorption of the cyanide platinum complex onto an anionic resin. The resin on which the platinum complex is adsorbed is dried and burned in an oxidizing atmosphere at 800–850°C. The recovered metallic powder is mainly platinum. Results show that presence of

K. Shams; M. R. Beiggy; A. Gholamipour Shirazi

2004-01-01

141

Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

Isom, G.E.

1996-02-01

142

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of

M. G. Paschka; R. S. Ghosh; D. A. Dzombak

1999-01-01

143

Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.  

PubMed

Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495

Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

2013-02-14

144

Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Water-Soluble Salts of the Dithiane (Sulfanegen) from 3-Mercaptopyruvate for Intramuscular Administration  

PubMed Central

Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495

Patterson, Steven E.; Monteil, Alexandre R.; Cohen, Jonathan F.; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T.

2013-01-01

145

Accumulation of ?-Keto Acids as Essential Components in Cyanide Assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate (Pyr) and ?-ketoglutarate (?Kg) accumulated when cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 were cultivated on growth-limiting amounts of ammonia or cyanide and were shown to be responsible for the nonenzymatic removal of cyanide from culture fluids as previously reported (J.-L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61–67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 ?mol of cyanide removed min?1 ml of culture fluid?1) being recovered after 72 h of cultivation, at which time the keto acid concentration was 23 mM. The reaction products that formed between the biologically formed keto acids and cyanide were unambiguously identified as the corresponding cyanohydrins by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the Pyr and ?-Kg cyanohydrins were further metabolized by cell extracts and served also as nitrogenous growth substrates. Radiotracer experiments showed that CO2 (and NH3) were formed as enzymatic conversion products, with the keto acid being regenerated as a coproduct. Evidence that the enzyme responsible for cyanohydrin conversion is cyanide oxygenase, which was shown previously to be required for cyanide utilization, is based on results showing that (i) conversion occurred only when extracts were induced for the enzyme, (ii) conversion was oxygen and reduced-pyridine nucleotide dependent, and (iii) a mutant strain defective in the enzyme was unable to grow when it was provided with the cyanohydrins as a growth substrate. Pyr and ?Kg were further shown to protect cells from cyanide poisoning, and excretion of the two was directly linked to utilization of cyanide as a growth substrate. The results provide the basis for a new mechanism of cyanide detoxification and assimilation in which keto acids play an essential role. PMID:9797306

Kunz, Daniel A.; Chen, Jui-Lin; Pan, Guangliang

1998-01-01

146

American Vitiligo Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation Make Your $25 Donation For Your 2015 ... a cure through alternatives to animal testing. American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

147

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Menu About RWJF Our Work Research & Publications Grants Newsroom Blog Search Healthy Weight for All ... PRIVACY POLICY TERMS AND CONDITIONS © 2001â??2014 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

148

Class Notes FOUNDATION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

) and Poisson's ratio(). For deep foundation systems, procedures are reviewed for determining the relative, Preconsolidation, eo, OCR, Ko) ! Bearing Capacity (Static Equilibrium, Limit Plasticity, Cavity Expansion) ! Shallow Foundations ` Spread Footings ` Structural Mats/Rafts ` Deformations (deflections, displacements

Jacobs, Laurence J.

149

Isolation of Whole-plant Multiple Oscillations via Nonnegative Spectral Decomposition 1 1 Supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constrained spectral non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis of perturbed oscillatory process control loop variable data is performed for the isolation of multiple plant-wide oscillatory sources. The technique is described and demonstrated by analyzing data from both simulated and real plant data of a chemical process plant. Results show that the proposed approach can map multiple oscillatory sources onto the most

Chunming XIA; Jianrong ZHENG; John Howell

2007-01-01

150

1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN ASSEMBLY PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

151

MacArthur Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MacArthur Foundation Gopher includes general information about the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, such as how to apply for grants, the names of staff members, and the history of the Foundation. It also includes information specific to each of the Foundation's eight program areas, such as recent program activities, application guidelines, contact information, and a listing of grants made in the previous calendar year.

152

Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

2013-01-01

153

Depletion of host-derived cyanide in the gut of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.  

PubMed

Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 +/- 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found at the tips of growing branches, which the caterpillars preferred, had a significantly higher HCN-p (3032 +/- 258 ppm) than older leaves found at the middle (1542 +/- 243 ppm) or base of the shoot (1131 +/- 159 ppm). Following a bout of overnight feeding on young leaves, the cyanide content of the foregut and midgut boluses of early sixth-instar caterpillars averaged 631 +/- 161 ppm, and 14 +/- 3 ppm, respectively, indicating that host-derived cyanide is rapidly depleted as the bolus transits the gut. Some cyanide, however, remains. In three studies, the mean cyanide content of fresh fecal pellets ranged from approximately 20 to 38 ppm, while the dried, compacted pellets ranged from 63 to 85 ppm. Food in the foreguts of mature caterpillars dispersing over the ground in search of pupation sites had 417 +/- 99 ppm cyanide. The potential impact of this egested and caterpillar-transported cyanide on the consumer and detritivore communities is discussed. PMID:11925066

Fitzgerald, T D; Jeffers, P M; Mantella, D

2002-02-01

154

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

1999-10-01

155

Cryptography Foundations RSA Sebastian Pauli  

E-print Network

Cryptography Foundations RSA RSA Sebastian Pauli Sebastian Pauli RSA #12;Cryptography Foundations RSA Overview Public Key Cryptography Mathematical Foundations of RSA The Cryptosystem RSA Sebastian Pauli RSA #12;Cryptography Foundations RSA with private keys with public key Realization Cryptography

Pauli, Sebastian

156

Effect of harvesting frequency, variety and leaf maturity on nutrient composition, hydrogen cyanide content and cassava foliage yield.  

PubMed

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

2012-12-01

157

Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield  

PubMed Central

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

2012-01-01

158

A novel spectrophotometric method for batch and flow injection determination of cyanide in electroplating wastewater.  

PubMed

A sensitive and highly selective spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of cyanide. It is based on a reaction of cyanide with aquacyanocobyrinic acid heptamethyl ester (ACCbs) reagent (orange color) at pH 9.5 to give dicyanocobester (DCCbs) (violet color). The increase of the absorption bands of the reaction product at 368 and 580nm and the decrease of the reagent band at 353nm are linearly proportional to the cyanide concentration. The method is used in static mode for determining cyanide over the concentration range 0.04-1.20mugml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02mugml(-1) and for hydrodynamic analysis of 0.4-5.2mugml(-1) cyanide. Application for batch and flow injection monitoring of cyanide in electroplating wastewater samples gives results agree within+/-1.2% with those obtained by the standard potentiometry using the cyanide ion selective electrode. The method is practically free from interferences by PO(4)(3-), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), SO(4)(2-), F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), S(2-) and SCN(-) ions and gives results with average recoveries of 97.6-99.2%. Advantages offered by using ACCbs as a chromogen for cyanide assay are: (i) high selectivity and sensitivity of the coordination site of the reagent towards cyanide ion; (ii) fast reaction, since legation takes place at the axial position of the reagent; (iii) good solubility and stability of the reagent in aqueous solutions over a wide pH range; (iv) high stability of the reagent (ACCbs) and the colored complex product (DCCbs) and (v) possible absorbance measurements at three different wavelengths. PMID:19071417

Hassan, Saad S M; Hamza, Mohamed S A; Kelany, Ali E

2007-02-28

159

Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all of the three natural pumices tested with various particle size fractions, the use of copper-impregnated pumices and peroxide together significantly enhanced both the initial rate and extent of cyanide removal. Although copper-impregnated specific surface area was the major factor affecting the rate and extent of cyanide destruction for a particular pumice source with similar surface chemistries, the type of surface chemistry (i.e., specific functional groups) within different pumice sources also appears to be a very important factor. Lower rates and extents of cyanide removals were observed at pH 11 compared to pH 8 probably because of the negative impacts of alkaline conditions in terms of scavenging peroxide and forming more negatively charged pumice surfaces. Both the initial rate and ultimate extent of cyanide removals were generally higher at a temperature of 20 degrees C compared with those found at 10 degrees C. The use of copper-impregnated pumice as a light, cheap, readily available, natural, and porous heterogeneous catalyst either in completely mixed/suspended or fixed-bed reactor configurations may be an effective treatment technology for cyanide removal from solution. This new approach may minimize downstream metal removal problems experienced in conventional cyanide oxidation technologies. PMID:15878038

Kitis, Mehmet; Karakaya, Emine; Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Akcil, Ata

2005-04-01

160

Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

161

Fluorescence turn-on sensor for cyanide based on a cobalt(II)-coumarinylsalen complex.  

PubMed

A Co(II)-salen based fluorescent sensor (1.Co) that can selectively recognize cyanide anions in 1:2 binding stoichiometry over other anions has been developed. 1.Co displayed fluorescence enhancement upon the addition of cyanide owing to the interruption of photoinduced electron transfer from the coumarin fluorophore to the cobalt(II) ion. A general regression method was developed to calculate the binding constants in the 1:2 binding system, through which the 1:2 binding between 1.Co and cyanide anions was estimated to be in the range of micromolar dissociation constants. PMID:20092265

Lee, Jae Han; Jeong, A Reum; Shin, Ik-Soo; Kim, Hae-Jo; Hong, Jong-In

2010-02-19

162

A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage.  

PubMed

Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S=45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

2015-01-01

163

Host-Plant Selectivity of Rhizobacteria in a Crop/Weed Model System  

PubMed Central

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

Zeller, Simon L.; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

2007-01-01

164

Host-plant selectivity of rhizobacteria in a crop/weed model system.  

PubMed

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

Zeller, Simon L; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

2007-01-01

165

Host-Plant Selectivity of Rhizobacteria in a Crop/Weed Model System  

E-print Network

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants ’ performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) onEchinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents.

Simon L. Zeller; Helmut Br; Bernhard Schmid

166

The Rockefeller Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation is one of the largest private philanthropic entities in the United States. In the past year, it awarded over $140 million in grants to numerous organizations working and researching topics of interest to the Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation currently has five primary program themes: creativity and culture, food security, health equity, working communities, and global inclusion. While the Foundation typically operates as "a proactive grantmaker," persons working for organizations that perform work or research in these five thematic areas will find perusing this website to be quite helpful. Here visitors can find out about current grant recipients, search the contents of the entire site, and learn more about the Foundation's overall mission and vision. Additionally, quite a few of the foundation's publications and papers are available for download here, including important works on HIV prevention in the developing world, inequities in health care, nonprofit capital, and inner city renewal in the United States.

167

Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

2002-01-01

168

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-05-01

169

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

170

A coumarin-indole based colorimetric and "turn on" fluorescent probe for cyanide.  

PubMed

A novel coumarin-indole based chemodosimeter with a simple structure was designed and prepared via a condensation reaction in high yield. The probe exhibited very high selectivity towards cyanide on both fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, which allowed it to quantitatively detect and imaging cyanide ions in organic-aqueous solution by either fluorescence enhancement or colorimetric changes. Confirmed by (1)H NMR and HRMS spectra, the detection mechanism was proved to be related with the Michael addition reaction induced by cyanide ions, which blocked the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the probe. Moreover, the probe was able to be utilized efficiently in a wide pH range (7.5-10) with negligible interference from other anions and a low detection limit of 0.51?M. Application in 5 kinds of natural water source and accurate detection of cyanide in tap water solvent system also indicated the high practical significance of the probe. PMID:25490042

Xu, Yu; Dai, Xi; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

2015-03-01

171

Oxidative treatment of cyanide in wastewater using hydrogen peroxide and homogeneous catalyst.  

PubMed

Batch kinetic tests were conducted to determine the effects of experimental conditions and catalysts on cyanide degradation. Cyanide degradation by hydrogen peroxide was found to follow first-order kinetics. Reaction rates increased with increasing pH and decreasing temperature. The activation energy for cyanide degradation by hydrogen peroxide was found to be -13.81 kJ/mol. The addition of Cu2+ or Cd2+ as catalysts resulted in increasing reaction rates. In alkaline conditions, the catalytic effects of Cu2+ or Cd2+ were accelerated and Cu2+ was found to be a more effective catalyst than Cd2+. The practical relevance of the laboratory oxidation method of cyanide was demonstrated for actual industrial wastewater. PMID:15055942

Lee, Tae-Yoon; Kwon, Young-Shik; Kim, Dong-Su

2004-01-01

172

Arbor Day Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arbor Day was first observed in 1872, and the Arbor Day Foundation was founded in 1972 in Nebraska. The Arbor Day website contains a trove of information for visitors to peruse, make plans around, and learn from. The "Trees" section of the website includes "What Tree is That?", an online guide for tree identification; a "Tree Guide", that covers more than 200 different species of trees; and a quiz called "The Right Tree in the Right Place", about how and why to first make a simple plan, considering size and shape, when planting trees around a house. The "Programs" section of the website is an excellent resource for visitors such as teachers, parents and students. "Nature Explore" helps connect kids with nature via the "Resource Guide", which contains "field-tested resources developed to bring nature into children's daily learning in sustainable, significant, positive and joyful ways." Interested visitors can use the link entitled "Request a Resource Guide", to get a free copy. "Nature Explore Classroom Certification" links teachers to the certification process and examples of certified classrooms and classrooms in-progress.

173

Foundation Design Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this handbook is to provide information that will enable designers, builders, and homeowners to understand foundation design problems and solutions. The foundation of a house is a somewhat invisible and sometimes ignored component of the building. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction has significant benefits to the homeowner and the builder, and can avoid some serious future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice means not only insulating to save energy, but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques where appropriate.

Carmody, John [Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota; Mosiman, Garrett [Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota; Handeen, Daniel [Center for Sustainable Building Research, University of Minnesota; Huelman, Patrick [Cold Climate Housing Program, University of Minnesota; Christian, Jeffery [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

2013-10-01

174

Formation of cyanide after i. v. administration of the oxime HI 6 to dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

HI6(pyridinium, 1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio] methoxy]methyl]-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-dichloride belongs to a series of bisquaternary pyridinium oximes that are effective against poisoning with extremely toxic organophosphates. Since HI6 has been shown to be unstable at pH 7.4 and to release significant amounts of cyanide, a study was undertaken to determine the degree of cyanide formation from HI 6 in vivo. When HI 6 (100 µmol\\/kg) was

P. Eyer; A. Kawan; B. Ladstetter

1987-01-01

175

Cyanide-free Net-caught Fish for the Marine Aquarium Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Marinelife Alliance (IMA) has been training collectors in the Philippines and Indonesia to use barrier-nets rather than sodium cyanide to capture marine-aquarium fish. Despite the training, collectors have been slow to switch to using nets because they can earn more using cyanide. A new Philippine export company has agreed to pay the collectors more for net-caught fish and

Peter J. Rubec; Ferdinand Cruz; Vaughan Pratt; Richard Oellers; Brian McCullough; Frank Lallo

2001-01-01

176

Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus Not Linked to the Sequestration of Host-derived Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473?±?130 ppm and 1,058?±?98 ppm,\\u000a respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released

T. D. Fitzgerald; M. A. Stevens; S. Miller; P. Jeffers

2008-01-01

177

Computer measure & control system of benzyl-cyanide reactor based on labview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide reacting of synthesizing chemical intermediates is a sort of exothermic reaction with risk of heat-centralizing accident. So it is required to control the reactor inner temperature and pressure accurately. This paper presents a control project of benzyl-cyanide reactor with microwave auxiliary heating. A combined-control strategy with fuzzy and delayed filter PID was used. This novel control strategy can advance

Chenglong Gong; Zhaokui Ding; Linhai Ji; Jinming Tian; Yongqiang Liu

2009-01-01

178

Upregulation of BNIP3 and translocation to mitochondria mediates cyanide-induced apoptosis in cortical cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bcl-2\\/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3) domain only protein, has been identified as a mitochondrial mediator of hypoxia-induced cell death. Since cyanide produces histotoxic anoxia (chemical hypoxia), the present study was undertaken in primary rat cortical cells to determine involvement of the BNIP3 signaling pathway in cyanide-induced death. Over a 20 h exposure KCN

K. Prabhakaran; L. Li; L. Zhang; J. L. Borowitz; G. E. Isom

2007-01-01

179

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

180

An effective method for the detoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater by Bacillus sp. CN-22.  

PubMed

The biodetoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater has become increasingly popular because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Therefore, we have developed an effective method, optimised by response surface methodology, for detoxifying cyanide-rich wastewater using Bacillus sp. CN-22, which was newly isolated from a cyanide-contaminated electroplating sludge and could tolerate a CN? concentration of 700 mg L?ą. The concentration of CN? in the treated wastewater decreased from 200 to 6.62 mg L?ą after cultivation with 2.38 % inocula for 72 h on the medium, consisting of 0.05 % KH?PO?, 0.15 % K?HPO?, 1.0 mM MgCl?, 1.0 mM FeCl?, 0.1 % NH?Cl, and 0.1 % glycerol. The CN? degradability of 96.69 % is similar to the predicted value of 96.82 %. The optimal cultivation conditions were controlled as follows: initial pH, 10.3; temperature, 31 °C; and rotary speed, 193 rpm. The maintenance of higher pH in the overall treatment procedures may avoid the production of volatile HCN and the risk associated with cyanide detoxification. Additionally, the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. CN-22, with its potent cyanide-degrading activity at the initial CN? concentration of 200 mg L?ą, may be employed to effectively treat cyanide-rich wastewater, especially electroplating effluent. PMID:24337345

Wu, Chou-Fei; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Feng, Lei; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

2014-04-01

181

Utilizing Foundational Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles that utilize an array of foundational perspectives that give reader insight into the organization of schools, the viewpoints of children and parents, the ideological and political nature of community organizing, and mathematics instruction in the Soviet Union. In "Cooperative…

Educational Foundations, 1991

1991-01-01

182

The Katzenberger Foundation Art  

E-print Network

The Katzenberger Foundation Art History Internship Program is a need based program supporting internships for undergraduate art history juniors and seniors in research://solaa.si.edu Applications due by 02/01/2010 The Katzenberger Foundation Art History Internships at the Smithsonian

Mathis, Wayne N.

183

The William Penn Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1945, Otto and Phoebe Haas created the Phoebe Waterman Foundation in order to respond to a variety of social problems. Some of their first work included funds given for European relief and scholarships for fatherless children. In 1974, the Foundation changed its name to the William Penn Foundation to honor its association with the city of Philadelphia. Today, the Foundation's mission is "to advance a vital, just, and caring community." Their website provides great details on their work, and by extension, it also provides helpful material on the state of the Philadelphia region. Visitors can start their journey through the materials via the three primary sections of the site, which include "Arts & Culture" and "Environment & Communities". Along with the information about the grants available in each category, users will find reports and news updates regarding each thematic area. Moving on, the "Newsroom" contains briefs on the Foundation's activities and initiatives with other organizations and government agencies.

184

Physicochemical foundations of bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes from a nuclear power plant with RBMK reactor and the properties of the compounds formed  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the results of a feasibility study for the bituminization of liquid radioactive effluents from the four RBMK reactors of the Leningrad plant. A comprehensive comparative analysis of several bitumens and their appropriate physical and chemical properties is given which also includes their radiochemical and soil chemical behavior. Processing scenarios are also assessed.

Nikiforov, A.S.; Zakharova, K.P.; Polyakov, A.S.

1987-03-01

185

Physicochemical foundations of bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes from a nuclear power plant with RBMK reactor and the properties of the compounds formed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of investigations of salt wastes only. The main (up to 80%) component of the salt residue of the solutions at a nuclear power plant with an RBMK reactor is sodium nitrate. In addition to sodium nitrate, the solution contains sodium oxylate, sulfate, chloride, and phosphate, and oil and surfactants. If discharges from special laundries are

A. S. Nikiforov; K. P. Zakharova; A. S. Polyakov

1986-01-01

186

Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation

Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

187

Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation  

E-print Network

Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Student Research Fellowships Inspiring the Physician Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular medical Provides medical Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research

Bushman, Frederic

188

Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy) [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

2012-11-16

189

Cyanide Inhibition of Porcine Kidney Diamine Oxidase and Bovine Plasma Amine Oxidase: Evidence for Multiple Interaction Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of cyanide and phenylhydrazine with porcine kidney diamine oxidase (PKDAO) and bovine plasma amine oxidase (BPAO) (EC 1.4.3.6) have been investigated. Cyanide displays mixed noncompetitive inhibition against amine substrates and also against O2. EPR spectroscopy shows that cyanide binds to an equatorial site on Cu(II) and can be displaced by chloride, which is not an inhibitor, without recovery

Z. W. He; Y. Zou; F. T. Greenaway

1995-01-01

190

Comparative effects of scopoletin and cyanide on glucose-6-phosphatase and glutathione S-transferase activities of rat liver microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cassava toxicities have been attributed to cyanide in cassava. In this work, the effects of scopoletin (a coumarin compound present in cassava) and cyanide separately and in combination on protein, glucose-6-phosphatase and glutathione S-transferase activities of rat liver microsomes were compared. Four groups of male Wistar rats were fed rations containing 0.7?g scopoletin, 0.7?g scopoletin + 18mg cyanide and

Onyechi Obidoa

2000-01-01

191

Physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-induced physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide (NaCN) have been studied up to 50 GPa in diamond-anvil cells, using micro-Raman spectroscopy and angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction. We observe three phase transitions in this pressure range: NaCN-IIA (orthorhombic, Immm), to NaCN-IIB (orthorhombic, Pmmn) at 4 GPa, to NaCN-III (monoclinic, Cm) at 8 GPa, and to NaCN-IV (tetragonal, P4mm) at 15 GPa, which is stable to 25 GPa. At higher pressures, NaCN-IV undergoes an irreversible chemical change, which occurs over a large pressure range between 25 and 34 GPa. The new material exhibits a broad yet strong Raman band at around 1550 cm-1, indicating the formation of C=N bonds in a similar configuration of carbon graphite. The absence of sharp diffraction lines in this material suggests an amorphous nature of CN polymer products.

Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2009-10-01

192

Foundation™ Fieldbus high speed Ethernet (HSE) implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of fast speed Ethernet and more reliable switches, end users are now more eager than ever to implement Ethernet solutions at the plant floor for real-time control applications. This paper illustrates some intelligent control functions that can be achieved by using Foundation™ Fieldbus high speed Ethernet (HSE). This report is based on the recent experience gained from

Pee Suat Hoon; Yang Rong Huan; Jonas Berge; B. Sim

2002-01-01

193

Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.  

PubMed

Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae. PMID:12735955

Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

2003-05-01

194

Subunit-specific interactions of cyanide with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.  

PubMed

Cyanide can potentiate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated physiological responses in neurons. Here we show that this phenomenon may be attributable to a subunit-specific chemical modification of the receptor directly by the toxin. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (30 microM)-induced whole cell responses in mature (22-29 days in vitro) rat cortical neurons were potentiated nearly 2-fold by a 3-5-min treatment with 2 mM potassium cyanide, as did a similar treatment with 4 mM dithiothreitol. A 1-min incubation with the thiol oxidant 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (0.5 mM) readily reversed the potentiation induced by either cyanide or dithiothreitol. Cyanide did not increase further currents previously potentiated by dithiothreitol nor was it able to potentiate responses during brief co-application with the agonist. Transient expression studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells with wild-type and mutated recombinant N-methyl-D-aspartate subunits (NR) demonstrated that cyanide selectively potentiated NR1/NR2A receptors, presumably via the chemical reduction of NR2A. In contrast, currents mediated by NR1/NR2B receptors were somewhat diminished by the metabolic inhibitor. Some of the effects of cyanide on NR1/NR2B receptors may be mediated by the formation of a thiocyanate adduct with a cysteine residue located in NR1. Cyanide thus is able to distinguish chemically between two different N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtypes and produce diametrically opposing functional effects. PMID:9705279

Arden, S R; Sinor, J D; Potthoff, W K; Aizenman, E

1998-08-21

195

Oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution by chemical and photochemical process.  

