Sample records for cyanide plant foundations

  1. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS. ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-40 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP VIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM MAIN ACCESS ROAD. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS. IN THE FOREGROUND ARE REMAINS OF TWO PREPARATION TANKS AT LEFT NEXT TO A BUILDING FOOTPRINT AT RIGHT. ZINC BOXES ARE JUST ABOVE THE PREPARATION TANKS ON LEFT. THE WATER TANK AT CENTER IS NEARBY A SHAFT. THE COLLAPSED TANK JUST IN FRONT OF THE WATER TANK IS ANOTHER WATER HOLDING TANK THAT CONNECTS DIRECTLY TO THE PIPELINE THAT CARRIED WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING A QUARTER MILE OFF TO THE RIGHT (SEE CA-291-41 FOR DETAIL). THE LEFT OF THE CENTER WATER TANK IS A LARGE TAILINGS PILE. DEATH VALLEY IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-291-53 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Plant Tissue Extraction Method for Complexed and Free Cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bushey; Stephen D. Ebbs; David A. Dzombak

    2004-01-01

    A method for free cyanide and strongly-complexed cyanide measurement within plant tissue was developed to study uptake and movement of cyanide species separately from cyanide metabolism and metabolite movement by a willow plant (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux). Spike recoveries from solutions with and without plant tissue, using various solvent combinations, and background control tissue contributions were investigated to obtain an

  5. Development of a Plant Uptake Model for Cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bushey; Stephen D. Ebbs; David A. Dzombak

    2006-01-01

    A model for cyanide species uptake by willow (Salix eriocephala L. var. Michaux) was developed to interpret data from hydroponic experiments quantitatively. While the potential for cyanide phytoremediation has been demonstrated, modeling will aid in determining plant processes that contribute to cyanide transport and metabolism in willow and will target specific physiological parameters for field-scale phytoremediation design and optimization. The

  6. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. Development of a plant uptake model for cyanide.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Joseph T; Ebbs, Stephen D; Dzombak, David A

    2006-01-01

    A model for cyanide species uptake by willow (Salix eriocephala L. var. Michaux) was developed to interpret data from hydroponic experiments quantitatively. While the potential for cyanide phytoremediation has been demonstrated modeling will aid in determining plant processes that contribute to cyanide transport and metabolism in willow and will target specific physiological parameters for field-scale phytoremediation design and optimization. The objective of the model development was to gain insight into the relative role of different processes with respect to dissolved free and iron-complexed cyanide transport and assimilation in plants and to determine rates at which these processes occur within the willow plant under the experimental conditions. A physiologically-based model describing plant uptake, transport, and metabolism of cyanide species was developed to reflect the processes that influence the movement of cyanide into and throughout the plant. Plant compartmentalization (root, stem, and leaf) corresponded to the level of detail in the data collected via hydroponic experiments. Inclusion of more detailed intra- and intercellular processes would create a model inconsistent with the macroscale nature of the data. Mass balances around each compartment were developed via kinetic representations for the mass transfer processes and were combined to form a model describing the fate of cyanide species within plant-water systems. PMID:16615306

  8. Removal of cyanide by woody plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten Larsen; Stefan Trapp; Alessandro Pirandello

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is a high volume production chemical that causes severe environmental problems. The toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) to basket willow trees (Salix viminalis) was tested. In aqueous solution, 2 mgCNl?1 as KCN depressed the transpiration after 72 h about 50%. Trees exposed to 0.4 mgCNl?1 in aqueous solution showed initially a depression of transpiration, but recovered. Doses of

  9. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  10. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S. [ADVENT Group, Inc., Brentwood, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  11. Effect of temperature on removal of iron cyanides from solution by maize plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Zhang Yu; Ji-Dong Gu

    2010-01-01

    Goal, scope, and background  Cyanide is commonly found in soils and groundwater complexed with iron as ferro- and ferri-cyanide. It is evident that plants\\u000a are capable of tolerating, transporting, and assimilating iron cyanides. The objectives of this study were to investigate\\u000a the influence of temperatures on the removal and bioaccumulation of two chemical forms of iron cyanides by maize seedlings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials

  12. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-09-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes.

  13. Total cyanide determination of plants and foods using the picrate and acid hydrolysis methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rezaul Haque; J. Howard Bradbury

    2002-01-01

    A general method has been developed for determination of the total cyanide content of all cyanogenic plants and foods. Ten cyanogenic substrates (cassava, flax seed, sorghum and giant taro leaves, stones of peach, plum, nectarine and apricot, apple seeds and bamboo shoot) were chosen, as well as various model compounds, and the total cyanide contents determined by the acid hydrolysis

  14. Parameter estimation of a plant uptake model for cyanide: application to hydroponic data.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Joseph T; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2006-01-01

    A plant uptake model is applied to describe free cyanide and ferrocyanide transport and fate in willow (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux) grown in hydroponics. The model is applied to experimental data to determine best-fit parameter values, their associated uncertainty, and their relative importance to field-scale phytoremediation applications. The fitted model results, using least-squares optimization of the observed log concentrations, indicate that free cyanide volatilization from leaf tissue and free cyanide cell wall adsorption were negligible. The free cyanide maximum uptake rate and assimilate (noncyanide 15N) first-order leaf loss rate were the only coefficients that significantly affected the model goodness of fit and were concurrently sensitive to data uncertainty in the parameter optimization. Saturation kinetics may be applicable for free cyanide uptake into plants, but not for ferrocyanide uptake, which may occur via preferential protein-mediated or inefficient transpiration stream uptake. Within the free cyanide system, the relative magnitudes of the saturation uptake parameters and the demonstration of an active role for plants in uptake relative to transpiration suggest the potential importance of preferential diffusion through the cell membranes as reported in the literature, rather than protein-mediated uptake. The fitted 13-parameter model matched the observed data well except for the predicted stem and leaf tissue assimilate concentrations, which were significantly underestimated, particularly in the free cyanide system. These low predicted values, combined with the slightly underestimated solution free cyanide removal, suggest that noncyanide 15N redistribution in phloem should be considered. PMID:16615307

  15. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  16. Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Noble Foundation, a charitable foundation located in Ardmore, Oklahoma that focuses on agriculture and plant biology, this site contains images of over 600 vascular plants native primarily to the Oklahoma-Texas region. Offered as an educational tool for botanists, natural resource managers, and students, the site divides the images into three main categories: Grasses & grasslike plants; Forbs; and Trees, shrubs & woody vines. Within each, users can browse by common name, scientific name, or via a family or tribe index. Entries include a medium-sized image with some close-up thumbnails and information on species, family, longevity, season, origin, height, and flowers. A keyword/ natural language search engine that indexes the entire database is also available. Overall, this is a clean, fast-loading useful resource.

  17. Alpaca plant poisonings: nitrate-nitrite and possible cyanide.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ra; Gordon, An; Burren, Bg; Gibson, Ja; Gardner, Mp

    2009-03-01

    Nitrate-nitrite poisoning killed four adult alpacas and induced the abortion of a full-term fetus after access to oaten hay (Avena sativa) containing 3.2% KNO(3) equivalent in dry matter. Necropsy findings were cyanosis, dark-coloured blood, and pulmonary congestion and oedema. Aqueous humour from two adults contained 25 mg NO(3)/L and that from the fetus contained 10 mg NO(3)/L. Cyanide poisoning possibly killed two adult wether alpacas that ate a garden-cultivated variety of Osteospermum ecklonis (South African daisy, bietou) with a cyanide potential of 6800 mg HCN/kg dry matter. PMID:19245625

  18. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and cyanide in soils from manufactured gas plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, YiFong.

    1993-01-01

    The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide which subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.

  19. Retardation of iron-cyanide complexes in the soil of a former manufactured gas plant site.

    PubMed

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-02-23

    The soil in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is commonly contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes (ferric ferrocyanide). The phenomenon of cyanide mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (<1 mg L(-1)) under acidic conditions. In this paper, retention properties of the sandy loam soil and the potential vertical movement of the solid iron-cyanide complexes, co-existing with the dissolution, sorption and precipitation reactions were investigated. Preliminary research conducted on a former MGP site implied colloidal transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). A series of batch and column experiments were applied in order to investigate the retardation of iron-cyanide complexes by the sandy loam soil. Batch experiments revealed that in circumneutral pH conditions sandy loam material decreases the potassium ferro- and ferricyanide concentration. In column experiments a minor reduction in CN concentration was observed prior to addition of iron sulfide (FeS) layer, which induced the formation of the Prussian blue colloids in circumneutral pH conditions. Precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes were mechanically filtered by the coherent structure of the investigated soil. Additionally, the reduction of the CN concentration of the percolation solutions by the sandy loam soil was presumably induced due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]). PMID:25594121

  20. Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods Section Total cyanide determination of plants and foods using the picrate and acid hydrolysis methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rezaul Haque; J. Howard Bradbury

    A general method has been developed for determination of the total cyanide content of all cyanogenic plants and foods. Ten cyanogenic substrates (cassava, flax seed, sorghum and giant taro leaves, stones of peach, plum, nectarine and apricot, apple seeds and bamboo shoot) were chosen, as well as various model compounds, and the total cyanide contents determined by the acid hydrolysis

  1. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbi?, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to ?-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both ?-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  2. Parameter Estimation of a Plant Uptake Model for Cyanide: Application to Hydroponic Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. Bushey; Mitchell J. Small; David A. Dzombak; Stephen D. Ebbs

    2006-01-01

    A plant uptake model is applied to describe free cyanide and ferrocyanide transport and fate in willow (Salix eriocephala var. Michaux) grown in hydroponics. The model is applied to experimental data to determine best-fit parameter values, their associated uncertainty, and their relative importance to field-scale phytoremediation applications. The fitted model results, using least-squares optimization of the observed log concentrations, indicate

  3. Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Photosynthetic Organs of Freshwater Aquatic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Azcón-Bieto, Joaquim; Murillo, Joaquim; Peñuelas, Josep

    1987-01-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid[SHAM]) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species: six angiosperms, two bryophytes, and an alga. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weight basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant, the percentage of resistance being higher than 50% with very few exceptions. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower and ranged between 25 and 50%. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was not stimulated by sucrose, malate or glycine in the absence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O2 uptake was also increased by the uncoupler. PMID:16665506

  4. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  5. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  6. Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M. (WU)

    2012-09-07

    Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

  7. Structure of Soybean ?-Cyanoalanine Synthase and the Molecular Basis for Cyanide Detoxification in Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce cyanide (CN?) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN? detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the ?-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form ?-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants. PMID:22739827

  8. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

    2004-01-01

    Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for irrigation, discharge it to rapid infiltration basins, or, in some cases, discharge it to surface waters. Surface waters are diverted around surface mining operations. Adverse effects of groundwater drawdown include formation of sinkholes within 5 km of groundwater drawdown; reduced stream flows with reduced quantities of wate available for irrigation, stock watering, and domestic, mining and milling, and municipal uses; reduction or loss of vegetation cover for wildlife, with reduced carrying capacity for terrestrial wildlife; loss of aquatic habitat for native fishes and their prey; and disruption of Native American cultural traditions. Surface discharge of excess mine dewatering water and other waters to main waterways may contain excess quantities of arsenic, total dissolved solids, boron, copper, fluoride, and zinc. When mining operations cease, and the water pumps are dismantled, these large open pits may slowly fill with water, forming lakes. The water quality of pit lakes may present a variety of pressing environmental problems. PMID:15369321

  9. Molecular Structure of Cyanide ion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-18

    Cyanide ion CN- is highly toxic to human body that contained in inorganic cyanide. Many foods and plants have cyanides, such as cassava roots and cherries pits. Cyanides are also one of the very few soluble composites of gold, so that they are used in gold mining and electroplating, etc. Small amount of cyanides from foods are converted to the harmless thiocyanate (SCN-). However, cyanides are harmful in a large amount to human body, which can lead to vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness or even death. Because Cyanide ion binds more strongly than oxygen to the Fe+3 in cytochrome a3, it interrupts the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

  10. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Transient Transcriptional Regulation of the CYS-C1 Gene and Cyanide Accumulation upon Pathogen Infection in the Plant Immune Response1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme ?-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  12. Cyanide Hazards to Plants and Animals from Gold Mining and Related Water Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Eisler; Stanley N. Wiemeyer

    \\u000a Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals\\u000a through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the\\u000a Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic

  13. ARoleforEthylene intheMetabolism ofCyanide by Higher Plants1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stephen Goudey; Forrest L. Tittle

    Theaction ofethylene onthecapacity ofplant tissues to metabolize cyanide to0-cyanoalanine wasexamined. Beta-cy- anoalanine synthase (EC4.4.1.9) catalyzes thereaction between cyanide andcysteine toformj5-cyanoalanine andhydrogen sul- fide. Levels ofj8-cyanoalanine synthase activity intissues of6 dayoldetiolated pea(Pisum sativum) seedlings wereenhanced severalfold by1microliter perliter ethylene. Thepromotive effect ofethylene increased withincreasing ethylene concentrations from0.01to100microliters perliter andwiththeperiod of exposure from3to24hours. Ethylene enhanced-cyanoalanine synthase activity inallregions oftheseedling (shoots androots, intemodal

  14. Inhibition by adenine derivatives of the cyanide-insensitive electron transport pathway of plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Dizengremel, P; Chauveau, M; Roussaux, J

    1982-08-01

    The effect of benzylaminopurine was studied on cyanide-resistant mitochondria isolated from aged slices of potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Bintje). Benzylaminopurine specifically acted on the cyanide-resistant alternative pathway. In the case of succinate oxidation, it mimicked the action of salicylhydroxamic acid and restored a good oxidative phosphorylation. Kinetic analyses showed that inhibitions by benzylaminopurine, salicylhydroxamic acid, and disulfiram occurred at mutually exclusive sites on the alternative pathway. Cyanide-resistant malate oxidation was only partially inhibited by benzylaminopurine and this inhibition occurred for low concentrations of this compound. On the other hand, the oxidation of exogenous NADH remained unaffected.The effects of several adenine derivatives with or without cytokinin activity and that of a purine analog with anticytokinin activity were also studied. The variation in effectiveness to inhibit cyanide-resistant electron transport was: benzylaminopurine and 7-pentylamino-3-methylpyrazolo (4,3 d) pyrimidine (anticytokinin) > alpha-alpha' dimethyl-allyl-adenine > 6-benzoylamino-9-benzylpurine > kinetin > adenine. No correlation was observed between the ability to inhibit the alternative pathway and the biological activity of these compounds. Liposolubility appeared as a major factor for potential inhibitory effect on the alternative pathway. PMID:16662538

  15. Release of iron-cyanide complexes form contaminated soils - Batch and column experiments on substrates from Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Soils of former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are often contaminated with iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes that originate from gas purification process. Cyanide is a potentially toxic substance and its presence in soil and groundwater may cause risk for human health as well as for the environment. MGPs were commonly built on the city suburban areas, which have spread ever since. Nowadays, these sites are typically located in inner cities, causing environmental thread, due to the leaching of pollutants. More recently, columns and batch experiments have been used to study fate and mobility of contaminants is soil. The release of iron-cyanide complexes under unsaturated flow conditions was evaluated with eight columns of 30 cm length and a diameter of 5,4 cm. Cyanide concentrations in the collected leachates were measured with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). Additionally pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and various ion concentrations were determined. In order to compare the release of Fe-CN complexes in saturated conditions a batch experiment was conducted, where in defined time intervals, 1 ml of the extract water phase was analyzed for CN concentration. Study revealed an analogous trend of cyanide release in both experiments indicating primarily the release of formerly dissolved phase (hexacyanoferrates) followed by continual dissolution of ferric ferrocyanide. We conclude that batch experiments, conducted prior to column analysis, can serve as preliminary prediction of the water soluble cyanide fraction under unsaturated conditions.

  16. Possible roles of plant sulfurtransferases in detoxification of cyanide, reactive oxygen species, selected heavy metals and arsenate.

    PubMed

    Most, Parvin; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (?-Glu-Cys-Gly) is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (?-Glu-Cys)2-11-Gly (PCs). Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH) attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str), also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF) of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR) and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism. PMID:25594348

  17. Cyanide poisoning in cattle from Dysphania glomulifera (red crumbweed): using the internet for rapid plant identification and diagnostic advice.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Burren, B G; Noble, J W; Thomas, M B

    2007-12-01

    A 300-strong Angus-Brahman cattle herd near Springsure, central Queensland, was being fed Acacia shirleyi (lancewood) browse during drought and crossed a 5-hectare, previously burnt area with an almost pure growth of Dysphania glomulifera subspecies glomulifera (red crumbweed) on their way to drinking water. Forty cows died of cyanide poisoning over 2 days before further access to the plant was prevented. A digital image of a plant specimen made on a flat-bed scanner and transmitted by email was used to identify D glomulifera. Specific advice on the plant's poisonous properties and management of the case was then provided by email within 2 hours of an initial telephone call by the field veterinarian to the laboratory some 600 km away. The conventional method using physical transport of a pressed dried plant specimen to confirm the identification took 5 days. D glomulifera was identified in the rumen of one of two cows necropsied. The cyanogenic potential of D glomulifera measured 4 days after collection from the site of cattle deaths was 18,600 mg HCN/kg in dry matter. The lethal dose of D glomulifera for a 420 kg cow was estimated as 150 to 190 g wet weight. The plant also contained 4.8% KNO3 equivalent in dry matter, but nitrate-nitrite poisoning was not involved in the deaths. PMID:18042160

  18. OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  19. Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

  20. Accumulation of cytokinins in roots and their export to the shoots of durum wheat plants treated with the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP).

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Korobova, Alla V; Akhiyarova, Guzel R; Arkhipova, Tatiana N; Zaytsev, Denis Yu; Prinsen, Els; Egutkin, Naum L; Medvedev, Sergey S; Veselov, Stanislav Yu

    2014-06-01

    Cytokinin flow from roots to shoots can serve as a long-distance signal important for root-to-shoot communication. In the past, changes in cytokinin flow from roots to shoots have been mainly attributed to changes in the rate of synthesis or breakdown in the roots. The present research tested the possibility that active uptake of cytokinin by root cells may also influence its export to shoots. To this end, we collapsed the proton gradient across root membranes using the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) to inhibit secondary active uptake of exogenous and endogenous cytokinins. We report the impact of CCCP on cytokinin concentrations and delivery in xylem sap and on accumulation in shoots of 7-day-old wheat plants in the presence and absence of exogenous cytokinin applied as zeatin. Zeatin treatment increased the total accumulation of cytokinin in roots and shoots but the effect was smaller for the shoots. Immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins using zeatin-specific antibodies showed an increase in immunostaining of the cells adjacent to xylem in the roots of zeatin-treated plants. Inhibition of secondary active cytokinin uptake by CCCP application decreased cytokinin accumulation in root cells but increased both flow from the roots and accumulation in the shoots. The possible importance of secondary active uptake of cytokinins by root cells for the control of their export to the shoot is discussed. PMID:24692646

  1. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  2. Copper recovery and cyanide oxidation by electrowinning from a spent copper-cyanide electroplating electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Dutra, A J B; Rocha, G P; Pombo, F R

    2008-04-01

    Copper-cyanide bleed streams arise from contaminated baths from industrial electroplating processes due to the buildup of impurities during continuous operation. These streams present an elevated concentration of carbonate, cyanide and copper, constituting a heavy hazard, which has to be treated for cyanide destruction and heavy metals removal, according to the local environmental laws. In the Brazilian Mint, bleed streams are treated with sodium hypochlorite, to destroy cyanide and precipitate copper hydroxide, a solid hazardous waste that has to be disposed properly in a landfill or treated for metal recovery. In this paper, a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell was developed to remove the copper from the bleed stream of the electroplating unit of the Brazilian Mint, permitting its reutilization in the plant and decreasing the amount of sludge to waste. Under favorable conditions copper recoveries around 99.9% were achieved, with an energy consumption of about 11 kWh/kg, after a 5-h electrolysis of a bath containing copper and total cyanide concentrations of 26 and 27 g/L, respectively. Additionally, a substantial reduction of the cyanide concentration was also achieved, decreasing the pollution load and final treatment costs. PMID:17728063

  3. Dynamics of Metal Cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidinger, Daniel; Brown, Douglas J.; Houchins, Cassidy; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.

    2010-06-01

    Time resolved IR spectroscopy was used to characterize the vibrational energy relaxation (VER) dynamics of the CN stretching bands of aqueous molecular metal cyanides and networked metal cyanides, such as Prussain Blue, in reverse micelles. The vibrational and rotational relaxation dynamics of the CN stretching bands near 2000 cm-1 for aqueous molecular cyanides Au(CN)2-, Ni(CN)42-, Pt(CN)42-, Co(CN)63-, Mn(CN)42-, and Ru(CN)64- have been investigated using ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. While the spectra and dynamics of Ru(CN)64- are similar to those previously reported for ferrocyanide, VER times are significantly longer (>30 ps) in the other molecules. Mn(CN)63- represents an intermediate case with a relaxation time of about 15 ps in water. The VER dynamics extend and reinforce the established trends of metal cyanide CN band frequencies and intensities. Prussian Blue and its ruthenium analog were also studied using visible pump-IR probe and IR pump-IR probe spectroscopy. The VER dynamics are similar to the monometal cyanides and there is evidence for CN band excitation following back electron transfer based on the comparison of visible and infrared pump results.

  4. Dynamics of power plant fan-foundation systems. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Medearis

    1980-01-01

    The vibratory responses of large fan systems continues to be a problem at numerous power plants. This research study has provided further insight concerning methods of analyzing and predicting such responses. In general, no unified approach has been utilized for the dynamic analyses. As a result, the fan manufacturer is blamed on the premise the fan system is deficient, and\\/or

  5. On the role of ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) in metabolism of free cyanide and ferri-cyanide by rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Lu, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the contribution of ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) to the botanical metabolism of free cyanide and iron cyanides. Seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown hydroponically and then amended with free cyanide (KCN) or ferri-cyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)] into the growth media. Total cyanide, free cyanide, and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) in aqueous solution were analyzed to identify the speciation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Activity of CAS in different parts of the rice seedlings was also assayed in vivo and results indicated that dissociation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) to free cyanide in solution was negligible. Almost all of the applied KCN was removed by rice seedlings and the metabolic rates were concentration dependent. Phyto-transport of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was apparent, but appreciable amounts of cyanide were recovered in plant tissues. The metabolic rates of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) were also positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. Rice seedlings exposed to KCN showed a considerable increase in the CAS activity and roots had higher CAS activity than shoots, indicating that CAS plays an important role in the botanical assimilation of KCN. However, no measurable change of CAS activity in different parts of rice seedlings exposed to K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was detected, suggesting that K(3)Fe(CN)(6) is likely metabolized by rice directly through an unknown pathway rather than the ?-cyanoalanine pathway. PMID:22068263

  6. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

  8. Activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Fu-Zhong

    2012-07-30

    A study was conducted to investigate activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants during cyanide metabolism. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO(3) or NH(4)Cl and treated with free cyanide (KCN). Cyanide in solutions and in plant materials was analyzed to estimate the phyto-assimilation potential. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of rice seedlings were assayed in vivo. Seedlings grown on NH(4)(+) showed significantly higher relative growth rate than those on NO(3)(-) (p<0.05) in the presence of exogenous cyanide. The metabolic rates of cyanide by seedlings were all positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. A negligible difference was observed between the two treatments with nitrate and ammonium (p>0.05). Enzymatic assays showed that cyanide (?0.97mg CN L(-1)) impaired NR activity significantly in both roots and shoots (p<0.05). The effect of cyanide on GS activity in roots was more evident at 1.93mg CN L(-1), suggesting that NR activity was more susceptible to change from cyanide application than GS activity. The results observed here suggest that the exogenous cyanide, which to a certain level has a beneficial role in plant nutrition. PMID:22633925

  9. Molecular Structure of Hydrogen Cyanide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Hydrogen Cyanide does not exist in many organisms because it can be fatal, although there are a few exceptions: tiger beetles, millipedes and centipedes. When these species are attacked, they release the cyanide to deter and potentially kill the aggressor. These exceptional organisms obtain the cyanogenic compound from their food but rather than being poisoned, they store it in their cells. This unusual phenomenon is still being studied. Hydrogen cyanide is produced in large quantities all over the world by the chemical industry where it is used in tempering steel, dyeing, explosives, engraving, the production of acrylic resin plastic, and other organic chemical products. Hydrogen cyanide can be found in small quantities in fruits that have a pit, such as cherries or apricots. Bitter almonds from which almond oil and flavoring is made also contain hydrogen cyanide.

  10. ELECTRODIALYSIS FOR CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CYANIDE RINSE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Full scale demonstration of electrodialysis for closed loop treatment of brass plating cyanide rinse waters was conducted in the Keystone Lamp Manufacturing plant at Slatington, Pa. In treatment of actual rinse water, the system was only one-quarter as effective as anticipated. N...

  11. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, S.N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  12. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds.

    PubMed

    Wiemeyer, S N; Hill, E F; Carpenter, J W; Krynitsky, A J

    1986-10-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy. PMID:3503141

  13. Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2011-09-01

    The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

  14. The biochemical pathway for the breakdown of methyl cyanide (acetonitrile) in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Firmin, J L; Gray, D O

    1976-01-01

    [2-14C]Methyl cyanide (acetonitrile) is metabolized to citrate, succinate, fumarate, malate, glutamate, pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid and aspartate. Non-radioactive acetamide and acetate compete with 14C from methyl cyanide, and [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]methyl cyanide are metabolized at similar rates, giving identical products. This evidence, combined with the inhibitory effect of fluoroacetate and arsenite on methyl cyanide metabolism, indicates that the pathway is: methyl cyanide leads to acetamide leads to acetate leads to tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates. The pathway was investigated in a species of Pseudomonas (group III; N.C.I.B. 10477), but comparison of labelling patterns suggests that it also exists in several higher plants. PMID:985423

  15. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  16. Measurements of the Engagement of Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana with the Use of On-Line Oxygen Isotope Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Robinson, S A; Yakir, D; Ribas-Carbo, M; Giles, L; Osmond, C B; Siedow, J N; Berry, J A

    1992-11-01

    Discrimination against (18)O during dark respiration in tissues of Kalanchoë daigremontiana, Medicago sativa, and Glycine max was measured using an on-line system that enabled direct measurements of the oxygen fractionation of samples in a gas-phase leaf disk electrode unit. Discrimination factors for cytochrome pathway respiration were 18.6 to 19.8%(o) for all tissues. However, discrimination in cyanide-resistant respiration was significantly higher in green tissues (30.4-31.2%(o)) compared with nongreen tissues (25.3-25.9%(o)). Using these discrimination factors, the partitioning of electron transport to these pathways was calculated from measurements of discrimination in the absence of inhibitors. Changes in flux through the alternative pathway were measured during the light and dark phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism in leaf disks of K. daigremontiana. The flux of electrons through the alternative pathway was higher during deacidification than during the other phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism. The increase in alternative pathway electron flux accounted for all of the increased respiration in the light phase. Despite this increase, simultaneous measurements of malate concentration and respiratory flux confirm that only a small proportion of the total malate decarboxylation occurs in the mitochondria. PMID:16653089

  17. ALTERNATIVES FOR SODIUM CYANIDE FOR FLOTATION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide has long been looked upon as the classical poison and has been listed by EPA as a priority pollutant. The mineral dressing industry has long used cyanide in its concentration and extractive metallurgy operations. Cyanide plays a role of varying importance in the metallurg...

  18. Biodegradation of cyanide by a new isolated strain under alkaline conditions and optimization by response surface methodology (RSM)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biodegradation of free cyanide from industrial wastewaters has been proven as a viable and robust method for treatment of wastewaters containing cyanide. Results Cyanide degrading bacteria were isolated from a wastewater treatment plant for coke-oven-gas condensate by enrichment culture technique. Five strains were able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions and among them; one strain (C2) was selected for further studies on the basis of the higher efficiency of cyanide degradation. The bacterium was able to tolerate free cyanide at concentrations of up to 500 ppm which makes it a good potentially candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide contaminated residues. Cyanide degradation corresponded with growth and reached a maximum level 96% during the exponential phase. The highest growth rate (1.23?×?108) was obtained on day 4 of the incubation time. Both glucose and fructose were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth. No growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. Four control factors including, pH, temperature, agitation speed and glucose concentration were optimized according to central composite design in response surface method. Cyanide degradation was optimum at 34.2°C, pH 10.3 and glucose concentration 0.44 (g/l). Conclusions Bacterial species degrade cyanide into less toxic products as they are able to use the cyanide as a nitrogen source, forming ammonia and carbon dioxide as end products. Alkaliphilic bacterial strains screened in this study evidentially showed the potential to possess degradative activities that can be harnessed to remediate cyanide wastes. PMID:24921051

  19. The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Zhang Yu; Pu-Hua Zhou; Yong-Miao Yang

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz × Salix alba L.), weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) and hankow willows (Salix matsudana Koidz) were exposed to potassium ferrocyanide to determine the potential of these plants to extract, transport and metabolize this iron cyanide complex. Young rooted cuttings were grown in hydroponic solution at 24.0 ± 0.5°C for 144 h. Ferrocyanide in solution, air, and aerial tissues of plants

  20. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 ?L, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20?L, 50 ?L). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 ?M. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  1. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    PubMed

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2626492

  2. Effect of Cyanide in Dark and Light on the Membrane Potential and the ATP Level of Young and Mature Green Tissues of Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Eberius, Cornelia I.; Novacky, Anton; Ball, Erika

    1983-01-01

    The effect of CN? and N2 on the electrical membrane potential (Em) was compared with that of CN? on the ATP levels in cotyledons of Gossypium hirsutum and in Lemna gibba L. In mature cotton tissue, CN? depolarized Em to the energy-independent diffusion potential (ED) in the dark. In the light Em recovered transiently. The same was observed in leaves of Nicotiana, Avena, Impatiens, Kalanchoë, and in Lemna. In contrast, in young cotton cotyledons and tobacco leaves and, to a large extent, in +sucrose-grown Lemna, Em was depolarized to ED also in the light in a similar way as in the dark. In Lemna grown without sucrose, the energy-dependent component of Em was only partially depolarized by CN? in dark or light. Cyanide plus salicylhydroxamic acid completely reduced Em to ED, abolished respiration and photosynthesis, and severely diminished the ATP level. This suggests the operation of a CN?-insensitive respiration in uninjured Lemna. The initial CN?-induced decay of the ATP level in cotton and Lemna was more rapid than the decay of Em. CN?-induced oscillations of the ATP level were followed by similar but slower oscillations of Em. This supports the view of a general dependence of Em on ATP. Discrepancies between inhibitor-induced changes of Em and ATP levels are suggested to result from additional regulation of Em by the cytoplasmatic pH value. A comparison of ED in young and mature cotton cotyledons in the dark and in the light suggests that in growing young cotyledons the different effect of CN? in the light is due to a less effective photosynthesis together with high mitochondrial respiration. In Lemna and in mature cotton tissue, Em in the light is maintained by noncyclic photophosphorylation and photosystem II, which is only partly inhibited by CN?, thus resulting in an incomplete depolarization and recovery of Em. Complete inhibition of photosynthetic O2 evolution and membrane depolarization by CN? plus salicylhydroxamic acid are suggested to result from photooxidation. PMID:16662984

  3. Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Sadeghi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples (57) were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages – March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer's protocols. Results: Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 ± 0.0007, 0.0070 ± 0.0018, 0.0008 ± 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 ± 2.80, 7.20 ± 1.80, 7.50 ± 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001), whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5). Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 ± 0.0130, 0.0077 ± 0.0025, 0.0087 ± 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 ± 8.12, 8.04 ± 3.99, 8.40 ± 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754) and nitrate (P = 0.705) concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 ± 0.033, 0.1180 ± 0.033, 0.1200 ± 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 ± 40.74, 279.00 ± 152.17, 298.40 ± 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731) and nitrate (P = 0.187) concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Conclusion: Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water were within the standard range (0.07 mg/L for cyanide and 50 mg/L for nitrate) and was not a health problem at the time of our study, regular estimation of the toxic chemicals due to the development of industrial plants in this area is recommended. PMID:23900450

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide compounds are used in a number of industrial processes including mining, electroplating, metallurgy, chemical manufacturing, and photography because these compounds can form stable complexes with a range of metals. Hydrogen cyanide is also a component of tobacco smoke, v...

