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1

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

2

TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-40 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

3

TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-53 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

4

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

5

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

6

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in\\u000a Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The\\u000a model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and\\u000a linear mass balance relationships to

Ahmad Khodadadi; M. Monjezi; H. Mehrpouya; H. Dehghani

2009-01-01

7

Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

8

Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes.

Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

1986-09-01

9

Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, S.N.

2004-01-01

10

The effect of temperature on the rate of cyanide metabolism of two woody plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of cyanide metabolism rates of two woody plants to changes in temperature is investigated. Detached leaves (1.0g fresh weight) from weeping willow (Salix babylonica L.) and Chinese elder (Sambucus chinensis Lindl.) were kept in glass vessels with 100ml of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide for a maximum of 28h. Ten different temperatures were used ranging from 11°C

Xiaozhang Yu; Stefan Trapp; Puhua Zhou; Hao Hu

2005-01-01

11

Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and cyanide in soils from manufactured gas plant sites  

SciTech Connect

The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide which subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.

Ho, YiFong.

1993-01-01

12

DESIGN OF MONOPILE FOUNDATIONS FOR OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foundation of offshore wind energy plants plays an important role in the stability of these structures. One foundation concept which can be used in this field is the monopile concept. Here the foundation consists of one large-diameter pile (up to 8.0 m). Common design practice, e. g. according to API regulations, does not cover horizontally loaded piles of such

MARTIN ACHMUS; KHALID ABDEL-RAHMAN

13

A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001

Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbic, Miodrag; Feyereisen, Rene; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-01-01

14

Cyanide Metabolism in Higher Plants: Cyanoalanine Hydratase is a NIT4 Homolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanoalanine hydratase (E.C. 4.2.1.65) is an enzyme involved in the cyanide detoxification pathway of higher plants and catalyzes\\u000a the hydrolysis of ?-cyano-l-alanine to asparagine. We have isolated the enzyme from seedlings of blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) to obtain protein sequence information for molecular cloning. In contrast to earlier reports, extracts of blue lupine cotyledons\\u000a were found also to contain cyanoalanine-nitrilase

Markus Piotrowski; Julia Jutta Volmer

2006-01-01

15

Cyanide-and rotenone-resistant respiration in mitochondria of sugar beet taproots during plant growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cyanide and rotenone were examined on respiration (oxygen uptake) in mitochondria isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots at various stages of plant growth and development. In mitochondria from growing and cool-stored taproots, the\\u000a ability of cyanide-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative oxidase (AO) to oxidize malate, succinate, and\\u000a other substrates of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) was low and

A. G. Shugaev; N. A. Shugaeva; E. I. Vyskrebentseva

2006-01-01

16

Detoxification of Cyanide in a Gold Processing Plant Tailings Water Using Calcium and Sodium Hypochlorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, cyanide in waste water from the Muteh gold mine in Iran was oxidized by sodium and calcium hypochlorite\\u000a to cyanate (CNO?), which is 1,000 times less environmentally hazardous than cyanide. Experiments were conducted using waste water containing\\u000a 270 mg\\/L cyanide over a pH range of 6–13 and temperatures between 25 and 50°C. Cyanide was removed completely at a

A. Khodadad; P. Teimoury; M. Abdolahi; A. Samiee

2008-01-01

17

Physiopathological Effects of the Administration of Chronic Cyanide to Growing Goats – A Model for Ingestion of Cyanogenic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of cyanogenic plants, such as cassava and sorghum, has been associated with goitre and tropical pancreatic diabetes in both humans and animals. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the toxic effects on the thyroid and pancreas in growing goats of prolonged exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN). Thirty-four male goats were divided into five groups dosed

B. Soto-Blanco; S. L. Górniak; E. T. Kimura

2001-01-01

18

Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate  

SciTech Connect

Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

2004-07-01

19

Structure of Soybean ?-Cyanoalanine Synthase and the Molecular Basis for Cyanide Detoxification in Plants[W  

PubMed Central

Plants produce cyanide (CN?) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN? detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the ?-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form ?-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

2012-01-01

20

Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration  

SciTech Connect

Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

Stegink, S.J.

1985-01-01

21

Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.  

PubMed

Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for irrigation, discharge it to rapid infiltration basins, or, in some cases, discharge it to surface waters. Surface waters are diverted around surface mining operations. Adverse effects of groundwater drawdown include formation of sinkholes within 5 km of groundwater drawdown; reduced stream flows with reduced quantities of wate available for irrigation, stock watering, and domestic, mining and milling, and municipal uses; reduction or loss of vegetation cover for wildlife, with reduced carrying capacity for terrestrial wildlife; loss of aquatic habitat for native fishes and their prey; and disruption of Native American cultural traditions. Surface discharge of excess mine dewatering water and other waters to main waterways may contain excess quantities of arsenic, total dissolved solids, boron, copper, fluoride, and zinc. When mining operations cease, and the water pumps are dismantled, these large open pits may slowly fill with water, forming lakes. The water quality of pit lakes may present a variety of pressing environmental problems. PMID:15369321

Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

2004-01-01

22

Exotic plants increase and native plants decrease with loss of foundation species in sagebrush steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant plant species, or foundation species, are recognized to have a disproportionate control over resources in ecosystems,\\u000a but few studies have evaluated their relationship to exotic invasions. Loss of foundation species could increase resource\\u000a availability to the benefit of exotic plants, and could thereby facilitate invasion. The success of exotic plant invasions\\u000a in sagebrush steppe was hypothesized to benefit from

Janet S. Prevéy; Matthew J. Germino; Nancy J. Huntly; Richard S. Inouye

2010-01-01

23

Molecular Structure of Cyanide ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyanide ion CN- is highly toxic to human body that contained in inorganic cyanide. Many foods and plants have cyanides, such as cassava roots and cherries pits. Cyanides are also one of the very few soluble composites of gold, so that they are used in gold mining and electroplating, etc. Small amount of cyanides from foods are converted to the harmless thiocyanate (SCN-). However, cyanides are harmful in a large amount to human body, which can lead to vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness or even death. Because Cyanide ion binds more strongly than oxygen to the Fe+3 in cytochrome a3, it interrupts the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

2002-09-18

24

Elimination of phenols, ammonia and cyanide in wash water from biomass gasification, and nitrogen recycling using planted trickling filters.  

PubMed

Trickling filters were used to treat wash water from a wood gasifier. This wash water contained toxic substances such as ammonium, cyanide, phenols, and PAH. The goal was to develop a system that degraded toxic substances, and achieved full nitrification of ammonia. A 1 kW model wood gasifier plant delivered wash water for the experiments, which was standardised to a conductivity of 3 mS/cm by dilution. Toxicity was assessed by bacterial luminescence detection, germination test with cress (Lepidium sativum), and pot plants cultivated in a hydroponic setup irrigated continuously with the wastewater. Treatment experiments were done in both planted and unplanted trickling filters. Plant yield was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The trickling filters achieved complete detoxification of phenol, PAH and cyanide as well as full nitrification. The specific elimination rates were 100 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for phenols and 90 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for ammonium in planted systems. In unplanted trickling filters circulated for 63 h, phenol concentration decreased from 83.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L and cyanide concentration from 0.32 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. PAH concentrations were reduced from 3,050 microg/L to 0.89 microg/L within 68 days. The assays demonstrated the feasibility of using the technique to construct a treatment system in a partially closed circulation for gasifier wash water. The principal advantage is to convert toxic effluents from biomass gasifiers into a non-toxic, nitrogen-rich fertiliser water, enabling subsequent use in plant production and thus income generation. However, the questions of long-term performance and possible accumulation of phenols and heavy metals in the produce still have to be studied. PMID:19955650

Graber, Andreas; Skvarc, Robert; Junge-Berberovi?, Ranka

2009-01-01

25

Cyanide is an adequate agonist of the plant hormone ethylene for studying signalling of sensor kinase ETR1 at the molecular level.  

PubMed

The plant hormone ethylene is involved in many developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses in plants. Although the elements of the signalling cascade and the receptors operating the ethylene pathway have been identified, a detailed understanding of the molecular processes related to signal perception and transfer is still lacking. Analysis of these processes using purified proteins in physical, structural and functional studies is complicated by the gaseous character of the plant hormone. In the present study, we show that cyanide, a ?-acceptor compound and structural analogue of ethylene, is a suitable substitute for the plant hormone for in vitro studies with purified proteins. Recombinant ethylene receptor protein ETR1 (ethylene-resistant 1) showed high level and selective binding of [(14)C]cyanide in the presence of copper, a known cofactor in ethylene binding. Replacement of Cys(65) in the ethylene-binding domain by serine dramatically reduced binding of radiolabelled cyanide. In contrast with wild-type ETR1, autokinase activity of the receptor is not reduced in the ETR1-C65S mutant upon addition of cyanide. Additionally, protein-protein interaction with the ethylene signalling protein EIN2 (ethylene-insensitive 2) is considerably sustained by cyanide in wild-type ETR1, but is not affected in the mutant. Further evidence for the structural and functional equivalence of ethylene and cyanide is given by the fact that the ethylene-responsive antagonist silver, which is known to allow ligand binding but prevent intrinsic signal transduction, also allows specific binding of cyanide, but shows no effect on autokinase activity and ETR1-EIN2 interaction. PMID:22390794

Bisson, Melanie M A; Groth, Georg

2012-06-01

26

[Isolation of an aboriginal bacterial community capable of utilizing cyanide, thiocyanate, and ammonia from metallurgical plant wastewater].  

PubMed

An aboriginal bacterial community capable of degrading cyanide (10 mg/l) and thiocyanate (2 g/l) and eliminating ammonia (120 mg/l) had been isolated from recycled water samples after blast-furnace gas purification of a metallurgical plant wastewater. It was shown that the optimal conditions for this bacterial community were as follows: temperature, 34 degrees C; pH, 8.8-9.0; available organic matter concentration (glucose equivalent), 5 g/l; and dissolved O2 concentration, 8-10 mg/l. This aboriginal community was formed by the bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. PMID:18822775

Grigor'eva, N V; Smirnova, Iu V; Terekhova, S V; Karava?ko, G I

2008-01-01

27

Experimentally induced chromosome aberrations in plants. I. The production of chromosome aberrations by cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents.  

PubMed

The finding of Lilly and Thoday that potassium cyanide produces structural chromosome changes in root tips of Vicia faba was confirmed. Like mustards, diepoxides, and maleic hydrazide, potassium cyanide seems to act on cells at early interphase. A tendency of cyanide breaks to be concentrated in heterochromatic segments of the chromosomes was evident. The production of chromosome aberrations by cyanide proved to be practically unaffected by the temperature during treatment. In agreement with Lilly and Thoday, the effect of potassium cyanide was found to be dependent on oxygen tension during treatment. The effect of potassium cyanide increases with increasing oxygen concentration up to 100 per cent oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, potassium cyanide was not completely inactive, but produced a low, though significant frequency of aberrations. Pretreatments with 2.4-dinitrophenol did not influence the effect of potassium cyanide. When bean roots were treated with potassium cyanide before a treatment with 8-ethoxycaffeine, or at the same time as they were treated with 8-ethoxycaffeine, the effect of 8-ethoxycaffeine was almost completely suppressed. The effects of a number of other heavy metal complexing agents were also tested. Sodium fluoride, potassium thiocyanate, carbon monoxide, o-phenanthroline, 2.2-bipyridine, and sodium azide were without radiomimetic effect under the conditions employed, and so was a mixture of sodium azide and sodium fluoride. A low, but quite significant, radiomimetic effect was obtained after treatments with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, cupferron, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Under anaerobic conditions, the effects of cyanide and cupferron were both quantitatively and qualitatively indistinguishable. Unlike the effect of cyanide, the effect of cupferron was not enhanced by the presence of oxygen. The effects of the same heavy metal complexing agents were tested on the activities of the enzymes catalase and peroxidase. The activities of both of these enzymes were found to be totally inhibited only by potassium cyanide. In the other cases, little correlation was found between ability to inhibit the activities of these enzymes and ability to produce chromosome aberrations. In a number of experiments, hydrogen peroxide was found to be without radiomimetic effect, whether alone or in combination with potassium cyanide. t-Butyl hydroperoxide proved to be active. The effect of t-butyl hydroperoxide was substantially increased by pretreatments with 2.4.-dinitrophenol. The results are discussed, and it is concluded that the observations made do not support the hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide is involved in the production of chromosome aberrations by potassium cyanide. The possibility that organic peroxides are involved cannot be excluded on the bases of the experimental results. As an alternative hypothesis, it is suggested that iron or other heavy metals are present in the chromosomes and that cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents produce chromosome aberrations by reacting with these metals. PMID:13438921

KIHLMAN, B A

1957-05-25

28

Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata.  

PubMed

Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates. In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were 25 times higher than in leaves of young Arabidopsis thaliana plants and over 150 times higher than in leaves of young Brassica kaber, B. rapa, and B. napus. In first-year plants, cyanide levels were highest in young leaves of seedlings and declined with leaf age on individual plants. Leaves of young plants infested with green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) produced just over half as much cyanide as leaves of healthy plants, suggesting that aphid feeding led to loss of cyanide from intact tissues before analysis, or that aphid feeding inhibited cyanide precursor production. In a developmental study, levels of cyanide in the youngest and oldest leaf of young garlic mustard plants were four times lower than in the youngest and oldest leaf of young Sorghum sudanense (cv. Cadan 97) plants, but cyanide levels did not decline in these leaves with plant age as in S. sudanense. Different populations of garlic mustard varied moderately in the constitutive and inducible expression of cyanide in leaves, but no populations studied were acyanogenic. Although cyanide production could result from breakdown products of glucosinolates, no cyanide was detected in vitro from decomposition of sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of garlic mustard. These studies indicate that cyanide produced from an as yet unidentified cyanogenic compound is a part of the battery of chemical defenses expressed by garlic mustard. PMID:17146719

Cipollini, Don; Gruner, Bill

2007-01-01

29

Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One treatment for cyanide poisoning involves administration of the combination sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate. To understand better the action of thiosulfate on cyanide toxicity, a study was made of the pharmacokinetics of cyanide distribution and ...

J. L. Way

1982-01-01

30

Evidence of iron cyanides as supplementary nitrogen source to rice seedlings.  

PubMed

The effect of iron cyanides on activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) of plants was investigated. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO(3) or NH(4)Cl and treated with ferro-cyanide [K(4)Fe(CN)(6)] or ferri-cyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)]. Total cyanide and free cyanide in solutions and in plant materials were analyzed. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of plants were assayed in vivo. Results indicated that all rice seedlings exposed to either ferro- or ferri-cyanide showed positive growth. The phyto-assimilation rates of both iron cyanide species by rice seedlings were positively correlated to the doses supplied. Seedlings grown on NO(3)(-) showed significantly higher assimilatory potential for both ferro- and ferri-cyanide than those on NH(4)(+). Rice seedlings grown on NH(4)(+)-containing nutrient solution accumulated more cyanide in plant materials, majority being in roots rather than shoots, than these grown on NO(3)(-)-containing nutrient solution, suggesting that the presence of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) in the nutrient solution caused a negative impact on botanical assimilation of both iron cyanides. Sensitivity of NR and GS in rice seedlings exposed to ferro- and ferri-cyanide was identical, where conspicuous effects were only observed at the highest concentration supplied. The evidence offered here suggests that both iron cyanides can be a supplementary source of nitrogen to plant nutrition. PMID:22684732

Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Shen, Ping-Ping; Gu, Ji-Guang; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Fu-Zhong

2012-08-01

31

Allotopic expression of a mitochondrial alternative oxidase confers cyanide resistance to human cell respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mitochondrial respiration is distinct from that of most plants, microorganisms and even some metazoans in that it reduces molecular oxygen only through the highly cyanide-sensitive enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. Here we show that expression of the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX), recently identified in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, is well tolerated by cultured human cells and confers spectacular cyanide resistance

Gerrit A J Hakkaart; Emmanuel P Dassa; Howard T Jacobs; Pierre Rustin

2005-01-01

32

Accumulation of cytokinins in roots and their export to the shoots of durum wheat plants treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP)  

PubMed Central

Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed.

Kudoyarova, Guzel R.

2014-01-01

33

Accumulation of cytokinins in roots and their export to the shoots of durum wheat plants treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP).  

PubMed

Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed. PMID:24692646

Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Korobova, Alla V; Akhiyarova, Guzel R; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Zaytsev, Denis Yu; Prinsen, Els; Egutkin, Naum L; Medvedev, Sergey S; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

2014-06-01

34

Nitryl Cyanide, NCNO2.  

PubMed

The elusive nitryl cyanide, NCNO2 , has been synthesized and characterized. It was prepared in good yield, isolated by fractional condensation, characterized by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy, and studied by theoretical calculations. Nitryl cyanide holds promise as a high energy density material (HEDM) and might also prove useful as a HEDM building block. The simplicity and inherent stability of nitryl cyanide, together with the known multitude of nitriles in interstellar space, suggest that the compound might also be a potential candidate for observations in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry. PMID:24861214

Rahm, Martin; Bélanger-Chabot, Guillaume; Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O

2014-07-01

35

Experimentally induced chromosome abberrations in plants. II. The effect of cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents on the production of chromosome aberrations by x-rays.  

PubMed

The discovery of Lilly and Thoday, that the presence of potassium cyanide (KCN) increases the production of chromosome aberrations by x-rays in anoxia, but has no effect on the production of chromosome aberrations by x-rays in air, was confirmed. In the presence of cyanide, the effect of a given dose of x-rays in nitrogen was found to be even greater than the effect of the same dose of x-rays in air. The cyanide effect on x-ray breakage in nitrogen was obtained at cyanide concentrations as low as 2 x 10(-5)M. The breakage obtained after the combined x-ray-cyanide treatments was of the x-ray type, as evidenced by the distribution of breaks within and between the chromosomes. A number of other heavy metal complexing agents as well as some other compounds were tested for their ability to increase x-ray breakage in nitrogen and air. Of these compounds only cupferron proved to be effective. The results are discussed and it is concluded that the increased x-ray breakage in the presence of cyanide or cupferron cannot be due to an accumulation of peroxides. Instead it is suggested that the cyanide effect may be due to a complex formation between the active agents and heavy metals, presumably iron, within the chromosomes. The consequences of this hypothesis on the concept of the "oxygen effect," are discussed. PMID:13438922

KIHLMAN, B A; MERZ, T; SWANSON, C P

1957-05-25

36

Occupational cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

2011-01-01

37

Water Cyanides Number 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate the ability of the distillation, titrimetric, and colorimetric procedures offered in Standard Methods to quantitatively measure both simple and complex cyanides in water. In the study each participant was shipped...

R. J. Lishka L. A. Lederer E. F. McFarren

1967-01-01

38

Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.  

PubMed

The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

2011-09-01

39

Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhodanese in protection from cyanide toxicity.  

PubMed

Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a DeltarhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the DeltarhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:17098912

Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

2007-01-01

40

Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese in Protection from Cyanide Toxicity?  

PubMed Central

Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a ?rhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the ?rhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration.

Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

2007-01-01

41

Activities of the Pharmaceutical Technology Institute of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation with medicinal, insecticidal and insect repellent plants.  

PubMed

In addition to original research, Far-Manguinhos, the Pharmaceutical Division of the Brazilian Ministry of Health's Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), devotes major attention to the finalising of products for use in public health campaigns or, under contract, for private industrial development. Emphasis is on standardisation, adequate supply, safety in use and efficacy. Among the products discussed in this summary of some of its activities in the chemical and pharmaceutical fields are medicinal plants Bidens pilosa, Cymbopogon citratus, Copaifera species, Mentha crispa, Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. and other Phyllanthus species, insecticidal plants, Lonchocarpus urucu and Quassia amara, and the insect antifeedant plants Carapa guianensis and Pterodon emarginatus. PMID:10412493

Gilbert, B; Teixeira, D F; Carvalho, E S; De Paula, A E; Pereira, J F; Ferreira, J L; Almeida, M B; Machado, R da S; Cascon, V

1999-01-01

42

Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

1978-01-01

43

Pattern of the Cyanide-Potential in Developing Fruits : Implications for Plants Accumulating Cyanogenic Monoglucosides (Phaseolus lunatus) or Cyanogenic Diglucosides in Their Seeds (Linum usitatissimum, Prunus amygdalus).  

PubMed

The absolute cyanide content of developing fruits was determined in Costa Rican wild lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus), oil flax (Linum usitatissimum), and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus). The cyanide potential (HCN-p) of the lima bean and the almond fruit began to increase shortly after anthesis and then stopped before fruit maturity. In contrast, the flax inflorescence had a higher HCN-p in absolute terms than the mature flax fruit. At all times of its development the bean fruit contained the monoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. The almond and the flax fruits contained, at anthesis, the monoglucosides prunasin, and linamarin and lotaustralin, respectively, while, at maturity, only the corresponding diglucosides amygdalin, and linustatin and neolinustatin, respectively, were present. PMID:16667698

Frehner, M; Scalet, M; Conn, E E

1990-09-01

44

The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug's-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate  

PubMed Central

Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson’s diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

45

Activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to investigate activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants during cyanide metabolism. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO(3) or NH(4)Cl and treated with free cyanide (KCN). Cyanide in solutions and in plant materials was analyzed to estimate the phyto-assimilation potential. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of rice seedlings were assayed in vivo. Seedlings grown on NH(4)(+) showed significantly higher relative growth rate than those on NO(3)(-) (p<0.05) in the presence of exogenous cyanide. The metabolic rates of cyanide by seedlings were all positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. A negligible difference was observed between the two treatments with nitrate and ammonium (p>0.05). Enzymatic assays showed that cyanide (?0.97mg CN L(-1)) impaired NR activity significantly in both roots and shoots (p<0.05). The effect of cyanide on GS activity in roots was more evident at 1.93mg CN L(-1), suggesting that NR activity was more susceptible to change from cyanide application than GS activity. The results observed here suggest that the exogenous cyanide, which to a certain level has a beneficial role in plant nutrition. PMID:22633925

Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Fu-Zhong

2012-07-30

46

Cyanide-sensitive fluorescent probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize the response of several boronic acid containing fluorophores, which are widely used for sugar determination, towards aqueous cyanide. In two recent reports we have shown that boronic acid containing fluorophores can be used to sense aqueous cyanide through physiological safeguard levels. In this report we show that our new sensing mechanism is not just specific to our recently

Ramachandram Badugu; Joseph R. Lakowicz; Chris D. Geddes

2005-01-01

47

Microbes and microbial enzymes for cyanide degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, cyanide is a natural product generated by fungi and bacteria, and as a result microbial systems have evolved for the degradation of cyanide to less toxic compounds. The enzymes which utilize cyanide as a substrate can be categorized into the following

Scott A. Raybuck

1992-01-01

48

Glaucoma Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

TGF Awards Six New Research Grants The Glaucoma Foundation has announced funding of six new research grants ... here Eye To Eye Newsletter Download The Glaucoma Foundation's newsletter! Click here The Glaucoma Foundation Ball The ...

49

Effect of foundation embedment on the seismic response of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant  

SciTech Connect

The effects of soil-structure interaction during seismic events upon the dynamic response of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Plant (HTGR) have been investigated for both surface-founded and embedded basemats. The influence from foundation embedment has been quantitatively assessed through a series of theoretical studies on plants of various sizes. The surface-founded analyses were performed using frequency-independent soil impedance parameters; while the embedded plant analyses utilized finite element models simulated on the FLUSH computer program. The seismic response of the surface-founded plants has been used to establish the standard-site design in-structure response spectra. These analyses were performed by using the linear modal formulation based on conventional soil stiffness and damping values. Numerical results are presented in terms of in-structure response spectra along with other pertinent seismic load data at key levels of the plant. Analysis techniques for future studies using viscoelastic halfspace representation and inelastic finite element modeling for soil are also discussed.

Lee, T.H.; Thompson, R.W.; Charman, C.M.

1982-08-01

50

Semi-quantitative tests of cyanide in foods and excreta of Three Hapalemur species in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Three sympatric Hapalemur species (H. g. griseus, H. aureus, and H. (Prolemur) simus) in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar are known to eat bamboo food parts that contain cyanide. How these lemurs avoid cyanide poisoning remains unknown. In this study, we tested for the presence/absence of cyanide in bamboo lemur foods and excreta to (1) document patterns of cyanide consumption among species with respect to diet, (2) identify routes of elimination of cyanide from the gastrointestinal tract, and (3) determine whether cyanide is absorbed from the diet. We tested 102 food, urine, and fecal samples for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) during two "pre-dry" seasons (April 2006, May 2007) using commercially available Cyantesmo test strips. The test strips changed color in the presence of HCN, and we recorded color change on a scale of 0 (no change) to 5 (cobalt) at preset intervals with a final score taken at 24 hr. We detected cyanide in bamboo food parts and urine of all three Hapalemur species. Time to color change of the test strips ranged from almost instantaneous to >12 hr incubation. Of the foods tested, only bamboo contained cyanide, but results differed among bamboo species and plant parts of the same species. Specifically, branch shoot and culm pith of the giant bamboo produced strong, immediate reactions to the test paper, whereas parts of liana bamboos produced either weak or no color change. Cyanide was present in almost all urine samples but rarely in fecal samples. This suggests that dietary cyanide is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of the Hapalemur species and excreted, at least in part, by the kidneys. Samples from H. griseus exhibited lower, though still detectable, cyanide levels compared with H. simus and H. aureus. Differences among lemur species appear to be related to the specific bamboo parts consumed. PMID:19790190

Yamashita, Nayuta; Tan, Chia L; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Cathy

2010-01-01

51

Cholinergic aspects of cyanide intoxication  

SciTech Connect

The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest in the presence of cyanide induced respiratory arrest are assumed to be due to anoxia and therefore unresponsive to cardiotonic agents. Pretreatment or treatment with atropine sulfate or methyl atropine nitrate provides a marked reduction in the cardiovascular irregularities, bradycardia and hypotension. The cyanide induced cardiovascular effect can also be prevented by bilateral vagotomy. An intramuscularly injected combination of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 1 mg/kg of atropine sulfate ensured recovery of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs exposed to lethal concentrations (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) of sodium cyanide.

Von Bredow, J.D.; Vick, J.A.

1993-05-13

52

Development of Biochemical Cyanide Antidotes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of six biochemical markers of cyanide toxicity (dopamine release, peroxide generation, cytosolic-free calcium, catalase activity, cytochrome oxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity) in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were us...

G. E. Isom

1992-01-01

53

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides.  

PubMed

Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)), were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45 degrees C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN)4(2-) and Ni(CN)4(2-), and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt = k[Fe(VI)][M(CN)4(2-)]n where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN)4(2-) and Ni(CN)4(2-), respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO4(-). The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO4(-) + M(CN)4(2-) + 6H2O --> 4Fe(OH)3 + M(2+) + 4NCO(-) + O2 + 4OH(-). Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. PMID:18497158

Yngard, Ria A; Sharma, Virender K; Filip, Jan; Zboril, Radek

2008-04-15

54

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology

2008-04-15

55

Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis and Effect on Cytochrome Oxidase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effect of Chlorpromazine on Cyanide Intoxication; Effect of Antagonists on the Physiological Disposition of Sodium Cyanide; Changes in Cyanide Response by Oxygen; Pharmacological Aspects of Cyanide and its Antagonism.