PubMed

Cyanide waste is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated from metallurgical operations. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper, oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution was investigated using chemical and photochemical process. Chemical oxidation was studied at room temperature using H2O2 as oxidant and Cu2+ as catalyst. Photochemical oxidation was studied in an annular type batch photoreactor of 1l capacity using 25 W low-pressure (81.7% transmission at 254 nm wavelength) ultraviolet (UV) lamp along with H2O2 as oxidant. The effect of Cu2+ catalysis was also studied. It was observed that in absence of UV source, the degradation of cyanide by H2O2 alone was very slow, whereas copper ions accelerated the rate of reaction thereby acting as catalyst. Copper formed a complex with cyanide ion, i.e. tetracyanocuprate which had greater affinity for H2O2. Cyanate hydrolysis was also favoured by copper ions. As Cu2+ ion concentration was increased, rate of degradation also increased. Photochemical oxidation by H2O2 and Cu2+ was found to be the best system for cyanide degradation. CN- (100 mg/l) was degraded to non-detectable level in 9 min at pH 10.0 with optimum H2O2 dose of 35.5 mM and Cu2+ dose of 19 mg/l. Reaction kinetics of cyanide oxidation was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant has been determined for different processes. PMID:15561362

Sarla, M; Pandit, M; Tyagi, D K; Kapoor, J C

2004-12-10

196

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

197

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will identify the relationship of the structure of plants. Students will also understand the cycle of plants and their role in the food chain. Why are plants important? How do they affect the cycle of life? Think about these questions as you watch this video on plants: Video of plants Now go to this website: Biology of Plants and use your handout to record the information you learn about the parts of a plant. Next, take this ...

barlobe

2009-10-21

198

Heterologous expression analyses of rice OsCAS in Arabidopsis and in yeast provide evidence for its roles in cyanide detoxification rather than in cysteine synthesis in vivo  

PubMed Central

While most dicot plants produce little ethylene in their vegetative stage, many monocots such as rice liberate a relatively large amount of ethylene with cyanide as a co-product in their seedling stage when etiolated. One of the known functions of ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) is to detoxify the co-product cyanide during ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Based on a tryptic peptide sequence obtained from a partially purified CAS activity protein preparation in etiolated rice seedlings, the full-length putative rice CAS-encoding cDNA sequence (OsCAS), which is homologous to those O-acetylserine sulphydrylase (OASS) genes, was cloned. Unlike most of the CAS genes reported from dicots, the transcription of OsCAS is promoted by auxins but suppressed by ethylene. To address the function and the subcellular localization of this gene product in planta, a binary vector construct consisting of this gene appended with a yellow fluorescent protein-encoding sequence was employed to transform Arabidopsis. Specific activities on CAS and OASS of the purified recombinant protein from transgenic Arabidopsis were 181.04 ?mol H2S mg?1 protein min?1 and 0.92 ?mol Cys mg?1 protein min?1, respectively, indicating that OsCAS favours CAS activity. The subcellular localization of OsCAS was found mostly in the mitochondria by immunogold electron-microscopy. Chemical cross-linking and in-gel assay on a heterodimer composed of functional and non-functional mutants in a yeast expression system on OsCAS suggested that OsCAS functions as a homodimer, similar to that of OASS. Despite the structural similarity of OsCAS with OASS, it has also been confirmed that OsCAS could not interact with serine-acetyltransferase, indicating that OsCAS mainly functions in cyanide detoxification. PMID:19181864

Lai, Kwok Wai; Yau, Chi Ping; Tse, Yu Chung; Jiang, Liwen; Yip, Wing Kin

2009-01-01

199

American Hospice Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... and link to this website (www.americanhospice.org). Blog at WordPress.com . The Coraline Theme . Follow Follow “American Hospice Foundation” Get every new post delivered to your Inbox. Build a website with ...

200

Kessler Foundation Research Center  

MedlinePLUS

... Foundation Join our Research Studies Institutional Review Board Postdoctoral Fellowship Program What We Fund Grant Programs Signature ... of people with disabilities" nTIDE Jobs Report: Solid Economic Gains Include Job Growth for Americans with Disabilities ...

201

National Ataxia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Welcome to the National Ataxia Foundation Research Matching Gift Challenge Has Been Reached! Due to the generosity ... YOUR research donations, the $200,000 Research Matching Gift Challenge has been reached! Currently, more than 100 ...

202

Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

The Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation, Inc. (HSF) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation, dedicated to improving research, ... and care for individuals and families affected by Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). HS is an inflammatory skin disease ...

203

American Porphyria Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Knowing there are people who truly understand your "invisible" disease and are fighting to make things better ... information contained on the American Porphyria Foundation (APF) Web site or in the APF newsletter is provided ...

204

Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.

1980-01-01

205

Set Theory and Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About 90 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on set theory and foundations: what is fuzzy logic, fractal logic, Cantor's diagonal proof, are all triangles isosceles, on Gauss's mountains, problems with the luminiferous aether, and many more.

Brown, Kevin

2008-09-19

206

Women's Heart Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Click for e-News archive The Women's Heart Foundation is a 501c3 dedicated to prevention, survival and ... the spectacular Women's Heart display window at 10 Rockefeller Plaza, gifted by EHE International - Go to our ...

207

International OCD Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... and productive lives. Join Donate Volunteer Events International OCD Foundation Our mission is to help all individuals ... to change the life of someone living with OCD. Your gift will help the IOCDF to make ...

208

National Reye's Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Packages - Free! Talking to Tweens and Teens About Aspirin and Other Medications Join the Effort to Eradicate ... Foundation's LinkedIn profile Spread Awareness with the Kids & Aspirin Don't Mix car magnet ribbon. Get News & ...

209

Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... February 23, 2015. This special evening unites Broadway’s stars, patrons, and key members of the pulmonary fibrosis ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

210

National Sleep Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... sleep is necessary for children, adults, and even infants. More Healthy Sleep Tips Take charge of your sleep with these ... Fears Sleep and Teens Stress and Insomnia Sleep, Infants and Parents Sleep and Parasomnias National Sleep Foundation Contact Us Media ...

211

Determination of cyanide based upon its reaction with colloidal silver in the presence of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of silver-gelatin complex are reduced in the presence of ascorbic acid to silver sol. The quantitative reduction may be followed by spectrophotometric determination of silver metal or by the dissolution of yellow silver sol in air. The dissolution has been used for the spectrophotometric, conductometric, and volumetric determination of cyanide in aqueous medium in the presence of protein and cellulose materials. The colored silver sol becomes colorless at the end point. The reagent solution is fairly stable over the experimental time scale, and the change in absorbance at 415 nm or the sharp increase in specific conductance values gives a good measure of the concentration of cyanide present in the solution. Under the experimental conditions, the minimum amounts of cyanide that can be determined are 0.05 mg/L by spectrophotometry, 6.0 mg/L by conductometry, and 10.0 mg/L by volumetric procedure; the relative standard deviations are 0.16%, 5.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The method does show a remarkable freedom from interferences and is found suitable for the determination of cyanide in industrial effluent water. In addition, the biological samples containing cyanide may be easily determined without any pretreatment.

Pal, T.; Ganguly, A.; Maity, D.S.

1986-06-01

212

Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor  

PubMed Central

Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

2013-01-01

213

Modelling potential ?-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava.  

PubMed

Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava can be crossbred to improve its ?-carotene (BC) content; typical white cassava contains negligible amounts of BC. However, cassava contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic disability. Our objective was to estimate the risk-benefit of consuming BC-enhanced cassava to increase VA intake. A total of ten American women were fed white and BC-enhanced cassava. BC and cyanide data from the feeding study were combined with African cassava consumption data to model the potential daily BC, VA and cyanide intakes of African women. If BC-enhanced cassava replaced white cassava in the diets, it could theoretically meet recommended VA intakes for the following percentages of individuals from six African countries that consume cassava as a staple crop: Angola (95 %), Central African Republic (95 %), Congo (about 100 %), Ghana (99 %), Mozambique (99 %) and Nigeria (92 %). Cyanide intake after minimal preparation of cassava could be thirteen to thirty-two times the reference dose (RfD), a toxicological exposure reference, but could be completely removed by extensive soaking. This study demonstrates that consumption of BC-enhanced cassava, processed to maintain BC and remove cyanide, theoretically increases VA intakes for African populations and other areas of the world where cassava is a staple crop. PMID:25191592

Katz, Josh M; La Frano, Michael R; Winter, Carl K; Burri, Betty J

2013-01-01

214

Binding of cyanide, cyanate, and thiocyanate to human carbonic anhydrase II.  

PubMed

Computer simulation techniques are used to address the question of how cyanide and related ions interact with human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII). Spectroscopic results have suggested that cyanide is coordinated with the zinc ion, while recent X-ray results suggest that the cyanide ion is noncovalently associated with the zinc-water or zinc-hydroxide form of the enzyme. We have carried out simulations on three models in an attempt to shed light on why the spectroscopic and X-ray results differ. The first model we studied (Model I) has cyanide directly coordinated to the zinc ion, the second has it noncovalently interacting with the zinc-hydroxide (high pH) form of the enzyme (Model II), and the third has cyanide noncovalently interacting with the zinc-water (low pH) form of the enzyme (Model III). None of these models is satisfactory in explaining the available structural data obtained from X-ray crystallography. This leads us to propose an alternative model, in which HCAII hydrates HCN to form an OH-/HCN complex coordinated to the Zn ion. Ab initio calculations are consistent with this model. Based on these results we are able to explain the observed crystallographic behavior of cyanate and, by inference, thiocyanate. PMID:8265567

Peng, Z; Merz, K M; Banci, L

1993-10-01

215

Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources. PMID:23395455

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

2013-05-01

216

Operating conditions for the continuous bioremediation of free cyanide contaminated wastewater using Aspergillus awamori.  

PubMed

Generation of cyanide-containing wastewater is a growing problem worldwide as numerous cyanide complexes are highly unstable and degrade to form free cyanide (F-CN), the most toxic form of cyanide. Agro-waste materials, such as sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) waste from the citrus industry, are rich in readily metabolisable carbohydrates that can supplement microbial activity and thus support biodegradation of toxic compounds in wastewater. This study reports on optimal operating conditions for the continuous biodegradation of F-CN in wastewater using an Aspergillus awamori isolate in a process supported solely using C. sinensis waste extract. The optimal degradation conditions were pH 8.75 and 37.02 °C with the isolate's F-CN tolerance being observed up to 430 mg F-CN/L. Furthermore, the ammonium produced as a by-product of F-CN degradation was also metabolised by the A. awamori, with negligible residual citric acid and formate being observed in the effluent post treatment. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using agricultural waste as a primary and sole carbon source for the cultivation of a cyanide-degrading A. awamori species for F-CN degradation under alkaline conditions. PMID:24622547

Santos, B A Q; Ntwampe, S K O; Doughari, J H; Muchatibaya, G

2014-01-01

217

High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.  

PubMed

Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife, including bats, is capping the concentration of cyanide in tailings discharged to open impoundments at 50 mg/L WAD. PMID:24566971

Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

2014-06-01

218

Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, where is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Atmospheric and planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early atmospheres of Earth as dinitrogen (N2 ), an inert gas under normal atmospheric conditions. To be available for prebiotic synthesis it must be converted into hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3 ) and/or nitric oxide (NO), in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. Due to the strength of the triple bond in N2 , nitrogen fixation, while thermodynamically favored is kinetically restricted. In a reducing atmosphere dominated by CH4 -N2 , thunderstorm lightning efficiently produces HCN and NH3 (Stribling and Miller, 1987). Nevertheless, photochemical and geochemical constraints strongly suggest that the early atmosphere was weakly reducing, dominated by CO2 and N2 with traces of CH4 , CO, and H2 (Kasting, 1993). Under these conditions, HCN is no longer synthesized in the lightning channel and instead NO is formed (Navarro-Gon?lez, et al., 2001). In volcanic plumes, where magmatic gases a were more reducing than in the atmosphere, NO can also be formed by the lava heat (Mather et al., 2004) or volcanic lightning (Navarro-Gon?lez et al., 1998). Surprisingly, dinitrogen can be a reduced to NH3 in hydrothermal systems (Brandes et al., 1998), but the formation of HCN and its derivates were not investigated. The present work explores the possibility of the formation of HCN as well as other nitrile derivatives catalyzed by mineral surfaces in hydrothermal vents. To simulate a hydrothermal atmosphere, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel Parr R minireactor with a 0.1 M NH4 HCO3 solution (200 ml) with or without a mineral surface exposed at 1 bar at temperatures ranging from 100 to 375° C. Different mineral matrices are been investigated. Our preliminary results have been conducted with pyrite and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results indicate that catalysis induced by the mineral surface under hydrothermal conditions does not stop with the production of HCN, but the reaction continues leading to more complex nitriles. The experiments also reveal a clear trend between time and the production of more complex molecules, which are measurable by the chromatographic method. Brandes, J.A., Boctor, N.Z., Cody, G.D., Cooper, B. A., Hazen, R. M. and Yoder Jr, H.S. (1998). Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early Earth. Nature 395, 365-367. Kasting J.F. (1993) Earth's early atmosphere. Science 259, 920-926. Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., and Allen, A.G. (2004) Volcanic source of fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geology 32, 905-908. Navarro-Gon?lez, R., Molina, M.J. and. Molina, L.T. (1998) Nitrogen fixation by volcanic a lightning in the early Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3123-3126. Navarro-Gon?lez, R., McKay, C.P. and Nna Mvondo, D. ( 2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for a Archean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412, 61-64. Stribling, R., and Miller, S.L. (1987) Energy yields for the hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde synthesis: the HCN and amino acid concentrations in the primitive ocean. Origins Life 17, 261-273.

Pinedo-González, Paulina

219

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Anne Barron

2011-04-21

220

Turn-off-on chemiluminescence determination of cyanide.  

PubMed

A flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of cyanide (CN(-) ) based on the recovered CL signal by Cu(2+) inhibiting a glutathione (GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) and hydrogen peroxide system. In an alkaline medium, strong CL signals were observed from the reaction of CdTe QDs and H2 O2 , and addition of Cu(2+) could cause significant CL inhibition of the CdTe QDs-H2 O2 system. In the presence of CN(-) , Cu(2+) can be removed from the surface of CdTe QDs via the formation of particularly stable [Cu(CN)n ]((n-1)-) species, and the CL signal of the CdTe QDs-H2 O2 system was efficiently recovered. Thus, the CL signals of CdTe QDs-H2 O2 system were turned off and turned on by the addition of Cu(2+) and CN(-) , respectively. Further, the results showed that among the tested ions, only CN(-) could recover the CL signal, which suggested that the CdTe QDs-H2 O2 -Cu(2+) CL system had highly selectivity for CN(-) . Under optimum conditions, the CL intensity and the concentration of CN(-) show a good linear relationship in the range 0.0-650.0?ng/mL (R(2) ?=?0.9996). The limit of detection for CN(-) was 6.0?ng/mL (3?). This method has been applied to detect CN(-) in river water and industrial wastewater with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24804930

Han, Suqin; Wang, Jianbo; Jia, Shize

2015-02-01

221

The Foundation Directory, Edition 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth edition of "The Foundation Directory" lists and describes 5,454 foundations and surveys their grants. The directory was prepared from foundation reports and government records. The foundations listed either have assets of $500.00 or made grants totally at least $25,000.00 in the year of record. Education is the leading beneficiary of…

Lewis, Marianna O., Ed.; Bowers, Patricia, Ed.

222

Private Foundations. SPEC Kit 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the variety in the nature and interests of foundations, libraries often seek an understanding of several foundations' interests, funding history, future plans, and strategies in terms of their own needs before approaching a single foundation. A review of foundation giving within the past few years shows that construction and expansion…

Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

223

Development and Electrochemical Investigations of an EIS- (Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor) based Biosensor for Cyanide Detection  

PubMed Central

A cyanide biosensor based on a pH-sensitive p-doped electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structure with an immobilised enzyme (cyanidase) is realised at the laboratory scale. The immobilisation of the cyanidase is performed in two distinct steps: first, the covalent coupling of cyanidase to an N-hydroxysuccinimide- (NHS) activated Sepharose™ gel and then, the physical entrapment of NHS-activated Sepharose™ with the immobilised cyanidase in a dialysis membrane onto the EIS structure. The immobilisation of the cyanidase to the NHS-activated Sepharose™ is studied by means of gel electrophoresis measurements and investigations using an ammonia- (NH3) selective electrode. For the electrochemical characterisation of the cyanide biosensor, capacitance/voltage and constant capacitance measurements, respectively, have been carried out. A differential measurement procedure is presented to evaluate the cyanide concentration-dependent biosensor signals.

Turek, Monika; Ketterer, Lothar; Cla?en, Melanie; Berndt, Heinz K.; Elbers, Gereon; Krüger, Peter; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J.

2007-01-01

224

The Effect of Functional Group Structure on the Elution of Metal Cyanide Complexes from Ion-Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous investigations have established that the thiocyanate anion and the zinc cyanide complex are suitable eluants for the simultaneous recovery of metal cyanide complexes from ion-exchange resins. However, the effect of the ionic density of the resin and the stereochemistry of the functional group on metal recovery has never been systematically studied. The present study investigated the elution properties of

G. C. LUKEY; J. S. J. van DEVENTER; D. C. SHALLCROSS

2000-01-01

225

The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

226

Incidence of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy and its relation to exposure to cyanide in a Nigerian community  

PubMed Central

Background The occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic area in south west Nigeria has been attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of ataxic polyneuropathy is not high in several communities in the tropics where exposure to cyanide from cassava foods is high. Objectives To determine the incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic community, and to compare the intake of cassava foods, exposure to cyanide, and levels of thiols in cases and controls. Methods A cohort of 3167 healthy subjects aged 10 years and over in Ososa, Nigeria, was followed for two years, screened, and examined neurologically. Ataxic polyneuropathy was diagnosed if sensory polyneuropathy and sensory gait ataxia were both present. Controls were selected randomly within 10 year age groups of subjects who screened negative. Intake of cassava foods, exposure to cyanide, concentrations of thiols (glutathione, cysteine, and ? glutamylcysteine) in plasma, and visual evoked potentials were measured. Results Person–years of follow up were 6246 for 1469 male and 1698 female subjects in the cohort. The incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy was 64 per 10 000 person–years (31 for male and 93 for female subjects). Multivariate odd ratios were 0.78 (95% CI 0.23 to 2.61) for intake of the commonest cassava food, and 1.64 (0.56 to 5.09) for concentration of thiocyanate in plasma. The concentration of thiols was less than the reference limits in two controls, but in none of the cases. The latency of P100 was prolonged in 20 cases (69%) compared with 14 controls (42%) (p<0.05). Conclusions The incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy is high in Ososa, Nigeria, but the intake of cassava foods, exposure to cyanide, and levels of thiols, are not related to the occurrence. These findings do not suggest that cyanide is the cause of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:14570837

Oluwole, O; Onabolu, A; Cotgreave, I; Rosling, H; Persson, A; Link, H

2003-01-01

227

Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

2013-01-01

228

Total cyanide analysis of tank core samples: Analytical results and supporting investigations. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The potential for a ferrocyanide explosion in Hanford site single-shelled waste storage tanks (SSTS) poses a serious safety concern. This potential danger developed in the 1950s when {sup 137}Cs was scavenged during the reprocessing of uranium recovery process waste by co-precipitating it along with sodium in nickel ferrocyanide salt. Sodium or potassium ferrocyanide and nickel sulfate were added to the liquid waste stored in SSTs. The tank storage space resulting from the scavenging process was subsequently used to store other waste types. Ferrocyanide salts in combinations with oxidizing agents, such as nitrate and nitrite, are known to explode when key parameters (temperature, water content, oxidant concentration, and fuel [cyanide]) are in place. Therefore, reliable total cyanide analysis data for actual SST materials are required to address the safety issue. Accepted cyanide analysis procedures do not yield reliable results for samples containing nickel ferrocyanide materials because the compounds are insoluble in acidic media. Analytical chemists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have developed a modified microdistillation procedure (see below) for analyzing total cyanide in waste tank matrices containing nickel ferrocyanide materials. Pacific Northwest Laboratory analyzed samples from Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-112 cores 34, 35, and 36 for total cyanide content using technical procedure PNL-ALO-285 {open_quotes}Total Cyanide by Remote Microdistillation and Agrentometric Titration,{close_quotes} Rev. 0. This report summarizes the results of these analyses along with supporting quality control data, and, in addition, summarizes the results of the test to check the efficacy of sodium nickel ferrocyanide solubilization from an actual core sample by aqueous EDTA/en to verify that nickel ferrocyanide compounds were quantitatively solubilized before actual distillation.

Pool, K.H.

1994-03-01

229

Evaluation of Cyanogenic Potentials of Local Cassava Species and Residual Cyanide Contents of Their Locally Processed Food Products in Southeast Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanogenic potentials and residual cyanide contents of local cassava parenchyma and their locally processed food products in southeastern Nigeria were studied. Seven species of cassava locally grown and four main food products from them were analyzed colourimetrically for their cyanide contents. Results of the analyses indicated that five of the species contain cyanide potentials between 50 and 100 mg HCN\\/kg

Nwachukwu R. Ekere; Ifeanyi S. Eze

2012-01-01

230

Application of Response Surface Method and Central Composite Design for Modeling and Optimization of Gold and Silver Recovery in Cyanidation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, application of the Response Surface Methodology and the Central Composite Design (CCD) technique for modeling and optimization the influence of some operating variables on gold and silver recovery in a cyanidation process were investigated. Three main cyanidation parameters, namely grinding time, sodium cyanide concentration, and alkalinity of solution, were changed during the concentration tests based on CCD.

P. Karimi; H. Abdollahi; N. Aslan; M. Noaparast; S. Z. Shafaei

2010-01-01

231

'Green' methodology for efficient and selective benzoylation of nucleosides using benzoyl cyanide in an ionic liquid.  

PubMed

Benzoyl cyanide in the ionic liquid 1-methoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate has been employed as a 'green' alternative and mild reaction condition protocol to conventional pyridine-benzoyl chloride system for efficient and selective benzoylation of nucleosides (of both the ribo- and deoxyribo-series) at ambient temperatures. The use of benzoyl cyanide-ionic liquid combination has been successfully extended for highly efficient benzoylation of phenols, aromatic amines, benzyl alcohol, aliphatic diols, 3-aminophenol and 2-aminobenzylalcohol, which indicates the versatility of this benzoylating system. PMID:15921912

Prasad, Ashok K; Kumar, Vineet; Malhotra, Shashwat; Ravikumar, Vasulinga T; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Parmar, Virinder S

2005-07-15

232

Synthesis of ?-Amino Acid Derivatives and Peptides via Enantioselective Addition of Masked Acyl Cyanides to Imines.  

PubMed

A general, asymmetric synthesis of amino acid derivatives is reported. Masked acyl cyanide (MAC) reagents are shown to be effective umpolung synthons for enantioselective additions to N-Boc-aldimines. The reactions are catalyzed by a modified cinchona alkaloid, which can function as a bifunctional, hydrogen bonding catalyst, and afford adducts in excellent yields (90-98%) and high enantioselectivities (up to 97.5:2.5 er). Unmasking the addition products gives acyl cyanide intermediates that are intercepted by a variety of nucleophiles to afford ?-amino acid derivatives. Notably, the methodology provides an alternative method for peptide bond formation. PMID:25366558

Yang, Kin S; Rawal, Viresh H

2014-11-19

233

The effect of cyanide on the efflux of calcium from squid axons  

PubMed Central

1. The average rate constant for loss of 45Ca from an unpoisoned squid axon was 1·8 × 10-3 min-1, corresponding to an efflux of 0·2 p-mole/cm2 sec. 2. The Ca efflux from unpoisoned axons was reduced if external calcium was replaced with magnesium, or external sodium with lithium, choline or dextrose. Replacing both sodium and calcium reduced the efflux to about 40%. 3. Cyanide caused little immediate change in Ca efflux but after 1˝-2˝ hr the efflux increased to 5-15 times its normal value. The effect was rapidly reversed when cyanide was removed. 4. The large Ca efflux into cyanide was reduced by a factor of three when external calcium was replaced with magnesium and by a further factor of about six when external sodium was replaced with lithium. 5. The Ca efflux from both poisoned and unpoisoned axons had a Q10 of 2-3, was not affected by ouabain and was greatly reduced by injecting ethyleneglycol bis (aminoethylether)-N,N?-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA). 6. After injecting 45Ca along the axis, the efflux of calcium reached its maximum much more rapidly in a cyanide-treated axon than in an unpoisoned axon. 7. Pre-treatment with cyanide greatly increased the rate at which calcium was lost from axoplasm extruded into flattened dialysis bags. A similar effect was observed when cyanide was applied after extrusion. 8. Replacing external sodium glutamate with potassium glutamate greatly reduced the loss of 45Ca from intact axons poisoned with cyanide but had little effect on the loss from extruded axoplasm. 9. The rate constant for loss of the Ca EGTA complex was about 3 × 10-5 min-1 for intact axons and 2 × 10-2 min-1 for extruded axoplasm. 10. A possible explanation of the cyanide effect is that, after poisoning, calcium ions are released from a store and can then exchange at a higher rate with external sodium or calcium. 11. The experiments suggest that part of the calcium efflux may be coupled to sodium entry. 12. Theoretical equations for `diffusion and chemical reaction in a cylinder' are described in the Appendix. PMID:5764408

Blaustein, M. P.; Hodgkin, A. L.

1969-01-01

234

The Asia Foundation: Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia Foundation counts 21 countries as members of the Asia-Pacific region that it concerns itself with, to "build a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region." The "Multimedia" section of their website contains both slideshows and videos. There are many short videos that highlight the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program, which provides books to schoolchildren whose schools and families have limited access. The video "Return to Khishig Undur: The Tale of Peter Rabbit" is worth watching, as it tells the heartwarming story of students in a 4th grade class in a remote village in Mongolia who each received a copy of The Tale of Peter Rabbit from the Asia Foundation. This book was chosen as a result of the over 10,000 people who voted for a children's book in the "Choose a Book. Change a Life" campaign.

235

Russell Sage Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1907 by Mrs. Margaret Olivia Sage, the Russell Sage Foundation was established for "the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States". Located in New York City, the Foundation is a source of funds for scholars at various institutions around the country and is also an active research center. Currently, the Foundation is pursuing three principal programs, including one on the future of work, another on current U.S. immigration, and a final program that deals with understanding and improving relations between racial and ethnic groups in schools, workplaces, and neighborhood settings. As might be expected, the publication section is quite strong, and includes a number of working papers available at no charge as .pdf files. Some of the titles include studies of welfare recipients and the rise of markets in the Western world.

236

Ford Foundation: Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every year, the Ford Foundation produces reams of working papers, policy documents, and research briefs. This section of the website provides users with access to annual reports, a multimedia area, regional brochures, and studies. Visitors interested in the operations and priorities of the Ford Foundation should definitely peruse its annual report, as it contains information about groups the Foundation funds and its thematic areas of operation. The reports here date back to 2000. The multimedia area contains video programs that cover topics like human rights, American values, and a rather intriguing program titled "Demystifying Global Finance." Scholars and policy makers will want to consider the diverse group of studies here, including "Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education" and "Liberal Education and Civic Engagement." Also, the site includes a helpful search engine which can be used to find specific resources quickly.