  5. Toxicokinetic profiles of ?-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Bhandari, Raj K; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Boss, Gerry R; Logue, Brian A

    2013-09-12

    Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, ?-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (?-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous ?-ketoglutarate. Although ?-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of ?-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17 mg/kg/min). ?-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15 min. The maximum concentrations of ?-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18 ?M, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to ?-KgCN. Although this is the case, the ?-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of ?-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of ?-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning. PMID:23867915

  6. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

  7. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

  8. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

  9. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

  10. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues... Specific Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues...tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest...

  11. The inhibition of caeruloplasmin by cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Speyer, Barbara E.; Curzon, G.

    1968-01-01

    1. The reversible inhibition of the oxidase activity of caeruloplasmin by cyanide was investigated. 2. The kinetics are unusual, being competitive but with the inhibited complex formed only during cycling. 3. Inhibitory concentrations of cyanide are comparable with that of caeruloplasmin. 4. One azide group completely inhibits a caeruloplasmin molecule but two cyanide groups are required. 5. The results suggest that azide binds to a half-reduced or fully reduced conformational isomer of the enzyme whereas cyanide binds to completely reoxidized isomers, and that inhibited complexes contain ligand bridges between copper atoms. PMID:5637370

  12. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  13. Wetland remediation of cyanide and hydrocarbons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy P. Gessner; Robert H. Kadlec; Richard P. Reaves

    2005-01-01

    Cyanide is a common constituent present in groundwater from historical aluminum industry landfills. Aluminum manufacturing produces wastes which contain cyanide, together with fluoride, a variety of metals, and some petroleum hydrocarbons. These leachates pose a moderate threat to receiving ecosystems and human health. Source control is virtually impossible, and physico-chemical removal processes are expensive and energy intensive. This pilot project

  14. Cyanide effluent control by freeze/thaw processing.

    PubMed

    Meech, J A

    1985-06-01

    With many northern gold mining operations the disposal of waste water from the process presents some unique problems. The level of heavy metals and cyanide is generally too high to allow discharge to the environment. Total impoundment of the effluent in tailing dams or the use of expensive treatment plants is necessary to ensure protection of the environment. The costs and dangers of these treatment methods cannot always be justified in the remote locations of these mines and alternatives must be explored.In this paper, experiments have been performed to determine the partial freezing and melting characteristics of cyanide solutions as well as the rates of natural degradation. These studies could result in a novel method to protect our northern environments and ensure the continued operation of gold mines in these regions in a safe and economic manner. A multi-pond containment system has been proposed which may be feasible in certain circumstances. PMID:24221745

  15. Molecular Structure of Methyl Cyanide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-03

    Methyl Cyanide is a toxic, colorless liquid with an aromatic (ether like) odor and forms explosive mixtures with air. It is a critical solvent for several important processes e.g., it is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in chromatography applications, as a wash solvent and in preparing reagent solutions for oligonucleotide synthesis. It is employed in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, batteries, pesticides, and inorganic salts. It can be utilized to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons, to extract fatty acids from fish liver, animal, and vegetable oils, and to recrystallize steroids.

  16. Non-cyanide silver plating

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-11-07

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work.

  17. Fiber optic sensing of cyanides in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Mackenzie, J.D. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Li, C.Y.; Guerreiro, P.; Peyghambarian, N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1996-12-31

    A novel sol-gel technique was used to immobilize malachite green ions (MG{sup +}) in stable, optically transparent, porous silica gel films. A simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of cyanides in solutions using spectrophotometry to measure changes caused by cyanide ions (CN{sup {minus}}) in the absorption spectra of the green-colored silica gel films. After reaction with cyanide ions, the absorption spectra of the films changed with a typical decrease in absorbance at 620 nm. On the basis of the absorption spectra of the films, a portable and easy to use fiber optic cyanide film sensor was fabricated. Decolorization undergone by the green-colored gel films, as they were exposed to cyanide ions, was detected through a fiber. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of a few ppm are detected using the fiber optic sensor.

  18. Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Keijiro; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Karube, Isao [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30{degrees}C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 pM and 150 {mu}m CN{sup -}. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. 1 Research supported by the Virginia Corn Board, the Foundation for Agronomic Research, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Early-planted corn generally produces higher yields than

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    1 Research supported by the Virginia Corn Board, the Foundation for Agronomic Research, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. Early-planted corn generally produces higher yields than later-planted corn due to improved utilization of sunlight during the long days of June and July, assuming moisture

  20. Foundation technologies in synthetic biology: tools for use in understanding plant immunity 

    E-print Network

    Moore, John Wallace

    2012-06-25

    The plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) is an essential activator of plant immune responses directed against biotrophic pathogens. The transcription cofactor NPR1 (Nonexpressor of pathogenesis- related (PR) genes 1) functions ...

  1. Advances in f-element cyanide chemistry.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Jean-Claude; Thuéry, Pierre; Ephritikhine, Michel

    2015-04-21

    This Dalton perspective gives an overview of the development of cyanide chemistry of 4f- and 5f-elements, a field which was poorly explored in contrast to the attention paid to the cyanide complexes of the d transition metals. The use of the cyanide ligand led to the discovery of mono- and polycyanide complexes which exhibit unprecedented and unexpected coordination geometries. A new type of linear metallocenes including [U(Cp*)2(CN)5](3-) (Cp* = C5Me5) and the first bent actinocenes [An(Cot)2(CN)](-) (An = Th, U; Cot = C8H8) were isolated. Thorocene was found to be much more reactive than uranocene since a series of sterically crowded cyanide complexes have been obtained only from [Th(Cot)2]. A series of cyanido-bridged dinuclear compounds and mononuclear mono-, bis- and tris(cyanide) complexes were prepared by addition of cyanide salts to [MN*3] (M = Ce, U) and [UN*3](+) [N* = N(SiMe3)2]. The Ce(III), U(III) and U(IV) ions were clearly differentiated in these reactions by cyanide linkage isomerism, as shown for example by the structures of the cyanide complex [U(III)N*3(CN)2](2-) and of the isocyanide derivatives [Ce(III)N*3(NC)2](2-) and [U(IV)N*3(NC)](-). While the U-CN/NC coordination preference towards the U(III)/U(IV) pair is related to the subtle balance between steric, covalent and ionic factors, DFT computations and in particular the calculated total bonding energies between the metal and the cyanide ligand allowed the observed coordination mode to be predicted. The ability of the cyanide ligand to stabilize the high oxidation states was assessed with the synthesis of U(V) and U(VI) complexes in the inorganic and organometallic series. PMID:25811407

  2. Construction characteristics of pile foundation of reactor section of Kalinin nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vorontsov, G.I.

    1987-09-01

    This article discusses the engineering geology implemented in the design and construction of the foundation for the Kalinin-1 reactor. Results of a soil analysis showed the ground to consist primarily of loams and clays from the Quaternary period and secondarily of limestone and sand. The implications of this composition for the spacing and driving of the piles are described as well as the actual mechanics encountered in driving the piles. The possibilities for future settling are examined.

  3. Biosynthetic pathway for the cyanide-free production of phenylacetonitrile in Escherichia coli by utilizing plant cytochrome P450 79A2 and bacterial aldoxime dehydratase.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuta; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-11-01

    The biosynthetic pathway for the production of phenylacetonitrile (PAN), which has a wide variety of uses in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, was constructed in Escherichia coli utilizing enzymes from the plant glucosinolate-biosynthetic and bacterial aldoxime-nitrile pathways. First, the single-step reaction to produce E,Z-phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) from l-Phe was constructed in E. coli by introducing the genes encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) 79A2 and CYP reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana, yielding the E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant. Second, this step was expanded to the production of PAN by further introducing the aldoxime dehydratase (Oxd) gene from Bacillus sp. strain OxB-1, yielding the PAN-producing transformant. The E,Z-PAOx-producing transformant also produced phenethyl alcohol and PAN as by-products, which were suggested to be the metabolites of E,Z-PAOx produced by E. coli enzymes, while the PAN-producing transformant accumulated only PAN in the culture broth, which suggested that the CYP79A2 reaction (the conversion of l-Phe to E,Z-PAOx) was a potential bottleneck in the PAN production pathway. Expression of active CYP79A2 and concentration of biomass were improved by the combination of the autoinduction method, coexpression of groE, encoding the heat shock protein GroEL/GroES, N-terminal truncation of CYP79A2, and optimization of the culture conditions, yielding a >60-fold concentration of E,Z-PAOx (up to 2.9 mM). The concentration of PAN was 4.9 mM under the optimized conditions. These achievements show the potential of this bioprocess to produce nitriles and nitrile derivatives in the absence of toxic chemicals. PMID:25172862

  4. Cyanide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Evaluation Lab Testing Infection Control Surveillance & Investigation Preparation & Planning Response Vaccination Images Medical Management Training & Education References Tularemia Diagnosis & Evaluation Treatment & PEP ...

  5. Cyanide fatalities: case studies of four suicides and one homicide.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Daldrup, Thomas; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-12-01

    Deaths due to cyanide poisoning are relatively rare, largely owing to the restricted availability of cyanide. Nevertheless, the authors report five cases of cyanide fatalities occurring within a few months. Cyanide is one of the most rapidly acting poisons known and is still used for suicide and homicide. The discussion focuses on the circumstances, metabolic changes, pathophysiology, blood levels, diagnosis, and management of cyanide poisoning. PMID:12464803

  6. Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. PMID:23568214

  7. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

  9. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

  10. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

  11. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production...

  12. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  13. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  14. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of sulfur and cyanicides speciation during cyanidation of gold complex sulfidic ores.

    PubMed

    Petre, Catalin Florin; Azizi, Abdelaaziz; Olsen, Caroline; Baçaoui, Abdelaziz; Larachi, Faïçal

    2008-12-01

    A capillary electrophoretic protocol for the separation and quantification of the most important species potentially liberated during the cyanidation of gold sulfide-rich ores was accomplished in this study. The separation of 11 ions: S2O3(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-), Fe(CN)6(4-), Fe(CN)6(3-), SCN(-), Au(CN)2(-), Ag(CN)2(-), SO4(2-), OCN(-), SO3(2-), and HS(-) was achieved using an indirect UV detection method. The robustness of the analytical protocol was tested by analyzing ions speciation during the cyanidation of two gold sulfide-rich ores. The 1-h cyanidation of the two ores released up to six complexes into solution: S2O3(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-), SCN(-), Fe(CN)6(4-), OCN(-), and SO4(2-). The mineralogy of the ore was found to influence directly the nature and the amount of the dissolved species. Conserving the cyanidation solution for 72 h after sampling resulted in 96% total sulfur recovery. These results allow us to conclude that the analytical protocol developed in this study can become very useful for the optimization of precious-metals cyanidation plants. PMID:19009541

  15. Sulfide-Resistant Respiration in Leaves of Elodea canadensis Michx: Comparison with Cyanide-Resistant Respiration.

    PubMed

    Azcón-Bieto, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; González-Meler, M A; Peñuelas, J

    1989-08-01

    The rate of dark O(2) uptake of Elodea canadensis leaves was titrated with either cyanide or sulfide in the presence and in the absence of 5 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. The inhibition of O(2) uptake by SHAM alone was very small (3-6%), suggesting that actual respiration mainly occurred through the cytochrome pathway. O(2) uptake was slightly stimulated by cyanide at concentrations of 50 micromolar or higher, but in the presence of SHAM respiration was strongly suppressed. The effects of sulfide on O(2) uptake were similar to those of cyanide, except that the percent stimulation of O(2) uptake by sulfide alone was somewhat higher than that of cyanide. However, the estimates of the capacity of the alternative pathway were similar with both inhibitors. Another difference is that maximal inhibition of respiration in the presence of SHAM was observed with lower concentrations of sulfide (50 micromolar) than cyanide (250 micromolar). The results suggest that sulfide can be used as a suitable inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in studies with intact plant tissues, and that sulfide does not apparently inhibit the alternative oxidase. PMID:16666916

  16. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  17. Foundations 3M Foundation

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    from the private sector, government or other foundations is not yet widely available. Alzheimer's Association http://www.alz.org/index.asp As the largest, private non-profit funder of Alzheimer's research, the Association is committed to accelerating progress of new treatments, preventions and ultimately, a cure

  18. Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  19. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  20. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  1. DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

  2. Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1

    PubMed Central

    Santana, María Angélica; Vásquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

  3. REVIEWS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS: V. CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review of the scientific literature on the biological and environmental effects of cyanide. Included in the review are a general summary and a comprehensive discussion of the following topics as related to cyanide and specific cyanide compounds: physical and chemical pr...

  4. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Rye, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most-persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)63- or Fe(CN)64-, but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)63- or its dissociation products (Co(CN)6-x(H2O)x(3-x)-). Supporting evidence for cobalt-cyanide complexation was found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification at four separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  5. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 12, CYANIDE IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode...

  6. BIOLOGICAL DEGRADATION OF CYANIDE BY NITROGEN-FIXING CYANOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the ability of nitrogen-fixing Anabaena to biodegrade cyanide in batch reactors. ixed second-order constants were obtained that described the biologically-mediated decrease in cyanide for reactors containing initial cyanide concentrations of 3 ppm. or Anabaena...

  7. Removal of Prussian blue from contaminated soil in the rhizosphere of cyanogenic plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong-Hee; Hong, Lee Yen; Schwab, A Paul; Banks, M Katherine

    2007-11-01

    The fate of radiolabeled cyanide in soil was investigated during exposure to cyanogenic plant species, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor var. P721) and flax (Linum usitassimum var. Omega-Gold), in fully-contained growth chambers. Labeled cyanide was subject to microbial transformation, assimilation by plant roots, incorporation and biodegradation in plant tissue. For this study, (14)C-labeled cyanide was added to soil, and distribution of (14)C activity was assessed before plant establishment and after harvest. After 3 months of plant growth, 7% of the (14)C-labeled cyanide was converted to (14)CO(2) with sorghum and 6% with flax, compared with only 2% conversion in unplanted soil. A small amount of unaltered cyanide was shown to be accumulated by the plants (approximately 140 mg cyanide/kg plant or <0.1% of the total). Results from this experiment demonstrate the potential of cyanogenic plants for use in phytoremediation of cyanide-contaminated soil. PMID:17555792

  8. Validation of a general method for activity estimation of cyanide evolving oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Gasteazoro, Francisco; Simaan, Ariane Jalila; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Valderrama, Brenda

    2015-02-15

    Ethylene is a key molecule in organic synthesis currently produced by steam cracking of fossil hydrocarbons. In nature, ethylene is produced in higher plants by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACCO). Biocatalytic alternatives for ethylene production are still far from being competitive with traditional production plants. Furthermore, data dispersion shown in the literature adds uncertainty to the introduction of ACCO as a biocatalyst, especially when larger numbers of isoforms or mutants are to be compared. Here we propose a new method for measuring ACCO activity based on cyanide detection. Data provided here indicate that cyanide detection is more precise, more responsive, and much more stable than any other method tested for ACCO activity estimation so far. Briefly, enzymatically produced cyanide can be detected by its derivatization with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxyaldehide (NDA) to generate 1-cyanobenz[f]isoindole (CBI), which is further detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a fluorescence detector. Cyanide can be detected in the range between 0.99 and 60.17pmol, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than the currently used ethylene estimation method. PMID:25447496

  9. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

  10. Prevention of occupational cyanide exposure in autopsy prosectors.

    PubMed

    Nolte, K B; Dasgupta, A

    1996-01-01

    Autopsy prosectors examining individuals with cyanide poisoning are at risk for occupational cyanide exposure. No protective autopsy precautions to mitigate this risk have been published. We report an autopsy on an individual with cyanide poisoning where the procedure was performed in a negatively pressured isolation room and the stomach was opened under a biosafety cabinet hood. None of the three autopsy prosectors had measurable cyanide in pre or post procedure blood specimens. We recommend that similar precautions be taken in all autopsies where cyanide is suspected as a possible cause of death. PMID:8934715

  11. Disulfides as cyanide antidotes: evidence for a new in vivo oxidative pathway for cyanide detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zottola, Mark A; Beigel, Keith; Soni, Sunil-Datta; Lawrence, Richard

    2009-12-01

    It is known that cyanide is converted to thiocyanate in the presence of the enzyme rhodanese. The enzyme is activated by sulfur transfer from an appropriate sulfur donor. The activated enzyme then binds cyanide and transfers the sulfur atom to cyanide to form thiocyanate. This project began as an exploration of the ability of disulfides to act as sulfur donors in the rhodanese-mediated detoxification of cyanide. To our surprise, and contrary to expectations based on efficacy studies in vivo, our in vitro results showed that disulfides are rather poor sulfur donors. The transfer of a sulfur atom from a disulfide to the enzyme must occur via cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond either of the original disulfide or in a mixed disulfide arising from the reaction of rhodanese with the original disulfide. Extending the reaction time and addition of chloride anion (a nucleophile) did not significantly change the results of the experiment. Using ultrasound as a means of accelerating bond cleavage also had a minimal effect. Those results ruled out cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond in the original disulfide but did not preclude formation of a mixed disulfide. S-Methyl methylthiosulfonate (MTSO) was used to determine whether a mixed disulfide, if formed, would result in transfer of a sulfur atom to rhodanese. While no thiocyanate was formed in the reaction between cyanide and rhodanese exposed to MTSO, NMR analysis revealed that MTSO reacted directly with cyanide anion to form methyl thiocyanate. This result reveals the body's possible use of oxidized disulfides as a first line of defense against cyanide intoxication. The oxidation of disulfides to the corresponding thiosulfinate or thiosulfonate will result in facilitating their reaction with other nucleophiles. The reaction of an oxidized disulfide with a sulfur nucleophile from glutathione could be a plausible origin for the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid. PMID:19891443

  12. The advantages of biodegradation of cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Jim

    1989-12-01

    The biodegradation of cyanides and the biosorption of toxic metals from mining process effluents are proven technologies which offer many advantages over chemical treatment methods. These advantages include cost effectiveness, treatment performance, resistance to upset, low sludge production, metals removal and recovery, flexible design characteristics, compatibility with effluent-receiving streams and the capability for self-regulation with changing process conditions.

  13. Promotion of Seed Germination by Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Taylorson, R. B.; Hendricks, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium cyanide at 3 ?m to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form ?-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. ?-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 ?-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from ?-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-14C is much lower than of cyanide. Radioactive tracer in K14CN shows uptake of about 1.5 ?moles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high 14C activity in ?-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN3 at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN3 inhibit O2 consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form ?-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis. PMID:16658492

  14. Degradation of cyanide in agroindustrial or industrial wastewater in an acidification reactor or in a single-step methane reactor by bacteria enriched from soil and peels of cassava.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Winter, J

    1998-09-01

    During cassava starch production, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released and hydrolysed by plant-borne enzymes, leading to cyanide concentrations in the wastewater as high as 200 mg/l. For anaerobic degradation of the cyanide during pre-acidification or single-step methane fermentation, anaerobic cultures were enriched from soil residues of cassava roots and sewage sludge. In a pre-acidification reactor this culture was able to remove up to 4 g potassium cyanide/l of wastewater at a hydraulic retention time (tHR) of 4 days, equivalent to a maximal cyanide space loading of 400 mg CN- 1(-1) day-1. The residual cyanide concentration was 0.2-0.5 mg/l. Concentrated cell suspensions of the mixed culture formed ammonia and formate in almost equimolar amounts from cyanide. Little formamide was generated by chemical decay. A concentration of up to 100 mmol ammonia/l had no inhibitory effect on cyanide degradation. The optimal pH for cyanide degradation was 6-7.5, the optimal temperature 25-37 degrees C. At a pH of 5 or lower, cyanide accumulated in the reactor and pre-acidification failed. The minimal tHR for continuous cyanide removal was 1.5 days. The enriched mixed culture was also able to degrade cyanide in purely mineralic wastewater from metal deburring, either in a pre-acidification reactor with a two-step process or in a one-step methanogenic reactor. It was necessary to supplement the wastewater with a carbon source (e.g. starch) to keep the population active enough to cope with any possible inhibiting effect of cyanide. PMID:9802225

  15. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  16. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.

    PubMed

    Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

  17. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  18. Cyanide-degrading enzymes for bioremediation

    E-print Network

    Basile, Lacy Jamel

    2008-10-10

    prepared after their genes were cloned with N-terminal hexahistidine purification tags, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. These enzymes were compared according to their relative specific activity... of Serratia nuclease (29) before centrifugation at 3750 rpm for 15 minutes. The supernatant was then clarified with a 0.45#2;m filter. The hexahistidine-tagged cyanide hydratase enzymes were purified from crude cell lysates by immobilized metal affinity...

  19. Hydrogen cyanide polymers: from laboratory to space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford N. Matthews

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers—heterogeneous solids ranging in color from yellow to orange to red to black—may be among the organic macromolecules most readily formed within the solar system The non-volatile black crust of comet Halley for example, may consist largely of such polymers. It seems likely. too, that HCN polymers are a major constituent of the dark. C?N bearing solids identified

  20. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    PubMed Central

    Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

    1984-01-01

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress. PMID:6610725

  1. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  2. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  3. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  4. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  5. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  6. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic...Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized,...

  7. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    DOEpatents

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  8. Shodor Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Shodor Foundation is a nonprofit research and education organization dedicated to the advancement of science and math education, specifically through the use of modeling and simulation technologies. The foundation's website features a collection of instructional resources, software, interactive lessons, explorations and many other items. The collection is seachable by grade level and keyword or term. There is also information about professional development opportunities for teachers and enrichment materials for students. Other materials include information about foundation staff, promotional videos, and overviews of foundation projects.

  9. Increased ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (?Atnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in ?-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered ?-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids. PMID:23825089

  10. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virender K. Sharma; Ria A. Yngard; Diane E. Cabelli; J. Clayton Baum

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide (CN-), thiocyanate (SCN-), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN)43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN-, SCN-, and Cu(CN)43- by ferrate(VI) (FeVIO42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (FeVO43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis

  11. Foundation Fieldbus Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource is a series of 17 courses offered by Emerson Process Management - PlantWeb University on Foundation Fieldbus Technologies. These courses begin by teaching the basics, and ends by showing installation and troubleshooting procedures. For each course, an examination is given, and the student receives a certificate upon completion.

  12. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (< 0.1). Studies were carried out with industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater. PMID:25306785

  13. Mechanisms of cyanide neurotoxicity: A role for Bcl2 proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Shou

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the mechanisms underlying cyanide cytotoxicity in primary cultured cortical neurons. Previous in vivo studies suggested that cyanide induced different modes of cell death in different brain area: necrosis was observed in substantia nigra while cells died mainly through apoptosis in cortex. Based upon morphological and biochemical criteria, cell death induced by

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF ZINC CYANIDE RECOVERY USING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND EVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field test was conducted to demonstrate closed-loop recovery of zinc cyanide at a job plating facility. Since the zinc cyanide bath operates at room temperature with very little evaporation from the bath, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of the rinsewater must be supplemented by ...

  15. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  16. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    1991-06-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

  17. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  19. Cyanide determination by an ISFET-based peroxidase biosensor.

    PubMed

    Volotovsky, V; Kim, N

    1998-10-15

    Horseradish peroxidase immobilized on the surface of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET) can be used for the determination of cyanide ions in aquatic media. When the enzyme is immobilized in BSA gel, the resulting sensor can determine 10(-5)-10(-3) M cyanide. Enzyme immobilization into a positively charged polymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-styrene) (PVPy), seems to cause an increase in cyanide inhibition effects because of anion accumulation in the polymeric matrix, and the resulting sensor can measure cyanide concentration in the range 10(-7)-10(-5) M. Fifty percent peroxidase inactivation was observed with 80 microM KCN in the case of BSA-entrapped enzyme, and with only 0.6 microM KCN when the enzyme was covered by PVPy film. Because of the reversible nature of peroxidase inhibition with cyanide ions, restoration of the enzyme activity after inhibition can be obtained by sensor rewashing in fresh buffer. PMID:9839391

  20. Dysautonomia Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... shared with other parties without the express written consent of the User. Privacy Policy The Dysautonomia Foundation ... with any third party organization without your explicit consent. If you conduct a transaction on our website ...

  1. PKD Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gift Planning Tribute Giving News About Us Executive Leadership Media Center Careers Contact Us Community Chapter Locations ... Saintsation Kriste Spoke at Polycystic Kidney Disease Foundation's Leadership Conference March 17, 2015 Saintsation Kriste was a ...

  2. HSC Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... veterans with disabilities in creating and living a self-directed path to adulthood and employment. Through this initiative, the Foundation has developed the National Youth Transitions Center, a collaborative learning community to benefit youth and young veterans with ...

  3. Livestrong Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Volunteer at the Foundation Volunteer at an Event Internships Become a LIVE STRONG Leader Donate Donate to ... Our Home Our Founder Employment & Volunteering Job Openings Internships Office Volunteers Contact Us Connect with Us Press ...

  4. Modelling anaerobic digestion acclimatisation to a biodegradable toxicant: application to cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Zaher; M. S. Moussa; I. N. Widyatmika; P. van Der Steen; H. J. Gijzen; P. A. Vanrolleghem

    2006-01-01

    The observed acclimatisation to biodegradable toxicants in anaerobic cassava wastewater treatment is explained by modelling anaerobic cyanide degradation. A complete degradation pathway is proposed for cyanide. Cyanide degradation is modelled as enzymatic hydrolysis to formate and ammonia. Ammonia is added to the inorganic nitrogen content of the digester while formate is degraded by the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Cyanide irreversible enzyme inhibition

  5. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  6. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Zelder, Felix H.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Diaquacobinamide (H2O)2Cbi2+ or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H2O)Cbi+)) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H2O)Cbi+ is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H2O)Cbi+ should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H2O)Cbi+ is virtually the same as that of OH(H2O)Cbi+. It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H2O)Cbi+, (CN)2Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H2O)Cbi+. This understanding implies that CN(H2O)Cbi+ will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic - charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 ?M, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h?1. The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds. PMID:22769008

  7. Characterization of inorganic fraction of spent potliners: evaluation of the cyanides and fluorides content.

    PubMed

    Silveira, B I; Dantas, A E; Blasquez, J E; Santos, R K P

    2002-01-28

    Spent potliner (SPL) is a solid waste generated by the aluminum industry during the manufacture of aluminum metal in electrolytic cells. Initially the electrolityc cell liners comprise of graphite and carbonaceous materials, but after several years of operation, the liner materials deteriorate and must be removed from the cells. Because of the presence of fluoride and cyanide in the SPL, the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has listed the materials as a hazardous waste. The purpose of this work was to characterize the extent of leaching of cyanides and fluorides from SPL, as a function of the number of years the material was present in an operating electrolytic cell. At Alumínio Brasileiro S.A. (ALBRAS) plant, SPL was separated into two fractions: a carbon component and an inorganic part. Inorganic materials from nine pots, about 28 tonnes per pot, were examined in this study. When placed in water at a ratio of 20 g solid to 20 ml of water, the pH for all samples varied from 10 to 11.8. The total measured fluoride content of the solid samples varied from 5.13 to 11.41%. However, when leached at a pH of 5, the dissolved fluoride was equivalent to only 0.26-3.46%. With a pH of 12 in the leachate solution, the dissolved fluoride was equivalent to 6.45-9.39%. The data show that the fluorides of the waste are more soluble in basic solutions, and when leached at a pH of 12 are much closer to the actual fluorides content. For the same samples, the dissolved quantity of cyanide was equivalent to 4.34-27.33 ppm, with an average of 13.26 ppm. For all the samples studied, there did not appear to be a correlation between the fractions of fluoride and cyanide leached from the samples and the operating life of the potliner materials. PMID:11744203

  8. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of sulfmyoglobin cyanide.

    PubMed

    Magliozzo, R S; Peisach, J

    1986-07-25

    The proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of sulfmyoglobin cyanide was studied at 400 MHz. The position of a methyl-group resonance at low field is consistent with a chlorin-like structure for the prosthetic group. The proton NMR spectrum of the cyanide derivative of the purified prosthetic group which decomposes upon extraction from the protein was found to be the same as that of the cyanide derivative of the prosthetic group extracted from myoglobin and a sample prepared from hemin-Cl. PMID:3730393

  9. The role of nitric oxide in the cyanide-mediated inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather B Leavesley

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide causes rapid-onset neurotoxicity by inhibiting cellular respiration at cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX). Cyanide primarily targets the brain, where it promotes dopaminergic cell death. Acute cyanide toxicity has been associated with a late-onset Parkinson-like neuropathy. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous CcOX inhibitor, has been implicated in the cyanide-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons. We recently found that the cyanide-mediated increase in

  10. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  11. Surfrider Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Surfrider Foundation USA is a non-profit environmental organization working to preserve the oceans, waves & beaches. Website with numerous pages including mission, a blog, news, a bimonthly publication online, the video "Shifting Baselines in the Surf", online store, campaigns, programs, membership information, and chapters. Located in San Onofre State Beach, CA.

  12. Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

  13. SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

  14. Management of cyanide toxicity in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Louise; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-02-01

    The importance of cyanide toxicity as a component of inhalational injury in patients with burns is increasingly being recognised, and its prompt recognition and management is vital for optimising burns survival. The evidence base for the use of cyanide antidotes is limited by a lack of randomised controlled trials in humans, and in addition consideration must be given to the concomitant pathophysiological processes in patients with burns when interpreting the literature. We present a literature review of the evidence base for cyanide antidotes with interpretation in the context of patients with burns. We conclude that hydroxycobalamin should be utilised as the first-line antidote of choice in patients with burns with inhalational injury where features consistent with cyanide toxicity are present. PMID:24994676

  15. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  16. Avoidance of cyanide guns by black-backed jackal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Brand; J. A. J. Nel

    1997-01-01

    The role of inherent behavioral patterns and acquired avoidance of cyanide guns in practice by black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas was investigated. Two different experiments with captive jackals yielded data on their behavior towards novel objects. These experiments with jackals included: (a) the reaction of seven 10-month-old individuals exposed to meat only, and a combination of meat and novel objects (cyanide

  17. Cyanide Production and Degradation During Growth of Chromobacterium violaceum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL B. RODGERS; CHRISTOPHER J. KNOWLES

    1978-01-01

    Cyanogenesis by growing cultures of Chromobacterium violaceurn was stimulated by the inclusion of glycine and methionine in the growth medium. Increases in the ferrous ion and phosphate concentrations of the growth medium stimulated cyanide production. Chromobacterium violaceum possesses a number of cyanide-utilizing enzymes: P-cyano- alanine synthase, y-cyano-a-aminobutyric acid synthase and rhodanese. Studies on the activities of these enzymes in cell-free

  18. Foundations Annual Report 2010 foundations annual report

    E-print Network

    Foundations Annual Report 2010 #12;#12;1 foundations annual report #12;2 Contents A Message from ........................................................................................................... 26 Athletic Endowments......................................................................... 44 Foundations Annual Report 2010 Table of Contents credits Editor: Trinity P. Massey Associate

  19. Kress Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Samuel H. Kress Foundation "devotes its resources to advancing the history, conservation, and enjoyment of the vast heritage of European art, architecture, and archaeology from antiquity to the early 19th century." To achieve this goal, the Foundation makes grants, offers fellowships, and also reports on its operations and various research initiatives. Scholars and policy makers should begin by looking over the Sponsored Research. Here, they can look over key documents that include "The Campus Art Museum: A Qualitative Study" and "Copyright, Museums and Licensing of Art Images.� The Grants area brings together complete information for scholars looking to apply for a grant in thematic areas such as History of Art and Conservation. Finally, the Kress Collection contains a detailed repository list of the more than 3,000 works in this rather comprehensive collection spanning four centuries.