J. L. Way

1981-01-01

56

ELECTRODIALYSIS FOR CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Full scale demonstration of electrodialysis for closed loop treatment of brass plating cyanide rinse waters was conducted in the Keystone Lamp Manufacturing plant at Slatington, Pa. In treatment of actual rinse water, the system was only one-quarter as effective as anticipated. N...

57

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

58

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

59

Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1986-01-01

60

Flotation purification of industrial wastewater by removing cyanide ions  

SciTech Connect

One of the oldest and most common methods of purifying sewage by removing cyanide ions is binding them to nontoxic compounds of ferrous salts, principally divalent ferrous salts. Research in this direction has also been realized for the sewage of coking plants. One of the reasons why the method has not been introduced is tied to the difficulty of separating the finely-dispersed slime of the divalent ferrous cyanide K/sub 4/(Fe(CN)/sub 6/). This study investigates methods of producing complex compounds of cyanide ions with ferrous salts which have low solubility and, as far as possible, are easily extracted from water. To achieve this, it is suggested that one of the promising methods of water purification - flotation - be used and that the sludge extracted be utilized in accordance with wellknown plans.

Evtyugina, N.M.; Derbysheva, E.K.; Kopktova, L.A.

1984-01-01

61

Measurements of the Engagement of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana with the Use of On-Line Oxygen Isotope Discrimination 1  

PubMed Central

Discrimination against 18O during dark respiration in tissues of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, Medicago sativa, and Glycine max was measured using an on-line system that enabled direct measurements of the oxygen fractionation of samples in a gas-phase leaf disk electrode unit. Discrimination factors for cytochrome pathway respiration were 18.6 to 19.8%o for all tissues. However, discrimination in cyanide-resistant respiration was significantly higher in green tissues (30.4-31.2%o) compared with nongreen tissues (25.3-25.9%o). Using these discrimination factors, the partitioning of electron transport to these pathways was calculated from measurements of discrimination in the absence of inhibitors. Changes in flux through the alternative pathway were measured during the light and dark phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism in leaf disks of K. daigremontiana. The flux of electrons through the alternative pathway was higher during deacidification than during the other phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism. The increase in alternative pathway electron flux accounted for all of the increased respiration in the light phase. Despite this increase, simultaneous measurements of malate concentration and respiratory flux confirm that only a small proportion of the total malate decarboxylation occurs in the mitochondria.

Robinson, Sharon A.; Yakir, Dan; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Giles, Larry; Osmond, C. Barry; Siedow, James N.; Berry, Joseph A.

1992-01-01

62

CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

63

PKD Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Charlotte Today" July 10, 2014 PKD Foundation's Ray Smith Honored as CFO of the Year July 7, 2014 Congratulations to the PKD Foundation's CFO, Ray Smith. Ray was honored by the Kansas City Business ...

64

Epilepsy Foundation  

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... Plans Seizure Drills Managing Triggers Living With Epilepsy Summer Camp Independent Living Financial Planning Self Management Programs ... Safe Epilepsy Foundation of America Ready for new summer apparel & gifts? We have Epilepsy Foundation tanks, picnic ...

65

Arthritis Foundation  

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... arthritis. Sign Up See More Events About the Foundation Annual Report Careers Contact Us Financials Mission & Vision ... Use Products Juvenile Arthritis Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis More Foundation Websites Arthritis Today Fight Arthritis Pain Kids Get ...

66

ABIM Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Blog Choosing Wisely® An Initiative of the ABIM Foundation A campaign to encourage physician and patient conversations ... to help make smart care choices. 2013 ABIM Foundation Forum Purpose vs. Payment: Motivating Change In Health ...

67

Vasculitis Foundation  

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... Research Initiative to Assess Disease Impact News Vasculitis Foundation Newsletters Vasculitis RSS Feeds Podcasts and Transcripts Press ... Vasculitis Takayasu's Arteritis Urticarial Vasculitis Welcome! The Vasculitis Foundation supports and empowers our community through education, awareness ...

68

Dysautonomia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... view it here . × About FD and the Dysautonomia Foundation People living with familial dysautonomia (FD) are truly ... watch it. Like us on Facebook The Dysautonomia Foundation is a registered 501(c)3 non-profit ...

69

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

70

Canavan Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Where to Go for Screening About the Canavan Foundation Support our Work News & Updates CANAVAN FOUNDATION 450 West End Avenue #6A, New York, NY ... Fax Toll Free: 866-907-1847 © 2014 Canavan Foundation | Sitemap | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Take our ...

71

Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

1985-01-01

72

Cyanide Poisoning and Cardiac Disorders: 161 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. Objective: The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit®; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]).

Jean-Luc Fortin; Thibault Desmettre; Cyril Manzon; Virginie Judic-Peureux; Caroline Peugeot-Mortier; Jean-Pascal Giocanti; Mohamed Hachelaf; Marie Grangeon; Ulrike Hostalek; Julien Crouzet; Gilles Capellier

2010-01-01

73

Biodegradation of cyanide by a new isolated strain under alkaline conditions and optimization by response surface methodology (RSM)  

PubMed Central

Background Biodegradation of free cyanide from industrial wastewaters has been proven as a viable and robust method for treatment of wastewaters containing cyanide. Results Cyanide degrading bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant for coke-oven-gas condensate by enrichment culture technique. Five strains were able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions and among them; one strain (C2) was selected for further studies on the basis of the higher efficiency of cyanide degradation. The bacterium was able to tolerate free cyanide at concentrations of up to 500 ppm which makes it a good potentially candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide contaminated residues. Cyanide degradation corresponded with growth and reached a maximum level 96% during the exponential phase. The highest growth rate (1.23?×?108) was obtained on day 4 of the incubation time. Both glucose and fructose were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth. No growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. Four control factors including, pH, temperature, agitation speed and glucose concentration were optimized according to central composite design in response surface method. Cyanide degradation was optimum at 34.2°C, pH 10.3 and glucose concentration 0.44 (g/l). Conclusions Bacterial species degrade cyanide into less toxic products as they are able to use the cyanide as a nitrogen source, forming ammonia and carbon dioxide as end products. Alkaliphilic bacterial strains screened in this study evidentially showed the potential to possess degradative activities that can be harnessed to remediate cyanide wastes.

2014-01-01

74

Influence of host plant genotype, presence of a pathogen, and coinoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens strains on the rhizosphere expression of hydrogen cyanide- and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthetic genes in P. fluorescens biocontrol strain CHA0.  

PubMed

The production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) is a major factor in the control of soil-borne diseases by Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0. We investigated the impact of different biotic factors on the expression of HCN-in comparison to DAPG biosynthetic genes in the rhizosphere. To this end, the influence of plant cultivar, pathogen infection, and coinoculation with other biocontrol strains on the expression of hcnA-lacZ and phlA-lacZ fusion in strain CHA0 was monitored on the roots of bean. Interestingly, all the tested factors influenced the expression of the two biocontrol traits in a similar way. For both genes, we observed a several-fold higher expression in the rhizosphere of cv. Derakhshan compared with cvs. Goli and Naz, although bacterial rhizosphere colonization levels were similar on all cultivars tested. Root infection by Rhizoctonia solani stimulated total phlA and hcnA gene expression in the bean rhizosphere. Coinoculation of strain CHA0 with DAPG-producing P. fluorescens biocontrol strains Pf-68 and Pf-100 did neither result in a substantial alteration of hcnA nor of phlA expression in CHA0 on bean roots. To our best knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of biotic factors on HCN production by a bacterial biocontrol strain in the rhizosphere. PMID:19030916

Jamali, Fatemeh; Sharifi-Tehrani, Abbas; Lutz, Matthias P; Maurhofer, Monika

2009-02-01

75

Effect of Cyanide in Dark and Light on the Membrane Potential and the ATP Level of Young and Mature Green Tissues of Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of CN? and N2 on the electrical membrane potential (Em) was compared with that of CN? on the ATP levels in cotyledons of Gossypium hirsutum and in Lemna gibba L. In mature cotton tissue, CN? depolarized Em to the energy-independent diffusion potential (ED) in the dark. In the light Em recovered transiently. The same was observed in leaves of Nicotiana, Avena, Impatiens, Kalanchoë, and in Lemna. In contrast, in young cotton cotyledons and tobacco leaves and, to a large extent, in +sucrose-grown Lemna, Em was depolarized to ED also in the light in a similar way as in the dark. In Lemna grown without sucrose, the energy-dependent component of Em was only partially depolarized by CN? in dark or light. Cyanide plus salicylhydroxamic acid completely reduced Em to ED, abolished respiration and photosynthesis, and severely diminished the ATP level. This suggests the operation of a CN?-insensitive respiration in uninjured Lemna. The initial CN?-induced decay of the ATP level in cotton and Lemna was more rapid than the decay of Em. CN?-induced oscillations of the ATP level were followed by similar but slower oscillations of Em. This supports the view of a general dependence of Em on ATP. Discrepancies between inhibitor-induced changes of Em and ATP levels are suggested to result from additional regulation of Em by the cytoplasmatic pH value. A comparison of ED in young and mature cotton cotyledons in the dark and in the light suggests that in growing young cotyledons the different effect of CN? in the light is due to a less effective photosynthesis together with high mitochondrial respiration. In Lemna and in mature cotton tissue, Em in the light is maintained by noncyclic photophosphorylation and photosystem II, which is only partly inhibited by CN?, thus resulting in an incomplete depolarization and recovery of Em. Complete inhibition of photosynthetic O2 evolution and membrane depolarization by CN? plus salicylhydroxamic acid are suggested to result from photooxidation.

Ullrich-Eberius, Cornelia I.; Novacky, Anton; Ball, Erika

1983-01-01

76

Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

1977-01-01

77

A disposable blood cyanide sensor.  

PubMed

Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160 s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 ?L, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20 ?L, 50 ?L). RSDs were<10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 ?M. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in <4 min. PMID:23473259

Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Mahon, Sari B; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R

2013-03-20

78

IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (2010 Final)  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanide compounds are used in a number of industrial processes including mining, electroplating, metallurgy, chemical manufacturing, and photography because these compounds can form stable complexes with a range of metals. Hydrogen cyanide is also a component of tobacco smoke, v...

79

IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

80

Assay development status report for total cyanide  

SciTech Connect

A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-02-01

81

Reviews of the Environmental Effects of Pollutants: V. Cyanide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cyanide. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cyanide and specific cyanide compounds:...

L. E. Towill J. S. Drury B. L. Whitfield E. B. Lewis E. L. Galyan

1978-01-01

82

HSC Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... About Us News The Youth Transitions Collaborative Volunteer & Internship Fair The HSC Foundation is pleased to be a sponsor of this Volunteer & Internship Fair. Join us at the National Youth Transitions ...

83

LAM Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in the article. LAM Cells Are Addicted to Glutamine May 9, 2013 LAM Foundation-funded scientists Alfredo ... LAM, directly stimulates the uptake and metabolism of glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the body. ...

84

Wetland remediation of cyanide and hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a common constituent present in groundwater from historical aluminum industry landfills. Aluminum manufacturing produces wastes which contain cyanide, together with fluoride, a variety of metals, and some petroleum hydrocarbons. These leachates pose a moderate threat to receiving ecosystems and human health. Source control is virtually impossible, and physico-chemical removal processes are expensive and energy intensive. This pilot project

Timothy P. Gessner; Robert H. Kadlec; Richard P. Reaves

2005-01-01

85

CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

86

Molecular Structure of Methyl Cyanide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl Cyanide is a toxic, colorless liquid with an aromatic (ether like) odor and forms explosive mixtures with air. It is a critical solvent for several important processes e.g., it is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in chromatography applications, as a wash solvent and in preparing reagent solutions for oligonucleotide synthesis. It is employed in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, batteries, pesticides, and inorganic salts. It can be utilized to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons, to extract fatty acids from fish liver, animal, and vegetable oils, and to recrystallize steroids.

2003-06-03

87

Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.  

PubMed Central

Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation.

Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

1991-01-01

88

Knight Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by John S. Knight, the Knight Foundation "supports transformational ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities, and foster the arts." On the Foundation's homepage, visitors can learn about grant activities via the What We Fund area. A good place to start here is the Featured Funding Initiatives, which profile the Community Foundations Program, the Knight Arts Challenge, and other ongoing projects. The projects are quite exciting, as they are focused on a broad range of participatory media ventures, arts outreach initiatives, and like-minded activities. The What We're Learning area is perhaps the most compelling one for most visitors as it contains a range of publications that report on the ingredients of successful new media projects, best practices for addressing the digital divide, and the possible uses of mobile applications designed to increase civic engagement in marginalized communities.

2013-06-20

89

Development of a biosensor for gaseous cyanide in solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas-phase biosensor was developed using cyanide degrading bacteria, an oxygen electrode and a gas permeable PTFE membrane. Cyanide degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764, consume oxygen upon degradation of cyanide. A change in oxygen concentration was detected using a Clark oxygen electrode. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the cyanide ion concentration in the range

Jeong Im Lee; Isao Karube

1996-01-01

90

Cyanide  

MedlinePLUS

... for Clinicians Brucella Lab Info Surveillance & Investigation Cholera Ebola virus E. coli Food safety threats Glanders Lassa fever Marburg virus Melioidosis Plague Case Definitions and Report Forms Diagnosis & Evaluation Infection Control Lab Testing Surveillance & Investigation Publications & ...

91

The reversibility of adsorption of gold cyanide on activated carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much controversy exists about the mechanism by which gold cyanide adsorbs on activated carbon. It is not the purpose of this article to explain the exact adsorption mechanism but, rather, to investigate the factors affecting the reversibility of adsorbed gold cyanide. Whereas Au(CN){2/-} is soluble in water, AuCN and Au require the addition of cyanide to form Au(CN){2/-}. The reversibility of the adsorption of gold onto carbon is a function of the nature of the adsorbed gold and determines the need for cyanide in the elution process, which affects the operating costs of a carbon-in-pulp (CIP) plant. The fraction of adsorbed Au(CN){2/-} that will be decomposed to AuCN was found to be a function of the pH and temperature of the solution and the type of activated carbon used. It was observed that two different batches of carbon from the same manufacturer yielded widely different ratios of AuCN to Au(CN){2/-}, although their specifications did not differ much. These results were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A combination of low pH and high temperature, as is found in the hot acid wash step of an AARL elution, leads to the reduction of both Au(1) species to metallic gold, Au(0). The fraction of the adsorbed Au(CN){2/-} that is converted to AuCN or Au(0) no longer participates in the equilibrium between Au(CN){2/-} in solution and Au(CN){2/-} in the adsorbed phase. It was observed that the isotherm for desorption is higher than the isotherm for adsorption by a percentage which is, on average, equal to the percentage of Au(CN){2/-} converted to AuCN or Au(0).

van Deventer, J. S. J.; van der Merwe, P. F.

1993-06-01

92

Lethal cyanide inhalation with post-mortem trans-cutaneous cyanide diffusion.  

PubMed

A 27-year-old worker in a metal processing factory was found dead in a basin, sitting in a solution containing potassium dicyano argentate, potassium cyanide, master batch and brightener 'Elfit 73'. The worker was wearing an acid-resisting overall, rubber boots and a simple dust respirator. While the cyanide concentration in the stomach contents was only 0.05 microg/ml, it was 7.7 microg/g in the lung tissue, 6.3 microg/ml in the heart blood and 31 microg/ml in the femoral vein blood. The different concentrations suggest an initial lethal inhalation of cyanide and an extensive post-mortem diffusion of cyanide through primarily non-injured skin of buttocks and legs. The possibility of a post-mortem cyanide diffusion bars from concluding a vital sign from a high cyanide concentration in a blood sample of one single body site. PMID:14602168

Seidl, Stephan; Schwarze, Bernd; Betz, Peter

2003-12-01

93

The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in

Olivia Molenda; Anya Reid; Christopher J. Lortie

2012-01-01

94

Photo\\/photochemical oxidation of cyanide and metal–cyanide complexes: ultraviolet A versus ultraviolet C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of free cyanide (CN), weak-acid dissociable (WAD) (, ) and strong-acid dissociable (SAD) cyanide complexes by photo and photochemical oxidation with ultraviolet (UV) light and H2O2 was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch reactors under ultraviolet A (UVA; 395 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC; 254 nm) light; the degradation efficiency was followed in terms of free cyanide, complex and metal

Ercan Ozcan; Zehra Gok; Esra Yel

2012-01-01

95

Indirect determination of cyanide ion and hydrogen cyanide by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a mercury electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect voltammetric method is described for determination of cyanide ions and hydrogen cyanide, using the effect of cyanide on cathodic adsorptive stripping peak height of Cu–adenine. The method is based on competitive Cu complex formation reaction between adenine at the electrode surface and CN? ions in solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions (pH=6.42 Britton–Robinson buffer, 1×10?4M copper and 8×10?7M

A Safavi; N Maleki; H. R Shahbaazi

2004-01-01

96

Kress Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Samuel H. Kress Foundation "devotes its resources to advancing the history, conservation, and enjoyment of the vast heritage of European art, architecture, and archaeology from antiquity to the early 19th century." To achieve this goal, the Foundation makes grants, offers fellowships, and also reports on its operations and various research initiatives. Scholars and policy makers should begin by looking over the Sponsored Research. Here, they can look over key documents that include "The Campus Art Museum: A Qualitative Study" and "Copyright, Museums and Licensing of Art Images.â The Grants area brings together complete information for scholars looking to apply for a grant in thematic areas such as History of Art and Conservation. Finally, the Kress Collection contains a detailed repository list of the more than 3,000 works in this rather comprehensive collection spanning four centuries.

97

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

98

Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

99

Rapid sodium cyanide depletion in cell culture media: Outgassing of hydrogen cyanide at physiological pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of in vitro studies on cyanide exposure with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we found that sodium cyanide (NaCN) up to a concentration of 10mM had no significant toxic effect under our culture conditions. Further investigation of this apparent cyanide resistance revealed that the sodium cyanide was being rapidly depleted from the cell culture medium. Cyanide was interacting

Peethambaran Arun; John R. Moffett; John A. Ives; Todor I. Todorov; Jose A. Centeno; M. A. Aryan Namboodiri; Wayne B. Jonas

2005-01-01

100

CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

101

Alpha One Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

English Français ( French ) Deutsch ( German ) Italiano ( Italian ) Español ( Spanish ) Português ( Portuguese ) Svenska ( Swedish ) Alpha-1 Foundation in Google Plus Alpha-1 Foundation in Twitter Alpha-1 Foundation ...

102

Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.  

PubMed

It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability. PMID:15910645

Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

2005-06-01

103

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria

E. Nic Lughadha; J. Baillie; W. Barthlott; N. A. Brummitt; M. R. Cheek; A. Farjon; R. Govaerts; K. A. Hardwick; C. Hilton-Taylor; T. R. Meagher; J. Moat; J. Mutke; A. J. Paton; L. J. Pleasants; V. Savolainen; G. E. Schatz; P. Smith; I. Turner; P. Wyse-Jackson; P. R. Crane

2005-01-01

104

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide  

SciTech Connect

The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1998-09-01

105

Privacy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Privacy Foundation conducts "research into communications technologies and services that may pose a threat to personal privacy." Its Web site has a large amount of information to raise awareness of privacy related issues and help the public understand them. For people wanting to learn some basic terminology in digital privacy, a glossary describes things like firewalls and cookies. There are detailed articles that answer many common questions about Web Bugs and suggest guidelines for how they should be used by companies. A large section of the site discusses workplace surveillance, and a legal database documents several important court cases.

106

Skin Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... Lamps Skin Cancer Prevention Guidelines The Skin Cancer Foundation’s Response to the EWG 2014 Sunscreen Report Study: ...

107

Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

Not Available

2007-02-01

108

Poetry Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Poetry Foundation, established in 2003, was created through a fund provided by Ruth Lilly. Since its creation, the Foundation has grown by leaps and bounds, and one of their best public outreach efforts is this website. With a well-thought out visual design, their homepage is a great starting point for learning more about the world of poetry. Sections on the homepage include âÂÂPublishingâÂÂ, âÂÂFeaturesâÂÂ, âÂÂDispatchesâÂÂ, and âÂÂArchiveâÂÂ. Visitors may wish to go back to the past and examine the archive, which includes thousands of poems, several lists of âÂÂfavoriteâ poets, and a visual archive that features cartoons that address the subject of poetry. Visitors looking to delve into some current material will definitely appreciate the âÂÂCover Storyâ feature. Here visitors can listen to Paul Giamatti and Alfred Molina read BrowningâÂÂs âÂÂFra Lippo Lippiâ and âÂÂMy Last Duchessâ respectively, as well as read a historic piece from Poetry magazine where Carl Sandburg offers solid praise of Ezra Pound. Overall, the site merits numerous visits and is quite a gem.

109

Gold losses from cyanide solutions Part I: The influence of the silicate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shale material from Beatrix Gold Mine in South Africa has been found to be capable of adsorbing gold from cyanide solutions. Black shale bands occur in the reef zone at Beatrix Mine, but because of the mode of occurrence of the shale bands selective mining cannot be practised and ore delivered to the plant is contaminated by shale. Petrographical investigations

C. P. J. Van Vuuren; C. P. Snyman; A. J. Boshoff

2000-01-01

110

Assessment of Landfill Leachate Volume and Concentrations of Cyanide and Fluoride during Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for plants to minimize leachate volume and reduce cyanide and fluoride concentrations in groundwater was evaluated. High fluoride and soluble salts in the leachate induced chlorosis or necrosis in the leaf margins on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), and bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). Hybrid willow (Salix Willow hybrid), sycamore (Platanus sp.), and black willow (Salix

Dong-Hee Kang; David Tsao; Fan Wang-Cahill; Steve Rock; A. P. Schwab; M. K. Banks

2008-01-01

111

Hydrogen cyanide polymers on comets.  

PubMed

The original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. We propose that the non-volatile black crust of comet Halley consists largely of such polymers. Dust emanating from Halley's nucleus, contributing to the coma and tail, would also arise partly from these solids. Indeed, secondary species such as CN have been widely detected, as well as HCN itself and particles consisting only of H, C and N. Our continuing investigations suggest that the yellow-orange-brown-black polymers are of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds, and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. These easily formed macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, as well as on outer solar system bodies such as asteroids, moons and other comets. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers either through cometary bombardment or by terrestrial happenings of the kind that brought about the black crust of Halley. The resulting proteinaceous matrix could have promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life. PMID:11538141

Matthews, C N; Ludicky, R

1992-01-01

112

Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review  

PubMed Central

The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

2010-01-01

113

Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.  

PubMed

The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

2010-07-19

114

DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

115

IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database....

116

SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

117

Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions.

Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

2013-12-01

118

Method Kelada-01: Kelada Automated Test Methods for Total Cyanide, Acid Dissociable Cyanide, and Thiocyanate. Revision 1.2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kelada-01 provides for rapid determination of total cyanide, acid dissociable cyanide, and thiocyanate in drinking water, wastewater, ambient water, and sludge, with minimal effects from interferences. Kelada-01 was developed by Dr. Nabih Kelada, and repr...

2001-01-01

119

Some experiments on the toxicity of complex cyanides to fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity to minnows, Pimephales promelas, of mixed solutions of sodium cyanide and sulfates of heavy metals, diluted with synthetic soft water, was evaluated in order to learn the degree of toxicity, to fish, of complex cyanides found in industrial wastes. The potentials of complex formation as a waste treatment method thus were explored also. The zinc cyanide and cadmium

Doudoroff

1956-01-01

120

BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CYANIDE BY NITROGEN-FIXING CYANOBACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined the ability of nitrogen-fixing Anabaena to biodegrade cyanide in batch reactors. ixed second-order constants were obtained that described the biologically-mediated decrease in cyanide for reactors containing initial cyanide concentrations of 3 ppm. or Anabaena...

121

EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 12, CYANIDE IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode...

122

REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: V. CYANIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cyanide. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cyanide and specific cyanide compounds: physical and chemical pr...

123

Argosy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The private Argosy Foundation is based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and was started in 1997 by the co-founder of Boston Scientific. The "Who We Are" link on the homepage provides an excellent overview of how they choose to fund projects, and the "Frequently Asked Questions" section informs visitors about the special programs they fund. For example, the "Contemporary Music Fund" is "designed to promote the proliferation and awareness of contemporary classical or 'non-pop' music." The world-famous Kronos Quartet is one of the partners of the Contemporary Music Fund. Visitors interested in the depth of research the staff of Argosy do when deciding to fund an issue or program, should check out the "Resources" link to several of the reports and briefs they've written. Some of the briefs include affordable housing, use of grass pellets as a heat and energy source, xeriscaping, and lessening the environmental impact of the freight and commercial trucking industry. An abstract and brief are provided for each topic featured here.

124

Possible reaction mechanisms of hydrogen cyanide formation from oxime blocked isocyanates and related organic compounds during total cyanide analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent reports by paint manufactures of hydrogen cyanide detection in waste contaminated with oxime blocked isocyanates lead to an investigation of possible hydrogen cyanide generating reaction pathways. GC?MS is empolyed to analyze traces of byproducts of the total cyanide analysis. A Beckmann Rearrangement of oxime blocked isocyanates has been detected. The formation of ??ketocyanides and their hydrolysis to free hydrogen

H. Modler; M. Nonomura

1995-01-01

125

Stuttering Foundation of America  

MedlinePLUS

... Hit Today As is evident from the Stuttering Foundation’s list of Famous People Who Stutter , there is ... deep roots in the stuttering community. Read More Foundation Honors Four Courageous, Inspirational Authors To celebrate National ...

126

Oral Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Support - Advocacy Research... and Hope About About The Foundation About Us Bruce Paltrow Fund Press Releases TV ... Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public ...

127

Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Mesothelioma Foundation Expert Can Answer Your Questions! Nurse Practitioner, Mary Hesdorffer, is a mesothelioma expert and has worked with ... Important info for everyone Welcome to the Meso Foundation The Meso Foundation (formerly MARF) is the only ...

128

National Fragile X Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... part by: John Harrigan & Stephanie Jacob, The Confidence Foundation, The Waterfield Foundation, The Fragile X Resource Center of Missouri. Sitemap ... Use Contact Copyright © 1998 - 2014 National Fragile X Foundation. All Rights Resevered. Proudly powered by WordPress | A ...

129

Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. PMID:22672162

Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

2012-06-01

130

In Vitro Screen for Cyanide Antidotes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We previously reported that isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells may be useful for in vitro evaluation of potential cyanide antidotes. The present study shows further results and in vivo validation of this in vitro approach. Ability to block a seri...