2012-06-29

237

The Eurasia Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the banner of âÂÂEngaging Citizens, Empowering CommunitiesâÂÂ, the Eurasia Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Incorporated in 1992, the Eurasia Foundation has made over $335 million in grants to countries in the region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. In general, the Foundation works within three broad mandate areas, including private enterprise development, public administration and policy and civil society. Visitors are invited to learn about their activities on the website, and they may do so by browsing by geographical region, or by looking within the âÂÂPublicationsâ area. This area contains annual reports, news briefs, and feature reports, which include recent titles such as âÂÂOpening the Georgian Militaryâ and âÂÂPromoting the Non-Profit Sector in the PamirsâÂÂ.

238

Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

239

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1966, the Kauffman Foundation was the brainchild of Ewing Kauffman who displayed a great curiosity about the world and who also happened to be a great believer in the importance of philanthropy. Over the past forty years, the Foundation has worked on a variety of initiatives, including work on supporting early education, entrepreneurship, and school reform. On the homepage, visitors will find five primary sections, including "Advancing Innovation", "Education", and "Research & Policy". The first place to start is the "Research & Policy" area. Here, visitors can find data reports and analysis papers on national entrepreneurship trends and technology innovation strategies. In each section, visitors can also view media clips featuring commentary from Kauffman Foundation scholars and experts. Moving on, the "Grants" area is a great way to learn about grant opportunities and recipients listed by date and name. Finally, the "Stay Connected" area contains a place where visitors can sign up to receive their various e-newsletters.

240

World Lung Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lung diseases and related conditions are serious matters, and the World Lung Foundation is dedicated to improving lung health in all regions of the world. The Foundation works with a number of like-minded organizations, including the World Health Organization and the STOP TB Partnership. The Foundation is primarily concerned with researching lung ailments such as acute respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and they also have created a number of education and training programs for health personnel. The site contains six primary thematic areas, including "Tobacco", "TB and Lung Disease", and "Lung Health News". First-time visitors will want to look at the "Lung Health News" area first, as it contains a number of direct news links to recent articles that deal primarily with the worldwide fight against tuberculosis. The site also contains a rather helpful photo image library that includes images of air pollution, tobacco use, and asthma.

241

The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Foundation was founded "by an international group of physicians and researchers to provide an ongoing exchange of information about MDS." For those unfamiliar with this condition, MDS "is a collection of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells." The MDS Foundation website offers free resources for clinicians, information for patients, international research updates, and information about upcoming and past symposia. The site also provides an extensive list of MDS Centers of Excellence throughout the United States and around the world. Other MDS Foundation services include an International MDS Patient Registry; online forums for patients and professional members; downloadable newsletters; links to related articles and archived abstracts; and related links.

242

Ions, isotopes, and metal cyanides: Observational and laboratory studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemistry in the interstellar medium is very different from the processes which take place in terrestrial settings. Environments such as circumstellar envelopes, molecular clouds, and comets contain diverse and complex chemical networks. The low temperatures (10 50 K) and densities (1 10 6 cm-3) allow normally unstable molecules to exist in significant quantities. At these temperatures, the rotational energy levels of molecules are populated, and thus these species can be detected by millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The detection and quantification of interstellar molecules, including metal cyanides and molecular ions, is the basis of this dissertation work. While conducting observations of CN and 13CN to determine the 12C/13C ratio throughout the Galaxy, it was found that the ratios in photon- dominated regions (PDRs) were much higher than those in nearby molecular clouds. This can be explained by isotope-selective photodissociation, in which the 12CN molecules are self-shielded. However, the chemistry in these regions is poorly understood, and other processes may be occurring. In order to understand one of the chemical networks present in PDRs, observations of HCO+, HOC +, and CO+ were made toward several of these sources. Previous studies indicated that the HCO+/HOC+ ratio was much lower in PDRs, due to the presence of CO+. The new observations indicate that there is a strong correlation between CO + and HOC+ abundances, which suggests that other molecular ions which have not been detected in molecular clouds may be present in PDRs. There is a significant obstacle to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, however. The laboratory spectra are virtually unknown for many of these species, due to their inherent instability. Thus, techniques which can selectively detect ionic spectra must be utilized. One such method is velocity modulation, which incorporates an AC electrical discharge to produce and detect ions. Previously, velocity modulation spectroscopy was employed only at infrared wavelengths. The final phase of this dissertation work was to design, build and test a velocity modulation spectrometer which functions at millimeter/sub-mm wavelengths. This system was then used to measure the previously unknown pure rotational spectrum of SH+ (X3E- ).

Savage, Chandra Shannon

2004-11-01

243

The Quest for Complex Molecules in Space. Searches for Cyanides Related to n-PROPYL Cyanide in SGR B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular line survey was carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope toward the prolific hot core Sgr B2(N) in order to explore its molecular complexity. The entire 3 mm range as well as selected regions at 2 and 1.3 mm were covered. Notable results include the detections of aminoacetonitrile, ethyl formate, n-propyl cyanide,^b and the singly substituted 13C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide. There exists a branched isomer of n-propyl cyanide: iso-propyl cyanide. A search for this isomer in our line survey required a laboratory spectroscopic investigation beforehand. Even though promising emission features have been found for this as well as other, related molecules, there are rather few uncontaminated lines. Overlap by other emission or some absorption features occurs frequently, and uncertainties about the position of the baseline also contribute to considering detections to be inconclusive. Nevertheless, the determination of upper limits or abundances among isomers and related molecules will help to constrain astrochemical pathways. We will present our results and discuss promising strategies to search for complex molecules in space. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. 499 (2009), 215. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, A. Walters, J.-U. Grabow, S. Schlemmer, submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

Müller, Holger S. P.; Schlemmer, S.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.

2011-06-01

244

The Groundwater Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Groundwater Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. The section Groundwater Basics contains numerous information on groundwater issues, including the following subjects: what is groundwater; how much do we depend on groundwater; groundwater protection, hydrologic cycle, contamination and concerns, sources of groundwater contamination, wells and how they work, ten ways to help conserve and protect groundwater, groundwater ABCs - a glossary of groundwater-related terminology, and source water assessment and protection guide and training materials. Also of interest are kids and youth sections with activities and games, as well as a listing of the foundation's publications and events.

245

National Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the National Science Foundation is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense. The NSF supports research and education in science and engineering through funding of a wide range of grants and contracts.

2003-10-10

246

Foundation for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

247

Foundation at Visitor Center  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows workers creating the foundation for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The new facility, funded by the Recovery Act, will replace a building that has developed and exposed some serious health and safety problems, including asbestos, extensive rodent encroachment, water leakage, ...

2009-09-17

248

Reconceiving Social Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Tozer's position paper on the social foundations of education (SFE), relating SFE more strongly to teachers' public rather than their private problems, suggesting a different approach to the relation of liberal arts theory and educational practice that is less driven by vocational concerns, and examining social relationships and social…

Bredo, Eric

1993-01-01

249

Logical Foundations Semantic Web  

E-print Network

Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

Sattler, Ulrike

250

Foundations of logic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides an account of the mathematical foundations of logic programming. The reader should have a strong background in mathematics and be familiar with a logic programming language such as PROLOG. Includes chapter problems, references for further study, and a subject index. Contents: Declarative semantics. Procedural semantics. Negation. Perpetual processes. Index.

J. Lloyd

1984-01-01

251

Nobel Foundation: Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site from the Nobel Foundation contains a number of short pages about relativity. Included are The Michelson-Morley Experiment, Postulates of Special Relativity, Lorentz Transformations, The Twin Paradox, a historical timeline, and two sections dedicated to show how Special Relativity can be a tool for science.

2007-06-16

252

Cooley's Anemia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Chapter Donate We're Leaders in World Class Medical Research You Can Help Donate Now Julia’s Story Born ... The Cooley’s Anemia Foundation is accepting applications for medical research grants and fellowships in areas related to thalassemia. ...

253

The Broad Foundations, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was…

Broad Foundation, 2008

2008-01-01

254

The Broad Foundations, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

Broad Foundation, 2006

2006-01-01

255

Foundations of biomolecular modeling.  

PubMed

The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for "development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems." The honored work from the 1970s has provided a foundation for the widespread activities today in modeling organic and biomolecular systems. PMID:24315087

Jorgensen, William L

2013-12-01

256

GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation  

E-print Network

177Geology GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation PROFESSOR HARBOR ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS KNAPP, CONNORS ASSISTANT PROFESSORS GREER, RAHL MAJORS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree consists of 50 credits as follows: 1. Geology 160, 185, 211, 311, 330, 350

Dresden, Gregory

257

Determination of cyanide based upon its reaction with colloidal silver in the presence of oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of silver-gelatin complex are reduced in the presence of ascorbic acid to silver sol. The quantitative reduction may be followed by spectrophotometric determination of silver metal or by the dissolution of yellow silver sol in air. The dissolution has been used for the spectrophotometric, conductometric, and volumetric determination of cyanide in aqueous medium in the presence of protein

Tarasankar. Pal; Ashes. Ganguly; Durga S. Maity

1986-01-01

258

Photothermal laser lithotripsy of uric acid calculi: clinical assessment of the effects of cyanide production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is photothermal. Holmium:YAG lithotripsy of uric acid calculi produces cyanide, which is a known, thermal decomposition produce of uric acid. we review our experience with holmium:YAG lithotripsy of uric acid to determine if there is any clinical evidence of cyanide toxicity. A retrospective analysis of all of our cases of holmium:YAG lithotripsy of uric acid calculi was done. Anesthetic and postoperative data were reviewed. A total of 18 patients with uric acid calculi were tread with holmium:YAG lithotripsy by urethroscopy (5), retrograde nephroscopy (2), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (5) or cystolithotripsy (6). Total holmium:YAG irradiation ranged from 1.2 to 331 kJ. No patient had evidence of increased end-tidal carbon dioxide, change sin electrocardiogram or significant decrease in postoperative serum bicarbonate. An 84 year old woman had decreased diastolic pressure of 30 mm Hg while under general anesthesia. No cyanide related neurologic, cardiac or respiratory complications were noted. These data suggest no significant cyanide toxicity from holmium:YAG lithotripsy or uric acid calculi in typical clinical settings. More specific studies in animals are warranted to characterize the risk.

Teichman, Joel M. H.; Champion, Paolo C.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Wollin, Timothy A.; Denstedt, John D.

1999-06-01

259

PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

260

Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

261

Copper electrowinning from dilute cyanide solution in a membrane cell using graphite felt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct electrowinning of copper from dilute cyanide solutions was conducted in a membrane cell using graphite felt. The accumulation of deposited copper on the graphite felt as the plating proceeds significantly improves the conductivity of the graphite felt, increases the specific surface area and benefits copper deposition. The deposition current efficiency decreases with the increasing CN\\/Cu mole ratio. Copper

Jianming Lu; D. B Dreisinger; W. C Cooper

2002-01-01

262

Depletion of Host-Derived Cyanide in the Gut of the Eastern Tent Caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 ± 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found

T. D. Fitzgerald; P. M. Jeffers; D. Mantella

2002-01-01

263

Effect of lead nitrate on cyanidation of gold ores: progress on the study of the mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the latest efforts to improve the understanding of the use of lead nitrate in cyanidation. The study is based on an electrochemical approach to establish the nature of the mechanisms related to gold, a surface analysis study, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to determine the modifications on gold and sulphide minerals (pyrite, pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite)

G. Deschenes; R. Lastra; J. R. Brown; S. Jin; O. May; E. Ghali

2000-01-01

264

Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting-water leaching followed by magnetic separation.  

PubMed

Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting-water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism. PMID:22333161

Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

2012-04-30

265

Modelling potential ß-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava, a staple crop in Africa, can be crossbred to improve its pro-vitamin A (PVA) content and used as an alternative to capsule supplementation. However it contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic...

266

Comparison of various sensitive and selective spectrophotometric assays of environmental cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented to show the advantages involved in the use of some new spectrophotometric cyanide (CN) assays, which are highly sensitive and selective, quick and affordable. Among these, the ninhydrin-based assay, the method based on CN reaction with resorcinol, as well as the Berthelot reaction were found to be highly selective. The old Aldridge 1 method, based on

Gabi Drochioiu; Karin Popa; Doina Humelnicu; Manuela Murariu; Ion Sandu; Alexandru Cecal

2008-01-01

267

Asensitive, Selective, and Rapid Colorimetric Method to Determine Cyanide Contamination in Containers, Capsules, and Liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of the Konig colorimetric method for cyanide is selective, has increased stability, and is sensitive to a few ppb. The formulation can be placed as a strip on the safety seals of bottles to indicate tampering, placed in a syringe and used to sample head space gas in commercial products or liquids to test for tampering, or

Barbara Markley; Clifton E. Meloan; Jack L. Lambert; Y. C. Chiang

1987-01-01

268

Formation of water-soluble metal cyanide complexes from solid minerals by Pseudomonas plecoglossicida.  

PubMed

A few Pseudomonas species are able to form hydrocyanic acid (HCN), particularly when grown under glycine-rich conditions. In the presence of metals, cyanide can form water-soluble metal complexes of high chemical stability. We studied the possibility to mobilize metals as cyanide complexes from solid minerals using HCN-forming microorganisms. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was cultivated in the presence of copper- and nickel-containing solid minerals. On powdered elemental nickel, fast HCN generation within the first 12 h of incubation was observed and water-soluble tetracyanaonickelate was formed. Cuprite, tenorite, chrysocolla, malachite, bornite, turquoise, millerite, pentlandite as well as shredded electronic scrap was also subjected to a biological treatment. Maximum concentrations of cyanide-complexed copper corresponded to a solubilization of 42% and 27% when P. plecoglossicida was grown in the presence of cuprite or tenorite, respectively. Crystal system, metal oxidation state and mineral hydrophobicity might have a significant influence on metal mobilization. However, it was not possible to allocate metal mobilization to a single mineral property. Cyanide-complexed gold was detected during growth on manually cut circuit boards. Maximum dicyanoaurate concentration corresponded to a 68.5% dissolution of the total gold added. These findings represent a novel type of microbial mobilization of nickel and copper from solid minerals based on the ability of certain microbes to form HCN. PMID:16684101

Faramarzi, Mohammad A; Brandl, Helmut

2006-06-01

269

Movement of selected metals, asbestos, and cyanide in soil: applications to waste disposal problems. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc. The information is based on a literature review, laboratory studies of movement of hazardous substances through soil in municipal

Fuller

1977-01-01

270

Detection of protonated vinyl cyanide, CH2CHCNH+, a prototypical branched nitrile cation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational spectrum of protonated vinyl cyanide, CH2CHCNH+, a prototypical branched nitrile species and likely intermediate in astronomical sources and in the planetary atmosphere of Titan, has been detected in a pulsed-discharge supersonic molecular beam by means of Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Fifteen lines arising from 11 a-type rotational transitions have been observed between 9 and 46 GHz, several with partially resolved nitrogen hyperfine structure. From this data set, the leading spectroscopic constants, including all three rotational constants, have been determined to high accuracy. The agreement between experimental rotational constants and those calculated at the CCSD(T) level of theory is of order 0.1%. An even better estimate was obtained through empirical scaling using calculated and experimental rotational constants of isoelectronic vinyl acetylene. Measurement of a small nitrogen quadrupole coupling constant in protonated vinyl cyanide is consistent with a quadruply bound nitrogen atom and a H+-N?C-R type structure. Because vinyl cyanide is abundant in molecule-rich astronomical sources and possesses a high proton affinity, and because protonated vinyl cyanide is unreactive with hydrogen and other well-known interstellar species, this cation is an excellent candidate for astronomical detection. The present work suggests that other organic molecules containing the nitrile group and closely related species such as protonated vinyl acetylene can probably be detected with the same instrumentation.

Martinez, Oscar; Lattanzi, Valerio; Thorwirth, Sven; McCarthy, Michael C.

2013-03-01

271

The cyanogenic syndrome in rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis: tissue-damage-dependent activation of linamarase and hydroxynitrile lyase accelerates hydrogen cyanide release  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from injured plant tissue affects multiple ecological interactions. Plant-derived HCN can act as a defence against herbivores and also plays an important role in plant–pathogen interactions. Crucial for activity as a feeding deterrent is the amount of HCN generated per unit time, referred to as cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Strong intraspecific variation in HCNc has been observed among cyanogenic plants. This variation, in addition to genotypic variability (e.g. in Trifolium repens), can result from modifications in the expression level of the enzymes involved in either cyanogenic precursor formation or HCN release (as seen in Sorghum bicolor and Phaseolus lunatus). Thus, a modification or modulation of HCNc in reaction to the environment can only be achieved from one to the next generation when under genetic control and within days or hours when transcriptional regulations are involved. In the present study, it is shown that in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) HCNc is modulated by post-translational activity regulation of the key enzymes for cyanide release. Methods Linamarase (LIN) and hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) activity was determined by colorimetric assays utilizing dissociation of the substrates p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside and acetone cyanohydrin, respectively. Key Results In rubber tree leaves, LIN and HNL show up to ten-fold increased activity in response to tissue damage. This enzyme activation occurs within seconds and results in accelerated HCN formation. It is restricted to the damaged leaf area and depends on the severity of tissue damage. Conclusions LIN and HNL activation (in contrast to genetic and transcriptional regulations) allows an immediate, local and damage type-dependent modulation of the cyanogenic response. Accordingly, this post-translational activation plays a decisive role in the defence of H. brasiliensis against herbivores as well as pathogens and may allow more flexible reactions in response to these different antagonists. PMID:22451599

Kadow, Daniel; Voß, Karsten; Selmar, Dirk; Lieberei, Reinhard

2012-01-01

272

California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom works with K-12 teachers, students, and community leaders, to enhance education using agricultural examples. This site provides information about teacher training, student programs, agriculture weblinks, and many resource materials for the classroom. Those materials include downloadable curriculum units covering topics such as heredity, cycles, food, plants, health, engineering and insects. Also included are fact sheets, a quiz, an education newsletter and much more.

273

Shang Fa Yang: Pioneer in plant ethylene biochemistry Kent J. Bradford *  

E-print Network

Shang Fa Yang: Pioneer in plant ethylene biochemistry Kent J. Bradford * Department of Plant-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is converted into 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and subsequently into ethylene, cyanide and sulfur metabolism in plants as well. His work formed the basis for subsequent research

Bradford, Kent

274

Rapid Point of Care Analyzer for the Measurement of Cyanide in Blood  

PubMed Central

A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H3PO4 and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide Hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (?max = 510 nm) to violet (?max = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10x when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improve the limit of detection by 4x to ~ 0.5 ?M for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (? 10 ?M) can be accurately measured in ~ 2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample – smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 ?M CN was 1.09% (n=5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r2 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K.; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

2011-01-01

275

PEGylated meso-arylporpholactone metal complexes as optical cyanide sensors in water.  

PubMed

The colorimetric cyanide sensing ability of free base porpholactone, a pyrrole-modified porphyrin in which a porphyrin ?,?'-double bond was replaced by a lactone functionality, and its zinc(II), platinum(II), and gallium(III) complexes in aqueous solution are reported. Water-solubility of the parent meso-pentafluorophenyl-derivatized porphyrinoids was assured by PEGylation of the p-aryl positions using a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction with thiol-terminated PEG chains. A central metal-dependent sensing mechanism was revealed: While the CN(-) adds to the zinc(II) complex as an axial ligand, resulting in a minor response in its UV-vis spectrum, it undergoes a nucleophilic addition to the lactone moiety in the platinum(II) and gallium(III) complexes, leading to a much more prominent optical response. Nonetheless, these chemosensors are less sensitive than many other sensors reported previously, with detection limits at pH 7 for the zinc, gallium, and platinum complexes of 2 mM (50 ppm), 240 ?M (6 ppm), and 4 mM (100 ppm), respectively. The gallium(III) complex is weakly fluorescent (? = 0.8%) and cyanide addition leads to fluorescence intensity quenching; the cyanide adduct responds with a fluorescence switch-on response but the signal is weak (? < 10(-2)%). Lastly, we report on the fabrication of a unique optical cyanide-sensing membrane. The PEGylated gallium-complex was incorporated into a Nafion® membrane (on a PTFE carrier film). It was shown to be stable over extended periods of time and exhibiting a reversible and selective response within minutes to cyanide, with a 5 mM (130 ppm) detection limit. This largely fundamental study on the ability to utilize the once rare but now readily available class of pyrrole-modified porphyrins as chemosensors highlights the multiple principle ways this chromophore platform can be modified and utilized. PMID:24825173

Worlinsky, Jill L; Halepas, Steven; Brückner, Christian

2014-06-21

276

Optical chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water based on ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine.  

PubMed

Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose was functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine. The modified polymer was easily transformed in a film, which could be used as a highly selective chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water, with detection limits of 1.9 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The film was successfully applied to the detection of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots, which are a well-known source of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:24805864

Nandi, Leandro G; Nicoleti, Celso R; Bellettini, Ismael C; Machado, Vanderlei G

2014-05-20

277

FOUNDATION PAPER FOR THE PLANT OIL FLAGSHIP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the last century we have become dependent on fossil fuels not just as an energy source for transportation and heating but also for the provision of industrial feedstocks for a multitude of products that we use in every aspect of our daily lives. Fossil fuels are a finite resource and as this re...

278

Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

2012-01-01

279

The Foundations of Applied Mathematics  

E-print Network

The Foundations of Applied Mathematics John Baez Category-Theoretic Foundations of Mathematics Workshop May 5, 2013 #12;We often picture the flow of information about mathematics a bit like this: SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLIED MATHEMATICS PURE MATHEMATICS FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS #12;Of course

Baez, John

280

Typical Bridge Foundations - Selected Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foundations of the bridges have always been a matter of great concern to Civil Engineers. In many instances actual strata met with at the foundation level turned out to be quite different than that found at the time of geological and geotechnical investigation. This paper discusses typical case studies of bridge foundations constructed at various places in the state of

P. K. Jain; Rakesh Kumar; Anand Selot; S. K. Mittal

281

Mind Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potential within the human mind and its connection to the rest of the human body is a subject that has consumed many of the world's brightest scientists. The Mind Science Foundation, founded by Thomas Baker Slick, is a place that is intimately concerned with such matters, and their website is a good way to learn about some of the issues surrounding their work and broader notions about how consciousness arises in human beings. It's a tall research order, and the website responds admirably by presenting a number of speeches from experts on the subject, along with links to the results of various research endeavors sponsored with funds from the Foundation. The site also contains an interactive database of researchers who are working in the area of consciousness and a library of books that might be of interest to those looking for additional resources.

282

Foundation for Child Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Foundation for Child Development \\"is a national, private philanthropy dedicated to the principle that all families should have the social and material resources to raise their children to be healthy, educated and productive members of their communities.\\" The Foundation seeks to help the disadvantaged especially, and works with families, schools, other non-profits, businesses and government. On the site, those interested in Child Development will find links to Public Policy at both the state and national level. Information about immigrant children as well as their own Child Well-Being Index. Also on the site are the archives of their in house publication \\"Learning Curve\\" where users can find articles on a plethora of topics ranging from \\"Fighting Fade-Out by advancing PK-3 Alignment\\" and \\"PK-3 Indicators available on Child Trends DataBank\\". Overall, a useful tool for students, instructors and professionals involved in Child Development.

2006-12-19

283

Thomas B. Fordham Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation is dedicated to an agenda of education reform not unlike the President George W. Bush: testing and accountability, charter schools, school choice, and the like. Its Website provides a number of recently written reports and papers relating to these issues. Recent documents include a "Memo to the New President," offering advice on how to bridge the "partisan divide" and enact reform, a history of teacher certification that examines the rise to political power of professional teacher organizations, a critique of whole language reading instruction, and The State of the State Standards, 2000, a comprehensive assessment of state standards. The publications section includes selected readings on school reform, teacher quality, charter schools, and more. The site features a search engine and a detailed site map. All in all, a fine resource for materials in the school reform debate from what many would characterize as the conservative perspective. The foundation is affiliated with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

284

The International Crane Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Baraboo, Wisconsin, the "International Crane Foundation (ICF) works worldwide to conserve cranes and the wetland and grassland ecosystems on which they depend." The ICF website provides a variety of information about the Foundation as well as great resources like the Species Field Guide which contains photos, range maps, and information about all 15 types of crane. The site also includes information about conservation and research projects in North America, Asia, and Africa. For teachers and students, the ICF's Education Department offers several online resources including instructions for making an origami crane; a list of related books; a downloadable six-page Crane Behavior Guide, and information about participating in an International Art Exchange. Be sure not to miss the What's New link for updates regarding the Whooping Cranes ongoing migration from Wisconsin to Florida.

285

The Wallace Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the Wallace Foundation is a national philanthropy that seeks "to improve education and enrichment for disadvantaged children." Visitors to their website can learn more about their outreach and research programs through their Primary Topics area. Here, they can read about recent findings that deal with the importance of strong school leaderships, informal learning outside of the classroom, and resources for nonprofit financial management. Moving on, the Knowledge Center contains links to fact sheets, white papers, and databases that deal with arts education, summer learning programs, and four other topical areas. Additionally, visitors shouldn't miss the Latest News area, which contains press releases about the Wallace Foundation's work and advocacy programs crafted through partnerships with other organizations, such as school districts, government agencies, and so on.