  20. AWARE Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

  1. Ecotoxicity of cyanide complexes in industrially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Manar, Rachid; Bonnard, Marc; Rast, Claudine; Veber, Anne-Marie; Vasseur, Paule

    2011-12-15

    This study deals with acute and chronic ecotoxicity of leachates from industrially contaminated soils. Analyses focused on cyanides (complex and free forms) to study their possible involvement in leachates toxicity. No acute toxicity on the Microtox and 48 h-Daphnia magna tests was found in leachates collected over 18 months, but a high chronic toxicity was recorded on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50-7d=0.31±0.07%) and on the algal growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (EC50-72 h=0.27±0.09%). Ceriodaphnids were as sensitive to free cyanide as to complex forms (EC50-7d as CN(-)=98 ?g/L, 194 ?g/L and 216 ?g/L for KCN, Fe(CN)(6)K(3) and Fe(CN)(6)K(4), respectively). The EC50-72 h of KCN to P. subcapitata (116 ?g/L) as CN(-) was also of the same level as the EC50-72 h of potassium ferricyanide (127 ?g/L) and ferrocyanide (267 ?g/L). Complex cyanides explained a major part of the toxicity of leachates of the soil. On the other hand, cyanide complexes had no effect on survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida up to 131 mg CN(-)/kg, while potassium cyanide was highly toxic [EC50-14 d as CN(-)=74 ?g/kg soil]. Thermodesorption treatment eliminated a majority of cyanides from the soil and generated much less toxic leachates. Complex cyanides must be integrated into environmental studies to assess the impact of multi-contaminated soils. PMID:22018867

  2. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constant for hydrogen cyanide. Generation of trace standard gaseous hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-04-15

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry's Law constant (K(H), M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00 +/- 0.03 at 296.6 +/- 0.1 K) from 287-311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The K(H) of HCN may be expressed as ln K(H) (M/atm) = (8205.7 +/- 341.9)/T - (25.323 +/- 1.144); r(2) = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 degrees C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 degrees C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted. PMID:20302333

  3. Privacy Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Privacy Foundation conducts "research into communications technologies and services that may pose a threat to personal privacy." Its Web site has a large amount of information to raise awareness of privacy related issues and help the public understand them. For people wanting to learn some basic terminology in digital privacy, a glossary describes things like firewalls and cookies. There are detailed articles that answer many common questions about Web Bugs and suggest guidelines for how they should be used by companies. A large section of the site discusses workplace surveillance, and a legal database documents several important court cases.

  4. Hormone Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hormone Foundation, the public education affiliate of The Endocrine Society, "is dedicated to serving as a resource for the public by promoting the prevention, treatment and cure of hormone-related conditions." Visitors to this Web site will find a rich resource of information on menopause, pituitary imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome, testosterone and men's health, breast cancer, and much more. The site has recently added Web pages and downloadable publications addressing menopause management, the pros and cons of menopause treatment, and an explanation of what endocrinologists do. Visitors will also find the latest related news and events, fact sheets, an online physician referral database, and other useful features.

  5. Design of a Prototype of Water Purification by Plasma Technology as the Foundation for an Industrial Wastewater Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillas, L.

    2015-03-01

    In order to mitigate the contamination of water sources due to the spill of sewage without any kind of treatment, mainly generated by the industrial sector; a prototype of water purification by plasma technology has been designed. The prototype will transform liquid water into plasma to eliminate the pathogens from the water, due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, electric fields and shock waves, which aid in the destruction of pollutants. The sewage will be accelerated at high speed to convert it into a liquid-gas mixture in order to transform it into plasma, which is achieved when the electrical discharge (of the type dielectric barrier discharge or DBD) is applied to the water by means of high voltage electrodes, from a source of alternating current (AC). Subsequently, the mixture slows down to be return into liquid phase and obtain clean water, all of these without a significantly rise of temperature. The device also has an automatic power control system. Finally, a short feasibility study was conducted in order to use this type of water cleaner in the future as a basis for a treatment plant of industrial waste water, so it comes to replace the current secondary and tertiary treatments used among the industry. It is intended that this new system will be more efficient and cheaper than the current waste water treatments.

  6. Cyanide detoxification in cassava for food and feed uses.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, G

    1995-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important tropical root crop providing energy to about 500 million people. The presence of the two cyanogenic glycosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, in cassava is a major factor limiting its use as food or feed. Traditional processing techniques practiced in cassava production are known to reduce cyanide in tubers and leaves. Drying is the most ubiquitous processing operation in many tropical countries. Sun drying eliminates more cyanide than oven drying because of the prolonged contact time between linamarase and the glucosides in sun drying. Soaking followed by boiling is better than soaking or boiling alone in removing cyanide. Traditional African food products such as gari and fufu are made by a series of operations such as grating, dewatering, fermenting, and roasting. During the various stages of gari manufacture, 80 to 95% cyanide loss occurs. The best processing method for the use of cassava leaves as human food is pounding the leaves and cooking the mash in water. Fermentation, boiling, and ensiling are efficient techniques for removing cyanide from cassava peels. PMID:7576161

  7. Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B. [Bureau of Mines, Reno, NV (United States). Reno Research Center

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7 pct Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.OM sodium hydroxide solution was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1 pct sodium cyanide and 0.1M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95 pct Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50 pct. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

  8. Poetry Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Poetry Foundation, established in 2003, was created through a fund provided by Ruth Lilly. Since its creation, the Foundation has grown by leaps and bounds, and one of their best public outreach efforts is this website. With a well-thought out visual design, their homepage is a great starting point for learning more about the world of poetry. Sections on the homepage include â??Publishingâ?, â??Featuresâ?, â??Dispatchesâ?, and â??Archiveâ?. Visitors may wish to go back to the past and examine the archive, which includes thousands of poems, several lists of â??favoriteâ? poets, and a visual archive that features cartoons that address the subject of poetry. Visitors looking to delve into some current material will definitely appreciate the â??Cover Storyâ? feature. Here visitors can listen to Paul Giamatti and Alfred Molina read Browningâ??s â??Fra Lippo Lippiâ? and â??My Last Duchessâ? respectively, as well as read a historic piece from Poetry magazine where Carl Sandburg offers solid praise of Ezra Pound. Overall, the site merits numerous visits and is quite a gem.

  9. Isolation of Cyanide Hydratase Mutants from Gloeocerospora Sorghi at alkaline pH

    E-print Network

    Lessen, Henry Joseph

    2013-02-04

    naturally occurring substance, several organisms contain enzymes capable of oxidizing cyanide into less toxic compounds. Despite the effectiveness of these proteins, they lack stability and functionality at the alkaline pH levels industrial cyanide...

  10. Gold-cyanide biosorption with L-cysteine Hui Niu and Bohumil Volesky*

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    gold-cyanide biosorption by protonated Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Sargassum ¯uitans; gold-cyanide; biosorption enhancement; Bacillus subtilis; Penicillium chrysogenum; Sargassum ¯uitans INTRODUCTION Recent experimental results demonstrated that Bacil- lus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum

  11. Biosorption of iron(III)–cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus: application of adsorption isotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Aksu; A. Çalik; A. Y. Dursun; Z. Demircan

    1999-01-01

    The biosorption of iron(III)–cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus was investigated. The iron(III)–cyanide complex ion binding capacity of the biosorbent was a function of initial pH, initial iron(III)–cyanide complex ion and biosorbent concentration. These results indicated that a significant reduction of iron(III)–cyanide complex ions was achieved at pH 13, a highly alkaline condition. The maximum loading capacity of biosorbent was

  12. Indirect electrochemical oxidation of cyanide by hydrogen peroxide generated at a carbon cathode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Antonio Pineda Arellano; Susana Silva Martínez

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of cyanide was performed in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions. Cyanide was oxidized over 90% to cyanate by hydrogen peroxide electrochemically generated at a 60ppi reticulated vitreous carbon electrode from oxygen reduction. Cyanide depletion was recorded as a function of time from the analysis of cyanide based on the titration procedure using silver nitrate with p-dimethylamino-benzal-rhodanine indicator. Cyanate was

  13. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of cyanide based on triplet state energy transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mar??a Teresa Fernández-Argüelles; José M Costa-Fernández; Rosario Pereiro; Alfredo Sanz-Medel

    2003-01-01

    The determination of cyanide ions in water samples by room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) detection is described. The method is based on the measurement of the RTP emission of ?-bromonaphthalene (BrN). The principle of the RTP cyanide determination involves the energy transfer (ET) from the BrN phosphor molecule insensitive to the presence of cyanide (acting as a donor) to a cyanide-sensitive

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE ADSORPTION OF METAL CYANIDES ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. VAN DER MERWE; J. S. J. VAN DEVENTER

    1988-01-01

    Activated carbon adsorbs insignificant quantities of oxygen from aerated water. This consumption is increased drastically during the adsorption of anionic metal cyanides. The equilibrium loadings of gold and silver cyanides increased with an increase in the level of dissolved oxygen. However, for both gold and silver cyanides an oxygen concentration occurred above which the metal loading showed no further increase.

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Kitis; Emine Karakaya; Nevzat O. Yigit; Gokhan Civelekoglu; Ata Akcil

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all

  17. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  18. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  19. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure. PMID:23345455

  20. Argosy Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The private Argosy Foundation is based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and was started in 1997 by the co-founder of Boston Scientific. The "Who We Are" link on the homepage provides an excellent overview of how they choose to fund projects, and the "Frequently Asked Questions" section informs visitors about the special programs they fund. For example, the "Contemporary Music Fund" is "designed to promote the proliferation and awareness of contemporary classical or 'non-pop' music." The world-famous Kronos Quartet is one of the partners of the Contemporary Music Fund. Visitors interested in the depth of research the staff of Argosy do when deciding to fund an issue or program, should check out the "Resources" link to several of the reports and briefs they've written. Some of the briefs include affordable housing, use of grass pellets as a heat and energy source, xeriscaping, and lessening the environmental impact of the freight and commercial trucking industry. An abstract and brief are provided for each topic featured here.

  1. A Good Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students explore the effects of regional geology on bridge foundation, including the variety of soil conditions found beneath foundations. They learn about shallow and deep foundations, as well as the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement.

  2. Turning the 'mustard oil bomb' into a 'cyanide bomb': aromatic glucosinolate metabolism in a specialist insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Einar J; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as 'coevolutionary armsrace'. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by ?-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

  3. Turning the ‘Mustard Oil Bomb’ into a ‘Cyanide Bomb’: Aromatic Glucosinolate Metabolism in a Specialist Insect Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, Einar J.; Kuczka, Petrissa; van Ohlen, Maike; Vogt, Birgit; Janowitz, Tim; Piotrowski, Markus; Beuerle, Till; Wittstock, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of mechanisms for dealing with insect herbivory among which chemical defense through secondary metabolites plays a prominent role. Physiological, behavioural and sensorical adaptations to these chemicals provide herbivores with selective advantages allowing them to diversify within the newly occupied ecological niche. In turn, this may influence the evolution of plant metabolism giving rise to e.g. new chemical defenses. The association of Pierid butterflies and plants of the Brassicales has been cited as an illustrative example of this adaptive process known as ‘coevolutionary armsrace’. All plants of the Brassicales are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system to which larvae of cabbage white butterflies and related species are biochemically adapted through a gut nitrile-specifier protein. Here, we provide evidence by metabolite profiling and enzyme assays that metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Pieris rapae results in release of equimolar amounts of cyanide, a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration. We further demonstrate that P. rapae larvae develop on transgenic Arabidopsis plants with ectopic production of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin without ill effects. Metabolite analyses and fumigation experiments indicate that cyanide is detoxified by ?-cyanoalanine synthase and rhodanese in the larvae. Based on these results as well as on the facts that benzylglucosinolate was one of the predominant glucosinolates in ancient Brassicales and that ancient Brassicales lack nitrilases involved in alternative pathways, we propose that the ability of Pierid species to safely handle cyanide contributed to the primary host shift from Fabales to Brassicales that occured about 75 million years ago and was followed by Pierid species diversification. PMID:22536404

  4. 169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. 90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Empiric management of cyanide toxicity associated with smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel J; Walsh, Donald W; Terriff, Colleen M; Hall, Alan H

    2011-10-01

    Enclosed-space smoke inhalation is the fifth most common cause of all unintentional injury deaths in the United States. Increasingly, cyanide has been recognized as a significant toxicant in many cases of smoke inhalation. However, it cannot be emergently verified. Failure to recognize the possibility of cyanide toxicity may result in inadequate treatment. Findings suggestive cyanide toxicity include: (1) a history of an enclosed-space fire scene in which smoke inhalation was likely; (2) the presence of oropharyngeal soot or carbonaceous expectorations; (3) any alteration of the level of consciousness, and particularly, otherwise inexplicable hypotension (systolic blood pressure ?90 mmHg in adults). Prehospital studies have demonstrated the feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for patients with suspected smoke inhalation cyanide toxicity. Although United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved since 2006, the lack of efficacy data has stymied the routine use of this potentially lifesaving antidote. Based on a literature review and on-site observation of the Paris Fire Brigade, emergency management protocols to guide empiric and early hydroxocobalamin administration in smoke inhalation victims with high-risk presentations are proposed. PMID:22336184

  7. Alteration in the Colours of Flowers by Cyanide Fumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. A. Cockerell

    1895-01-01

    IT is well known that the yellows of some insects are turned to red by the fumes from potassium cyanide; but I have not, after some inquiry, been able to obtain any literature describing the effects of such fumes upon the colours of flowers. The reactions I have observed are very curious, and while it seems improbable that they are

  8. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM REFINERY WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the removal of low level cyanide in petroleum refinery wastewater by the addition of powdered activated carbon and cupric chloride to an activated sludge unit. The activated carbon and cupric chloride act as a catalyst in the oxidatio...

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

    2001-01-01

    In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

  10. REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

  11. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  12. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent ?-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 ?M, and the limit of detection was 0.78 ?M. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  13. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Alshammari, Ahmad; Aboud, Mohamed FA; Kosslick, Hendrik

    2013-12-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant ( k).

  14. Room-temperature synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles in different media and their application in cyanide photodegradation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is an extreme hazard and extensively found in the wastes of refinery, coke plant, and metal plating industries. A simple, fast, cost-effective, room-temperature wet chemical route, based on cyclohexylamine, for synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles in aqueous and enthanolic media was established and tested for the photodegradation of cyanide ions. Particles of polyhedra morphology were obtained for zinc oxide, prepared in ethanol (ZnOE), while spherical and some chunky particles were observed for zinc oxide, prepared in water (ZnOW). The morphology was crucial in enhancing the cyanide ion photocatalytic degradation efficiency of ZnOE by a factor of 1.5 in comparison to the efficiency of ZnOW at an equivalent concentration of 0.02 wt.% ZnO. Increasing the concentration wt.% of ZnOE from 0.01 to 0.09 led to an increase in the photocatalytic degradation efficiency from 85% to almost 100% after 180 min and a doubling of the first-order rate constant (k). PMID:24314056

  15. Engineering pH-tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Watermeyer, Jean M; Mulelu, Andani E; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Cyanide dihydratase is an enzyme in the nitrilase family capable of transforming cyanide to formate and ammonia. This reaction has been exploited for the bioremediation of cyanide in wastewater streams, but extending the pH operating range of the enzyme would improve its utility. In this work, we describe mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 cyanide dihydratase (CynD(pum)) with improved activity at higher pH. Error-prone PCR was used to construct a library of CynD(pum) mutants, and a high-throughput screening system was developed to screen the library for improved activity at pH 10. Two mutant alleles were identified that allowed cells to degrade cyanide in solutions at pH 10, whereas the wild-type was inactive above pH 9. The mutant alleles each encoded three different amino acid substitutions, but for one of those, a single change, E327G, accounted for the phenotype. The purified proteins containing multiple mutations were five times more active than the wild-type enzyme at pH 9, but all purified enzymes lost activity at pH 10. The mutation Q86R resulted in the formation of significantly longer fibers at low pH, and both E327G and Q86R contributed to the persistence of active oligomeric assemblies at pH 9. In addition, the mutant enzymes proved to be more thermostable than the wild type, suggesting improved physical stability rather than any change in chemistry accounts for their increased pH tolerance. PMID:21993481

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE CYANIDES, TOTAL CYANIDE, AND THIOCYANATE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seven methods for the analysis of simple cyanides have been investigated. Included are (1) an ion-exchange procedure, (2) a continuous-flow distillation, (3) and EDTA electrode method, (4) the American Iron and Steel Institute aeration method, (5) an EDTA aeration method, (6) the...

  17. Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Research Foundation Research Foundation Medical Student Research Fellowships Scientists of Tomorrow #12 medical Provides medical Sarnoff Cardiovascular Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Research

  18. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  19. A novel role for cyanide in the control of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Feng; Tang, He; Lv, Xin; Cheng, Jian; Xie, Huang-Fan; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-11-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide (KCN) pretreatment on the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and cold stress were investigated in the present study. Here, we found that KCN pretreatment improved cucumber seedlings tolerance to stress conditions with maximum efficiency at a concentration of 20?µM. The results showed that pretreatment with 20?µM KCN alleviated stress-induced oxidative damage in plant cells and clearly induced the activity of alternative oxidase (AOX) and the ethylene production. Furthermore, the structures of thylakoids and mitochondria in the KCN-pretreated seedlings were less damaged by the stress conditions, which maintained higher total chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and photosystem II (PSII) proteins levels than the control. Importantly, the addition of the AOX inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (1?mm; SHAM) decreased plant resistance to environmental stress and even compromised the cyanide (CN)-enhanced stress tolerance. Therefore, our findings provide a novel role of CN in plant against environmental stress and indicate that the CN-enhanced AOX might contribute to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the protection of photosystem by maintaining energy charge homoeostasis from chloroplast to mitochondria. PMID:22554042

  20. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (??max =80?nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. PMID:24449698

  1. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 ?g L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p?cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ?3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution. PMID:25467414

  2. Shallow & Deep Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students investigate the critical nature of foundations as they learn differences between shallow and deep foundations, including the concepts of bearing pressure and settlement. Using models representing a shallow foundation and a deep pile foundation, they test, see and feel the effects in a cardboard box test bed composed of layers of pebbles, soil and sand. They also make bearing pressure calculations and recommendations for which type of foundations to use in various engineering scenarios.

  3. Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Coquand, Thierry

    Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics Thierry Coquand Luminy, April 7, 2014 #12;Univalent Foundation and Constructive Mathematics References on univalent foundation V. Voevodsky Univalent foundation home page and "Experimental library of univalent foundation of mathematics" B. Ahrens. C. Kapulkin

  4. Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra. PMID:21303323

  5. Copper Plating from Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Meng; Zhao, Xixi; Bai, Yuze

    2014-12-01

    Non-cyanide alkaline bath was used to prepare copper thin films. Influences of various temperatures on deposition rates, surface morphologies and microstructures of films were investigated. Copper thin films prepared from non-cyanide alkaline bath show typical nodular structures. Copper films fabricated at higher temperature possess rough surface due to hydrolysis of complexing agents. According to the XRD patterns, all deposited films were crystalline and showed Cu (111), Cu (200) and Cu (220) peaks. The intensity of peak (200) increases gradually with the rise on bath temperatures. Films with maximum thickness (7.5 ?m) could be obtained at the temperature of 40°C. From the cyclic voltammetry curve, it was found that the cathodic polarization decreased slightly with increase of bath temperatures. In addition, when the bath temperature was equal to 50°C, current efficiency could reach to 96.95%.

  6. Doping potassium ions in silver cyanide complexes for green luminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Li, Lin; Yang, Yun-Zhi; Huang, Kun-Lin

    2014-03-14

    Doping potassium ions in silver cyanide complexes leads to two heterometallic silver-potassium cyanide complexes, namely, [Me4N]2[KAg3(CN)6] (1) with a typical NaCl-type framework containing distinct ligand-unsupported argentophilic interactions, and [Ag3(H2O)3][K(CN)2]3 (2) with an unprecedented 3-D (4,4,6,6)-connected framework formed by unique [Ag3(H2O)3] clusters connecting concave-convex [K(CN)2] layers. The two complexes exhibit green luminescence, and the relationships between their structures and photoluminescence, as well as the regulating effect on the luminescence by doping of potassium ions are well investigated via density functional theory analysis. PMID:24457829

  7. Structures and formation mechanism of potassium cyanide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Hai-Yang; Ma, Chen-Sheng; Wang, Xiu-Yan; Bai, Ji-Ling; He, Guo-Zhong; Lou, Nan-Quan

    1997-08-01

    Formation of potassium cyanide clusters in the direct laser vaporization of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] was studied by use of a TOF mass spectrometer. It was found that the positive cluster ions are due to [K(KCN) n] +, n = 0-37, in which magic numbers are n = 4, 13, 22, 37, whereas the negative cluster ions were assigned to [(KCN) nCN] -, n = 0-13, where magic numbers are n = 4, 13. These magic numbers are identical with those of alkali-halide clusters. This indicates that they have the structures 1 × 3 × 3 ( n = 4), 3 × 3 × 3 ( n = 13), 3 × 3 × 5 ( n = 22), 3 × 5 × 5 ( n = 37) as those of alkali-halide clusters. Thus the formation process of potassium cyanide clusters should go along the growth course of the rock salt structure.

  8. Cyanide recycling using strong-base ion-exchange resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, Versiane Albis; Ciminelli, Virgínia S. T.; Costa, Renato De Souza

    1998-10-01

    Among the techniques available to recover cyanide and metal cyanocomplexes from diluted streams, ion-exchange resins seem attractive because of the possibility of treating either pulps or clear solutions with this process. This article discusses the results of adsorption and elution of metal cyanocomplexes obtained with industrial effluents and selected data from the literature. The behavior of iron and copper cyanocomplexes during elution is emphasized.

  9. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  10. Draft whole genome sequence of the cyanide-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Acera, Felipe; Igeño, Ma Isabel; Wibberg, Daniel; Roldán, Ma Dolores; Sáez, Lara P; Hennig, Magdalena; Quesada, Alberto; Huertas, Ma José; Blom, Jochen; Merchán, Faustino; Escribano, Ma Paz; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Estepa, Jessica; Guijo, Ma Isabel; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Macías, Daniel; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Becerra, Gracia; Ramirez, Silvia; Carmona, Ma Isabel; Gutiérrez, Oscar; Manso, Isabel; Pühler, Alfred; Castillo, Francisco; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Schlüter, Andreas; Blasco, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is a Gram-negative bacterium able to tolerate cyanide and to use it as the sole nitrogen source. We report here the first draft of the whole genome sequence of a P.?pseudoalcaligenes strain that assimilates cyanide. Three aspects are specially emphasized in this manuscript. First, some generalities of the genome are shown and discussed in the context of other Pseudomonadaceae genomes, including genome size, G?+?C content, core genome and singletons among other features. Second, the genome is analysed in the context of cyanide metabolism, describing genes probably involved in cyanide assimilation, like those encoding nitrilases, and genes related to cyanide resistance, like the cio genes encoding the cyanide insensitive oxidases. Finally, the presence of genes probably involved in other processes with a great biotechnological potential like production of bioplastics and biodegradation of pollutants also is discussed. PMID:22998548

  11. Biological treatment of gold ore cyanidation wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Dictor, M C; Battaglia-Brunet, F; Morin, D; Bories, A; Clarens, M

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of a cyanidation effluent containing thiocyanate, free cyanide, and complexed cyanide was continuously performed for a period of 6 months. Activated carbon, pozzolana, and a mixture of pumice stone and zeolite were tested as supports in fixed bed reactors. Activated carbon adsorbed the different forms of cyanide. In contrast, the other supports did not remove any pollutants from the effluent during an adsorption experiment. All supports successfully allowed fixation of bacteria. More than 90% of the thiocyanate was biologically decomposed into NH4+, CO2 and SO4(2-), even when increasing the feed flow-rate and the pollutant concentrations. Free and complexed cyanides were eliminated, probably through a combination of precipitation and biological degradation. The oxidation of ammonium into nitrate was only performed by the activated carbon-containing column and with the more diluted feeding. The nitrification process was inhibited in all reactors when the cyanide concentrations and feed flow-rates were increased. PMID:15093367

  12. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horita, Juske [ORNL; Moran, James J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Janszen, Derek B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carman, April [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  13. Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

  14. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism. PMID:25766371

  15. Chemical bird repellents: Possible use in cyanide ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L. (Denver Wildlife Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Shah, P.S. (Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Regulatory agencies are pressuring the mining industry to protect wildlife from mortality associated with the consumption of dump leachate pond water containing cyanide. Using European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as an avian model, we tested the effectiveness of 5 chemical bird repellents at reducing consumption of pond water containing cyanide. The repellents, which were previously shown to be good bird repellents, were: o-aminoacetophenone (OAP), 2-amino-4,5-dimethoxyacetophenone (2A45DAP), methyl anthranilate (MA), 4-ketobenztriazine (4KBT), and veratryl amine (VA). Despite the high pH (10.6) and presence of chelating metals, conditions which we hypothesized might destroy the activity of repellents, each of the additives reduced pond water intake relative to controls for up to 5 weeks. The rank order (from best to worst) of repellents was: OAP, 2A45DAP, VA, MA and 4KBT, although only OAP and 4KBT differed at the P < 0.05 level. These candidate repellents hold promise as a strategy to reduce bird losses at cyanide ponds and should be tested in the field.

  16. Cyanide-induced hyperthyroidism in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Adeniyi Temadiyo; Adekilekun, Tijani Ahmad; Adewale, Musa Adbus-Semiu; Adekemi, Abayomi Taiwo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cyanide is one of the major environmental pollutants termed thyroid disruptor. Regardless of its origin, it is a primary toxic agent. This study was designed to understand the impact of prolonged low dose cyanide exposure on the structure and function of the thyroid gland. Materials and Methods: Twelve F1 male Wistar rats were used for this study. They were divided into two groups of six animals each. The first group served as the control group and received 0.25M sucrose while the second group being the treated group received 2 mg/kg body weight (BW) potassium hexacyanoferrate III solution. The treatment duration was 56 days following which the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood samples were drawn to determine serum FT3, FT4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The thyroid gland was also excised and processed for light microscopic studies. Result: An increase in serum FT3 and FT4 with decrease serum TSH was obtained in the treated group. Application of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical analysis showed that there were highly significant differences (P < 0.05) in the activities of FT3, FT4 and TSH when compared with those of the control group. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland from the treated group revealed marked epithelial hyperplasia with cellular degeneration and scanty cytoplasm while the control group revealed normal thyroid architecture. Conclusion: Results obtained revealed that hyperthyroidism was induced by cyanide. PMID:25013258

  17. 1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OIL HOUSE FOUNDATIONS, DIKE, AND PORTION OF SOUTH FRONT OF MAIN ASSEMBLY PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Oil House, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. Lupus Foundation of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Now™ Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving the mystery of ... Lupus Research This year, the Lupus Foundation of America is implementing numerous projects to achieve our goals ...

  19. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mission The mission of the Sarcoma Foundation of America (SFA) is to advocate for sarcoma patients by ... SARC has leveraged a gener... Sarcoma Foundation of America 9899 Main Street, Suite 204 Damascus, MD 20872 ...

  20. Cooley's Anemia Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Cooley's Anemia Foundation Leading the Fight against Thalassemia About Us Mission/Purpose History Medical Research Board/Staff Contact the Foundation U.S. Patients: Register for Information Learn about Thalassemia About Thalassemia Clinical ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer. 02.25.2015 Foundation News Prostate Cancer Dream Challenge The Prostate Cancer DREAM Challenge will be launching in the first quarter ... a collaboration with Project Data Sphere, LLC, the DREAM Project, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, and Sage Bionetworks. ...

  2. National Emphysema Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) Skip to content Jump to main navigation and login Nav view search Navigation Connect with ... ru - free templates joomla Welcome to the National Emphysema Foundation (NEF) It is our pleasure to present ...

  3. MacArthur Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The MacArthur Foundation Gopher includes general information about the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, such as how to apply for grants, the names of staff members, and the history of the Foundation. It also includes information specific to each of the Foundation's eight program areas, such as recent program activities, application guidelines, contact information, and a listing of grants made in the previous calendar year.

  4. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

    2007-10-01

    Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining industry. Cyanide concentrations below 50 mg/L weak-acid-dissociable (WAD) are deemed safe to wildlife but are considered an interim benchmark for discharge into tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Cyanide is a fast acting poison, and its toxicity is related to the types of cyanide complexes that are present. Cyanide in biota binds to iron, copper and sulfur-containing enzymes and proteins required for oxygen transportation to cells. The accurate determination of cyanide concentrations in the field is difficult to achieve due to sampling techniques and analytical error associated with loss and interferences following collection. The main WAD cyanide complexes in gold mine tailings are stable in the TSF environment but can release cyanide ions under varying environmental conditions including ingestion and absorption by wildlife. Therefore distinction between free, WAD and total cyanide forms in tailings water for regulatory purposes is justified. From an environmental perspective, there is a distinction between ore bodies on the basis of their copper content. For example, wildlife deaths are more likely to occur at mines possessing copper-gold ores due to the formation of copper-cyanide complexes which is toxic to birds and bats. The formation of copper-cyanide complex occurs preferentially to gold cyanide complex indicating the relative importance of economic vs. environmental considerations in the tailings water. Management of cyanide to a perceived threshold has inherent risks since cyanide has a steep toxicity response curve; is difficult to accurately measure in the field; and is likely to vary due to variable copper content of ore bodies and ore blending. Consequently, wildlife interaction needs to be limited to further reduce the risks. A gap in knowledge exists to design or manage cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions to render such facilities unattractive to at-risk wildlife species. This gap may be overcome by understanding the wildlife behaviour and habitat usage of cyanide-bearing solutions. PMID:17540445

  5. National technology foundation proposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara T. Richman

    1981-01-01

    A bill that would combine sections of the National Science Foundation and the Department of Commerce into a National Technology Foundation was introduced in June by Rep. George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee. Purpose of the foundation would be to `promote the advance of technology, technological innovation, technology utilization, and the supply of

  6. Degradation of soil cyanide by single and mixed cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya; Dibua, Marie Esther Uju

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study whether certain bacteria could be used for cyanide degradation in soil. The bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis were selected based on their good growth in a minimal medium containing 0.8 mg mL-1 potassium cyanide (KCN). In this study we tested their ability to reduce cyanide levels in a medium containing 1.5 mg mL-1 of KCN. Although both microorganisms reduced cyanide levels, Pseudomonas stutzeri was the more effective test organism. Later on, the selected cultures were grown, diluted and their various cell concentrations were used individually and in combination to test their ability of cyanide degradation in soil samples collected around a cassava processing mill. Bacillus subtilis caused degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil immediately with an inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) to 0.072 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) implying a 66.9 % reduction. Pseudomonas stutzeri cell concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) decreased soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil initially to 0.061 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) (72 % reduction). The mixed culture of the two bacteria produced the best degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil sample with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) initially to 0.025 mg g-1 soil with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) after 10 days incubation resulting in an 88.5 % degradation of soil cyanide. The analysed bacteria displayed high cyanide degradation potential and may be useful for efficient decontamination of cyanide contaminated sites. PMID:24670334

  7. A comparative study of the biosorption of iron(III)-cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus and Chlorella vulgaris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZÜMR?YE AKSU; A. Calik

    1999-01-01

    In this study a comparative biosorption of iron(III)-cyanide complex anions from aqueous solutions to Rhizopus arrhizus and Chlorella vulgaris was investigated. The iron(III)-cyanide complex ion-binding capacities of the biosorbents were shown as a function of initial pH, initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion, and biosorbent concentrations. The results indicated that a significant reduction of iron(III)-cyanide complex ions was achieved at pH 13,

  8. Effects of Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis on the Distribution of Cyanide into the Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amina Djerad; Claire Monier; Pascal Houze; Stephen W. Borron; Jeanne-Marie Lefauconnier; Frederic J. Baud

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether respiratory acidosis favors the cerebral distribution of cyanide, and con- versely, if respiratory alkalosis limits its distribution. The phar- macokinetics of a nontoxic dose of cyanide were first studied in a group of 7 rats in order to determine the distribution phase. The pharmacokinetics were found to best fit a 3-compartment

  9. Modelling anaerobic digestion acclimatisation to a biodegradable toxicant: application to cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zaher, U; Moussa, M S; Widyatmika, I N; van Der Steen, P; Gijzen, H J; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2006-01-01

    The observed acclimatisation to biodegradable toxicants in anaerobic cassava wastewater treatment is explained by modelling anaerobic cyanide degradation. A complete degradation pathway is proposed for cyanide. Cyanide degradation is modelled as enzymatic hydrolysis to formate and ammonia. Ammonia is added to the inorganic nitrogen content of the digester while formate is degraded by the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Cyanide irreversible enzyme inhibition is modelled as an inhibition factor to acetate uptake processes. Cyanide irreversible toxicity is modelled as a decay factor to the acetate degraders. Cyanide as well as added phosphorus buffer solution were considered in the chemical equilibrium calculations of pH. The observed reversible effect after acclimatisation of sludge is modelled by a population shift between two aceticlastic methanogens that have different tolerance to cyanide toxicity. The proposed pathway is added to the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model no.1 (ADM1). The ADM1 model with the designed extension is validated by an experiment using three lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors which were exposed to different cyanide loadings. PMID:17037178

  10. Voltammetric and spectroscopic characterization of cyanide adlayers on Pt( h, k, l) in an acidic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Francisco J.; Morallón, Emilia; Vazquez, JoséL.; Aldaz, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Irreversibly adsorbed cyanide adlayers formed on single-crystal platinum electrodes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy in a perchloric medium. A vibrational band around 2100 cm -1 was assigned to the C-N stretching vibration of adsorbed cyanide on the three electrode surfaces. Cyanide adlayers seem to be stable on Pt(111) in a wide range of potentials. Tuning rates of 100 and 30 cm -1 V -1 were measured for the band at 2100 cm -1 below and above 0.5 V, respectively. Adsorbed cyanide has a complex behavior on Pt(100). The polarization of the cyanide-covered Pt(100) electrode in the potential region below 0.4 V (RHE) leads to the formation of a CO adlayer (band at 1820 cm -1). The oxidation of adsorbed cyanide on the Pt(100) electrode produces CO 2 (band at 2344 cm -1) and adsorbed NO (band at 1624 cm -1), which shows a characteristic voltammetric behavior. Adsorbed cyanate (band at 2175 cm -1) was also identified as an intermediate product during adsorbed cyanide oxidation on Pt(100). Finally, for Pt(110), adsorbed cyanide is slowly desorbed below 0.1 V (RHE).