J. L. Borowitz A. G. Kanthasamy P. Mitchell G. E. Isom

1993-01-01

131

Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanide (CN -), thiocyanate (SCN -), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN) 43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN -, SCN -, and Cu(CN) 43- by ferrate(VI) (Fe VIO 42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe VO 43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO 42-, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO 4-. Cyanides react 10 3-10 5 times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN - proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN - and Cu(CN) 43-. The toxic CN - species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO -). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

Sharma, Virender K.; Yngard, Ria A.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Clayton Baum, J.

2008-06-01

132

Precast frame foundation for mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of units, the appreciable volume of monolithic reinforced concrete, and the complexity of the formwork raised the cost, increased labor consumption, and protracted the construction period of concentration plants. The quality of the monolithic masses was rather poor, in connection with which considerable vibrations of the foundations were observed, and they often cracked during operation. The great

V. A. Pakhmanov; Z. S. Komanovskii; V. L. Opershtein

1969-01-01

133

14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. FLOODED POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION EXCAVATION BEING PUMPED OUT. NOTE KEYS IN FOREBAY ABUTMENT TO INTERLOCK WITH POWER HOUSE FOUNDATION, March 1918. - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

134

Images of the Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the "Images of the Foundations." In "Through the Disarray of Social Foundations: Some Some Notes Toward a New Social Foundations" (Erwin V. Johanningmeier) traces developments in the field and challenges a move beyond the images of school and society based…

Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

1991-01-01

135

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.  

PubMed

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

2013-01-01

136

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup  

PubMed Central

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants.

Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

2013-01-01

137

Shallow & Deep Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students investigate the critical nature of foundations as they learn differences between shallow and deep foundations, including the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement. Using models representing a shallow foundation and a deep pile foundation, they test, see and feel the effects in a cardboard box test bed composed of layers of pebbles, soil and sand. They also make bearing pressure calculations and recommendations for which type of foundations to use in various engineering scenarios.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

138

Comparative Effects of Ethylene and Cyanide on Respiration, Polysome Prevalence, and Gene Expression in Carrot Roots 1  

PubMed Central

Treatment of carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) with 10 microliters per liter ethylene in O2 evokes a three- to four-fold increase in polysome prevalence and associated poly(A)+ RNA. The increase in polysome prevalence is attended by a similar change in CO2 evolution. The increase in polysomal poly(A)+ mRNA constitutes primarily a generic increase in constitutive mRNAs as assayed by in vitro translation. However, changes in the relative abundance of several in vitro translatable ethylene specific mRNAs do occur. Cyanide, at concentrations which inhibit cytochrome oxidase, initiates a respiratory rise very similar in kinetics and magnitude to that evoked by ethylene. Moreover, the combined treatment with cyanide and ethylene evokes a respiratory response resembling that caused by ethylene or cyanide alone. Nevertheless, cyanide, in the presence of ethylene, significantly inhibits the increase in polysome prevalence and new gene expression associated with ethylene treatment of carrot roots. Separation of in vitro translation products by one-dimensional and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis shows that several new in vitro translation products appear in cyanide-treated carrots different from those evoked by ethylene. Engagement of the less energy efficient alternative electron transport path by cyanide may be responsible for inhibition of the normal ethylene associated increase in polysome prevalence and new gene expression. The implications of these results on regulation of respiratory metabolism are discussed and compared with the results for similar experiments with avocado fruit (Tucker and Laties 1984 Plant Physiol 74: 307-315) in which cyanide does not inhibit an ethylene educed increase in polysome prevalence and change in gene expression. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Tucker, Mark L.; Laties, George G.

1984-01-01

139

Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent. 11 references.

Green, S.

1986-10-01

140

Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

Green, Sheldon

1986-01-01

141

Survival of fish upon removal of cyanide from water.  

PubMed

The effects of potassium cyanide and the removal of cyanide from water in vivo on the survival of fish were investigated. This research was initiated because of the catastrophe that took place at the end of January 2000 in the Carpathian basin, when an enormous amount of cyanide pollution swept through the Samos and Tisza rivers, and then to the Danube. Since nothing was done against the disaster, we have suggested a chemical solution to remove cyanide from waterways (Chem. Innovat. 30 (2000b) 53). Based on experiments, we describe that the most effective and harmless way to remove cyanide and to save the lives of fish from 40 to 160 x the lethal doses of cyanide is to use carbogen gas containing 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen followed by aeration with air. PMID:15589238

Gacsi, Mariann; Czegeny, Ildiko; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

2005-03-01

142

Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.  

PubMed Central

Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress.

Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

1984-01-01

143

Arabidopsis sulfurtransferases: investigation of their function during senescence and in cyanide detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfurtransferases (STs) and g-cyano-l-alanine synthase (CAS) are suggested to be involved in cyanide detoxification. Therefore, the accumulation of ST1 and CAS RNAs, and the ST and CAS protein levels and enzyme activities were determined in Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh. plants grown under different conditions. Senescence-associated processes were successfully induced by natural aging, by jasmonate methyl ester and by darkness in whole

Tanja Meyer; Meike Burow; Michael Bauer; Jutta Papenbrock

2003-01-01

144

Supramolecular Ferric Porphyrins as Cyanide Receptors in Aqueous Solution  

PubMed Central

All fundamental data about binding of the cyanide to a supramolecular complex composed of a per-O-methylated ?-cyclodextrin dimer having an imidazole linker (Im3CD) and an anionic ferric porphyrin (Fe(III)TPPS) indicate that the Fe(III)TPPS/Im3CD complex is much better as an cyanide receptor in vivo than hydroxocobalamin, whose cyanide binding ability is lowered by its strong binding to serum proteins in the blood.

2011-01-01

145

Supramolecular ferric porphyrins as cyanide receptors in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

All fundamental data about binding of the cyanide to a supramolecular complex composed of a per-O-methylated ?-cyclodextrin dimer having an imidazole linker (Im3CD) and an anionic ferric porphyrin (Fe((III))TPPS) indicate that the Fe((III))TPPS/Im3CD complex is much better as an cyanide receptor in vivo than hydroxocobalamin, whose cyanide binding ability is lowered by its strong binding to serum proteins in the blood. PMID:24900285

Watanabe, Kenji; Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Kano, Koji

2011-12-01

146

Increased ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (?Atnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids. PMID:23825089

O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

2014-01-01

147

Determination of cyanide and nitroprusside in blood and plasma.  

PubMed

A procedure was refined for quantitative isolation of cyanide by gas transfer from acidified blood or plasma samples. The cyanide was trapped in dilute alkali and quantified as the pyridine/pyrazolone complex. The within-day coefficient of variation was 2%, which increased to about 2.5% for the day-to-day variation. Nitroprusside used as a hypotensive agent in clinical medicine provides a risk of cyanide toxicity when the rate of administration or the total amount of drug given is excessive. A procedure was developed for measuring nitroprusside in the plasma of man and animals. Nitroprusside in the sample is quantitatively converted to cyanide by incubation with cystein solution at slightly alkaline pH. Methemoglobin is added to combine with the cyanide formed and prevent its destruction. On acidification, the total amount of cyanide originally present as free cyanide or as nitroprusside is liberated as HCN, isolated by gas transfer into a sodium hydroxide trap, and quantified by spectrophotometry. Nitroprusside present in the sample is calculated from the increase in cyanide observed in the cysteine-treated sample compared to that obtained without cysteine treatment. The method has been used to estimate in vitro stability of nitroprusside in aqueous solution, blood, and plasma. Blood cyanide and plasma nitroprusside concentrations were measured when sodium nitroprusside was infused into a baboon. Over 90% of the nitroprusside in blood is present in the plasma, suggesting that the drug crosses the erythrocyte membrane slowly. PMID:410563

Rodkey, F L; Collison, H A

1977-11-01

148

Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions.  

PubMed

Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions. PMID:23973584

Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

2013-12-01

149

Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide (CN?), thiocyanate (SCN?), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN)43?) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN?, SCN?, and Cu(CN)43? by ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42?; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (FeVO43?; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis

Virender K. Sharma; Ria A. Yngard; Diane E. Cabelli; J. Clayton Baum

2008-01-01

150

Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide (CN-), thiocyanate (SCN-), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN)43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN-, SCN-, and Cu(CN)43- by ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (FeVO43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis

Virender K. Sharma; Ria A. Yngard; Diane E. Cabelli; J. Clayton Baum

2008-01-01

151

Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic Acid in multiple animal models.  

PubMed

Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant. PMID:24711295

Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

2014-05-01

152

The Gut Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Gut Foundation is an organization that "provides professional and public education and promotes research into digestive disorders to improve gastrointestinal health." The Foundation website contains a variety of information about gastrointestinal conditions, diagnoses, medical research, membership, and more.

1969-12-31

153

United Leukodystrophy Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in Baltimore, Maryland. Our Mission: The United Leukodystrophy Foundation serves individuals and families affected by leukodystrophy by ... and should be left unchanged. Copyright © United Leukodystrophy Foundation, Inc. Sycamore, Illinois USA. All rights reserved.

154

Foundation Engineering Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides guidelines for investigation and design of foundations for structures, with emphasis on bridge foundations. It covers field investigation reports; subsurface investigations; reduction of field data; footing analysis; piling analysis an...

R. Prellwitz

1981-01-01

155

National Hydrocephalus Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... is the fourth survey conducted by National Hydrocephalus Foundation in its 30 year history. view all Become a member of the National Hydrocephalus Foundation and gain access to knowledge, education, support and ...

156

Hepatitis B Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Helpful Links Welcome to the Hepatitis B Foundation Top Stories HBV Therapy May Cut Liver Cancer ... national coalition co-chaired by the Hepatitis B Foundation and the Association of Asian Pacific Community Health ...

157

American Hospice Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

American Hospice Foundation, Washington DC, USA My Cart Home Contact Search... viagra australia viagra online viagra sale cialis online cialis australia ... Links Hospice Quiz Site Map Support American Hospice Foundation through your purchases on: HOSPICE Learn More About ...

158

National Emphysema Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) Skip to content Jump to main navigation and login Nav view search Navigation Connect with Us Search ... free templates joomla Welcome to the National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) It is our pleasure to present the ...

159

Cooley's Anemia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History Medical Research Board/Staff Contact the Foundation Learn about Thalassemia About Thalassemia Clinical Trials Blood ...

160

National Reye's Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... around Reye's Syndrome and aspirin... Learn More The Foundation makes a special Reye's Syndrome Information package available ... help... Learn More Share: View National Reye's Syndrome Foundation's LinkedIn profile Spread Awareness with the Kids & Aspirin ...

161

Melanoma International Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... MD September 27, 2013 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

162

Sarcoma Foundation of America  

MedlinePLUS

... cHER2 Immunotherapy to Treat Pediatric Bone Cancer Sarcoma Foundation of America Awards Half Million Dollars in Research ... nbsp   Contact Us       Sarcoma Foundation of America, 9899 Main Street, Suite 204, Damascus, ...

163

Cleft Palate Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... people just like me! – Karissa Parker Cleft Palate Foundation 1504 East Franklin Street, Suite 102 Chapel Hill, ... bottles Order CPF publications © Copyright 2012 Cleft Palate Foundation. Website by Chiles, LLC Follow us on Become ...

164

National Marfan Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

The Marfan Foundation Know the signs. Fight for victory. Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What ... Study Connect with Community About Us The Marfan Foundation How We Help Events News Boards & Staff Annual ...

165

National Ataxia Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Heroes Donate Now! Welcome to the National Ataxia Foundation 2014 Walk n’ Roll for Ataxia 2014 NAF ... Awarded Funding for FY 2014 The National Ataxia Foundation (NAF) is pleased to announce that 24 promising ...

166

Glaucoma Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Dark on Light Light on Dark Glaucoma Research Foundation Donate Recently Diagnosed? Learn About Glaucoma Tips for ... More than 75 guests attended the Glaucoma Research Foundation's Annual Dinner at San Francisco's historic Palace Hotel ...

167

American Vitiligo Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Board Contact AVRF Welcome to the American Vitiligo Foundation THE AVRF IS PROUD TO ANNOUNCE OUR 2014 ... for more information Copyright 2005 American Vitiligo Research Foundation Inc. Disclaimer: Information provided on this website is ...

168

Lupus Foundation of America  

MedlinePLUS

... to End Lupus. Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving the ... a significant impact. General News | Jun. 11, 2014 Foundation Studies Provide Insight on New Ways to Improve ...

169

Scleroderma Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Gift to Make a Difference The Scleroderma Research Foundation (SRF) is the nation's leading nonprofit investor in ... Building Your Philanthropic Legacy Including the Scleroderma Research Foundation in your estate planning guarantees your lifetime commitment ...

170

National Sleep Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts about Sleep The Sleep Environment National Sleep Foundation Contact Us Media Events & Activities For Health Care ... E-mail nsf@sleepfoundation.org ©2013 National Sleep Foundation., All rights reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms & Conditions | Copyright ...

171

Prostate Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... breakthrough talk Read Now 2014 Clinical Scholar The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Norway is actively requesting applications ... Research News Foundation News More » The Latest on Prostate Cancer News/Research From PCF And Across the ...

172

Long-range effect of cyanide on mercury methylation in a gold mining area in southern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Small-scale gold mining in Portovelo-Zaruma, Southern Equador, performed by mercury amalgamation and cyanidation, yields 9-10 t of gold/annum, resulting in annual releases of around 0.65 t of inorganic mercury and 6000 t of sodium cyanide in the local river system. The release of sediments, cyanide, mercury, and other metals present in the ore such as lead, manganese and arsenic significantly reduces biodiversity downstream the processing plants and enriches metals in bottom sediments and biota. However, methylmercury concentrations in sediments downstream the mining area were recently found to be one order of magnitude lower than upstream or in small tributaries. In this study we investigated cyanide, bacterial activity in water and sediment and mercury methylation potentials in sediments along the Puyango river watershed, measured respectively by in-situ spectrophotometry and incubation with (3)H-leucine and (203)Hg(2+). Free cyanide was undetectable (<1 ?g·L(-1)) upstream mining activities, reached 280 ?g·L(-1) a few km downstream the processing plants area and was still detectable about 100 km downstream. At stations with detectable free cyanide in unfiltered water, 50% of it was dissolved and 50% associated to suspended particles. Bacterial activity and mercury methylation in sediment showed a similar spatial pattern, inverse to the one found for free cyanide in water, i.e. with significant values in pristine upstream sampling points (respectively 6.4 to 22 ?gC·mg wet weight(-1)·h(-1) and 1.2 to 19% of total (203) Hg·gdry weight(-1)·day(-1)) and undetectable downstream the processing plants, returning to upstream values only in the most distant downstream stations. The data suggest that free cyanide oxidation was slower than would be expected from the high water turbulence, resulting in a long-range inhibition of bacterial activity and hence mercury methylation. The important mercury fluxes resultant from mining activities raise concerns about its biomethylation in coastal areas where many mangrove areas have been converted to shrimp farming. PMID:21908015

Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davée; Betancourt, Oscar; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; Barriga, Ramiro; Cueva, Edwin; Betancourt, Sebastián

2011-11-01

173

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of zinc-cyanide complex.  

PubMed

Zinc-cyanide complexes are found in gold mining effluents and in metal finishing rinse water. The effect of Zn(II) on the oxidation of cyanide by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(VI)) was thus investigated by studying the kinetics of the reaction of Fe(VI) with cyanide present in a potassium salt of a zinc cyanide complex (K(2)Zn(CN)(4)) and in a mixture of Zn(II) and cyanide solutions as a function of pH (9.0-11.0). The rate-law for the oxidation of Zn(CN)(4)(2-) by Fe(VI) was found to be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt=k[Fe(VI)][Zn(CN)(4)(2-)](0.5). The rate constant, k, decreased with an increase in pH. The effect of temperature (15-45 degrees C) on the oxidation was studied at pH 9.0, which gave an activation energy of 45.7+/-1.5kJmol(-1). The cyanide oxidation rate decreased in the presence of the Zn(II) ions. However, Zn(II) ions had no effect on the cyanide removal efficiency by Fe(VI) and the stoichiometry of Fe(VI) to cyanide was approximately 1:1; similar to the stoichiometry in absence of Zn(II) ions. The destruction of cyanide by Fe(VI) resulted in cyanate. The experiments on removal of cyanide from rinse water using Fe(VI) demonstrated complete conversion of cyanide to cyanate. PMID:17597180

Yngard, Ria; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Osathaphan, Khemarath; Sharma, Virender K

2007-10-01

174

MacArthur Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MacArthur Foundation Gopher includes general information about the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, such as how to apply for grants, the names of staff members, and the history of the Foundation. It also includes information specific to each of the Foundation's eight program areas, such as recent program activities, application guidelines, contact information, and a listing of grants made in the previous calendar year.

175

Structural Foundations; Carpentry: 901891.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to help the student become proficient in the skills of planning, layout, and building foundations. The course to be presented in grades 11 and 12 contains six blocks of study (introduction to foundations, forming concrete, piling, marine foundations, applied mathematics, and a quinmester post-test)…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

176

Morris Animal Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... We are a global leader in animal health science, and our funding helps more species in more places than that of any other organization in the world. Morris Animal Foundation News “Golden” Leader Nominated for National Veterinary Technician Award Morris Animal Foundation’s Erin Searfoss ...

177

Digicel Foundation (Haiti)  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was a beautiful day on March 5th 2007 and the official launch of the Digicel Foundation Haiti was drawing to a close. The Foundation had been inaugurated at a special ceremony to mark the completion of the Foundation's first project, the rebuilding in record time of the Ecole Mixte Lageho (a primary school in the hurricane ravaged Pont Janvier

Thomas Cooney

2007-01-01

178

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CYANIDES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on cyanide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of cyanides; Toxicokinetics and human expos...

179

Determination of Cyanide and Nitroprusside in Blood and Plasma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure was refined for quantitative isolation of cyanide by gas transfer from the acidified blood or plasma samples. The cyanide was trapped in dilute alkali and quantified as the pyridine/pyrazolone complex. The within-day coefficient of variation w...

F. L. Rodkey H. A. Collison

1977-01-01

180

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

181

Removal of Cyanide and Metals from Mineral Processing Waste Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines is investigating methods to treat waste water that contains cyanide. This report describes a new method that removes heavy metals and all forms of cyanide. In the first step, hydrogen peroxide and sodium thiosulfate are added at pH 7 t...

J. E. Schiller

1983-01-01

182

Proceedings of the International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop was conceived to identify possible options for reducing the use of cyanide in the capture of coral reef fishes for the marine aquarium trade and the live reef food fish trade. Because the emphasis was o...

A. W. Bruckner G. G. Roberts

2008-01-01

183

DEMONSTRATION OF ZINC CYANIDE RECOVERY USING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND EVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test was conducted to demonstrate closed-loop recovery of zinc cyanide at a job plating facility. Since the zinc cyanide bath operates at room temperature with very little evaporation from the bath, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of the rinsewater must be supplemented by ...

184

38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

185

Biological Degradation of Cyanide by Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study shows how nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) can be used to treat small concentrations of free cyanides. The authors recommend application of a cyanobacteria-based process in the secondary treatment of cyanides that escape alkaline...

C. J. Gantzer W. J. Maier

1988-01-01

186

HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

2012-08-01

187

Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.  

PubMed

Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims. PMID:22828651

Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

2013-02-01

188

Continuous monitoring for cyanide in waste water with a galvanic hydrogen cyanide sensor using a purge system.  

PubMed

A continuous monitoring system for cyanide with a galvanic hydrogen cyanide sensor and an aeration pump for purging was developed. Hydrogen cyanide evolved from cyanide solution using a purging pump was measured with the hydrogen cyanide sensor. The system showed good performance in terms of stability and selectivity. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentrating range from 0 to 15 mg dm(3) of cyanide ion with a slope of -0.24 microA mg(-1) dm(-3). The lower detection limit was 0.1 mg dm(-3). The 90% response time of the sensor system was within 3.5 min for a 0.5 mg dm(-3) cyanide solution, when the flow rate of the purging air was 1 dm(3) min(-1). The system maintained the initial performance for 6 months in the field test. The developed galvanic sensor system was not subject to interference from sulfide and residual chlorine, compared with a potentiometric sensor system developed previously. The analytical results obtained by the present system were in good agreement with those obtained by the pyridine pyrazolone method. The correlation factor and regression line between both methods were 0.979 and Y=2.30 x 10(-4)+1.12X, respectively. This system was successfully applied for a continuous monitoring of cyanide ion in waste water. PMID:18967542

Hachiya, H; Ito, S; Fushinuki, Y; Masadome, T; Asano, Y; Imato, T

1999-05-01

189

Removal of cyanide from aqueous solutions by plain and metal-impregnated granular activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the removal of free cyanide from aqueous solutions by activated carbon was investigated. Effects of metal impregnation (Cu and Ag), aeration, and concentrations of adsorbent and cyanide on the rate and extent of the removal of cyanide were studied. The results have shown that the capacity of activated carbon for the removal of cyanide can be significantly

H. Deveci; E. Y. Yaz?c?; I. Alp; T. Uslu

2006-01-01

190

CYANIDE IN MINING: SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHEMISTRY, TOXICITY AND ANALYSIS OF MINING-RELATED WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cyanide compounds in mining is frequently a controversial issue. Environmental groups often focus on the acutely toxic properties of many cyanide compounds to humans. The mining industry has argued that the dilute cyanide concentrations employed, the methods of use, and the rapid decomposition of these compounds make cyanide extraction a very safe alternative. Clearly the spill of

Robert E. Moran

191

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

192

Passive treatment for the removal of residual cyanide in drainage from closed gold mine tailing ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the gold mining industry, tailings from the cyanide leaching process contain variable quantities of a number of cyanide compounds; as tailings are transferred to a pond for sedimentation and consolidation of the solid fraction, the supernatant water contains residual cyanide. A natural degradation of cyanide in tailings ponds is reported in the specialised bibliography, but in most cases, this

R. Álvarez; A. Ordóñez; T. Martínez; J. Loredo; F. Pendás; P. Younger

193

Scaling the Plant Cell Wall  

NSF Publications Database

... Scaling the Plant Cell Wall New method brings greater understanding of how plants build cell walls ... plant, Arabidopsis. The team, which was supported in part by the National Science Foundation?s Plant ...

194

The Rockefeller Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation is one of the largest private philanthropic entities in the United States. In the past year, it awarded over $140 million in grants to numerous organizations working and researching topics of interest to the Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation currently has five primary program themes: creativity and culture, food security, health equity, working communities, and global inclusion. While the Foundation typically operates as "a proactive grantmaker," persons working for organizations that perform work or research in these five thematic areas will find perusing this website to be quite helpful. Here visitors can find out about current grant recipients, search the contents of the entire site, and learn more about the Foundation's overall mission and vision. Additionally, quite a few of the foundation's publications and papers are available for download here, including important works on HIV prevention in the developing world, inequities in health care, nonprofit capital, and inner city renewal in the United States.

195

Ferrate(VI) oxidation of cyanide in water.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to test removal of cyanide (free cyanide and several cyanide complexes) in water, under alkaline medium (pH > or = 11), by a new potassium ferrate salt. The removal rate of free cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was greater at pH 11.0 than at pH 12.0. A complete oxidation was obtained with a 2.67 Fe(VI)/CN ratio at pH 11.0. In these conditions, the rate of cyanide oxidation by Fe(VI) was slow, with a reaction rate constant estimated at 0.95 +/- 0.10 s(-1) l mol(-1) at pH 11.0 and 19.6 degrees C in this study. This study revealed that Fe(VI) did not decompose all cyanide complexes. Copper, cadmium and zinc complexes were removed efficiently by Fe(VI). Moreover, these metals were also removed from the solution by coagulation effect of Fe(OH)3, the Fe(VI) product of reaction. A particular behaviour was reported with copper, as a rapid oxidation of cyanide was observed in the presence of this metal. On the contrary, oxidation of nickel and silver complexes was incomplete. PMID:15366562

Costarramone, N; Kneip, A; Castetbon, A

2004-08-01

196

Gold sulfide replacements of cyanide solutions  

SciTech Connect

At Sandia National Laboratories we have introduced a non-cyanide gold electroplating solution in the Solid State Circuit Processing Lab. This commercially available solution is based on gold sulfite salts. An evaluation of the plating bath and the deposited gold for use in microelectronic circuit fabrication was conducted. The tests included selective plating compatability, wire bonding, soldering, gold resistivity, adherence, and step coverage. The results were all favorable. Precision gold patterns with line widths as small as 2{mu}m and gold thickness over 4{mu}m were selectively plated using a positive photoresist as a plating mask. Also the gold sulfite solution was used to fabricate gold air bridge crossovers for GaAs circuits. The introduction of the non-hazardous sulfite solution for plating high purity gold films will lead to manufacturing processes which are safer to work with and less damaging to the environment.

Worobey, W.; Norwood, D.; Rieger, D.

1991-01-01

197

The Foundations of Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the theory of aesthetics that comes from the new foun- dations for geometry developed in my books. The new geometric foundations are based on two principles: (1) maximizing transfer of structure, (2) maximizing re- coverability of the generative operations. According to the foundations, these are the two basic principles of aesthetics. This paper shows that the two

Michael Leyton

198

Life Sciences Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life Sciences Foundation (LSF) is recording and preserving the history of biotechnology. The Foundation has been established to create a record of the achievements of contemporary bioscientists. To learn about the people, institutions, and organizations that are making biotech history, visit the site's timelines, oral histories, feature stories, videos, and archives.

2012-11-13

199

Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... fight one of the deadliest forms of childhood cancer The Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation is on a mission to ... UPDATES 07/03/14 New genes that promote cancer discovered 06/30/14 PBTF awards college scholarships to brain ... Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC ...

200

Open Bioinformatics Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers can share their open source code software on websites such as this one from the Open Bioinformatics Foundation. Here, visitors can find information about the Foundation's projects (including BioJava, BioPerl, and BioRuby), board of directors, applications for membership, and bioinformatics newsletters.

2007-12-28

201

Foundation Development Abstracts, 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of brief two-page essays is published quarterly by the Network of California Community College Foundations to address topics related to development activities typically conducted by educational foundations. Volume 1 includes "Your Message is as Clear as Your Mission Statement," by Pat Rasmussen and James M. Anderson, which suggests…

Anderson, James M., Ed.

1991-01-01

202

Bone and Cancer Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Bone and Cancer Foundation, PO Box 287452 New York, NY 10128-0025 Email: bcfdn@aol.com Information for Patients List of Patient Publications ... HIGHER) Welcome Welcome to the Bone and Cancer Foundation, a new information resource for patients and health ...

203

Establishing a School Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school foundation is a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization that finances school projects not covered by the district budget. Legal requirements and accounting procedures; the board of trustees and fund manager; use of volunteers; capitalization and sources of capital (gifts, bequests, fundraising activities); marketing the foundation; examples of…

Erickson, Juanita; Stewart, G. Kent

2002-01-01

204

Foundations of Software Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on the Foundations of Software Testing including: basic terminology, the mission of testing, the oracle problem, the measurement problem, the impossibility of complete testing, and relevant foundational concepts from the computer science field.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.