286

The Ford Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford, The Ford Foundation has distributed over $15.6 billion in monies for organizations working on issues such as human rights, social justice philanthropy, and access to education. For visitors new to the site, it's worth starting out by clicking on the "Issues" section. Here they can learn about the eight primary areas of focus within the Foundation, and also learn about some of their specific initiatives, like the "Advancing Public Service Media" initiative and the "Economic Opportunities for the Rural Poor" initiative. Moving on, visitors should check out the "Newsroom" area for a quick overview of recent success stories and reports, including their work on creating land banks as a way to fight urban blight and how iPhone apps could save public radio. Visitors can also use the interactive map on the homepage (and in the "Regions" section) to focus in on the different programs across the globe.

287

National Energy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Energy Foundation (NEF) is a nonprofit educational organization that provides a host of educational materials and programs primarily related to discussing natural resources, technology, conservation, and the environment. The NEF also provides a number of teacher training and student programs that complement their existing work. Young people visiting the site will want to look over the student section which provides four purpose-built sites that provide information on earth sciences activities, environmental stewardship, and several other topical areas. Educators will want to take a look at the section provided for them, as it contains links to the NEFâÂÂs educational catalog and information about upcoming workshops of interest. The site is rounded out by a links page that offers a host of topical links to other relevant science education sites, such as one on alternate fuel vehicles and the Captain Planet Foundation.

288

Foundations of Modern Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended for students who are using the textbook, "Foundations of Modern Cosmology". In this website every chapter in the book has a summary and a brief overview of the important concepts. Topics in the book include: Newton's contribution to cosmology, the evolution of stars, relativity, black holes, the expansion of the universe, the early universe, the CMB, dark matter, and inflation. There is also a list of students' questions, with answers, about ideas and concepts they found challenging.

Hawley, John

2004-07-16

289

Electronic Frontier Foundation: Biometrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since September 11, 2001 the U.S. government has been actively searching for ways to improve surveillance at airports and U.S. borders. The Electronic Frontier Foundation is concerned that biometric technologies are being promoted as the silver bullet when very little independent, objective scientific testing of biometrics has been done. This evolving website discusses what is known and raises issues for concern regarding recent government proposals for using biometric systems in surveillance.

290

Bacterial Cyanide Oxygenase Is a Suite of Enzymes Catalyzing the Scavenging and Adventitious Utilization of Cyanide as a Nitrogenous Growth Substrate  

PubMed Central

Cyanide oxygenase (CNO) from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 catalyzes the pterin-dependent oxygenolytic cleavage of cyanide (CN) to formic acid and ammonia. CNO was resolved into four protein components (P1 to P4), each of which along with a source of pterin cofactor was obligately required for CNO activity. Component P1 was characterized as a multimeric 230-kDa flavoprotein exhibiting the properties of a peroxide-forming NADH oxidase (oxidoreductase) (Nox). P2 consisted of a 49.7-kDa homodimer that showed 100% amino acid identity at its N terminus to NADH peroxidase (Npx) from Enterococcus faecalis. Enzyme assays further confirmed the identities of both Nox and Npx enzymes (specific activity, 1 U/mg). P3 was characterized as a large oligomeric protein (?300 kDa) that exhibited cyanide dihydratase (CynD) activity (specific activity, 100 U/mg). Two polypeptides of 38 kDa and 43 kDa were each detected in the isolated enzyme, the former believed to confer catalytic activity based on its similar size to other CynD enzymes. The amino acid sequence of an internal peptide of the 43-kDa protein was 100% identical to bacterial elongation factor Tu, suggesting a role as a possible chaperone in the assembly of CynD or a multienzyme CNO complex. The remaining P4 component consisted of a 28.9-kDa homodimer and was identified as carbonic anhydrase (specific activity, 2,000 U/mg). While the function of participating pterin and the roles of Nox, Npx, CynD, and CA in the CNO-catalyzed scavenging of CN remain to be determined, this is the first report describing the collective involvement of these four enzymes in the metabolic detoxification and utilization of CN as a bacterial nitrogenous growth substrate. PMID:16159773

Fernandez, Ruby F.; Kunz, Daniel A.

2005-01-01

291

Patterns of cyanide antidote use since regulatory approval of hydroxocobalamin in the United States.  

PubMed

Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are common cyanide antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin was approved for use in the United States in 2006. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antidote use as reported to the US poison centers from 2005 to 2009 and describe which antidotes were used in critically ill cyanide toxic patients. We performed a retrospective review over 5 years (2005-2009) from 61 US poison centers. We identified all cyanide-exposed cases that received a cyanide antidote. Variables collected included demographics, gastric decontamination, antidote used, predefined serious clinical effects (hypotension, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and coma), and predefined serious therapies (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vasopressors, atropine, anticonvulsant, antidysrhythmic, and intubation/ventilation). One trained abstractor abstracted each chart to a standardized electronic form. Another investigator audited 20% of the charts. Kappa values were calculated. One hundred sixty-five exposures were identified. Mean age was 42 years (range, 3-93 years). Seventy-one percent were male. Exposures were 27% ingestion and 53% inhalation. Thirty-two percent of the ingestions were suicide attempts. Twenty percent (32 of 157) of all cases died. Over all years reported, hydroxocobalamin was administered to 29% (45 of 157) of patients, sodium nitrite to 25%, and sodium thiosulfate to 46%. Hydroxocobalamin use increased from 24% to 54% from 2007 to 2009, respectively (P = 0.024). Sodium thiosulfate use decreased from 73% to 31% (P = 0.002) and sodium nitrite use decreased from 26% to 14% (P = 0.39). The proportion of cases with serious clinical effects that received hydroxocobalamin increased each year, and the proportion that received other antidotes decreased. Hydroxocobalamin was also administered more often in cases that required serious therapies and increased each year. Hydroxocobalamin use for cyanide toxicity increased each year as reported to the US poison centers. Reported use of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite decreased over the same years. In addition, hydroxocobalamin was used more often each year in critically ill cyanide toxic patients than were sodium nitrite or sodium thiosulfate. PMID:23689094

Streitz, Matthew J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Borys, Douglas J; Morgan, David L

2014-01-01

292

Assay techniques for detection of exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide. Technical bulletin  

SciTech Connect

This technical bulletin provides analytical techniques to identify toxic chemical agents in urine or blood samples. It is intended to provide the clinician with laboratory tests to detect exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide.

NONE

1996-05-01

293

Acute effects of road salts and associated cyanide compounds on the early life stages of the unionid mussel Villosa iris.  

PubMed

The toxicity of cyanide to the early life stages of freshwater mussels (order Unionida) has remained unexplored. Cyanide is known to be acutely toxic to other aquatic organisms. Cyanide-containing compounds, such as sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide, are commonly added to road deicing salts as anticaking agents. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of three cyanide compounds (sodium cyanide, sodium ferrocyanide, and ferric ferrocyanide), two road salts containing cyanide anticaking agents (Morton and Cargill brands), a brine deicing solution (Liquidow brand), and a reference salt (sodium chloride) on glochidia (larvae) and juveniles of the freshwater mussel Villosa iris. Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide were not acutely toxic to glochidia and juvenile mussels at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for these two chemicals ranged from 10 to >1,000 mg/L. Sodium cyanide was acutely toxic to juvenile mussels, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.10 mg/L, although glochidia tolerated concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The EC50s for sodium chloride, Liquidow brine, Morton road salt, and Cargill road salt were not significantly different for tests within the same life stage and test duration (range, 1.66-4.92 g/L). These results indicate that cyanide-containing anticaking agents do not exacerbate the toxicity of road salts, but that the use of road salts and brine solutions for deicing or dust control on roads may warrant further investigation. PMID:22573519

Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Young, George B; Jones, Jess W; Hua, Dan; Lingenfelser, Susan F

2012-08-01

294

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

295

In situ formation of phosphorescent molecular gold(I) cluster in a macroporous polymer film to achieve colorimetric cyanide sensing.  

PubMed

A highly phosphorescent molecular Au(I) cluster capable of rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of cyanide has been successfully fabricated. The origin of the outstanding sensing performance of the molecular Au(I) cluster toward cyanide is justified by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses. The response mechanism employed with the molecular Au(I) cluster and the cost-effectiveness in cyanide detection affords several key sensor features, making this molecular Au(I) cluster-based sensor unique compared to other cyanide sensing schemes. Importantly, by exploring the phosphorescent properties of the molecular Au(I) cluster in solid state, we demonstrate the first example of the molecular gold(I) cluster-based macroporous sensing film for colorimetric detection of cyanide in complex samples, including red wine, coffee, juice, and soil. Remarkably, the as-prepared sensing film inherits the sensing ability of the molecular Au(I) cluster, and offers a high mechanical flexibility and novel opportunities for real-time monitoring cyanide release in cassava manufacturing. PMID:24397707

Zong, Chenghua; Zheng, Li Rong; He, Wenhui; Ren, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunhuan; Lu, Lehui

2014-02-01

296

Factors influencing the risk of wildlife cyanide poisoning on a tailings storage facility in the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia.  

PubMed

Patterns of wildlife visitation and interaction with cyanide-bearing tailings slurry and solutions at the Fimiston tailings storage facility (TSF) have been reported in a previously published ecological study. The above-mentioned findings are extended in this paper by the examination of additional wildlife survey data, along with process water chemistry data collected during the same study period. Analysis of the combined results revealed that the primary wildlife protective mechanism in operation was effective management of tailings cyanide concentration. Nevertheless, tailings discharge concentration exceeded the industry standard wildlife protective limit of 50mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide episodically during the study period. Wildlife that interacted with habitats close to the spigot outlet during brief periods of increased discharge concentration were likely to have been exposed to bioavailable cyanide at concentrations greater than the industry standard protective limit. However, no wildlife deaths were recorded. These results appear to support the hypothesis that hypersalinity of process solutions (unique to the Kalgoorlie district of Western Australia) and a lack of aquatic food resources represent secondary protective mechanisms that operated to prevent cyanide-related wildlife mortality during the project. The proposed protective mechanisms are discussed in the context of their potential application as proactive management procedures to minimise wildlife exposure to cyanide. PMID:19356799

Griffiths, Stephen R; Smith, Gregory B; Donato, David B; Gillespie, Craig G

2009-07-01

297

Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

298

Deeplinks: Electronic Frontier Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has crafted this great resource for people interested in the world of online rights and privacy matters. A quick glance through the site will reveal a range of key commentaries on issues of copyright, moral privacy rights, and government intervention. Visitors can scroll through recent posts and then look over some of their additional projects, which include Bloggers' Rights, and HTTPS Everywhere. Also, visitors can offer comment and search posts by keywords, such as "International,â?ť "Copyright,â?ť and "Free Speech.â?ť It's an exciting new project and one that will be of great interest to policy aficionados and others.

299

Chemical Heritage Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) is dedicated to preserving and sharing the history and heritage of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and allied industries." This Web site illustrates how chemistry has shaped our world. Students can discover the chemical history of Innovations and Industry, Ancients and Alchemists, and much more. Through the Online Exhibits, visitors can view the pictures of Walter J. Hamer's collection of early batteries. In the Classroom Resources, educators will find online tools discussing molecular science and pharmaceutical achievers and many Chemistry Web Quests including Evidence for Atoms and The Great MTBE Controversy. Graduate students may want to take advantage of the many fellowships offered on the site.

2003-01-01

300

The African Conservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

Terry Harnwell

2001-08-15

301

Foundation fieldbus economics comparison  

PubMed

This paper will provide a life cycle cost comparison between installations of three different control system configurations. 1. Conventional analogue instruments. 2. HART protocol instruments with a parallel asset management system. 3. Foundation fieldbus installation. Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and ongoing maintenance costs will be included as part of the analysis. Data for the analysis includes equipment from multiple manufacturers so a range of expected expenses will also be provided to indicate the sensitivity of the economic calculations to supplier. All calculations will be based on the median equipment values. PMID:10871221

Verhappen

2000-01-01

302

African Wildlife Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through research and community-based conservation, the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) has "played a major role in ensuring the continues existence of some of Africa's most rare and treasure species such as the elephant, the mountain gorilla, rhinoceros, and cheetah." The AWF Web site offers loads of information on the current programs and program locations, including factsheets and photos of African wildlife. Other features include an online library of recent and archived news articles, and a noncommercial safari planner for the informed ecotourist. Altogether, it's an appealing and informative Web site.

1996-01-01

303

Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide.  

PubMed

The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic. PMID:25258074

Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T; Müller, Holger S P; Menten, Karl M

2014-09-26

304

Cyanide leaching chemistry of platinum-group metals. Report of investigations/1994  

SciTech Connect

Previous research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines has shown that autoclave cyanide leaching of used automobiles exhaust catalysts for recovery of platinum group metals (PGM) is technically feasible. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemistry of the dissolution of PGM in cyanide solutions, in more detail. Where possible, samples of pure, elemental PGM powders or foils were used instead of automobile exhaust catalysts, because of their greater purity. Leaching rate studies showed that the rate of solubilization was greatest for Pd, followed by Pt and Rh. Although the rate of chemical reaction was the controlling step for the dissolution of elemental Pt and Rh samples, the rate diffusion was rate limiting for PGM in catalyst samples.

Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.; Walters, L.A.

1994-01-01

305

Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3.5 cyanide species analytical methods development. FY 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

1993-01-01

306

Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3. 5 cyanide species analytical methods development  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

1993-01-01

307

Half-Metallicity in Two-Dimensional Nickel Cyanide Molecular Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the electronic structural properties of undoped- and doped-transition metal nickel cyanide molecular layers. Our theoretical study is motivated by recent experiments synthesizing two-dimensional nickel cyanides from a reaction of nickel tetracyanides and other divalent transition metals [1]. DFT calculations reveal that, while the undoped molecular planar structure is a narrow band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.3 eV, the structures with iron doping are half-metals. We discuss the stability of the ferromagnetic phase and the effective magnetic coupling between magnetic ions. We confirm the calculated results by comparing with atomic force microscopy and tunneling electron microscopy measurement. [4pt] [1] G. Beall, private communication

Higgins, Craig; Beall, Gary; Lee, Byounghak

2010-03-01

308

Rapid measurement of free cyanide in liquor by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.  

PubMed

This study investigated the measurement of free cyanide in liquor by ion chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). Eluent concentration, interferent evaluation and method performance were discussed. Results show that free cyanide in liquor can be rapidly determined by the optimised IC-PAD method. A sample requires only 1:100 dilution and simple filtration before being subjected to IC-PAD. The linear range is 1-5000?g/L with an R value of 0.9998. The detection limit is 1?g/L for a 25?L injection loop. The overall relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method is less than 5%, and the recovery range is from 98.1% to 105.0%. This study has been proven significant and may have potential applications in liquors analysis. PMID:25442607

Wu, Wenlin; Xiao, Quanwei; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Mei; Wan, Yuping; Liang, Hengxing

2015-04-01

309

Straightforward synthesis of 1,2-dicyanoalkanes from nitroalkenes and silyl cyanide mediated by tetrabutylammonium fluoride.  

PubMed

A straightforward synthesis of 1,2-dicyanoalkanes by reacting nitroalkenes with trimethylsilyl cyanide in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride is described. The reaction proceeds through a tandem double Michael addition under mild conditions. Employing the hypervalent silicate generated from trimethylsilyl cyanide and tetrabutylammonium fluoride is essential for achieving this transformation. Mechanistic studies suggest that a small amount of water included in the reaction media plays a key role. This protocol is applicable to various types of substrates including electron-rich and electron-deficient aromatic nitroalkenes, and aliphatic nitroalkenes. Moreover, vinyl sulfones were found to be good alternatives, particularly for electron-deficient nitroalkenes. The broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance of the reaction makes this approach a practical method for the synthesis of valuable 1,2-dicyanoalkanes. PMID:25346107

Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Nagata, Takaya; Hayakawa, Junpei; Minakata, Satoshi

2015-01-12

310

Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

2014-01-01

311

Hydrogen cyanide formation at low reactant concentrations over noble metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of three-way catalysts containing platinum and rhodium in catalytic converters for abatement of automative exhaust emissions has required examination of their activity for hydrogen cyanide formation under the conditions of their normal operations and under conditions created by system malfunctions. While effective in reducing nitric oxide when used in three-way catalyst systems, the platinum-rhodium catalysts have also been

W. B. Williamson; M. Shelef

1977-01-01

312

The Impact of Bioaugmentation on Metal Cyanide Degradation and Soil Bacteria Community Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal cyanides are significant contaminants of many soils found at the site of former industrial activity. In this study we\\u000a isolated bacteria capable of degrading ferric ferrocyanide and K2Ni(CN)4. One of these bacteria a Rhodococcus spp. was subsequently used to bioaugment a minimal medium broth, spiked with K2Ni(CN)4, containing 1 g of either an uncontaminated topsoil or a former coke works

J. Baxter; S. P. Cummings

2006-01-01

313

Hydrogen cyanide polymers from the impact of comet P\\/Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen cyanide polymers—heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to brown to black—may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the Solar System. The nonvolatile black crust of comet Halley, for example, as well as the extensive orange-brown streaks in the atmosphere of Jupiter, might consist largely of such polymers synthesized from HCN formed by photolysis

C. N Matthews

1997-01-01

314

Effect of Cultivar, Steeping, and Malting on Tannin, Total Polyphenol, and Cyanide Content of Nigerian Sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 66(2):87-89 Tannin was estimated in the seeds of 15 Nigerian sorghum cultivars and polyphenol content also decreased by 22,68, and 19% for SRN484, KSV7, found to vary between 0.25% (catechin equivalent) for SSVl 1 and SSV12 and SSV3, respectively, after malting. Cyanide content of the grains varied and 2.92% for SRN484. Total polyphenol content ranged from 0.32% from

BOLANLE A. OSUNTOGUN; STEVE R. A. ADEWUSI; CHARLES C. NWASIKE

315

In vitro activation of dibromoacetonitrile to cyanide: role of xanthine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) is a disinfection byproduct of chlorination of drinking water. Epidemiological studies indicate that it might present a potential hazard to human health. The present work provides evidence for DBAN activation to cyanide (CN-) by the hypoxanthine (HX)\\/xanthine oxidase (XO)\\/iron (Fe) system in vitro. Optimum conditions for the oxidation of DBAN to CN-were characterized. Addition of the sulfhydryl compounds

Ahmed M. Mohamadin; Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim

2003-01-01

316

Cyanide-Arene Meisenheimer Complex Generated in Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Acetonitrile as a Solvent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C - C bond formation activated under negative electrospray ionization of an acetonitrile solution of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene is reported. The solvent function is to provide a source of cyanide ion, a highly problematic reagent, which is found to attack the electron-deficient aromatic ring to form a covalently bound anionic complex (Meisenheimer complex). The structure of the complex is elucidated by means of collision induced dissociation mass spectrometry and IR multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy in the `fingerprint' region.

Chiavarino, Barbara; Maitre, Philippe; Fornarini, Simonetta; Crestoni, Maria Elisa

2013-10-01

317

The Freedom Trail Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâÂÂs primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâÂÂs most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the âÂÂSee the 16 sitesâ section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul RevereâÂÂs House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

318

Free Software Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) was established in 1985 to promote "computer users' rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs." That is, the organization promotes the development and use of free software, particularly for the GNU operating system (GNU/Linux). FSF is the primary sponsor of the GNU Project, which was established to create new distribution terms that would prevent the project from being turned into proprietary software. The website provides information on current FSF projects, such as providing development systems support for GNU software maintainers and raising awareness about the Free Software license and how to use it. They also maintain the Free Software Directory, which catalogs "all useful free software that runs under free operating systems" and currently contains over 3,000 entries. The Directory can be accessed from this website and searched by keyword or browsed by application area, such as Business and Productivity, Database, Education, Email, Games, Mathematics, Network Applications, Printing, Science, Security, Software development, and Web Authoring. The website also provides information on how to add packages to the Directory and how to donate to the Foundation.

319

Cell death of rice roots under salt stress may be mediated by cyanide-resistant respiration.  

PubMed

Treatment with solutions containing high concentrations of NaCl (200 or 300 mM) induced cell death in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots, as well as the application of exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, the pretreatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H2O2, partially alleviated the root cell death induced by 200 mM NaCl. These observations suggest that the cell death of rice roots under high salt stress is linked to H2O2 accumulation in vivo. NaCl stress increased the level of cyanide-resistant respiration to some extent and enhanced the transcript levels of the alternative oxidase (AOX) genes AOX1a and AOX1b in rice roots. High-salt-stressed (200 mM NaCl) rice roots pretreated with 1 mM salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), a specific inhibitor of alternative oxidase, exhibited higher levels of cell death and H2O2 production than roots subjected to either 200 mM NaCl stress or SHAM treatment alone. These results suggest that cyanide-resistant respiration could play a role in mediating root cell death under high salt stress. Furthermore, this function of cyanide-resistant respiration could relate to its ability to reduce the generation of H2O2. PMID:23659171

Feng, Hanqing; Hou, Xiuli; Li, Xin; Sun, Kun; Wang, Rongfang; Zhang, Tengguo; Ding, Yanping

2013-01-01

320

Interfacial electron transfer in metal cyanide-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Electroabsorption (Stark) spectroscopy has been used to study the charge-transfer absorption from a transition-metal-cyanide complex to a TiO2 nanoparticle. Transition-metal cyanide/TiO2(particle) systems were synthesized using FeII(CN)(6)4-, RuII(CN)6(4-), MoIV(CN)(8)4-, and WIV(CN)8(4-). On formation of the M(CN)n4-/TiO2(particle) system, a new metal-to-particle charge-transfer (MPCT) absorption band is observed in the 390-480 nm region. Analysis of the absorption spectra suggests that the TiO2 level involved in the MPCT transition resides at significantly higher energy than the bottom of the conduction band and that the electronic coupling between the two metal centers is the dominant factor determining the position of the MPCT band maximum. The average charge-transfer distances determined by Stark spectra range from 4.1-4.7 A. The observation of relatively short charge-transfer distances leads to the conclusion that the MPCT absorption is from the transition-metal cyanide center to a level that is localized on the Ti atom bound to a nitrogen end of the [O2Ti-N-C-M(CN)x] system. The electronic coupling, Hab, calculated for a two state model is similar to values observed in dinuclear metal complexes. PMID:17402776

Harris, James A; Trotter, Kevin; Brunschwig, Bruce S

2007-06-21

321

Hydrogen cyanide polymers from the impact of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter.  

PubMed

Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to brown to black--may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the Solar System. The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley, for example, as well as the extensive orange-brown streaks in the atmosphere of Jupiter, might consist largely of such polymers synthesized from HCN formed by photolysis of methane and ammonia. Laboratory studies of these ubiquitous compounds point to the presence of polyamidine structures synthesized directly from hydrogen cyanide. These would be converted by water to polypeptides which can be further hydrolyzed to alpha-amino acids. Other polymers and multimers with ladder structures derived from HCN would also be present and might well be the source of the many nitrogen heterocycles, adenine included, detected by thermochemolytic analysis. The dark brown color arising from the impacts of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter could therefore be mainly caused by the presence of HCN polymers, whether originally present, deposited by the impactor or synthesized from freshly formed HCN. Spectroscopic detection of these predicted macromolecules and their hydrolytic and pyrolytic by-products would strengthen significantly the hypothesis that cyanide polymerization is a preferred pathway for prebiotic and extraterrestrial chemistry. PMID:11541337

Matthews, C N

1997-01-01

322

A simple, rapid and sensitive semimicro method for the measurement of cyanide in blood.  

PubMed

Conventional methods do not meet the clinical need for rapid cyanide measurements. We report a procedure which can provide a result in 10 min. It should be of particular interest to laboratories serving cardiac or renal units which use the hypotensive agent sodium nitroprusside, and burns units to which fire victims may be admitted suffering the effects of HCN from inhaled smoke. A sample of blood (100 microL) is mixed with H3PO4, containing a surfactant, and the HCN is trapped in an alkaline mixture of 1,2-dinitrobenzene and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde in 2-methoxyethanol. The catalytic action of cyanide, which produces purple 2-nitrophenylhydroxylamine, is stopped with acetone after 6 min. The absorbance measured at 560 nm shows a linear relationship with the cyanide concentration, but the slope varies with the ambient temperature. Since KCN added to both 50 mmol/L NaOH and blood gives similar assay results, any inaccuracy arising from changes in temperature can be avoided by running standards at the same time as the blood sample. PMID:10586313

Vesey, C J; McAllister, H; Langford, R M

1999-11-01

323

Pediatric cyanide intoxication and death from an acetonitrile-containing cosmetic  

SciTech Connect

Two cases of pediatric accidental ingestion of an acetonitrile-containing cosmetic are reported. One of the children, a 16-month-old boy, was found dead in bed the morning after ingesting the product. No therapy had been undertaken, as the product was mistakenly assumed to be an acetone-containing nail polish remover. The second child, a 2-year-old boy, experienced signs of severe cyanide poisoning, but survived with vigorous supportive care. Both children had blood cyanide levels in the potentially lethal range. The observed delayed onset of severe toxic reactions supports the proposed mechanism of acetonitrile conversion to inorganic cyanide via hepatic microsomal enzymes. Physicians and poison centers should be alerted to the existence of this highly toxic product, sold for removal of sculptured nails and likely to be confused with the less toxic acetone-containing nail polish removers. The authors urge regulatory agencies to reconsider the wisdom of marketing a cosmetic that poses such an extreme health hazard.