  11. Effect of the cyanide-producing bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum on ultraflat Au surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lintern Fairbrother; Joe Shapter; Joël Brugger; Gordon Southam; Allan Pring; Frank Reith

    2009-01-01

    Solubilization, transport and re-precipitation of Au in the supergene environment can lead to the formation of secondary Au enrichment zones, revealed as geochemical anomalies and secondary gold grains. Cyanide-producing microorganisms can contribute to the solubilization of Au, and the cyanide produced may play an important role in the formation of ‘bacterioform’ structures observed on gold grains. To examine the effect

  12. Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, G.E.

    1996-02-01

    Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

  13. PEPTIDE FORMATION MEDIATED BY HYDROGEN CYANIDE TETRAMER: A POSSIBLE PREBIOTIC PROCESS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sherwood; Flores, Jose; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1969-01-01

    Chemical evolution on the primitive earth must have involved condensation of ?-amino acids to peptides. Under aqueous conditions consistent with current conceptions of primordial waters, heating glycerine with the hydrogen cyanide tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile, yields dipeptide. If nitrogen was cycled through primordial waters as cyanide, peptide synthesis by stepwise tetramer-mediated condensation of ?-amino acids would have been a plausible process. PMID:5264133

  14. The Mechanisms Involved in Seed Dormancy Alleviation by Hydrogen Cyanide Unravel the Role of Reactive

    E-print Network

    Leubner, Gerhard

    of the ethylene signaling pathway. We propose that ROS play a key role in the control of sunflower seed in the alleviation of embryo dormancy in sunflower seeds. Interestingly, this dormancy breaking effect of cyanideThe Mechanisms Involved in Seed Dormancy Alleviation by Hydrogen Cyanide Unravel the Role

  15. Simultaneous degradation of cyanide and phenol in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Mishra, Ram Sushil; Jadhav, Shilpa V; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, T

    2011-07-01

    Coal coking, precious metals mining and nitrile polymer industries generate over several billion liters of cyanide-containing waste annually. Economic and environmental considerations make biological technologies attractive for treatment of wastes containing high organic content, in which the microbial cultures can remove concentrations of organics and cyanide simultaneously. For cyanide and phenol bearing waste treatment, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor has been developed, which successfully removed free cyanide 98% (with feed concentration of 20 mg 1(-1)) in presence of phenol. The effect of cyanide on phenol degradation was studied with varying concentrations of phenol as well as cyanide under anaerobic conditions. This study revealed that the methanogenic degradation of phenol can occur in the presence of cyanide concentration 30-38 mg 1(-1). Higher cyanide concentration inhibited the phenol degradation rate. The inhibition constant Ki was found to be 38 mg 1(-1) with phenol removal rate of 9.09 mg 1(-1.) x h. PMID:23029928

  16. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE REMAINS OF THREE TEN FOOT DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS ARE AT CENTER. THE SCATTER IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND IS THE REMAINS OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR HOLDING TANK POSSIBLY A SETTLING TANK. THIS AREA WAS MOST LIKELY CONSTRUCTED LATER IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AFTER MINING HAD CEASED AND ONLY TAILINGS WERE BEING RECLAIMED. AN EXACT DATE CANNOT BE DETERMINED HOWEVER THESE WORKS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT. THE SANDY AREA THAT OCCUPIES THE FOREGROUND AND THE CENTER ARE TAILINGS. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Photoluminescence of silver(I) and gold(I) cyanide 1D coordination polymers Craig A. Bayse a,

    E-print Network

    Pike, Robert D.

    Photoluminescence of silver(I) and gold(I) cyanide 1D coordination polymers Craig A. Bayse a Keywords: Time-dependent density functional theory Photoluminescence Coinage metal cyanides a b s t r a c t Silver(I) and gold(I) cyanides exist as 1D coordination polymers and are photoluminescent on the edge

  19. Cyanogenesis in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen. PMID:16667728

  20. Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

    2012-09-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 ?g cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 ?g cyanide/g and 200 ?g amygdalin/g. PMID:22564183

  1. Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L; Whelan, H T; Eells, J T; Meng, H; Buchmann, E; Lerch-Gaggl, A; Wong-Riley, M

    2006-05-12

    Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously. PMID:16464535

  2. Accumulation of ?-Keto Acids as Essential Components in Cyanide Assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Daniel A.; Chen, Jui-Lin; Pan, Guangliang

    1998-01-01

    Pyruvate (Pyr) and ?-ketoglutarate (?Kg) accumulated when cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 were cultivated on growth-limiting amounts of ammonia or cyanide and were shown to be responsible for the nonenzymatic removal of cyanide from culture fluids as previously reported (J.-L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61–67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 ?mol of cyanide removed min?1 ml of culture fluid?1) being recovered after 72 h of cultivation, at which time the keto acid concentration was 23 mM. The reaction products that formed between the biologically formed keto acids and cyanide were unambiguously identified as the corresponding cyanohydrins by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the Pyr and ?-Kg cyanohydrins were further metabolized by cell extracts and served also as nitrogenous growth substrates. Radiotracer experiments showed that CO2 (and NH3) were formed as enzymatic conversion products, with the keto acid being regenerated as a coproduct. Evidence that the enzyme responsible for cyanohydrin conversion is cyanide oxygenase, which was shown previously to be required for cyanide utilization, is based on results showing that (i) conversion occurred only when extracts were induced for the enzyme, (ii) conversion was oxygen and reduced-pyridine nucleotide dependent, and (iii) a mutant strain defective in the enzyme was unable to grow when it was provided with the cyanohydrins as a growth substrate. Pyr and ?Kg were further shown to protect cells from cyanide poisoning, and excretion of the two was directly linked to utilization of cyanide as a growth substrate. The results provide the basis for a new mechanism of cyanide detoxification and assimilation in which keto acids play an essential role. PMID:9797306

  3. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN- anion over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SCN- and ClO4- by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN- in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN- is down to 8.8 × 10-8 M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9 × 10-6 M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN- test kit to detect CN- in pure water for “in-the-field” measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  4. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN).

  5. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. PMID:23726700

  6. The Rockefeller Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation is one of the largest private philanthropic entities in the United States. In the past year, it awarded over $140 million in grants to numerous organizations working and researching topics of interest to the Foundation. The Rockefeller Foundation currently has five primary program themes: creativity and culture, food security, health equity, working communities, and global inclusion. While the Foundation typically operates as "a proactive grantmaker," persons working for organizations that perform work or research in these five thematic areas will find perusing this website to be quite helpful. Here visitors can find out about current grant recipients, search the contents of the entire site, and learn more about the Foundation's overall mission and vision. Additionally, quite a few of the foundation's publications and papers are available for download here, including important works on HIV prevention in the developing world, inequities in health care, nonprofit capital, and inner city renewal in the United States.

  7. Arbor Day Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Arbor Day was first observed in 1872, and the Arbor Day Foundation was founded in 1972 in Nebraska. The Arbor Day website contains a trove of information for visitors to peruse, make plans around, and learn from. The "Trees" section of the website includes "What Tree is That?", an online guide for tree identification; a "Tree Guide", that covers more than 200 different species of trees; and a quiz called "The Right Tree in the Right Place", about how and why to first make a simple plan, considering size and shape, when planting trees around a house. The "Programs" section of the website is an excellent resource for visitors such as teachers, parents and students. "Nature Explore" helps connect kids with nature via the "Resource Guide", which contains "field-tested resources developed to bring nature into children's daily learning in sustainable, significant, positive and joyful ways." Interested visitors can use the link entitled "Request a Resource Guide", to get a free copy. "Nature Explore Classroom Certification" links teachers to the certification process and examples of certified classrooms and classrooms in-progress.

  8. Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    international students adjust to living and learning in a different culture and language. Our data shows. Youwillbetaughtinsmallgroupswithahighlevelof learningsupportonourmainHighfieldcampus.The FoundationYearfostersthedevelopmentofaclose-knit

  9. Effect of harvesting frequency, variety and leaf maturity on nutrient composition, hydrogen cyanide content and cassava foliage yield.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

    2012-12-01

    The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

  10. Scale-up study of a multiphase photocatalytic reactor--degradation of cyanide in water over TiO2.

    PubMed

    Motegh, Mahsa; van Ommen, J Ruud; Appel, Peter W; Kreutzer, Michiel T

    2014-02-01

    This paper provides an integrated view on various aspects of reactor design for photocatalytic reactions and presents a scale-up study of photocatalytic reactors. This study focuses on degrading organic pollutants in the effluent of an integrated gasification coal combustion plant over TiO2, with the target of degrading cyanide to below its allowable emission threshold set by European legislation. Here, we show the interplay of different efficiencies that affect the overall apparent photonic efficiency and the reactor volume required to achieve a certain objective in conversion. The chosen reactor configuration is rectangular slurry-bubble-columns-in-series to ensure a good mass transfer rate per photoreactor while approaching plug-flow behavior as a sum, and a high reactor surface-area-to-volume ratio for a good capture of incident photons. We consider a simple 1D photonic description of a photoreactor, in the direction of incident solar light, and implement a bidirectional scattering model for photocatalytic particles and bubbles to calculate the local rate of photon absorption and the photon absorption efficiency in the photoreactor. We show that, implementing the principles of process intensification, the large scale degradation of cyanide to below European emission limits is achievable. PMID:24359022

  11. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Thanh Van, Do Thi; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa; Spörndly, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter), K98-7 (medium bitter) and a local (sweet), were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05). Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves. PMID:25049534

  12. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Berneski

    2011-12-10

    Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

  13. Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

  14. Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

  15. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  16. Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Latif Ibrahim, Abdul; Cass, Anthony E G

    2015-03-21

    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant. PMID:25723061

  17. Foundations and Piles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrate Publishing provides this engineering information site, which is an excellent resource for anyone who needs background information on building structures. This specific page offers an introduction to some of the common types of foundations and piles used for building construction. Both definitions and illustrations of common foundation types are included here for your perusal.

  18. Foundations of Software Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cem Kaner

    2011-06-01

    This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes lecture videos, slides, suggested readings, and study questions focusing on the Foundations of Software Testing including: basic terminology, the mission of testing, the oracle problem, the measurement problem, the impossibility of complete testing, and relevant foundational concepts from the computer science field.

  19. Open Bioinformatics Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Researchers can share their open source code software on websites such as this one from the Open Bioinformatics Foundation. Here, visitors can find information about the Foundation's projects (including BioJava, BioPerl, and BioRuby), board of directors, applications for membership, and bioinformatics newsletters.

  20. The William Penn Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1945, Otto and Phoebe Haas created the Phoebe Waterman Foundation in order to respond to a variety of social problems. Some of their first work included funds given for European relief and scholarships for fatherless children. In 1974, the Foundation changed its name to the William Penn Foundation to honor its association with the city of Philadelphia. Today, the Foundation's mission is "to advance a vital, just, and caring community." Their website provides great details on their work, and by extension, it also provides helpful material on the state of the Philadelphia region. Visitors can start their journey through the materials via the three primary sections of the site, which include "Arts & Culture" and "Environment & Communities". Along with the information about the grants available in each category, users will find reports and news updates regarding each thematic area. Moving on, the "Newsroom" contains briefs on the Foundation's activities and initiatives with other organizations and government agencies.

  1. Cultivating Foundation Support for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mary Kay, Ed.

    The process of acquiring financial support from private foundations is discussed in 26 essays, divided into five categories (Targeting the Foundation Market; Getting Started: Tools of the Trade; The Process of Foundation Fund Raising; The Grant Maker's Perspective; and Focused Programs and Foundation Support). A prologue, "Ethics and Foundation…

  2. Two dimensional heteronuclear complexes with cyanide and 4-aminomethylpyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaa?aç, Dursun; Kürkçüo?lu, Güne? Süheyla; Ye?ilel, Okan Zafer; MuratTa?

    2014-09-01

    Two new cyano-bridged two-dimensional heteronuclear complexes, [Cd(NH3)2(?-ampy)Ni(?-CN)2(CN)2]n (1) and [Cd(H2O)2(?-ampy)Pt(?-CN)2(CN)2]n (2) (ampy = 4-aminomethylpyridine), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic, thermal (TG, DTG and DTA) and elemental analyses and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. They crystallize in the triclinic system and P-1 space group. The Ni(II) or Pt(II) ions are four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry and the Cd(II) ion exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination by two different N-atoms from two symmetrically equivalent ampy ligands, two ammine or aqua ligands and two bridging cyano groups.The most important features of the complexes are the presence of obvious M⋯? (M = Ni(II) or Pt(II)) interactions.

  3. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S=45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  4. A ferromagnetically coupled Fe42 cyanide-bridged nanocage.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soonchul; Zheng, Hui; Liu, Tao; Hamachi, Kohei; Kanegawa, Shinji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Shiota, Yoshihito; Hayami, Shinya; Mito, Masaki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Nakano, Motohiro; Baker, Michael L; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Duan, Chunying; Sato, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of artificial nanoscale units into superstructures is a prevalent topic in science. In biomimicry, scientists attempt to develop artificial self-assembled nanoarchitectures. However, despite extensive efforts, the preparation of nanoarchitectures with superior physical properties remains a challenge. For example, one of the major topics in the field of molecular magnetism is the development of high-spin (HS) molecules. Here, we report a cyanide-bridged magnetic nanocage composed of 18 HS iron(III) ions and 24 low-spin iron(II) ions. The magnetic iron(III) centres are ferromagnetically coupled, yielding the highest ground-state spin number (S = 45) of any molecule reported to date. PMID:25562786

  5. Protein kinase c inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Nealley, E.W.; Song, H.; Wang, P.C.; Baskin, S.I.

    1995-12-31

    We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, l-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 3/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, I mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

  6. Horizontal displacements of rock foundations of dams

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    This paper uses geodetic survey methods to assess the horizontal displacements of dam foundations for several hydroelectric power plants in the Soviet Union. The effects of filling the reservoirs are outlined and the dependence of the degree of displacement on dam height is analyzed. The results are tabulated.

  7. Engineering of the heme pocket of an H-NOX domain for direct cyanide detection and quantification.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhou; Boon, Elizabeth M

    2010-08-25

    A new cyanide sensing system, the Heme-Nitric oxide and/or OXygen binding domain (H-NOX domain) from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX), has been investigated. With straightforward absorbance-based detection, we have achieved a cyanide detection limit of 0.5 microM (approximately 10 ppb) with an upper detection range that is adjustable with protein concentration. We find a linear correlation of multiple spectroscopic features with cyanide concentration. These spectroscopic features include the Soret band maximum and absorbance changes in both the Soret and alpha/beta band regions of the spectrum. Multiple probes for cyanide detection makes sensing with Tt H-NOX unique compared to other cyanide sensing methods. Furthermore, using site-directed mutagenesis, we have rationally engineered the heme pocket of Tt H-NOX to improve its cyanide sensing properties. Using a mutant that alters the heme structure of Tt H-NOX (P115A) we were able to introduce colorimetric detection of cyanide. Through substituting phenylalanine 78 with a smaller (valine, F78V) or a larger residue (tyrosine, F78Y), we demonstrate a correlation with distal pocket steric crowding and affinity for cyanide. In particular, F78V Tt H-NOX shows a significant increase in CN(-) binding affinity and selectivity. Thus, we demonstrate the ability to fine-tune the affinity and specificity of Tt H-NOX for cyanide, suggesting that Tt H-NOX can be readily tailored into a practical cyanide sensor. PMID:20684546

  8. MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

  9. DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE IN ALUMINUM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the results obtained from conv...

  10. A coumarin-indole based colorimetric and "turn on" fluorescent probe for cyanide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu; Dai, Xi; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel coumarin-indole based chemodosimeter with a simple structure was designed and prepared via a condensation reaction in high yield. The probe exhibited very high selectivity towards cyanide on both fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, which allowed it to quantitatively detect and imaging cyanide ions in organic-aqueous solution by either fluorescence enhancement or colorimetric changes. Confirmed by (1)H NMR and HRMS spectra, the detection mechanism was proved to be related with the Michael addition reaction induced by cyanide ions, which blocked the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the probe. Moreover, the probe was able to be utilized efficiently in a wide pH range (7.5-10) with negligible interference from other anions and a low detection limit of 0.51?M. Application in 5 kinds of natural water source and accurate detection of cyanide in tap water solvent system also indicated the high practical significance of the probe. PMID:25490042

  11. A coumarin-indole based colorimetric and 'turn on' fluorescent probe for cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu; Dai, Xi; Zhao, Bao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel coumarin-indole based chemodosimeter with a simple structure was designed and prepared via a condensation reaction in high yield. The probe exhibited very high selectivity towards cyanide on both fluorescence and UV-vis spectra, which allowed it to quantitatively detect and imaging cyanide ions in organic-aqueous solution by either fluorescence enhancement or colorimetric changes. Confirmed by 1H NMR and HRMS spectra, the detection mechanism was proved to be related with the Michael addition reaction induced by cyanide ions, which blocked the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) of the probe. Moreover, the probe was able to be utilized efficiently in a wide pH range (7.5-10) with negligible interference from other anions and a low detection limit of 0.51 ?M. Application in 5 kinds of natural water source and accurate detection of cyanide in tap water solvent system also indicated the high practical significance of the probe.

  12. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Quinn

    2005-05-02

    Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

  13. Impact of sodium cyanide on catalase activity in the freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muniswamy David; Vadingadu Munaswamy; Ramesh Halappa; Shambangouda R. Marigoudar

    2008-01-01

    The Cyprinus carpio fingerlings on exposure to lethal (1mg\\/L) and sub lethal concentrations (0.066mg\\/L) of sodium cyanide showed inhibition in the activity of catalase. The disruption of catalase activity in freshwater fish, C. carpio is demonstrated in the present study using UV–visible spectrophotometer at 240nm using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate. It suggests toxic effects of sodium cyanide and consequent

  14. Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ohishi, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saito, S.; Kaifu, N.

    1993-01-01

    We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K = 0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para)abundance ratio N(E)/N(A) = 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is N(total) = 5 x 10 exp 12/sq cm toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J = 1-0 lines.

  15. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime-based cyanide sensitive probes for physiological safeguard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramachandram Badugu; Joseph R. Lakowicz; Chris D. Geddes

    2004-01-01

    We characterize six new fluorescent probes that show both intensity and lifetime changes in the presence of free uncomplexed aqueous cyanide, allowing for fluorescence based cyanide sensing up to physiological safeguard levels, i.e. <30?M. One of the probes, m-BMQBA, shows a ?15-fold reduction in intensity and a ?10% change in mean lifetime at this level.The response of the new probes

  16. Multiparameter Behavioral Analyses Provide Insights to Mechanisms of Cyanide Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Parashar, Archana; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2013-01-01

    Environmental toxicants influence development, behavior, and ultimately survival. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an exceptionally powerful model for toxicological studies. Here, we develop novel technologies to describe the effects of cyanide toxicity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Importantly, we use these methods to examine the genetic underpinnings of cyanide resistance. Caenorhabditis elegans that lack the EGL-9 oxygen sensing enzyme have been shown to be resistant to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrate that the cyanide resistance exhibited by egl-9 mutants is completely dependent on the HIF-1 hypoxia-inducible factor and is mediated by the cysl-2 cysteine synthase, which likely functions in metabolic pathways that inactivate cyanide. Further, the expression of cysl-2 correlates with the degree of cyanide resistance exhibited in each genetic background. We find that each mutant exhibits similar relative resistance to HCN gas on plates or to aqueous potassium cyanide in microfluidic chambers. The design of the microfluidic devices, in combination with real-time imaging, addresses a series of challenges presented by mutant phenotypes and by the chemical nature of the toxicant. The microfluidic assay produces a set of behavioral parameters with increased resolution that describe cyanide toxicity and resistance in C. elegans, and this is particularly useful in analyzing subtle phenotypes. These multiparameter analyses of C. elegans behavior hold great potential as a means to monitor the effects of toxicants or chemical interventions in real time and to study the biological networks that underpin toxicant resistance. PMID:23805000

  17. The redox couple of the cytochrome c cyanide complex: The contribution of heme iron ligation to

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    The redox couple of the cytochrome c cyanide complex: The contribution of heme iron ligation to most heme proteins, ferrous cytochrome c does not bind ligands such as cyanide and CO. In order to the reduced protein was estimated to be 4.7· 10-3 LM-1 or 13.4 kJ/ mol (3.2 kcal/mol), which is 48.1 k

  18. Cyanide toxicity and interference with diet selection in quail (Coturnix coturnix).

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Roberta C; Cordeiro, Luiz Augusto V; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2010-04-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous substance in the environment. Most of the cyanide absorbed by an animal is detoxified by enzymatic combination with sulfur, thus the detoxification process imposes a nutritional cost. In mammals, interactions among nutrients and toxics may influence the composition of the diet and food intake, as a function of positive or negative post-ingestive feedback. The present work aimed to describe the toxic effects of cyanide, and to determine whether cyanide interferes with diet selection in quail (Coturnix coturnix). A toxicological study was performed with 27 female quails that were assigned to three groups that received by gavage 0, 1.0 or 3.0mg of KCN/kg/day, for 7 consecutive days. The diet selection trial was conducted with 20 female quails, that had access to two separate rations: a conventional quail ration and the same ration supplemented with 1% NaSO(4). During the toxicological study, clinical signs of poisoning and death occurred in a quail treated with cyanide. Histological changes were found only in animals dosed with cyanide, and these consisted of mild hepatic periportal vacuolation, an increased number of vacuoles in the colloid of the thyroid glands, and spongiosis in the mesencephalon. No clinical signs were found in any quail throughout the diet selection trial. There were no significant differences in food consumption or ration preference. In conclusion, exposure to cyanide promotes damage to the liver and central nervous system in quails. In contrast, the ingestion of sulfur by quail was not affected by exposure to cyanide. PMID:19969102

  19. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. I. Winters; K. H. Pool

    1994-01-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}CsâNiFe (CN)â) were produced in a scavenging process to remove ¹³⁷Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance

  20. Plant for the Planet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young Voices on Climate Change

    This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

  1. Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Olajire A; Adesuji, Temitope E; Thomas, Olusegun E

    2014-07-15

    The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30°C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN(-) concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN(-) in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution. PMID:24667418

  2. An effective method for the detoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater by Bacillus sp. CN-22.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chou-Fei; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Deng, Mao-Cheng; Feng, Lei; Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-04-01

    The biodetoxification of cyanide-rich wastewater has become increasingly popular because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness. Therefore, we have developed an effective method, optimised by response surface methodology, for detoxifying cyanide-rich wastewater using Bacillus sp. CN-22, which was newly isolated from a cyanide-contaminated electroplating sludge and could tolerate a CN? concentration of 700 mg L?¹. The concentration of CN? in the treated wastewater decreased from 200 to 6.62 mg L?¹ after cultivation with 2.38 % inocula for 72 h on the medium, consisting of 0.05 % KH?PO?, 0.15 % K?HPO?, 1.0 mM MgCl?, 1.0 mM FeCl?, 0.1 % NH?Cl, and 0.1 % glycerol. The CN? degradability of 96.69 % is similar to the predicted value of 96.82 %. The optimal cultivation conditions were controlled as follows: initial pH, 10.3; temperature, 31 °C; and rotary speed, 193 rpm. The maintenance of higher pH in the overall treatment procedures may avoid the production of volatile HCN and the risk associated with cyanide detoxification. Additionally, the bacterial strain Bacillus sp. CN-22, with its potent cyanide-degrading activity at the initial CN? concentration of 200 mg L?¹, may be employed to effectively treat cyanide-rich wastewater, especially electroplating effluent. PMID:24337345

  3. Novel colorimetric sensors for cyanide based on azo-hydrazone tautomeric skeletons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Olajire A.; Adesuji, Temitope E.; Thomas, Olusegun E.

    2014-07-01

    The monoazo dyes, 4-carboxyl-2, 6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes dyes (AZ-01, AZ-03 and AZ-04), were evaluated as a highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cyanide ion. The recognition of cyanide ion gave an obvious colour change from light yellow to brownish red and upon dilution with acetone produced a purple to lilac colour. Optimum conditions for the reaction between the azo dyes and cyanide ion were established at 30 °C for 5 min, and different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimised. Under the optimum conditions, linear relationships between the CN- concentrations and light absorption were established. Using these azo-hydrazone molecular switch entities, excellent selectivity towards the detection of CN- in aqueous solution over miscellaneous competitive anions was observed. Such selectivity mainly results from the possibility of nucleophilic attack on the azo-hydrazone chemosensors by cyanide anions in aqueous system, which is not afforded by other competing anions. The cyanide chemosensor method described here should have potential application as a new family probes for detecting cyanide in aqueous solution.

  4. Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and kidney beans on cyanide content.

    PubMed

    Chove, Bernard E; Mamiro, Peter R S

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide contents of locally purchased brown finger millet (Eleusine corocana L. Gaertner) and brown speckled kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaries var. Rose Coco) were determined using raw, germinated and autoclaved samples. The aim was to establish the extent of cyanide content increase resulting from the germination process and the effectiveness of the autoclaving process on the reduction of cyanide levels in the samples, for safety considerations. Autoclaving was carried out at 121degree C for 20 minutes. It was found that germination increased the cyanide content by 2.11 to 2.14 fold in finger millet for laboratory processed samples. In the case of kidney beans the increment was 1.76 to 1.77 fold for laboratory samples. The increments for field processed samples were in the same range as those for laboratory samples. Autoclaving reduced the cyanide content to between 61.8 and 65.9 % of the original raw contents for finger millet and between 56.6 to 57.8% in the case of kidney beans. The corresponding reductions for field samples were also found to be within the same ranges as the laboratory processed samples. It was concluded that autoclaving significantly reduced the cyanide levels in germinated finger millet and kidney beans. PMID:24409633

  5. Brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protectant mechanisms following acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ardelt, B K; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

    1989-06-01

    The status of brain antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels in mice intoxicated with KCN were correlated with lipid peroxidation in brain membranes. KCN (7 mg/kg, s.c.) rapidly increased conjugated dienes in brain lipids, with peak levels observed 30 min after cyanide treatment. At 60 min post cyanide, conjugated diene levels were only slightly elevated above controls. Temporal changes in activity of most antioxidant enzymes corresponded with the observed time course of cyanide-induced membrane lipid peroxidation. Thirty minutes after KCN, brain catalase (CA), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were significantly reduced (percent inhibition compared to control: CA 44%, GPX 30%, and GR 41%). At 60 min, CA and GPX enzyme activity returned to control levels, whereas GR was elevated 34% above control activity. Superoxide dismutase was not significantly inhibited 30 min after KCN, but declined to 71% of control activity at 60 min. Brain levels of reduced glutathione declined 42% below control 30 min after cyanide and returned to within 9.4% of control at 60 min. At 30 and 60 min after cyanide, oxidize glutathione levels were not significantly changed from control levels. These studies suggest that membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent membrane dysfunction observed in cyanide intoxication is related in part to a compromised antioxidant defense. PMID:2734799

  6. Impedance spectroscopy and conductometric biosensing for probing catalase reaction with cyanide as ligand and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bouyahia, Naima; Hamlaoui, Mohamed Larbi; Hnaien, Mouna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2011-02-01

    In this work, a new biosensor was prepared through immobilization of bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly (vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of a conductometric transducer. This biosensor was used to study the kinetics of catalase-H(2)0(2) reaction and its inhibition by cyanide. Immobilized catalase exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behaviour at low H(2)0(2) concentrations (<100mM) with apparent constant K(M)(app)=84±3mM and maximal initial velocity V(M)(app)=13.4?S min(-1). Inhibition by cyanide was found to be non-competitive and inhibition binding constant K(i) was 13.9±0.3?M. The decrease of the biosensor response by increasing cyanide concentration was linear up to 50?M, with a cyanide detection limit of 6?M. In parallel, electrochemical characteristics of the catalase/PVA biomembrane and its interaction with cyanide were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Addition of the biomembrane onto the gold electrodes induced a significant increase of the interfacial polarization resistance R(P). On the contrary, cyanide binding resulted in a decrease of Rp proportional to KCN concentration in the 4 to 50?M range. Inhibition coefficient I(50) calculated by this powerful label-free and substrate-free technique (24.3?M) was in good agreement with that determined from the substrate-dependent conductometric biosensor (24.9?M). PMID:20813591

  7. Cyanide levels found in infected cystic fibrosis sputum inhibit airway ciliary function.

    PubMed

    Nair, Chandrika; Shoemark, Amelia; Chan, Mario; Ollosson, Sarah; Dixon, Mellissa; Hogg, Claire; Alton, Eric W F W; Davies, Jane C; Williams, Huw D

    2014-11-01

    We have previously reported cyanide at concentrations of up to 150 ?M in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a negative correlation with lung function. Our aim was to investigate possible mechanisms for this association, focusing on the effect of pathophysiologically relevant cyanide levels on human respiratory cell function. Ciliary beat frequency measurements were performed on nasal brushings and nasal air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures obtained from healthy volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients. Potassium cyanide decreased ciliary beat frequency in healthy nasal brushings (n = 6) after 60 min (150 ?M: 47% fall, p<0.0012; 75 ?M: 32% fall, p<0.0001). Samples from cystic fibrosis patients (n = 3) showed similar results (150 ?M: 55% fall, p = 0.001). Ciliary beat frequency inhibition was not due to loss of cell viability and was reversible. The inhibitory mechanism was independent of ATP levels. KCN also significantly inhibited ciliary beat frequency in ALI cultures, albeit to a lesser extent. Ciliary beat frequency measurements on ALI cultures treated with culture supernatants from P. aeruginosa mutants defective in virulence factor production implicated cyanide as a key component inhibiting the ciliary beat frequency. If cyanide production similarly impairs mucocilliary clearance in vivo, it could explain the link with increased disease severity observed in cystic fibrosis patients with detectable cyanide in their airway. PMID:25186256

  8. Australian Mineral Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides details on the philosophy and operation of the Australian Mineral Foundation, established in 1970 to update professionals in the mining and petroleum industries. Services in continuing education courses and to secondary school teachers and students are described. (CS)

  9. Climate Code Foundation

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Nick; Jones, David

    2011-07-05

    Climate Code Foundation - who are we? A non-profit organisation founded in August 2010; our goal is to promote the public understanding of climate science, by increasing the visibility and clarity of the software used in climate science...

  10. Foundation Fighting Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campaign to End Blindness Other Ways to Fight Blindness Corporate Support Volunteer Take Action Honor a Loved ... taking place nationwide. Join Us We Are Ending Blindness The urgent mission of the Foundation Fighting Blindness ...

  11. National Ataxia Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... amm-presentations.aspx . New: Ataxia Research Studies Awarded Funding for FY 2015 The National Ataxia Foundation (NAF) ... Mexico, United Kingdom, Portugal, and Germany were awarded funding at the December 2014 NAF Board of Directors ...

  12. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find a cure for the deadly disease. BROADWAY STARS SHOW OFF THEIR BELTING TALENTS TO RAISE FUNDS ... Patients The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation has a four-star rating from Charity Navigator and is a Better ...

  13. Skin Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gala Young Associates After-Party A Night the Stars Shine On Road to Healthy Skin Tour International ... The Skin Cancer Foundation Gala A Night the Stars Shine On The Road to Healthy Skin Tour ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All proceeds benefit PDF research programs. Learn More Community Events Saturday, April 25, 2015, 8:30 AM - ... Sponsored Events Parkinson's Disease Foundation Calls Upon the Community to Shape Research During Parkinson's Awareness Month April ...