2011-06-01

205

Foundations (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

The program in Foundations supports research in mathematical logic and the foundations of mathematics, including proof theory, recursion theory, model theory, set theory, and infinitary combinatorics. Standard eligibility criteria as defined in the Grant Proposal Guide apply to this program. This program adheres to the budget definition and preparation instructions described in the Grant Proposal Guide and has no additional requirements or limitations.

206

AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

207

SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

208

Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company's...

S. A. Bryan K. H. Pool S. L. Bryan

1995-01-01

209

Modelling of Hydrogen Cyanide Formation in Room Fires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A chemical kinetics model for calculation of the formation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been made. The combustion of two mixtures with different ratios of methylamine and ethylene has been modelled using the laminar flamelet concept. The flamelet calcula...

H. Tuovinen P. Blomqvist

2003-01-01

210

Simulation Studies of Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of computer studies showing the effect of cyanide (CN) on the electrophysiology of cardiac tissue is presented. A mathematical model of the electrophysiology of cardiac tissue, with initial and boundary conditions based on experimental data from ...

C. K. Zoltani G. E. Platoff S. I. Baskin

2005-01-01

211

Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

Lohrmann, R.

1972-01-01

212

Does prolonged oral exposure to cyanide promote hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term exposure to cyanide and\\/or its main metabolite, thiocyanate, has been associated with goiter, pancreatic diabetes and several neurological disorders. However, very little is found in the literature relating the nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of these substances. Thus, the objective of the present study was to verify the effects of prolonged exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) in these organs. Forty-six

Altamir B. Sousa; Benito Soto-Blanco; José L. Guerra; Edna T. Kimura; Silvana L. Górniak

2002-01-01

213

NAP protects against cyanide-related microtubule destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peptide NAP (NAPVSIPQ) was shown to protect neurons against a wide variety of insults. Particularly, NAP was shown to\\u000a be neuroprotective in vitro against cyanide in hippocampal cultures and against oxygen-glucose deprivation in hippocampal\\u000a and cortical neuronal cultures. Cyanide causes energy depletion in the cell and destroys the cytoskeleton, and NAP has been\\u000a shown before to protect the microtubule

Ilona Zemlyak; Robert Sapolsky; Illana Gozes

2009-01-01

214

Is Hydrogen Cyanide a Marker of Burkholderia cepacia Complex?  

PubMed Central

Biofilm cultures of Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) infection have been found to generate the nonvolatile cyanide ion. We investigated if gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was a marker of BCC infection. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry analysis showed HCN was not elevated in the headspace of planktonic or biofilm cultures or in the exhaled breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with chronic BCC infection. HCN is therefore not an in vitro or in vivo marker of BCC.

Sims, Hayley; Alcock, Alice; Jones, Andrew M.; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J.; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

2013-01-01

215

Cyanide intoxication with encephalitis clinic: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide intoxication is one of the most dangerous poisonings and may occur by oral, respiratuary and dermal routes. Central nervous system is the most susceptible region to acute cyanide intoxication. A 3.5-years- old-girl was brought to our pediatric emergency polyclinic with complaints of fever, dullness and convulsion. On physical examination, lethargy and agitation, increased deep tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor

Murat Dogan; Cahide Yilmaz; Avni Kaya; Huseyin Caksen; Gokmen Taskin

216

Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation

Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

217

PAM Chlorophyll Fluorometry: a New in situ Technique for Stress Assessment in Scleractinian Corals, used to Examine the Effects of Cyanide from Cyanide Fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide is being used on reefs in the Asia–Pacific region to capture live fish for the aquarium industry, and to supply a rapidly growing, restaurant-based demand. The effects of cyanide on reef biota have not been fully explored. To investigate its effect on hard corals, we exposed small branch tips of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora aspera to cyanide concentrations

R. J. Jones; T. Kildea; O. Hoegh-guldberg

1999-01-01

218

Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science] [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1998-07-01

219

Cyanide intoxication induced exocytotic epinephrine release in rabbit myocardium.  

PubMed

Cyanide intoxication, which has been used as a model of energy depletion at cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, causes non-exocytotic release of norepinephrine (NE). However, the effect of cyanide intoxication on cardiac epinephrine (Epi) release remains unknown. Using cardiac microdialysis in the rabbit, we measured dialysate Epi and NE concentrations as indices of myocardial interstitial Epi and NE levels, respectively. Local administration of sodium cyanide (30 mM) through the dialysis probe increased both Epi and NE levels (from 11.3+/-2.3 to 32.3+/-4.4 pg/ml and from 33.6+/-6.1 to 389.0+/-71.8 pg/ml, respectively, mean+/-S.E., P<0.01). Local desipramine (100 microM) administration suppressed the cyanide induced NE response without affecting the Epi response. In contrast, local omega-conotoxin GVIA (10 microM) administration partially suppressed the cyanide induced NE response and totally abolished the Epi response. In conclusion, cyanide intoxication causes N-type Ca(2+) channel dependent exocytotic Epi release as well as inducing N-type Ca(2+) channel independent non-exocytotic NE release. PMID:10785279

Kawada, T; Yamazaki, T; Akiyama, T; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Inagaki, M; Tatewaki, T; Yanagiya, Y; Sugimachi, M; Sunagawa, K

2000-05-12

220

Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation  

PubMed Central

Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 µmol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae.

Baud, Frederic; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

2011-01-01

221

Variations in Time-To-Incapacitation and Blood Cyanide Values for Rats Exposed to Two Hydrogen Cyanide Gas Concentrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been suggested that protective breathing devices protect aircraft passengers from combustion products for 5 min during evacuation and for 35 min during in-flight-plus-evacuation. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a combustion gas, produces incapacitation at ...

A. K. Chaturvedi B. R. Endecott R. M. Ritter D. C. Sanders

1993-01-01

222

Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.  

PubMed

Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity. PMID:23345455

Nath, Anjali K; Roberts, Lee D; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L; Boss, Gerry R; Rockwood, Gary A; MacRae, Calum A; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

2013-05-01

223

Set Theory and Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

About 90 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on set theory and foundations: what is fuzzy logic, fractal logic, Cantor's diagonal proof, are all triangles isosceles, on Gauss's mountains, problems with the luminiferous aether, and many more.

Brown, Kevin

2008-09-19

224

Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

The Hidradenitis Suppurativa Foundation, Inc. (HSF) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit public benefit corporation, dedicated to improving research, ... and care for individuals and families affected by Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS). HS is an inflammatory skin disease ...

225

Hepatitis Foundation International  

MedlinePLUS

... nutrients in the food you eat into muscles, energy, hormones, blood clotting factors and immune factors. ImageT4 ... GIVES Amazon will donate 0.5% of the price of your eligible AmazonSmile purchases to Hepatitis Foundation ...

226

Children's Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded in 1988 by dedicated parents, physicians and friends. Our ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

227

National Osteonecrosis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Osteonecrosis - A bone disease that few have heard of. Some where between 10,000 and 20,000 ... someone understands and cares. We Do! The National Osteonecrosis Foundation is made up of a group of ...

228

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... STUDY A new protocol is open at the Pediatric Oncology Branch of the National Cancer Institute for children, ... Read more... Tweet Researchers 16th International Symposium on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation is proud to ...

229

American Lyme Disease Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. P.O. Box 466, Lyme, CT 06371 Home About ALDF Programs and Services What is ... Dedicated to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections. Announcements & News ALDF ...

230

American Macular Degeneration Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... A Search Search Welcome Welcome to the American Macular Degeneration Foundation web site where you can learn about this disease, find valuable resources and help conquer macular degeneration. Macular Degeneration is an incurable eye disease that ...

231

Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Surgery Tips Survival Tips Brochures & Resource Sheets Books & CDs About the Foundation Mission Breakthrough Goal >1 Year ... Member Community News Events 2014 SSF Conference Audio CDs Available! Faces of Sjögren's- Patient Stories April is ...

232

Australian Mineral Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

Crowe, D. S.

1980-01-01

233

American Liver Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... the American Liver Foundation! Read our statement on Hepatitis B screening and visit our media center by clicking below: Additional Resources Liver Disease ... @liverUSA Online Hepatitis C Resource Please Visit Our New Online Hepatic ...

234

Kessler Foundation Research Center  

MedlinePLUS

... at World Congress of Biomechanics Another Step Highlighting Robotic Exoskeleton Technology in Rehabilitation RICHMOND, Calif., July 22, 2014 -- Ekso Bionics Holdings, Inc. (OTCQB: EKSO), a robotic exoskeleton company, announced today that Kessler Foundation, a ...

235

Brain Aneurysm Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... ruptures. Announcements The Brain Aneurysm Foundation is in Canada! April 29, 2014 If you would like to ... donation, please mail a check to: The BAF-Canada 20 Whitney Avenue... Read More Tell Congress: Put ...

236

National Patient Safety Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in Industry News , Press , Updates | News | Press | No Comments National Patient Safety Foundation Welcomes Betsy Lehman Center ... in Industry News , Press , Updates | News | Press | No Comments Dr. Lucian Leape, NPSF Lucian Leape Institute Receive ...

237

Mathematical foundations of consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ the Zermelo-Fränkel Axioms that characterize sets as mathematical primitives. The Anti-foundation Axiom plays a significant role in our development, since among other of its features, its replacement for the Axiom of Foundation in the Zermelo-Fränkel Axioms motivates Platonic interpretations. These interpretations also depend on such allied notions for sets as pictures, graphs, decorations, labelings and various mappings that

Willard L. Miranker; Gregg J. Zuckerman

2009-01-01

238

Mathematical Foundations of Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employ the Zermelo-Fraenkel Axioms that characterize sets as mathematical primitives. The Anti-foundation Axiom plays a significant role in our development, since among other of its features, its replacement for the Axiom of Foundation in the Zermelo-Fraenkel Axioms motivates Platonic interpretations. These interpretations also depend on such allied notions for sets as pictures, graphs, decorations, labelings and various mappings that

Willard L. Miranker; Gregg J. Zuckerman

2008-01-01

239

The Groundwater Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Groundwater Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. This web site features a broad selection of educational tools for the protection and management of groundwater. Examples include fact sheets on groundwater conservation, children's educational projects, newsletters and other publications. The Groundwater Foundation also sponsors educational activities such as water festivals, source water protection programs, the Groundwater Guardian program, the Applying Community Technology Today project, professional training workshops, and summer camps for kids.

Foundation, The G.

240

Ecotoxicity of cyanide complexes in industrially contaminated soils.  

PubMed

This study deals with acute and chronic ecotoxicity of leachates from industrially contaminated soils. Analyses focused on cyanides (complex and free forms) to study their possible involvement in leachates toxicity. No acute toxicity on the Microtox and 48 h-Daphnia magna tests was found in leachates collected over 18 months, but a high chronic toxicity was recorded on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50-7d=0.31±0.07%) and on the algal growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (EC50-72 h=0.27±0.09%). Ceriodaphnids were as sensitive to free cyanide as to complex forms (EC50-7d as CN(-)=98 ?g/L, 194 ?g/L and 216 ?g/L for KCN, Fe(CN)(6)K(3) and Fe(CN)(6)K(4), respectively). The EC50-72 h of KCN to P. subcapitata (116 ?g/L) as CN(-) was also of the same level as the EC50-72 h of potassium ferricyanide (127 ?g/L) and ferrocyanide (267 ?g/L). Complex cyanides explained a major part of the toxicity of leachates of the soil. On the other hand, cyanide complexes had no effect on survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida up to 131 mg CN(-)/kg, while potassium cyanide was highly toxic [EC50-14 d as CN(-)=74 ?g/kg soil]. Thermodesorption treatment eliminated a majority of cyanides from the soil and generated much less toxic leachates. Complex cyanides must be integrated into environmental studies to assess the impact of multi-contaminated soils. PMID:22018867

Manar, Rachid; Bonnard, Marc; Rast, Claudine; Veber, Anne-Marie; Vasseur, Paule

2011-12-15

241

Anoxic-oxic activated-sludge of cyanides and phenols.  

PubMed

The anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process has been evaluated in a laboratory investigation as a means for effective treatment of cyanide-laden wastewaters, with phenols used as the organic carbon sources for denitrification reactions. The performance of the process was evaluated at different levels of feed cyanide concentration and mean cell residence time (MCRT). The results obtained indicate that the phenolic compounds used can be effectively used as the organic carbon sources to promote denitrification reactions. The effects of cyanide inhibition on overall TOC removal can be alleviated at longer MCRTs. Between 1.2 and 2.2 g TOC can be utilized per gram NO(2) + NO(3) (-) -N removed in the anoxic chamber depending on the prevailing MCRT. Microbial oxidation of cyanide and thiocyanate which yields ammonia is the main mechanism responsible for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanate observed in the anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process. Excellent removal efficiencies have been observed with feed concentrations up to 60 mg CN(-)/L and 100 mg SCN(-)/L Frequent exposure of autotrophic and aerobic cyanideutilizing microbes does not impede their activities in the oxic environment. Good nitrification and denitrification efficiencies are attainable in the anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process in the presence of high feed cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations, provided that MCRT is maintained at a desirable level. As a result, the microbial degradation of cyanide and thiocyanate in conjunction with nitrification and denitrification to produce innocuous nitrogen gas is feasible in the anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process. PMID:18587841

Richards, D J; Shieh, W K

1989-01-01

242

Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions  

PubMed Central

A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded.

Luque-Almagro, Victor M.; Huertas, Maria-J.; Martinez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivian, Conrado; Roldan, M. Dolores; Garcia-Gil, L. Jesus; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

2005-01-01

243

Horizontal displacements of rock foundations of dams  

SciTech Connect

This paper uses geodetic survey methods to assess the horizontal displacements of dam foundations for several hydroelectric power plants in the Soviet Union. The effects of filling the reservoirs are outlined and the dependence of the degree of displacement on dam height is analyzed. The results are tabulated.

Karlson, A.A.

1987-08-01

244

Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

Arrhenius, G.

1991-01-01

245

Nitroprusside-Induced Cyanide Poisoning: Anti-Dotal Effect of Hydroxocobalamin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sodium nitroprusside was investigated as a potential source of cyanide poisoning. Whole-blood cyanide determinations were performed on arterial samples from baboons receiving nitroprusside while anesthetized. There was statistically significant increase i...

M. A. Posner F. L. Rodkey R. E. Tobey

1976-01-01

246

The Determination of Cyanide Ion in Natural Waters with a Selective Ion Electrode.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The analysis of cyanide ion in natural water systems is complicated by the fact that natural waters contain certain metal ions which form extremely stable metal-cyano complexes. Current methods involve distillation techniques to separate cyanide from the ...

D. G. Rands R. L. Bain

1979-01-01

247

Indirect electrochemical oxidation of cyanide by hydrogen peroxide generated at a carbon cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of cyanide was performed in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Cyanide was oxidized over 90% to cyanate by hydrogen peroxide electrochemically generated at a 60ppi reticulated vitreous carbon electrode from oxygen reduction. Cyanide depletion was recorded as a function of time from the analysis of cyanide based on the titration procedure using silver nitrate with p-dimethylamino-benzal-rhodanine indicator. Cyanate was

Carlos Antonio Pineda Arellano; Susana Silva Martínez

2007-01-01

248

The Eurasia Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the banner of âÂÂEngaging Citizens, Empowering CommunitiesâÂÂ, the Eurasia Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Incorporated in 1992, the Eurasia Foundation has made over $335 million in grants to countries in the region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. In general, the Foundation works within three broad mandate areas, including private enterprise development, public administration and policy and civil society. Visitors are invited to learn about their activities on the website, and they may do so by browsing by geographical region, or by looking within the âÂÂPublicationsâ area. This area contains annual reports, news briefs, and feature reports, which include recent titles such as âÂÂOpening the Georgian Militaryâ and âÂÂPromoting the Non-Profit Sector in the PamirsâÂÂ.

249

The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Foundation was founded "by an international group of physicians and researchers to provide an ongoing exchange of information about MDS." For those unfamiliar with this condition, MDS "is a collection of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells." The MDS Foundation website offers free resources for clinicians, information for patients, international research updates, and information about upcoming and past symposia. The site also provides an extensive list of MDS Centers of Excellence throughout the United States and around the world. Other MDS Foundation services include an International MDS Patient Registry; online forums for patients and professional members; downloadable newsletters; links to related articles and archived abstracts; and related links.

250

World Lung Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lung diseases and related conditions are serious matters, and the World Lung Foundation is dedicated to improving lung health in all regions of the world. The Foundation works with a number of like-minded organizations, including the World Health Organization and the STOP TB Partnership. The Foundation is primarily concerned with researching lung ailments such as acute respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and they also have created a number of education and training programs for health personnel. The site contains six primary thematic areas, including "Tobacco", "TB and Lung Disease", and "Lung Health News". First-time visitors will want to look at the "Lung Health News" area first, as it contains a number of direct news links to recent articles that deal primarily with the worldwide fight against tuberculosis. The site also contains a rather helpful photo image library that includes images of air pollution, tobacco use, and asthma.

251

The Asia Foundation: Multimedia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Asia Foundation counts 21 countries as members of the Asia-Pacific region that it concerns itself with, to "build a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region." The "Multimedia" section of their website contains both slideshows and videos. There are many short videos that highlight the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program, which provides books to schoolchildren whose schools and families have limited access. The video "Return to Khishig Undur: The Tale of Peter Rabbit" is worth watching, as it tells the heartwarming story of students in a 4th grade class in a remote village in Mongolia who each received a copy of The Tale of Peter Rabbit from the Asia Foundation. This book was chosen as a result of the over 10,000 people who voted for a children's book in the "Choose a Book. Change a Life" campaign.

252

Film Noir Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

253

Ford Foundation: Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every year, the Ford Foundation produces reams of working papers, policy documents, and research briefs. This section of the website provides users with access to annual reports, a multimedia area, regional brochures, and studies. Visitors interested in the operations and priorities of the Ford Foundation should definitely peruse its annual report, as it contains information about groups the Foundation funds and its thematic areas of operation. The reports here date back to 2000. The multimedia area contains video programs that cover topics like human rights, American values, and a rather intriguing program titled "Demystifying Global Finance." Scholars and policy makers will want to consider the diverse group of studies here, including "Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education" and "Liberal Education and Civic Engagement." Also, the site includes a helpful search engine which can be used to find specific resources quickly.

2012-06-29

254

Meningitis Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Meningitis Research Foundation is a charity organization focused on the prevention and treatment of meningitis (and associated infections) through research and public education. The Foundation website describes common symptoms (with photographs); and contains a variety of specific information about meningitis and septicaemia. For health professionals, the site offers "guidance notes and protocols to promote best practice in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with meningitis and septicaemia." The website's Research section contains separate Public Information and Scientific Information sections as well as separate Scientific and Layperson's Archive sections with reports from funded projects. The Foundation website provides audio and written information about meningitis and speticaemia in 18 languages.

255

Structure of the trypanosome cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase.  

PubMed

In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In T. brucei, a parasite that causes human African sleeping sickness, AOX plays a critical role in the survival of the parasite in its bloodstream form. Because AOX is absent from mammals, this protein represents a unique and promising therapeutic target. Despite its bioenergetic and medical importance, however, structural features of any AOX are yet to be elucidated. Here we report crystal structures of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase in the absence and presence of ascofuranone derivatives. All structures reveal that the oxidase is a homodimer with the nonhaem diiron carboxylate active site buried within a four-helix bundle. Unusually, the active site is ligated solely by four glutamate residues in its oxidized inhibitor-free state; however, inhibitor binding induces the ligation of a histidine residue. A highly conserved Tyr220 is within 4 Å of the active site and is critical for catalytic activity. All structures also reveal that there are two hydrophobic cavities per monomer. Both inhibitors bind to one cavity within 4 Å and 5 Å of the active site and Tyr220, respectively. A second cavity interacts with the inhibitor-binding cavity at the diiron center. We suggest that both cavities bind ubiquinol and along with Tyr220 are required for the catalytic cycle for O2 reduction. PMID:23487766

Shiba, Tomoo; Kido, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Tsuge, Chiaki; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Gen; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Moore, Anthony L; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

2013-03-19

256

Structure of the trypanosome cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase  

PubMed Central

In addition to haem copper oxidases, all higher plants, some algae, yeasts, molds, metazoans, and pathogenic microorganisms such as Trypanosoma brucei contain an additional terminal oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive alternative oxidase (AOX). AOX is a diiron carboxylate protein that catalyzes the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water by ubiquinol. In T. brucei, a parasite that causes human African sleeping sickness, AOX plays a critical role in the survival of the parasite in its bloodstream form. Because AOX is absent from mammals, this protein represents a unique and promising therapeutic target. Despite its bioenergetic and medical importance, however, structural features of any AOX are yet to be elucidated. Here we report crystal structures of the trypanosomal alternative oxidase in the absence and presence of ascofuranone derivatives. All structures reveal that the oxidase is a homodimer with the nonhaem diiron carboxylate active site buried within a four-helix bundle. Unusually, the active site is ligated solely by four glutamate residues in its oxidized inhibitor-free state; however, inhibitor binding induces the ligation of a histidine residue. A highly conserved Tyr220 is within 4 Å of the active site and is critical for catalytic activity. All structures also reveal that there are two hydrophobic cavities per monomer. Both inhibitors bind to one cavity within 4 Å and 5 Å of the active site and Tyr220, respectively. A second cavity interacts with the inhibitor-binding cavity at the diiron center. We suggest that both cavities bind ubiquinol and along with Tyr220 are required for the catalytic cycle for O2 reduction.

Shiba, Tomoo; Kido, Yasutoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Tsuge, Chiaki; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Gen; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Honma, Teruki; Tanaka, Akiko; Inoue, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Moore, Anthony L.; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

257

INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

258

Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all

Mehmet Kitis; Emine Karakaya; Nevzat O. Yigit; Gokhan Civelekoglu; Ata Akcil

2005-01-01

259

The Analysis of Cyanide and its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a toxic chemical that may be introduced into living organisms as a result of natural processes and\\/or anthropogenic uses (legal or illicit). Exposure to cyanide can be verified by analysis of cyanide or one of its breakdown products from biological samples. This verification may be important for medical, law-enforcement, military, forensic, research, or veterinary purposes. This review will

Brian A. Logue; Diane M. Hinkens; Steven I. Baskin; Gary A. Rockwood

2010-01-01

260

Treatment of pyritic matrix gold–silver refractory ores by ozonization–cyanidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the gold and silver produced worldwide are extracted by the cyanidation process. The recovery of the precious metals involves two distinct operations: the oxidative dissolution of gold and silver by an alkaline cyanide solution, and the reductive precipitation of metals from the solution. From the cyanidation point of view, gold and silver ores can be classified as free

E. Elorza-Rodríguez; F. Nava-Alonso; J. Jara; C. Lara-Valenzuela

2006-01-01

261

Recovery of Silver and Gold From Cyanide Solution by Magnetic Species Formed in the Electrocoagulation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanidation is the predominant process by which gold and silver are recovered from their ores in metallurgical operations, and it is recognized that the Carbon in Pulp, the Merrill-Crowe, the Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction processes are used for concentration and purification of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. Among other available options for recovery of precious metals from cyanide

J. R. Parga; M. Rodríguez; V. Vázquez; J. L. Valenzuela; H. Moreno

2011-01-01

262

37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

263

[Potentiometric concentration determination of cyanide ions in waste water].  

PubMed

Electrodic systems, consist of gold or silver and metals of the IV, or V, subsidiary groups of the periodic system of elements are qualified for that, because they based strength of their electrodic steepness, selectivity, potentionel stability and sensibility by destination of cyanid ions in waste-water. We are going to introduce a fast-analysis-method for cyanid ions in waste-water of technical processes, which had been tested practically by the continuous control of limits, demanded by the legislator. PMID:2392855

Börner, J; Martin, G; Götz, C

1990-06-01

264

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

MSF News Audio Available from MS Research Update Teleconference 6/18/2014 Online Radio Station for MS is First of its Kind 6/11/2014 Brighter Tomorrow ... Mulligans 12 Weeks of Summer to Benefit the Multiple Sclerosis Foundation! in Lauderdale by the Sea & Lake Worth , ...

265

Nobel Foundation's Centennial Speech  

Cancer.gov

The following talk was given as part of the Nobel Foundation's Centennial Symposia at which Nobel Laureates and other prominent researchers offered scientific, scholarly and popular talks. Dr. Varmus spoke as part of the program "Beyond Genes," held December 6-8, 2001, at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.

266

Foundation for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

267

Nobel Foundation: Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site from the Nobel Foundation contains a number of short pages about relativity. Included are The Michelson-Morley Experiment, Postulates of Special Relativity, Lorentz Transformations, The Twin Paradox, a historical timeline, and two sections dedicated to show how Special Relativity can be a tool for science.

2007-06-16

268

National Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the National Science Foundation is to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; and to secure the national defense. The NSF supports research and education in science and engineering through funding of a wide range of grants and contracts.

2003-10-10

269

National Film Preservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

270

The Annenberg Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Born in 1908, Walter H. Annenberg wore many hats during his long career, including publisher, broadcaster, and Ambassador to the Court of St. James, Great Britain from 1969 to 1974. He remains perhaps best known for his devotion to philanthropy and the work done by The Annenberg Foundation, which he established in 1989. Visitors to the site can learn about their work, and also learn about how to apply for a grant from the Foundation. The "News" section on the site's homepage provides concise details about their latest funding endeavors, such as their donations to disaster relief programs and literacy programs in Philadelphia. Users may also wish to read their 15th anniversary report, which details how the Foundation has made grants totaling more than $2.8 billion. The site is rounded out by a selection of links that lead directly to other programs and organizations established by the Foundation, such as the Annenberg Media organization and the Annenberg Institute for School Reform.

2005-01-01

271

Computational Foundation of Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a deterministic foundation of thermodynamics for slightly viscous fluids or gases based on a 1st Law in the form of the Euler equations express- ing conservation of mass, momentum and energy, and a 2nd Law formulated in terms of kinetic energy, internal (heat) energy, work and shock\\/turbulent dissipa- tion, without reference to entropy. The Euler equations are regularized

Johan Hoffman; Claes Johnson; Murtazo Nazarov

272

Foundations of biomolecular modeling.  

PubMed

The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for "development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems." The honored work from the 1970s has provided a foundation for the widespread activities today in modeling organic and biomolecular systems. PMID:24315087

Jorgensen, William L

2013-12-01

273

Planetary Coral Reef Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

274

Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report was prepared in accordance with ER 1110-1-1801, dated 15 December 1981, which requires as-built foundation reports for major construction projects. The purpose of this report is to insure the preservation for future use of complete records of found...

D. Larson R. D. Eckerlin

1988-01-01

275

Foundations of logic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides an account of the mathematical foundations of logic programming. The reader should have a strong background in mathematics and be familiar with a logic programming language such as PROLOG. Includes chapter problems, references for further study, and a subject index. Contents: Declarative semantics. Procedural semantics. Negation. Perpetual processes. Index.