Caravati, E.M.; Litovitz, T.L. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

1988-12-16

324

Pretreatment of cyanided tailings by catalytic ozonation with Mn(2+)/O(3.).  

PubMed

The increasing amount of cyanided tailings produced as a by-product has gained significant attention in recent years because of the rapid development of the gold industry and extensive exploitation of gold mineral resources. The effective use of these secondary resources is becoming an important and urgent problem for all environmental protection staff. Manganese-catalyzed ozonation for the pre-oxidation of cyanided tailings was studied and the effects of Mn(2+) dosage, initial sulfuric acid concentration, ozone volume flow, temperature and agitation speed on pretreatment were examined. The optimum reaction conditions were observed to be: ore pulp density 2.5%, agitation speed 700r/min, temperature 60°C, Mn(2+) dosage 40g/L, ozone volume flow 80L/hr, initial sulfuric acid concentration 1mol/L, and reaction time 6hr. Under these conditions, the leaching rate of Fe and weight loss could reach 94.85% and 48.89% respectively. The leaching process of cyanided tailings by Mn(2+)/O(3) was analyzed, and it was found that the leaching of pyrite depends on synergetic oxidation by high-valent manganese and O(3), in which the former played an important part. PMID:25662233

Li, Yulong; Li, Dengxin; Li, Jiebing; Wang, Jin; Hussain, Asif; Ji, Hao; Zhai, Yijie

2015-02-01

325

Granular activated carbons from palm nut shells for gold di-cyanide adsorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular activated carbons were produced from palm nut shells by physical activation with steam. The proximate analysis of palm nut shells was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons, produced as a result of shell pyrolysis at 600°C followed by steam activation at 900°C in varying activation times, was evaluated using nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. Applicability of the activated carbons for gold dicyanide adsorption was also investigated. Increasing the activation hold time with the attendant increase in the degree of carbon burn-off results in a progressive increase in the surface area of the activated carbons, reaching a value of 903.1 m2/g after activation for 6 h. The volumes of total pores, micropores, and mesopores in the activated carbons also increase progressively with the increasing degree of carbon burn-off, resulting from increasing the activation hold time. The gold di-cyanide adsorption of the activated carbons increases with the rise of pore volume of the activated carbons. The gold di-cyanide adsorption of palm nut shell activated carbon obtained after 6-h activation at 900°C is superior to that of a commercial activated carbon used for gold di-cyanide adsorption.

Buah, William K.; Williams, Paul T.

2013-02-01

326

Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) potassium cyanide (KCN) at 3.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1), (3) potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) at 4.5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and (4) ground frozen chokecherry leaves and flowers at a target dose of 2.5 mg HCN kg(-1) day(-1), all for 4 weeks. Clinical signs were observed in two goats treated with chokecherry. Only sporadic changes were found in the hematological and blood chemical panel. Goats treated with chokecherry and thiocyanate had an increased number of vacuoles in the colloid of thyroid glands. Spongiosis and spheroids were found in the mesencephalon from goats treated with KCN and chokecherry. These findings suggest the thyroid lesions can be attributed to thiocyanate, whereas the effects on the nervous system were most likely caused by cyanide. PMID:17631662

Soto-Blanco, B; Stegelmeier, B L; Pfister, J A; Gardner, D R; Panter, K E

2008-04-01

327

The W. M. Keck Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The funding mission of the W. M. Keck Foundation is "to make grants designed to provide far-reaching benefits for humanity in the fields of science, engineering, and medical research." In a recent announcement, the Keck Foundation will consider proposals for "research which opens new directions and could lead to breakthrough discoveries and the development of new technologies." Proposal deadlines are November 15, 1998, and May 15, 1999. Interested parties should contact the Keck Foundation.

1998-01-01

328

Biochemical changes in micro-fungi fermented cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers.  

PubMed

Comparative studies were carried out on the ability of pure strain of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae to alter the nutritional quality of cassava flour produced from low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tuber. Low- and medium-cyanide variety of cassava tubers were collected from International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. These tubers were washed, peeled, grated and aseptically inoculated with pure strains of Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyce cerevisae in nutrient solution respectively, before allowing them to ferment aerobically for 3 days. The fermented mash was subsequently dried and milled into cassava flour. Subsequently, the proximate, mineral and the antinutrinet composition of the cassava flour were determined. The results of the study revealed that the unfermented flour from low-cyanide cassava variety had higher protein, fibre, ash, fat, Ca, Na and K; while those produced from medium-cyanide variety, had higher antinutrinet (tannin, cyanide & phytate), Zn, Mg and Fe content. However, solid substrate fermentation of the cassava mash using Rhizopus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisae respectively caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the protein and fat content. The nutrient enrichment was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in flour produced from low-cyanide cassava variety. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisae fermentation brought about a higher increase in the nutrient content than Rhizopus oryzae fermentation. Conversely, fermentation of the cassava caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the antinutrient content of the flour; although, the level of decrease was more in the flour produced from low-cyanide variety than medium-cyanide variety. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the ability of the fungi to decrease the antinutrient (except phytate) of the cassava flour. Furthermore, micro-fungi fermentation did not cause a significant change (P > 0.05) in mineral content (except Mg and K) of the fermented cassava flour. In conclusion, unfermented cassava flour produced from low-cyanide cassava tubers had high nutrient composition and low antinutrient content and more susceptible to micro-fungi nutrient enrichment and detoxification than medium-cyanide variety. Furthermore, Saccharomyces cerevisae was more efficient in the nutrient enrichment of the cassava flour than Rhizopus oryzae. PMID:18087867

Oboh, G; Oladunmoye, M K

2007-01-01

329

Accounting for cyanide and its degradation products at three Nevada gold mines; constraints from stable C- and N-isotopes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An understanding of the fate of cyanide (CN-) in mine process waters is important for addressing environmental concerns and for taking steps to minimize reagent costs. The utility of stable isotope methods in identifying cyanide loss pathways has been investigated in case studies at three Nevada gold mines. Freshly prepared barren solutions at the mines have cyanide d15N and d13C values averaging -4 ? and -36 ?, respectively, reflecting the nitrogen and carbon sources used by commercial manufacturers, air and natural gas methane. Pregnant solutions returning from ore heaps display small isotopic shifts to lower d15N and d13C values. The shifts are similar to those observed in laboratory experiments where cyanide was progressively precipitated as a cyanometallic compound, and are opposite in sign and much smaller in magnitude than the shifts observed in experiments where HCN was offgassed. Offgassing is inferred to be a minor cyanide loss mechanism in the heap leach operations at the three mines, and precipitation as cyanometallic compounds, and possibly coprecipitation with ferric oxides, is inferred to be an important loss mechanism. Isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) shows that uptake of high d13C air CO2 has been important in many barren and pregnant solutions. However, DIC in reclaim pond waters at all three mines has low d13C values of -28 to -34 ? indicating cyanide breakdown either by hydrolysis or by other chemical pathways that break the C-N bond. Isotope mass balance calculations indicate that about 40 % of the DIC load in the ponds, at a minimum, was derived from cyanide breakdown. This level of cyanide hydrolysis accounts for 14-100 % of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen species present in the ponds. Overall, isotope data provide quantitative evidence that only minor amounts of cyanide are lost via offgassing and that significant amounts are destroyed via hydrolysis and related pathways. The data also highlight the possibility that significant cyanide may be either retained in the ore heaps or destroyed via other chemical pathways.

Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

1998-01-01

330

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblingsâ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

331

Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

Qu, Rong

332

USC Shoah Foundation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the University of Southern California's Shoah Foundation Institute is "to overcome prejudice, intolerance, and bigotry-and the suffering they cause-through the educational use of the Institute's visual history testimonies." On their homepage, visitors can watch testimonies from Holocaust survivors and others, along with learning more about their "Featured Resources". These resources include the Education Portal, which brings together lesson plans for teaching about the Holocaust and guidelines for using primary documents in the classroom. Scholars and others will appreciate the "Scholarship & Research" area which includes information on upcoming conferences, research stipends offered through the Institute, and events. Also, it is worth noting that the site also has many resources in other languages, including German, Spanish, French, Italian, Polish, and Russian.

333

European Training Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in conjunction with a host of other inter-governmental agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) is committed to "developing a range of quality of education and training systems" across Europe and into Asia. First-time visitors to the site will want to take a look at their "About the ETF" area to learn more about their mission, and then proceed to the "Themes" area, which contains basic information about their work in such areas as adult learning and online education. As might be expected from such an organization, their publications area is a real treasure-trove for policy analysts and others, as it contains works on "best practices" and overviews of educational systems throughout the region. In keeping with the strong emphasis place on vocational education, the site also contains a number of related events and conferences that will be of great interest as well.

334

Foundations of Geomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

Jackson, Andy

335

International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

336

National Science Foundation: Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyday, research sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) turns up a new discovery, an interesting facet of a scientific endeavor, and sometimes, just something that might delight and amaze even the casual observer. Recently the NSF created this website to serve as a clearinghouse of information about the work they sponsor. The "Discoveries" site can be searched in its entirety, or visitors can just peruse the chronological list that's front and center on their homepage. Over in the "Research Areas" section, visitors can wander through "Biology", "Education", "Nanoscience", and eight other topical areas. Some summaries that might be of particular interest include "Mysteries of the Unregulated Internet" and "The Bizarre Creatures of Madagascar". Also, it's worth nothing that parties who enjoy the site can sign up for their RSS feed here.

337

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

338

Will Durant Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While Will Durant is most well-known for his massive 11 volume Story of Civilization, the Will Durant Foundation Web site tells visitors about some of his other projects and life achievements, along with those of his wife, Ariel Durant. The site begins with a short essay offering a brief synopsis of Durant's life, including his relationship with his wife and the publishing icons Dick Simon and Max Schuster. The site contains articles written by Will Durant on a variety of subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the nature of civilization. For those interested in asking questions about Durant and his work, there is also an open and moderated discussion forum, along with a place for interested visitors to purchase any number of volumes authored by Mr. Durant and his wife.

2001-01-01

339

Sunlight Foundation's Party Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 2006, the Sunlight Foundation employs and develops new internet technologies "to create greater political transparency and to foster more openness and accountability in government." This website focuses on the political partying circuit, also known as fundraising. These parties reveal, "the relationships between lobbyists, congressional candidates, issues being lobbied and campaign money received." Thus, the parties are an excellent resource for citizen journalists, activists, and other interested members of the public. Visitors can view the invitations to the latest parties by clicking on "Upcoming Events". Some of the invitations include a golf tournament for Rep. Loretta Sanchez, a BBQ for Rep. Chet Edwards, and a "Crabs and Spaghetti Dinner" for Rep. Frank LoBiondo at Strategic Healthcare Townhouse. The "PARTYFINDER" allows visitors to search for parties by "beneficiary", "host", "venue name" or "entertainment type". Finally, there are several widgets visitors can put on their website or blog to display "Upcoming parties", "Upcoming leadership PAC parties", and "Parties by candidate state".

340

Enzymatic Assimilation of Cyanide via Pterin-Dependent Oxygenolytic Cleavage to Ammonia and Formate in Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764  

PubMed Central

Utilization of cyanide as a nitrogen source by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 occurs via oxidative conversion to carbon dioxide and ammonia, with the latter compound satisfying the nitrogen requirement. Substrate attack is initiated by cyanide oxygenase (CNO), which has been shown previously to have properties of a pterin-dependent hydroxylase. CNO was purified 71-fold and catalyzed the quantitative conversion of cyanide supplied at micromolar concentrations (10 to 50 ?M) to formate and ammonia. The specific activity of the partially purified enzyme was approximately 500 mU/mg of protein. The pterin requirement for activity could be satisfied by supplying either the fully (tetrahydro) or partially (dihydro) reduced forms of various pterin compounds at catalytic concentrations (0.5 ?M). These compounds included, for example, biopterin, monapterin, and neopterin, all of which were also identified in cell extracts. Substrate conversion was accompanied by the consumption of 1 and 2 molar equivalents of molecular oxygen and NADH, respectively. When coupled with formate dehydrogenase, the complete enzymatic system for cyanide oxidation to carbon dioxide and ammonia was reconstituted and displayed an overall reaction stoichiometry of 1:1:1 for cyanide, O2, and NADH consumed. Cyanide was also attacked by CNO at a higher concentration (1 mM), but in this case formamide accumulated as the major reaction product (formamide/formate ratio, 0.6:0.3) and was not further degraded. A complex reaction mechanism involving the production of isocyanate as a potential CNO monooxygenation product is proposed. Subsequent reduction of isocyanate to formamide, whose hydrolysis occurs as a CNO-bound intermediate, is further envisioned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of enzymatic conversion of cyanide to formate and ammonia by a pterin-dependent oxygenative mechanism. PMID:14711633

Fernandez, Ruby F.; Dolghih, Elena; Kunz, Daniel A.

2004-01-01

341

Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

Rowley, Jennifer

2005-01-01

342

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... at Age 96 Medicare’s Role in Health-Care Payment Reform Why Data on Health-Care Price Variation Doesn’t Itself Solve the Problem Kaiser and the Affordable Care Act The Kaiser Family Foundation’s Role in Today’s Health Care System View All WSJ Columns events Web Briefing for ...

343

Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... online suggestion box . Mailing Address: Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation 302 West Main Street, #100 Avon, Connecticut 06001 USA What Is CdLS? Who We Are What We Do Research Get Involved Find Support ... Terms Site Map The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) Foundation is a family support organization that ...

344

BUILD YOUR ENGLISH FOUNDATION HERE  

E-print Network

BUILD YOUR ENGLISH FOUNDATION HERE BECOME AN EFP STUDENT The English Foundation Program (EFP program, yet who do not meet UBC's English Language Admission Standards. The EFP combines intensive campus. The EFP comprises two courses worth three credits each: EAP 103 (English for Academic Purposes

Michelson, David G.

345

Engineering and Design - Rock Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides general guidance for factors to be considered in the construction of foundations and cut slopes excavated in rock masses. Divided into five sections with general topic areas to include: Excavation; Dewatering and Ground Water Control; Ground Control; Protection of Sensitive Foundation Materials; and Excavation Mapping and Monitoring.

346

Raising Money Through an Institutionally Related Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The creation of foundations for fund raising at public colleges and new ideas and techniques for established foundations are discussed in 13 chapters. The relationship of the foundation and the institution is described from the viewpoint of the institution and also that of the foundation. Article titles and authors include: "How the Foundation

Reilley, Timothy A., Ed.

347

Hydrogen cyanide production due to mid-size impacts in a redox-neutral N2-rich atmosphere.  

PubMed

Cyanide compounds are amongst the most important molecules of the origin of life. Here, we demonstrate the importance of mid-size (0.1-1 km in diameter) hence frequent meteoritic impacts to the cyanide inventory on the early Earth. Subsequent aerodynamic ablation and chemical reactions with the ambient atmosphere after oblique impacts were investigated by both impact and laser experiments. A polycarbonate projectile and graphite were used as laboratory analogs of meteoritic organic matter. Spectroscopic observations of impact-generated ablation vapors show that laser irradiation to graphite within an N2-rich gas can produce a thermodynamic environment similar to that produced by oblique impacts. Thus, laser ablation was used to investigate the final chemical products after this aerodynamic process. We found that a significant fraction (>0.1 mol%) of the vaporized carbon is converted to HCN and cyanide condensates, even when the ambient gas contains as much as a few hundred mbar of CO2. As such, the column density of cyanides after carbon-rich meteoritic impacts with diameters of 600 m would reach ~10 mol/m(2) over ~10(2) km(2) under early Earth conditions. Such a temporally and spatially concentrated supply of cyanides may have played an important role in the origin of life. PMID:23877440

Kurosawa, Kosuke; Sugita, Seiji; Ishibashi, Ko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Sekine, Yasuhito; Ogawa, Nanako O; Kadono, Toshihiko; Ohno, Sohsuke; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Nagaoka, Yoichi; Matsui, Takafumi

2013-06-01

348

THE COMPLETE, TEMPERATURE-RESOLVED EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRUM OF VINYL CYANIDE (H{sub 2}CCHCN) BETWEEN 210 AND 270 GHz  

SciTech Connect

The results of an experimental approach to the identification and characterization of the astrophysical weed vinyl cyanide in the 210-270 GHz region are reported. This approach is based on spectrally complete, intensity-calibrated spectra taken at more than 400 different temperatures in the 210-270 GHz region and is used to produce catalogs in the usual astrophysical format: line frequency, line strength, and lower state energy. As in our earlier study of ethyl cyanide, we also include the results of a frequency point-by-point analysis, which is especially well suited for characterizing weak lines and blended lines in crowded spectra. This study shows substantial incompleteness in the quantum-mechanical (QM) models used to calculate astrophysical catalogs, primarily due to their omission of many low-lying vibrational states of vinyl cyanide, but also due to the exclusion of perturbed rotational transitions. Unlike ethyl cyanide, the QM catalogs for vinyl cyanide include analyses of perturbed excited vibrational states, whose modeling is more challenging. Accordingly, we include an empirical study of the frequency accuracy of these QM models. We observe modest frequency differences for some vibrationally excited lines.

Fortman, Sarah M.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Medvedev, Ivan R., E-mail: fcd@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

2011-08-10

349

The Mechanism of Ethylene and Cyanide Action in Triggering the Rise in Respiration in Potato Tubers 1  

PubMed Central

Ethylene and cyanide induce a sharp increase in respiration in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum, var. Russet) attended by changes in the glycolytic intermediates which indicate that both gases enhance glycolysis. The level of sucrose also increases in response to both treatments. The data are taken to indicate that both cyanide and ethylene either activate or affect the link between the conventional electron transport chain and the cyanide-insensitive path. It is further proposed that this activation may well be the primary event leading to the rise in respiration. Ethylene increases the level of adenosine 5?-triphosphate and it is suggested that because of the 4- to 6-fold increase in the rate of electron flux through site I, which continues to operate in the over-all cyanide-insensitive path, the absolute levels of adenosine 5?-triphosphate will also be expected to increase in the presence of cyanide. The increase in sucrose content is considered to be the consequence of the rise in adenosine 5?-triphosphate concentration. PMID:16659032

Solomos, Theofanes; Laties, George G.

1975-01-01

350

Open Society Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started by the philanthropist George Soros in the mid-1980s to help countries make the economic and social transition from communism, the Open Society Foundation aims to "implement a range of initiatives to advance justice, education, public health, and independent media." Asia is the focus of this portion of the website, and the material is divided up into "News & Announcements", "Events", and "Publications & Articles". Visitors can keep up with the happenings of the site via an RSS feed or by subscribing to their newsletter. One of the featured stories on the homepage is a recording of a discussion about the book "A Rope and a Prayer", by an American journalist who was kidnapped and taken around Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are several videos visitors can watch that are highlighted on the homepage, including "Cambodia A Quest for Justice", "India and Europe Trading Away Access to Medicines", and "Russia's HIV Care Must Center on Drug Users". Finally, visitors can read "Dining with Dictators" a blog entry about the European Union's "willingness to meet with Central Asian Tyrants."

351

South Asian Physics Foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in a South Asian country other than that of their university or citizenship. During the program's first year we funded one student from Bangladesh to attend a conference in India, and during it's second year we funded eight students to attend two different conferences. Our expanding activities underscore a need for facilitating such exchanges in developing regions of the world. We discuss issues related to offering this type of program as well as the challenges and satisfactions of implementing programs that foster regional scientific cooperation. We also solicit suggestions and ideas for further developing and broadening our activities. SAPF's website is www.southasianphysicsfoundation.org.

Hirschfelder, Jessica; Ramachandran, Vidhya

2011-04-01

352

The Electronic Literature Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Literature teachers, scholars, and lovers of the classics will warmly welcome this excellent online project. ELF's mission is to provide advanced, free electronic texts from world literature in several formats and languages. For instance, the ELF site includes four full editions of The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri: "the original Italian text, and English translations by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Rev. H.F. Cary, and Allen Mandelbaum. Annotations from the Cary and Longfellow editions are also available." As with ELF's Canterbury Tales, which is offered in Middle and Modern English, the texts can be read line-by-line or in enface ("facing page") format, which juxtaposes the original text and translation. The Foundation currently features two other texts: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, offered in three editions, and a preliminary version of Milton's Paradise Lost (the complete version is scheduled for April 1). All of the ELF texts include internal search engines and numerous contemporary and modern illustrations. Works in development include The Arabian Nights (scheduled for May 1), the works of Thomas Hardy, and Goethe's Faust.

1999-01-01

353

Determination of Cyanogenic Compounds in Edible Plants by Ion Chromatography  

PubMed Central

Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN?/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

2013-01-01

354

Evaluation of a non-cyanide gold plating process for switch tubes  

SciTech Connect

Switch tubes are used in nuclear weapon firing sets and are required to be reliable and impervious to gas permeation for many years. To accomplish this, a gold plated coating of approximately 25 microns is required over all metal surfaces on the tube exterior. The gold has historically been plated using gold cyanide plating chemistry. In this work we proposed to replace the cyanide plating bath with an environmentally friendlier sulfite gold plating bath. Low and high pH sulfite plating chemistries were investigated as possible replacements for the cyanide gold plating chemistry. The low pH plating chemistry demonstrated a gold plated coating which met the high purity, grain size, and hardness requirements for switch tubes. The high pH chemistry was rejected primarily because the hardness of the gold plated coatings was too high and exceeded switch tube coating requirements. A problem with nodule formation on the gold plated surface using the low pH chemistry had to be resolved during this evaluation. The nodule formation was postulated to be produced by generation of SO{sub 2} in the low pH bath causing gold to be precipitated out when the sulfite concentration falls below a minimum level. The problem was resolved by maintaining a higher sulfite concentration and providing an active filtration system during plating. In this initial study, there were no major obstacles found when using a sulfite gold bath for switch tube plating, however, further work is needed on bath control and bath life before adopting it as the primary plating chemistry.

Norwood, D.P.; Martinez, F.E.

1996-01-01

355

Sublethal toxicity of cyanide to the tropical marine fish Dascyllus aruanus  

SciTech Connect

The use of NACN in collecting tropical marine fish for the hobby trade results in high mortality rates of the captured fish, plus the destruction of the associated coral reef. Despite its widespread use, little is known of sublethal effects of cyanide to tropical marine fish. The objectives were two-fold: (1) determine the concentration/time exposure regime that results in exposed fish being anesthetized but surviving long enough for export and (2) through the measurement of several physiological endpoints, identify a biomarker indicative of sublethal cyanide exposure. Hand caught Dascyllus aruanus were exposed to 25 and 50 ppm cyanide solutions for periods of 10-, 60- and 120-s. Two weeks following exposure, hemoglobin concentration, blood [O{sub 2}], and liver O{sub 2} consumption rate were determined. Only the 120-s exposure at 25 and 50 ppm proved lethal (42% and 0% survival respectively). Liver O{sub 2} consumption rate was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for the 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed versus control fish (2.0 {+-} 0.4 and 2.56 {+-} 0.1 versus 5.4 {+-} 2.0 ml/mg/min, respectively: values = mean {+-} 1.S.D.). O{sub 2} consumption rate for the 25 ppm, 10-s exposed fish was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) versus control fish (0.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). In contrast, no difference in O{sub 2} consumption rate between the 25 ppm, 60-s exposed versus control fish was noted (2.4 {+-} 0.8 versus 2.3 {+-} 0.7 respectively). Hemoglobin concentration tended to be lower in fish exposed to 50 ppm, 10- and 60-s exposed fish versus that of controls. Hemoglobin concentration results were inconclusive for the 25 ppm exposed versus the control fish. Blood [O{sub 2}] was highly variable with no apparent trends between exposed versus control fish. Sublethal exposure to cyanide clearly results in impaired liver function indicated by depressed O{sub 2} consumption rate.

Harris, L.; Hanawa, M.; Farrell, A.P.; Bendell-Young, L.I. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Graham, M. [Vancouver Public Aquarium, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

356

Iridium(III) complex-coated nanosystem for ratiometric upconversion luminescence bioimaging of cyanide anions.  

PubMed

Chromophoric iridium(III) complex-coated NaYF(4): 20%Yb, 1.6%Er, 0.4%Tm nanocrystals are demonstrated as a ratiometric upconversion luminescence (UCL) probe for highly selective detection of cyanide anion and bioimaging of CN(-) in living cells through inhibition of the energy transfer from the UCL of the nanocrystals to the absorbance of the chromophoric complex. The UCL probe provides a very low detection limit of 0.18 ?M CN(-) in the aqueous solution. PMID:21892822

Liu, Jinliang; Liu, Yi; Liu, Qian; Li, Chunyan; Sun, Lining; Li, Fuyou

2011-10-01

357

Squaramide-Catalyzed Enantioselective Michael Addition of Masked Acyl Cyanides to Substituted Enones  

PubMed Central

Masked acyl cyanide (MAC) reagents are shown to be effective umpolung synthons for enantioselective Michael addition to substituted enones. The reactions are catalyzed by chiral squaramides and afford adducts in high yields (90–99%) and with excellent enantioselectivities (85–98%). The addition products are unmasked to produce dicyanohydrins that, upon treatment with a variety of nucleophiles, provide ?-keto acids, esters, and amides. The use of this umpolung synthon has enabled, in enantiomerically enriched form, the first total synthesis of the prenylated polyphenol (+)-fornicin C. PMID:24090310

Yang, Kin S.; Nibbs, Antoinette E.; Türkmen, Yunus E.; Rawal, Viresh H.