  15. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Foundation Top Stories Institute Assembles Team of 'All-Star Researchers' to Cure Hepatitis B March 30– The ... Blumberg Institute has recruited a team of “all Star researchers” who will focus exclusively on developing a ...

  16. National Hydrocephalus Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 15 years. There has been more research, new technology, procedures…’ and the list goes on. The National Hydrocephalus Foundation (NHF) provides knowledge, education, support, and assists in finding medical care. We’ ...

  17. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Site Map | Contact Us | Login OIF Resources Especially For Parents Adults Youth Medical Professionals Media About OI Information & Support Research & Studies Donate How to Help The Foundation Events Shop ...

  18. Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You can too. LEARN MORE KNOWLEDGE LEADS TO CURES. Stay informed with our newsletter. News & Current Events ... Research Foundation (MMRF) Launches Dr. Elsey's Fund to Cure Cancer READ MORE Press Releases March 18, 2015 ...

  19. Carcinoid Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer and NET Patients Take Control of Their Rare Diseases The Carcinoid Cancer Foundation and the patient ... diagnostics but also in the treatments of these rare cancers. View the video below: Home Disclaimer Privacy ...

  20. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded in 1988 by dedicated parents, physicians and friends. Our ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  1. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 09/15 Stem Cell Therapies and Research for Cystic Fibrosis 02/23/15 CF Foundation Meets with Private ... 01/30/15 President Obama Highlights Advances in Cystic Fibrosis Research as Model for Precision Medicine Initiative 01/ ...

  2. Cleft Palate Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... including Pierre Robin, Crouzon, and Treacher Collins. Student Scholarships The Cleft Palate Foundation is pleased to award several $500 scholarships each year to full-time college students with ...

  3. Set Theory and Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brown, Kevin

    About 90 "informal notes" by Kevin Brown on set theory and foundations: what is fuzzy logic, fractal logic, Cantor's diagonal proof, are all triangles isosceles, on Gauss's mountains, problems with the luminiferous aether, and many more.

  4. 9. May 20, 1963 SEED BUILDING FOUNDATION WALLS Under Construction. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. May 20, 1963 SEED BUILDING FOUNDATION WALLS Under Construction. Looking southeast showing north and west walls of Machinery Shed - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  5. The Groundwater Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Groundwater Foundation

    The Groundwater Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. This web site features a broad selection of educational tools for the protection and management of groundwater. Examples include fact sheets on groundwater conservation, children's educational projects, newsletters and other publications. The Groundwater Foundation also sponsors educational activities such as water festivals, source water protection programs, the Groundwater Guardian program, the Applying Community Technology Today project, professional training workshops, and summer camps for kids.

  6. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy) [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  7. The reactions of Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 oxidase with potassium cyanide.

    PubMed Central

    Barber, D; Parr, S R; Greenwood, C

    1978-01-01

    The binding of cyanide to both oxidized and ascorbate-reduced forms of Pseudomonas cytochrome c-551 oxidase was investigated. Spectral studies on the oxidized enzyme and its apoprotein showed that the ligand can bind to both the c and d, haem components of the molecule, and kinetic observations indicated that both chromophores reacted, under a variety of conditions, with very similar rates. Cyanide combination velocities were dependent on ligand concentration, and increasing the pH also accelerated the reaction; the second-order rate constant was estimated as approx. 0.2M-1 . s-1 at pH 7.0. The binding of cyanide to the protein was observed to have a considerable influence on reduction of the enzyme by ascorbate. Spectral and kinetic observations have revealed that the species haem d13+-cyanide and any unbound haem c may react relatively rapidly with the reductant, but the behaviour of cyanide-bound haem c indicates that it may not be reduced without prior dissociation of the ligand, which occurs relatively slowly. The reaction of reduced Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase with cyanide is radically different from that of the oxidized protein. In this case the ligand only binds to the haem d1 component and reacts much more rapidly. Stopped-flow kinetic measurements showed the binding to be biphasic in form. Both the rates of these processes were dependent on cyanide concentration, with the fast phase having a second-order rate constant of 9.3 X 10(5) M-1 . s-1 and the slow phase one of 2.3 X 10(5) M-1 . s-1. The relative proportions of the two phases also showed a dependency on cyanide concentration, the slower phase increasing as the cyanide concentration decreased. Computer simulations indicate that a reaction scheme originally proposed for the reaction of the enzyme with CO is capable of providing a reasonable explanation of the experimental results. Static-titration data of the reduced enzyme with with cyanide indicated that the binding was non-stoicheiometric, the ligand-binding curve being sigmoidal in shape. A Hill plot of the results yielded a Hill coefficient of 2.6. Images Fig. 9. PMID:32876

  8. Determination of cyanide in waste water by low-resolution surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on sol-gel substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Premasiri; R. H. Clarke; S. Londhe; M. E. Womble

    2001-01-01

    We introduce the concept of low-resolution surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for cyanide as a potentially highly useful, cost-effective approach to detection and analysis for monitoring water contamination. We present high-sensitivity, low-resolution measurements of cyanide in water using a solid-state gold sol-gel substrate. These data suggest a sensitivity limit for low-resolution SERS detection of cyanide in water in the region

  9. Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    PubMed

    Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Meagher, Robert L; Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2011-12-01

    The generalist moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) consists of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that differ in their distribution among host plant species. The corn strain prefers crop plants such as corn, sorghum, and cotton, while the rice strain is found in small grasses such as Cynodon spp. and rice. Little is known about the physiological factors that drive this host preference. Here, we report a feeding study with natural host plants and an artificial diet containing cyanide. We found that corn, two Cynodon spp. (bermudagrass C. dactylon (L.) Persoon, 'NuMex Sahara', and stargrass C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis Vanderyst, 'Florona'), and a hybrid between bermudagrass and stargrass, 'Tifton 85', exhibited differences in the concentration of the cyanogenic precursors or cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and the release of hydrogen cyanide per unit time or cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Corn plants released low levels of hydrogen cyanide, while stargrass had greater HCNp/HCNc than bermudagrass and 'Tifton 85'. Feeding studies showed that corn strain larvae experienced higher mortality than the rice strain when fed stargrass or artificial diet supplemented with cyanide. Also, corn strain larvae excreted higher levels of cyanogenic compounds than the rice strain when fed Cynodon spp. These differences in excretion suggest potential disparities in cyanide metabolism between the two strains. We hypothesize that differences in the susceptibility to cyanide levels in various host plants could play a role in driving strain divergence and what appears to be the incipient speciation of this moth. PMID:22173887

  10. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

  11. The Foundation Directory, Edition 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marianna O., Ed.; Bowers, Patricia, Ed.

    The fourth edition of "The Foundation Directory" lists and describes 5,454 foundations and surveys their grants. The directory was prepared from foundation reports and government records. The foundations listed either have assets of $500.00 or made grants totally at least $25,000.00 in the year of record. Education is the leading beneficiary of…

  12. Private Foundations. SPEC Kit 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Because of the variety in the nature and interests of foundations, libraries often seek an understanding of several foundations' interests, funding history, future plans, and strategies in terms of their own needs before approaching a single foundation. A review of foundation giving within the past few years shows that construction and expansion…

  13. Turn-on fluorogenic probes for the selective and quantitative detection of the cyanide anion from natural sources.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Teresa; Moreno, Daniel; Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Fernández, A Cristina; Rodríguez, Teresa; Rojo, Josefa; Cuevas, José V; Torroba, Tomás

    2013-06-01

    We report new indene derivatives that are good fluorogenic probes for the cyanide anion, one of which is a highly selective and sensitive fluorogenic probe for the fluorescent detection--as well as reliable quantification--of the cyanide anion in water or buffer, with a 10(3)-fold increase of fluorescence and low detection limit. It is therefore useful for the quantification of natural cyanide from aqueous extracts of green almond seeds, thus proving that the system is suitable for fast detection and quantification of cyanide from natural sources. PMID:23495242

  14. Physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-10-01

    Pressure-induced physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide (NaCN) have been studied up to 50 GPa in diamond-anvil cells, using micro-Raman spectroscopy and angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction. We observe three phase transitions in this pressure range: NaCN-IIA (orthorhombic, Immm), to NaCN-IIB (orthorhombic, Pmmn) at 4 GPa, to NaCN-III (monoclinic, Cm) at 8 GPa, and to NaCN-IV (tetragonal, P4mm) at 15 GPa, which is stable to 25 GPa. At higher pressures, NaCN-IV undergoes an irreversible chemical change, which occurs over a large pressure range between 25 and 34 GPa. The new material exhibits a broad yet strong Raman band at around 1550 cm-1, indicating the formation of C=N bonds in a similar configuration of carbon graphite. The absence of sharp diffraction lines in this material suggests an amorphous nature of CN polymer products.

  15. Suicidal cyanide ingestion as detailed in Final Exit.

    PubMed

    Cina, S J; Raso, D S; Conradi, S E

    1994-11-01

    Final Exit is an "informational aid" advocating the practice of active euthanasia and describing the proper method for the foolproof commission of suicide. Although it has been directed toward assisting the terminally ill patient who desires to terminate suffering, it has been suggested that the widespread availability of this book may result in its abuse. Specifically, there is growing concern that "do-it-yourself suicide manuals" could bring about the fruition of suicidal ideations that are relatively common among mentally ill patients and impressionable adolescents. Described is the suicidal ingestion of cyanide by a physically healthy 30-year-old man. His diary, found next to the body, contains a recipe for suicide copied verbatim from Derek Humphry's Final Exit. Although the decedent's history, the scene investigation, and the external examination strongly suggest an underlying psychiatric disorder, postmortem examination disclosed minimal underlying physical disease. This case graphically illustrates the abuse potential of this literary genre. To our knowledge, this is the first case of its kind to appear in the literature. We recommend that forensic pathologists and medical investigators familiarize themselves with the methods of suicide described in Final Exit. PMID:7815035

  16. The quest for complex molecules in space. Searches for cyanides related to n-propyl cyanide in Sgr B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, H. S. P.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J. U.; Schlemmer, S.

    2011-05-01

    A molecular line survey was carried out with the IRAM 30 m telecope toward the prolific hot core Sgr B2(N) in order to explore its molecular complexity. The entire 3 mm range as well as selected regions at 2 and 1.3 mm were covered. Notable results include the detections of aminoacetonitrile, ethyl formate, n-propyl cyanide, and the singly substituted 13C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide. There exists a branched isomer of n-propyl cyanide: iso-propyl cyanide. A search for this isomer in our line survey required a laboratory spectroscopic investigation beforehand. Even though promising emission features have been found for this as well as other, related molecules, there are rather few uncontaminated lines. Overlap by other emission or some absorption features occurs frequently, and uncertainties about the position of the baseline also contribute to considering detections to be inconclusive. Nevertheless, the determination of upper limits or abundances among isomers and related molecules will help to contrain astrochemical pathways. We will present our results and discuss promising strategies to search for complex molecules in space.

  17. The National Book Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The charge of the National Book Foundation has been to highlight great American writers and writings. As the preeminent organization devoted to literature "the Foundation has sought to fulfill this mission in two ways. Through The National Book Awards -- the nation's preeminent literary prize -- the Foundation recognizes books of exceptional merit written by Americans. Through its unique outreach programs featuring National Book Award authors, communities participate in the writing life of the nation by reading and writing together." Over the years, the awards have featured the names of such exemplary and inimitable authors as Saul Bellow, Rachel Carson, Thornton Wilder, William Faulkner, and Lauren Bacall, and include such genres as autobiography, poetry, religion, history, fiction, and more. With September 2003 came the addition of Stephen King -- the author of numerous short stories and books that take the reader through twisted, snaring plots in stories such as Carrie, Christine, and Misery -- to this illustrious list of honorees by receiving the foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. At this Web site, visitors can peruse a listing of all of the award winners, learn about the annual National Book Month (celebrated in October), and explore the many other offerings of the foundation including workshops, writing camps, and available resources.

  18. Colorimetric and luminescent bifunctional Ru(II) complexes for rapid and highly sensitive recognition of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Jin; Lin, Zhihong; Chen, Xiudan; Chen, Guonan

    2014-08-14

    Four ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2L1](PF6)2, [Ru(bpy)2L2](PF6)2, [Ru(dmb)2L1](PF6)2, and [Ru(dmb)2L2](PF6)2, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, L1 = 4-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine-4'-carboxaldehyde, and L2 = 4,4'-diformyl-2,2'-bipyridine, have been characterized for sensing cyanide based on the well-known formation of cyanohydrins. The structure of [Ru(dmb)2L2](PF6)2 is also determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Their cyanide anion binding properties in pure and aqueous acetonitrile solution were thoroughly examined by UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Upon the addition of cyanide to the solution of ruthenium(II) complexes at 298 K, a color change from orange to yellow and a luminescent variation from dark red to red-orange can be observed by the naked eye. The large blue shift of the absorption and emission spectra and significant enhancement of the emission intensity upon the addition of cyanide could be attributed to the formation of a cyanohydrin group by the selective reaction of the aldehyde group of the ruthenium(II) complexes with cyanide. Importantly, these kinds of ruthenium(II) complexes show a unique recognition of cyanide ions over other anions. The results reveal that this kind of ruthenium(II) complex containing an aldehyde group is an eligible sensor for cyanide anions. PMID:24957248

  19. Metalloporphyrin Co(III)TMPyP ameliorates acute, sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Amoscato, Andrew A; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2012-12-17

    The formation of Co(III)TMPyP(CN)(2) at pH 7.4 has been shown to be completely cooperative (?(H) = 2) with an association constant of 2.1 (±0.2) × 10(11). The kinetics were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and revealed a complicated net reaction exhibiting 4 phases at pH 7.4 under conditions where cyanide was in excess. The data suggest molecular HCN (rather than CN(-)) to be the attacking nucleophile around neutrality. The two slower phases do not seem to be present when cyanide is not in excess, and the other two phases have rates comparable to that observed for cobalamin, a known effective cyanide scavenger. Addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not affect the cooperativity of cyanide binding to Co(III)TMPyP, only lowered the equilibrium constant slightly to 1.2 (±0.2) × 10(11) and had an insignificant effect on the observed rate. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of Co(III)TMPyP as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of Co(III)TMPyP to sodium cyanide intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving mice to right themselves from a supine position being significantly decreased (9 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (33 ± 2 min). All observations were consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of Co(III)TMPyP operating through a cyanide-binding (i.e., scavenging) mechanism. PMID:23148604

  20. The Commonwealth Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created in 1965, the Commonwealth Foundation was created with a mandate to strengthen civil society in all of the member nations. Membership of the Foundation is open to all Commonwealth countries and as of 2006 membership stood at 45 governments. Over the past four decades, they have worked on issues including human rights, gender equality, poverty eradication, and good governance. As might be expected, the site contains ample material on their various initiatives, along with information for those who might be seeking funding for their own projects (if they happen to be a citizen of a member Commonwealth). The "Resource Material" includes audiovisual materials that include some very fun and interesting short stories submitted for the annual Commonwealth Short Story Competition and their in-house publication, "Commonwealth People". For visitors who wish to stay abreast of the Foundation's work, there is a place here to sign up to receive their electronic newsletter.

  1. Practical Chemistry: Nuffield Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Young people and others should know about the foundations of modern chemistry and this novel site from the Nuffield Foundation provides a nice mixture of resources to accomplish this goal. The Foundation partnered with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to create this trove, which visitors will find easy to use and navigate. As the authors describe it, these practical activities are designed to "enable students to apply and extend their knowledge and understanding of chemistry in novel investigative situations." It's important to browse the Topics area, as this contains sections like States of Matter, Bonding, structure, properties, Analysis, Energy and entropy, and The Earth and atmosphere. The great thing about these activities is that they are self-contained, and they require only a modest investment in actual materials and educational background. Finally, the Standard Techniques area will help visitors learn some lab basics, including the heating of various substances, using thermometers properly, and the correct use of a Bunsen burner.

  2. The Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Foundation was founded "by an international group of physicians and researchers to provide an ongoing exchange of information about MDS." For those unfamiliar with this condition, MDS "is a collection of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells." The MDS Foundation website offers free resources for clinicians, information for patients, international research updates, and information about upcoming and past symposia. The site also provides an extensive list of MDS Centers of Excellence throughout the United States and around the world. Other MDS Foundation services include an International MDS Patient Registry; online forums for patients and professional members; downloadable newsletters; links to related articles and archived abstracts; and related links.

  3. Ford Foundation: Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-29

    Every year, the Ford Foundation produces reams of working papers, policy documents, and research briefs. This section of the website provides users with access to annual reports, a multimedia area, regional brochures, and studies. Visitors interested in the operations and priorities of the Ford Foundation should definitely peruse its annual report, as it contains information about groups the Foundation funds and its thematic areas of operation. The reports here date back to 2000. The multimedia area contains video programs that cover topics like human rights, American values, and a rather intriguing program titled "Demystifying Global Finance." Scholars and policy makers will want to consider the diverse group of studies here, including "Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education" and "Liberal Education and Civic Engagement." Also, the site includes a helpful search engine which can be used to find specific resources quickly.

  4. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1966, the Kauffman Foundation was the brainchild of Ewing Kauffman who displayed a great curiosity about the world and who also happened to be a great believer in the importance of philanthropy. Over the past forty years, the Foundation has worked on a variety of initiatives, including work on supporting early education, entrepreneurship, and school reform. On the homepage, visitors will find five primary sections, including "Advancing Innovation", "Education", and "Research & Policy". The first place to start is the "Research & Policy" area. Here, visitors can find data reports and analysis papers on national entrepreneurship trends and technology innovation strategies. In each section, visitors can also view media clips featuring commentary from Kauffman Foundation scholars and experts. Moving on, the "Grants" area is a great way to learn about grant opportunities and recipients listed by date and name. Finally, the "Stay Connected" area contains a place where visitors can sign up to receive their various e-newsletters.

  5. The Asia Foundation: Multimedia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Asia Foundation counts 21 countries as members of the Asia-Pacific region that it concerns itself with, to "build a peaceful, prosperous, just, and open Asia-Pacific region." The "Multimedia" section of their website contains both slideshows and videos. There are many short videos that highlight the Asia Foundation's Books for Asia program, which provides books to schoolchildren whose schools and families have limited access. The video "Return to Khishig Undur: The Tale of Peter Rabbit" is worth watching, as it tells the heartwarming story of students in a 4th grade class in a remote village in Mongolia who each received a copy of The Tale of Peter Rabbit from the Asia Foundation. This book was chosen as a result of the over 10,000 people who voted for a children's book in the "Choose a Book. Change a Life" campaign.

  6. World Lung Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lung diseases and related conditions are serious matters, and the World Lung Foundation is dedicated to improving lung health in all regions of the world. The Foundation works with a number of like-minded organizations, including the World Health Organization and the STOP TB Partnership. The Foundation is primarily concerned with researching lung ailments such as acute respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and they also have created a number of education and training programs for health personnel. The site contains six primary thematic areas, including "Tobacco", "TB and Lung Disease", and "Lung Health News". First-time visitors will want to look at the "Lung Health News" area first, as it contains a number of direct news links to recent articles that deal primarily with the worldwide fight against tuberculosis. The site also contains a rather helpful photo image library that includes images of air pollution, tobacco use, and asthma.

  7. Russell Sage Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1907 by Mrs. Margaret Olivia Sage, the Russell Sage Foundation was established for "the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States". Located in New York City, the Foundation is a source of funds for scholars at various institutions around the country and is also an active research center. Currently, the Foundation is pursuing three principal programs, including one on the future of work, another on current U.S. immigration, and a final program that deals with understanding and improving relations between racial and ethnic groups in schools, workplaces, and neighborhood settings. As might be expected, the publication section is quite strong, and includes a number of working papers available at no charge as .pdf files. Some of the titles include studies of welfare recipients and the rise of markets in the Western world.

  8. The Eurasia Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Under the banner of â??Engaging Citizens, Empowering Communitiesâ?, the Eurasia Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Incorporated in 1992, the Eurasia Foundation has made over $335 million in grants to countries in the region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. In general, the Foundation works within three broad mandate areas, including private enterprise development, public administration and policy and civil society. Visitors are invited to learn about their activities on the website, and they may do so by browsing by geographical region, or by looking within the â??Publicationsâ? area. This area contains annual reports, news briefs, and feature reports, which include recent titles such as â??Opening the Georgian Militaryâ? and â??Promoting the Non-Profit Sector in the Pamirsâ?.

  9. Meningitis Research Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in the United Kingdom, the Meningitis Research Foundation is a charity organization focused on the prevention and treatment of meningitis (and associated infections) through research and public education. The Foundation website describes common symptoms (with photographs); and contains a variety of specific information about meningitis and septicaemia. For health professionals, the site offers "guidance notes and protocols to promote best practice in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with meningitis and septicaemia." The website's Research section contains separate Public Information and Scientific Information sections as well as separate Scientific and Layperson's Archive sections with reports from funded projects. The Foundation website provides audio and written information about meningitis and speticaemia in 18 languages.

  10. Film Noir Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

  11. The Groundwater Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Groundwater Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. The section Groundwater Basics contains numerous information on groundwater issues, including the following subjects: what is groundwater; how much do we depend on groundwater; groundwater protection, hydrologic cycle, contamination and concerns, sources of groundwater contamination, wells and how they work, ten ways to help conserve and protect groundwater, groundwater ABCs - a glossary of groundwater-related terminology, and source water assessment and protection guide and training materials. Also of interest are kids and youth sections with activities and games, as well as a listing of the foundation's publications and events.

  12. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife, including bats, is capping the concentration of cyanide in tailings discharged to open impoundments at 50 mg/L WAD. PMID:24566971

  13. Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions.

    PubMed

    Aresta, M; Boscolo, M; Franco, D W

    2001-06-01

    The role of copper(II) species in the oxidation of inorganic cyanide to cyanate and in the conversion of cyanate or urea into ethyl carbamate was investigated. The oxidation process has been shown to be independent from the dissolved oxygen. Elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy have shown the formation of a mixed copper carbonate/hydroxide in the process of oxidation of cyanide to cyanate in water/ethanol. The complexation to Cu(II) of cyanate formed upon cyanide oxidation makes the former more susceptible to nucleophilic attack from ethanol, with conversion into ethyl carbamate. Comparatively, urea has a minor role with respect to cyanide in the formation of ethyl carbamate. Therefore, the urea present in some samples of Brazilian sugar cane spirit (cachaça) has been shown to have almost no influence on the ethyl carbamate content of cachaças, which comes essentially from cyanide. Fe(II,III) affords results similar to those found with Cu(II). Some suggestions are presented to avoid ethyl carbamate formation in spirits during distillation. PMID:11409971

  14. Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

    2013-01-01

    Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

  15. Application of advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of cyanide containing effluent.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Qureshi, T I; Min, K S

    2003-10-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for the removal of cyanide in the effluent of plating industry by the application of advanced oxidation processes. Four systems with different modes of oxidation in combination of ultra violet (UV) light with hydrogen peroxide and/or ozone were investigated. Of all the applied systems, UV-light with two oxidants, i.e. O3 (32 mg min(-1)), and H2O2 (1.36 g l(-1)) was found successful in bringing down the amount of cyanide from 157.32 mg l(-1) to 1.0 mg l(-1), which is the limit set by the Ministry of Environment of Korea for cyanide-containing discharges. Other systems, however, could not bring the cyanide abatement to the targeted value even with higher dosage of oxidants and an extended period of reaction time. Regardless of the oxidation modes applied, all the heavy metal ions in the treated effluent were reduced to 90%. Ultra violet light with the combination of two oxidants had the economic preference over the other systems since a relatively lower dosage of UV-light (2484 W-S cm(-2)) was found effective at achieving the targeted level of cyanide removal. PMID:14669807

  16. Cyanide/isocyanide abundances in the interstellar medium - III. The excitation of Al and Mg compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Vera, Mario; Lique, François

    2015-04-01

    Cyanide species are the most common metal-containing molecules in the circumstellar gas. The exact determination of their abundances requires accurate molecular data. For this purpose, collisional excitation rate coefficients are essential in order to simulate the excitation processes and hence to model the emission lines. In this paper, we use the aluminium cyanide (AlCN), aluminium isocyanide (AlNC), magnesium cyanide (MgCN) and magnesium isocyanide (MgNC) collisional data recently computed to simulate the excitation of these molecules in the circumstellar gas. We perform radiative transfer calculations for typical physical conditions encountered in the circumstellar gas. We obtain the brightness and excitation temperatures of selected lines frequently observed towards the circumstellar envelopes. In circumstellar gas, we have found that local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are not fulfilled for these species and that radiative transfer calculations are needed in order to accurately determine their abundances. The calculations also show that the estimations of the cyanides/isocyanides abundance ratios deduced from line intensities ratios lead to large differences compared to exact radiative transfer calculations. Finally, the results confirm that AlCN and MgCN are significantly less abundant than AlNC and MgNC, respectively. This shows again the evidence of selective cyanide chemistry.

  17. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    PubMed

    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources. PMID:23395455

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 414 - Non-Complexed Metal-Bearing Waste Streams and Cyanide-Bearing Waste Streams

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ammoxidation of propylene Iminodiacetic acid/Hexamethylene tetraamine + Hydrogen cyanide, hydrolysis of iminoacetonitrile salt Methionine/Acrolein + Methyl mercaptan, with hydrogen cyanide and ammonium carbonate Nitrilotriacetic acid/Hexamethylene...

  19. Foundations 6% Federal 49%

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Other 12% Foundations 6% Federal 49% State & Local 32% 8 SPONSORS The following sponsors Laboratories Small Business Administration Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command U.S. Department of Commerce U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Education U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Navy United

  20. The Broad Foundations, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 foundation report provides an opportunity to look back and ahead as the organization reviews what has been accomplished and identifies challenges to be tackled in the future in the areas of education, scientific and medical research, and the arts. Grant making from the perspective of grantees is presented in each area. [This document was…

  1. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  2. Foundations of logic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lloyd

    1984-01-01

    The author provides an account of the mathematical foundations of logic programming. The reader should have a strong background in mathematics and be familiar with a logic programming language such as PROLOG. Includes chapter problems, references for further study, and a subject index. Contents: Declarative semantics. Procedural semantics. Negation. Perpetual processes. Index.

  3. Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    CHAPTER 1 Emotion Regulation CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS JAMES J. GROSS ROSS A. THOMPSON Standing, paper or plastic are made. Quotidian acts of emotion regulation such as this constitute one important- changes that require us to regulate how emotions are experienced and expressed. But what do people do

  4. Nobel Foundation's Centennial Speech

    Cancer.gov

    The following talk was given as part of the Nobel Foundation's Centennial Symposia at which Nobel Laureates and other prominent researchers offered scientific, scholarly and popular talks. Dr. Varmus spoke as part of the program "Beyond Genes," held December 6-8, 2001, at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.

  5. Planetary Coral Reef Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

  6. Brain Aneurysm Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Brain Aneurysm... Read More Introducing our new mobile app for Android or iPhone! January 30, 2014 Read More Prev Next 1 of 1 ©2015 Brain Aneurysm Foundation Footer menu Site Map Disclaimer Contact: office @bafound.org (888) 272-4602 Website Design: Communication via Design, Ltd.

  7. Foundation for Enterprise Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Foundation for Enterprise Development: a comprehensive resource on equity compensation, employee involvement and other leading business strategies. Descriptions of equity compensation methods, the latest research and statistics, and case studies of successful employee owned firms such as Polaroid and Avis.

  8. South Asian Physics Foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Hirschfelder; Vidhya Ramachandran

    2011-01-01

    The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in

  9. Foundations of Biomolecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Kaplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for “Development of Multiscale Models for Complex Chemical Systems”. The honored work from the 1970s has provided a foundation for the widespread activities today in modeling organic and biomolecular systems. PMID:24315087

  10. Foundations/History/Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 20 syllabi for courses on educational foundations, history, and philosophy are discussed, and five sample syllabi are presented. These courses are offered as part of graduate level studies in the field of higher education administration. The review revealed the following profile: the history of higher education…

  11. The Annenberg Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    Born in 1908, Walter H. Annenberg wore many hats during his long career, including publisher, broadcaster, and Ambassador to the Court of St. James, Great Britain from 1969 to 1974. He remains perhaps best known for his devotion to philanthropy and the work done by The Annenberg Foundation, which he established in 1989. Visitors to the site can learn about their work, and also learn about how to apply for a grant from the Foundation. The "News" section on the site's homepage provides concise details about their latest funding endeavors, such as their donations to disaster relief programs and literacy programs in Philadelphia. Users may also wish to read their 15th anniversary report, which details how the Foundation has made grants totaling more than $2.8 billion. The site is rounded out by a selection of links that lead directly to other programs and organizations established by the Foundation, such as the Annenberg Media organization and the Annenberg Institute for School Reform.

  12. Childhood Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... related fundraising projects go to the Childhood Brain… Amazon Smile When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price to ... Brain Tumor Foundation. Bookmark the link http://smile.amazon.com/ch/52-2122976 and support us every ...

  13. Logical Foundations Semantic Web

    E-print Network

    Sattler, Ulrike

    Logical Foundations for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks and Ulrike Sattler University of Manchester Manchester, UK {horrocks|sattler}@cs.man.ac.uk #12;Introduction #12;History of the Semantic Web · Web of the Web was much more ambitious than the reality of the existing (syntactic) Web: · TBL (and others) have

  14. GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    177Geology GEOLOGY (GEOL) Robinson Foundation PROFESSOR HARBOR ASSOCIATE PROFESSORS KNAPP, CONNORS ASSISTANT PROFESSORS GREER, RAHL MAJORS BACHELOR OF SCIENCE A major in geology leading to a Bachelor of Science degree consists of 50 credits as follows: 1. Geology 160, 185, 211, 311, 330, 350

  15. National Film Preservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created by the United States Congress, the National Film Preservation Foundation provides nationwide support to the preservation of American films of cultural and historical significance, along with improving film access for study, education, and exhibition. Located in San Francisco, the Foundation also awards grants to various film archives and preservations agencies who are also dedicated to preserving important landmarks in American cinematic history. Information on the site includes Preservation Basics, which talks about the importance of film preservation and the nature and chemistry of film decay. A grants and projects section offers information about applying for a film preservation grant from the Foundation and about ongoing preservation projects, like the Saving the Silents: The American Silent Fiction Film Project. In addition, the site contains a complete listing (by title, date, and archive) of the 500 films helped preserved by the Foundation. Film researchers and scholars will find a map of the United States that lists existing film archives and study centers around the country both helpful and a useful tool for determining the direction of their research.

  16. Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide bilayer vesicle-catalyzed and uranine-sensitized chemiluminescence for determination of free cyanide at picogram levels by flow injection method

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Yamada, M.; Suzuki, S.

    1986-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence system, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide-uranine-sodium hydroxide, is described for the determination of ultratraces of free cyanide by flow injection method. Organized surfactant assemblies(bilayer vesicles) incorporated with a sensitizer(uranine) permit the determination of free cyanide very selectively with a limit of determination of 1 pg(20-3=l sample injection). Sulfide, the strongest CL inducer after free cyanide, provides a signal 0.1% of that for free cyanide.

  17. Cyanide removal from cassava mill wastewater using Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094 with mixed microorganisms in activated sludge treatment system.