J. Lloyd

1984-01-01

276

Foundations of International Macroeconomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foundations of International Macroeconomics is an innovative text that offers the first integrative modern treatment of the core issues in open economy macroeconomics and finance. With its clear and accessible style, it is suitable for first-year graduate macroeconomics courses as well as graduate courses in international macroeconomics and finance. Each chapter incorporates an extensive and eclectic array of empirical evidence.

Maurice Obstfeld; Kenneth S. Rogoff

1996-01-01

277

The Broad Foundations, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was…

Broad Foundation, 2008

2008-01-01

278

Foundation at Visitor Center  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows workers creating the foundation for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The new facility, funded by the Recovery Act, will replace a building that has developed and exposed some serious health and safety problems, including asbestos, extensive rodent encroachment, water leakage, ...

2009-09-17

279

Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure  

PubMed Central

Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.

Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

2013-01-01

280

Foundation funding and psychiatric research.  

PubMed

Support for psychiatric research is limited to a relatively small number of funding sources. Foundations--nonprofit entities that support a variety of social, medical, educational, and other activities--are a potentially important source. The authors describe the role and structure of foundations, discuss historical trends in foundation support for research in mental illness, and present the results of a study of the extent to which foundations support mental health research. The results of this study confirm the paucity of foundation support for mental health research but show important differences and similarities among the foundations that support research in this field. PMID:3381927

Kim, D; Pincus, H A; Fine, T

1988-07-01

281

PAM Chlorophyll Fluorometry: a New in situ Technique for Stress Assessment in Scleractinian Corals, used to Examine the EÄects of Cyanide from Cyanide Fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide is being used on reefs in the Asia-Pacific region to capture live fish for the aquarium industry, and to supply a rapidly growing, restaurant-based demand. The eÄects of cyanide on reef biota have not been fully explored. To investigate its eÄect on hard corals, we exposed small branch tips of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora aspera to cyanide concentrations

R. J. JONES; T. KILDEA; O. HOEGH-GULDBERG

282

Turning the 'Mustard Oil Bomb' into a 'Cyanide Bomb': Aromatic Glucosinolate Metabolism in a Specialist Insect Herbivore  

PubMed Central

Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as ‘coevolutionary armsrace’. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by ?-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification.

Stauber, Einar J.; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

2012-01-01

283

Cyanide Degradation under Alkaline Conditions by a Strain of Fusarium solani Isolated from Contaminated Soils  

PubMed Central

Several cyanide-tolerant microorganisms have been selected from alkaline wastes and soils contaminated with cyanide. Among them, a fungus identified as Fusarium solani IHEM 8026 shows a good potential for cyanide biodegradation under alkaline conditions (pH 9.2 to 10.7). Results of K(sup14)CN biodegradation studies show that fungal metabolism seems to proceed by a two-step hydrolytic mechanism: (i) the first reaction involves the conversion of cyanide to formamide by a cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme, cyanide hydratase (EC 4.2.1.66); and (ii) the second reaction consists of the conversion of formamide to formate, which is associated with fungal growth. No growth occurred during the first step of cyanide degradation, suggesting that cyanide is toxic to some degree even in cyanide-degrading microorganisms, such as F. solani. The presence of organic nutrients in the medium has a major influence on the occurrence of the second step. Addition of small amounts of yeast extract led to fungal growth, whereas no growth was observed in media containing cyanide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The simple hydrolytic detoxification pathway identified in the present study could be used for the treatment of many industrial alkaline effluents and wastes containing free cyanide without a prior acidification step, thus limiting the risk of cyanhydric acid volatilization; this should be of great interest from an environmental and health point of view.

Dumestre, A.; Chone, T.; Portal, J.; Gerard, M.; Berthelin, J.

1997-01-01

284

Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.  

PubMed

Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent ?-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 ?M, and the limit of detection was 0.78 ?M. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

2014-02-01

285

Dark Nucleus of Comet Halley: Hydrogen Cyanide Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is proposed that the dark crust of comet Halley consists largely of hydrogen cyanide polymers. The expected predominance on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia, and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-p...

C. N. Matthews R. Ludicky

1986-01-01

286

Ammonia oxidation catalysis: Hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on ammonia oxidation processes, specifically hydrogen cyanide synthesis and hydrogen generation. This work stemmed from previous investigations into hydrogen addition to ethane partial oxidation, which had revealed that the use of hydrogen with noble metal catalysts could give improved performance in oxidative dehydrogenation. Based on this discovery and simulations of ethylene synthesis reactions, it was hypothesized that hydrogen addition to the Andrussow process for hydrogen cyanide synthesis would also give superior results. By reacting hydrogen, ammonia, methane, and oxygen over a platinum/rhodium gauze catalyst in a millisecond contact time reactor, and then analyzing the product with a gas chromatograph, this hypothesis was tested. It was found that, as the amount hydrogen fed increased, so too did the hydrogen cyanide selectivity. However, the ammonia conversion decreased significantly over the same range, and as a result the overall yield decreased with increasing hydrogen fed. Following these hydrogen cyanide synthesis experiments, work began on a project to generate hydrogen through ammonia reforming. Fuel cell technology necessitates a readily available, inexpensive source of hydrogen; many feel that this hydrogen can be obtained from ammonia. It was hoped that by catalytically oxidizing ammonia, large amounts of hydrogen could be produced at high ammonia conversions. By varying the ammonia/oxygen feed ratio, the catalyst used, and the reactor configuration, it was found that hydrogen yields in excess of 60% could be obtained at ammonia conversions of 99%. This product stream is suitable for use in a P.E.M. fuel cell.

Olschki, David Alexander

287

Hydroxocobalamin Therapy of Cyanide Intoxication in Guinea Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficacy of hydroxocobalamin (vitamin B12a) as a specific, nontoxic antidote in acute cyanide poisoning was tested. Guinea pigs receiving lethal intravenous NaCN injections were treated with either vitamin B12a or saline solution. There was a statisti...

M. A. Posner R. E. Tobey H. McElroy

1975-01-01

288

Mechanism, regulation, and ecological role of bacterial cyanide biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A few bacterial species are known to produce and excrete hydrogen cyanide (HCN), a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase and several other metalloenzymes. In the producer strains, HCN does not appear to have a role in primary metabolism and is generally considered a secondary metabolite. HCN synthase of proteobacteria (especially fluorescent pseudomonads) is a membrane-bound flavoenzyme that oxidizes glycine,

Caroline Blumer; Dieter Haas

2000-01-01

289

Modelling of hydrogen cyanide formation in room fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical kinetics model for calculation of the formation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) has been made. The combustion of a mixture of methylamine and ethylene has been modelled using the stationary laminar flamelet concept. The flamelet calculations are based on several thousand elementary reaction steps including the chemical kinetics of HCN in combustion. The flamelets for both cold (293K) and

Heimo Tuovinen; Per Blomqvist; Fikret Saric

2004-01-01

290

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

291

90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

292

169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

293

Electrochemical deposition of silver and gold from cyanide leaching solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic voltammetric study developed in this work allows the determination of the potential range at which the selective deposition of gold and silver is carried out in the presence of a high content of copper. As a first approach, laboratory solutions prepared with a high content of cyanide and copper and low values of gold and silver are used;

V Reyes-Cruz; C Ponce-de-León; I González; M. T Oropeza

2002-01-01

294

CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM REFINERY WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project was to evaluate the removal of low level cyanide in petroleum refinery wastewater by the addition of powdered activated carbon and cupric chloride to an activated sludge unit. The activated carbon and cupric chloride act as a catalyst in the oxidatio...

295

The Role of the Foundation Board. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education addresses the role of boards of related non-profit fund-raising foundations. The booklet begins with an explanation of four advantages of such foundations to host institutions, such as separating gift funds from public funds. Suggestions for making foundation boards more effective…

Simic, Curtis R.

1998-01-01

296

Volatile-Mediated Killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by Bacteria Is Mainly Due to Hydrogen Cyanide? †  

PubMed Central

The volatile-mediated impact of bacteria on plant growth is well documented, and contrasting effects have been reported ranging from 6-fold plant promotion to plant killing. However, very little is known about the identity of the compounds responsible for these effects or the mechanisms involved in plant growth alteration. We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains. Using a collection of environmental and clinical strains differing in cyanogenesis, as well as a defined HCN-negative mutant, we demonstrate that bacterial HCN accounts to a significant extent for the deleterious effects observed when growing Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of certain bacterial volatiles. The environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 was less cyanogenic and less plant growth inhibiting than the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Quorum-sensing deficient mutants of C. violaceum CV0, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa PUPa3 showed not only diminished HCN production but also strongly reduced volatile-mediated phytotoxicity. The double treatment of providing plants with reactive oxygen species scavenging compounds and overexpressing the alternative oxidase AOX1a led to a significant reduction of volatile-mediated toxicity. This indicates that oxidative stress is a key process in the physiological changes leading to plant death upon exposure to toxic bacterial volatiles.

Blom, Dirk; Fabbri, Carlotta; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

2011-01-01

297

Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation.  

PubMed

Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed Fa; Kosslick, Hendrik

2013-01-01

298

Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation  

PubMed Central

Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k).

2013-01-01

299

Eudora Welty Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the summer of 2001, noted author Eudora Welty passed away in her home state of Mississippi. Throughout her ninety-years she made significant contributions to the art of the short story and other literary forms, and she remains the subject of scholarship and admiration in many quarters. Fortunately, the Eudora Welty Foundation was established in 1999 to celebrate her works and also to make sure that her various writings remain an essential part of academic curricula in high schools and colleges. On their site, visitors can view an interactive timeline of Welty's life and also peruse a calendar of events sponsored by the Foundation and other related entities. Most visitors will benefit greatly from a trip over to the "Resources" area of the site, which includes a complete bibliography of her works, along with information on the Eudora Welty House and links to other Welty societies and organizations.

300

Mind Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potential within the human mind and its connection to the rest of the human body is a subject that has consumed many of the world's brightest scientists. The Mind Science Foundation, founded by Thomas Baker Slick, is a place that is intimately concerned with such matters, and their website is a good way to learn about some of the issues surrounding their work and broader notions about how consciousness arises in human beings. It's a tall research order, and the website responds admirably by presenting a number of speeches from experts on the subject, along with links to the results of various research endeavors sponsored with funds from the Foundation. The site also contains an interactive database of researchers who are working in the area of consciousness and a library of books that might be of interest to those looking for additional resources.

301

Foundation for Child Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Foundation for Child Development \\"is a national, private philanthropy dedicated to the principle that all families should have the social and material resources to raise their children to be healthy, educated and productive members of their communities.\\" The Foundation seeks to help the disadvantaged especially, and works with families, schools, other non-profits, businesses and government. On the site, those interested in Child Development will find links to Public Policy at both the state and national level. Information about immigrant children as well as their own Child Well-Being Index. Also on the site are the archives of their in house publication \\"Learning Curve\\" where users can find articles on a plethora of topics ranging from \\"Fighting Fade-Out by advancing PK-3 Alignment\\" and \\"PK-3 Indicators available on Child Trends DataBank\\". Overall, a useful tool for students, instructors and professionals involved in Child Development.

2006-12-19

302

The International Crane Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in Baraboo, Wisconsin, the "International Crane Foundation (ICF) works worldwide to conserve cranes and the wetland and grassland ecosystems on which they depend." The ICF website provides a variety of information about the Foundation as well as great resources like the Species Field Guide which contains photos, range maps, and information about all 15 types of crane. The site also includes information about conservation and research projects in North America, Asia, and Africa. For teachers and students, the ICF's Education Department offers several online resources including instructions for making an origami crane; a list of related books; a downloadable six-page Crane Behavior Guide, and information about participating in an International Art Exchange. Be sure not to miss the What's New link for updates regarding the Whooping Cranes ongoing migration from Wisconsin to Florida.

303

Thomas B. Fordham Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation is dedicated to an agenda of education reform not unlike the President George W. Bush: testing and accountability, charter schools, school choice, and the like. Its Website provides a number of recently written reports and papers relating to these issues. Recent documents include a "Memo to the New President," offering advice on how to bridge the "partisan divide" and enact reform, a history of teacher certification that examines the rise to political power of professional teacher organizations, a critique of whole language reading instruction, and The State of the State Standards, 2000, a comprehensive assessment of state standards. The publications section includes selected readings on school reform, teacher quality, charter schools, and more. The site features a search engine and a detailed site map. All in all, a fine resource for materials in the school reform debate from what many would characterize as the conservative perspective. The foundation is affiliated with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

304

National Energy Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Energy Foundation (NEF) is a nonprofit educational organization that provides a host of educational materials and programs primarily related to discussing natural resources, technology, conservation, and the environment. The NEF also provides a number of teacher training and student programs that complement their existing work. Young people visiting the site will want to look over the student section which provides four purpose-built sites that provide information on earth sciences activities, environmental stewardship, and several other topical areas. Educators will want to take a look at the section provided for them, as it contains links to the NEFâÂÂs educational catalog and information about upcoming workshops of interest. The site is rounded out by a links page that offers a host of topical links to other relevant science education sites, such as one on alternate fuel vehicles and the Captain Planet Foundation.

305

The Wallace Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in New York, the Wallace Foundation is a national philanthropy that seeks "to improve education and enrichment for disadvantaged children." Visitors to their website can learn more about their outreach and research programs through their Primary Topics area. Here, they can read about recent findings that deal with the importance of strong school leaderships, informal learning outside of the classroom, and resources for nonprofit financial management. Moving on, the Knowledge Center contains links to fact sheets, white papers, and databases that deal with arts education, summer learning programs, and four other topical areas. Additionally, visitors shouldn't miss the Latest News area, which contains press releases about the Wallace Foundation's work and advocacy programs crafted through partnerships with other organizations, such as school districts, government agencies, and so on.

306

Irish Architecture Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.

307

Theoretical Manual for Pile Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This theoretical manual for pile foundations describes the background and research and the applied methodologies used in the analysis and design of pile foundations. This research was developed through the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Cente...

R. L. Mosher W. P. Dawkins

2000-01-01

308

Behavioral Foundation for Fuzzy Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Savage (1954) a 'behavioral foundation' was given for subjective probabilities, to be used in the maximization of expected utility. The paper analogously gives a behavioral foundation for fuzzy measures, to be used in the maximization of the 'Choquet i...

P. P. Wakker

1989-01-01

309

Shallow Foundations for Highway Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis will be of special interest to foundation designers, bridge engineers, geotechnical specialists, and others seeking information on the use of shallow foundations for transportation structures. Detailed information is presented on selection,...

H. E. Wahls

1983-01-01

310

Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... for You Have questions? Need support? The CdLS Foundation staff is here to listen and help. Call ... Site Map The Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) Foundation is a family support organization that exists to ...

311

American Foundation for the Blind  

MedlinePLUS

... Boards Blogs Calendar of Events Announcements Donate American Foundation for the Blind - Home Page Slide Show of ... Act Call-in Day! Our Mission The American Foundation for the Blind removes barriers, creates solutions, and ...

312

Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Newsletters  

MedlinePLUS

... Thanks to Our Sponsors The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation Together, Reaching For A Cure Links Home Donate ... Contact About Copyright © 2012 The Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

313

Foundations of Modern Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is intended for students who are using the textbook, "Foundations of Modern Cosmology". In this website every chapter in the book has a summary and a brief overview of the important concepts. Topics in the book include: Newton's contribution to cosmology, the evolution of stars, relativity, black holes, the expansion of the universe, the early universe, the CMB, dark matter, and inflation. There is also a list of students' questions, with answers, about ideas and concepts they found challenging.

Hawley, John

2004-07-16

314

Foundations of arrhythmia interpretation.  

PubMed

Basic arrhythmia monitoring is being used with increasing frequency in both inpatient and outpatient care settings. Nurses are being asked to interpret cardiac rhythms and develop critical thinking skills that assist in evaluating the significance of the rhythms identified for individual patients. The foundations needed for nurses to evaluate cardiac rhythms and assess the significance of the rhythms identified are provided. Cardiac anatomy, physiology, and cardiac properties are used to provide a framework for interpreting and understanding rhythms. PMID:9313546

Scrima, D A

1997-08-01

315

The Foundation of Kinship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as\\u000a critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing\\u000a and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households\\u000a evolved. With conscious recognition of

Donna L. Leonetti; Benjamin Chabot-Hanowell

2011-01-01

316

Electronic Frontier Foundation: Biometrics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since September 11, 2001 the U.S. government has been actively searching for ways to improve surveillance at airports and U.S. borders. The Electronic Frontier Foundation is concerned that biometric technologies are being promoted as the silver bullet when very little independent, objective scientific testing of biometrics has been done. This evolving website discusses what is known and raises issues for concern regarding recent government proposals for using biometric systems in surveillance.

317

Diferrous cyanides as models for the Fe-only hydrogenases.  

PubMed

The first systematic study of diferrous dicyano dithiolates is described. Oxidation of [Fe2(S2C2H4)(CN)2(CO)4](2-) in the presence of cyanide and tertiary phosphines and of Fe2(S2C2H4)(CO)4(PMe3)2 in the presence of cyanide affords a series of diferrous cyanide derivatives that bear a stoichiometric, structural, and electronic relationship to the H(ox)(air) state of the Fe-only hydrogenases. With PPh3 as the trapping ligand, we obtained an unsymmetrical isomer of Fe2(S2C2H4)(mu-CO)(CN)2(PPh3)2(CO)2, as confirmed crystallographically. This diferrous cyanide features the semibridging CO-ligand, with Fe-muC bond lengths of 2.15 and 1.85 A. Four isomers of Fe2(S2C2H4)(mu-CO)(CN)2(PMe3)2(CO)2 were observed, the initial product again being unsymmetrical but more stable isomers being symmetrical. DFT calculations confirm that the most stable isomers of Fe2(S2C2H4)(mu-CO)(CN)2(PMe3)2(CO)2 have cyanide trans to mu-CO. Oxidative decarbonylation also afforded the new tetracyanide [Fe2(S2C2H4)(mu-CO)(CN)4(CO)2]2-. Insights into the oxidative decarbonylation mechanism of these syntheses come from the spectroscopic characterization of the tetracarbonyl [Fe2(S2C2H4)(mu-CO)(CN)3(CO)3](-). This species reacts with PEt3 to produce the stable adduct [Fe2(S2C2H4)(mu-CO)(CN)3(CO)2(PEt3)](-). PMID:16076208

Boyke, Christine A; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Rauchfuss, Thomas B; Wilson, Scott R; Zampella, Giuseppe; De Gioia, Luca

2005-08-10

318

John Templeton Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Templeton and the foundation which bears his name have never been interested in just looking into the small questions of humanity. Templeton began his career as a very successful Wall Street investor in 1937, and over the following years he remained interested in scientific research and open-minded inquiry. The Templeton Foundation was started in 1987 in order "to serve as a philanthropic catalyst for discovery in areas engaging life's biggest questions". Over the years, these questions have included investigations into the laws of nature and the universe, along with the nature of love, gratitude, forgiveness and creativity. Visitors who wish to learn more about the Foundation's work may wish to take a look through the FAQ section in the "About Us" area. Another way to get a feel for their work is to look over their "Big Questions" section. Here, visitors can read conversations between leading intellectuals on such questions as "Does science make belief in God obsolete?" and "Does the universe have a purpose?" Other sections of the site cover their funding areas, submitting a proposal for funding, and a newsroom area.

319

The Stuttering Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stuttering has entered popular culture with the release of, and critical acclaim for, the recent movie "The King's Speech", which is about King George VI of England's problem with stuttering. Since 1947, the Stuttering Foundation has focused on preventing and improving the treatment of stuttering. The Foundation's website provides a series of podcasts, which include a recent interview with the scriptwriter of The King's Speech, David Seidler. Visitors will also enjoy the website's other podcasts, which address topics as varied as recently identified genes for stuttering; helping children who stutter, by the Foundation's president, Jane Fraser; and famous people who didn't let stuttering prevent them from achieving their goals, such as John Stossel, Mel Tillis, and basketball star Bob Love. There is also a podcast that visitors should not miss, entitled "Women Who Stutter: Our Stories". Clicking on it will take visitors to a list of over three dozen podcasts with the stories of women from around the world, of all ages and ethnicities, who stutter, or work with stutterers, or do both. There are many touching, helpful and humorous stories among their number.

320

Foundations of chaotic mixing.  

PubMed

The simplest mixing problem corresponds to the mixing of a fluid with itself; this case provides a foundation on which the subject rests. The objective here is to study mixing independently of the mechanisms used to create the motion and review elements of theory focusing mostly on mathematical foundations and minimal models. The flows under consideration will be of two types: two-dimensional (2D) 'blinking flows', or three-dimensional (3D) duct flows. Given that mixing in continuous 3D duct flows depends critically on cross-sectional mixing, and that many microfluidic applications involve continuous flows, we focus on the essential aspects of mixing in 2D flows, as they provide a foundation from which to base our understanding of more complex cases. The baker's transformation is taken as the centrepiece for describing the dynamical systems framework. In particular, a hierarchy of characterizations of mixing exist, Bernoulli --> mixing --> ergodic, ordered according to the quality of mixing (the strongest first). Most importantly for the design process, we show how the so-called linked twist maps function as a minimal picture of mixing, provide a mathematical structure for understanding the type of 2D flows that arise in many micromixers already built, and give conditions guaranteeing the best quality mixing. Extensions of these concepts lead to first-principle-based designs without resorting to lengthy computations. PMID:15306478

Wiggins, Stephen; Ottino, Julio M

2004-05-15

321

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE CYANIDES, TOTAL CYANIDE, AND THIOCYANATE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven methods for the analysis of simple cyanides have been investigated. Included are (1) an ion-exchange procedure, (2) a continuous-flow distillation, (3) and EDTA electrode method, (4) the American Iron and Steel Institute aeration method, (5) an EDTA aeration method, (6) the...

322

Students' Perceptions of Foundation Degrees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 there were 87,339 people enrolled on foundation degrees (FDs) in the UK (Foundation Degree Forward, 2009), and educational institutions in the UK offered 1700 different foundation degrees in over 25 subjects, with nearly 900 more in development (Action on Access, 2010). In addition, student views are seen to be of importance, as…

Ooms, A.; Burke, L. M.; Marks-Maran, D. J.; Webb, M.; Cooper, D.

2012-01-01

323

Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

324

A novel role for cyanide in the control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings response to environmental stress.  

PubMed

The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) pretreatment on the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cold stress were investigated in the present study. Here, we found that KCN pretreatment improved cucumber seedlings tolerance to stress conditions with maximum efficiency at a concentration of 20?µM. The results showed that pretreatment with 20?µM KCN alleviated stress-induced oxidative damage in plant cells and clearly induced the activity of alternative oxidase (AOX) and the ethylene production. Furthermore, the structures of thylakoids and mitochondria in the KCN-pretreated seedlings were less damaged by the stress conditions, which maintained higher total chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and photosystem II (PSII) proteins levels than the control. Importantly, the addition of the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (1?mm; SHAM) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress and even compromised the cyanide (CN)-enhanced stress tolerance. Therefore, our findings provide a novel role of CN in plant against environmental stress and indicate that the CN-enhanced AOX might contribute to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the protection of photosystem by maintaining energy charge homoeostasis from chloroplast to mitochondria. PMID:22554042

Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Feng; Tang, He; Lv, Xin; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Huang-Fan; Lin, Hong-Hui

2012-11-01

325

The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning.

Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

2013-01-01

326

National Science Foundation: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every year, the National Science Foundation (NSF) researches a broad swath of topics ranging from graduate education in geography to the viability of sustainable agriculture. Visitors can scan through these documents here, on a website which includes recent publications like "Collections in Support of Biological Research" and "Baccalaureate Origins of U.S.-trained S&E Doctorate Recipients." The archive contains over 3,200 documents, which visitors search by publication type or specific organization within NSF. Visitors can also elect to sign up to receive notices about newly added publications via RSS feed or email.

327

Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

328

Foundations of isomathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santilli's isomathematics has a strong foundation in the early literature of mathematics surveyed by R.H. Bruck in his land mark book `A Survey of Binary Systems' [1] dating back to 1958. This work aims at exploring the very basics of Isomathematics as suggested by Santilli [7] and [8]. The concept of `Isotopy' plays a vital role in the development of this new age mathematics. Starting with Isotopy of groupoids we develop the study of Isotopy of quasi groups and loops via Partial Planes, Projective planes, 3-nets and multiplicative 3-nets.

Muktibodh, A. S.

2013-10-01

329

African Wildlife Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through research and community-based conservation, the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) has "played a major role in ensuring the continues existence of some of Africa's most rare and treasure species such as the elephant, the mountain gorilla, rhinoceros, and cheetah." The AWF Web site offers loads of information on the current programs and program locations, including factsheets and photos of African wildlife. Other features include an online library of recent and archived news articles, and a noncommercial safari planner for the informed ecotourist. Altogether, it's an appealing and informative Web site.

1996-01-01

330

Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... SADS Foundation UK SADS Foundation Netherlands SADS Foundation China SADS Foundation Hong Kong ... 20th Annual No Ball At All Educate Physicians Today! Save Lives Tomorrow! Join the SIRCh! 2014 Award ...

331

Biological Purification of Waste Water from a Coking Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological treatment of effluent, such as those from coking plants, is difficult. Phenols present in those effluents are less likely to influence the treatment than are associated inhibiting constituents such as cyanides, thiocyanates, sulphides and perha...

B. Boman J. Norrman

1981-01-01

332

Free Software Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) was established in 1985 to promote "computer users' rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs." That is, the organization promotes the development and use of free software, particularly for the GNU operating system (GNU/Linux). FSF is the primary sponsor of the GNU Project, which was established to create new distribution terms that would prevent the project from being turned into proprietary software. The website provides information on current FSF projects, such as providing development systems support for GNU software maintainers and raising awareness about the Free Software license and how to use it. They also maintain the Free Software Directory, which catalogs "all useful free software that runs under free operating systems" and currently contains over 3,000 entries. The Directory can be accessed from this website and searched by keyword or browsed by application area, such as Business and Productivity, Database, Education, Email, Games, Mathematics, Network Applications, Printing, Science, Security, Software development, and Web Authoring. The website also provides information on how to add packages to the Directory and how to donate to the Foundation.

333

Copper Plating from Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-cyanide alkaline bath was used to prepare copper thin films. Influences of various temperatures on deposition rates, surface morphologies and microstructures of films were investigated. Copper thin films prepared from non-cyanide alkaline bath show typical nodular structures. Copper films fabricated at higher temperature possess rough surface due to hydrolysis of complexing agents. According to the XRD patterns, all deposited films were crystalline and showed Cu (111), Cu (200) and Cu (220) peaks. The intensity of peak (200) increases gradually with the rise on bath temperatures. Films with maximum thickness (7.5 ?m) could be obtained at the temperature of 40°C. From the cyclic voltammetry curve, it was found that the cathodic polarization decreased slightly with increase of bath temperatures. In addition, when the bath temperature was equal to 50°C, current efficiency could reach to 96.95%.

Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Meng; Zhao, Xixi; Bai, Yuze

2014-12-01

334

Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide in the hydrocyclone cell  

SciTech Connect

A diluted electroplating cyanide rinse water has been used to test the use of the hydrocyclone cell (HCC) in batch recycle mode of operation for the simultaneous oxidation of cyanide during the electrodeposition of silver. The results obtained in this work with regard to the final products, current efficiency and the number of transferred electrons per CN{sup {minus}} helped to establish a probable reaction scheme. According to this, the process occurs mainly with one-electron transfer, through cyanate and cyanogen as intermediate species. Meanwhile, under conditions where the electrolyte circulates in an open bath and flows successively through the cathodic and the anodic compartments, as in the case of the HCC system, the cyanate could be produced by the direct oxidation through air and/or generated peroxide and CN could be lost as HCN (g).

Dhamo, N. [TU Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallurgie] [TU Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallurgie

1996-12-31

335

Differential mitochondrial electron transport through the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathways in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile, male fertile, and restored petunia. [Petunia parodii L. S. M  

SciTech Connect

Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydoxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.

Connett, M.B.; Hanson, M.R. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

336

Source characteristics of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne trace gas measurements from Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics B, and Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-NA) experiments are analyzed to examine the major source factors contributing to the observed variabilities of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and cyanides. The positive matrix factorization method is applied to coincident measurements of 11 chemicals including

Changsub Shim; Yuhang Wang; Hanwant B. Singh; Donald R. Blake; Alex B. Guenther

2007-01-01

337

COPPER DISSOLUTION FROM CUPRIC FERRITE IN CONVENTIONAL CYANIDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the principal results of the residue cyanidation from the lixiviation of a white metal oxidized calcine with high content of copper (10,6%) as cupric ferrite. The gold and silver grades of this residue are 38,5 and 1085 g\\/ton respectively. The copper extraction is lower than those reported on the literature. Under complete gold extraction conditions, the copper

M. OSWALDO; I. M. CIMEX

338

Is cyanide really a strong-field ligand?  

PubMed

Iron man or weakling? Ligand-field strengths are conveniently expressed by the empirical spectrochemical series. Although cyanide has been deeply entrenched as a strong-field ligand, a couple of recent examples cast doubt toward the position of this ligand, namely the high-spin (S = 2) states of [Cr(II)(CN)(5)](3-) and [Fe(II)(tpp)(CN)](-). tpp = meso-tetraphenylporphinate. PMID:19222066

Nakamura, Mikio

2009-01-01

339

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kruzer, Helen W [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horita, Juske [ORNL; Moran, James J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Janszen, Derek B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carman, April [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2012-01-01

340

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

2012-01-03

341

Draft whole genome sequence of the cyanide-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a Gram-negative bacterium able to tolerate cyanide and to use it as the sole nitrogen source. We report here the first draft of the whole genome sequence of a P.?pseudoalcaligenes strain that assimilates cyanide. Three aspects are specially emphasized in this manuscript. First, some generalities of the genome are shown and discussed in the context of other Pseudomonadaceae genomes, including genome size, G?+?C content, core genome and singletons among other features. Second, the genome is analysed in the context of cyanide metabolism, describing genes probably involved in cyanide assimilation, like those encoding nitrilases, and genes related to cyanide resistance, like the cio genes encoding the cyanide insensitive oxidases. Finally, the presence of genes probably involved in other processes with a great biotechnological potential like production of bioplastics and biodegradation of pollutants also is discussed. PMID:22998548

Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Acera, Felipe; Igeño, Ma Isabel; Wibberg, Daniel; Roldán, Ma Dolores; Sáez, Lara P; Hennig, Magdalena; Quesada, Alberto; Huertas, Ma José; Blom, Jochen; Merchán, Faustino; Escribano, Ma Paz; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Estepa, Jessica; Guijo, Ma Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Macías, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Becerra, Gracia; Ramirez, Silvia; Carmona, Ma Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oscar; Manso, Isabel; Pühler, Alfred; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Schlüter, Andreas; Blasco, Rafael

2013-01-01

342

Methyl Cyanide (CH_3CN) Observations of W51  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W51 is a large star forming region located in the Sagittarius arm about 7 kpc away from the Sun. Since the 1960s it has been a prime target for radio astronomy observations because of the large emission measure and the abundance of molecular absorption lines. We continue this effort by observing W51 at millimeter wavelengths with the BIMA array looking for methyl cyanide (CH_3CN) emission. Many large molecules have been observed in the region around W51 These large molecular species are found to exist mainly in two compact hot core regions, W51 e1/e2 and W51 IRS 2. Only very recently have attempts been made to observe methyl cyanide in this region. The motivation to observe methyl cyanide is due to the fact that it is an abundant symmetric top molecule which is a good temperature tracer. From observations of the emission lines, we can get an indication of the excitation temperature of the gas in the region. Derived temperature and column density will put constraints on the physical and chemical models for the hot cores. What we have found is that our observations agree very well with the observations of Zhang, Q. et al. (1998, ApJ, 494, 636) that the cores of each region have a temperature of greater than 100K and a number density greater than 100 cm(-3) .

Remijan, A. J.; Liu, S.-Y.; Snyder, L. E.; Pei, C. C.

1999-05-01

343

Cyanide-induced hyperthyroidism in male Wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Cyanide is one of the major environmental pollutants termed thyroid disruptor. Regardless of its origin, it is a primary toxic agent. This study was designed to understand the impact of prolonged low dose cyanide exposure on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods: Twelve F1 male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into two groups of six animals each. The first group served as the control group and received 0.25M sucrose while the second group being the treated group received 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) potassium hexacyanoferrate III solution. The treatment duration was 56 days following which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were drawn to determine serum FT3, FT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The thyroid gland was also excised and processed for light microscopic studies. Result: An increase in serum FT3 and FT4 with decrease serum TSH was obtained in the treated group. Application of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis showed that there were highly significant differences (P < 0.05) in the activities of FT3, FT4 and TSH when compared with those of the control group. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland from the treated group revealed marked epithelial hyperplasia with cellular degeneration and scanty cytoplasm while the control group revealed normal thyroid architecture. Conclusion: Results obtained revealed that hyperthyroidism was induced by cyanide.

Daniel, Adeniyi Temadiyo; Adekilekun, Tijani Ahmad; Adewale, Musa Adbus-Semiu; Adekemi, Abayomi Taiwo

2014-01-01

344

Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival  

PubMed Central

A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour.

Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

2014-01-01

345

The W. M. Keck Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The funding mission of the W. M. Keck Foundation is "to make grants designed to provide far-reaching benefits for humanity in the fields of science, engineering, and medical research." In a recent announcement, the Keck Foundation will consider proposals for "research which opens new directions and could lead to breakthrough discoveries and the development of new technologies." Proposal deadlines are November 15, 1998, and May 15, 1999. Interested parties should contact the Keck Foundation.

1998-01-01

346

Foundation for Landscape Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographers, historians, landscape designers, urban planners, and poets have all been fascinated with both natural and human-made landscapes for centuries. The mission statement of the Foundation for Landscape Studies might resonate with many of these groups of people: "To foster an active understanding of the importance of place in human life.ïÿý From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn more about their organization, read about their overarching goals, and examine their photo gallery. In the gallery, they will find photo essays that include "Ancient Sites of the Andean Desert" and "New Orleans After the Flood". The site is rounded out by their in-house journal, "Site/Lines". Visitors can look over the complete run of the journal, which includes pieces on landscape architecture, landscape management, and the portrayal of idealized landscapes.

347

Sunlight Foundation's Party Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 2006, the Sunlight Foundation employs and develops new internet technologies "to create greater political transparency and to foster more openness and accountability in government." This website focuses on the political partying circuit, also known as fundraising. These parties reveal, "the relationships between lobbyists, congressional candidates, issues being lobbied and campaign money received." Thus, the parties are an excellent resource for citizen journalists, activists, and other interested members of the public. Visitors can view the invitations to the latest parties by clicking on "Upcoming Events". Some of the invitations include a golf tournament for Rep. Loretta Sanchez, a BBQ for Rep. Chet Edwards, and a "Crabs and Spaghetti Dinner" for Rep. Frank LoBiondo at Strategic Healthcare Townhouse. The "PARTYFINDER" allows visitors to search for parties by "beneficiary", "host", "venue name" or "entertainment type". Finally, there are several widgets visitors can put on their website or blog to display "Upcoming parties", "Upcoming leadership PAC parties", and "Parties by candidate state".

348

USC Shoah Foundation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the University of Southern California's Shoah Foundation Institute is "to overcome prejudice, intolerance, and bigotry-and the suffering they cause-through the educational use of the Institute's visual history testimonies." On their homepage, visitors can watch testimonies from Holocaust survivors and others, along with learning more about their "Featured Resources". These resources include the Education Portal, which brings together lesson plans for teaching about the Holocaust and guidelines for using primary documents in the classroom. Scholars and others will appreciate the "Scholarship & Research" area which includes information on upcoming conferences, research stipends offered through the Institute, and events. Also, it is worth noting that the site also has many resources in other languages, including German, Spanish, French, Italian, Polish, and Russian.

349

National Science Foundation: Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyday, research sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) turns up a new discovery, an interesting facet of a scientific endeavor, and sometimes, just something that might delight and amaze even the casual observer. Recently the NSF created this website to serve as a clearinghouse of information about the work they sponsor. The "Discoveries" site can be searched in its entirety, or visitors can just peruse the chronological list that's front and center on their homepage. Over in the "Research Areas" section, visitors can wander through "Biology", "Education", "Nanoscience", and eight other topical areas. Some summaries that might be of particular interest include "Mysteries of the Unregulated Internet" and "The Bizarre Creatures of Madagascar". Also, it's worth nothing that parties who enjoy the site can sign up for their RSS feed here.

350

Environmental Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Research Foundation (ERF) provides "understandable scientific information about the influence of toxic substances on human health and the environment." ERF aims to inform journalists, community activists, librarians, environmentalists, and others concerned with toxins and environmental justice. The ERF site contains an online library of pertinent documents under such categories as agriculture & food security, global concerns, chemicals & health, human rights, and more. ERF also offers a database of related sites under the categories of biodiversity, cancer, children/youth, and food safety, to name a few. Site visitors can sign up for a free electronic subscription to the informative _Rachel's Environment & Health News_ (named in honor of renowned ecologist Rachel Carson). A Spanish-language edition of the publication is available as well. The website is also available in both Spanish and English.

351

National Science Foundation: Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Current, is a newsletter published monthly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the scope of each newsletter is to highlight the research and education that is supported by NSF. One of the goals of NSF is "to promote the progress of science and to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare of the nation." Current provides a good view of the breadth of the NSF's funding activities. For example, a recent newsletter offers reports on sun spot models, exoplanets, the Nanoscience Center, supernovae, and robots in the Senate. The NSF in the News section highlights "newsworthy" research that was funded in whole or in part by the NSF. Each issue can be viewed or downloaded, and an online archive that dates back to 2005 is available on the site. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive the newsletter by email.

2009-10-19

352

International Women's Media Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

353

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

354

Foundations of modern cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website (http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/Foundations) offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.

Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.

2005-07-01

355

Ferrate(VI): a green chemical for the oxidation of cyanide in aqueous/waste solutions.  

PubMed

The higher oxidation state of iron, i.e. Fe(VI), was employed for the oxidation of the important toxic ion cyanide in aqueous/waste waters. Cyanide was oxidized to cyanate, which is 1,000 times less toxic than cyanide, and can often be accepted for its ultimate disposal. It was noted that Fe(VI) is a very powerful oxidizing agent, and can oxidize most of the cyanide within a few minutes, ca 5 minutes, of contact. The extent of the reduction of Fe(VI) was obtained using the UV-Visible measurements. Further, the UV-Visible data was used to explain the reaction kinetics involved in the redox reaction between ferrate(VI) and cyanide. The pseudo-first-order rate constant was calculated by maintaining the cyanide concentration in excess, with the overall second order rate constant values obtained for initial Fe(VI) concentrations of 1.0 and 0.1 mmol/L. The oxidation of cyanide was again confirmed using a cyanide probe. Fe(VI) was further employed for its possible application in the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing cyanide, along with some heavy metals, such as those obtained from electroplating industries. PMID:17474007

Tiwari, Diwakar; Kim, Hyoung-Uk; Choi, Bong-Jong; Lee, Seung-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Heung; Choi, Kyu-Man; Yang, Jae-Kyu

2007-05-01

356

Amygdalin Toxicity Studies in Rats Predict Chronic Cyanide Poisoning in Humans  

PubMed Central

Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels of cyanide in excess of that associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy in people of underdeveloped countries where food containing cyanogenic glycosides is a staple part of the diet.

Newton, George W.; Schmidt, Eric S.; Lewis, Jerry P.; Lawrence, Ruth; Conn, Eric

1981-01-01

357

Cyanogenesis in Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen.

Poulton, Jonathan E.

1990-01-01

358

Foundation Shifts Tack on Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years into an eight-year study of its high school improvement efforts, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is shifting its strategy for evaluating the $1.3 billion grant program. The foundation's initiative, which is underwriting change efforts in more than 1,800 schools, is the nation's largest privately funded attempt to improve high…

Viadero, Debra

2006-01-01

359

Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

Rowley, Jennifer

2005-01-01

360

New Foundations for Rewriting Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an abstract treatment of the foundations of rewriting logic, generalising in three ways: an arbitrary 2-category plays the role of the specific 2-category Cat; the foundations are rendered fully independent of the underlying equational logic; and the semantics covers non-conventional sentences. Despite the high level of abstraction a number of properties of interest to Computing Science are

Hendrik Hilberdink

2000-01-01

361

Engineering and Design - Rock Foundations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides general guidance for factors to be considered in the construction of foundations and cut slopes excavated in rock masses. Divided into five sections with general topic areas to include: Excavation; Dewatering and Ground Water Control; Ground Control; Protection of Sensitive Foundation Materials; and Excavation Mapping and Monitoring.

2008-06-13

362

Degradation of soil cyanide by single and mixed cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to study whether certain bacteria could be used for cyanide degradation in soil. The bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis were selected based on their good growth in a minimal medium containing 0.8 mg mL-1 potassium cyanide (KCN). In this study we tested their ability to reduce cyanide levels in a medium containing 1.5 mg mL-1 of KCN. Although both microorganisms reduced cyanide levels, Pseudomonas stutzeri was the more effective test organism. Later on, the selected cultures were grown, diluted and their various cell concentrations were used individually and in combination to test their ability of cyanide degradation in soil samples collected around a cassava processing mill. Bacillus subtilis caused degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil immediately with an inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) to 0.072 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) implying a 66.9 % reduction. Pseudomonas stutzeri cell concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) decreased soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil initially to 0.061 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) (72 % reduction). The mixed culture of the two bacteria produced the best degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil sample with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) initially to 0.025 mg g-1 soil with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) after 10 days incubation resulting in an 88.5 % degradation of soil cyanide. The analysed bacteria displayed high cyanide degradation potential and may be useful for efficient decontamination of cyanide contaminated sites. PMID:24670334

Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya; Dibua, Marie Esther Uju

2014-03-01

363

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

364

The Electronic Literature Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Literature teachers, scholars, and lovers of the classics will warmly welcome this excellent online project. ELF's mission is to provide advanced, free electronic texts from world literature in several formats and languages. For instance, the ELF site includes four full editions of The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri: "the original Italian text, and English translations by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Rev. H.F. Cary, and Allen Mandelbaum. Annotations from the Cary and Longfellow editions are also available." As with ELF's Canterbury Tales, which is offered in Middle and Modern English, the texts can be read line-by-line or in enface ("facing page") format, which juxtaposes the original text and translation. The Foundation currently features two other texts: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, offered in three editions, and a preliminary version of Milton's Paradise Lost (the complete version is scheduled for April 1). All of the ELF texts include internal search engines and numerous contemporary and modern illustrations. Works in development include The Arabian Nights (scheduled for May 1), the works of Thomas Hardy, and Goethe's Faust.

1999-01-01

365

South Asian Physics Foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in a South Asian country other than that of their university or citizenship. During the program's first year we funded one student from Bangladesh to attend a conference in India, and during it's second year we funded eight students to attend two different conferences. Our expanding activities underscore a need for facilitating such exchanges in developing regions of the world. We discuss issues related to offering this type of program as well as the challenges and satisfactions of implementing programs that foster regional scientific cooperation. We also solicit suggestions and ideas for further developing and broadening our activities. SAPF's website is www.southasianphysicsfoundation.org.

Hirschfelder, Jessica; Ramachandran, Vidhya

2011-04-01

366

Foundations of resilience thinking.  

PubMed

Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. Fundamentos del Pensamiento sobre Resiliencia. PMID:24975863

Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

2014-08-01

367

Effect of Metal Impurities on Adsorption of Gold by Activated Carbon in Cyanide Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines performed batch equilibrium contact experiments to examine the ability of activated coconut-shell carbon to adsorb various metal cyanide complexes. Tests were also conducted to determine the effect the cyanide complex impurities m...

S. A. N. Sheya G. R. Palmer

1989-01-01

368

Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

Isom, G.E.

1996-02-01

369

ZINC SLUDGE RECYCLING AFTER KASTONE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE-BEARING RINSE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of reclaiming sludge. The sludge was produced by the destruction of cyanide by Kastone in zinc-cyanide dragout rinse water. The clear supernatant was discharged to the municipal sewer and the sludge eventually recycle...

370

Potassium ferrioxalate actinometry and homogeneous photooxidation of cyanide in a laminar flow reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium ferrioxalate actinometry was used to determine the net ultraviolet (uv) radiant power absorbed by the solution. A pseudo-first-order model with respect to cyanide was then fit to the batch data for the oxidation of cyanide by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ultraviolet light. The model also included the uv radiation power term. This model was then used along

R. M. Dennis; J. A. Roth

1987-01-01

371

Responses of electric fish (family mormymdae) to chemical changes in water quality: I. cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cyanide on the electric organ activity of two species of the tropical monnyrid fish, Gnathonemus petersi and Gnathonemus tamanduá have been examined. Significant responses in the mean electric organ discharge rate (EOD) are measured following the introduction of cyanide at a concentration of 25?g l. This corresponds with an increase in the variance. There is also a

J. W. Lewis; A. N. Kay; N. S. Hanna

1992-01-01

372

Light-scattering studies of the polymorphism of potassium cyanide under hydrostatic pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the Raman spectrum of potassium cyanide under hydrostatic gas pressures up to 7 kbar at temperatures down to 75 K and found two new high-pressure phases with characteristic Raman spectra. The topology of the phase diagram of the alkali cyanides suggests that the orientation of the CN- molecules in these phases is probably a [111] direction of the

W. Dultz; H. Krause

1978-01-01

373

Complexity-theoretic Modeling of Biological Cyanide Poisoning as Security Attack in Self-organizing Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We draw an analogy of biological cyanide poisoning to security attacks in self-organizing mobile ad hoc networks. When a circulatory system is treated as an enclosed network space, a hemoglobin is treated as a mobile node, and a hemoglobin binding with cyanide ion is treated as a compromised node (which cannot bind with oxygen to furnish its oxygen- transport function),

Jiejun Kong; Xiaoyan Hongt; Dapeng Wu; Mario Gerla

2007-01-01

374

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE REMAINS OF THREE TEN FOOT DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS ARE AT CENTER. THE SCATTER IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND IS THE REMAINS OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR HOLDING TANK POSSIBLY A SETTLING TANK. THIS AREA WAS MOST LIKELY CONSTRUCTED LATER IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AFTER MINING HAD CEASED AND ONLY TAILINGS WERE BEING RECLAIMED. AN EXACT DATE CANNOT BE DETERMINED HOWEVER THESE WORKS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT. THE SANDY AREA THAT OCCUPIES THE FOREGROUND AND THE CENTER ARE TAILINGS. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

375

OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

376

Unexpected zirconium-mediated multicomponent reactions of conjugated 1,3-butadiynes and monoynes with acyl cyanide derivatives.  

PubMed

Going ber(zirc): zirconium-butadiyne complexes react with acyl cyanide derivatives through diverse reaction pathways. The complexes react with two molecules of carbamoyl cyanide to form 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one-derivatives containing azazirconacycles. Reactions with either aroyl cyanides or alkyl cyanoformates lead to azazirconacyclopentenes containing a quaternary carbon center. PMID:23019049

Yu, Shasha; You, Xu; Liu, Yuanhong

2012-10-29

377

Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

2014-01-01

378

Effect of citrate on the reactions of cytochrome c with reductants and cyanide.  

PubMed

The rate of reduction of cytochrome c by ascorbate is decreased in the presence of anions. This decrease is due to two factors: (a) nonspecific changes in ionic strength which occur when the total ion concentration or the charge on the anion is altered and (b) "specific" binding of anions to a site on cytochrome c which directly inhibits the reaction. The reaction between cyanide ion and cytochrome c is also affected by anions: increasing the ionic strength decreases the apparent association rate constant for cyanide binding. Substitution of citrate for morpholinopropane sulphonate in isoionic buffer media increases the apparent dissociation constant for cyanide suggesting citrate stabilizes the cytochrome c heme crevice. Binding of cytochrome c to cytochrome aa3 also affects the Kd for the cyanide - cytochrome c complex indicating that cytochrome c bound to cytochrome aa3 does not react with cyanide as readily as does free cytochrome c. PMID:6288209

Brooks, S P; Chanady, G A; Nicholls, P

1982-07-01

379

Effects of moderate hypothermia on norepinephrine release evoked by ouabain, tyramine and cyanide.  

PubMed

Using the dialysis technique, we examined the effect of moderate hypothermia on the norepinephrine efflux evoked by ouabain, tyramine and cyanide in anesthetized cats. Dialysis probes were implanted in the left ventricular myocardium, and we measured the dialysate norepinephrine levels as an indicator of norepinephrine output at the cardiac sympathetic nerve endings. Through the dialysis probe, locally applied ouabain, tyramine and cyanide induced the norepinephrine efflux. The addition of desipramine (neuronal norepinephrine transport blocker, 100 microM) suppressed the norepinephrine efflux evoked by ouabain, tyramine and cyanide. This finding suggests that pharmacological agent-induced norepinephrine efflux was due to carrier-mediated outward norepinephrine transport. Moderate hypothermia (27.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C) caused suppression of the norepinephrine efflux evoked by ouabain, tyramine and cyanide. We conclude that moderate hypothermia suppresses the non-exocytotic norepinephrine release evoked by ouabain, tyramine and cyanide. PMID:12688406

Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Yamazaki, Toji; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hidezo; Sunagawa, Kenji

2003-01-01

380

Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.  

PubMed

Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 ?g cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 ?g cyanide/g and 200 ?g amygdalin/g. PMID:22564183

Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

2012-09-01

381

Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously. PMID:16464535

Liang, H L; Whelan, H T; Eells, J T; Meng, H; Buchmann, E; Lerch-Gaggl, A; Wong-Riley, M

2006-05-12

382

Packed cage rotating biological contactor system for treatment of cyanide wastewater.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of the packed cage rotating biological contactor (RBC) system with synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing 800 mg/l BOD(5) with various cyanide residue concentrations and hydraulic loading time. The results showed that cyanide had a negative effect to both the system's efficiency and bio-film quality. An increase in cyanide concentration led to a decrease in bio-film growth and the consequent reduction in the removal efficiency of the system. Also, the effluent suspended solids (SS) of the system was increased with increasing cyanide concentrations because the bio-film detached from the media due to the toxicity of the cyanide residue. The system showed the highest COD, BOD(5), TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 94.0 +/- 1.6%, 94.8 +/- 0.9%, 59.1 +/- 2.8% and 95.5 +/- 0.6%, respectively, with SWW containing 5 mg/l cyanide under HRT of 8 days, while they were only 88.8 +/- 0.7%, 89.5 +/- 0.5%, 40.3 +/- 1.1% and 93.60 +/- 0.09%, respectively, with SWW containing 40 mg/l cyanide. In addition, the effluent ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were increased with increases in cyanide concentration or loading. However, the system with SWW containing the highest cyanide concentration of 40 mg/l showed almost constant COD and BOD(5) removal efficiencies of 89% and 90%, even when the system was controlled under the lowest HRT of 8 h. PMID:16530409

Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chuamkaew, Chollada

2007-01-01

383

Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.  

PubMed

In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. PMID:23726700

Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

2013-07-01

384

Hydrologic Optics. Volume II. Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This second volume of a set of six volumes of the text on hydrologic optics deals with foundations: radiometric and photometric concepts and the interaction principle. Detailed treatment is given on: radiant flux; the meaning and fundamental geometric pro...

R. W. Preisendorfer

1976-01-01

385

Epilepsy Foundation of Northern California  

MedlinePLUS

... Epilepsy Foundation of Northern California 2014 Stroll Youth Summer Camp Spread the Word Our 22nd Annual Epilepsy ... huge success! Join us for another year of summer fun! Ages: 9-16 Date: June 29 - July ...

386

Save Babies through Screening Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to Save Babies Through Screening Foundation. The only non-profit organization that advocates for comprehensive newborn screening. Explore and learn—it could save a baby's life! Pregnant Families ...

387

Foundation Walls at Visitor Center  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This photo shows workers constructing the foundation walls for the new Visitor Center at Audubon NWR. The visitor contact wing will include an 884 square foot exhibit hall and a 1,038 square foot multipurpose room....

2009-09-17

388

Foundation for Film and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a comprehensive discussion on the Stichting Film en Wetenschap, SFW (Foundation for Film and Science), in Utrecht. Various aspects of the use of audio-visual aids in university teaching are looked at in detail. (Editor/RK)

van der Veen, G.

1976-01-01

389

Treatment of cyanide containing wastewater using cavitation based approach.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater streams containing high concentrations of biorefractory materials like cyanides should ideally be treated at source. In the present work, degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) as a model pollutant has been investigated using cavitational reactors with possible intensification studies using different approaches. Effect of different operating parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH on the extent of degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated. For the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, flow characteristics of cavitating device (venturi) have been established initially followed by the effect of inlet pressure and pH on the extent of degradation. Under the optimized set of operating parameters, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of K4Fe(CN)6:H2O2 varied from 1:1 to 1:30 mol basis) as process intensifying approach has been investigated. The present work has conclusively established that under the set of optimized operating parameters, cavitation can be effectively used for degradation of potassium ferrocyanide. The comparative study of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy efficient and gives higher degradation as compared to acoustic cavitation for equivalent power/energy dissipation. The present work is the first one to report comparison of cavitation based treatment schemes for degradation of cyanide containing wastewaters. PMID:24529614

Jawale, Rajashree H; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

2014-07-01

390

Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media.  

PubMed

A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN(-) anion over other anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), HSO4(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-) by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN(-) in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN(-) is down to 8.8×10(-8)M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9×10(-6)M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN(-) test kit to detect CN(-) in pure water for "in-the-field" measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide. PMID:24998684

Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

2014-12-10

391

Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.  

PubMed

In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo. PMID:20654676

Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

2011-03-01

392

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

393

Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1970-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-November 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 126 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1989-12-01

394

Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield  

PubMed Central

The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Sporndly, Eva

2012-01-01

395

Scale-up study of a multiphase photocatalytic reactor--degradation of cyanide in water over TiO2.  