2014-01-01

358

Electrokinetic improvement of offshore foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore and near-shore structures for energy exploration and production, harbour work and other facilities are often situated on very soft marine clay deposits that have shear strengths of a few kilopascals. The design of foundations embedded in these soft deposits often poses a challenge for geotechnical engineers, i.e., to satisfy the bearing capacity requirement, while at the same time minimizing the embedment depth and dimensions of the foundation due to cost considerations. The present study investigates the possibility of using electrokinetics to strengthen the soil adjacent to skirted foundations embedded in soft marine deposits and, thus, to improve the load carrying capacity of the foundations. The innovative feature of this approach as compared to soil improvement methods commonly adopted in practice is that the focus of strengthening is on the interface between the soil and embedded foundation, in terms of enhancement of adhesion and cementation. The thesis presents a summary of the method and results of a series of electrokinetic tests conducted on natural and simulated marine clays in small-scale and large-scale laboratory testing facilities. Steel plates and steel cylinders are used to simulate skirted foundations. A low dc voltage is applied via steel electrodes installed around the foundation models. The effects of electrokinetics are evaluated through changes in the geotechnical properties of the soil and load carrying capacities of the foundation model after treatment. The results demonstrate that the load carrying capacity of the skirted foundation model and the undrained shear strength of the adjacent soil increase by a factor of three after electrokinetic treatment. The clay adheres strongly to the inside and outside walls of the foundation model, indicating bonding occurs between the soil and steel after treatment. The treatment increases the soil undrained modulus and also induces a preconsolidation pressure of the remoulded clay, thereby reducing potential settlement of the foundation. The new technology described in this thesis has potential application in offshore engineering for increasing the load carrying capacity of skirted foundations installed in soft clayey sediments, as well as for rehabilitation of existing offshore structures.

Micic, Silvana

359

Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

Sehmel, G.A.

1989-05-01

360

Biosynthesis of benzoylformic acid from benzoyl cyanide with a new bacterial isolate of Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1.  

PubMed

Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 with high nitrilase activity could effectively hydrolyze benzoyl cyanide into benzoylformic acid. After the culture optimization, the preferred carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and inducer were glucose (10 g/L), a composite of peptone (10 g/L) plus yeast extract (2.5 g/L), and ?-caprolactam (2.0 mM), respectively. After the reaction optimization, the optimum reaction temperature, reaction pH, organic cosolvent, and metal ion were 30 °C, 7.0, ethanol (2%, v/v), and Ca(2+) (0.1 mM), respectively. At biotransformation of 120-mM benzoyl cyanide for 24 h, the yield of benzoylformic acid reached 91.8%. Moreover, the microbial nitrilase from Brevibacterium sp. CCZU12-1 could hydrolyze various nitriles, and it significantly exhibited high nitrilase activity against benzoyl cyanide, 3-cyanopyridine, and ?-cyclohexyl-mandelonitrile. PMID:24504691

He, Yu-Cai; Pan, Xue-He; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li-Qun

2014-03-01

361

Asymmetric Addition of Cyanide to ?-Nitroalkenes Catalysed by Chiral Salen Complexes of Titanium(IV) and Vanadium(V)  

PubMed Central

Structurally well-defined bimetallic titanium(IV) (salen) and monometallic vanadium(V) (salen) complexes have been used as catalysts for the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide to ?-nitroalkenes to produce chiral nitronitriles with ee values in the range of 79–89 % and conversions up to 100 % at 0 °C. The reaction conditions (solvent, temperature, time and vanadium complex counter-ion) were optimised, and it was shown that the catalyst loading could be significantly reduced (20 to 2 mol %) and the reaction temperature increased (?40 to 0 °C) compared to previous studies that used an in situ prepared catalyst. The results are compared and contrasted with previous results obtained by using the same catalysts for the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide to aldehydes, and a transition-state structure for the asymmetric addition of trimethylsilyl cyanide to nitroalkenes is proposed to account for the observed stereochemistry. PMID:24159364

North, Michael; Watson, James M

2013-01-01

362

Planting Brassica rapa  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video resource explains and demonstrates how to plant Fast Plants in a bottle growing system made from recycled soda/water bottles was made by the instructors at UW-Madison who teach Biocore (a foundational undergraduate biology course). In this planting approach, vermiculite is used along with a soil-less potting mix (e.g. Redi-Earth).

UW-Madison Biocore

363

45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

2010-10-01

364

45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

2012-10-01

365

45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

2011-10-01

366

45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

2013-10-01

367

45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.  

...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

2014-10-01

368

Pediatric cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus. Toxicology Surveillance System of the Intoxications Working Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies.  

PubMed

Most fire-related deaths are attributable to smoke inhalation rather than burns. The inhalation of fire smoke, which contains not only carbon monoxide but also a complex mixture of gases, seems to be the major cause of morbidity and mortality in fire victims, mainly in enclosed spaces. Cyanide gas exposure is quite common during smoke inhalation, and cyanide is present in the blood of fire victims in most cases and may play an important role in death by smoke inhalation. Cyanide poisoning may, however, be difficult to diagnose and treat. In these children, hydrogen cyanide seems to be a major source of concern, and the rapid administration of the antidote, hydroxocobalamin, may be critical for these children.European experts recently met to formulate an algorithm for prehospital and hospital management of adult patients with acute cyanide poisoning. Subsequently, a group of European pediatric experts met to evaluate and adopt that algorithm for use in the pediatric population. PMID:24196100

Mintegi, Santiago; Clerigue, Nuria; Tipo, Vincenzo; Ponticiello, Eduardo; Lonati, Davide; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Delvau, Nicolas; Anseeuw, Kurt

2013-11-01

369

Simple, rapid, and portable chromatographic tetrazolium reduction method for detection of potassium cyanide in medicinal drugs and confectionery.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid, and portable paper chromatographic method for detection of potassium cyanide in medicinal drugs and a few confectionery samples is described. Potassium cyanide is extracted in methanol and concentrated. Acetone-water-1.5% EDTA (4 + 5.5 + 0.5) mixture is used as the solvent system for paper chromatography. The KCN chromatograms appear as pink spots on paper due to reduction of the chromogenic salt 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride; phenazonium methosulfate is a catalyst. Microgram amounts of KCN can be separated and detected in the laboratory or the marketplace because of the simplicity of the method. PMID:2745364

Bhagyalakshmi, K; Kumar, N V

1989-01-01

370

NEWS: Solid foundations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark statements should help students to make informed choices about their degree and subsequent employability, as well as informing employers about the skills and knowledge of the graduates they propose to employ. Academics from each discipline have agreed the statements for their areas of expertise to a common framework.

2000-07-01

371

Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore. In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment was shown to allow the decomposition of the antimonial sulfide minerals (up to 98% Sb removal) and to remarkably improve the amenability of gold (e.g., from <49% up to 83%) and silver (e.g., from <18% up to 90%) to subsequent cyanide leaching. An increase in reagent concentration (1-4 mol/L Na2S or NaOH) and temperature (20-80°C), and a decrease in particle size seem to produce an enhancing effect on metal extraction. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

Alp, Ibrahim; Celep, Oktay; Deveci, Haci

2010-11-01

372

Ocular scanning instrumentation: confirmation of biomarkers for anticholinesterase and cyanide exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of the eye"s reaction to a wide variety of chemicals/toxins and its role as a gauge for internal homeostasis (e.g., cardiovascular and neurophysiological imbalances) has been extensively researched via many scientific disciplines. New techniques and equipment are both harnessing and utilizing this information to define a modern approach to the field of non-invasive early detection of a vast range of physical abnormalities, injuries, and illnesses. Early detection provides an invaluable tool in the subsequent success of treating such conditions. The application of these techniques to the detection of exposure to chemical threat agents such as organophosphate nerve agents and cyanide provides an important advancement in the ability to limit the deleterious effects of these agents. The Ocular Scanning Instrumentation (OSI) technology involves the use of an automated device for the continuous or programmed monitoring of optically apparent characteristic(s) and attributes of the eye that may serve as an early-warning system for possible complications based upon generalized information obtained from ocular biomarkers. Described herein is the analysis of primary ocular biomarkers for organophosphate (miosis) and cyanide (venous blood coloration) exposure.

Molnar, Lance R.; Henry, Kurt A.; Odom, James V.; Kolanko, Christopher J.

2003-09-01

373

LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION AND ASTROPHYSICAL DETECTION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED STATES OF ETHYL CYANIDE  

SciTech Connect

Ethyl cyanide, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, {nu}{sub 12} and {nu}{sub 20}, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz; Toyama: 26-200 GHz; Emory: 200-240 GHz; Ohio State: 258-368 GHz; and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in K{sub a} up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

Daly, A. M.; Bermudez, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Area de Quimica-Fisica, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada del CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Padadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcelino, N., E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: cbermu@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: John.C.Pearson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: nmarceli@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

2013-05-01

374

Cyanide clusters of ReII with 3d metal ions and their magnetic properties: incorporating anisotropic ions into metal-cyanide clusters with high spin magnetic ground states  

E-print Network

, we successfully employed transition metal cyanide chemistry using the ReII building blocks to prepare a family of isostructural, cubic clusters of the general formula {[MCl]4[Re(triphos)(CN)3]4} M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn whose 3d ions adopt local...

Schelter, Eric John

2005-08-29

375

Quantitative study of non-covalent interactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface using cyanide-modified Pt(111) electrodes.  

SciTech Connect

Cations at the outer Helmholtz plane (OHP) can interact through non-covalent interactions with species at the inner Helmholtz plane (IHP), which are covalently bonded to the electrode surface, thereby affecting the structure and the properties of the electrochemical double layer. These non-covalent interactions can be studied quantitatively using cyanide-modified Pt(111) electrodes.

Escudero-Escribano, M.; Michoff, M. E. Z.; Leiva, E. P. M.; Markovic, N. M.; Gutierrez, C.; Cuesta, A. (Materials Science Division); (CSIC); (Universidad Nacional de Cordoba)

2011-08-22

376

Cyanide-catalyzed C-C bond formation: synthesis of novel compounds, materials and ligands for homogeneous catalysis  

E-print Network

Cyanide-catalyzed aldimine coupling was employed to synthesize compounds with 1,2-ene-diamine and �±-imine-amine structural motifs: 1,2,N,N'- tetraphenyletheylene-1,2-diamine (13) and (+/-)-2,3-di-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2- dihydroquinoxaline (17...

Reich, Blair Jesse Ellyn

2007-04-25

377

Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor. PMID:25267355

Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

2015-01-01

378

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) "Foundation was formed to support education, research, treatment and cure for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus." One notable NDI Foundation website service is a sizable glossary of medical terminology with definitions for such terms as apoenzyme, basal nuclei, neuroglia, valine, and many more. The website also contains numerous abstracts of related journal articles. The article references and abstracts can be located by browsing extensive lists organized by Date, Author, and Journal. In addition to abstracts, some of the article references also link to less technical Lay Translations. The Foundation has requested permission from publishers to display full-text articles, and some of these versions are currently available as well. The referenced articles span more than a decade, and have appeared in such journals as _Endocrinology_, _American Journal of Physiology_, _Journal of Biological Chemistry_, and _Nature_, to name a few. An additional website service is the Researcher Directory which lists related researchers alphabetically, as well as by Institution, and Country.

2005-11-03

379

Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States); Isom, G.E. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States)], E-mail: geisom@purdue.edu

2009-07-01

380

Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPAR{alpha} activation and oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPAR{alpha} antagonist) or PPAR{alpha} knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPAR{alpha} activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPAR{alpha} did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPAR{alpha}-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPAR{alpha}-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPAR{alpha}-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPAR{alpha} mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity.

Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Prabhakaran, K.; Zhang, L.; Leavesley, H.B.; Borowitz, J.L. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States); Isom, G.E. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1333 (United States)], E-mail: geisom@purdue.edu

2007-08-15

381

Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.  

PubMed

Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ?50,000 mg/L TDS. PMID:24176292

Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

2014-01-01

382

LC-MS/MS analysis of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid as a forensic biomarker for cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

AIM: To demonstrate the potential of using 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) as a novel biomarker/forensic biomarker for cyanide poisoning. METHODS: A sensitive method was developed and employed for the identification and quantification of ATCA in biological samples, where the sample extraction and clean up were achieved by solid phase extraction (SPE). After optimization of SPE procedures, ATCA was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. ATCA levels following the administration of different doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) to mice were measured and compared to endogenous ATCA levels in order to study the significance of using ATCA as a biomarker for cyanide poisoning. RESULTS: A custom made analytical method was established for a new (mice) model when animals were exposed to increasing KCN doses. The application of this method provided important new information on ATCA as a potential cyanide biomarker. ATCA concentration in mice plasma samples were increased from 189 ± 28 ng/mL (n = 3) to 413 ± 66 ng/mL (n = 3) following a 10 mg/kg body weight dose of KCN introduced subcutaneously. The sensitivity of this analytical method proved to be a tool for measuring endogenous level of ATCA in mice organs as follows: 1.2 ± 0.1 ?g/g for kidney samples, 1.6 ± 0.1 ?g/g for brain samples, 1.8 ± 0.2 ?g/g for lung samples, 2.9 ± 0.1 ?g/g for heart samples, and 3.6 ± 0.9 ?g/g for liver samples. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that ATCA has the potential to serve as a plasma biomarker / forensic biomarker for cyanide poisoning. PMID:25237615

Yu, Jorn CC; Martin, Sarah; Nasr, Jessica; Stafford, Katelyn; Thompson, David; Petrikovics, Ilona

2012-01-01

383

Validation of an in vitro method for the determination of cyanide release from ferric-hexacyanoferrate: Prussian blue.  

PubMed

Prussian blue (PB), ferric hexacyanoferrate, Fe(4)[Fe(CN)(6)](3) is indicated for the treatment of known or suspected internal contamination with radioactive cesium, radioactive thallium, or non-radioactive thallium. Owing to the molecular properties, cyanide is likely dissociated from PB under physiologically relevant pH conditions, thus raising a concern for the safety of the product. The objective of this study was to calibrate and validate a cyanide assay over a wide pH range (from 0.5 to 12) on the basis of Spectroquant cyanide test method (Merck). Merck's photometric method requires that the measurement solution be within pH 5.5-6.0, hence samples and standards need to be adjusted to this pH range. Since the process of pH adjustment may have significant impact on the determination of cyanide, the analysis method needs to be optimized, calibrated and validated under each pH condition in the study. The validation characteristics included accuracy, precision, quantification limit, linearity, and stability. The intra-day accuracy ranged from 90% to 109% for the deionized water and solutions of pH 0.5-12. The intra-day precision (R.S.D.) ranged from 2.4% to 8.1% for the deionized water and solutions of pH 0.5-12. The analytical range was linear from 0.05 to 0.5 ppm (mg/L). The R(2) ranged from 0.9925 to 0.9998. This validated method was successfully implemented to determine cyanide release from PB under various pH conditions (from 1.0 to 12) at different time-points (from 1 to 24 h). PMID:17174056

Yang, Yongsheng; Brownell, Charles R; Sadrieh, Nakissa; May, Joan C; Del Grosso, Alfred V; Lyon, Robbe C; Faustino, Patrick J

2007-03-12

384

Plant uptake and transport of /sup 241/Am  

SciTech Connect

We conducted several experiments with /sup 241/Am to obtain a more complete understanding of how this transuranium element is absorbed and transported in plants. In a plant species (Tamarix pentandra Pall.) that has salt glands in the leaves excreting NaCl and other ions, /sup 241/Am was not pumped through these glands. Cyanide, which forms complexes with any metals, when applied to a calcareous soil, greatly increased the transport of /sup 241/Am into stems and leaves of bush bean plants. Radioactive cyanide (/sup 14/C) was also transported to leaves and stems. When radish was grown in both calcareous and noncalcareous soils, /sup 241/Am appeared to be fixed on the peel so firmly that it was resistant to removal by HNO/sub 3/ washing. The chelating agent DTPA induced increased transport of /sup 241/Am to leaves and into the fleshy roots of the radish.

Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Mueller, R.T. Sr.; soufi, S.M.

1981-07-01

385

VizieR Online Data Catalog: Three conformers of n-butyl cyanide (Ordu+, 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three conformers of n-butyl cyanide have been studied in this work, anti-anti (AA), gauche-anti (GA), and anti-gauche (AG). The molecules are asymmetric top rotors. 14N hyperfine structure has been observed in part in previous work. Watson's S-reduction was used in the representation Ir. Data below 22GHz are from previous work; data above 75GHz are from this work. The total spin-angular momentum quantum number F has only been given for transitions for which 14N hyperfine structure was resolved. Blended lines (identical transition frequencies for two or more transitions) were treated as intensity-weighted averages. In these cases, these weights have been given in the last column. (3 data files).

Ordu, M. H.; Muller, H. S. P.; Walters, A.; Nunez, M.; Lewen, F.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Schlemmer, S.

2012-03-01

386

Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction in the phosphoric acid fuel cell is the main factor limiting its wide application. Here, we present an approach that can be used for the rational design of cathode catalysts with potential use in phosphoric acid fuel cells, or in any environments containing strongly adsorbing tetrahedral anions. This approach is based on molecular patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide adsorbates that can efficiently block the sites for adsorption of spectator anions while the oxygen reduction reaction proceeds unhindered. We also demonstrate that, depending on the supporting electrolyte anions and cations, on the same CN-covered Pt(111) surface, the oxygen reduction reaction activities can range from a 25-fold increase to a 50-fold decrease. This behaviour is discussed in the light of the role of covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling the ensemble of platinum active sites required for high turn over rates of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Strmcnik, D.; Escudero, M.; Kodama, K.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Cuesta, A.; Markovic, N. M. (Materials Science Division); (Inst. de Quimica Fisica); (Toyota Central R& D Labs.)

2010-10-01

387

Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on pattering of platinum surfaces with cyanide.  

SciTech Connect

The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction in the phosphoric acid fuel cell is the main factor limiting its wide application. Here, we present an approach that can be used for the rational design of cathode catalysts with potential use in phosphoric acid fuel cells, or in any environments containing strongly adsorbing tetrahedral anions. This approach is based on molecular patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide adsorbates that can efficiently block the sites for adsorption of spectator anions while the oxygen reduction reaction proceeds unhindered. We also demonstrate that, depending on the supporting electrolyte anions and cations, on the same CN-covered Pt(111) surface, the oxygen reduction reaction activities can range from a 25-fold increase to a 50-fold decrease. This behaviour is discussed in the light of the role of covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling the ensemble of platinum active sites required for high turn over rates of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Strmcnik, D.; Escudero-Escribano, M.; Kodama, K.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Cuesta, A.; Markovic, N. M.; Materials Science Division; Inst. de Quimica Fisica; Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc.

2010-08-15

388

Method for near-real-time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-sit use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

Lattin, Frank G.; Paul, Donald G.

1996-11-01

389

Pharmacophore identification of ascofuranone, potent inhibitor of cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase of Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma brucei is a parasite that causes human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). The parasites depend on the cyanide-insensitive trypanosome alternative oxidase (TAO) for their vital aerobic respiration. Ascofuranone (AF), a potent and specific sub-nanomolar inhibitor of the TAO quinol oxidase, is a potential novel drug with selectivity for HAT, because mammalian hosts lack the enzyme. To elucidate not only the inhibition mechanism but also the inhibitor-enzyme interaction, AF derivatives were designed and synthesized, and the structure-activity relationship was evaluated. Here we identified the pharmacophore of AF that interacts with TAO. The detailed inhibitory profiles indicated that the 1-formyl and 6-hydroxyl groups, which might contribute to intramolecular hydrogen bonding and/or serve as hydrogen-bonding donors, were responsible for direct interaction with the enzyme. PMID:23180806

Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kido, Yasutoshi; Haga, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

2013-03-01

390

Cytochrome c biosensor for determination of trace levels of cyanide and arsenic compounds.  

PubMed

An electrochemical method based on a cytochrome c biosensor was developed, for the detection of selected arsenic and cyanide compounds. Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode was used as a transducer, onto which cytochrome c was immobilised and used for direct determination of Prussian blue, potassium cyanide and arsenic trioxide. The sensitivity as calculated from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV), for each analyte in phosphate buffer (pH=7) was found to be in the range of (1.1-4.5)×10(-8) A ?M(-1) and the detection limits ranged from 4.3 to 9.1 ?M. The biosensor is therefore able to measure significantly lower than current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines, for these types of analytes. The protein binding was monitored as a decrease in biosensor peak currents by SWV and as an increase in biosensor charge transfer resistance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS provided evidence that the electrocatalytic advantage of BDD electrode was not lost upon immobilisation of cytochrome c. The interfacial kinetics of the biosensor was modelled as equivalent electrical circuit based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to confirm the binding of the protein in solution by monitoring the intensity of the soret bands and the Q bands. FTIR was used to characterise the protein in the immobilised state and to confirm that the protein was not denatured upon binding to the pre-treated bare BDD electrode. SNFTIR of cyt c immobilised at platinum electrode, was used to study the effect of oxidation state on the surface bond vibrations. The spherical morphology of the immobilised protein, which is typical of native cytochrome c, was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confirmed the immobilisation of the cytochrome c without denaturisation. PMID:22632044

Fuku, Xolile; Iftikar, Faiza; Hess, Euodia; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Baker, Priscilla

2012-06-12

391

Acute toxicity studies of alpha-ketoglutarate: a promising antidote for cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Recently we have shown that cyanide poisoning by the oral (p.o.) route could be antagonized significantly by pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG), administered p.o. in rodents. The protective effect of alpha-KG was dose dependent (0.125-2.0 g kg(-1)) and the effect was significant at a dose above 1.0 g kg(-1). In order to establish the safety of alpha-KG, various haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were studied following p.o. administration of 2.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG in female rats, and various physiological parameters were studied following p.o. administration of 2.0 or 4.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG in anaesthetized male rats. The p.o. LD(50) of alpha-KG in male and female rats was >5.0 g kg(-1) and no toxic signs were observed in the surviving animals. Except for an increase in plasma alkaline phosphatase and urea levels after 1 h and a decrease in inorganic phosphorus levels after 7 days of treatment, no significant change in haematology, biochemistry or histology of the vital organs were observed. Mean arterial pressure and neuromuscular transmission were decreased at 4.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG but other physiological variables such as heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, left ventricular pressure (systolic), arterial pressure (systolic) and arterial pressure (diastolic) were not altered. The changes observed at 4.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG are unlikely to be of toxicological concern. The results indicate that alpha-KG at 2.0 g kg(-1) (p.o.)-a dose offering maximum antidotal efficacy-is non-toxic and therefore can be considered suitable for cyanide poisoning. PMID:11746197

Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, D; Sugendran, K; Pant, S C; Tulsawani, R K; Vijayaraghavan, R

2001-01-01

392

Foundational Issues in Evolution Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews evidence that demonstrates the need for effective evolution education and analyzes the foundational, semantic, epistemological, and philosophical issues involved. Emphasizes the scientific meaning of the terms theory, hypothesis, fact, proof, evidence, and truth, and focuses on the difference between religious belief and acceptance of…

Smith, Mike U.; And Others

1995-01-01

393

Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

394

UNLV Research Foundation PUBLIC NOTICE  

E-print Network

of the public who are disabled and require special accommodations or assistance at the meeting are requestedUNLV Research Foundation PUBLIC NOTICE Audit Committee Meeting September 26, 2013 2:00 p.m. ­ 3* Gerry Bomotti 3. Public Comment** Gerry Bomotti 4. Adjournment Gerry Bomotti *Action Item

Hemmers, Oliver

395

Applying the Foundational Science Content  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four big ideas discussed in Chapter 1 provide the foundation for developing understanding of nanoscale phenomena. Two additional big ideas--Size-Dependent Properties and Self-Assembly--require learners to apply concepts from some or all of the four fund

Krajcik, Joseph S.; Sutherland, Leeann M.; Stevens, Shawn Y.

2009-10-14

396

First draft Epistemological foundations for  

E-print Network

First draft Epistemological foundations for Neuroeconomics August 2005 1 Introduction and thereby match the realistic project to understand the human being. Yet the epistemological nature the «epistemological» concept of neuroeconomics. It is not our goal to minimize this first step, which is having

Boyer, Edmond

397

Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

Long, Melvin J.

398

Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

Gosta Esping-Andersen

1998-01-01

399

To Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work foundations of the law of the energy conservation and the introduction of particles in the classical electrodynamics are discussed. We pay attention to a logic error which takes place at an interpretation of the Poynting's theorem as the law of conservation of energy. It was shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum of

E. G. Bessonov

1997-01-01

400

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction  

E-print Network

Foundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction to the Course Module G64FAI #12;General in Artificial Intelligence (AI) · Provide an understanding of the theory of a range of those techniques · Introduce the students to a number of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can

Qu, Rong

401

Final Report National Science Foundation  

E-print Network

Final Report National Science Foundation Grant CHE-0414325 Cleavage and Formation of C­S and C synthetic applications for the cleavage and formation of C-S and C-N bonds in thiophenes and heterocyclic nitrogen containing compounds with transition metal fragments. The studies with sulfur have applications

Jones, William D.

402

DIALECTICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY  

E-print Network

DIALECTICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY* Warren D. TenHouten and Charles D. Kaplan University of California, Los Angeles The discovery in neurology that the two sides of the brain think in distinct ways that are both opposed to each other...

TenHouten, Warren D.; Kaplan, Charles D.