    PubMed

    Kaewkannetra, P; Imai, T; Garcia-Garcia, F J; Chiu, T Y

    2009-12-15

    Cassava mill wastewater has a high organic and cyanide content and is an important economic product of traditional and rural low technology agro-industry in many parts of the world. However, the wastewater is toxic and can pose serious threat to the environment and aquatic life in the receiving waters. The ability of Azotobactor vinelandii TISTR 1094, a N2-fixing bacterium, to grow and remove cyanide in cassava wastewater was evaluated. Results revealed that the cells in the exponential phase reduce the level of cyanide more rapidly than when the cells are at their stationary growth phase. The rate of cyanide removal by A. vinelandii depends on the initial cyanide concentration. As the initial cyanide concentration increased, removal rate increased and cyanide removal of up to 65.3% was achieved. In the subsequent pilot scale trial involving an activated sludge system, the introduction of A. vinelandii into the system resulted in cyanide removals of up to 90%. This represented an improvement of 20% when compared to the activated sludge system which did not incorporate the strain. PMID:19632039

  18. Corrin-based chemosensors for the ASSURED detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zelder, Felix; Tivana, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a staple food for more than 500 million people, especially in Africa and South America. However, its consumption bears risks as it contains cyanogenic glycosides that convert enzymatically to toxic cyanide during cell damage. To avoid serious health problems by unintentional cyanide intake, this dangerous product of decomposition must be removed before consumption. For monitoring such food processing procedures and for controlling the quality and safety of cassava products on the market, a convenient and reliable analytical method for routine applications without laboratory equipment is required. This Perspective summarizes the authors' work on corrin-based chemosensors for the ('naked-eye') detection of endogenous cyanide in cassava samples. Considering selectivity, sensitivity, handling and speed of detection, these systems are superior to currently applied methods. Based on these properties, the development of a test kit for application by rural farmers in remote locations is proposed. PMID:25317920

  19. A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of ultra trace amount of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shahryar; Valinezhad, Rohollah; Khani, Hossein

    2010-09-15

    A kinetic spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of trace levels of cyanide based on its catalytic effect on the oxidation of Janus green by ammonium peroxodisulfate in nitric acid media. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the Janus green at 612 nm after 4 min. The effect of reaction variables on the reaction sensitivity was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a calibration graph from 10.0 to 500.0 ng/ml of cyanide with a detection limit of 7.0 ng/m was obtained. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and inexpensive and it was applied to directly the determination of cyanide in drinking and ground waters with the satisfactory results. PMID:20605519

  20. Removal of copper and nickel contaminants from Si surface by use of cyanide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Liu, Y.-L.; Nakamura, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2004-08-01

    The cleaning method using cyanide solutions has been developed to remove heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) from Si surfaces. Immersion of Si wafers with both Cu and Ni contaminants in potassium cyanide (KCN) solutions of methanol at room temperature decreases these surface concentrations below the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of ˜3×10 9 atoms/cm 2. UV spectra of the KCN solutions after cleaning of the Cu-contaminated Si surface show that stable copper-cyanide complexes are formed in the solution, leading to the prevention of the re-adsorption of copper in the solutions. From the complex stability constants, it is concluded that the Cu(CN) 43- is the most dominant species in the KCN solutions.

  1. UPREGULATION OF BNIP3 AND TRANSLOCATION TO MITOCHONDRIA MEDIATES CYANIDE-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN CORTICAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, K.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2008-01-01

    BNIP3, a BH3 domain only Bcl-2 protein, has been identified as a mitochrondrial mediator of hypoxia-induced cell death. Since cyanide produces histotoxic anoxia (chemical hypoxia), the present study was undertaken in primary cortical cells to determine involvement of the BNIP3 signaling pathway in cyanide-induced death. Over a 20 h exposure KCN increased BNIP3 expression, followed by a concentration-related apoptotic death. To determine if BNIP3 plays a role in the cell death, expression was either overexpressed with BNIP3 cDNA (BNIP3+) or knocked down with small interfering RNA (RNAi). In BNIP3+ cells, cyanide-induced apoptotic death was markedly enhanced and preceded by reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and elevated caspase 3 and 7 activity. Pretreatment with the pan caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk suppressed BNIP3+-mediated cell death, thus confirming a caspase-dependent apoptosis. On the other hand, BNIP3 knock down by RNAi or antagonism of BNIP3 by a transmembrane-deleted dominant-negative mutant (BNIP3?TM) markedly reduced cell death. Immunohistochemical imaging showed that cyanide stimulated translocation of BNIP3 from cytosol to mitochondria and displacement studies with BNIP3?TM showed that integration of BNIP3 into the mitochondrial outer membrane was necessary for the cell death. In BNIP3+ cells, cyclosporin-A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial pore transition, blocked the cyanide-induced reduction of ??m and decreased the apoptotic death. These results demonstrate in cortical cells that cyanide induces a rapid upregulation of BNIP3 expression, followed by translocation to the mitochondrial outer membrane to reduce??m This was followed by mitochondrial release of cytochrome c to execute a caspase-dependent cell death. PMID:17980495

  2. Total cyanide analysis of tank core samples: Analytical results and supporting investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, K.H.

    1994-03-01

    The potential for a ferrocyanide explosion in Hanford site single-shelled waste storage tanks (SSTS) poses a serious safety concern. This potential danger developed in the 1950s when {sup 137}Cs was scavenged during the reprocessing of uranium recovery process waste by co-precipitating it along with sodium in nickel ferrocyanide salt. Sodium or potassium ferrocyanide and nickel sulfate were added to the liquid waste stored in SSTs. The tank storage space resulting from the scavenging process was subsequently used to store other waste types. Ferrocyanide salts in combinations with oxidizing agents, such as nitrate and nitrite, are known to explode when key parameters (temperature, water content, oxidant concentration, and fuel [cyanide]) are in place. Therefore, reliable total cyanide analysis data for actual SST materials are required to address the safety issue. Accepted cyanide analysis procedures do not yield reliable results for samples containing nickel ferrocyanide materials because the compounds are insoluble in acidic media. Analytical chemists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) have developed a modified microdistillation procedure (see below) for analyzing total cyanide in waste tank matrices containing nickel ferrocyanide materials. Pacific Northwest Laboratory analyzed samples from Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-112 cores 34, 35, and 36 for total cyanide content using technical procedure PNL-ALO-285 {open_quotes}Total Cyanide by Remote Microdistillation and Agrentometric Titration,{close_quotes} Rev. 0. This report summarizes the results of these analyses along with supporting quality control data, and, in addition, summarizes the results of the test to check the efficacy of sodium nickel ferrocyanide solubilization from an actual core sample by aqueous EDTA/en to verify that nickel ferrocyanide compounds were quantitatively solubilized before actual distillation.

  3. Incidence of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy and its relation to exposure to cyanide in a Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, O; Onabolu, A; Cotgreave, I; Rosling, H; Persson, A; Link, H

    2003-01-01

    Background The occurrence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic area in south west Nigeria has been attributed to exposure to cyanide from cassava foods. However, it has been shown that the prevalence of ataxic polyneuropathy is not high in several communities in the tropics where exposure to cyanide from cassava foods is high. Objectives To determine the incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy in an endemic community, and to compare the intake of cassava foods, exposure to cyanide, and levels of thiols in cases and controls. Methods A cohort of 3167 healthy subjects aged 10 years and over in Ososa, Nigeria, was followed for two years, screened, and examined neurologically. Ataxic polyneuropathy was diagnosed if sensory polyneuropathy and sensory gait ataxia were both present. Controls were selected randomly within 10 year age groups of subjects who screened negative. Intake of cassava foods, exposure to cyanide, concentrations of thiols (glutathione, cysteine, and ? glutamylcysteine) in plasma, and visual evoked potentials were measured. Results Person–years of follow up were 6246 for 1469 male and 1698 female subjects in the cohort. The incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy was 64 per 10 000 person–years (31 for male and 93 for female subjects). Multivariate odd ratios were 0.78 (95% CI 0.23 to 2.61) for intake of the commonest cassava food, and 1.64 (0.56 to 5.09) for concentration of thiocyanate in plasma. The concentration of thiols was less than the reference limits in two controls, but in none of the cases. The latency of P100 was prolonged in 20 cases (69%) compared with 14 controls (42%) (p<0.05). Conclusions The incidence of ataxic polyneuropathy is high in Ososa, Nigeria, but the intake of cassava foods, exposure to cyanide, and levels of thiols, are not related to the occurrence. These findings do not suggest that cyanide is the cause of endemic ataxic polyneuropathy. PMID:14570837

  4. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  5. CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Dakshina; Berman, Mark; Meyers, Paul R.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Willson, Richard C.; Benedik, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three-dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of the 37-kDa subunit. The gene was cloned, and the recombinant enzyme was readily expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Purification of the recombinant enzyme was facilitated by the addition of a C-terminal six-histidine affinity purification tag. The tagged recombinant enzyme has Km and Vmax values similar to those published for the native enzyme. This is the first cyanide dihydratase from a gram-positive bacterium to be sequenced, and it is the first description of the structure of any member of this enzyme class. The putative amino acid sequence shares over 80% identity to the only other sequenced cyanide dihydratase, that of the gram-negative Pseudomonas stutzeri strain AK61, and is similar to a number of other bacterial and fungal nitrilases. This sequence similarity suggests that the novel short spiral structure may be typical of these enzymes. In addition, an active cyanide dihydratase from a non-cyanide-degrading isolate of B. pumilus (strain 8A3) was cloned and expressed. This suggests that cynD, the gene coding for the cyanide dihydratase, is not unique to the C1 strain of B. pumilus and is not a reflection of its origin at a mining waste site. PMID:12902273

  6. Careers In Foundations For Lawyers

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Careers In Foundations For Lawyers _______________________________________________ Bernard Koteen AND FRUSTRATIONS Section 10: FOUNDATIONS LAWYERS TELL THEIR STORIES Section 11: BIBLIOGRAPHY #12;2 SECTION projects attracts students looking for an alternative to traditional legal work. Lawyers can be found

  7. FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk assessmentsFLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION June 30, 2013 and 2012 #12;FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

  8. Organ-distribution of the metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in a rat model following cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A; Martin, Sarah; Jayanna, Prashanth; Yu, Jorn C C

    2011-12-01

    The reaction of cyanide (CN(-)) with cystine to produce 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is one of the independent detoxification pathways of cyanide in biological systems. In this report, in vivo production of ATCA and its distributions in plasma and organs were studied after a subcutaneous sublethal dose of 4?mg/kg body weight potassium cyanide (KCN) administration to rats. At this sublethal dose of KCN, ATCA concentration was not significantly increased in the plasma samples, however, it was found significantly increased in liver samples. These results suggested that ATCA might not be a good diagnostic biomarker in plasma for sublethal cyanide exposure; however, liver could serve as the right organ for the detection of ATCA in post-mortem examinations involving cyanide exposure in military, firefighting, industrial and forensic settings. PMID:22023534

  9. Different reactivity of hydroxylamine with carbamoyl azides and carbamoyl cyanides: synthesis of hydroxyureas and carbamoyl amidoximes.

    PubMed

    Paz, Jairo; Pérez-Balado, Carlos; Iglesias, Beatriz; Muñoz, Luis

    2010-12-01

    The carbamoylating agents carbamoyl azides and carbamoyl cyanides (aka cyanoformamides) react with hydroxylamine in different ways, leading in the first case to N-hydroxyureas and, in the case of carbamoyl cyanides, to carbamoyl amidoxime derivatives. The synthetic procedure developed for the latter type of compound, which represents an interesting precursor for heterocyclic structures, allowed the highly efficient preparation of a wide selection of examples. The Z configuration of the double bond in the amidoxime moiety was proposed on the basis of comparison between experimental and calculated (13)C and (15)N NMR chemical shift values for the isopropyl and benzyl derivatives. PMID:21049914

  10. Synthesis of ?-amino acid derivatives and peptides via enantioselective addition of masked acyl cyanides to imines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kin S; Rawal, Viresh H

    2014-11-19

    A general, asymmetric synthesis of amino acid derivatives is reported. Masked acyl cyanide (MAC) reagents are shown to be effective umpolung synthons for enantioselective additions to N-Boc-aldimines. The reactions are catalyzed by a modified cinchona alkaloid, which can function as a bifunctional, hydrogen bonding catalyst, and afford adducts in excellent yields (90-98%) and high enantioselectivities (up to 97.5:2.5 er). Unmasking the addition products gives acyl cyanide intermediates that are intercepted by a variety of nucleophiles to afford ?-amino acid derivatives. Notably, the methodology provides an alternative method for peptide bond formation. PMID:25366558

  11. Assuring process safety in the transfer of hydrogen cyanide manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Gary R; Edwards, Victor H; Robertson, Mark; Shah, Kamal

    2007-04-11

    This paper outlines the critical issues to be addressed in the transfer of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) manufacturing technology to a licensee. Process safety management (PSM) is of critical importance because of the toxicity, flammability and reactivity of HCN. The critical issues are based on experience that DuPont has gained (1) while safely manufacturing hydrogen cyanide for over 50 years, and (2) while DuPont has safely licensed HCN technology to other firms at locations around the world. DuPont's HCN experience has been combined with Aker Kvaerner's project engineering experience to insure the safe transfer of HCN technology to a licensee. PMID:16911858

  12. Motor and memory function in rat models of cyanide toxicity and vascular occlusion induced ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Olalekan Michael; Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi; Ajonijebu, Duyilemi Chris; Abdulbasit, Amin; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Balogun, Gbolahan Wasiu

    2014-09-01

    Although oxidative stress is characteristic of global vascular occlusion and cyanide toxicity, the pattern of cerebral metabolism reconditioning and rate of progression or reversal of neural tissue damage differ for both forms of ischemia. Thus, it is important to compare cognitive and motor functions in both models of ischemia involving cyanide treatment (CN) and vascular occlusion (VO). Adult Wistar rats (N=30) were divided into three groups; VO (n=12), CN (n=12) and Control-CO (n=6). The CN was treated with 30mg/Kg of potassium cyanide (KCN); VO was subjected to global vascular occlusion-both for duration of 10 days. The control (CO) was fed on normal rat chow and water for the same duration. At day 10, the test and control groups (CN, VO and CO) were subjected to motor function tests (Table edge tests and Open Field Test) and memory function tests (Y-Maze and Novel object recognition) while the withdrawal groups CN-I and VO-I were subjected to the same set of tests at day 20 (the withdrawal phase). The results show that both cyanide toxicity and vascular occlusion caused a decline in motor and memory function when compared with the control. Also, the cyanide treatment produced a more rapid decline in these behavioral parameters when compared with the vascular occlusion during the treatment phase. After the withdrawal phase, cyanide treatment (CN-I) showed either an improvement or restoration of motor and memory function when compared to the CN and control. Withdrawal of vascular occlusion caused no improvement, and in some cases a decline in motor and memory function. In conclusion, cyanide toxicity caused a decline in motor and memory function after the treatment while vascular occlusion caused no significant decline in cognition and motor function at this time. After the withdrawal phase, the effect of cyanide toxicity was reduced and significant improvements were observed in the behavioral tests (motor and cognitive), while a decline in these functions were seen in the vascular occlusion group after this phase. PMID:25127448

  13. Treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater from the food industry in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed methanogenic reactor.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Winter, J

    1998-02-01

    During the process of producing cassava starch from Manihot esculenta roots, large amounts of cyanoglycosides were released, which rapidly decayed to CN- following enzymatic hydrolysis. Depending on the varying cyanoglycoside content of the cassava varieties, the cyanide concentration in the wastewater was as high as 200 mg/l. To simulate anaerobic stabilization, a wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of about 20 g/l was prepared from cassava roots and was fermented in a fixed-bed methanogenic reactor. The start-up phase for a 99% degradation of low concentrations of cyanide (10 mg/l) required about 6 months. After establishment of the biofilm, a cyanide concentration of up to 150 mg CN-/l in the fresh wastewater was degraded during anaerobic treatment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days. All nitrogen from the degraded cyanide was converted to organic nitrogen by the biomass of the effluent. The cyanide-degrading biocoenosis of the anaerobic reactor could tolerate shock concentrations of cyanide up to 240 mg CN-/l for a short time. Up to 5 mmol/l NH4Cl (i.e. 70 mg N/l = 265 mg NH4Cl/l) in the fresh wastewater did not affect cyanide degradation. The bleaching agent sulphite, however, had a negative effect on COD and cyanide removal. For anaerobic treatment, the maximum COD space loading was 12 g l-1 day-1, equivalent to a hydraulic retention time of 1.8 days. The COD removal efficiency was around 90%. The maximum permanent cyanide space loading was 50 mg CN- l-1 day-1, with tolerable shock loadings up to 75 mg CN- l-1 day-1. Under steady-state conditions, the cyanide concentration of the effluent was lower than 0.5 mg/l. PMID:9534260

  14. The Foundations of Applied Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Baez, John

    The Foundations of Applied Mathematics John Baez Category-Theoretic Foundations of Mathematics Workshop May 5, 2013 #12;We often picture the flow of information about mathematics a bit like this: SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLIED MATHEMATICS PURE MATHEMATICS FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS #12;Of course

  15. FOUNDATION PAPER FOR THE PLANT OIL FLAGSHIP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last century we have become dependent on fossil fuels not just as an energy source for transportation and heating but also for the provision of industrial feedstocks for a multitude of products that we use in every aspect of our daily lives. Fossil fuels are a finite resource and as this re...

  16. Thomas B. Fordham Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation is dedicated to an agenda of education reform not unlike the President George W. Bush: testing and accountability, charter schools, school choice, and the like. Its Website provides a number of recently written reports and papers relating to these issues. Recent documents include a "Memo to the New President," offering advice on how to bridge the "partisan divide" and enact reform, a history of teacher certification that examines the rise to political power of professional teacher organizations, a critique of whole language reading instruction, and The State of the State Standards, 2000, a comprehensive assessment of state standards. The publications section includes selected readings on school reform, teacher quality, charter schools, and more. The site features a search engine and a detailed site map. All in all, a fine resource for materials in the school reform debate from what many would characterize as the conservative perspective. The foundation is affiliated with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

  17. The Parents' Choice Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Parents of young people today may find it difficult to sort the proverbial wheat from the chaff when it comes to locating and evaluating quality educational activities and entertainment for their children. Fortunately there is the Parents' Choice Foundation, which (since 1978) has served as a non-partisan evaluator of children's books, videos, toys, audio products, computer software, television, and magazines. Each year, the foundation releases lists of its recommended products, based on the opinions of teachers, parents, and, appropriately, young people themselves. The criteria for selection is quite rigorous, as the judges are looking for products that honor universal human values, teach with flair, stimulate imagination, inspire creativity, and above all do not "extol violence." On the website, visitors can examine lists of these products dating back to 1995, read about the current award winners, and examine themed reading lists, such as those dealing with science fiction and those designed especially with compel young boys to develop a love of reading.

  18. The International Crane Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located in Baraboo, Wisconsin, the "International Crane Foundation (ICF) works worldwide to conserve cranes and the wetland and grassland ecosystems on which they depend." The ICF website provides a variety of information about the Foundation as well as great resources like the Species Field Guide which contains photos, range maps, and information about all 15 types of crane. The site also includes information about conservation and research projects in North America, Asia, and Africa. For teachers and students, the ICF's Education Department offers several online resources including instructions for making an origami crane; a list of related books; a downloadable six-page Crane Behavior Guide, and information about participating in an International Art Exchange. Be sure not to miss the What's New link for updates regarding the Whooping Cranes ongoing migration from Wisconsin to Florida.

  19. Eudora Welty Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the summer of 2001, noted author Eudora Welty passed away in her home state of Mississippi. Throughout her ninety-years she made significant contributions to the art of the short story and other literary forms, and she remains the subject of scholarship and admiration in many quarters. Fortunately, the Eudora Welty Foundation was established in 1999 to celebrate her works and also to make sure that her various writings remain an essential part of academic curricula in high schools and colleges. On their site, visitors can view an interactive timeline of Welty's life and also peruse a calendar of events sponsored by the Foundation and other related entities. Most visitors will benefit greatly from a trip over to the "Resources" area of the site, which includes a complete bibliography of her works, along with information on the Eudora Welty House and links to other Welty societies and organizations.

  20. The Leakey Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Leakey Foundation is "a member supported organization committed to research related to human origins." This well-designed, interactive website offers a variety of information related to the research interests including information about Recently Funded Projects, Educational Resources, and News and Upcoming Events. One exceptional feature of the website is the Audio Archives that allows visitors to listen to recorded excerpts from interviews with, and lectures by, renowned scientists like Dian Fossey, Jane Goodall, Margaret Mead, and Mary Leakey. The Educational Resources section also offers great features including an extensive Bibliography, Recommended Links to other quality websites, a Visual Glossary, and an Ask A Scientist service whereby users can email questions to the Leakey Foundation. This website artfully integrates good photos of past and present with text sections and also contains biographies of the Leakey Family.

  1. Mind Science Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The potential within the human mind and its connection to the rest of the human body is a subject that has consumed many of the world's brightest scientists. The Mind Science Foundation, founded by Thomas Baker Slick, is a place that is intimately concerned with such matters, and their website is a good way to learn about some of the issues surrounding their work and broader notions about how consciousness arises in human beings. It's a tall research order, and the website responds admirably by presenting a number of speeches from experts on the subject, along with links to the results of various research endeavors sponsored with funds from the Foundation. The site also contains an interactive database of researchers who are working in the area of consciousness and a library of books that might be of interest to those looking for additional resources.

  2. The Bruner Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Rudy Bruner Foundation and Award for Urban Excellence was created in 1986 by Simeon Bruner to honor his late father. The award seeks to honor those urban places that "are developed with such vision and imagination that they transform urban problems into creative solutions." The award is given every two years, and one gold medal prize is awarded (along with a $50,000 prize) and several silver medal winners are also awarded. On this site, visitors can learn about previous award winners, such as the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, the Camino Nuevo Charter Academy, and the Pike Place Market. Additionally, the Bruner Foundation makes a number of its publications available online, including compilations of materials about the winning places from 1991 to 2003.

  3. Irish Architecture Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.

  4. Foundation for Child Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Foundation for Child Development \\"is a national, private philanthropy dedicated to the principle that all families should have the social and material resources to raise their children to be healthy, educated and productive members of their communities.\\" The Foundation seeks to help the disadvantaged especially, and works with families, schools, other non-profits, businesses and government. On the site, those interested in Child Development will find links to Public Policy at both the state and national level. Information about immigrant children as well as their own Child Well-Being Index. Also on the site are the archives of their in house publication \\"Learning Curve\\" where users can find articles on a plethora of topics ranging from \\"Fighting Fade-Out by advancing PK-3 Alignment\\" and \\"PK-3 Indicators available on Child Trends DataBank\\". Overall, a useful tool for students, instructors and professionals involved in Child Development.

  5. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  6. Electronic Frontier Foundation: Biometrics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since September 11, 2001 the U.S. government has been actively searching for ways to improve surveillance at airports and U.S. borders. The Electronic Frontier Foundation is concerned that biometric technologies are being promoted as the silver bullet when very little independent, objective scientific testing of biometrics has been done. This evolving website discusses what is known and raises issues for concern regarding recent government proposals for using biometric systems in surveillance.

  7. Fractal Topology Foundations

    E-print Network

    Helene Porchon

    2012-01-25

    In this paper, we introduce the foundation of a fractal topological space constructed via a family of nested topological spaces endowed with subspace topologies, where the number of topological spaces involved in this family is related to the appearance of new structures on it. The greater the number of topological spaces we use, the stronger the subspace topologies we obtain. The fractal manifold model is brought up as an illustration of space that is locally homeomorphic to the fractal topological space.

  8. John Templeton Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Templeton and the foundation which bears his name have never been interested in just looking into the small questions of humanity. Templeton began his career as a very successful Wall Street investor in 1937, and over the following years he remained interested in scientific research and open-minded inquiry. The Templeton Foundation was started in 1987 in order "to serve as a philanthropic catalyst for discovery in areas engaging life's biggest questions". Over the years, these questions have included investigations into the laws of nature and the universe, along with the nature of love, gratitude, forgiveness and creativity. Visitors who wish to learn more about the Foundation's work may wish to take a look through the FAQ section in the "About Us" area. Another way to get a feel for their work is to look over their "Big Questions" section. Here, visitors can read conversations between leading intellectuals on such questions as "Does science make belief in God obsolete?" and "Does the universe have a purpose?" Other sections of the site cover their funding areas, submitting a proposal for funding, and a newsroom area.

  9. The Stuttering Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stuttering has entered popular culture with the release of, and critical acclaim for, the recent movie "The King's Speech", which is about King George VI of England's problem with stuttering. Since 1947, the Stuttering Foundation has focused on preventing and improving the treatment of stuttering. The Foundation's website provides a series of podcasts, which include a recent interview with the scriptwriter of The King's Speech, David Seidler. Visitors will also enjoy the website's other podcasts, which address topics as varied as recently identified genes for stuttering; helping children who stutter, by the Foundation's president, Jane Fraser; and famous people who didn't let stuttering prevent them from achieving their goals, such as John Stossel, Mel Tillis, and basketball star Bob Love. There is also a podcast that visitors should not miss, entitled "Women Who Stutter: Our Stories". Clicking on it will take visitors to a list of over three dozen podcasts with the stories of women from around the world, of all ages and ethnicities, who stutter, or work with stutterers, or do both. There are many touching, helpful and humorous stories among their number.

  10. The Quest for Complex Molecules in Space. Searches for Cyanides Related to n-PROPYL Cyanide in SGR B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Schlemmer, S.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2011-06-01

    A molecular line survey was carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope toward the prolific hot core Sgr B2(N) in order to explore its molecular complexity. The entire 3 mm range as well as selected regions at 2 and 1.3 mm were covered. Notable results include the detections of aminoacetonitrile, ethyl formate, n-propyl cyanide,^b and the singly substituted 13C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide. There exists a branched isomer of n-propyl cyanide: iso-propyl cyanide. A search for this isomer in our line survey required a laboratory spectroscopic investigation beforehand. Even though promising emission features have been found for this as well as other, related molecules, there are rather few uncontaminated lines. Overlap by other emission or some absorption features occurs frequently, and uncertainties about the position of the baseline also contribute to considering detections to be inconclusive. Nevertheless, the determination of upper limits or abundances among isomers and related molecules will help to constrain astrochemical pathways. We will present our results and discuss promising strategies to search for complex molecules in space. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. 499 (2009), 215. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, A. Walters, J.-U. Grabow, S. Schlemmer, submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

  11. Sudden Arrhythmia Death Syndromes (SADS) Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... style.display = 'block'; } function hide(){ document.getElementById('languageDrop').style.display = 'none'; } SADS Foundation USA SADS Foundation Canada SADS Foundation Australia ... SADS Foundation Contact Us ...

  12. Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc. AndAndAndAnd

    E-print Network

    Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc.Texas Wildlife Association Foundation, Inc. AndAndAndAnd San Antonio REQUIREMENTSELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTSELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTSELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS Students receiving a Texas Wildlife

  13. The cyanogenic syndrome in rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis: tissue-damage-dependent activation of linamarase and hydroxynitrile lyase accelerates hydrogen cyanide release

    PubMed Central

    Kadow, Daniel; Voß, Karsten; Selmar, Dirk; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from injured plant tissue affects multiple ecological interactions. Plant-derived HCN can act as a defence against herbivores and also plays an important role in plant–pathogen interactions. Crucial for activity as a feeding deterrent is the amount of HCN generated per unit time, referred to as cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Strong intraspecific variation in HCNc has been observed among cyanogenic plants. This variation, in addition to genotypic variability (e.g. in Trifolium repens), can result from modifications in the expression level of the enzymes involved in either cyanogenic precursor formation or HCN release (as seen in Sorghum bicolor and Phaseolus lunatus). Thus, a modification or modulation of HCNc in reaction to the environment can only be achieved from one to the next generation when under genetic control and within days or hours when transcriptional regulations are involved. In the present study, it is shown that in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) HCNc is modulated by post-translational activity regulation of the key enzymes for cyanide release. Methods Linamarase (LIN) and hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) activity was determined by colorimetric assays utilizing dissociation of the substrates p-nitrophenyl-?-d-glucopyranoside and acetone cyanohydrin, respectively. Key Results In rubber tree leaves, LIN and HNL show up to ten-fold increased activity in response to tissue damage. This enzyme activation occurs within seconds and results in accelerated HCN formation. It is restricted to the damaged leaf area and depends on the severity of tissue damage. Conclusions LIN and HNL activation (in contrast to genetic and transcriptional regulations) allows an immediate, local and damage type-dependent modulation of the cyanogenic response. Accordingly, this post-translational activation plays a decisive role in the defence of H. brasiliensis against herbivores as well as pathogens and may allow more flexible reactions in response to these different antagonists. PMID:22451599

  14. ACUTE AND CHRONIC EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS AND CYANIDE ON 'MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA' (CRUSTACEA:MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute and whole life-cycle toxicity tests were conducted with the estuarine mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to cyanide and selected heavy metals. Acute toxicity values (96h LC50) ranged from 3.5 micrograms/1 for mercury to 3130 micrograms/1 for lead, and were ranked in or...

  15. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the clinical, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes induced by cyanide, thiocyanate, and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) in goats. Sixteen Boer-Spanish cross-bred female goats were divided into 4 treatment groups: 1) contr...

  16. Developing and testing electrochemical methods for treating metal salts, cyanides and organic compounds in waste streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dziewinski; S. Marczak; E. Nuttall; G. Purdy; W. Smith; J. Taylor; C. Zhou

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemical methods to process radioactive and hazardous (mixed) wastes were studied at a bench scale. Cadmium, copper, mercury, and chromium salts, cyanides, and simple organic compounds were used in the tests. Effective conditions were found to process these waste components by electrolysis. The equipment used in the tests included flow-through cells, a membrane cell, and a graphite packed bed cell.

  17. Photoactivated luminescent CdSe quantum dots as sensitive cyanide probes in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei Jun; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2005-02-21

    Water-soluble luminescent CdSe quantum dots surface-modified with 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate were synthesized for the selective determination of free cyanide in aqueous solution with high sensitivity (detection limit of 1.1 x 10(-6) M), via analyte-induced changes in their photoluminescence after photoactivation. PMID:15700069

  18. Shape and optical properties of aerosols formed by photolysis of acetylene, ethylene, and hydrogen cyanide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bar-Nun; I. Kleinfeld; E. Ganor

    1988-01-01

    The shapes and sizes of photochemically produced aerosol particles of polyacetylene, polyethylene, and polyhydrogen cyanide were studied experimentally. All of the single particles were found to be perfectly spherical and semiliquid. However, they aggregate readily, with a sticking coefficient near unity, to form nonspherical particles, which could give rise to the observed polarization from Titan's and Jupiter's upper haze layers.

  19. Structural analysis of urate oxidase in complex with its natural substrate inhibited by cyanide: Mechanistic implications

    PubMed Central

    Gabison, Laure; Prangé, Thierry; Colloc'h, Nathalie; El Hajji, Mohamed; Castro, Bertrand; Chiadmi, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Background Urate oxidase (EC 1.7.3.3 or UOX) catalyzes the conversion of uric acid and gaseous molecular oxygen to 5-hydroxyisourate and hydrogen peroxide, in the absence of cofactor or particular metal cation. The functional enzyme is a homo-tetramer with four active sites located at dimeric interfaces. Results The catalytic mechanism was investigated through a ternary complex formed between the enzyme, uric acid, and cyanide that stabilizes an intermediate state of the reaction. When uric acid is replaced by a competitive inhibitor, no complex with cyanide is formed. Conclusion The X-ray structure of this compulsory ternary complex led to a number of mechanistic evidences that support a sequential mechanism in which the two reagents, dioxygen and a water molecule, process through a common site located 3.3 Å above the mean plane of the ligand. This site is built by the side chains of Asn 254, and Thr 57, two conserved residues belonging to two different subunits of the homo-tetramer. The absence of a ternary complex between the enzyme, a competitive inhibitor, and cyanide suggests that cyanide inhibits the hydroxylation step of the reaction, after the initial formation of a hydroperoxyde type intermediate. PMID:18638417

  20. Copper-mediated cyanation of aryl halide with the combined cyanide source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoying; Ren, Xinyi; Chen, Jianbin; Hu, Maolin; Cheng, Jiang

    2011-10-01

    A simple copper-mediated cyanation of aryl halide with the combination of ammonium bicarbonate and N,N-dimethylformamide as a cyanide source is achieved, providing nitriles in moderate to good yields. This new approach represents an exceedingly practical and safe method for the synthesis of aryl nitriles. PMID:21895018

  1. Determination of Cyanide in Blood by Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen E. Murphy; Michele M. Schantz; Therese A. Butler; Bruce A. Benner; Laura J. Wood; Gregory C. Turk

    Background: Cyanide (CN) is a lethal toxin. Quantifi- cation in blood is necessary to indicate exposure from many sources, including food, combustion byproducts, and terrorist activity. We describe an automated proce- dure based on isotope-dilution gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (ID GC\\/MS) for the accurate and rapid determination of CN in whole blood. Methods: A known amount of isotopically labeled po-

  2. Modelling potential ß-carotene intake and cyanide exposure from consumption of biofortified cassava

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) deficiency causes disability and mortality. Cassava, a staple crop in Africa, can be crossbred to improve its pro-vitamin A (PVA) content and used as an alternative to capsule supplementation. However it contains cyanide and its continued consumption may lead to chronic...

  3. Elimination of sodium cyanide and vapor degreasing from the passivation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Stimetz; W. P. McKay

    1993-01-01

    This report is an examination of the vapor degreasing and alkaline descaling steps in the passivation process. Since parts that are to be passivated are fairly clean, the vapor degreasing step may be redundant. Sodium cyanide is a component of the alkaline descaling solution and would be desirable to eliminate because of environmental concerns. Evaluations were performed to determine if

  4. MERCURY CYANIDE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER FROM GOLD MINING AND PROSPECTS FOR REMOVAL

    E-print Network

    Coles, Cynthia

    MERCURY CYANIDE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER FROM GOLD MINING AND PROSPECTS FOR REMOVAL Cynthia A to other metals it is highly volatile. Further research into treating mercury contaminated waste streams and tellurium. Mercury is also associated with these three elements and is simultaneously dissolved during gold

  5. EXPERIMENTAL USE OF SODIUM CYANIDE SPRING-LOADED EJECTOR MECHANISM FOR COYOTE CONTROL IN CALIFORNIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry P. Clark

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act, as amended, granted the California Department of Food and Agriculture an experimental permit to obtain data to support registration of sodium cyanide as a predacide. The program was implemented by the Tehama County Department of Agriculture. The experimental permit provided for use of not more

  6. Clinical and Pathological Effects of Short-term Cyanide Repeated Dosing to Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this work is to determine and describe the effects of subacute cyanide toxicity to goats. Eight female goats were divided into two groups. The first group of five animals was treated with 8.0mg KCN kg-1 body weight day -1 for seven consecutive days. The second group of three animal...

  7. Moisture-pressure combination treatments for cyanide reduction in grated cassava.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark Anglin; Koomson, Charles Kofi

    2011-01-01

    Several cyanide-associated health disorders have been linked with frequent consumption of mildly toxic cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) products in individuals on a low-protein diet. Production of bread from cassava often involves application of prolonged physical pressure (pressing) to the freshly grated root for several hours. This study aimed to determine effects of pressure and wetting on grated cassava. Six treatments were applied: confining pressure for 12 h, wetting for 4 h at 25 °C, 2 h at 25 °C, 2 h at 40 °C, and 2 h at 50 °C, or each of the above followed by pressure for 12 h. Treatments released cyanide from samples in the order: 2-h wet at 50 °C + pressing >4-h wet at 25 °C + pressing = 2-h wet at 40 °C + pressing >2-h wet at 25 °C + pressing = 4-h wet at 25 °C >12-h pressing. Wetting for 2 h at 50 °C followed by pressure for 12 h reduced cyanide levels by at least 20% more than that of any other treatment. The combination of moisture and pressure enhanced the contact time between linamarin and linamarase to increase the release of hydrogen cyanide. PMID:21535726

  8. Modified activated carbon for the removal of copper, zinc, chromium and cyanide from wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lotfi Monser; Nafaâ Adhoum

    2002-01-01

    Modified activated carbon are carbonaceous adsorbents which have tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (TBAI) and sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (SDDC) immobilised at their surface. This study investigates the adsorption of toxic ions, copper, zinc, chromium and cyanide on these adsorbents that have undergone surface modification with tetrabutyl ammonium (TBA) and SDDC in wastewater applications. The modification technique enhance the removal capacity of carbon

  9. PREVENTION REFERENCE MANUAL: CHEMICAL SPECIFIC. VOLUME 10. CONTROL OF ACCIDENTAL RELEASES OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of accidental releases of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) to the atmosphere. HCN has an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration of 50 ppm, making it an acute toxic hazard. Reducing the risk associated with an accidental release of HCN...

  10. Cyanide inhibition and pyruvate-induced recovery of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    N?sková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zden?k; Houšt?k, Josef

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of cyanide's inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) as well as the conditions for its recovery have not yet been fully explained. We investigated three parameters of COX function, namely electron transport (oxygen consumption), proton transport (mitochondrial membrane potential ??(m)) and the enzyme affinity to oxygen (p?? value) with regard to the inhibition by KCN and its reversal by pyruvate. 250 ?M KCN completely inhibited both the electron and proton transport function of COX. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by washing of mitochondria. The addition of 60 mM pyruvate induced the maximal recovery of both parameters to 60-80% of the original values. When using low KCN concentrations of up to 5 ?M, we observed a profound, 30-fold decrease of COX affinity for oxygen. Again, this decrease was completely reversed by washing mitochondria while pyruvate induced only a partial, yet significant recovery of oxygen affinity. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of COX by cyanide is reversible and that the potential of pyruvate as a cyanide poisoning antidote is limited. Importantly, we also showed that the COX affinity for oxygen is the most sensitive indicator of cyanide toxic effects. PMID:20725851

  11. Spontaneous generation of reactive oxygen species in the mixture of cyanide and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Chun, Yang-Sook; Yeo, Eun-Jin; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Park, Jong-Wan

    2004-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in tumor promotion or apoptosis. In assaying prooxidant or antioxidant activities, cyanide has been commonly used as an inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidases, peroxidases, or Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, which have an influence on intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. It has also been used to chemically mimic hypoxia. On the other hand, glycerol has been widely used as a stabilizer of various enzymes. In particular, glycerol is required to maintain the enzymatic activities of membrane-bound NAD(P)H oxidases extracted from surrounding phospholipids. Since both cyanide and glycerol are relatively inert, they have been used concomitantly regardless of any mutual interference. In this study, we demonstrate that a mixture of glycerol and cyanide reduced cytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium, both of which are superoxide anion indicators. The mixture also enhanced the production of superoxide anion in the presence of redox-cycling compounds. Superoxide production by the mixture was confirmed by electron spin resonance spectra. Moreover, the mixture induced lipid peroxidation and hemolysis in human erythrocytes. These results suggest that cyanide and glycerol should be used carefully in reaction systems used to measure superoxide production or antioxidant activity. However, sucrose and sodium azide in combination do not produce such artifacts and thus may be used as an alternative. PMID:15659779

  12. Mantakassa: an epidemic of spastic paraparesis associated with chronic cyanide intoxication in a cassava staple area of Mozambique. 2. Nutritional factors and hydrocyanic acid content of cassava products*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    An outbreak of spastic paraparesis which mostly affected women and children occurred in a northern province of Mozambique in 1981. The epidemic was related to chronic cyanide intoxication associated with a diet consisting almost exclusively of cassava. A prolonged drought in the area had exhausted all food resources except cassava, especially the bitter varieties. A nutritional, toxicological and botanical investigation was carried out in two of the five districts affected. The main findings were that cyanide levels were unusually high in the cassava plant as a consequence of the drought with daily intakes estimated at 15-31.5 mg HCN. Detoxification of the bitter varieties by sun-drying was inadequate because of the general food shortage, and metabolic detoxification was probably reduced owing to the absence of sulfur-containing amino acids in the diet. The raw and dried uncooked cassava was eaten mostly by women and children. The nutritional status of the population, however, was not very poor and symptoms of advanced under-nutrition were rarely seen. PMID:6088100

  13. Swedish forensic data 1992-2009 suggest hydrogen cyanide as an important cause of death in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Thelander, Gunilla; Ernstgård, Lena; Ahlner, Johan; Johanson, Gunnar

    2012-02-01

    Between 60 and 80% of all deaths related to fire are attributed to toxic fumes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly thought to be the major cause. However, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is also formed. Still, the exact contribution of HCN to fire-related fatalities is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of HCN in relation to CO as a cause of death in fire victims. Data on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood cyanide from deceased fire victims in the period 1992-2009 were collected from two Swedish nationwide forensic databases (ToxBase and RättsBase). The databases contain data on COHb and/or cyanide from 2303 fire victims, whereof 816 on both COHb and cyanide. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Seventeen percent of the victims had lethal or life-threatening blood cyanide levels (>1 µg/g) and 32% had lethal COHb levels (>50% COHb). Over 31% had cyanide levels above 0.5 µg/g, an indication of significant HCN exposure. The percentages may be underestimates, as cyanide is quickly eliminated in blood also after death. Our results support the notion that HCN contributes more to the cause of death among fire victims than previously thought. PMID:22369195

  14. Dose and time-dependent effects of cyanide on thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and cystathionine ?-lyase activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Rao, Pooja; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the dose-dependent effect of potassium cyanide (KCN) on thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (TST), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST), and cystathionine ?-lyase (CST) activities in mice. The time-dependent effect of 0.5 LD50 KCN on cyanide level and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), TST, 3-MPST, and CST activities was also examined. Furthermore, TST, 3-MPST, and CST activities were measured in stored mice cadavers. Hepatic and renal TST activity increased by 0.5 LD50 KCN but diminished by ?2.0 LD50. After 0.5 LD50 KCN, the elevated hepatic cyanide level was accompanied by increased TST, 3-MPST, and CST activities, and CCO inhibition. Elevated renal cyanide level was only accompanied by increased 3-MPST activity. No appreciable change in enzyme activities was observed in mice cadavers. The study concludes that high doses of cyanide exert saturating effects on its detoxification enzymes, indicating their exogenous use during cyanide poisoning. Also, these enzymes are not reliable markers of cyanide poisoning in autopsied samples. PMID:23929717

  15. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  16. Chemical Heritage Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The Chemical Heritage Foundation (CHF) is dedicated to preserving and sharing the history and heritage of the chemical and molecular sciences, technologies, and allied industries." This Web site illustrates how chemistry has shaped our world. Students can discover the chemical history of Innovations and Industry, Ancients and Alchemists, and much more. Through the Online Exhibits, visitors can view the pictures of Walter J. Hamer's collection of early batteries. In the Classroom Resources, educators will find online tools discussing molecular science and pharmaceutical achievers and many Chemistry Web Quests including Evidence for Atoms and The Great MTBE Controversy. Graduate students may want to take advantage of the many fellowships offered on the site.

  17. National Science Foundation: Publications

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Every year, the National Science Foundation (NSF) researches a broad swath of topics ranging from graduate education in geography to the viability of sustainable agriculture. Visitors can scan through these documents here, on a website which includes recent publications like "Collections in Support of Biological Research" and "Baccalaureate Origins of U.S.-trained S&E Doctorate Recipients." The archive contains over 3,200 documents, which visitors search by publication type or specific organization within NSF. Visitors can also elect to sign up to receive notices about newly added publications via RSS feed or email.

  18. The African Conservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry Harnwell

    2001-08-15

    This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

  19. Deeplinks: Electronic Frontier Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has crafted this great resource for people interested in the world of online rights and privacy matters. A quick glance through the site will reveal a range of key commentaries on issues of copyright, moral privacy rights, and government intervention. Visitors can scroll through recent posts and then look over some of their additional projects, which include Bloggers' Rights, and HTTPS Everywhere. Also, visitors can offer comment and search posts by keywords, such as "International,� "Copyright,� and "Free Speech.� It's an exciting new project and one that will be of great interest to policy aficionados and others.

  20. African Wildlife Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Through research and community-based conservation, the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) has "played a major role in ensuring the continues existence of some of Africa's most rare and treasure species such as the elephant, the mountain gorilla, rhinoceros, and cheetah." The AWF Web site offers loads of information on the current programs and program locations, including factsheets and photos of African wildlife. Other features include an online library of recent and archived news articles, and a noncommercial safari planner for the informed ecotourist. Altogether, it's an appealing and informative Web site.

  1. Rapid point of care analyzer for the measurement of cyanide in blood.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2011-06-01

    A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H(3)PO(4) and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide (hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (?(max) = 510 nm) to violet (?(max) = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10 times when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improves the limit of detection by 4 times to ~0.5 ?M for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (?10 ?M) can be accurately measured in ~2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample: smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 ?M CN was 1.09% (n = 5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r(2) 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

  2. Rapid Point of Care Analyzer for the Measurement of Cyanide in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K.; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H3PO4 and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide Hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (?max = 510 nm) to violet (?max = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10x when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improve the limit of detection by 4x to ~ 0.5 ?M for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (? 10 ?M) can be accurately measured in ~ 2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample – smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 ?M CN was 1.09% (n=5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r2 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

  3. Freshwater availability and coastal wetland foundation species: ecological transitions along a rainfall gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael; Enwright, Nicholas; Stagg, Camille La Fosse

    2014-01-01

    Climate gradient-focused ecological research can provide a foundation for better understanding critical ecological transition points and nonlinear climate-ecological relationships, which is information that can be used to better understand, predict, and manage ecological responses to climate change. In this study, we examined the influence of freshwater availability upon the coverage of foundation plant species in coastal wetlands along a northwestern Gulf of Mexico rainfall gradient. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) what are the region-scale relationships between measures of freshwater availability (e.g., rainfall, aridity, freshwater inflow, salinity) and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands; (2) How vulnerable are foundation plant species in tidal wetlands to future changes in freshwater availability; and (3) What is the potential future relative abundance of tidal wetland foundation plant species under alternative climate change scenarios? We developed simple freshwater availability-based models to predict the relative abundance (i.e., coverage) of tidal wetland foundation plant species using climate data (1970-2000), estuarine freshwater inflow-focused data, and coastal wetland habitat data. Our results identify regional ecological thresholds and nonlinear relationships between measures of freshwater availability and the relative abundance of foundation plant species in tidal wetlands. In drier coastal zones, relatively small changes in rainfall could produce comparatively large landscape-scale changes in foundation plant species abundance which would affect some ecosystem good and services. Whereas a drier future would result in a decrease in the coverage of foundation plant species, a wetter future would result in an increase in foundation plant species coverage. In many ways, the freshwater-dependent coastal wetland ecological transitions we observed are analogous to those present in dryland terrestrial ecosystems.

  4. Effect of Alpha-Ketoglutarate on Neurobehavioral, Neurochemical and Oxidative Changes Caused by SubChronic Cyanide Poisoning in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Mathangi; R. Shyamala; R. Vijayashree; K. R. Rao; A. Ruckmani; R. Vijayaraghavan; R. Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) alone or with sodium thiosulfate (STS) provide significant protection\\u000a against acute and sub-acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. This study addresses the protective effect of A-KG and\\/or STS in\\u000a sub-chronic (90 days) cyanide poisoning. Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): Control animals, potassium cyanide\\u000a (KCN) A-KG, STS, KCN + A-KG, KCN + STS and KCN + A-KG + STS. Spontaneous motor activity

  5. Optical chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water based on ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Leandro G; Nicoleti, Celso R; Bellettini, Ismael C; Machado, Vanderlei G

    2014-05-20

    Ethyl(hydroxyethyl)cellulose was functionalized with Brooker's merocyanine. The modified polymer was easily transformed in a film, which could be used as a highly selective chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensor for the detection of cyanide in water, with detection limits of 1.9 × 10(-5) and 1.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The film was successfully applied to the detection of cyanide in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots, which are a well-known source of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:24805864

  6. Free Software Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Free Software Foundation (FSF) was established in 1985 to promote "computer users' rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs." That is, the organization promotes the development and use of free software, particularly for the GNU operating system (GNU/Linux). FSF is the primary sponsor of the GNU Project, which was established to create new distribution terms that would prevent the project from being turned into proprietary software. The website provides information on current FSF projects, such as providing development systems support for GNU software maintainers and raising awareness about the Free Software license and how to use it. They also maintain the Free Software Directory, which catalogs "all useful free software that runs under free operating systems" and currently contains over 3,000 entries. The Directory can be accessed from this website and searched by keyword or browsed by application area, such as Business and Productivity, Database, Education, Email, Games, Mathematics, Network Applications, Printing, Science, Security, Software development, and Web Authoring. The website also provides information on how to add packages to the Directory and how to donate to the Foundation.

  7. The Freedom Trail Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Long before the preservation ethic and heritage tourism worlds were so closely intertwined, an enterprising journalist named William Schofield made a suggestion in the Boston Herald-Traveler to create a historical walking trail through the city that winds by some of the cityâ??s primary historical sites. Seven years later, the Freedom Trail was a reality, and it remains one of the cityâ??s most popular attractions. For the past fifty years, The Freedom Trail Foundation has been actively involved in promoting and preserving the historic character of Boston, and visitors will be delighted to know that they can learn about the Freedom Trail and the Foundation on this site. As visitors click on the â??See the 16 sitesâ? section, they will be directed to an area where they can download a walking map of the trail (which includes such landmarks as Paul Revereâ??s House and the Old North Church), and learn more about Boston during the Revolutionary Era. The site also contains a section for educators, which features lesson plans and field trip ideas for those who are intent on bringing students to the Freedom Trail. The site is rounded out by a very nice calendar of events and a selection of helpful links to other germane sites.

  8. Hepatitis Foundation International

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin. imageT1 Your liver is your body's internal chemical power plant, converting the nutrients in the food you eat into muscles, energy, hormones, blood clotting factors and immune factors. ImageT4 ...

  9. Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence Introduction

    E-print Network

    Qu, Rong

    1 Foundations of Artificial IntelligenceFoundations of Artificial Intelligence IntroductionGeneral Information Objectives · Provide an introduction to the techniques used in Artificial Intelligence (AI of Artificial Intelligence applications · Show how these systems can be used to solve practical problems · Allow

  10. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

  11. National Science Foundation: Disasters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

  12. Environmental Research Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Environmental Research Foundation (ERF) provides "understandable scientific information about the influence of toxic substances on human health and the environment." ERF aims to inform journalists, community activists, librarians, environmentalists, and others concerned with toxins and environmental justice. The ERF site contains an online library of pertinent documents under such categories as agriculture & food security, global concerns, chemicals & health, human rights, and more. ERF also offers a database of related sites under the categories of biodiversity, cancer, children/youth, and food safety, to name a few. Site visitors can sign up for a free electronic subscription to the informative _Rachel's Environment & Health News_ (named in honor of renowned ecologist Rachel Carson). A Spanish-language edition of the publication is available as well. The website is also available in both Spanish and English.

  13. USC Shoah Foundation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the University of Southern California's Shoah Foundation Institute is "to overcome prejudice, intolerance, and bigotry-and the suffering they cause-through the educational use of the Institute's visual history testimonies." On their homepage, visitors can watch testimonies from Holocaust survivors and others, along with learning more about their "Featured Resources". These resources include the Education Portal, which brings together lesson plans for teaching about the Holocaust and guidelines for using primary documents in the classroom. Scholars and others will appreciate the "Scholarship & Research" area which includes information on upcoming conferences, research stipends offered through the Institute, and events. Also, it is worth noting that the site also has many resources in other languages, including German, Spanish, French, Italian, Polish, and Russian.

  14. National Collegiate EMS Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located on campuses around the country, emergency response teams that draw on their student populations and other professionals are growing in popularity. They also have a national organization to coordinate some of their educational outreach activities, the National Collegiate Emergency Services Foundation (NCEMSF). While much of the site is dedicated to providing information for member institutions, persons entering the field of emergency services (and those who teach them) will find several parts of the site germane to their work. First, the site has a number of electronic discussion areas where visitors can learn about updated techniques for dealing with scenarios including cardiac arrest and trauma. Additionally, the site contains a link to a set of standard operating procedures maintained at different colleges, including Brandeis University and Western Illinois University.

  15. The Aldo Leopold Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aldo Leopold was a professor, a student of nature, and an exquisite writer. His classic work "A Sand County Almanac" documented his time living close to (and observing) the land in Wisconsin, and it remains part of the canon of nature writing. The Aldo Leopold Foundation in Baraboo, Wisconsin works "to weave a land ethic into the fabric of our society", and it does its work from the Leopold Center, which was finished in 2007. First-time visitors will want to check out the "Aldo Leopold" section to learn more about the man and his times. Moving on, the "Programs" area offers information about their popular Woodland School, their work on issues surrounding land stewardship, and their Land Ethics Leaders initiative. Visitors can also use the search engine to find specific items of interest, and also they may wish to sign up for their free newsletter.

  16. European Training Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Working in conjunction with a host of other inter-governmental agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) is committed to "developing a range of quality of education and training systems" across Europe and into Asia. First-time visitors to the site will want to take a look at their "About the ETF" area to learn more about their mission, and then proceed to the "Themes" area, which contains basic information about their work in such areas as adult learning and online education. As might be expected from such an organization, their publications area is a real treasure-trove for policy analysts and others, as it contains works on "best practices" and overviews of educational systems throughout the region. In keeping with the strong emphasis place on vocational education, the site also contains a number of related events and conferences that will be of great interest as well.

  17. National Science Foundation: Current

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Current, is a newsletter published monthly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the scope of each newsletter is to highlight the research and education that is supported by NSF. One of the goals of NSF is "to promote the progress of science and to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare of the nation." Current provides a good view of the breadth of the NSF's funding activities. For example, a recent newsletter offers reports on sun spot models, exoplanets, the Nanoscience Center, supernovae, and robots in the Senate. The NSF in the News section highlights "newsworthy" research that was funded in whole or in part by the NSF. Each issue can be viewed or downloaded, and an online archive that dates back to 2005 is available on the site. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive the newsletter by email.

  18. National Science Foundation: Nanoscience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-28

    The basic premise behind nanoscience is that manipulating individual atoms and molecules makes it "possible to build machines on the scale of human cells or create materials and structures from the bottom up with novel properties." This rather useful website from the National Science Foundation offers a great primer on nanoscience, complete with answers to basic questions like What is nanoscience? On the website, visitors can make their way through answers to this question and others via illustrative graphics, helpful descriptions, and short video clips. Near the bottom of the homepage, visitors will find areas like Nanoscience Discoveries. This area contains information about recent news from the field, such as work being done to create additional resources for those who rely on prosthetic devices and limbs.

  19. American Architectural Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Those who have scoured the web for architecture sites may have come across the homepage of the American Architectural Foundation (AAF), but those who haven't will find this site to be quite a find. Founded in 1943, the AAF "seeks to educate individuals and community leaders about the power of architecture to improve lives and transform the places where we live, learn, work, and play." Visitors to the site can take advantage of a number of online resources, including their online publications. These publications include findings from their design study charrettes and their investigations into creating effective learning spaces for students in the 21st century. Within the "Video" section of the site, visitors can look at short films made to complement some of their publications. The site is rounded out by the "News" area where visitors can learn about their well-regarded conferences, which include the National Summit on School Design.

  20. International Women's Media Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1990, the International Women's Media Foundation (IWMF) is dedicated "to strengthening the role of women in the news media worldwide as a means to further freedom of the press." First-time visitors can read the "In the News" feature on the homepage to learn about current and ongoing situations that affect female journalists. Here visitors will also find a slide show of images that talks about recent IWMF fellowship winners, their global research programs, and recent events they have sponsored. Journalists will want to look at the "Opportunities" area to learn about the different ways they can be involved with their work. The site also affords visitors the ability to learn about assisting the IWMF with donations.

  1. Will Durant Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    While Will Durant is most well-known for his massive 11 volume Story of Civilization, the Will Durant Foundation Web site tells visitors about some of his other projects and life achievements, along with those of his wife, Ariel Durant. The site begins with a short essay offering a brief synopsis of Durant's life, including his relationship with his wife and the publishing icons Dick Simon and Max Schuster. The site contains articles written by Will Durant on a variety of subjects ranging from ancient Greece to the nature of civilization. For those interested in asking questions about Durant and his work, there is also an open and moderated discussion forum, along with a place for interested visitors to purchase any number of volumes authored by Mr. Durant and his wife.

  2. Sunlight Foundation's Party Time!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 2006, the Sunlight Foundation employs and develops new internet technologies "to create greater political transparency and to foster more openness and accountability in government." This website focuses on the political partying circuit, also known as fundraising. These parties reveal, "the relationships between lobbyists, congressional candidates, issues being lobbied and campaign money received." Thus, the parties are an excellent resource for citizen journalists, activists, and other interested members of the public. Visitors can view the invitations to the latest parties by clicking on "Upcoming Events". Some of the invitations include a golf tournament for Rep. Loretta Sanchez, a BBQ for Rep. Chet Edwards, and a "Crabs and Spaghetti Dinner" for Rep. Frank LoBiondo at Strategic Healthcare Townhouse. The "PARTYFINDER" allows visitors to search for parties by "beneficiary", "host", "venue name" or "entertainment type". Finally, there are several widgets visitors can put on their website or blog to display "Upcoming parties", "Upcoming leadership PAC parties", and "Parties by candidate state".

  3. Foundation for Landscape Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geographers, historians, landscape designers, urban planners, and poets have all been fascinated with both natural and human-made landscapes for centuries. The mission statement of the Foundation for Landscape Studies might resonate with many of these groups of people: "To foster an active understanding of the importance of place in human life.� From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn more about their organization, read about their overarching goals, and examine their photo gallery. In the gallery, they will find photo essays that include "Ancient Sites of the Andean Desert" and "New Orleans After the Flood". The site is rounded out by their in-house journal, "Site/Lines". Visitors can look over the complete run of the journal, which includes pieces on landscape architecture, landscape management, and the portrayal of idealized landscapes.

  4. Foundations of Geomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Andy

    The study of the magnetic field of the Earth, or geomagnetism, is one of the oldest lines of scientific enquiry. Indeed, it has often been said that William Gilbert's De Magnete, published in 1600 and predating Isaac Newton's Principia by 87 years, can claim to be the first true scientific textbook; his study was essentially the first of academic rather than practical interest.What then, we may ask, has been accomplished in the nearly 400 intervening years up to the publication of Foundations of Geomagnetism? In short, a wealth of observational evidence, considerable physical understanding, and a great deal of mathematical apparatus have accrued, placing the subject on a much surer footing.The latter two categories are described in considerable detail, and with attendant rigor, in this book. The sphericity of the Earth means that a frequent theme in the book is the solution of the partial differential equations of electrodynamics in a spherical geometry.

  5. The Heritage Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The Heritage Foundation is one of the best known conservative think tanks in the U.S., and its Web site offers voluminous information on various topics. Its publications library offers full text in twelve subject categories from its "FYI," "Heritage Lecture," "Backgrounder," and "Executive Memorandum" series. Selected stories from "Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship," are available, as well as articles from "The Insider Newsletter." Its "Congressional District Ranking Book" gives rankings based on census figures for vital statistics, education, housing, and employment. It also provides an "Index for Economic Freedom" for over 100 countries. Links to conservative public policy organizations are provided, as well as a job bank and internship program. This is a powerhouse site for conservative (and other) internauts.

  6. Electronic Frontier Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Electronic Frontier Foundation

    Started in 1990, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an organization that is dedicated to preserving the various freedoms and rights within the digital "frontier", which includes blogs, online intellectual property, and so on. On their homepage, visitors can learn about news items of particular relevance, and also read about some of the cases they are currently working on. For those who might have an inkling of what they are looking for, a "Topics" section includes links to information about bloggers' rights, file-sharing, e-voting, and surveillance. Other visitors might want to take a look at their white papers, which include such titles as "Noncommercial Email Lists: Collateral Damage in the Fight Against Spam" and "Dangerous Terms-A User's Guide to End User License Agreements". Finally, visitors should also note that a number of the materials are available in Spanish, and that RSS feeds are available as well.

  7. Assay techniques for detection of exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide. Technical bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical bulletin provides analytical techniques to identify toxic chemical agents in urine or blood samples. It is intended to provide the clinician with laboratory tests to detect exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide.

  8. Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, M; Richmond, I

    2000-01-01

    The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed. Key Words: industrial fish • methane • cyanide PMID:11064677

  9. Binary biosorption of iron(III) and iron(III)-cyanide complex ions on Rhizopus arrhizus: modelling of synergistic interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zümriye Aksu; Hanife Gülen

    2002-01-01

    Many heavy metal-bearing wastewaters also contain their metal cyanide complex ions. Although the biosorption of single or multi-metal ions to various microorganisms has been extensively studied, very little attention has been given to the bioremoval and the expression of the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of metal–metal cyanide complex ion systems. In this study, the simultaneous biosorption of iron(III) (ferric) cations

  10. Global GacA-Steered Control of Cyanide and Exoprotease Production in Pseudomonas fluorescens Involves Specific Ribosome Binding Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Blumer; Stephan Heeb; Gabriella Pessi; Dieter Haas

    1999-01-01

    The conserved two-component regulatory system GacS\\/GacA determines the expression of extracellular products and virulence factors in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. In the biocontrol strain CHA0 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, the response regulator GacA is essential for the synthesis of extracellular protease (AprA) and secondary metabolites including hydrogen cyanide. GacA was found to exert its control on the hydrogen cyanide biosynthetic

  11. Batch Equilibrium Adsorption of Cyanides from Aqueous Solution onto Copper and Nickel-Impregnated Powder Activated Carbon and Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph KETCHA MBADCAM; Horace MANGA NGOMO; Daouda KOUOTOU

    The present paper reports the removal of cyanide ions from aqueous solutions using Cu\\/PAC, Ni\\/PAC, Cu\\/Clay and Ni\\/Clay adsorbents at pH=11. At this pH, the cyanide is completely dissociated into its ions. Equilibrium data fitted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms well. The applicability of the isotherm equation to describe the adsorption process was judged by the correlation coefficients, R2, values. The

  12. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been replaced or…

  13. Quantum Computation Models Foundational Problems

    E-print Network

    Rowell, Eric C.

    Quantum Computation Models Foundational Problems Qualitative Questions Conjectural Answer to All Questions Locality in Quantum Computation, II Eric Rowell1 with Z. Wang2, C. Galindo3, S.-M. Hong4 1:Texas A Computation, II #12;Quantum Computation Models Foundational Problems Qualitative Questions Conjectural Answer

  14. Engineering and Design - Rock Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provides general guidance for factors to be considered in the construction of foundations and cut slopes excavated in rock masses. Divided into five sections with general topic areas to include: Excavation; Dewatering and Ground Water Control; Ground Control; Protection of Sensitive Foundation Materials; and Excavation Mapping and Monitoring.

  15. A comparative study of the biosorption of iron(III)-cyanide complex anions to Rhizopus arrhizus and Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Aksu, Z.; Calik, A. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-03-01

    In this study a comparative biosorption of iron(III)-cyanide complex anions from aqueous solutions to Rhizopus arrhizus and Chlorella vulgaris was investigated. The iron(III)-cyanide complex ion-binding capacities of the biosorbents were shown as a function of initial pH, initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion, and biosorbent concentrations. The results indicated that a significant reduction of iron(III)-cyanide complex ions was achieved at pH 13, a highly alkaline condition for both the biosorbents. The maximum loading capacities of the biosorbents were found to be 612.2 mg/g for R.arrhizus at 1,996.2 mg/L initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion concentration and 387.0 mg/g for C. vulgaris at 845.4 mg/L initial iron(III)-cyanide complex ion concentration at this pH. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and Redlich-Peterson adsorption models were fitted to the equilibrium data at pH 3, 7, and 13. The equilibrium data of the biosorbents could be best fitted by all the adsorption models over the entire concentration range at pH 13.

  16. In situ formation of phosphorescent molecular gold(I) cluster in a macroporous polymer film to achieve colorimetric cyanide sensing.

    PubMed

    Zong, Chenghua; Zheng, Li Rong; He, Wenhui; Ren, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunhuan; Lu, Lehui

    2014-02-01

    A highly phosphorescent molecular Au(I) cluster capable of rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of cyanide has been successfully fabricated. The origin of the outstanding sensing performance of the molecular Au(I) cluster toward cyanide is justified by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses. The response mechanism employed with the molecular Au(I) cluster and the cost-effectiveness in cyanide detection affords several key sensor features, making this molecular Au(I) cluster-based sensor unique compared to other cyanide sensing schemes. Importantly, by exploring the phosphorescent properties of the molecular Au(I) cluster in solid state, we demonstrate the first example of the molecular gold(I) cluster-based macroporous sensing film for colorimetric detection of cyanide in complex samples, including red wine, coffee, juice, and soil. Remarkably, the as-prepared sensing film inherits the sensing ability of the molecular Au(I) cluster, and offers a high mechanical flexibility and novel opportunities for real-time monitoring cyanide release in cassava manufacturing. PMID:24397707

  17. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3.5 cyanide species analytical methods development. FY 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

  18. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3. 5 cyanide species analytical methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern.

  19. Homicide due to intravenous metallic mercury injection followed by sodium cyanide injection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Huang, Guangzhao; Li, Daoquan; Li, Ling

    2012-09-01

    We report a case of homicide due to intravenous mercury injection followed by meperidine and sodium cyanide injection. A 35-year-old woman was found dead in bed at home by her husband. Reportedly, she had been sick for more than 5 months. Initial death investigation revealed no evidence of foul play. Her death was believed to be natural. Therefore, her body was buried without an autopsy. Two months after death, her family requested an autopsy because they suspected her physician husband killed her. Her body was exhumed, and an autopsy was performed. Postmortem examination revealed numerous metallic mercury globules in the pulmonary arteries. Toxicological analysis revealed a high concentration of mercury in the tissue samples of the lungs, liver, heart, and kidney. In addition, cyanide and meperidine were also found in the heart and liver. The detailed case history and postmortem examination findings are described. PMID:21646904

  20. Straightforward synthesis of 1,2-dicyanoalkanes from nitroalkenes and silyl cyanide mediated by tetrabutylammonium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Nagata, Takaya; Hayakawa, Junpei; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-01-12

    A straightforward synthesis of 1,2-dicyanoalkanes by reacting nitroalkenes with trimethylsilyl cyanide in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride is described. The reaction proceeds through a tandem double Michael addition under mild conditions. Employing the hypervalent silicate generated from trimethylsilyl cyanide and tetrabutylammonium fluoride is essential for achieving this transformation. Mechanistic studies suggest that a small amount of water included in the reaction media plays a key role. This protocol is applicable to various types of substrates including electron-rich and electron-deficient aromatic nitroalkenes, and aliphatic nitroalkenes. Moreover, vinyl sulfones were found to be good alternatives, particularly for electron-deficient nitroalkenes. The broad substrate scope and functional group tolerance of the reaction makes this approach a practical method for the synthesis of valuable 1,2-dicyanoalkanes. PMID:25346107

  1. Lysozyme-stabilized gold nanoclusters as a novel fluorescence probe for cyanide recognition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongtao; Liu, Lili; Li, Fengxia; Shuang, Shaomin; Li, Yingfu; Choi, Matin M F; Dong, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme-stabilized gold nanoclusters (Lys-AuNCs) have been synthesized and utilized as a fluorescent probe for selective detection of cyanide (CN(-)). Lys-AuNCs had an average size of 4 nm and showed a red emission at 650 nm (?ex=370 nm). The fluorescence of Lys-AuNCs could be quenched by CN(-). An excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward the detection of CN(-) in aqueous solution was observed. The fluorescence intensity was linear with the CN(-) concentration in the range of 5.00×10(-6)M-1.20×10(-4) M with a detection limit as low as 1.9×10(-7) M. Also, the addition of CN(-) to Lys-AuNCs could induce an obvious color change from light yellow to colorless. Correspondingly, a bright red fluorescence disappeared and a blue fluorescence appeared. The results indicated that Lys-AuNCs could be applied in detection of cyanide on environmental aspects. PMID:24231741

  2. Rapid measurement of free cyanide in liquor by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenlin; Xiao, Quanwei; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Mei; Wan, Yuping; Liang, Hengxing

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the measurement of free cyanide in liquor by ion chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). Eluent concentration, interferent evaluation and method performance were discussed. Results show that free cyanide in liquor can be rapidly determined by the optimised IC-PAD method. A sample requires only 1:100 dilution and simple filtration before being subjected to IC-PAD. The linear range is 1-5000 ?g/L with an R value of 0.9998. The detection limit is 1 ?g/L for a 25 ?L injection loop. The overall relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method is less than 5%, and the recovery range is from 98.1% to 105.0%. This study has been proven significant and may have potential applications in liquors analysis. PMID:25442607

  3. Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

  4. Oviposition Choice of Mexican Bean Beetle ( Epilachna varivestis ) Depends on Host Plants Cyanogenic Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Ballhorn; Reinhard Lieberei

    2006-01-01

    The choice of insect females as to where to lay their eggs strongly affects progeny survival and, thus, fitness. We conducted choice experiments with female Mexican bean beetles, which were offered lima bean plants differing in their cyanogenic capacity (HCNc), i.e., in the intensity of hydrogen cyanide release per time unit from damaged plant tissue. Females preferred to lay their

  5. Conversion of sodium cyanide to carbon dioxide and ammonia by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. V. Babu; James H. Wolfram; Kirit D. Chapatwala

    1992-01-01

    Summary Pseudomonas putida, isolated from contaminated industrial wastewaters and soil sites, was found to utilize sodium cyanide (NaCN) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Cells, immobilized in calcium alginate beads (1–2 mm diameter) were aerated in air-uplift-type fluidized batch bioreactor containing 100–400 ppm of NaCN. Degradation of NaCN was monitored for 168 h by analyzing gaseous and dissolved

  6. The comet-like composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Furuya, Kenji; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Loomis, Ryan; Wilner, David J.

    2015-04-01

    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the solar nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the solar nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01 per cent of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can readily be explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry (to form, for example, HCN) and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in solar nebula analogues, indicating that they survive disk formation or are re-formed in situ. It has hitherto been unclear whether the same holds for more complex organic molecules outside the solar nebula, given that recent observations show a marked change in the chemistry at the boundary between nascent envelopes and young disks due to accretion shocks. Here we report the detection of the complex cyanides CH3CN and HC3N (and HCN) in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480. We find that the abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas phase are similar to those in comets, which suggests an even higher relative abundance of complex cyanides in the disk ice. This implies that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique.

  7. Effect of Cultivar, Steeping, and Malting on Tannin, Total Polyphenol, and Cyanide Content of Nigerian Sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BOLANLE A. OSUNTOGUN; STEVE R. A. ADEWUSI; CHARLES C. NWASIKE

    Cereal Chem. 66(2):87-89 Tannin was estimated in the seeds of 15 Nigerian sorghum cultivars and polyphenol content also decreased by 22,68, and 19% for SRN484, KSV7, found to vary between 0.25% (catechin equivalent) for SSVl 1 and SSV12 and SSV3, respectively, after malting. Cyanide content of the grains varied and 2.92% for SRN484. Total polyphenol content ranged from 0.32% from

  8. CynD, the Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus: Gene Cloning and Structural Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dakshina Jandhyala; Mark Berman; Paul R. Meyers; B. Trevor Sewell; Richard C. Willson; Michael J. Benedik

    2003-01-01

    The cyanide dihydratase in Bacillus pumilus was shown to be an 18-subunit spiral structure by three- dimensional reconstruction of electron micrographs of negatively stained material at its optimum pH, 8.0. At pH 5.4, the subunits rearrange to form an extended left-handed helix. Gel electrophoresis of glutaraldehyde cross-linked enzyme suggests that the fundamental component of the spiral is a dimer of

  9. Cyanide adsorption on gold electrodes: a combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L Beltramo; T. E Shubina; S. J Mitchell; M. T. M Koper

    2004-01-01

    A combined SERS and DFT study of cyanide adsorption on a gold electrode is presented. From our analysis, the high-frequency mode at ?2100 cm?1 is ascribed to the C–N stretching frequency at (100) and (110) sites. The lower frequency modes at ?370 and ?300 cm?1 are ascribed to the Au–CN stretching and bending modes, respectively. The Stark tuning slopes of

  10. Cobinamide-based cyanide analysis by multiwavelength spectrometry in a liquid core waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-07-15

    A novel cyanide analyzer based on sensitive cobinamide chemistry relies on simultaneous reagent and sample injection and detection in a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell illuminated by a white light emitting diode. The transmitted light is read by a fiber-optic charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. Alkaline cobinamide (orange, lambda(max) = 510 nm) changes to violet (lambda(max) = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. Multiwavelength detection permits built-in correction for artifact responses intrinsic to a single-line flow injection system and corrects for drift. With optimum choice of the reaction medium, flow rate, and mixing coil length, the limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) is 30 nM and the linear dynamic range extends to 10 microM. The response base width for 1% carryover is <95 s, permitting a throughput of 38 samples/h. The relative standard deviations (rsd) for repetitive determinations at 0.15, 0.5, and 1 microM were 7.6% (n = 5), 3.2% (n = 7), and 1.7% (n = 6), respectively. Common ions at 250-80,000x concentrations do not interfere except for sulfide. For the determination of 2 microM CN(-), the presence of 2, 5, 10, 20, 100, and 1000 microM HS(-) results in 22, 27, 48, 58, 88, and 154% overestimation of cyanide. The sulfide product actually has a different characteristic absorption, and in those samples where significant presence is likely, this can be corrected for. We demonstrate applicability by analyzing the hydrolytic cyanide extract of apple and pear seeds with orange seeds as control and also measure HCN in breath air samples. Spike recoveries in these sample extracts ranged from 91 to 108%. PMID:20560532

  11. Cobinamide-Based Cyanide Analysis by Multiwavelength Spectrometry in a Liquid Core Waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    A novel cyanide analyzer based on sensitive cobinamide chemistry relies on simultaneous reagent and sample injection and detection in a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell illuminated by a white light emitting diode. The transmitted light is read by a fiber-optic charge coupled device (CCD) spectrometer. Alkaline cobinamide (orange, ?max = 510 nm) changes to violet (?max = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. Multiwavelength detection permits built-in correction for artifact responses intrinsic to a single-line flow injection system and corrects for drift. With optimum choice of the reaction medium, flow rate, and mixing coil length, the limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) is 30 nM and the linear dynamic range extends to 10 ?M. The response base width for 1% carryover is <95 s, permitting a throughput of 38 samples/h. The relative standard deviations (rsd) for repetitive determinations at 0.15, 0.5, and 1 ?M were 7.6% (n = 5), 3.2% (n = 7), and 1.7% (n = 6), respectively. Common ions at 250–80 000× concentrations do not interfere except for sulfide. For the determination of 2 ?M CN?, the presence of 2, 5, 10, 20, 100, and 1000 ?M HS? results in 22, 27, 48, 58, 88, and 154% overestimation of cyanide. The sulfide product actually has a different characteristic absorption, and in those samples where significant presence is likely, this can be corrected for. We demonstrate applicability by analyzing the hydrolytic cyanide extract of apple and pear seeds with orange seeds as control and also measure HCN in breath air samples. Spike recoveries in these sample extracts ranged from 91 to 108%. PMID:20560532

  12. Magnetic Properties and Reactivity Studies of Families of Trigonal Bipyramidal Cyanide Clusters and Their Extended Structures

    E-print Network

    Funck, Kristen Elise

    2012-02-14

    MAGNETIC PROPERTIES AND REACTIVITY STUDIES OF FAMILIES OF TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL CYANIDE CLUSTERS AND THEIR EXTENDED STRUCTURES A Dissertation by KRISTEN ELISE FUNCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... AND THEIR EXTENDED STRUCTURES A Dissertation by KRISTEN ELISE FUNCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee...

  13. The comet-like composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides.

    PubMed

    Öberg, Karin I; Guzmán, Viviana V; Furuya, Kenji; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M; Loomis, Ryan; Wilner, David J

    2015-04-01

    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the solar nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the solar nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01 per cent of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can readily be explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry (to form, for example, HCN) and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in solar nebula analogues, indicating that they survive disk formation or are re-formed in situ. It has hitherto been unclear whether the same holds for more complex organic molecules outside the solar nebula, given that recent observations show a marked change in the chemistry at the boundary between nascent envelopes and young disks due to accretion shocks. Here we report the detection of the complex cyanides CH3CN and HC3N (and HCN) in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480. We find that the abundance ratios of these nitrogen-bearing organics in the gas phase are similar to those in comets, which suggests an even higher relative abundance of complex cyanides in the disk ice. This implies that complex organics accompany simpler volatiles in protoplanetary disks, and that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique. PMID:25855455

  14. Derivatization method of free cyanide including cyanogen chloride for the sensitive analysis of cyanide in chlorinated drinking water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye-In; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-01-20

    A novel derivatization method of free cyanide (HCN + CN(-)) including cyanogen chloride in chlorinated drinking water was developed with d-cysteine and hypochlorite. The optimum conditions (0.5 mM D-cysteine, 0.5 mM hypochlorite, pH 4.5, and a reaction time of 10 min at room temperature) were established by the variation of parameters. Cyanide (C(13)N(15)) was chosen as an internal standard. The formed ?-thiocyanoalanine was directly injected into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer without any additional extraction or purification procedures. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.07 and 0.2 ?g/L, respectively, and the interday relative standard deviation was less than 4% at concentrations of 4.0, 20.0, and 100.0 ?g/L. The method was successfully applied to determine CN(-) in chlorinated water samples. The detected concentration range and detection frequency of CN(-) were 0.20-8.42 ?g/L (14/24) in source drinking water and 0.21-1.03 ?g/L (18/24) in chlorinated drinking water. PMID:25486065

  15. Spectroscopic Confirmation of Ethyl Cyanide in Titan’s Atmosphere using ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Maureen Y.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Charnley, Steven B.; Teanby, Nick; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Mumma, Michael J.

    2014-11-01

    In the last few decades, many molecular species have been detected in the atmosphere of Titan. The first detection of a new molecule on Titan using high-resolution microwave spectroscopy was by Bézard et al. (1993), who observed multiple emission lines from methyl cyanide (CH3CN) near 221 GHz. The presence of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) has long been predicted by photochemical models, and the protonated form (CH3CH2CNH+) was previously inferred from Cassini INMS measurements (Vuitton et al. 2006). Here, we present the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide in Titan's atmosphere, obtained using high spectral/spatial-resolution observations carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). We have detected over 30 rotational emission lines from CH3CH2CN in the frequency range 220-350 GHz, and will present a preliminary model for the column density, as well as maps of the CH3CH2CN distribution in Titan's daylight hemisphere.References: Vuitton, Yelle, & Anicich 2006, ApJ, 647, L175.; Bézard, B., Marten, A., & Paubert, G. (1993). Detection of Acetonitrile on Titan. In AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #25.09, vol. 25 of Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, (p. 1100).

  16. Removal of cyanide from water by means of plasma discharge technology.

    PubMed

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Molina, Ricardo; Schikora, Hendrik; Müller, Michael; Bayona, Josep M

    2013-03-15

    Two different nonthermal plasma reactors at atmospheric pressure were assessed for the first time for cyanide removal (1 mg L(-1)) from aqueous solutions (0.025 M NaHCO(3)/NaOH buffer, pH 11) at laboratory scale. Both devices were dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors; one of them was a conventional batch reactor (R1) and the other one was a coaxial thin falling water film reactor (R2). A first-order degradation kinetics was proposed for both experiments, obtaining k(R1) = 0.5553 min(-1) and k(R2) = 0.7482 min(-1). The coaxial reactor R2 yielded a removal of 99% within only 3 min. Energy efficiencies (G) were calculated, yielding 1.74 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for R1 and 127.9 mg kW(-1) h(-1) for R2. When the treatment was applied to industrial wastewaters, cyanide elimination was confirmed, although at a lower rate (above 92% removal in 90 min with R2). Therefore, plasma reactors could be a relevant alternative to established advanced oxidation techniques (UV, H(2)O(2), ozonation, etc.) for the removal of cyanide from wastewaters with low organic loads or even drinking waters. PMID:23332789

  17. A new highly selective fluorescent turn-on chemosensor for cyanide anion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yabin; Shi, Wei; Hui, Yonghai; Sun, Xinhua; Xu, Linxian; Feng, Lei; Xie, Zhengfeng

    2015-05-01

    A new simple molecule, 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1), was synthesized successfully by the Knoevenagel condensation reaction between 2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxaldehyde and malononitrile. The receptor M1 is highly sensitive and selective to cyanide anion due to the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion with M1. Distinct changes on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra can be detected with the addition of cyanide anion to the DMSO solution of M1. Optical properties of M1 were scarcely affected by the addition of other common background anions (F(-),Cl(-),Br(-),I(-),SCN(-),OH(-),CO4(2-),H2PO4(-),SO4(2-),HSO4(-),AcO(-),andNO3(-)) under the same condition. The detection limit of CN(-) reaches ~1.43?M by M1 and the presence of background anions brought very slight interference for the detection of CN(-). PMID:25770604

  18. Pediatric cyanide intoxication and death from an acetonitrile-containing cosmetic.

    PubMed

    Caravati, E M; Litovitz, T L

    1988-12-16

    Two cases of pediatric accidental ingestion of an acetonitrile-containing cosmetic are reported. One of the children, a 16-month-old boy, was found dead in bed the morning after ingesting the product. No therapy had been undertaken, as the product was mistakenly assumed to be an acetone-containing nail polish remover. The second child, a 2-year-old boy, experienced signs of severe cyanide poisoning, but survived with vigorous supportive care. Both children had blood cyanide levels in the potentially lethal range. The observed delayed onset of severe toxic reactions supports the proposed mechanism of acetonitrile conversion to inorganic cyanide via hepatic microsomal enzymes. Physicians and poison centers should be alerted to the existence of this highly toxic product, sold for removal of sculptured nails and likely to be confused with the less toxic acetone-containing nail polish removers. We urge regulatory agencies to reconsider the wisdom of marketing a cosmetic that poses such an extreme health hazard. PMID:3062198

  19. Separation of thiol and cyanide hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2004-03-01

    The fluorescence derivatizing agent, o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), has been applied to the separation and detection of cyanide and several structurally similar thiols by capillary electrophoresis (CE)-laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Of particular interest to this investigation was the separation of 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, and cyanide, each of which are hydrolysis products or hydrolysis product simulants of the chemical warfare (CW) agents O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (VX), O-isobutyl S-2-diethylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate (R-VX), and tabun (GA). Other structurally similar thiols simultaneously resolved by this method include 1-pentanethiol and 2-mercaptoethanol. Instrumental parameters were probed and optimum values for capillary length (50 cm) and inner diameter (75 microm), injection time (30 s) and field strength (15 kV) were determined. Sample stacking methods enabled detection limits of 9.3 microg/L for cyanide, 1.8 microg/L for 2-diethylaminoethanethiol, 35 microg/L for 2-dimethylaminoethanethiol, 15 microg/L for 2-mercaptoethanol, and 89 microg/L for 1-pentanethiol. The linearity of the method was verified over an order of magnitude and the reproducibility was found to be 3.0%. PMID:15004852

  20. Pretreatment of cyanided tailings by catalytic ozonation with Mn(2+)/O(3.).

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Li, Dengxin; Li, Jiebing; Wang, Jin; Hussain, Asif; Ji, Hao; Zhai, Yijie

    2015-02-01

    The increasing amount of cyanided tailings produced as a by-product has gained significant attention in recent years because of the rapid development of the gold industry and extensive exploitation of gold mineral resources. The effective use of these secondary resources is becoming an important and urgent problem for all environmental protection staff. Manganese-catalyzed ozonation for the pre-oxidation of cyanided tailings was studied and the effects of Mn(2+) dosage, initial sulfuric acid concentration, ozone volume flow, temperature and agitation speed on pretreatment were examined. The optimum reaction conditions were observed to be: ore pulp density 2.5%, agitation speed 700r/min, temperature 60°C, Mn(2+) dosage 40g/L, ozone volume flow 80L/hr, initial sulfuric acid concentration 1mol/L, and reaction time 6hr. Under these conditions, the leaching rate of Fe and weight loss could reach 94.85% and 48.89% respectively. The leaching process of cyanided tailings by Mn(2+)/O(3) was analyzed, and it was found that the leaching of pyrite depends on synergetic oxidation by high-valent manganese and O(3), in which the former played an important part. PMID:25662233

  1. Probing C-terminal interactions of the Pseudomonas stutzeri cyanide-degrading CynD protein.

    PubMed

    Crum, Mary Abou-Nader; Park, Jason M; Mulelu, Andani E; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The cyanide dihydratases from Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas stutzeri share high amino acid sequence similarity throughout except for their highly divergent C-termini. However, deletion or exchange of the C-termini had different effects upon each enzyme. Here we extended previous studies and investigated how the C-terminus affects the activity and stability of three nitrilases, the cyanide dihydratases from B. pumilus (CynDpum) and P. stutzeri (CynDstut) and the cyanide hydratase from Neurospora crassa. Enzymes in which the C-terminal residues were deleted decreased in both activity and thermostability with increasing deletion lengths. However, CynDstut was more sensitive to such truncation than the other two enzymes. A domain of the P. stutzeri CynDstut C-terminus not found in the other enzymes, 306GERDST311, was shown to be necessary for functionality and explains the inactivity of the previously described CynDstut-pum hybrid. This suggests that the B. pumilus C-terminus, which lacks this motif, may have specific interactions elsewhere in the protein, preventing it from acting in trans on a heterologous CynD protein. We identify the dimerization interface A-surface region 195-206 (A2) from CynDpum as this interaction site. However, this A2 region did not rescue activity in C-terminally truncated CynDstut?302 or enhance the activity of full-length CynDstut and therefore does not act as a general stability motif. PMID:25549622

  2. Preparation of nano-iron oxide red pigment powders by use of cyanided tailings.

    PubMed

    Dengxin, Li; Guolong, Gao; Fanling, Meng; Chong, Ji

    2008-06-30

    On one hand, cyanided tailings are one kind of pollutants. On the other hand, they contain a lot of valuable elements. So utilization of them can bring social and environmental benefits. In this paper, cyanided tailings were used to prepare nano-iron oxide red pigment powders by an ammonia process with urea as precipitant. At first, cyanided tailings were oxidized by nitric acid. Then, the oxidizing mixture was separated into solid and liquid parts. The liquid mixture was reduced by scrap iron and the impurity of it was removed by use of NH3.H2O. Then, the seed crystal of gamma-FeOOH was obtained, when the pure liquid reacted with ammonia liquid at the selected experimental conditions. At last, nano-iron oxide red pigment powders were prepared. The structure, morphology and size distribution of seed crystal and iron oxide red were characterized systematically by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and laser particle size analyzer (LPSA). The results revealed that typical iron oxide nanoparticles were alpha-Fe2O3 with particle size of 50-70 nm. Furthermore, the factors that affected the hue and quality of the seed crystal and iron oxide red pigment were also discussed. PMID:18164812

  3. Laboratory Characterization and Astrophysical Detection in Orion KL of Higher Excited Vibrational States of Vinyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alicia; Tercero, Belén; Cernicharo, Jose; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Pszczó?kowski, Lech; Bermúdez, Celina; Alonso, José L.; Medvedev, Ivan; Neese, Christopher F.; Drouin, Brian; Daly, Adam M.; Marcelino, Nuria; Viti, Serena; Calcutt, Hannah

    2014-06-01

    Vinyl cyanide (acrylonitrile, H_2C=CHC?N) is an interstellar molecule that was classified as a 'weed' since transitions in its isotopic species and vibrationally excited states have already been detected and need to be accounted for in searches for complex organic molecules. Presently we extend the systematic analysis of the laboratory rotational spectrum of vinyl cyanide to 9 new excited vibrational states with vibrational energies above 550 cm-1 (785K). The spectroscopic analysis is based on the broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum combined from results from the participating spectroscopic laboratories and covering a total of 1235 GHz. The studied states come in the form of polyads of perturbing vibrational states, and such perturbations also affect the strong, low-K_a transitions used for astrophysical detection. It is therefore crucial to account for such effects in order to produce reliable linelists. The experimental data for three new polyads were fitted to experimental accuracy using Coriolis and Fermi perturbation models. Multiple transitions in the lowest of these polyads (and in other excited vibrational states and isotopic species of vinyl cyanide) were detected in the millimetre survey of the Orion-KL Nebula made with the IRAM 30-m radiotelescope.

  4. Structure of potassium cyanide at low temperature and high pressure determined by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Harold T.; Decker, Daniel L.; Nelson, H. Mark; Jorgensen, J. D.

    1993-05-01

    Neutron time-of-flight powder-diffraction spectra have been obtained in potassium cyanide (KCN) at temperatures between 25 and 200 K and at pressures between 35 and 366 MPa. These data sample five different phases of KCN. In phase C, which exists at 366 MPa and below 170 K, the structure is determined to be paraelectric with the monoclinic space-group symmetry C2/c. This is in disagreement with a previous study, which determined the structure to be ferroelectric with space-group symmetry Cc. In phase D, which exists at 366 MPa and below 120 K, the structure is determined to be paraelectric with the monoclinic space-group symmetry C2/m. The cyanide ions lie in mirror planes. In both phases C and D, the cyanide ions are ordered with respect to the direction of their bonds but disordered with respect to interchange of C and N. Also in these phases, line broadening due to an inhomogeneous shear strain was observed. A mathematical treatment of this phenomenon is given.

  5. South Asian Physics Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschfelder, Jessica; Ramachandran, Vidhya

    2011-04-01

    The South Asian Physics Foundation is a new US-based nonprofit organization supporting international collaboration in physics research and education in South Asia. We discuss the highlights of our unique Professor Faheem Hussain Student Conference Program, launched in 2009 as our first initiative. This program provides funding for South Asian physics students to give a presentation at a scientific conference in a South Asian country other than that of their university or citizenship. During the program's first year we funded one student from Bangladesh to attend a conference in India, and during it's second year we funded eight students to attend two different conferences. Our expanding activities underscore a need for facilitating such exchanges in developing regions of the world. We discuss issues related to offering this type of program as well as the challenges and satisfactions of implementing programs that foster regional scientific cooperation. We also solicit suggestions and ideas for further developing and broadening our activities. SAPF's website is www.southasianphysicsfoundation.org.

  6. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863

  7. Ford Foundation Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Ford Foundation is sponsoring 40 three-year predoctoral fellowships and 10 one-year dissertation fellowships for minorities for 1987. The predoctoral fellowships include an annual stipend of $10,000 and an annual grant of $6000 to the fellow's institution in lieu of tuition and fees. Dissertation Fellows will receive a stipend of $18,000 and no institutional grant.The program is designed to increase the presence of under represented minorities in the nation's college and university faculties. The minority groups to be considered under this program are: American Indians, Alaskan Natives (Eskimo or Aleut), Black Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians or Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. The competition is open to any U.S. citizen who is a member of one of these groups, who is a beginning graduate student or is within 1 year of completing the dissertation, and who expects to work toward a Ph.D. or Sc.D. degree. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, and biological sciences. The National Research Council, which is administering the fellowships, can provide more information on which fields of study are and are not eligible for this program.

  8. The Electronic Literature Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Literature teachers, scholars, and lovers of the classics will warmly welcome this excellent online project. ELF's mission is to provide advanced, free electronic texts from world literature in several formats and languages. For instance, the ELF site includes four full editions of The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri: "the original Italian text, and English translations by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Rev. H.F. Cary, and Allen Mandelbaum. Annotations from the Cary and Longfellow editions are also available." As with ELF's Canterbury Tales, which is offered in Middle and Modern English, the texts can be read line-by-line or in enface ("facing page") format, which juxtaposes the original text and translation. The Foundation currently features two other texts: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, offered in three editions, and a preliminary version of Milton's Paradise Lost (the complete version is scheduled for April 1). All of the ELF texts include internal search engines and numerous contemporary and modern illustrations. Works in development include The Arabian Nights (scheduled for May 1), the works of Thomas Hardy, and Goethe's Faust.

  9. Open Society Foundations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started by the philanthropist George Soros in the mid-1980s to help countries make the economic and social transition from communism, the Open Society Foundation aims to "implement a range of initiatives to advance justice, education, public health, and independent media." Asia is the focus of this portion of the website, and the material is divided up into "News & Announcements", "Events", and "Publications & Articles". Visitors can keep up with the happenings of the site via an RSS feed or by subscribing to their newsletter. One of the featured stories on the homepage is a recording of a discussion about the book "A Rope and a Prayer", by an American journalist who was kidnapped and taken around Afghanistan and Pakistan. There are several videos visitors can watch that are highlighted on the homepage, including "Cambodia A Quest for Justice", "India and Europe Trading Away Access to Medicines", and "Russia's HIV Care Must Center on Drug Users". Finally, visitors can read "Dining with Dictators" a blog entry about the European Union's "willingness to meet with Central Asian Tyrants."

  10. Accounting for cyanide and its degradation products at three Nevada gold mines; constraints from stable C- and N-isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the fate of cyanide (CN-) in mine process waters is important for addressing environmental concerns and for taking steps to minimize reagent costs. The utility of stable isotope methods in identifying cyanide loss pathways has been investigated in case studies at three Nevada gold mines. Freshly prepared barren solutions at the mines have cyanide d15N and d13C values averaging -4 ? and -36 ?, respectively, reflecting the nitrogen and carbon sources used by commercial manufacturers, air and natural gas methane. Pregnant solutions returning from ore heaps display small isotopic shifts to lower d15N and d13C values. The shifts are similar to those observed in laboratory experiments where cyanide was progressively precipitated as a cyanometallic compound, and are opposite in sign and much smaller in magnitude than the shifts observed in experiments where HCN was offgassed. Offgassing is inferred to be a minor cyanide loss mechanism in the heap leach operations at the three mines, and precipitation as cyanometallic compounds, and possibly coprecipitation with ferric oxides, is inferred to be an important loss mechanism. Isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) shows that uptake of high d13C air CO2 has been important in many barren and pregnant solutions. However, DIC in reclaim pond waters at all three mines has low d13C values of -28 to -34 ? indicating cyanide breakdown either by hydrolysis or by other chemical pathways that break the C-N bond. Isotope mass balance calculations indicate that about 40 % of the DIC load in the ponds, at a minimum, was derived from cyanide breakdown. This level of cyanide hydrolysis accounts for 14-100 % of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen species present in the ponds. Overall, isotope data provide quantitative evidence that only minor amounts of cyanide are lost via offgassing and that significant amounts are destroyed via hydrolysis and related pathways. The data also highlight the possibility that significant cyanide may be either retained in the ore heaps or destroyed via other chemical pathways.

  11. A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, Lawrence E.

    1998-01-01

    Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293

  12. Electrokinetic improvement of offshore foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, Silvana

    Offshore and near-shore structures for energy exploration and production, harbour work and other facilities are often situated on very soft marine clay deposits that have shear strengths of a few kilopascals. The design of foundations embedded in these soft deposits often poses a challenge for geotechnical engineers, i.e., to satisfy the bearing capacity requirement, while at the same time minimizing the embedment depth and dimensions of the foundation due to cost considerations. The present study investigates the possibility of using electrokinetics to strengthen the soil adjacent to skirted foundations embedded in soft marine deposits and, thus, to improve the load carrying capacity of the foundations. The innovative feature of this approach as compared to soil improvement methods commonly adopted in practice is that the focus of strengthening is on the interface between the soil and embedded foundation, in terms of enhancement of adhesion and cementation. The thesis presents a summary of the method and results of a series of electrokinetic tests conducted on natural and simulated marine clays in small-scale and large-scale laboratory testing facilities. Steel plates and steel cylinders are used to simulate skirted foundations. A low dc voltage is applied via steel electrodes installed around the foundation models. The effects of electrokinetics are evaluated through changes in the geotechnical properties of the soil and load carrying capacities of the foundation model after treatment. The results demonstrate that the load carrying capacity of the skirted foundation model and the undrained shear strength of the adjacent soil increase by a factor of three after electrokinetic treatment. The clay adheres strongly to the inside and outside walls of the foundation model, indicating bonding occurs between the soil and steel after treatment. The treatment increases the soil undrained modulus and also induces a preconsolidation pressure of the remoulded clay, thereby reducing potential settlement of the foundation. The new technology described in this thesis has potential application in offshore engineering for increasing the load carrying capacity of skirted foundations installed in soft clayey sediments, as well as for rehabilitation of existing offshore structures.

  13. Planting Brassica rapa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    UW-Madison Biocore

    This video resource explains and demonstrates how to plant Fast Plants in a bottle growing system made from recycled soda/water bottles was made by the instructors at UW-Madison who teach Biocore (a foundational undergraduate biology course). In this planting approach, vermiculite is used along with a soil-less potting mix (e.g. Redi-Earth).

  14. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

  15. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

  16. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

  17. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

  18. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.21 Designation of native plants. All plants whose normal range is limited to, or includes Antarctica...

  19. Determination of Cyanogenic Compounds in Edible Plants by Ion Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hye-Jeon; Do, Byung-Kyung; Shim, Soon-Mi; Lee, Dong-Ha; Nah, Ahn-Hee; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Sook-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation. Kernels of Prunus genus are used medicinally, but they possess the highest level of total cyanide of up to 2259.81 CN?/g dry weight. Trace amounts of cyanogenic compounds were detected in foodstuffs such as mungbeans and bamboo shoots. Currently, except for the WHO guideline for cassava, there is no global standard for the allowed amount of cyanogenic compounds in foodstuffs. However, our data emphasize the need for the guidelines if plants containing cyanogenic glycosidesare to be developed as dietary supplements. PMID:24278641

  20. Foundation for Film and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, G.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive discussion on the Stichting Film en Wetenschap, SFW (Foundation for Film and Science), in Utrecht. Various aspects of the use of audio-visual aids in university teaching are looked at in detail. (Editor/RK)