PubMed

This paper provides an integrated view on various aspects of reactor design for photocatalytic reactions and presents a scale-up study of photocatalytic reactors. This study focuses on degrading organic pollutants in the effluent of an integrated gasification coal combustion plant over TiO2, with the target of degrading cyanide to below its allowable emission threshold set by European legislation. Here, we show the interplay of different efficiencies that affect the overall apparent photonic efficiency and the reactor volume required to achieve a certain objective in conversion. The chosen reactor configuration is rectangular slurry-bubble-columns-in-series to ensure a good mass transfer rate per photoreactor while approaching plug-flow behavior as a sum, and a high reactor surface-area-to-volume ratio for a good capture of incident photons. We consider a simple 1D photonic description of a photoreactor, in the direction of incident solar light, and implement a bidirectional scattering model for photocatalytic particles and bubbles to calculate the local rate of photon absorption and the photon absorption efficiency in the photoreactor. We show that, implementing the principles of process intensification, the large scale degradation of cyanide to below European emission limits is achievable. PMID:24359022

Motegh, Mahsa; van Ommen, J Ruud; Appel, Peter W; Kreutzer, Michiel T

2014-02-01

396

Inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification process and its eliminating method in a suspended activated sludge process.  

PubMed

Inhibition of nitrification by four typical pollutants (acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, acetonitrile and cyanide) in acrylonitrile wastewater was investigated. The inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification was strongest, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.218 mg·gVSS-1 being observed in a municipal activated sludge system. However, the performance of nitrification was recovered when cyanide was completely degraded. The nitrification, which had been inhibited by 4.17 mg·gVSS-1 of free cyanide for 24 h, was recovered to greater than 95% of that without cyanide after 10 days of recovery. To overcome cyanide inhibition, cyanide-degrading bacteria were cultivated in a batch reactor by increasing the influent cyanide concentration in a stepwise manner, which resulted in an increase in the average cyanide degradation rate from 0.14 to 1.01 mg CN-·gVSS-1·h-1 over 20 days. The cultured cyanide-degrading bacteria were shaped like short rods, and the dominant cyanide-degrading bacteria strain was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB by PCR. PMID:24122270

Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

2014-02-01

397

Effects of foundation modeling on dynamic response of a soil- structure system  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of our investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of different foundation modeling techniques used in soil-structure interaction analyses. The study involved analysis of three different modeling techniques applied to two different foundation configurations (one with a circular and one with a square shape). The results of dynamic response of a typical nuclear power plant structure supported on such foundations are presented.

Chen, J.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Tabatabaie, M. [Kleinfelder, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1996-07-01

398

Indirect determination of cyanide compounds by ion chromatography with conductivity measurement  

SciTech Connect

Ion chromatography (IC) is a suitable analytical technique for the determination of anions. The cyanide is not detected by the conductivity detector of the ion chromatograph due to its low dissolution constant (pK = 9.2). This paper describes an IC procedure for the determination of free cyanide and metal cyanide complexes that uses a conductivity detector. It is based on the oxidation of cyanide ion by sodium hypochlorite to cyanate ion (pK = 3.66). Therefore, cyanide ion can now be measured indirectly by the conductivity detector. In this procedure, optimum operating conditions were examined. In addition, the interferences from anions and reducing agents were investigated. The method was applied to the determination of metal cyanide complexes. The coefficients of variation (%) for CN/sup -/ (1.05 mg/L), Zn(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.80 mg/L), and Ni(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.96 mg/L) were 1.1%, 1.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. The proposed method proved to be useful for the determination of cyanide compounds in natural water and waste water.

Nonomura, M.

1987-09-01

399

Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

1994-01-01

400

Mechanism of the effect of cyanide on cell membrane potentials in Necturus gall-bladder epithelium.  

PubMed Central

1. Addition of sodium cyanide to the mucosal or the serosal medium bathing the isolated gall-bladder of Necturus maculosus causes hyperpolarization of both apical and basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells. The effect of cyanide is practically immediate, reversible (if exposure is brief), and long-lasting (greater than 30 min). 2. The hyperpolarization is accompanied by: (a) reduction of the equivalent resistance of the cell membranes, as shown by cable analysis and input resistance measurements, and (b) increase of the potassium selectivity of both cell membranes, as evidenced by the effects of external substitutions of potassium for sodium on cell membrane potentials. We conclude that the cyanide-induced hyperpolarization is caused mainly or exclusively by an increase of the potassium permeability of the cell membranes. 3. Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (5 microM) to the mucosal medium in the presence of 1 mM-calcium caused similar effects to those produced by cyanide. After either cyanide or A23187, addition of the other agent did not cause further membrane potential changes. 4. Quinine (100 microM, mucosal medium) reduced the potassium permeability of the apical membrane both under control conditions and during exposure to cyanide. 5. We suggest that the cyanide-induced increase of the potassium permeability of the cell membrane is mediated by an elevation of intracellular calcium ion activity, attributable to release from mitochondrial sources.

Bello-Reuss, E; Grady, T P; Reuss, L

1981-01-01

401

Characterisation of a cyanide hydratase gene in the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans.  

PubMed

A gene encoding a cyanide hydratase was cloned from an aggressive isolate of Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungus which causes blackleg disease of oilseed Brassica spp. This enzyme catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen cyanide to a less toxic compound, formamide. The predicted amino acid sequence of cyanide hydratase in L. maculans is 77% and 82% identical to cyanide hydratases from two other ascomycetes, Gloeocercospora sorghi and Fusarium lateritium, respectively. The gene is present as a single copy in the L. maculans genome, in both aggressive and non-aggressive isolates, although there is a restriction fragment length polymorphism between these two isolate groups for this gene. The cyanide hydratase promoter contains four putative target sites for GATA transcription factors, proteins that regulate nitrogen metabolism and other processes. Transcription of cyanide hydratase in an aggressive L. maculans isolate is induced strongly by potassium cyanide. Transcription of the gene is detectable in cotyledons of Brassica juncea and B. napus during infection. L. maculans can utilise the reaction product, formamide, as a sole source of nitrogen. PMID:10821180

Sexton, A C; Howlett, B J

2000-04-01

402

Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

Farrokhi, Mehrdad; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Seung-Mok; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi

2013-01-01

403

Changes of Cyanide Content and Linamarase Activity in Wounded Cassava Roots 1  

PubMed Central

When cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root was cut into blocks and incubated under laboratory conditions, the blocks showed more widespread and more even symptoms of physiological deterioration than those under natural conditions. Thus, the tissue block system has potential for biochemical studies of natural deterioration of cassava root. The changes in cyanide content and linamarase (linamarin ?-d-glucoside glucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.21) activity in various tissues during physiological deterioration were investigated. Total cyanide content increased in all parts of block tissue after 3-day incubation. The degree of increase in cyanide was most pronounced in white parenchymal tissue, 2 to 3 millimeters thick, next to the cortex (A-part tissue), where no physiological symptoms appeared. On the other hand, linamarase activity was decreased in all parts of block tissue after a 3-day incubation. A time course analysis of A-part tissue indicated a clear reciprocal relationship between changes in total cyanide and linamarase activity; total cyanide increased, while linamarase activity decreased. Free cyanide constituted a very small portion of the total cyanide and did not change markedly. Images Fig. 2

Kojima, Mineo; Iwatsuki, Norio; Data, Emma S.; Villegas, Cynthia Dolores V.; Uritani, Ikuzo

1983-01-01

404

Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles  

SciTech Connect

Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

1985-05-01

405

Cyanide-insensitive oxidation of ascorbate + NNN'N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine mixture by mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria. An energy-linked function.  

PubMed Central

Freshly prepared washed or purified mung-bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria utilize oxygen with ascorbate/tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine mixture as electron donor in the presence of KCN. ATP control of the oxygen uptake can be observed with very fresh mitochondria. The electron flow, which is inhibited by antimycin A, salicylhydroxamic acid or octylguanidine, takes place by reversed electron transport through phosphorylation site II and thence to oxygen through the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Oligomycin and low concentrations of uncoupler partially inhibit the oxygen uptake in a manner similar to that observed for other energy-linked functions of plant mitochondria. An antimycin A-insensitive oxygen uptake occurs if high concentrations of uncoupler are used, indicating that the pathway of electron flow has been altered. The process of cyanide-insensitive ascorbate oxidation is self-starting, and, since it occurs in the presence of oligomycin, it is concluded that the reaction can be energized by a single energy-conservation site associated with the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway.

Wilson, S B

1978-01-01

406

Effectiveness of intramuscularly administered cyanide antidotes on methemoglobin formation and survival.  

PubMed

Successful first aid therapy for cyanide intoxication is dependent upon immediate administration of antidotes which directly or indirectly interact with the cyanide ion to remove it from circulation. Owing to the severe respiratory, cardiovascular and convulsive episodes following acute cyanide intoxication, the most practical approach is to administer antidotes by intramuscular injection. Exceptionally rapid methemoglobin formers-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH) and dimethylaminophenol (DMAP)-are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20% methemoglobin (HH = 20 mg kg-1 and DMAP = 2 mg kg-1). Sodium nitrite, the methemoglobin inducer approved for military use, must be administered by intravenous infusion because it is not an effective cyanide antidote by the intramuscular route. In the normal unintoxicated animal an intramuscular injection of 20 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite will form 20% methemoglobin; however, in acute cyanide intoxication the associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption and thus the rapid formation of methemoglobin. If the bradycardia is prevented or reversed by atropine, the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite and the formation of methemoglobin is able to reverse the otherwise lethal effects of cyanide. Thus, an intramuscularly administered combination of 20 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite and 1 mg kg-1 atropine sulfate, rapidly absorbed from the intramuscular site, appears to achieve the same degree of effectiveness against acute cyanide intoxication as intramuscularly administered HH or DMAP. It would appear from these studies that HH, DMAP and sodium nitrite with atropine are all potentially effective intramuscular antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning. PMID:8956097

Vick, J A; Von Bredow, J D

1996-01-01

407

Analysis of the transport of cyanide spill on the Tisza River.  

PubMed

The present paper deals with the wastewater pond accident in Nagybánya (Romania) in 2000 of which the result was an about 100 tons of highly toxic cyanide spill into the River Tisza. Measurements and laboratory tests were performed during the toxic wave transport. On the basis of this data set mass balance calculations were performed by hydraulic and transport models to investigate and better understand the effect of the accident and to calculate the possible heavy metal sedimentation process in Tisza River bed. This paper deals with calculations for cyanide and copper which are mostly associated to cyanide pollution. PMID:15497835

Koncsos, L; Fonyó, G

2004-01-01

408

Potassium ferrioxalate actinometry and homogeneous photooxidation of cyanide in a laminar flow reactor  

SciTech Connect

Potassium ferrioxalate actinometry was used to determine the net ultraviolet (uv) radiant power absorbed by the solution. A pseudo-first-order model with respect to cyanide was then fit to the batch data for the oxidation of cyanide by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ultraviolet light. The model also included the uv radiation power term. This model was then used along with the residence time distribution to predict the cyanide conversion in a laminar annular flow uv reactor. Agreement was within +-1.1%.

Dennis, R.M.; Roth, J.A.

1987-01-01

409

The Foundation Directory, 4th ed..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fourth edition of 'The Foundation Directory' lists and describes 5,454 foundations and surveys their grants. The directory was prepared from foundation reports and government records. The foundations listed either have assets of $500.00 or made grants...

M. O. Lewis P. Bowers

1971-01-01

410

Colleges and Foundations: Partners or Antagonists?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the range of private foundation and foundation-interests what it is, the administrator or development officer must make a calculated decision as to how much effort should be expended on foundation solicitation. The author presents 10 "commandments" for realistic foundation solicitation. (Author/PG)

Radock, Michael

1974-01-01

411

Organic analysis of hydrogen cyanide polymers: prebiotic and extraterrestrial chemistry.  

PubMed

Hydrogen cyanide polymerizes readily to a black solid from which a yellow-brown powder can be extracted by water and further hydrolyzed to alpha-amino acids. These macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies in the outer solar system, including comets and asteroids. Primitive Earth might therefore have been covered with HCN polymers through bolide bombardment or be terrestrial synthesis. Several instrumental methods were used for the separation and identification of these intriguing polymeric materials, including photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, supercritical fluid extraction chromatography and pyrolysis mass spectrometry. Our integrated analytical approach revealed fragmentation patterns and chemical functionalities consistent with the presence of polymeric peptide precursors both in HCN polymers and in the Murchison meteorite. PMID:11539263

Liebman, S A; Pesce-Rodriguez, R A; Matthews, C N

1995-03-01

412

Protein kinase c inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, l-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 3/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, I mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

Maduh, E.U.; Nealley, E.W.; Song, H.; Wang, P.C.; Baskin, S.I.

1995-12-31

413

[The quantitative determination of cyanide by FTD-GC].  

PubMed

In recent buildings, new materials containing chemical goods, chemical fibers and the like are in common use. Some of them evolve hydrogen cyanide (HCN) when burning. When a person meets a fire, therefore, it is necessary to measure his blood concentration of HCN as well as that of CO-Hb%. The blood concentration of HCN can be measured by colorimetry such as pyridine-pyrazolone method, gas-chromatography, electrode method, or the like. However, these methods require much time in pretreatment and the preparation of the reagent. We have investigated to find a new measurement method free from the above demerits, so that we have found the method by FTD-GC (Flame Thermionic Detecter Gas-chromatograph) is convenient and can be effected in a short time in comparison with the aforementioned method. GC-7AG made by Shimadzu Co. is employed as gas-chromatography and the headspace method is used in the quantitative determination. Samples are employed as solutions of potassium cyanide (KCN) either in distilled water or in fresh blood. The concentration of KCN is gradient in the range of 0.5-6 micrograms/ml. The quantitative conditions is investigated by a solution in distilled water as standard. Using this method, the concentration of HCN in the blood sample is determined slightly lower than that in the distilled water; however, this method is advantageous in convenience and the saving of time. Therefore, the method is useful in practice for the determination of the concentration of HCN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2554036

Yoshida, M; Watabiki, T; Ishida, N

1989-04-01

414

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) "Foundation was formed to support education, research, treatment and cure for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus." One notable NDI Foundation website service is a sizable glossary of medical terminology with definitions for such terms as apoenzyme, basal nuclei, neuroglia, valine, and many more. The website also contains numerous abstracts of related journal articles. The article references and abstracts can be located by browsing extensive lists organized by Date, Author, and Journal. In addition to abstracts, some of the article references also link to less technical Lay Translations. The Foundation has requested permission from publishers to display full-text articles, and some of these versions are currently available as well. The referenced articles span more than a decade, and have appeared in such journals as _Endocrinology_, _American Journal of Physiology_, _Journal of Biological Chemistry_, and _Nature_, to name a few. An additional website service is the Researcher Directory which lists related researchers alphabetically, as well as by Institution, and Country.

415

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) "Foundation was formed to support education, research, treatment and cure for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus." One notable NDI Foundation website service is a sizable glossary of medical terminology with definitions for such terms as apoenzyme, basal nuclei, neuroglia, valine, and many more. The website also contains numerous abstracts of related journal articles. The article references and abstracts can be located by browsing extensive lists organized by Date, Author, and Journal. In addition to abstracts, some of the article references also link to less technical Lay Translations. The Foundation has requested permission from publishers to display full-text articles, and some of these versions are currently available as well. The referenced articles span more than a decade, and have appeared in such journals as _Endocrinology_, _American Journal of Physiology_, _Journal of Biological Chemistry_, and _Nature_, to name a few. An additional website service is the Researcher Directory which lists related researchers alphabetically, as well as by Institution, and Country.

2005-11-03

416

Foundation + Collaboration + Inspiration. The Joyce Foundation 2009 Annual Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the great strengths of a policy-oriented foundation like Joyce is the willingness to take a long view, to be patient investors in ideas that take time to have impact, and to take chances on projects that may not work out. But in times of crisis, Joyce team and partners also have an obligation to be responsive to immediate challenges in their…

Joyce Foundation, 2010

2010-01-01

417

Governing and Foundation Board Relationships. Foundation Relations. Board Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for trustees of institutions of higher education discusses principles for the relationship between institutional governing and foundation boards. An introductory section offers examples of poor outcomes resulting from a lack of collegial, productive relationships between these groups and stresses the importance of clarifying the…

Legon, Richard D.

1999-01-01

418

Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)-induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8+/-7.1 min compared to 75.4+/-25.1 and 76.4+/-42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS.

Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

2010-01-01

419

Determination of 15N/14N and 13C/12C in Solid and Aqueous Cyanides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The stable isotopic compositions of nitrogen and carbon in cyanide compounds can be determined by combusting aliquots in sealed tubes to form N2 gas and CO2 gas and analyzing the gases by mass spectrometry. Free cyanide (CN-aq + HCNaq) in simple solutions can also be analyzed by first precipitating the cyanide as copper(II) ferrocyanide and then combusting the precipitate. Reproducibility is ??0.5??? or better for both ??15N and ??13C. If empirical corrections are made on the basis of carbon yields, the reproducibility of ??13C can be improved to ??0.2???. The analytical methods described herein are sufficiently accurate and precise to apply stable isotope techniques to problems of cyanide degradation in natural waters and industrial process solutions.

Johnson, C. A.

1996-01-01

420

DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE IN ALUMINUM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the results obtained from conv...

421

Detection of Hydrogen Cyanide. A Test Readily Adaptable for the XM256 Chemical Agent Detector Kit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A successful test for hydrogen cyanide was developed for the XM256 chemical agent detector kit. Prior to the detection, papers impregnated with cupric acetate were spotted with a solution of p,p'-tetramethyldiaminodiphenylmethane (tetrabase) in methyl alc...

B. Witten W. R. Hydro

1972-01-01

422

Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap.  

PubMed

In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities. PMID:11918005

Johnson, Craig A; Leinz, Reinhard W; Grimes, David J; Rye, Robert O

2002-03-01

423

Incorporation of Molecular Oxygen and Water during Enzymatic Oxidation of Cyanide by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764  

PubMed Central

Cell extracts (high-speed [150,000 x g] supernatants) from Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 catalyzed the oxidation of cyanide to CO(inf2) (and NH(inf3)). Conversion was both oxygen and NADH dependent, with 1 mol of each being consumed per mol of cyanide degraded. Analysis of (sup13)CO(inf2) by mass spectrometry indicated that one atom each of isotopically labelled oxygen 18 from molecular oxygen and water were incorporated during enzymatic conversion. The results confirm earlier reports of oxygenase-mediated cyanide conversion in this organism. A reaction pathway for cyanide oxidation involving initial monooxygenation followed by hydrolysis of a hypothetical oxygenated intermediate to CO(inf2) (and NH(inf3)) is proposed.

Wang, C.; Kunz, D. A.; Venables, B. J.

1996-01-01

424

Computer Simulation Lends New Insights Into Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of antidotes against cyanide (CN) poisoning for the protection of the warfighter is still hampered by a lack of detailed understanding of the modulation of CN-affected cellular processes. Advances in high-performance computer technology an...

C. K. Zoltani G. E. Platoff S. I. Baskin

2004-01-01

425

Method for Selective Separation of Mercury and Silver from Gold Cyanide Solutions by Electrowinning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides a method wherein cyanide solutions, resulting from the leaching of gold ores or the stripping of loaded activated carbon that contain gold, mercury, silver and some base metals are subjected to electrowinning in a cell which contain...

S. Sheya

1990-01-01

426

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

427

Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

1992-04-01

428

Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of cyanide and thiocyanate after separation on a melamine-formaldehyde resin.  

PubMed

A simple indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of cyanide, based on the oxidation of the cyanide with chlorine (Cl(2)) is described. The residual chlorine is determined by the color reaction with o-tolidine (3,3'-dimethylbenzidine). The maximum absorbance for Cl(2) is at 437 nm. A linear calibration graph (0-4.0x10(-5) M CN(-)) is obtained under optimal reaction conditions at room temperature and pH 11-12. The stoichiometric mole ratio of chlorine to cyanide is 1:1. The effective molar absorptivity for cyanide is 5.87x10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1) at pH 1.6. The limit of quantification (LOQ) is 3.6x10(-7) M or 9.4 ppb. Effects of pH, excess reagent, sensitivity, reaction time and tolerance limits of interferent ions are reported. The method was applied to the determination of cyanide in a real sample. The basic interferent usually accompanying CN(-), i.e. thiocyanate, is separated from cyanide by sorption on a melamine-formaldehyde resin at pH 9 while cyanide is not retained. Thiocyanate is eluted with 0.4 M NaOH from the column and determined spectrophotometrically using the acidic FeCl(3) reagent. The initial column effluent containing cyanide was analyzed by both the developed chlorine-o-tolidine method and the conventional barbituric acid-pyridine (Spectroquant 14800) procedure, and the results were statistically compared. The developed method is relatively inexpensive and less laborious than the standard (Spectroquant) procedure, and insensitive to the common interferent, cyanate (CNO(-)). PMID:18968116

Gümü?, G; Demirata, B; Apak, R

2000-11-01

429

Synthesis of new phosphonate ester resins for adsorption of gold from alkaline cyanide solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin ion-exchange technology is a possible alternative to well-established gold recovery processes of carbon adsorption and\\u000a zinc-dust cementation. The search for a suitable resin for gold recovery from alkaline cyanide solution continues at several\\u000a research centers. Recent discoveries involving alkyl phosphorus esters for selective gold solvent extraction from alkaline\\u000a cyanide solution suggest that similar chemistry on a resin substrate might

M. Akser; R. Y. Wan; J. D. Miller; D. R. Quillen; S. D. Alexandratos

1987-01-01

430

A kinetic study that compares the leaching of gold in the cyanide, thiosulfate, and chloride systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing environmental and public concerns over cyanidation, there has been a large amount of research into viable\\u000a alternative lixiviants. This article presents a detailed kinetic study of gold leaching in cyanide, ammonia\\/thiosulfate, and\\u000a chloride\\/hypochlorite solutions. The gold leach rates were measured using a rotating electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance\\u000a (REQCM). This instrument allows the mass of a gold

M. I. Jeffrey; P. L. Breuer; W. L. Choo

2001-01-01

431

Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K = 0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para)abundance ratio N(E)/N(A) = 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is N(total) = 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J = 1-0 lines.

Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saito, S.; Kaifu, N.

1993-01-01

432

The kinetics of the dissolution of chalcocite in alkaline cyanide solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kinetic study of the dissolution of chalcocite in an alkaline cyanide solution indicates that the reaction is first order with respect to surface area and free cyanide ion concentration, and inversely proportional to the sulfide ion concentration to approximately the 0.1 power. The experimental rate constant is approximately 7.5 × 10-5 (mole Cu1+\\/ min) ([S-2]0.1\\/[CN1-]\\/cm2\\/l at 25°C. The activation

Robert Shantz; Walter W. Fisher

1977-01-01

433

Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway.  

PubMed

Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 degrees C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 degrees C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways. PMID:18448476

Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Corbineau, Françoise; Bailly, Christophe

2008-01-01

434

Building Trades. Block II. Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve informational lessons and eleven manipulative lessons are provided on foundations as applied to the building trades. Informational lessons cover land measurements; blueprint reading; level instruments; building and site planning; building site preparation; laying out building lines; soil preparation and special evacuation; concrete forms;…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

435

Critical Thinking and Foundational Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We elaborate on Israel Scheffler's claim that principles of rationality can be rationally evaluated, focusing on foundational development, by which we mean the evolution of principles which are constitutive of our conceptualization of a certain domain of rationality. How can claims that some such principles are better than prior ones, be justified? We argue that Scheffler's metacriterion of overall systematic

Wouter Van Haaften; Ger Snik

1997-01-01

436

The Kellogg Foundation: Building Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Program at Bay Mills Community College (Michigan) builds leadership skills among American Indian students, develops staff training modules for tribally operated family programs on reservations, and improves college curriculum to meet family and community needs. W. K. Kellogg Foundation funds 10 such projects as part of its Families and…

Fugate, Sandy

1996-01-01

437

Logical foundation of quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is the reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of a formal language of quantum mechanical propositions. During recent years, research in the foundations of the language of science has given rise to adialogic semantics that is adequate in the case of a formal language for quantum physics. The system ofsequential logic which is comprised

E. W. Stachow; Theoretische Physik

1980-01-01

438

The Foundations of Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically there have been three recent attempts to supply an adequate foundation for social psychology. (1) Spencer and Schaeffle have developed a metabiological theory which implies a superconsciousness. Although superconsciousness is far from dead, this theory has not been generally accepted by psychologists. (2) Tarde has set forth a theory which reduces social phenomena to invention, opposition and repetition. Tarde's

K. Dunlap

1923-01-01

439

Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Novartis Foundation for Sustainable Development works to shape development policy and cooperation in order to achieve a sustainable improvement in the quality of life of poor people in developing countries and a reduction in poverty and social inequities. Their website contains a link to the Publications connected to their work with selected articles available online.

2007-09-19

440

Applying the Foundational Science Content  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four big ideas discussed in Chapter 1 provide the foundation for developing understanding of nanoscale phenomena. Two additional big ideas--Size-Dependent Properties and Self-Assembly--require learners to apply concepts from some or all of the four fund

Krajcik, Joseph S.; Sutherland, Leeann M.; Stevens, Shawn Y.

2009-10-14

441

Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

Long, Melvin J.

442

Mono pile foundation. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths....

S. Lyngesen C. Brendstrup

1997-01-01

443

Sociolinguistic Foundations of Language Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An answer to the question of what sociolinguistics has to offer to the art of language assessment is sought in exploration of the following topics: (1) a history of the development of sociolinguistics and an outline of the research on dialectology; (2) a review of basic sociolinguistic foundations and theories about language, society, domains of…

Ornstein-Galicia, Jacob L.

444

Epistemological Foundations of School Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theoretical framework that provides foundations for school science and defines some research problems. Begins with what is already known about students' models and cognition in order to construct proposals of didactical intervention. Proposes an analogous model for school science in which experimentation and language play the key roles.…

Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce; Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin

2003-01-01

445

Customer relationship management: Barnard's foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to delve into Barnard's works to construct foundations of customer relationship management (CRM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper identifies Barnard's insights on customer participation using a post-analytic method and uses them as inputs to the analysis of current CRM practices. Findings – As an outcome of the analysis, the paper identifies the practices

Milorad Novicevic; Hugh Sloan; Allison Duke; Erin Holmes; Jacob Breland

2006-01-01

446

Little Dell Lake Foundation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ER No. 1110-1-1801, dated 1 April 1983, multiple letter SPDVG 3 (GG) 65-34, dated 8 August 1965 and SPK OM 335-2-2, dated 1 July 1978, outline the need and scope of foundation reports and authorize their preparation for major Civil Works projects. This re...