1972-10-01

403

Comparison of the treatment of cyanide poisoning in the cynomolgus monkey with sodium nitrite of 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-dmap), with and without sodium thiosulfate. Technical report, April 1979-September 1981  

SciTech Connect

Two methemoglobin generating compounds, sodium nitrite (iv) or 4-dimethylaminophenol (4-DMAP) (im), with and without sodium thiosulfate (iv), were compared as post-treatment therapy in anesthetized monkeys poisoning with cyanide. Arterial blood samples were taken before and after an injection of sodium cyanide (8.4 mg/kg) and treatment for analyses of blood cyanide, plasma cyanide, thiocyanate and methemoglobin content. Physiologic parameters were monitored in these treated cyanide-poisoned animals. The time course of methemoglobin formation and physiologic parameters were also monitored in animals receiving only 4-DMAP or sodium nitrite. A maximal methemoglobin level was observed at 30 minutes following injection of 4-DMAP, and 60 minutes post injection with sodium nitrite. Volumes of distribution (Vd) of cyanide were calculated from the concentrations of cyanide in blood samples and doses of cyanide injected. Although 4-DMAP forms methemoglobin more rapidly than sodium nitrite, both compounds form methemoglobin quickly enough to provide protection against cyanide poisoning. The protection offered by either compound against the lethal effects of cyanide was potentiated when used in combination with sodium thiosulfate.

Stemler, F.W.; Groff, W.A.; Kaminskis, A.; Johnson, R.P.; Froehlich, H.L.

1994-02-01

404

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

Lodde, P.F.

1980-07-01

405

The Influence of Mixing on Staged Flame Processes (Synthesis of Hydrogen Cyanide or Acetylene and Ethylene by Light Hydrocarbons in a Flame Reaction)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of hydrogen cyanide by propane and ammonia and the formation of acetylene and ethylene by propane in flame-reactions was investigated in a special burner using pure oxygen as oxidant. It was possible to perform the reactions in a one-stage or a two-stage process under turbulent flow conditionsIn the case of hydrogen cyanide formation in a one-stage process propane,

H. BOCKHORN; N. GALDO; H. A. KERBERTZ; F. FETTING

1971-01-01

406

Efficient treatment of an electroplating wastewater containing heavy metal ions, cyanide, and organics by H2O2 oxidation followed by the anodic Fenton process.  

PubMed

A real electroplating wastewater, containing heavy metals, cyanide, and organic contaminants, was treated by electrocoagulation (EC), H2O2 oxidation, H2O2 pre-oxidation followed by EC, and the anodic Fenton process and the efficacy of the processes was compared. Concentration of cyanide, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cr was largely decreased by EC within 5 min. When the reaction time was extended, removal of residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni was limited. In H2O2 oxidation, the concentration of cyanide decreased from initial 75 to 12 mg L(-1) in 30 min. The effluents from the H2O2 oxidation were further treated by EC or anodic Fenton. In EC, the concentration of total cyanide, Ni, and Cu decreased to below 0.3, 0.5, and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand by EC was less than 20.0%. By contrast, there was 73.5% reduction by the anodic Fenton process with 5 mM H2O2 at 30 min; this can be attributed to the oxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by the reaction of H2O2 with the electrogenerated Fe(2+). Meanwhile, residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni can also be efficiently removed. Transformation of organic components in various processes was analyzed using UV-visible and fluorescence excitation-emission spectra. PMID:24056431

Zhao, Xu; Wang, Haidong; Chen, Fayuan; Mao, Ran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

2013-01-01

407

Progress Report to Roses Inc and the Joseph Hill Memorial Foundation The effect of water availability on rose productivity  

E-print Network

Progress Report to Roses Inc and the Joseph Hill Memorial Foundation The effect of water Memorial Foundation Grant Reports, Regular 26 #12;The effect of water availability on rose productivity data (temperature, and light). Kardinal plants were grown in containers in two groups: one in coir

Lieth, J. Heinrich

408

The Community College Foundation Manual & Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of resources and information about community college foundations includes brief articles, selected data, materials from foundations, sample mission statements and articles of incorporation, sample forms and correspondence, relevant educational legislation, and other related materials from specific active foundations at two-year…

Anderson, James M., Comp.; Snyder, Tom, Comp.

409

Foundations of Cryptography (Volume 2 { Basic Applications)  

E-print Network

Foundations of Cryptography (Volume 2 { Basic Applications) Oded Goldreich Department of Computer from a working draft of Goldreich's FOUNDATIONS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY. See copyright notice. #12;I to Dana c with credit is permitted. Extracted from a working draft of Goldreich's FOUNDATIONS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY. See

Goldreich, Oded

410

On the Foundations of Modern Cryptography  

E-print Network

Appendix C On the Foundations of Modern Cryptography It is possible to build a cabin with no foundations, but not a lasting building. Eng. Isidor Goldreich (1906--1995) Summary: Cryptography is concerned. This appendix is aimed at presenting the foundations of cryptography, which are the paradigms, approaches

Goldreich, Oded

411

Foundations of Cryptography (Volume 2 --Basic Applications)  

E-print Network

Foundations of Cryptography (Volume 2 -- Basic Applications) Oded Goldreich Department of Computer from a working draft of Goldreich's FOUNDATIONS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY. See copyright notice. #12; I to Dana c OF CRYPTOGRAPHY. See copyright notice. #12; II Extracted from a working draft of Goldreich's FOUNDATIONS

Goldreich, Oded

412

THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY FOUNDATION  

E-print Network

THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY FOUNDATION 2008 Annual Report A CATALYST FOR Excellence. The College of William & Mary Foundation is crucial to building this vital private support. Although CHAIR, 2007­ 2009 THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY FOUNDATION Building

Zobin, Nahum

413

Philanthropy and Private Foundations: Expanding Revenue Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As community colleges seek new revenue streams, philanthropic organizations, including college foundations and private funders, have already begun to influence both revenues and college programming. This chapter discusses the current role of philanthropy, especially private foundations such as the Lumina Foundation for Education and the Bill and…

Drummer, Carlee; Marshburn, Roxann

2014-01-01

414

Data Mining: Foundation, Techniques and Applications  

E-print Network

Data Mining: Foundation, Techniques and Applications Anthony Tung() School of Computing National #12;11/30/2007 Data Mining: Foundation, Techniques and Applications 2 Main objectives of this course: · Data mining is a diverse field which draw its foundation from many research areas like databases

Tung, Anthony Kum Hoe

415

Foundational Document Research, Scholarly and Artistic Work  

E-print Network

Foundational Document Research, Scholarly and Artistic Work Research, Scholarly and Artistic Work Executive Summary This Foundational Document on Research, Scholarly and Artistic Work at the University decade. The Foundational Document on Research, Scholarly and Artistic Work is a living document intended

Patterson, William P.

416

The Valley Foundation School of Nursing  

E-print Network

The Valley Foundation School of Nursing One Washington Square San José, CA 95192-0057 Voice: 408 2012-2013 is a busy one at The Valley Foundation School of Nursing! Our new curriculum will be fully supports The Valley Foundation School of Nursing's educational mission using simulation to enhance

Su, Xiao

417

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

418

High-temperature cyanide leaching of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts-laboratory tests. Rept. of Investigations/1991  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated leaching automobile catalysts with NaCN solutions at elevated temperatures to recover platinum group metals (PGM). The feed was virgin monolith rejects, used monolith, and used pellet catalysts. Leaching with a 5-pct NaCN solution for 1 h at 160 C dissolved over 97 pct of the PGM contained in the virgin monolith, over 85 pct of the PGM contained in the used monolith, and over 90 pct of the PGM contained in the used pellet catalyst. Over 99.8 pct of the dissolved PGM was recovered as a precipitate by heating the solution to 250 C for 1 h in an autoclave. The cyanide complexes were decomposed and free cyanide destroyed.

Desmond, D.P.; Atkinson, D.P.; Kuczynski, R.J.; Walters, L.A.

1991-01-01

419

Inhibition of O2 Consumption Resistant to Cyanide and Its Development by N-Propyl Gallate and Salicylhydroxamic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

Kinetics of inhibition of cyanide-insensitive O2 uptake by n-propyl gallate (PG) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) were determined in fresh slices from ethylene-treated tubers of Solanum tuberosum `Norchip' and with mitochondria and lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.12) isolated from these tubers. PG and SHAM appeared to be inhibiting at identical sites in mitochondria but at disparate sites in slices. The apparent KI for SHAM was similar in mitochondria and slices. However, the apparent KI for PG in mitochondria was about 40-fold lower than the KI for PG inhibition of lipoxygenase activity. The amount of lipoxygenase associated with mitochondria increased when tubers were treated with ethylene. PG, but not SHAM, inhibited aging-induced development of cyanide-insensitive respiration. The latter two phenomena are in accord with the hypothesis that lipid metabolism is required for the development of the alternative pathway. PMID:16662588

Janes, Harry W.; Wiest, Steven C.

1982-01-01

420

To Foundations of Classical Electrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work foundations of the law of the energy conservation and the\\u000aintroduction of particles in the classical electrodynamics are discussed. We\\u000apay attention to a logic error which takes place at an interpretation of the\\u000aPoynting's theorem as the law of conservation of energy. It was shown that the\\u000alaws of conservation of energy and momentum of

E. G. Bessonov

1997-01-01

421

Pavlov and the Rockefeller foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union in the early 1920’s, the Rockefeller Foundation and the\\u000a Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research found ways to assist I. P. Pavlov. In addition to providing scientific literature\\u000a and financial aid, these institutions and their officers rendered important moral support to the scientific career of Pavlov\\u000a during his later years.

George Windholz; J. R. Kuppers

1988-01-01

422

Effects of sodium cyanide (nacn) on the endogenous rhythm of the oxygen consumption rate in the black rockfish sebastes schlegeli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were conducted to test the acute toxicity effects of sudden exposure to sodium cyanide (NaCN) on the\\u000a endogenous rhythm of the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in the black rockfishSebastes schlegeli. The OCR of the black rockfish (n = 14, total length = 20.4 ± 1.16 cm, wet weight = 158 ± 25 g) was measured with an automatic

Wan Soo Kim; Jong Wook Kim; Jae Hak Lee; Sung Hoe Huh

2008-01-01

423

Ultrafast photodissociation studies of acetyl cyanide and acetic acid and unimolecular decomposition rates of the acetyl radical products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unimolecular decomposition rates for acetyl radical following the photodissociation of acetyl cyanide and acetic acid near 193 nm have been studied using ultrafast mass-resolved photoionization spectroscopy. In both cases, the parent decays with an instrumentally limited lifetime, while the acetyl radical behaves in a manner consistent with an RRKM mechanism, in contrast to our previous results on acetone. It is necessary to convolute the population distribution with the microcanonical RRKM rates in order to achieve this agreement. We have also undertaken an ab initio study of the excited states of acetyl cyanide to clarify the assignments of these states. The state excited at 193 nm arises from a ???* transition with a calculated transition velocity dipole moment oriented at an angle of 57° with respect to the C-C?N bond, resulting in an anisotropy parameter of -0.22. This is in reasonable agreement with the previous data of North et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 101, 9224 (1997)]. The apparent RRKM behavior of the acetyl radical formed by the photodissociation of acetic acid and acetyl cyanide indicates that acetyl radical produced by the photodissociation of acetone at 193 nm may exhibit "extrinsic non-RRKM" effects, i.e., dynamic bottlenecks or mode specific effects.

Owrutsky, J. C.; Baronavski, A. P.

1999-10-01

424

Investigations of ferric heme cyanide photodissociation in myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase.  

PubMed

The photodissociation of cyanide from ferric myoglobin (MbCN) and horseradish peroxidase (HRPCN) has definitively been observed. This has implications for the interpretation of ultrafast IR (Helbing et al. Biophys. J. 2004, 87, 1881-1891) and optical (Gruia et al. Biophys. J. 2008, 94, 2252-2268) studies that had previously suggested the Fe-CN bond was photostable in MbCN. The photolysis of ferric MbCN takes place with a quantum yield of ~75%, and the resonance Raman spectrum of the photoproduct observed in steady-state experiments as a function of laser power and sample spinning rate is identical to that of ferric Mb (metMb). The data are quantitatively analyzed using a simple model where cyanide is photodissociated and, although geminate rebinding with a rate of kBA ? (3.6 ps)(-1) is the dominant process, some CN(-) exits from the distal heme pocket and is replaced by water. Using independently determined values for the CN(-) association rate, we find that the CN(-) escape rate from the ferric myoglobin pocket to the solution at 293 K is kout ? (1-2) × 10(7) s(-1). This value is very similar to, but slightly larger than, the histidine gated escape rate of CO from Mb (1.1 × 10(7) s(-1)) under the same conditions. The analysis leads to an escape probability kout/(kout + kBA) ~ 10(-4), which is unobservable in most time domain kinetic measurements. However, the photolysis is surprisingly easy to detect in Mb using cw resonance Raman measurements. This is due to the anomalously slow CN(-) bimolecular association rate (170 M(-1) s(-1)), which arises from the need for water to exchange at the ferric heme binding site of Mb. In contrast, ferric HRP does not have a heme bound water molecule and its CN(-) bimolecular association rate is larger by ~10(3), making the CN(-) photolysis more difficult to observe. PMID:23472676

Zeng, Weiqiao; Sun, Yuhan; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Champion, Paul M

2013-04-18

425

Cyanide Toxicity In Juvenile Pigs and its Reversal by a New Prodrug, Sulfanegen Sodium  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanide (CN) toxicity is a serious clinical problem and can occur with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), accidental smoke inhalation, industrial mishaps and bio-terrorism. In this study we induced severe CN toxicity independently with SNP or sodium cyanide (NaCN) in a juvenile pig model to demonstrate reversal of severe CN toxicity with a new antidote, sulfanegen sodium, a prodrug of 3-mercaptopyruvate. Methods SNP study: A pilot study in eleven anesthetized, mechanically ventilated juvenile pigs allowed us to determine the dose of SNP to induce CN toxicity. Blood CN, serum lactates and blood gases were monitored. CN toxicity was defined as the occurrence of severe lactic acidosis accompanied by significant elevation in blood CN levels. Based on this pilot study, eight anesthetized pigs received a high-dose IV infusion of SNP (100mg/hr) for 2 hours to induce CN toxicity. They were then randomized to receive either sulfanegen sodium or placebo. Four pigs received 3 doses of sulfanegen sodium (2.5g IV) every hour after induction of severe CN toxicity, while 4 pigs received placebo. NaCN study A pilot study was conducted in four spontaneously ventilating pigs sedated with propofol plus ketamine to demonstrate hemodynamic and metabolic stability for several hours. After this, 6 pigs were similarly sedated and given NaCN in bolus aliquots to produce CN toxicity ultimately resulting in death. Hemodynamics and metabolic variables were followed to define peak CN toxicity. In another group of six pigs, severe CN toxicity was induced by this method, and at peak toxicity, the animals were given sulfanegen sodium (2.5 g IV) followed by a repeat dose 60 minutes later in surviving animals. Results SNP study: The pilot study demonstrated the occurrence of a significant increase in blood CN levels (p<0.05) accompanied by severe lactic acidemia (p<0.05) in all pigs receiving a high dose of SNP. Administration of the sulfanegen antidote resulted in progressive significant reduction in blood lactate and CN levels with 100% survival (p<0.05), whereas the placebo-treated pigs deteriorated and did not survive (p<0.05). NaCN study NaCN injection resulted in CN toxicity accompanied by severe lactic acidosis and mortality in all the pigs. Sulfanegen sodium reversed this toxicity and prevented mortality in all the pigs treated with this antidote. Conclusions CN toxicity can be successfully induced in a juvenile pig model with SNP or NaCN. The prodrug, sulfanegen sodium, is effective in reversing CN toxicity induced by SNP or NaCN. PMID:22392971

Belani, Kumar G.; Singh, Harpreet; Beebe, David S.; George, Preeta; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Vince, Robert

2012-01-01

426

Foundation fieldbus forging high-level network standard  

SciTech Connect

An all-digital, serial, two-way communications system that interconnects sensors, actuators, and controllers, Foundation fieldbus serves as a local area network (LAN) for instruments used in process and other manufacturing automation applications. The Fieldbus Foundation`s (FF) technology incorporates function blocks that distribute control across the network. Function blocks automatically support alarms, trends, and multiple failure-report levels, without the need for higher-level intervention, and also provide a built-in plant-instrumentation database. Foundation fieldbus will connect individual control devices and may link to a 1.0 Mbit/sec or 2.5 Mbit/sec fieldbus serving as a field communication backbone. It is intended for integrated process-control networks that perform closed-loop continuous control, batch sequencing, recipe management, and data-gathering tasks. The 1.0/2.5 Mbit/sec (H2) bus it also suited for complex logic functions in discrete control networks. 4 figs.

Glanzer, D. [Fieldbus Foundation, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-11-01

427

The Community College Foundation Today: A. History, Characteristics, and Assets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a historical perspective on the community college foundation, reviews 1987 research findings concerning foundation assets, lists 10 steps to establishing a foundation, and identifies key factors in organizational success. Describes the revitalization of the Citrus College Foundation. (DMM)

Angel, Dan; Gares, Dale

1989-01-01

428

Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming Genetic Algorithms #12;Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming 1 Foundations 2 Algorithm Programming Example #12;Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming Genetic

Kjellström, Hedvig

429

Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming Genetic Algorithms Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming 1 Foundations 2 Algorithm Programming Example Foundations Algorithm Components Numerical Optimization Genetic Programming Genetic

Kjellström, Hedvig

430

Germylene cyanide complex: a reagent for the activation of aldehydes with catalytic significance.  

PubMed

The first example of a germanium(II) cyanide complex [GeCN(L)] (2) (L=aminotroponiminate (ATI)) has been synthesized through a novel and relatively benign route that involves the reaction of a digermylene oxide [(L)Ge-O-Ge(L)] (1) with trimethylsilylcyanide (TMSCN). Interestingly, compound 2 activates several aldehydes (RCHO) at room temperature and results in the corresponding cyanogermylated products [RC{OGe(L)}(CN)H] (R=H 3, iPr 4, tBu 5, CH(Ph)Me 6). Reaction of one of the cyanogermylated products (4) with TMSCN affords the cyanosilylated product [(iPr)C(OSiMe3 )(CN)H] (7) along with [GeCN(L)] quantitatively, and insinuates the possible utility of [GeCN(L)] as a catalyst for the cyanosilylation reactions of aldehydes with TMSCN. Accordingly, the quantitative formation of several cyanosilylated products [RC(OSiMe3 )(CN)H] (7-9) in the reaction between RCHO and TMSCN by using 1?mol?% of [GeCN(L)] as a catalyst is also reported for the first time. PMID:25182838

Siwatch, Rahul Kumar; Nagendran, Selvarajan

2014-10-13

431

Cyanogen bromide formation from the reactions of monobromamine and dibromamine with cyanide ion.  

PubMed

Cyanide ion (CN-) was found to reactwith monobromamine (NH2Br) and dibromamine (NHBr2) according to the reactions NH2Br + CN- + H20 --> NH3 + BrCN + OH- and NHBr2 + CN- + H20 --> NH2Br + BrCN + OH- with respective reaction rate constants of 2.63 x 10(4) M9-10 s(-1) and 1.31 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). These values were found to be 10(5)-10(6) times greater than those for the corresponding reactions between chloramine species and CN-. As a result, bromamines, even if present at relatively low concentrations, would tend to outcompete chloramines in reacting with CN-, and thus, the formation of BrCN would predominate that of ClCN through these reaction mechanisms. The NH2Br reaction was found to be general-acid-catalyzed. The third-order catalysis rate constants for H+, H2PO4-, HPO4(2-), H3BO3, and NH4+ correlated linearly with their corresponding acid dissociation constants, consistent with the Brřnsted-Pedersen relationship. The NHBr2 reaction did not undergo catalysis. A model was developed to predict the concentrations of bromamines over time on the basis ofthe above two reactions with CN- and bromamine formation/decomposition reactions previously reported. PMID:16683592

Lei, Hongxia; Minear, Roger A; Marińas, Benito J

2006-04-15

432

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei  

PubMed Central

Cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX) is a mitochondrial membrane protein and a non-proton-pumping ubiquinol oxidase that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. In the African trypanosomes, tryp­anosome alternative oxidase (TAO) functions as a cytochrome-independent terminal oxidase that is essential for survival in the mammalian host; hence, the enzyme is considered to be a promising drug target for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. In the present study, recombinant TAO (rTAO) overexpressed in haem-deficient Escherichia coli was purified and crystallized at 293?K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 400 as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100?K and were processed to 2.9?Ĺ resolution with 93.1% completeness and an overall R merge of 9.5%. The TAO crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.11, b = 136.44, c = 223.06?Ĺ. Assuming the presence of two rTAO molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 38?kDa), the calculated Matthews coefficient (V M) was 3.2?Ĺ3?Da?1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 61.0%. This is the first report of a crystal of the membrane-bound diiron proteins, which include AOXs. PMID:20208159

Kido, Yasutoshi; Shiba, Tomoo; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Moore, Anthony; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

2010-01-01

433

Electrofluorochromic detection of cyanide anions using a nanoporous polymer electrode and the detection mechanism.  

PubMed

An electrofluorochromic (EFC) conjugated copolymer (PEFC) containing carbazole and benzothiadiazole (BTD) moieties is synthesized through Suzuki coupling followed by electrochemical polymerization, resulting in a nanoporous EFC polymer electrode. The electrode exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity in the EFC detection of cyanide anions (CN(-)) in largely aqueous electrolyte (67?vol?% water) because electrochemical oxidation of PEFC leads to significant fluorescence quenching, and the presence of different concentrations (1 to 100??M) of CN(-) in the electrolyte can weaken the oxidative quenching to substantially different extents. Although PEFC is hydrophobic in the neutral state, it is converted to radical cation/dication states upon oxidation, rendering the PEFC some hydrophilicity. Moreover, its nanoporous morphology provides a large surface area and short diffusion distance, facilitating the movement of CN(-) in the electrolyte into the PEFC film to interact with receptors. Density functional theory calculations show that the noncovalent interaction between electron-deficient BTD and nucleophilic CN(-) is energy favorable in the oxidized states in both aqueous and organic media, suggesting that the specific ?(-)-?(+) interaction plays the main role in the CN(-) detection. PMID:25168708

Ding, Guoqiang; Lin, TingTing; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yuliang; Xu, Jianwei; Lu, Xuehong

2014-10-01

434

Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and cyanide-stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species by selected flavonoids.  

PubMed

A continuation of our structure-activity study on flavonoids possessing varied hydroxyl ring configurations was conducted. We tested six additional flavonoids for their ability to inhibit beef heart mitochondrial succinoxidase and NADH-oxidase activities. In every case, the IC50 observed for the NADH-oxidase enzyme system was lower than for succinoxidase activity, demonstrating a primary site of inhibition in the complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) portion of the respiratory chain. The order of potency for inhibition of NADH-oxidase activity was robinetin, rhamnetin, eupatorin, baicalein, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, and norwogonin with IC50 values of 19, 42, 43, 77, 277 and 340 nmol/mg protein, respectively. Flavonoids with adjacent tri-hydroxyl or para-dihydroxyl groups exhibited a substantial rate of auto-oxidation which was accelerated by the addition of cyanide (CN-). Flavonoids possessing a catechol configuration exhibited a slow rate of auto-oxidation in buffer that was stimulated by the addition of CN-. The addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the auto-oxidation experiments each decreased the rate of oxygen consumption, indicating that O2- and H2O2 are generated during auto-oxidation. In the CN(-)-stimulated oxidation experiments, the addition of SOD also slowed the rate of oxygen consumption. These findings demonstrate that the CN-/flavonoid interaction generated O2- non-enzymatically, which could have biological implications. PMID:8117326

Hodnick, W F; Duval, D L; Pardini, R S

1994-02-01

435

Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.  

PubMed

Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (P<0.05) faster than that observed with synthetic wastewater (with similar CN concentration). A combined application of H(2)O(2)/O(3) was found to be the best option for maximum CN destruction. This treatment allows CN to reach the regional/international limit (of 0.02 mg/L) for safe industrial wastewater discharges to the receiving water bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater. PMID:19022578

Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

2009-05-30

436

Excreted thiocyanate detects live reef fishes illegally collected using cyanide--a non-invasive and non-destructive testing approach.  

PubMed

Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the whole supply chain. Most methods for cyanide detection are time-consuming and require the sacrifice of the sampled fish. Thiocyanate anion (SCN(-)) is a metabolite produced by the main metabolic pathway for cyanide anion (CN(-)) detoxification. Our study employed an optical fiber (OF) methodology (analytical time <6 min) to detect SCN(-) in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Our OF methodology is able to detect trace levels (>3.16 µg L(-1)) of SCN(-) in seawater. Given that marine fish exposed to cyanide excrete SCN(-) in the urine, elevated levels of SCN(-) present in the seawater holding live reef fish indicate that the surveyed specimens were likely exposed to cyanide. In our study, captive-bred clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) pulse exposed for 60 s to either 12.5 or 25 mg L(-1) of CN(-) excreted up to 6.96±0.03 and 9.84±0.03 µg L(-1) of SCN(-), respectively, during the 28 days following exposure. No detectable levels of SCN(-) were recorded in the water holding control organisms not exposed to CN(-), or in synthetic seawater lacking fish. While further research is necessary, our methodology can allow a rapid detection of SCN(-) in the holding water and can be used as a screening tool to indicate if live reef fish were collected with cyanide. PMID:22536375

Vaz, Marcela C M; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Rocha, Rui J M; Lopes, Isabel; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Armando C; Rubec, Peter J; Calado, Ricardo

2012-01-01

437

Excreted Thiocyanate Detects Live Reef Fishes Illegally Collected Using Cyanide—A Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Testing Approach  

PubMed Central

Cyanide fishing is a method employed to capture marine fish alive on coral reefs. They are shipped to markets for human consumption in Southeast Asia, as well as to supply the marine aquarium trade worldwide. Although several techniques can be used to detect cyanide in reef fish, there is still no testing method that can be used to survey the whole supply chain. Most methods for cyanide detection are time-consuming and require the sacrifice of the sampled fish. Thiocyanate anion (SCN?) is a metabolite produced by the main metabolic pathway for cyanide anion (CN?) detoxification. Our study employed an optical fiber (OF) methodology (analytical time <6 min) to detect SCN? in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Our OF methodology is able to detect trace levels (>3.16 µg L?1) of SCN? in seawater. Given that marine fish exposed to cyanide excrete SCN? in the urine, elevated levels of SCN? present in the seawater holding live reef fish indicate that the surveyed specimens were likely exposed to cyanide. In our study, captive-bred clownfish (Amphiprion clarkii) pulse exposed for 60 s to either 12.5 or 25 mg L?1 of CN? excreted up to 6.96±0.03 and 9.84±0.03 µg L?1 of SCN?, respectively, during the 28 days following exposure. No detectable levels of SCN? were recorded in the water holding control organisms not exposed to CN?, or in synthetic seawater lacking fish. While further research is necessary, our methodology can allow a rapid detection of SCN? in the holding water and can be used as a screening tool to indicate if live reef fish were collected with cyanide. PMID:22536375

Vaz, Marcela C. M.; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A. P.; Rocha, Rui J. M.; Lopes, Isabel; Pereira, Ruth; Duarte, Armando C.; Rubec, Peter J.; Calado, Ricardo

2012-01-01

438

National Mole Day Foundation, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Celebrated annually on October 23 from 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m., Mole Day commemorates Avogadro's Number (6.02 x 10^23), which is a basic measuring unit in chemistry." This website presents the National Mole Day Foundation, Inc.'s actions to get everyone, especially children, excited about chemistry. Users can learn about activities held throughout the United States and the world including the next Mole day breakfast held on April 3, 2004. The website features many awards to worthy teachers and schools. Interested teachers and students can learn how to become involved in this fun, educational organization.

439

Fourier Transform Infrared Studies of Isolated Cyanide Ion Defects and Cyanide ION:LITHIUM Ion Defect Pairs in Alkali-Halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FTIR absorption--and partially Raman scattering --measurements of the CN^- stretching -mode response have been used to study the vibrational and rotational properties of this diatomic molecular ion as a substitutional defect under a wide variation of alkali -halide host crystal, temperature, and other physical conditions. As a basis of this study, the existent theoretical and experimental material on the electric multipole character of free rm CN^- ions and its binding potential U(R, theta) to alkali-ions (forming free alkali-cyanide molecules) has been critically reviewed. This potential was used to construct the weakly hindered rotational potential of the rm CN^- ion as a substitutional defect in a cavity of 6 surrounding alkali-ions. In the first experimental part, earlier studies of isolated CN^- defects have been extended in two important directions. By measurements of the three lowest harmonic transitions in terms of their frequencies and absorption intensities, the mechanical potential rm U_{M}(r) and electrical dipole moment function p(r) have been determined for rm CN^- ions in KCl and KBr hosts. The rm U_{M}(r) can be well approximated to be an anharmonic Morse function, but the derived p(r) must be close to a linear function to produce only small electrical anharmonicity for rm CN^- (in strong contrast to the very large electrical anharmonicity for rm OH^- and rm OD^ - defects). The second extension, production and studies of isolated rm CN^- defects in Li-halide and alkali-fluoride host crystals, has mostly succeeded. In spite of strong "size-mismatch" between rm CN^- and rm F^- host ions, small isolated rm CN^- concentrations can be substituted into KF, RbF, and CsF hosts, however, not into LiF and NaF. The first time observed isolated rm CN^- stretching-mode absorption in Li-halides shows by its temperature broadening (~ rm T^2) strong rotational localization similar as in Na-halide hosts. Based on the Born-Mayer -Huggins repulsive potential, an empirical relation for the rm CN^- stretching-mode frequency has been derived to be a function of host interionic distance d. The measured frequencies of 16 hosts can be fitted to this relation very well, which predicts by extrapolation of rm dtoinfty the not yet measured free gas rm CN^- frequency to be 2027 rm cm^{ -1}.. In the second experimental part, Li^+ {-}CN^- defect pairs formed in 12 double-doped alkali-halide hosts have been studied with FTIR and polarized Raman techniques. The observation of two sharp stretching-mode transitions (A and rm A^') confirms the existence of two <100> oriented linear pair configurations rm Li^+ {-}CN^- and rm Li ^+{-}NC^- of slightly different energy, which change their relative populations under temperature variation. In most hosts, the rm Li^+ {-}CN^- configuration is found to be the lower energy one, which is opposite to the behavior of free LiNC molecules. By thermal quenching the pairs can be partially converted into isolated defects, and their recovery can be observed by the increases of the A and rm A^' absorption. This allows to study "spectroscopically" the diffusion behavior of rm Li^+ ions near room temperature.

An, Chong Pyung

1995-01-01

440

Foundations of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations play a fundamental role in our understanding of the long-time behavior of strongly magnetized plasmas. The foundations of modern nonlinear gyrokinetic theory are based on three pillars: (i) a gyrokinetic Vlasov equation written in terms of a gyrocenter Hamiltonian with quadratic low-frequency ponderomotivelike terms, (ii) a set of gyrokinetic Maxwell (Poisson-Ampere) equations written in terms of the gyrocenter Vlasov distribution that contain low-frequency polarization (Poisson) and magnetization (Ampere) terms, and (iii) an exact energy conservation law for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations that includes all the relevant linear and nonlinear coupling terms. The foundations of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory are reviewed with an emphasis on rigorous application of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Lie-transform perturbation methods in the variational derivation of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The physical motivations and applications of the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations that describe the turbulent evolution of low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuations in a nonuniform magnetized plasmas with arbitrary magnetic geometry are discussed.

Brizard, A. J.; Hahm, T. S. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2007-04-15

441

Foundations for offshore wind turbines.  

PubMed

An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers. PMID:14667305

Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

2003-12-15

442

Textural break foundation wall construction modules  

DOEpatents

Below-grade, textural-break foundation wall structures are provided for inhibiting diffusion and advection of liquids and gases into and out from a surrounding hydrogeologic environment. The foundation wall structure includes a foundation wall having an interior and exterior surface and a porous medium disposed around a portion of the exterior surface. The structure further includes a modular barrier disposed around a portion of the porous medium. The modular barrier is substantially removable from the hydrogeologic environment.

Phillips, Steven J. (Kennewick, WA)

1990-01-01

443

Target community foundations to fund family planning.  

PubMed

Practical advice was given on how to secure funding for privately sponsored US family planning programs in local communities. The first step is in identifying community foundations that are directly involved in social service delivery in the local area. For example, Norplant kits were made available to low-income women through a grant from the Baltimore-based Abell Foundation. Another example is that local funds were used to produce a Norplant video, which was needed for outreach programs and for explaining the pros and cons of Norplant use. The short video was designed for multiple audiences, even though it was locally produced and funded in Baltimore. Sometimes the health department can create a consortium of providers for applying for a group grant. The Foundation Center in New York provides information on foundations, including state-by-state analysis of foundations and family planning funded projects. The Foundation Directory and Grants Index publishes by subject a list of foundations funding such areas. These publications are available in network or local libraries. Background information needs to be obtained on the guidelines required for applying for a specific foundation's grant; guidelines may vary widely between foundations and have strict or loose restrictions on form and substance. An important initial step is writing a very brief synthesis of your proposal (2 pages), if there is no prior knowledge of the receptivity of the foundation to the proposed program. If the project is within the scope of the foundation, a larger formal proposal is the next step. Foundations want to see well through out projects, budgeted carefully, with evaluation components. Examples of successful projects conducted elsewhere are good testimonials to the potential success of the proposed venture. Cultural acceptance in the community, pilot projects replicable in other areas, and target populations are important considerations to be included in the proposal. PMID:12318752

1994-04-01

444

Synthesis of nanostructured materials by using metal-cyanide coordination polymers and their lithium storage properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herein, we demonstrate a novel and simple two-step process for preparing LiCoO2 nanocrystals by using a Prussian blue analogue Co3[Co(CN)6]2 as a precursor. The resultant LiCoO2 nanoparticles possess single crystalline nature and good uniformity with an average size of ca. 360 nm. The unique nanostructure of LiCoO2 provides relatively shorter Li+ diffusion pathways, thus facilitating the fast kinetics of electrochemical reactions. As a consequence, high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and rate capability are achieved with these nanocrystals as cathodes for lithium storage. The LiCoO2 nanocrystals deliver specific capacities of 154.5, 135.8, 119, and 100.3 mA h g-1 at 0.2, 0.4, 1, and 2 C rates, respectively. Even at a high current density of 4 C, a reversible capacity of 87 mA h g-1 could be maintained. Importantly, a capacity retention of 83.4% after 100 cycles is achieved at a constant discharge rate of 1 C. Furthermore, owing to facile control of the morphology and size of Prussian blue analogues by varying process parameters, as well as the tailored design of multi-component metal-cyanide hybrid coordination polymers, with which we have successfully prepared porous Fe2O3@NixCo3-xO4 nanocubes, one of the potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, such a simple and scalable approach could also be applied to the synthesis of other nanomaterials for energy storage devices.Herein, we demonstrate a novel and simple two-step process for preparing LiCoO2 nanocrystals by using a Prussian blue analogue Co3[Co(CN)6]2 as a precursor. The resultant LiCoO2 nanoparticles possess single crystalline nature and good uniformity with an average size of ca. 360 nm. The unique nanostructure of LiCoO2 provides relatively shorter Li+ diffusion pathways, thus facilitating the fast kinetics of electrochemical reactions. As a consequence, high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and rate capability are achieved with these nanocrystals as cathodes for lithium storage. The LiCoO2 nanocrystals deliver specific capacities of 154.5, 135.8, 119, and 100.3 mA h g-1 at 0.2, 0.4, 1, and 2 C rates, respectively. Even at a high current density of 4 C, a reversible capacity of 87 mA h g-1 could be maintained. Importantly, a capacity retention of 83.4% after 100 cycles is achieved at a constant discharge rate of 1 C. Furthermore, owing to facile control of the morphology and size of Prussian blue analogues by varying process parameters, as well as the tailored design of multi-component metal-cyanide hybrid coordination polymers, with which we have successfully prepared porous Fe2O3@NixCo3-xO4 nanocubes, one of the potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, such a simple and scalable approach could also be applied to the synthesis of other nanomaterials for energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03289b

Nie, Ping; Shen, Laifa; Luo, Haifeng; Li, Hongsen; Xu, Guiyin; Zhang, Xiaogang

2013-10-01

445

Cyanide-selective electrode based on Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin as ionophore.  

PubMed

Receptors that exhibit high selectivity are essential for potentiometric cyanide sensors. Therefore, CN– binding to metallotetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (i.e., Co(II), Co(III), Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Fe(III)) was investigated. All these metalloporphyrins were found to function as neutral ionophores. Co(III) and Fe(III) tetraphenylporphyrins with their positive charges seemed likely to bind up to two axial CN– ligands, but only the Co(III) porphyrin was found to strongly bind a second CN– ligand. The electrode membranes doped with Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin provided the highest selectivity over chloride (logK(CN–,Cl–)(pot) = ?3.71, as opposed to ?0.36 for an ionophore-free ISE) and were optimized by adjusting the site-to-ionophore ratio to achieve the highest CN– selectivity, with special consideration of interfering ions present in gold mining applications. The Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin-based CN(–)-selective electrodes exhibited the best discrimination of OH–; no pH effect was observed even at pH 11 (logK(CN–,OH–)(pot) = ?3.42). The response slopes and unbiased selectivities of the ionophore-free and the ionophore-based electrodes with 25 mol % and 71 mol % cationic sites relative to ionophore showed that the Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin forms a 1:1 complex with the target ion CN– and 2:1 and 1:1 complexes with the interfering ions OH– and S(2–), respectively. The CN– binding constant was 2.3 × 10(6) (mol/kg)(–1), which is slightly bigger but of the same order of magnitude as for binding of Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin to CN– in dichloroethane. PMID:23035800

Chen, Li D; Zou, Xu U; Bühlmann, Philippe

2012-11-01

446

The American-Scandinavian Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1910 by the Danish-American industrialist Niels Poulsen, the American-Scandinavian Foundation facilitates and promotes a variety of educational and cultural exchanges between the United States and Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Visitors with a penchant for such exchanges and opportunities will find much to hold their attention here, as the site includes details on their grant and award programs, along with information on available fellowships and study abroad opportunities. The site also includes a number of instructional materials for educators who wish to teach their students about the Nordic region. The site is rounded out by an archive that contains recent issues of their in-house newsletter, Scan.

447

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With headquarters in New York, the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP) was established in 1987 in order to create a coherent and combined effort to fund research that would assist in the prevention of suicide. During the past 17 years, the organization has created an extensive network of research grant programs, workshops for those seeking to form survivor support groups, and a suicide data bank. The AFSP website contains information on some of its outreach programs, such as the National Survivors of Suicide Day and also its service announcements. There is a great deal of pragmatic information here as well, including a FAQ section which provides answers to pressing questions such as "What is the biggest cause of suicide among college students?". The site is rounded out by a topically organized list of important online resources, such as statistics about suicide, clinical information, and prevention and screening materials.

448

The Laboratory Rotational Spectrum of Iso-Propyl Cyanide and AN Astronomical Search in Sagittarius B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a molecular line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) in the 3 mm region with selected recordings at 2 and 1.3 mm to probe the chemical complexity in massive star-forming regions. Noteworthy results include the detection of aminoacetonitrile, a possible precursor of the aminoacid glycine, the detection of ^{13}C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide, and the detection of ethyl formate as well as normal-propyl cyanide. The heavy atoms in the latter molecule form a chain. An isomer with a branched structure, iso-propyl cyanide, also exists, but its rotational spectrum has only been recorded in few transitions up to 40 GHz. Therefore, laboratory measurements were extended. The molecule is rather asymmetric (? = -0.5766) with a strong a-dipole moment component of 4.05 (2) D and a still sizable c-component of 1.4 (2) D.^e Measurements in Köln were carried out in selected regions between 40 and 600 GHz. Since the c-type transitions appeared to be weaker than predicted additional Stark (and also zero-field) measurements have been carried out in Hannover between 6 and 20 GHz. We will present results of these laboratory spectroscopic investigations as well as the outcome of a search for the molecule in our Sgr B2(N) line survey. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179; Erratum 492 (2008) 796. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. (2009), accepted. G. E. Herberich, Z. Naturforsch. 22a (1967) 543. J. R. Durig, Y. S. Li, J. Mol. Struct. 21 (1974) 289.

Müller, Holger S. P.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Schlemmer, S.

2009-06-01

449

Vibrational lifetimes of cyanide ion in aqueous solution from molecular dynamics simulations: intermolecular vs intramolecular accepting modes.  

PubMed

The lifetimes of the first vibrational state of (12)C(14)N(-) and (13)C(15)N(-) dissolved in H2O or D2O were calculated. The calculations were based on the Landau-Teller formula that puts the vibrational lifetimes in terms of the autocorrelation function of the force exerted on the C-N stretch by the remaining degrees of freedom. The force autocorrelation functions were calculated from classical molecular dynamics simulations of the four cyanide/water isotopomer combinations ((12)C(14)N(-)/H2O, (12)C(14)N(-)/D2O, (13)C(15)N(-)/H2O, (13)C(15)N(-)/D2O). The cyanide ion was described by a polarizable force field, and the water was described by either the rigid SPC/E model or the flexible SPC/Fw model, in order to compare two different types of accepting modes, namely, (1) intermolecular (translational and rotational) solvent accepting modes (rigid SPC/E water) and (2) intramolecular (vibrational) solvent accepting modes (flexible SPC/Fw water). Since quantum effects are expected to increase in size with increasing frequency mismatch between relaxing and accepting modes, different quantum correction factors were employed depending on the identity of the accepting modes, more specifically, the harmonic/Schofield quantum correction factor in the case of intermolecular accepting modes and the standard quantum correction factor in the case of intramolecular accepting modes. The lifetimes with either the rigid SPC/E or flexible SPC/Fw water models were found to be in good quantitative agreement with the experimentally measured values for all isotopomer combinations. Our results suggest that taking into account quantum effects on the vibrational energy relaxation of cyanide in aqueous solution can make the intermolecular pathway at least as likely as the intramolecular pathway. PMID:24927159

Talapatra, Surma; Geva, Eitan

2014-07-01

450

The Rockefeller foundation, the China foundation, and the development of modern science in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two powerful foundations, with interlocking directorates, were the most important media for transmitting American science to China and for making its development possible: In the 1920s and 1930s, the Rockefeller Foundation's China Medical Board and the China Foundation for the Promotion of Education and Culture recognized that transmission and development required much more than the transplantation of whole scientific institutions.

Laurence A. Schneider

1982-01-01

451

Vibration Based Wind Turbine Tower Foundation Design Utilizing Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind turbines have been used to generate electricity as an alternative energy source to conventional fossil fuels. This case study is for multiple wind towers located at different villages in Alaska where severe arctic weather conditions exist. The towers are supported by two different types of foundations; large mat or deep piles foundations. Initially, a Reinforced Concrete (RC) mat foundation

P. E. Mohamed Al Satari; S. E. Saif Hussain

2008-01-01

452

A colorimetric and fluorescent cyanide chemosensor based on dicyanovinyl derivatives: Utilization of the mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer blocking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemosensor (CS1) was designed and synthesized by simple green chemistry procedure. CS1 exhibited both colorimetric and fluorescence turn-off responses for cyanide (CN-) ion in aqueous solution. The probe showed an immediate visible color changes from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence disappearance when CN- was added. The mechanism of chemosensor reaction with CN- was studied using 1HH NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Moreover, test strips based on the sensor were fabricated, which served as convenient and efficient CN- test kits.

Li, Qiao; Cai, Yi; Yao, Hong; Lin, Qi; Zhu, Yuan-Rong; Li, Hui; Zhang, You-Ming; Wei, Tai-Bao

2015-02-01

453

Noninvasive monitoring of treatment response in a rabbit cyanide toxicity model reveals differences in brain and muscle metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to monitor cyanide (CN) poisoning and recovery in the brain region and in foreleg muscle simultaneously, and the effects of a novel CN antidote, sulfanegen sodium, on tissue hemoglobin oxygenation changes were compared using a sub-lethal rabbit model. The results demonstrated that the brain region is more susceptible to CN poisoning and slower in endogenous CN detoxification following exposure than peripheral muscles. However, sulfanegen sodium rapidly reversed CN toxicity, with brain region effects reversing more quickly than muscle. In vivo monitoring of multiple organs may provide important clinical information regarding the extent of CN toxicity and subsequent recovery, and facilitate antidote drug development.

Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steven E.; Boss, Gerry R.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Brenner, Matthew

2012-10-01

454

A colorimetric and fluorescent cyanide chemosensor based on dicyanovinyl derivatives: utilization of the mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer blocking.  

PubMed

Chemosensor (CS1) was designed and synthesized by simple green chemistry procedure. CS1 exhibited both colorimetric and fluorescence turn-off responses for cyanide (CN(-)) ion in aqueous solution. The probe showed an immediate visible color changes from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence disappearance when CN(-) was added. The mechanism of chemosensor reaction with CN(-) was studied using (1)HH NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Moreover, test strips based on the sensor were fabricated, which served as convenient and efficient CN(-) test kits. PMID:25459631

Li, Qiao; Cai, Yi; Yao, Hong; Lin, Qi; Zhu, Yuan-Rong; Li, Hui; Zhang, You-Ming; Wei, Tai-Bao

2015-02-01

455

High-spin metal–cyanide clusters: species incorporating [Mn(salen)] + complexes as a source of anisotropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of N,N?-ethylenebis(salycylideneiminato) (salen) complexes of MnIII in assembling high-spin metal–cyanide coordination clusters with significant magnetic anisotropy is demonstrated. The reaction of [Mn(salen)(H2O)2]+with [Cr(CN)6]3? in aqueous solution generates {Cr[CNMn(salen)(H2O)]6}[Cr(CN)6]·6H2O (1), a previously reported compound featuring a heptanuclear cluster with a distorted octahedral geometry. A fit to the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data for 1 revealed the presence of weak antiferromagnetic

Hye Jin Choi; Jennifer J. Sokol; Jeffrey R. Long

2004-01-01

456

Putting a terbium-monometallic cyanide cluster into the C82 fullerene cage: TbCN@C2(5)-C82.  

PubMed

The first terbium (Tb)-monometallic cyanide clusterfullerene (CYCF), TbCN@C82, has been successfully synthesized and isolated, whose molecular structure was determined unambiguously as TbCN@C2(5)-C82 by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The C2(5)-C82 isomeric cage represents a new cage capable of encapsulating a monometallic cyanide cluster. The C-N bond length within the encaged TbCN cluster is determined to be 0.94(5) Ĺ, which is smaller by at least 0.17 Ĺ than those of the reported C-N triplet bonds in traditional cyanide/nitrile compounds and cyano coordination complexes. An electronic configuration of [Tb(3+)(CN)(-)](2+)@[C82](2-) was proposed for TbCN@C82. PMID:24786191

Liu, Fupin; Wang, Song; Guan, Jian; Wei, Tao; Zeng, Minxiang; Yang, Shangfeng

2014-05-19

457

The active site of aromatase cytochrome P-450. Differential effects of cyanide provide evidence for proximity of heme-iron and carbon-19 in the enzyme-substrate complex.  

PubMed

19-Norandrostenedione and androstenedione are shown to be metabolized by purified, reconstituted human placental aromatase cytochrome P-450. Kinetic evidence indicates that both steroids share a common catalytic site: 19-norandrostenedione is a competitive inhibitor of androstenedione aromatization, and the Ki value for its inhibition (120 nM) is similar to the Km value for its metabolism (132 nM). The two substrates differ, however, in their sensitivity to inhibition by the heme-iron ligand cyanide; 19-norandrostenedione is approximately 3-fold more sensitive to cyanide inhibition. Spectroscopic studies show that this differential inhibition by cyanide occurs because androstenedione competes with cyanide, whereas 19-norandrostenedione promotes cyanide binding to the heme-iron. It is proposed that these opposite effects on cyanide-iron coordination are due to the proximity of the heme-iron and C-19 of androstenedione in the enzyme-substrate complex, which results in steric exclusion of cyanide from the active site by the C-19 methyl group of androstenedione. Dioxygen is not excluded from binding to the heme-iron during catalysis, presumably because it bonds at an angle, in contrast to the linear bond of iron-cyanide complexes. A model for the active site of aromatase cytochrome P-450 is presented. PMID:3597396

Kellis, J T; Vickery, L E

1987-06-25

458

Liberating Foundations of Art and Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research concerning the basic course known as Foundations of Art and Design strengthens the pedagogical approach for K-16 art and design education. The version of Foundations introduced to America by Josef Albers, although hardly changed, is shown to have continued, timeless relevance. Next, a sequential, implicit logic is revealed in linking the…

Lerner, Fern

2012-01-01

459

SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC FOUNDATION, INC.  

E-print Network

SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC FOUNDATION, INC. BYLAWS Effective March 8, 2005 Page 1 of 11 SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC FOUNDATION BYLAWS Article I Offices Section 1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE at Sonoma State University in the County of Sonoma, State of California. The Board of Directors

Ravikumar, B.

460

SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC FOUNDATION, INC.  

E-print Network

SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC FOUNDATION, INC. BYLAWS Effective December 14, 2012 Page 1 of 11 SONOMA STATE UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC FOUNDATION BYLAWS Article I Offices Section 1. PRINCIPAL OFFICE at Sonoma State University in the County of Sonoma, State of California. The Board of Directors

Ravikumar, B.

461

Modelling of Shallow Foundations for Offshore Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the numerical modelling of shallow circular foundations. A summary of recent work in this area at Oxford University is presented. For design purposes it is almost always necessary to devise a numerical model of foundation behaviour, however simple that might be, and the principal focus of this paper is on appropriate numerical models for modern design methods.

G. T. Houlsby

462

COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide (SSRG)  

E-print Network

COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide (SSRG) Oxygen Therapy #12;This "Slim Skinny Reference Guide: Oxygen Therapy" is part of the COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide series which have been taken from the COPD Big Fat Reference Guide . To access the complete COPD Big Fat Reference Guide

Cooper, Robin L.

463

Foundations and Higher Education: Whose Agenda?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grant programs that had been relatively open-ended were now tightly drawn, grounded in the foundations' own carefully articulated take on issues and receptive only to proposals that responded appropriately. Initiative and creativity had shifted heavily from prospective grantee to grantor. As foundations embraced this funding-by-agenda, it burdened…

Schneider, John C.

2007-01-01

464

Project Management Foundation 21 hours, $895  

E-print Network

:OnDemand|Gardner|D2514020E Project Scope, Cost, and Schedule Management 21 hours, $895 Scope,cost: · Project Management Foundation · Project Quality and Risk Management · Project Scope, Cost, and ScheduleProject Management Foundation 21 hours, $895 The fundamental project management processes

Alabama in Huntsville, University of