1995-01-01

447

Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golden Age of postwar capitalism has been eclipsed, and with it seemingly also the possibility of harmonizing equality and welfare with efficiency and jobs. Most analyses believe the the emerging postindustrial society is overdetermined by massive, convergent forces, such as tertiarization, new technologies, or globalization, all conspiring to make welfare states unsustainable in the future. Social Foundations of Postindustrial

Gosta Esping-Andersen

1998-01-01

448

Stability assessment of spudcan foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the spudcan foundation of jack-up units including preloading, bearing capacity, and the displacement assessment. During the stage of preloading, the settlement of a spudcan in soft clay may be five time as deep as that in sand. The magnitude of sliding capacity, for a pinned condition footing, is mainly affected by the penetration depth.

C. Chi; C. P. Aubeny; E. H. Zimmerman

2009-01-01

449

Nursery Rhymes: Foundation for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers nursery rhymes as the foundation for learning. It is said that nursery rhymes carry all the parts of language that lead to speaking and reading. Because rhymes are short, they are easy for children to repeat, and become some of the first sentences children utter. The rhymes expand vocabulary, exposing children to words they…

Kenney, Susan

2005-01-01

450

Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30 °C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN- concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN- in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution.

Adegoke, Olajire A.; Adesuji, Temitope E.; Thomas, Olusegun E.

2014-07-01

451

Impedance spectroscopy and conductometric biosensing for probing catalase reaction with cyanide as ligand and inhibitor.  

PubMed

In this work, a new biosensor was prepared through immobilization of bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly (vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of a conductometric transducer. This biosensor was used to study the kinetics of catalase-H(2)0(2) reaction and its inhibition by cyanide. Immobilized catalase exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behaviour at low H(2)0(2) concentrations (<100mM) with apparent constant K(M)(app)=84±3mM and maximal initial velocity V(M)(app)=13.4?S min(-1). Inhibition by cyanide was found to be non-competitive and inhibition binding constant K(i) was 13.9±0.3?M. The decrease of the biosensor response by increasing cyanide concentration was linear up to 50?M, with a cyanide detection limit of 6?M. In parallel, electrochemical characteristics of the catalase/PVA biomembrane and its interaction with cyanide were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Addition of the biomembrane onto the gold electrodes induced a significant increase of the interfacial polarization resistance R(P). On the contrary, cyanide binding resulted in a decrease of Rp proportional to KCN concentration in the 4 to 50?M range. Inhibition coefficient I(50) calculated by this powerful label-free and substrate-free technique (24.3?M) was in good agreement with that determined from the substrate-dependent conductometric biosensor (24.9?M). PMID:20813591

Bouyahia, Naima; Hamlaoui, Mohamed Larbi; Hnaien, Mouna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

2011-02-01

452

Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content.  

PubMed

Cyanide contents of locally purchased brown finger millet (Eleusine corocana L. Gaertner) and brown speckled kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaries var. Rose Coco) were determined using raw, germinated and autoclaved samples. The aim was to establish the extent of cyanide content increase resulting from the germination process and the effectiveness of the autoclaving process on the reduction of cyanide levels in the samples, for safety considerations. Autoclaving was carried out at 121degree C for 20 minutes. It was found that germination increased the cyanide content by 2.11 to 2.14 fold in finger millet for laboratory processed samples. In the case of kidney beans the increment was 1.76 to 1.77 fold for laboratory samples. The increments for field processed samples were in the same range as those for laboratory samples. Autoclaving reduced the cyanide content to between 61.8 and 65.9 % of the original raw contents for finger millet and between 56.6 to 57.8% in the case of kidney beans. The corresponding reductions for field samples were also found to be within the same ranges as the laboratory processed samples. It was concluded that autoclaving significantly reduced the cyanide levels in germinated finger millet and kidney beans. PMID:24409633

Chove, Bernard E; Mamiro, Peter R S

2010-10-01

453

An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide.  

PubMed

An uncommon suicide by oral ingestion of potassium cyanide salts and contemporaneous inhalation of hydrogen cyanide is presented. A 48-year-old tradesman was found dead sitting in his car. A penetrating odor of bitter almonds was noticed when opening the doors. A camping stove and a cooking pot containing large amounts of dark blue crystals were found in the footwell of the car. White powder adhered to his fingers and to the area around the mouth. Furthermore bottles containing potassium ferrocyanide and different kinds of acid and leach were found in the car together with internet information about, e.g. potassium ferrocyanide and potassium cyanide. At autopsy hemorrhages and erosions of the mucosa of the respiratory tract, esophagus and stomach were found. Concentrations of cyanide were 0.2mg/l in stomach contents, 0.96mg/kg in brain tissue, 2.79mg/kg in lungs, and 5.3mg/l in blood. The white and toxic powder potassium cyanide was formed by heating of the yellow crystals of potassium ferrocyanide on the camping stove. This powder was probably ingested orally. Addition of acid converted the salt into the highly toxic gas hydrogen cyanide. Oxidation with atmospheric oxygen built the dark blue ferrous compound Prussian blue. This case report of a person who was not familiar with chemicals demonstrates the acquisition of professional information via the internet, enabling a suicide with a complex procedure. PMID:20541881

Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Madea, B

2011-01-30

454

An effective method for the detoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater by Bacillus sp. CN-22.  

PubMed

The biodetoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater has become increasingly popular because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Therefore, we have developed an effective method, optimised by response surface methodology, for detoxifying cyanide-rich wastewater using Bacillus sp. CN-22, which was newly isolated from a cyanide-contaminated electroplating sludge and could tolerate a CN? concentration of 700 mg L?¹. The concentration of CN? in the treated wastewater decreased from 200 to 6.62 mg L?¹ after cultivation with 2.38 % inocula for 72 h on the medium, consisting of 0.05 % KH?PO?, 0.15 % K?HPO?, 1.0 mM MgCl?, 1.0 mM FeCl?, 0.1 % NH?Cl, and 0.1 % glycerol. The CN? degradability of 96.69 % is similar to the predicted value of 96.82 %. The optimal cultivation conditions were controlled as follows: initial pH, 10.3; temperature, 31 °C; and rotary speed, 193 rpm. The maintenance of higher pH in the overall treatment procedures may avoid the production of volatile HCN and the risk associated with cyanide detoxification. Additionally, the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. CN-22, with its potent cyanide-degrading activity at the initial CN? concentration of 200 mg L?¹, may be employed to effectively treat cyanide-rich wastewater, especially electroplating effluent. PMID:24337345

Wu, Chou-Fei; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Feng, Lei; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

2014-04-01

455

Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

Johnson, C. A.; Grimes, D. J.; Rye, R. O.

2000-01-01

456

The reactions of Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 oxidase with potassium cyanide.  

PubMed

The binding of cyanide to both oxidized and ascorbate-reduced forms of Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 oxidase was investigated. Spectral studies on the oxidized enzyme and its apoprotein showed that the ligand can bind to both the c and d, haem components of the molecule, and kinetic observations indicated that both chromophores reacted, under a variety of conditions, with very similar rates. Cyanide combination velocities were dependent on ligand concentration, and increasing the pH also accelerated the reaction; the second-order rate constant was estimated as approx. 0.2M-1 . s-1 at pH 7.0. The binding of cyanide to the protein was observed to have a considerable influence on reduction of the enzyme by ascorbate. Spectral and kinetic observations have revealed that the species haem d13+-cyanide and any unbound haem c may react relatively rapidly with the reductant, but the behaviour of cyanide-bound haem c indicates that it may not be reduced without prior dissociation of the ligand, which occurs relatively slowly. The reaction of reduced Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase with cyanide is radically different from that of the oxidized protein. In this case the ligand only binds to the haem d1 component and reacts much more rapidly. Stopped-flow kinetic measurements showed the binding to be biphasic in form. Both the rates of these processes were dependent on cyanide concentration, with the fast phase having a second-order rate constant of 9.3 X 10(5) M-1 . s-1 and the slow phase one of 2.3 X 10(5) M-1 . s-1. The relative proportions of the two phases also showed a dependency on cyanide concentration, the slower phase increasing as the cyanide concentration decreased. Computer simulations indicate that a reaction scheme originally proposed for the reaction of the enzyme with CO is capable of providing a reasonable explanation of the experimental results. Static-titration data of the reduced enzyme with with cyanide indicated that the binding was non-stoicheiometric, the ligand-binding curve being sigmoidal in shape. A Hill plot of the results yielded a Hill coefficient of 2.6. PMID:32876

Barber, D; Parr, S R; Greenwood, C

1978-10-01

457

Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy) [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

2012-11-16

458

Quantitative variability of cyanogenesis in Cathariostachys madagascariensis-the main food plant of bamboo lemurs in Southeastern Madagascar.  

PubMed

Giant bamboo (Cathariostachys madagascariensis) is a major food plant for three sympatric species of bamboo-eating lemurs (Hapalemur aureus, H. griseus, and Prolemur simus) in the rain forests of southeastern Madagascar. This plant species is strongly cyanogenic. However, quantitative data on cyanide concentration in C. madagascariensis are scarce. Previous studies reported 15 mg cyanide per 100 g fresh shoot material (corresponding to approx. 57 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight). However, we found mean concentrations (+/-SE) ranging from 139.3+/-19.32 in ground shoots to 217.7+/-16.80 micromol cyanide per gram dry weight in branch shoots. Thus, cyanogenesis of C. madagascariensis was up to four times higher than reported before. In contrast to the strongly cyanogenic shoots no cyanide could be detected in differently aged leaves of C. madagascariensis confirming earlier studies. Within individual shoots fine-scaled analysis revealed a characteristic ontogenetic pattern of cyanide accumulation. Highest concentrations were found in youngest parts near the apical meristem, whereas concentrations decreased in older shoot parts. Beyond the general intra-individual variability of cyanogenic features analyses indicated site-specific variability of both, the ontogenetic pattern of cyanide concentration as well as the total amount of cyanide accumulated in shoots. Additionally, analyses of soluble proteins-one important nutritive measure affecting food plant quality-demonstrated a converse quantitative relation of protein concentrations in leaves to cyanide concentration in shoots at the site-specific level. We, thus, suggest integrative analyses on quantitative variation of cyanogenesis together with nutritive plant parameters in future studies. This approach would allow obtaining more detailed insights into spatial variability of giant bamboo's overall browse quality and its impact on lemur herbivores. PMID:19132732

Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kautz, Stefanie; Rakotoarivelo, Fanny P

2009-04-01

459

Cyanide intoxication as part of smoke inhalation - a review on diagnosis and treatment from the emergency perspective  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire victims. Treatment against cyanide poisoning in the emergency setting should be given based on the clinical diagnosis only. Oxygen in combination with a recommended antidote should be given immediately, the first to reduce cellular hypoxia and the second to eliminate cyanide. A specific antidote is hydroxycobalamin, which can be given iv. and has few side effects.

2011-01-01

460

International Foundation for Election Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1987, the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) has provided technical assistance in all areas of election administration and election management. IFES is a non-profit non-governmental organization which has also been a part of the electoral process in over 100 countries over the past fifteen years. On the site, visitors can learn about the foundation's ongoing research projects, which revolve around a number of thematic issues such as civil society, rule of law and governance, and many others. Visitors may also be interested in the various employment opportunities and upcoming lectures and related events. The publication area is quite extensive as well, as it includes access to the tri-annually published magazine, _Elections Today_, and a number of other helpful white papers, reports, and surveys, such as Public Opinion in Ukraine and the annual reports.

461

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundation parameter study  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic failure criterion governing the dimensions of prototype Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Foundations is treated as a variable parameter. The resulting change in foundation dimensions and costs is examined.

Lodde, P.F.

1980-07-01

462

Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

2011-02-25

463

National Science Foundation Facility Plan  

NSF Publications Database

Our investments range from modest laboratory instruments and information technology (IT) resources to the sorts of world- class projects that make up a special category of NSF funding designated as Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC). To that end, the National Science Board (NSB) and the Director, in their joint report Setting Priorities for Large Research Facility Projects Supported by the National Science Foundation, define the process used by the NSF for developing...

464

Quantum Control in Foundational Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a new class of experiments designed to probe the foundations of quantum mechanics. Using quantum controlling devices, we show how to attain a freedom in temporal ordering of the control and detection of various phenomena. We consider wave-particle duality in the context of quantum-controlled and the entanglement-assisted delayed-choice experiments. Then we discuss a quantum-controlled CHSH experiment and measurement of photon's transversal position and momentum in a single set-up.

Céleri, Lucas C.; Gomes, Rafael M.; Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.

2014-03-01

465

Theoretical Foundation for Weld Modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential equations describe physics of tungsten/inert-gas and plasma-arc welding in aluminum. Report collects and describes necessary theoretical foundation upon which numerical welding model is constructed for tungsten/inert gas or plasma-arc welding in aluminum without keyhole. Governing partial differential equations for flow of heat, metal, and current given, together with boundary conditions relevant to welding process. Numerical estimates for relative importance of various phenomena and required properties of 2219 aluminum included

Traugott, S.

1986-01-01

466

National Science Foundation: Special Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of interactive features provides in-depth looks at a variety of research projects and science news stories connected with the National Science Foundation (NSF). These features, which are longer than NSF's standard news releases, cover general science research topics in which NSF has had some sponsorship. Topics covered by the special reports include research in water chemistry, the World Year of Physics, dinosaur hunting in Antarctica, research on the sea floor, disease ecology, and many others.

467

Heterologous expression analyses of rice OsCAS in Arabidopsis and in yeast provide evidence for its roles in cyanide detoxification rather than in cysteine synthesis in vivo  

PubMed Central

While most dicot plants produce little ethylene in their vegetative stage, many monocots such as rice liberate a relatively large amount of ethylene with cyanide as a co-product in their seedling stage when etiolated. One of the known functions of ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) is to detoxify the co-product cyanide during ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Based on a tryptic peptide sequence obtained from a partially purified CAS activity protein preparation in etiolated rice seedlings, the full-length putative rice CAS-encoding cDNA sequence (OsCAS), which is homologous to those O-acetylserine sulphydrylase (OASS) genes, was cloned. Unlike most of the CAS genes reported from dicots, the transcription of OsCAS is promoted by auxins but suppressed by ethylene. To address the function and the subcellular localization of this gene product in planta, a binary vector construct consisting of this gene appended with a yellow fluorescent protein-encoding sequence was employed to transform Arabidopsis. Specific activities on CAS and OASS of the purified recombinant protein from transgenic Arabidopsis were 181.04 ?mol H2S mg?1 protein min?1 and 0.92 ?mol Cys mg?1 protein min?1, respectively, indicating that OsCAS favours CAS activity. The subcellular localization of OsCAS was found mostly in the mitochondria by immunogold electron-microscopy. Chemical cross-linking and in-gel assay on a heterodimer composed of functional and non-functional mutants in a yeast expression system on OsCAS suggested that OsCAS functions as a homodimer, similar to that of OASS. Despite the structural similarity of OsCAS with OASS, it has also been confirmed that OsCAS could not interact with serine-acetyltransferase, indicating that OsCAS mainly functions in cyanide detoxification.

Lai, Kwok Wai; Yau, Chi Ping; Tse, Yu Chung; Jiang, Liwen; Yip, Wing Kin

2009-01-01

468

Metalloporphyrin Co(III)TMPyP ameliorates acute, sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

The formation of Co(III)TMPyP(CN)(2) at pH 7.4 has been shown to be completely cooperative (?(H) = 2) with an association constant of 2.1 (±0.2) × 10(11). The kinetics were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and revealed a complicated net reaction exhibiting 4 phases at pH 7.4 under conditions where cyanide was in excess. The data suggest molecular HCN (rather than CN(-)) to be the attacking nucleophile around neutrality. The two slower phases do not seem to be present when cyanide is not in excess, and the other two phases have rates comparable to that observed for cobalamin, a known effective cyanide scavenger. Addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not affect the cooperativity of cyanide binding to Co(III)TMPyP, only lowered the equilibrium constant slightly to 1.2 (±0.2) × 10(11) and had an insignificant effect on the observed rate. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of Co(III)TMPyP as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of Co(III)TMPyP to sodium cyanide intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving mice to right themselves from a supine position being significantly decreased (9 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (33 ± 2 min). All observations were consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of Co(III)TMPyP operating through a cyanide-binding (i.e., scavenging) mechanism. PMID:23148604

Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Amoscato, Andrew A; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

2012-12-17

469

Colorimetric and luminescent bifunctional Ru(ii) complexes for rapid and highly sensitive recognition of cyanide.  

PubMed

Four ruthenium(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2L1](PF6)2, [Ru(bpy)2L2](PF6)2, [Ru(dmb)2L1](PF6)2, and [Ru(dmb)2L2](PF6)2, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, L1 = 4-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine-4'-carboxaldehyde, and L2 = 4,4'-diformyl-2,2'-bipyridine, have been characterized for sensing cyanide based on the well-known formation of cyanohydrins. The structure of [Ru(dmb)2L2](PF6)2 is also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Their cyanide anion binding properties in pure and aqueous acetonitrile solution were thoroughly examined by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Upon the addition of cyanide to the solution of ruthenium(ii) complexes at 298 K, a color change from orange to yellow and a luminescent variation from dark red to red-orange can be observed by the naked eye. The large blue shift of the absorption and emission spectra and significant enhancement of the emission intensity upon the addition of cyanide could be attributed to the formation of a cyanohydrin group by the selective reaction of the aldehyde group of the ruthenium(ii) complexes with cyanide. Importantly, these kinds of ruthenium(ii) complexes show a unique recognition of cyanide ions over other anions. The results reveal that this kind of ruthenium(ii) complex containing an aldehyde group is an eligible sensor for cyanide anions. PMID:24957248

Li, Mei-Jin; Lin, Zhihong; Chen, Xiudan; Chen, Guonan

2014-08-14

470

Electronic Structure of Hole-Doped Transition Metal Cyanides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic structures of hole-doped transition metal cyanides, Na0.84-xCo[Fe(CN)6]0.71\\cdot3.8H2O (NCF71), Na0.72-xNi[Fe(CN)6]0.68\\cdot5.1H2O (NNF68) and Na1.60-xCo[Fe(CN)6]0.90\\cdot2.9H2O (NCF90), were investigated by means of the x-ray absorption spectroscopy and the valence differential spectroscopy. The x-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the holes are introduced on the Fe, Fe, and Co sites for the NCF71, NNF68 and NCF90 films, respectively. Owning to the valence differential spectroscopy, we unambiguously assigned the spectral components to the respective optical transitions. We further found that an ab initio band calculation based on the local density approximation with the on-site Columbic repulsion (LDA+U) semi-quantitatively explains the optical transitions.

Kurihara, Yutaro; Funashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Masaya; Hamada, Noriaki; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Igarashi, Kazuhiro; Tanida, Hajime; Uruga, Tomoya; Moritomo, Yutaka

2010-04-01

471

Cognitive Foundations of Arithmetic: Evolution and Ontogenisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehaene (this volume) articulates a naturalistic approach to the cognitive foundations of mathematics. Further, he argues that the 'number line' (analog magnitude) system of representation is the evolutionary and ontogenetic foundation of numerical concepts. Here I endorse Dehaene's naturalistic stance and also his charac- terization of analog magnitude number representations. Although analog magnitude representations are part of the evolutionary foundations

Susan Carey

2001-01-01

472

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

473

The Community College Foundation Manual & Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of resources and information about community college foundations includes brief articles, selected data, materials from foundations, sample mission statements and articles of incorporation, sample forms and correspondence, relevant educational legislation, and other related materials from specific active foundations at two-year…

Anderson, James M., Comp.; Snyder, Tom, Comp.

474

How does cyanide inhibit superoxide reductase? Insight from synthetic FeIIIN4S model complexes.  

PubMed

Superoxide reductases (SORs) are nonheme iron-containing enzymes that reduce HO(2) to H(2)O(2). Exogenous substrates such as N(3)(-) and CN(-) have been shown to bind to the catalytic iron site of SOR, and cyanide acts as an inhibitor. To understand how these exogenous ligands alter the physical and reactivity properties of the SOR iron site, acetate-, azide-, and cyanide-ligated synthetic models of SOR have been prepared. The x-ray crystal structures of azide-ligated [Fe(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(N(3))](+) (3), dimeric cyanide-bridged ([Fe(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))](2)-mu-CN)(3+) (5), and acetate-ligated [Fe(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(OAc)](+) (6) are described, in addition to x-ray absorption spectrum-derived and preliminary crystallographic structures of cyanide-ligated [Fe(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(CN)](+) (4). Cyanide coordination to our model (4) causes the redox potential to shift anodically by 470 mV relative to acetate-ligated 6 and 395 mV relative to azide-ligated 3. If cyanide coordination were to cause a similar shift in redox potential with SOR, then the reduction potential of the catalytically active Fe(3+) center would fall well below that of its biological reductants. These results suggest therefore that cyanide inhibits SOR activity by making the Fe(2+) state inaccessible and thus preventing the enzyme from turning over. Cyanide inhibits activity in the metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase via a similar mechanism. The reduced five-coordinate precursor to 3, 4, and 6 [Fe(II)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))](+) (1) was previously shown by us to react with superoxide to afford H(2)O(2) via an [Fe(III)(S(Me2)N(4)(tren))(OOH)](+) intermediate. Cyanide and azide do not bind to 1 and do not prevent 1 from reducing superoxide. PMID:12655068

Shearer, Jason; Fitch, Sarah B; Kaminsky, Werner; Benedict, Jason; Scarrow, Robert C; Kovacs, Julie A

2003-04-01

475

High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.  

PubMed

Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife, including bats, is capping the concentration of cyanide in tailings discharged to open impoundments at 50 mg/L WAD. PMID:24566971

Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

2014-06-01

476

Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources. PMID:23395455

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

2013-05-01

477

Determination of cyanide based upon its reaction with colloidal silver in the presence of oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous solutions of silver-gelatin complex are reduced in the presence of ascorbic acid to silver sol. The quantitative reduction may be followed by spectrophotometric determination of silver metal or by the dissolution of yellow silver sol in air. The dissolution has been used for the spectrophotometric, conductometric, and volumetric determination of cyanide in aqueous medium in the presence of protein and cellulose materials. The colored silver sol becomes colorless at the end point. The reagent solution is fairly stable over the experimental time scale, and the change in absorbance at 415 nm or the sharp increase in specific conductance values gives a good measure of the concentration of cyanide present in the solution. Under the experimental conditions, the minimum amounts of cyanide that can be determined are 0.05 mg/L by spectrophotometry, 6.0 mg/L by conductometry, and 10.0 mg/L by volumetric procedure; the relative standard deviations are 0.16%, 5.1%, and 1.0%, respectively. The method does show a remarkable freedom from interferences and is found suitable for the determination of cyanide in industrial effluent water. In addition, the biological samples containing cyanide may be easily determined without any pretreatment.

Pal, T.; Ganguly, A.; Maity, D.S.

1986-06-01

478

Reactions of molybdenum-sulphur compounds with cyanide: chemical evolution and deactivation of molybdoenzymes.  

PubMed

Reactions of molybdenum-sulphur compounds with cyanide are reported which may be relevant to (1) the chemical evolution of molybdoenzymes and (2) deactivation of molybdoenzymes by cyanide. (1) With aqueous cyanide MoS2 gave thio-bridged complex anions [(Mo(CN)6)2(mu-S)]6- and [(Mo(CN)4(mu-S))2]6-. Under prebiotic conditions such complexes could have been formed similarly from molybdenite and may have been precursors of molybdoenzymes. (2) Only those compounds which contained terminal sulphur bound to molybdenum (i.e., Mo = S groups), viz. oxothiomolybdates and the complex [(Mo(mu-S)(S)(Et2NCS2))2], reacted with cyanide; thiocyanate was formed and the molybdenum underwent two-electron reduction. That the cyanolysable sulphur of xanthine oxidase reacts in the same way with cyanide suggests the presence of a Mo = S group which could be a structural feature of the enzyme or could have been formed by initial cyanolysis of a bound persulphide or cysteine residue. PMID:479877

Mitchell, P C; Pygall, C F

1979-08-01

479

A study on house fire victims: age, carboxyhemoglobin, hydrogen cyanide and hemolysis.  

PubMed

Correlation among age, concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin and hydrogen cyanide, oxygen density and hemolysis were studied in 120 house fire victims. Victims aged over 60 years comprised approximately 50% of the pooled subjects. Blood samples were mainly collected from the left ventricle, but sometimes from both the right and left ventricles. The concentration of carboxyhemoglobin ranged from 1-95%, of which 71 persons (59.7%) died with carboxyhemoglobin concentrations below 60%. Carboxyhemoglobin concentrations below 10% were found in 9 persons (7.5%). Most of these cases involved the elderly persons. In this paper, we report on the death of elderly victims as a result of low carboxyhemoglobin concentrations. A significant correlation of blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations existed between the right and left ventricles. The concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in the left ventricle was significantly higher than that in the right. Two out of 31 victims whose hydrogen cyanide concentrations were determined, succumbed to hydrogen cyanide poisoning, having a high concentration of hydrogen cyanide and a low concentration of carboxyhemoglobin. On analysis, oxygen density was found to be low in 13 persons. A negative correlation was shown between carboxyhemoglobin concentration and hemolysis. Inasmuch as hemolysis may indicate the extent of heat dissociation, hemolysis should provide an index of carbon monoxide dissociation from carboxyhemoglobin. In the present study of victims, possible causes of death i.e., carbon monoxide gas poisoning, hydrogen cyanide poisoning, oxygen deprivation, burning, shock due to burns and others were estimated. The survival time for elderly victims was considered to be short. PMID:1664408

Yoshida, M; Adachi, J; Watabiki, T; Tatsuno, Y; Ishida, N

1991-12-01

480

QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

2010-01-01

481

Recovery and refining of Au by gold-cyanide ion biosorption using animal fibrous proteins.  

PubMed

Animal fibrous proteins (AFPs) such as egg-shell membrane (ESM), chicken feather (CF), wool, silk, or elastin are an intricate network of stable and water-insoluble fibers with high surface area and are abundant bioresources. Every AFP tested was found to accumulate gold-cyanide ion from aqueous solutions in high yield, depending on pH and some other parameters. Gold-cyanide ion is adsorbed by AFP at low pH range, with maximum binding observed at approx pH 2.0. Under the certain conditions, gold-cyanide ion was accumulated up to 8.6, 7.1, 9.8, 2.4, and 3.9% of dry weight on ESM, CF, wool, silk, and elastin, respectively. In the case of ESM, it was found that ESM removed gold-cyanide ion almost quantitatively and almost all the gold uptake by ESM was easily desorbed with 0.1 M NaOH. ESM can be used repeatedly for the process of gold adsorption-desorption. The gold-biosorptive capacity of ESM that was chemically modified with glutaraldehyde was higher than that of control. In column procedure, ESM packed on column removed gold-cyanide ion from the dilute aqueous solution to extremely low concentrations (nondetectable concentration of below 1 ppb). PMID:9627397

Ishikawa, S; Suyama, K

1998-01-01

482

Forward genetics by genome sequencing reveals that rapid cyanide release deters insect herbivory of Sorghum bicolor.  

PubMed

Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins