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1

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

2

Removal of cyanide by woody plants.  

PubMed

Hydrogen cyanide is a high volume production chemical that causes severe environmental problems. The toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) to basket willow trees (Salix viminalis) was tested. In aqueous solution, 2 mg CN l(-1) as KCN depressed the transpiration after 72 h about 50%. Trees exposed to 0.4 mg CN l(-1) in aqueous solution showed initially a depression of transpiration, but recovered. Doses of 8 and 20 mg CN l(-1) in aqueous solution were quickly mortal to the trees. At the end of the test, almost all cyanide had disappeared from the solutions. Levels of cyanide in plants were related to the toxicity, with no elevated levels of cyanide in plants exposed to 0.4 mg CN l(-1). Willows grown in sand survived 423.5 h irrigation with 20 mg CN l(-1). Willows grown in sand irrigated with 50 mg CN l(-1) died within a few days. The roots of the surviving willows were able to consume about 10 mg CN kg fresh weight(-1)h(-1). Vascular plants possess the enzymes beta-cyanoalanine synthase and beta-cyanoalanine hydrolase, which convert free cyanide to the amino acid asparagine. The in vivo capacity of woody plants (willow, poplar, elder, rose, birch) to remove cyanide was evaluated. Tests were performed with detached leaves and roots in KCN solutions of different concentrations. The highest removal capacity was obtained for basket willow hybrids (Salix viminalis x schwerinii). The Michaelis-Menten kinetics was determined. Realistic values of the half-saturation constant, K(M), were between 0.6 and 1.7 mg CN l(-1); the maximum metabolic capacity, v(max), was around 9.3 mg CN kg fresh weight(-1)h(-1). The removal of cyanide by plants might be useful in phytoremediation and treatment of wastewater from gold mining. PMID:14575745

Larsen, Morten; Trapp, Stefan; Pirandello, Alessandro

2004-01-01

3

Metabolism of Hydrogen Cyanide by Higher Plants 1  

PubMed Central

A survey has been made of the occurrence and distribution of three enzymes which metabolize cyanide in a variety of higher plants including both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic species. The enzymes investigated were ?-cyanoalanine synthase, rhodanese and formamide hydrolyase. ?-Cyanoalanine synthase was found to be present in every higher plant tested whereas rhodanese was found to occur far less commonly in plants. Formamide hydrolyase activity was not detected in any of the higher plants tested. In addition, quantitative analyses have been made of the potential hydrogen cyanide content of each plant investigated. A general trend was apparent between the hydrogen cyanide potential and cyanide metabolizing activity, in that the higher the hydrogen cyanide potential, in general, the higher the cyanide metabolizing activity.

Miller, Jacqueline M.; Conn, Eric E.

1980-01-01

4

Cyanide  

MedlinePLUS

... been exposed to cyanide, you should remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and ... medical care as quickly as possible. Removing your clothing: Quickly take off clothing that may have cyanide ...

5

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

2009-09-01

6

Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Noble Foundation, a charitable foundation located in Ardmore, Oklahoma that focuses on agriculture and plant biology, this site contains images of over 600 vascular plants native primarily to the Oklahoma-Texas region. Offered as an educational tool for botanists, natural resource managers, and students, the site divides the images into three main categories: Grasses & grasslike plants; Forbs; and Trees, shrubs & woody vines. Within each, users can browse by common name, scientific name, or via a family or tribe index. Entries include a medium-sized image with some close-up thumbnails and information on species, family, longevity, season, origin, height, and flowers. A keyword/ natural language search engine that indexes the entire database is also available. Overall, this is a clean, fast-loading useful resource.

7

Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in\\u000a Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The\\u000a model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and\\u000a linear mass balance relationships to

Ahmad Khodadadi; M. Monjezi; H. Mehrpouya; H. Dehghani

2009-01-01

8

Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

9

Cyanide-induced death of cells in plant leaves.  

PubMed

Destruction of guard cell nuclei in epidermis isolated from leaves of pea, maize, sunflower, and haricot bean, as well as destruction of cell nuclei in leaves of the aquatic plants waterweed and eelgrass were induced by cyanide. Destruction of nuclei was strengthened by illumination, prevented by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and an electron acceptor N,N,N ,N -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and removed by quinacrine. Photosynthetic O2 evolution by the leaf slices of a C3 plant (pea), or a C4 plant (maize) was inhibited by CN- inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and was renewed by subsequent addition of the electron acceptor p-benzoquinone. PMID:17573713

Vasil'ev, L A; Vorobyov, A A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

2007-05-01

10

Leachate characteristics and composition of cyanide-bearing wastes from manufactured gas plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past activities associated with the manufacture of gas from hydrocarbon feedstocks resulted in the generation of substantial quantities of cyanide-bearing wastes produced as a result of product gas cleanup for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide. Large quantities of these wastes have been found at several manufactured gas plant sites. It was the purpose of this study to

Thomas L. Theis; Thomas C. Young; Mohul Huang; Kenneth C. Knutsen

1994-01-01

11

Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and cyanide in soils from manufactured gas plant sites  

SciTech Connect

The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide which subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.

Ho, YiFong.

1993-01-01

12

Final Report on Sodium Cyanide and Ammonium Nitrate Plants in Oruro, Bolivia (Aluminum Chemicals (Bolivia), Inc).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes a feasibility study conducted by XBi Xytel-Bechtel for Aluminum Chemicals, Inc. The study developed a preliminary design and capital cost estimate for a sodium cyanide and ammonia nitrate plant, with a production capacity of 10,000 met...

1992-01-01

13

High-temperature cyanide leaching of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts -- Pilot plant study  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center investigated, developed, and patented a high-temperature cyanide leaching process for recovering platinum-group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. A batch pilot plant was constructed at the center and operated to demonstrate this technology to industry. Approximately 1,600 kg of used pellet, monolith, and metal support catalysts containing 1,700 g (54 tr oz) of PGM was processed. Forty-five-kilogram batches of used catalysts were leached with sodium cyanide solution at 160 C for 1 h in a countercurrent processing sequence. This selectively dissolved the PGM. Average extractions from the used pellet catalyst were 96 pct Pt, 95 pct Pd, and 73 pct Rh. Average extractions from the used monolith catalyst were 84 pct Pt, 81 pct Pd, and 66 pct Rh. Heating the pregnant leach solutions to 275 C for 4 h destroyed the PGM-cyanide complexes, causing over 99.7 pct of the PGM to precipitate from solution. The PGM precipitate was predominantly a metallic powder concentrate, typically analyzing greater than 50 pct PGM. Heating destroyed the cyanide to less than 0.2 mg/l free and total cyanide. Both the pellet and monolith residues were evaluated for disposal using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Kuczynski, R.J.; Atkinson, G.B.; Dolinar, W.J.

1995-09-01

14

Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV/Fe(II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis of the oxidation of cyanides and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). A factorial experimental design allowed the determination of the influences of operating variables (initial concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, oxalic acid and Fe(II) and pH) on the degradation kinetics. Temperature and UV-A solar power were also included in the Neural Network fittings. The pH was maintained at a value >9.5 during cyanide oxidation to avoid the formation of gaseous HCN and later lowered to enhance mineralization. Under the optimum conditions ([H{sub 2}O{sub 2}] = 2000 ppm, [Fe(II)] = 8 ppm, pH = 3.3 after cyanide oxidation, and [(COOH){sub 2}] = 60 ppm), it was possible to degrade 100% of the cyanides and up to 92% of Total Organic Carbon. (author)

Duran, A.; Monteagudo, J.M.; San Martin, I.; Aguirre, M. [Grupo IMAES, Department of Chemical Engineering, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela 3, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

2010-07-15

15

High-temperature cyanide leaching of platinum-group metals from automobile catalysts: Pilot plant study. Report of investigations/1995  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines Reno Research Center operated a batch pilot plant to demonstrate high-temperature cyanide leaching or recovering platinum group metals (PGM) from automobile catalysts. Approximately 1,600 kg of used pellet, monolith, and metal support catalyst containing 1,700 g (54 tr oz) of PGM were processed. Average extractions from the used pellet catalyst were 96 pct Pt, 95 pct Pd, and 73 pct Rh. Heating destroyed cyanide to less than 0.2 mg/L free and total cyanide. Both the pellet and monolith residues were evaluated for disposal using the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

Kuczynski, R.J.; Atkinson, G.B.; Dolinar, W.J.

1995-07-01

16

Cyanide-and rotenone-resistant respiration in mitochondria of sugar beet taproots during plant growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cyanide and rotenone were examined on respiration (oxygen uptake) in mitochondria isolated from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots at various stages of plant growth and development. In mitochondria from growing and cool-stored taproots, the\\u000a ability of cyanide-resistant, salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive alternative oxidase (AO) to oxidize malate, succinate, and\\u000a other substrates of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) was low and

A. G. Shugaev; N. A. Shugaeva; E. I. Vyskrebentseva

2006-01-01

17

Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants. [Myriophyllum spicatum  

SciTech Connect

The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid(SHAM)) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weigh basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O/sub 2/ uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

Azcon-Bieto, J.; Murillo, J.; Penuelas, J.

1987-07-01

18

Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Photosynthetic Organs of Freshwater Aquatic Plants  

PubMed Central

The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid[SHAM]) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species: six angiosperms, two bryophytes, and an alga. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weight basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant, the percentage of resistance being higher than 50% with very few exceptions. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower and ranged between 25 and 50%. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was not stimulated by sucrose, malate or glycine in the absence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), but was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O2 uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

Azcon-Bieto, Joaquim; Murillo, Joaquim; Penuelas, Josep

1987-01-01

19

13. BUILDING 227. BLANK AMMUNITION LOADING PLANT. FOUNDATION AND FIRST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. BUILDING 227. BLANK AMMUNITION LOADING PLANT. FOUNDATION AND FIRST FLOOR PLAN. November 1, 1940 - Frankford Arsenal, Building No. 227, South side of Hagner Road between Ripley & Mellon Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

20

Phytoremediation of Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Free cyanide and complex cyanide, including HCN and CN? is the most reactive and toxic substance of all industrial and anthropogenic pollutants. Many studies till date have proved\\u000a that cyanide can be efficiently removed by plants. From the economic point of view, phytoremediation could be an attractive\\u000a and useful technology in dealing with this dangerous pollutant. Phytoremediation of complex and

Avinash C. Srivastava; Rajasekhara Reddy Muni

21

A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants  

SciTech Connect

The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1989-04-01

22

Detoxification of Cyanide in a Gold Processing Plant Tailings Water Using Calcium and Sodium Hypochlorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, cyanide in waste water from the Muteh gold mine in Iran was oxidized by sodium and calcium hypochlorite\\u000a to cyanate (CNO?), which is 1,000 times less environmentally hazardous than cyanide. Experiments were conducted using waste water containing\\u000a 270 mg\\/L cyanide over a pH range of 6–13 and temperatures between 25 and 50°C. Cyanide was removed completely at a

A. Khodadad; P. Teimoury; M. Abdolahi; A. Samiee

2008-01-01

23

PLANT EXPLORATION: THE FOUNDATION FOR PASPALUM IMPROVEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common dallisgrass, Paspalum dilatatum Poir., is an important forage grass throughout the humid, sub-tropical regions of the world. Because it is a meiotically irregular pentaploid (2n=5x=50) apomict, plant breeders have been unable to improve the species using conventional breeding methods. Three...

24

Structure of soybean ?-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants.  

PubMed

Plants produce cyanide (CN-) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN- detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the ?-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form ?-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants. PMID:22739827

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M

2012-06-26

25

Structure of soybean [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase and the molecular basis for cyanide detoxification in plants  

SciTech Connect

Plants produce cyanide (CN{sup -}) during ethylene biosynthesis in the mitochondria and require {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) for CN{sup -} detoxification. Recent studies show that CAS is a member of the {beta}-substituted alanine synthase (BSAS) family, which also includes the Cys biosynthesis enzyme O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS), but how the BSAS evolved distinct metabolic functions is not understood. Here we show that soybean (Glycine max) CAS and OASS form {alpha}-aminoacrylate reaction intermediates from Cys and O-acetylserine, respectively. To understand the molecular evolution of CAS and OASS in the BSAS enzyme family, the crystal structures of Gm-CAS and the Gm-CAS K95A mutant with a linked pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-Cys molecule in the active site were determined. These structures establish a common fold for the plant BSAS family and reveal a substrate-induced conformational change that encloses the active site for catalysis. Comparison of CAS and OASS identified residues that covary in the PLP binding site. The Gm-OASS T81M, S181M, and T185S mutants altered the ratio of OASS:CAS activity but did not convert substrate preference to that of a CAS. Generation of a triple mutant Gm-OASS successfully switched reaction chemistry to that of a CAS. This study provides new molecular insight into the evolution of diverse enzyme functions across the BSAS family in plants.

Yi, Hankuil; Juergens, Matthew; Jez, Joseph M. (WU)

2012-09-07

26

Investigations on the mechanism of oxygen-dependent plant processes: ethylene biosynthesis and cyanide-resistant respiration  

SciTech Connect

Two oxygen-dependent plant processes were investigated. A cell-free preparation from pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) was used to study ethylene biosynthesis from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid. Mitochondrial cyanide-resistant respiration was investigated in studies with /sup 14/C-butyl gallate and other respiratory effectors. Ethylene biosynthesis was not due to a specific enzyme, or oxygen radicals. Rather, hydrogen peroxide, generated at low levels, coupled with endogenous manganese produced ethylene. /sup 14/C-butyl gallate bound specifically to mitochondria from cyanide-sensitive and -resistant higher plants and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. The amount of gallate bound was similar for all higher plant mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria bound very little /sup 14/C-butyl gallate. Plant mitochondria in which cyanide-resistance was induced bound as much /sup 14/C-butyl gallate as before induction. However mitochondria from recently harvested white potato tubers did not bind the gallate. The observations suggest that an engaging factor couples with a gallate binding site in the mitochondrial membrane. With skunk cabbage spadix mitochondria the I/sub 5//sup 0/ for antimycin A inhibition of oxygen uptake was decreased by salicylhydroxamic acid pretreatment; this was also true for reverse order additions. No shift was observed with mung bean hypocotyl or Jerusalem artichoke tuber mitochondria.

Stegink, S.J.

1985-01-01

27

Exotic plants increase and native plants decrease with loss of foundation species in sagebrush steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dominant plant species, or foundation species, are recognized to have a disproportionate control over resources in ecosystems,\\u000a but few studies have evaluated their relationship to exotic invasions. Loss of foundation species could increase resource\\u000a availability to the benefit of exotic plants, and could thereby facilitate invasion. The success of exotic plant invasions\\u000a in sagebrush steppe was hypothesized to benefit from

Janet S. Prevéy; Matthew J. Germino; Nancy J. Huntly; Richard S. Inouye

2010-01-01

28

Molecular Structure of Cyanide ion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cyanide ion CN- is highly toxic to human body that contained in inorganic cyanide. Many foods and plants have cyanides, such as cassava roots and cherries pits. Cyanides are also one of the very few soluble composites of gold, so that they are used in gold mining and electroplating, etc. Small amount of cyanides from foods are converted to the harmless thiocyanate (SCN-). However, cyanides are harmful in a large amount to human body, which can lead to vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness or even death. Because Cyanide ion binds more strongly than oxygen to the Fe+3 in cytochrome a3, it interrupts the electron transport chain in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

2002-09-18

29

Cyanide Hazards to Plants and Animals from Gold Mining and Related Water Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals\\u000a through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the\\u000a Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic

Ronald Eisler; Stanley N. Wiemeyer

30

Energy conservation by the plant mitochondrial cyanide-insensitive oxidase. Some additional evidence.  

PubMed Central

Several measures of energy conservation, namely ADP/O ratio, P/O ratio, ATP/O ratio and phosphorylation detected by continuous assay with purified firefly luciferase and luciferin, all show phosphorylation can occur with mung-bean mitochondria at cyanide concentrations sufficient to inhibit the cytochrome oxidase system. Phosphorylation in the presence of cyanide is uncoupler- oligomycin- and salicylhydroxamate-sensitive. The participation of phosphorylation site 1 is excluded, phosphorylation being attributable to a single phosphorylation site associated with the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. The cyanide-insensitive oxidase has also been shown to support a variety of other energy-linked functions, namely, Ca2+ uptake, reversed electron transport and the maintenance of a membrane potential detected by the dye probes 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonate and safranine. High concentrations of cyanide have uncoupler-like activity, decreasing the ADP/O ratio and the t 1/2 for the decay of a pH pulse through the the mitochondrial membrane. This uncoupler-like effect is most marked with aged mitochondria. The observations of energy conservation attributable to the cyanide-insensitive oxidase are compared with other reports where it is concluded that the alternative oxidase is uncoupled.

Wilson, S B

1980-01-01

31

Cyanide, a Coproduct of Plant Hormone Ethylene Biosynthesis, Contributes to the Resistance of Rice to Blast Fungus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Rice (Oryza sativa) plants carrying the Pi-i resistance gene to blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae restrict invaded fungus in infected tissue via hypersensitive reaction or response (HR), which is accompanied by rapid ethylene production and formation of small HR lesions. Ethylene biosynthesis has been implicated to be important for blast resistance; however, the individual roles of ethylene and cyanide, which are produced from the precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, remain unevaluated. In this study, we found that Pi-i-mediated resistance was compromised in transgenic rice lines, in which ethylene biosynthetic enzyme genes were silenced and then ethylene production was inhibited. The compromised resistance in transgenic lines was recovered by exogenously applying cyanide but not ethephon, an ethylene-releasing chemical in plant tissue. In a susceptible rice cultivar, treatment with cyanide or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid induced the resistance to blast fungus in a dose-dependent manner, while ethephon did not have the effect. Cyanide inhibited the growth of blast fungus in vitro and in planta, and application of flavonoids, secondary metabolites that exist ubiquitously in the plant kingdom, enhanced the cyanide-induced inhibition of fungal growth. These results suggested that cyanide, whose production is triggered by HR in infected tissue, contributes to the resistance in rice plants via restriction of fungal growth.

Seo, Shigemi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Feng, Jiao; Iwai, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Morifumi; Ohashi, Yuko

2011-01-01

32

Elimination of phenols, ammonia and cyanide in wash water from biomass gasification, and nitrogen recycling using planted trickling filters.  

PubMed

Trickling filters were used to treat wash water from a wood gasifier. This wash water contained toxic substances such as ammonium, cyanide, phenols, and PAH. The goal was to develop a system that degraded toxic substances, and achieved full nitrification of ammonia. A 1 kW model wood gasifier plant delivered wash water for the experiments, which was standardised to a conductivity of 3 mS/cm by dilution. Toxicity was assessed by bacterial luminescence detection, germination test with cress (Lepidium sativum), and pot plants cultivated in a hydroponic setup irrigated continuously with the wastewater. Treatment experiments were done in both planted and unplanted trickling filters. Plant yield was similar to conventional hydroponic production systems. The trickling filters achieved complete detoxification of phenol, PAH and cyanide as well as full nitrification. The specific elimination rates were 100 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for phenols and 90 g m(-3) Leca d(-1) for ammonium in planted systems. In unplanted trickling filters circulated for 63 h, phenol concentration decreased from 83.5 mg/L to 2.5 mg/L and cyanide concentration from 0.32 mg/L to 0.02 mg/L. PAH concentrations were reduced from 3,050 microg/L to 0.89 microg/L within 68 days. The assays demonstrated the feasibility of using the technique to construct a treatment system in a partially closed circulation for gasifier wash water. The principal advantage is to convert toxic effluents from biomass gasifiers into a non-toxic, nitrogen-rich fertiliser water, enabling subsequent use in plant production and thus income generation. However, the questions of long-term performance and possible accumulation of phenols and heavy metals in the produce still have to be studied. PMID:19955650

Graber, Andreas; Skvarc, Robert; Junge-Berberovi?, Ranka

2009-01-01

33

Seepage regime in the foundation of the Sheksninsk hydroelectric plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The investigations disclosed a phenomenon which is seldom encountered in the operation of hydraulic structures: in the powerhouse\\u000a foundation at the Sheksninsk hydroelectric plant a region of reduced piezometric levels with negative heads and increased\\u000a hydraulic gradients was created near the zone of the soils containing gypsum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The cause of this phenomenon is the drainage action exerted

G. M. Zadvornyi; É. S. Kal'nitskii

1972-01-01

34

[Isolation of an aboriginal bacterial community capable of utilizing cyanide, thiocyanate, and ammonia from metallurgical plant wastewater].  

PubMed

An aboriginal bacterial community capable of degrading cyanide (10 mg/l) and thiocyanate (2 g/l) and eliminating ammonia (120 mg/l) had been isolated from recycled water samples after blast-furnace gas purification of a metallurgical plant wastewater. It was shown that the optimal conditions for this bacterial community were as follows: temperature, 34 degrees C; pH, 8.8-9.0; available organic matter concentration (glucose equivalent), 5 g/l; and dissolved O2 concentration, 8-10 mg/l. This aboriginal community was formed by the bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. PMID:18822775

Grigor'eva, N V; Smirnova, Iu V; Terekhova, S V; Karava?ko, G I

35

Foundations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.

Harteveld, Casper

36

Release of iron-cyanide complexes form contaminated soils - Batch and column experiments on substrates from Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils of former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) are often contaminated with iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes that originate from gas purification process. Cyanide is a potentially toxic substance and its presence in soil and groundwater may cause risk for human health as well as for the environment. MGPs were commonly built on the city suburban areas, which have spread ever since. Nowadays, these sites are typically located in inner cities, causing environmental thread, due to the leaching of pollutants. More recently, columns and batch experiments have been used to study fate and mobility of contaminants is soil. The release of iron-cyanide complexes under unsaturated flow conditions was evaluated with eight columns of 30 cm length and a diameter of 5,4 cm. Cyanide concentrations in the collected leachates were measured with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). Additionally pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and various ion concentrations were determined. In order to compare the release of Fe-CN complexes in saturated conditions a batch experiment was conducted, where in defined time intervals, 1 ml of the extract water phase was analyzed for CN concentration. Study revealed an analogous trend of cyanide release in both experiments indicating primarily the release of formerly dissolved phase (hexacyanoferrates) followed by continual dissolution of ferric ferrocyanide. We conclude that batch experiments, conducted prior to column analysis, can serve as preliminary prediction of the water soluble cyanide fraction under unsaturated conditions.

Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

2013-04-01

37

Laboratory Study of Continuous Electrooxidation of Dilute Cyanide Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feasibility of detoxifying dilute cyanide plating wastes by electrooxidation was studied. Because of the toxicity of cyanide to aquatic and animal life and its detrimental effect on the operation of sewage treatment plants, in-plant treatment of dilute cy...

J. J. Byerley K. Enns

1974-01-01

38

Cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

In recent years, the increasing use of laetrile has been added to the traditional sources of exposure to cyanide in industry, chemistry labs, and fumigation. The events in Jonestown in 1978 were a grim reminder of the lethality of cyanide. Nonetheless, advancement in new modes of treatment has been slow. The traditional method of treatment used in the United States is effective, but not without its own morbidity and mortality. Using two case reports as models, we review here the topic of cyanide poisoning including sources of exposure, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations of both acute and chronic exposure, and modes of treatment. Although there is currently no accepted alternate treatment in this country, review of the literature shows promise in other modalities being investigated in Europe, including hydroxocobalamin, cobalt salts, and particularly aminophenols. PMID:7016420

Vogel, S N; Sultan, T R; Ten Eyck, R P

1981-03-01

39

Cyanide poisoning in cattle from Dysphania glomulifera (red crumbweed): using the internet for rapid plant identification and diagnostic advice.  

PubMed

A 300-strong Angus-Brahman cattle herd near Springsure, central Queensland, was being fed Acacia shirleyi (lancewood) browse during drought and crossed a 5-hectare, previously burnt area with an almost pure growth of Dysphania glomulifera subspecies glomulifera (red crumbweed) on their way to drinking water. Forty cows died of cyanide poisoning over 2 days before further access to the plant was prevented. A digital image of a plant specimen made on a flat-bed scanner and transmitted by email was used to identify D glomulifera. Specific advice on the plant's poisonous properties and management of the case was then provided by email within 2 hours of an initial telephone call by the field veterinarian to the laboratory some 600 km away. The conventional method using physical transport of a pressed dried plant specimen to confirm the identification took 5 days. D glomulifera was identified in the rumen of one of two cows necropsied. The cyanogenic potential of D glomulifera measured 4 days after collection from the site of cattle deaths was 18,600 mg HCN/kg in dry matter. The lethal dose of D glomulifera for a 420 kg cow was estimated as 150 to 190 g wet weight. The plant also contained 4.8% KNO3 equivalent in dry matter, but nitrate-nitrite poisoning was not involved in the deaths. PMID:18042160

McKenzie, R A; Burren, B G; Noble, J W; Thomas, M B

2007-12-01

40

Generation of Transgenic Cassava Having Reduced Cyanide Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cassava plants possess a cyanide toxicity that is harmful to humans. In fact, a correlation has now been demonstrated between the cyanide content of poorly processed cassava and the occurrence of the neurological disorder called Konzo. This paper describe...

R. T. Sayre W. Roca

1990-01-01

41

Experimentally induced chromosome aberrations in plants. I. The production of chromosome aberrations by cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents.  

PubMed

The finding of Lilly and Thoday that potassium cyanide produces structural chromosome changes in root tips of Vicia faba was confirmed. Like mustards, diepoxides, and maleic hydrazide, potassium cyanide seems to act on cells at early interphase. A tendency of cyanide breaks to be concentrated in heterochromatic segments of the chromosomes was evident. The production of chromosome aberrations by cyanide proved to be practically unaffected by the temperature during treatment. In agreement with Lilly and Thoday, the effect of potassium cyanide was found to be dependent on oxygen tension during treatment. The effect of potassium cyanide increases with increasing oxygen concentration up to 100 per cent oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, potassium cyanide was not completely inactive, but produced a low, though significant frequency of aberrations. Pretreatments with 2.4-dinitrophenol did not influence the effect of potassium cyanide. When bean roots were treated with potassium cyanide before a treatment with 8-ethoxycaffeine, or at the same time as they were treated with 8-ethoxycaffeine, the effect of 8-ethoxycaffeine was almost completely suppressed. The effects of a number of other heavy metal complexing agents were also tested. Sodium fluoride, potassium thiocyanate, carbon monoxide, o-phenanthroline, 2.2-bipyridine, and sodium azide were without radiomimetic effect under the conditions employed, and so was a mixture of sodium azide and sodium fluoride. A low, but quite significant, radiomimetic effect was obtained after treatments with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, cupferron, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. Under anaerobic conditions, the effects of cyanide and cupferron were both quantitatively and qualitatively indistinguishable. Unlike the effect of cyanide, the effect of cupferron was not enhanced by the presence of oxygen. The effects of the same heavy metal complexing agents were tested on the activities of the enzymes catalase and peroxidase. The activities of both of these enzymes were found to be totally inhibited only by potassium cyanide. In the other cases, little correlation was found between ability to inhibit the activities of these enzymes and ability to produce chromosome aberrations. In a number of experiments, hydrogen peroxide was found to be without radiomimetic effect, whether alone or in combination with potassium cyanide. t-Butyl hydroperoxide proved to be active. The effect of t-butyl hydroperoxide was substantially increased by pretreatments with 2.4.-dinitrophenol. The results are discussed, and it is concluded that the observations made do not support the hypothesis that hydrogen peroxide is involved in the production of chromosome aberrations by potassium cyanide. The possibility that organic peroxides are involved cannot be excluded on the bases of the experimental results. As an alternative hypothesis, it is suggested that iron or other heavy metals are present in the chromosomes and that cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents produce chromosome aberrations by reacting with these metals. PMID:13438921

KIHLMAN, B A

1957-05-25

42

Federico Delpino and the foundation of plant biology  

PubMed Central

In 1867, Federico Delpino, with his seminal work Pensieri sulla Biologia Vegetale (Thoughts on Plant Biology) established plant biology by defining it not in the broad general sense, namely as the science of living beings, but as a branch of natural science dedicated to the study of plant life in relation to the environment. Today, the figure and achievements of this outstanding plant scientist is almost unknown. In the following pages, I will concisely describe the main realizations of Federico Delpino and outline the significance of his work for modern plant science.

2010-01-01

43

Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV\\/Fe(II)\\/H2O2) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis

A. Durán; J. M. Monteagudo; I. San Martín; M. Aguirre

2010-01-01

44

Decontamination of industrial cyanide-containing water in a solar CPC pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to improve the quality of wastewater effluent coming from an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power station to meet with future environmental legislation. This study examined a homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation process using concentrated solar UV energy (UV\\/Fe(II)\\/HO) in a Solar Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) pilot plant. The efficiency of the process was evaluated by analysis

A. Duran; J. M. Monteagudo; I. San Martin; M. Aguirre

2010-01-01

45

Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata.  

PubMed

Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates. In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were 25 times higher than in leaves of young Arabidopsis thaliana plants and over 150 times higher than in leaves of young Brassica kaber, B. rapa, and B. napus. In first-year plants, cyanide levels were highest in young leaves of seedlings and declined with leaf age on individual plants. Leaves of young plants infested with green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) produced just over half as much cyanide as leaves of healthy plants, suggesting that aphid feeding led to loss of cyanide from intact tissues before analysis, or that aphid feeding inhibited cyanide precursor production. In a developmental study, levels of cyanide in the youngest and oldest leaf of young garlic mustard plants were four times lower than in the youngest and oldest leaf of young Sorghum sudanense (cv. Cadan 97) plants, but cyanide levels did not decline in these leaves with plant age as in S. sudanense. Different populations of garlic mustard varied moderately in the constitutive and inducible expression of cyanide in leaves, but no populations studied were acyanogenic. Although cyanide production could result from breakdown products of glucosinolates, no cyanide was detected in vitro from decomposition of sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of garlic mustard. These studies indicate that cyanide produced from an as yet unidentified cyanogenic compound is a part of the battery of chemical defenses expressed by garlic mustard. PMID:17146719

Cipollini, Don; Gruner, Bill

2007-01-01

46

Cyanide in the Chemical Arsenal of Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that\\u000a the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates.\\u000a In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were

Don Cipollini; Bill Gruner

2007-01-01

47

Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One treatment for cyanide poisoning involves administration of the combination sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate. To understand better the action of thiosulfate on cyanide toxicity, a study was made of the pharmacokinetics of cyanide distribution and ...

J. L. Way

1982-01-01

48

Decontamination of sodium cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small?scale DecontaminationAqueous sodium cyanide, buffered with ammonium chloride, was decontaminated by portionwise addition of calcium hypochlorite while the temperature of the mixture was held below 12°C.Large?scale DecontaminationThe cyanide waste pH is raised to 10.0 and hypochlorite from any source used to convert cyanide to cyanate or even carbon dioxide and nitrogen if desired.

D. E. Pearson; T. M. Laher; S. Campagna

1981-01-01

49

10-MWe Solar-Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: Collector Subsystem Foundation Construction. Revision No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the...

1979-01-01

50

Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese in Protection from Cyanide Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacte- rium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P.

Rita Cipollone; Emanuela Frangipani; Federica Tiburzi; Francesco Imperi; Paolo Ascenzi; Paolo Visca

2007-01-01

51

10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: solar facilities design integration. PSS final design calculations. Book 5 of 26. Collector field foundations construction package 6 (RADL Item 7-8)  

SciTech Connect

Design calculations concerning the collector field foundations of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. The calculations include computer printouts for heliostat foundations, input requirements, heliostat foundation design, and miscellaneous collector field foundations design.

Not Available

1980-09-01

52

DEGRADACIÓN MICROBIANA DE CIANURO PROCEDENTE DE PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO DE ORO MEDIANTE UNA CEPA NATIVA DE P.fluorecens MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF CYANIDE FROM GOLD METALLURGICAL PLANTS UTILIZING P.fluorecens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide is traditionally used in chemical me tallurgy to obtain preciousus metals (gold and silver). Cyanide produces damages because of it s toxicity and breath cell inhibition. Here we try a biotechnological process to degrade cyanide with P. fluorescens obtained by cyanide heap leaching process in gold metallurgy in Segovia, Colombia. In Colombia cyanide heap leaching process in gold

OSCAR JAIME RESTREPO; CARLOS ARTURO MONTOYA; NURY ALEXANDRA MUÑOZ

2006-01-01

53

Experimentally induced chromosome abberrations in plants. II. The effect of cyanide and other heavy metal complexing agents on the production of chromosome aberrations by x-rays.  

PubMed

The discovery of Lilly and Thoday, that the presence of potassium cyanide (KCN) increases the production of chromosome aberrations by x-rays in anoxia, but has no effect on the production of chromosome aberrations by x-rays in air, was confirmed. In the presence of cyanide, the effect of a given dose of x-rays in nitrogen was found to be even greater than the effect of the same dose of x-rays in air. The cyanide effect on x-ray breakage in nitrogen was obtained at cyanide concentrations as low as 2 x 10(-5)M. The breakage obtained after the combined x-ray-cyanide treatments was of the x-ray type, as evidenced by the distribution of breaks within and between the chromosomes. A number of other heavy metal complexing agents as well as some other compounds were tested for their ability to increase x-ray breakage in nitrogen and air. Of these compounds only cupferron proved to be effective. The results are discussed and it is concluded that the increased x-ray breakage in the presence of cyanide or cupferron cannot be due to an accumulation of peroxides. Instead it is suggested that the cyanide effect may be due to a complex formation between the active agents and heavy metals, presumably iron, within the chromosomes. The consequences of this hypothesis on the concept of the "oxygen effect," are discussed. PMID:13438922

KIHLMAN, B A; MERZ, T; SWANSON, C P

1957-05-25

54

Copper recovery and cyanide oxidation by electrowinning from a spent copper-cyanide electroplating electrolyte.  

PubMed

Copper-cyanide bleed streams arise from contaminated baths from industrial electroplating processes due to the buildup of impurities during continuous operation. These streams present an elevated concentration of carbonate, cyanide and copper, constituting a heavy hazard, which has to be treated for cyanide destruction and heavy metals removal, according to the local environmental laws. In the Brazilian Mint, bleed streams are treated with sodium hypochlorite, to destroy cyanide and precipitate copper hydroxide, a solid hazardous waste that has to be disposed properly in a landfill or treated for metal recovery. In this paper, a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell was developed to remove the copper from the bleed stream of the electroplating unit of the Brazilian Mint, permitting its reutilization in the plant and decreasing the amount of sludge to waste. Under favorable conditions copper recoveries around 99.9% were achieved, with an energy consumption of about 11 kWh/kg, after a 5-h electrolysis of a bath containing copper and total cyanide concentrations of 26 and 27 g/L, respectively. Additionally, a substantial reduction of the cyanide concentration was also achieved, decreasing the pollution load and final treatment costs. PMID:17728063

Dutra, A J B; Rocha, G P; Pombo, F R

2007-07-17

55

Microbial destruction of cyanide wastes in gold mining: process review.  

PubMed

Microbial destruction of cyanide and its related compounds is one of the most important biotechnologies to emerge in the last two decades for treating process and tailings solutions at precious metals mining operations. Hundreds of plant and microbial species (bacteria, fungi and algae) can detoxify cyanide quickly to environmentally acceptable levels and into less harmful by-products. Full-scale bacterial processes have been used effectively for many years in commercial applications in North America. Several species of bacteria can convert cyanide under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using it as a primary source of nitrogen and carbon. Other organisms are capable of oxidizing the cyanide related compounds of thiocyanate and ammonia under varying conditions of pH, temperature, nutrient levels, oxygen, and metal concentrations. This paper presents an overview of the destruction of cyanide in mining related solutions by microbial processes. PMID:12882268

Akcil, Ata; Mudder, Terry

2003-03-01

56

Extensive clonal spread and extreme longevity in saw palmetto, a foundation clonal plant.  

PubMed

The lack of effective tools has hampered out ability to assess the size, growth and ages of clonal plants. With Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) as a model, we introduce a novel analytical framework that integrates DNA fingerprinting and mathematical modelling to simulate growth and estimate ages of clonal plants. We also demonstrate the application of such life-history information of clonal plants to provide insight into management plans. Serenoa is an ecologically important foundation species in many Southeastern United States ecosystems; yet, many land managers consider Serenoa a troublesome invasive plant. Accordingly, management plans have been developed to reduce or eliminate Serenoa with little understanding of its life history. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms, we genotyped 263 Serenoa and 134 Sabal etonia (a sympatric non-clonal palmetto) samples collected from a 20 × 20 m study plot in Florida scrub. Sabal samples were used to assign small field-unidentifiable palmettos to Serenoa or Sabal and also as a negative control for clone detection. We then mathematically modelled clonal networks to estimate genet ages. Our results suggest that Serenoa predominantly propagate via vegetative sprouts and 10,000-year-old genets may be common, while showing no evidence of clone formation by Sabal. The results of this and our previous studies suggest that: (i) Serenoa has been part of scrub associations for thousands of years, (ii) Serenoa invasion are unlikely and (ii) once Serenoa is eliminated from local communities, its restoration will be difficult. Reevaluation of the current management tools and plans is an urgent task. PMID:21848843

Takahashi, Mizuki K; Horner, Liana M; Kubota, Toshiro; Keller, Nathan A; Abrahamson, Warren G

2011-08-16

57

50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S. THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-36 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

58

36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-50 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

59

ELECTROCHEMICAL DESTRUCTION OF COMPLEX CYANIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A batch electrochemical cell consisting of a pair of stainless steel wire-mesh electrode was used to electrochemically decompose concentrated cuprous cyanide waste solution. The concentrations of free, complex, and total cyanide were measured as a function of electrolysis time for various cell currents. The total cyanide concentration in the waste solution was reduced from 1200 ppm to less than 50 ppm with

T. C. TAN; W. K. TEO; D. T. CHIN

1985-01-01

60

Evaluation of computer-aided foundation design techniques for fossil fuel power plants. Final report. [Includes list of firms involved, equipment, software, etc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an integrated computer-aided drafting and design system for fossil fuel power plant foundations would offer utilities considerable savings in engineering costs and design time. The technology is available, but research is needed to develop software, a common data base, and data management procedures. An integrated CADD system suitable for designing power plant foundations should include the ability

F. H. Kulhawy; J. C. Dill; C. H. Trautmann

1984-01-01

61

Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge  

SciTech Connect

A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

White, J.M.

1987-01-01

62

Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor  

SciTech Connect

A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States)

1996-03-15

63

Prediction of cyanide recovery from silver leaching tailings with AVR using multivariable regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the tailings of the silver leaching plant, Eti Gumus AS, Turkey, containing high amounts of cyanide were tested to determine optimum recovery of cyanide, using packed columns for volatilization stage of AVR (acidification, volatilization or stripping, reneutralization). All recovery tests were performed in a pilot plant constructed using random packing with column internals and practised for mass

Huseyin Vapur; Oktay Bayat

2007-01-01

64

Cyanide in industrial wastewaters and its removal: a review on biotreatment.  

PubMed

Cyanides are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae, and may be found in plants and some foods, such as lima beans and almonds. Although cyanides are present in small concentrations in these plants and microorganisms, their large-scale presence in the environment is attributed to the human activities as cyanide compounds are extensively used in industries. Bulk of cyanide occurrence in environment is mainly due to metal finishing and mining industries. Although cyanide can be removed and recovered by several processes, it is still widely discussed and examined due to its potential toxicity and environmental impact. From an economic standpoint, the biological treatment method is cost-effective as compared to chemical and physical methods for cyanide removal. Several microbial species can effectively degrade cyanide into less toxic products. During metabolism, they use cyanide as a nitrogen and carbon source converting it to ammonia and carbonate, if appropriate conditions are maintained. Biological treatment of cyanide under anaerobic as well as aerobic conditions is possible. The present review describes the mechanism and advances in the use of biological treatment for the removal of cyanide compounds and its advantages over other treatment processes. It also includes various microbial pathways for their removal. PMID:18657360

Dash, Rajesh Roshan; Gaur, Abhinav; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

2008-06-21

65

The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug's-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate  

PubMed Central

Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson’s diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J.

2012-01-01

66

Molecular Structure of Hydrogen Cyanide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydrogen Cyanide does not exist in many organisms because it can be fatal, although there are a few exceptions: tiger beetles, millipedes and centipedes. When these species are attacked, they release the cyanide to deter and potentially kill the aggressor. These exceptional organisms obtain the cyanogenic compound from their food but rather than being poisoned, they store it in their cells. This unusual phenomenon is still being studied. Hydrogen cyanide is produced in large quantities all over the world by the chemical industry where it is used in tempering steel, dyeing, explosives, engraving, the production of acrylic resin plastic, and other organic chemical products. Hydrogen cyanide can be found in small quantities in fruits that have a pit, such as cherries or apricots. Bitter almonds from which almond oil and flavoring is made also contain hydrogen cyanide.

2003-05-08

67

Microbes and microbial enzymes for cyanide degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, cyanide is a natural product generated by fungi and bacteria, and as a result microbial systems have evolved for the degradation of cyanide to less toxic compounds. The enzymes which utilize cyanide as a substrate can be categorized into the following

Scott A. Raybuck

1992-01-01

68

Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in

Jian Ma; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2010-01-01

69

Biological treatment of cyanide containing wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble cyanide leaches from the spent ore heaps of many gold mines in the United States and Canada. The leachate must be recovered and treated to protect the receiving water from potentially harmful cyanide. A sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was tested as a mobile, closed system capable of treating these dilute cyanide waste streams. The cyanide degrading microbes were

Daniel M White; Timothy A Pilon; Craig Woolard

2000-01-01

70

Cyanide recovery by ion exchange from gold ore waste effluents containing copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of cyanide from waste effluents of the cyanidation process in gold extraction plants is important environmentally and economically. In this respect ion exchange is being tested as a possible economic and versatile method for gold ores containing copper minerals. The present study shows the potential of strong and weak base ion exchange resins, particularly the former, for separating

D. Bachiller; M. Torre; M. Rendueles; M. D??az

2004-01-01

71

Cholinergic Aspects of Cyanide Intoxication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irreg...

J. D. Von Bredow J. A. Vick

1993-01-01

72

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the pH were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

73

Removal of cyanide compounds from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale and pilot plant experiments were conducted on the ozonization of coke oven gas for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanates. Bubbler reactors with capacities of 0.5 dm/sup 3/ and 1.0 m/sup 3/ were used, and the concentrations of CN/sup -/, CNS/sup -/, and NH/sup +/, as well as the ph were determined. The concentration of ozone entering and leaving the reactor were found and used to compute ozone consumption. This method of cyanide removal compared favorably with respect to cost of reagents used to using sodium hypochlorite.

Sokratova, N.B.; Klimova, V.T.; Starodubtsev, D.S.; Chilikina, G.S.

1982-01-01

74

ELECTRODIALYSIS FOR CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Full scale demonstration of electrodialysis for closed loop treatment of brass plating cyanide rinse waters was conducted in the Keystone Lamp Manufacturing plant at Slatington, Pa. In treatment of actual rinse water, the system was only one-quarter as effective as anticipated. N...

75

Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

Wiemeyer, S.N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

1986-01-01

76

Flotation purification of industrial wastewater by removing cyanide ions  

SciTech Connect

One of the oldest and most common methods of purifying sewage by removing cyanide ions is binding them to nontoxic compounds of ferrous salts, principally divalent ferrous salts. Research in this direction has also been realized for the sewage of coking plants. One of the reasons why the method has not been introduced is tied to the difficulty of separating the finely-dispersed slime of the divalent ferrous cyanide K/sub 4/(Fe(CN)/sub 6/). This study investigates methods of producing complex compounds of cyanide ions with ferrous salts which have low solubility and, as far as possible, are easily extracted from water. To achieve this, it is suggested that one of the promising methods of water purification - flotation - be used and that the sludge extracted be utilized in accordance with wellknown plans.

Evtyugina, N.M.; Derbysheva, E.K.; Kopktova, L.A.

1984-01-01

77

CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

78

Monoclonal Antibodies as Catalysts for Cyanide Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have shown that hydrogen cyanide reacts with alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones to form stable compounds under physiological conditions (temperature, pH). Although spontaneous reaction is too slow for protection against cyanide intoxication, rate enhancem...

C. E. Cook C. C. Whisnant D. B. Miller D. A. Allen P. V. Basta

1993-01-01

79

Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues. PMID:22352728

Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

2012-08-01

80

Alternatives for Sodium Cyanide for Flotation Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyanide has long been looked upon as the classical poison and has been listed by EPA as a priority pollutant. The mineral dressing industry has long used cyanide in its concentration and extractive metallurgy operations. Cyanide plays a role of varying im...

E. J. Mezey D. W. Neuendorf G. R. Smithson J. F. Shea

1981-01-01

81

Full-scale investigations of the static deformations of foundations below 1000MW turbine units at nuclear power plants under construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1. Systematic geodesic observations of static deformations should be organized in constructing foundations for turbine units at high-capacity nuclear power plants; the results of these observations will ensure attainment of the required operational control data during construction and operation.

E. A. Bausk; V. K. Kapustin; V. B. Shvets

1985-01-01

82

PKD Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... The PKD Foundation also funds education programs at national research/clinical meetings to educate medical professionals in the basic science, genetics, diagnosis, disease management and potential treatments for PKD. The PKD Foundation recently sponsored the 16th Tri-annual Congress of ...

83

Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii.  

PubMed Central

The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M-1 min-1 for CN-). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. [14C]cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

Seefeldt, L C; Arp, D J

1989-01-01

84

IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

85

Determination of Sodium Cyanide in Copper and Cadmium Cyanide Plating Solutions by Precipitation-Formation Titration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical literature lacks an acceptable analytical method to adequately determine and monitor sodium cyanide in copper and cadmium cyanide plating solutions in the plating processes. In this report, an improved method is presented providing acceptable...

S. Sopok

1990-01-01

86

Electrooxidation of Cyanide on Cobalt Oxide Anodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of cyanide ions at a Ti\\/Co3O4 electrode in aqueous base solution has been investigated. The cyclic voltammetric curve for the oxidation of cyanide at Ti\\/Co3O4 shows a well formed wave prior to oxygen evolution at a potential where the spinel surface itself undergoes oxidation. Using a flow cell it is confirmed that the conversion of cyanide (CN-) to cyanate

A. Stavart; A. Van Lierde

2001-01-01

87

Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test

Karen K. W. Mak; Hideshi Yanase; Reinhard Renneberg

2005-01-01

88

Disulfides as Cyanide Antidotes: Evidence for a New In Vivo Oxidative Pathway for Cyanide Detoxification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is known that cyanide is converted to thiocyanate in the presence of the enzyme rhodanese. The enzyme is activated by sulfur transfer from an appropriate sulfur donor. The activated enzyme then binds cyanide and transfers the sulfur atom to cyanide to ...

K. Beigel M. A. Zottola R. Lawrence S. Soni

2009-01-01

89

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. ...residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide is established as follows:...

2011-07-01

90

40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tolerances § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. ...residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide is established as follows:...

2012-07-01

91

Separation of cyanide ions by foam fractionation  

SciTech Connect

The technique of adsorption of cyanide ions on foam bubbles was studied as an alternative to chemical oxidation which is practiced in cyanide waste treatment. The technique of foam fractionation was previously applied to the removal of heavy metals and proved to be successful. The free cyanide ions and complex species both responded positively to the formation of a separate foam phase. The results obtained so far show that satisfactory separation of cyanide compounds is possible if certain parameters are properly selected. There are other factors which have not been investigated before, and they seem to have a major role in the performance of this operation.

Moussavi, Mohsen (Shiraz Univ. (Iran))

1992-05-01

92

A New Global Approach of Cyanide Management: International Cyanide Management Code for the Manufacture, Transport, and Use of Cyanide in the Production of Gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Cyanide Management Code was developed to improve the management of cyanide at gold mines. Spills and other incidents involving cyanide solutions at gold mines such as the January 2000 incident at a Romanian gold mine (Baia Mare) demonstrated to the gold mining industry, governments, and the public that better management of cyanide was needed, particularly at operations with

Ata Akcil

2010-01-01

93

New fungal biomasses for cyanide biodegradation.  

PubMed

Cyanide, a hazardous substance, is released into the environment as a result of natural processes of various industrial activities which is a toxic pollutant according to Environmental Protection Agency. In nature, some microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of cyanide, but there is only limited information about the degradation characteristics of Basidiomycetes for cyanide. The aim of the present study is to determine cyanide degradation characteristics in some Basidiomycetes strains including Polyporus arcularius (T 438), Schizophyllum commune (T 701), Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Pleurotus eryngii (M 102), Ganoderma applanatum (M 105), Trametes versicolor (D 22), Cerrena unicolor (D 30), Schizophyllum commune (D 35) and Ganoderma lucidum (D 33). The cyanide degradation activities of P. arcularius S. commune and G. lucidum were found to be more than that of the other fungi examined. The parameters including incubation time, amount of biomass, initial cyanide concentration, temperature, pH and agitation rate were optimized for the selected three potential fungal strains. The maximum cyanide degradation was obtained after 48 h of incubation at 30°C by P. arcularius (T 438). The optimum pH and agitation rate were measured as 10.5 and 150 rev/min, respectively. The amount of biomass was found as 3.0 g for the maximum cyanide biodegradation with an initial cyanide concentration of 100mg/L. In this study, agar was chosen entrapment agent for the immobilization of effective biomass. We suggested that P. arcularius (T 438) could be effective in the treatment of contaminated sites with cyanide due to capability of degrading cyanide. PMID:20547364

Ozel, Yasemin Kevser; Gedikli, Serap; Aytar, P?nar; Unal, Arzu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Cabuk, Ahmet; Kolankaya, Nazif

2010-05-23

94

Foundation Fieldbus Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a series of 17 courses offered by Emerson Process Management - PlantWeb University on Foundation Fieldbus Technologies. These courses begin by teaching the basics, and ends by showing installation and troubleshooting procedures. For each course, an examination is given, and the student receives a certificate upon completion.

2011-08-25

95

CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

96

Microbial metabolism of nitriles and cyanides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida isolated from contaminated industrial wastewaters and soil sites was able to utilize acetonitrile and sodium cyanide as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The P. putida cells were immobilized in calcium alginate. The rate of degradation of acetonitrile (160 mM) and sodium cyanide (40 mM) by the immobilized cells of P. putida was studied by determining the

G. R. V. Babu; C. S. Chetty; J. H. Wolfram; Kirit D. Chapatwala

1994-01-01

97

Molecular Structure of Methyl Cyanide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Methyl Cyanide is a toxic, colorless liquid with an aromatic (ether like) odor and forms explosive mixtures with air. It is a critical solvent for several important processes e.g., it is widely used as a mobile phase solvent in chromatography applications, as a wash solvent and in preparing reagent solutions for oligonucleotide synthesis. It is employed in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, pharmaceuticals, perfumes, nitrile rubber, batteries, pesticides, and inorganic salts. It can be utilized to remove tars, phenols, and coloring matter from petroleum hydrocarbons, to extract fatty acids from fish liver, animal, and vegetable oils, and to recrystallize steroids.

2003-06-03

98

Non-cyanide silver plating  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work.

Dini, J.W.

1995-11-07

99

Knight Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by John S. Knight, the Knight Foundation "supports transformational ideas that promote quality journalism, advance media innovation, engage communities, and foster the arts." On the Foundation's homepage, visitors can learn about grant activities via the What We Fund area. A good place to start here is the Featured Funding Initiatives, which profile the Community Foundations Program, the Knight Arts Challenge, and other ongoing projects. The projects are quite exciting, as they are focused on a broad range of participatory media ventures, arts outreach initiatives, and like-minded activities. The What We're Learning area is perhaps the most compelling one for most visitors as it contains a range of publications that report on the ingredients of successful new media projects, best practices for addressing the digital divide, and the possible uses of mobile applications designed to increase civic engagement in marginalized communities.

2013-06-20

100

Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor  

SciTech Connect

A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30{degrees}C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 pM and 150 {mu}m CN{sup -}. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Nakanishi, Keijiro; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Karube, Isao [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1996-08-01

101

Foundation Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

102

Family Foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for community re-entry. This paper provides a

Brenda Wiewel; Toni Mosley

2006-01-01

103

Evidentiary Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presenting or opposing evidence is at the heart of all trial work. While there can be no substitute for an attorney's familiarity with the Military Rules of Evidence, a compilation of sample foundational questions can aid the new trial lawyer in the prese...

1985-01-01

104

Surfrider Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Surfrider Foundation USA is a non-profit environmental organization working to preserve the oceans, waves & beaches. Website with numerous pages including mission, a blog, news, a bimonthly publication online, the video "Shifting Baselines in the Surf", online store, campaigns, programs, membership information, and chapters. Located in San Onofre State Beach, CA.

105

DETOXIFICATION OF CYANIDE IN GOLD PROCESSING WASTEWATER BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing cyanide compounds in mining and chemical industry is one of the most important environmental issues due to the acute toxic properties of many cyanide compounds to humans and aquatic life. Cyanide tends to react readily with most other chemical elements, producing a wide variety of toxic, cyanide related compounds. This research was aimed at investigating a feasible and economical

A. Khodadadi; M. Abdolahi; P. Teimoury

106

Removal of cyanide by anodic oxidation for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using a bipolar trickle tower electrochemical reactor consisting of graphite Raschig rings as the electrodes to remove cyanide from a cyanide containing effluent. Direct and indirect methods were both found to be efficient for removing the cyanide in either continuous or recirculating batch modes. The cyanide concentration in the

Ü. Bak?r Ö?ütveren; E Törü; S Koparal

1999-01-01

107

Photochemical destruction of cyanide in landfill leachate  

SciTech Connect

The Allen Park Clay Mine Landfill, owned by Ford, produces a leachate that occasionally contains cyanide at levels marginally below the discharge limit. The form of the cyanide in the leachate was found to be iron-cyanide complexes that resist oxidation by a conventional treatment method, alkaline oxidation. Furthermore, the leachate also was found to contain a relatively large amount of organics which would exert additional demand for oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine). A study was performed to determine what treatment technology could be employed in the event treatment becomes necessary because of potential changes in the leachate characteristics and/or discharge limits. In this study, among several chemical oxidation methods, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with or without ozone was investigated as a treatment option. The following are the primary findings: (1) UV irradiation alone was effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex in both the leachate and the clean water; (2) the demand for UV or ozone by chemical oxygen demand was relatively low for this leachate; (3) ozone alone was not effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex; and (4) UV irradiation alone and UV irradiation with ozone resulted in the same removal for total cyanide in clean-water experiments, but the UV irradiation alone left some free cyanide whereas the UV irradiation with ozone did not.

Kim, B.R.; Podsiadlik, D.H.; Hartlund, J.L.; Gaines, W.A. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Kalis, E.M. [Ford Motor Co., Sandusky, OH (United States)

1998-11-01

108

AWARE Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Adolescent Wellness and Reproductive Education Foundation (AWARE) is "dedicated to educating and empowering adolescents to make responsible decisions regarding their wellness, sexuality and reproductive health." Additionally, the AWARE Foundation also is concerned with reaching out to parents as well, in order to keep them informed about various issues affecting teen health and sexuality. The site features an area where parents and young people can ask questions, which will be answered by a team of health care specialists. In addition, visitors can take part in live chat sessions about teen health, or simply read through transcripts of previous live chat sessions. The site also provides a Fast Facts list that details some brief, but important, facts about teen sexuality and reproductive health. Finally, the site also contains a number of emergency health resources, including Web sites and phone numbers of organizations that deal with eating disorders, sexual abuse, and mental health.

109

Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

Dadgar, Ahmad

1989-12-01

110

Removal of Zn or Cd and cyanide from cyanide electroplating wastes  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the efficient stripping of stable complexes of a selected quaternary amine and a cyanide of Zn or Cd. An alkali metal hydroxide solution such as NaOH or KOH will quantitatively strip a pregnant extract of the quaternary ammonium complex of its metal and cyanide content and regenerate a quaternary ammonium hydroxide salt which can be used for extracting further metal cyanide values.

Moore, Fletcher L. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-05-31

111

Interaction of Cyanide and Nitric Oxide with Cytochrome c Oxidase: Implications for Acute Cyanide Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute cyanide toxicity is attributed to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcOX), the oxygen-reducing component of mitochon- drial electron transport; however, the mitochondrial action of cyanide is complex and not completely understood. State-3 oxygen consumption and CcOX activity were studied in rat N27 mesencephalic cells to examine the functional interaction of cyanide and nitric oxide (NO). KCN produced a concentration-

Heather B. Leavesley; Krishnan Prabhakaran; Joseph L. Borowitz; Gary E. Isom

2008-01-01

112

Photo\\/photochemical oxidation of cyanide and metal–cyanide complexes: ultraviolet A versus ultraviolet C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of free cyanide (CN), weak-acid dissociable (WAD) (, ) and strong-acid dissociable (SAD) cyanide complexes by photo and photochemical oxidation with ultraviolet (UV) light and H2O2 was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch reactors under ultraviolet A (UVA; 395 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC; 254 nm) light; the degradation efficiency was followed in terms of free cyanide, complex and metal

Ercan Ozcan; Zehra Gok; Esra Yel

2012-01-01

113

Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.  

PubMed

Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. PMID:23568214

Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

2013-04-01

114

49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). 173.195 Section 173.195 Transportation...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous,...

2010-10-01

115

49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). 173.195 Section 173.195 Transportation...cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous,...

2009-10-01

116

40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory....

2009-07-01

117

40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory....

2012-07-01

118

40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory....

2010-07-01

119

Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01

120

A novel cyanide ion sensing approach based on Raman scattering for the detection of environmental cyanides.  

PubMed

This paper describes a direct optical approach based on Raman scattering for selective and sensitive detection of cyanide ions in aqueous environment without requiring time-consuming sample pretreatment and the formation of hydrogen cyanide. Due to the strong affinity between copper (I) and cyanide ion, evaporated copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films are shown to be excellent substrates for selective recognition of free cyanide ions in aqueous matrices. The amount of cyanide ion retained by the copper (I) in the CuI thin films reflects its actual concentration in tested samples, and the subsequent Raman measurements of the substrate are shown to be capable of detecting toxic cyanide content at levels under international drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Measurements obtained from the same batch of evaporated CuI thin films (approximately 100-nm thickness) show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 microM to 0.15 mM. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides causing a health hazard while avoiding detection of other common interfering anions such as Cl-, Br-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), NO2-, S2- and SCN-. Coupled with portable Raman systems that are commercially available, our detection approach will provide on-site monitoring capability with little sample preparation or instrument supervision, which will greatly expedite the assessment of potential environmental cyanide risks. PMID:20541261

Yan, Fei; Gopal Reddy, C V; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

2010-06-11

121

Rapid sodium cyanide depletion in cell culture media: Outgassing of hydrogen cyanide at physiological pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of in vitro studies on cyanide exposure with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we found that sodium cyanide (NaCN) up to a concentration of 10mM had no significant toxic effect under our culture conditions. Further investigation of this apparent cyanide resistance revealed that the sodium cyanide was being rapidly depleted from the cell culture medium. Cyanide was interacting

Peethambaran Arun; John R. Moffett; John A. Ives; Todor I. Todorov; Jose A. Centeno; M. A. Aryan Namboodiri; Wayne B. Jonas

2005-01-01

122

CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

123

Cyanide content of cassava mash and gari flour and influence of water activity (a w ) during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide occurs in many plants mainly in the form of cyanogenetic glycosides (Montgomery 1969). The lethal dose of HCN for man is in the order 0.5-3.5 mg\\/kg body weight (Wogan 1976). Diseases such as tropical ataxic neuropathy and goitre have been associated with cyanide intakes ~suntokun 1968; Osuntokun 1969). Cassava (Manihot) and gari fleur obtained from cassava mash by-- e~-œ

Mark E. Ukhun; Edward N. Dibie

1989-01-01

124

Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.  

PubMed

It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability. PMID:15910645

Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

2005-06-01

125

National Psoriasis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... y mucho mas. Lea la información » & < National Psoriasis Foundation National Psoriasis Foundation Mission: Working to find a cure ... is prohibited without written permission of National Psoriasis Foundation. National Psoriasis Foundation does not endorse or accept any ...

126

Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria

E. Nic Lughadha; J. Baillie; W. Barthlott; N. A. Brummitt; M. R. Cheek; A. Farjon; R. Govaerts; K. A. Hardwick; C. Hilton-Taylor; T. R. Meagher; J. Moat; J. Mutke; A. J. Paton; L. J. Pleasants; V. Savolainen; G. E. Schatz; P. Smith; I. Turner; P. Wyse-Jackson; P. R. Crane

2005-01-01

127

Hydrogen cyanide polymers on comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. We propose that the non-volatile black crust of comet Halley consists largely of such polymers. Dust emanating from Halley's nucleus, contributing to the coma and tail, would also arise partly from these solids. Indeed, secondary species such as CN have been widely detected, as well as HCN itself and particles consisting only of H, C and N. Our continuing investigations suggest that the yellow-orange-brown-black polymers are of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C--N- bonds, and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. These easily formed macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, as well as on outer solar system bodies such as asteroids, moons and other comets. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers either through cometary bombardment or by terrestrial happenings of the kind that brought about the black crust of Halley. The resulting proteinaceous matrix could have promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life.

Matthews, C. N.; Ludicky, R.

1992-11-01

128

Hydrogen cyanide polymers on comets.  

PubMed

The original presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water makes them ideal sites for the formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. We propose that the non-volatile black crust of comet Halley consists largely of such polymers. Dust emanating from Halley's nucleus, contributing to the coma and tail, would also arise partly from these solids. Indeed, secondary species such as CN have been widely detected, as well as HCN itself and particles consisting only of H, C and N. Our continuing investigations suggest that the yellow-orange-brown-black polymers are of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds, and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. These easily formed macromolecules could be major components of the dark matter observed on the giant planets Jupiter and Saturn, as well as on outer solar system bodies such as asteroids, moons and other comets. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Primitive Earth may have been covered by HCN polymers either through cometary bombardment or by terrestrial happenings of the kind that brought about the black crust of Halley. The resulting proteinaceous matrix could have promoted the molecular interactions leading to the emergence of life. PMID:11538141

Matthews, C N; Ludicky, R

1992-01-01

129

Capillary electrophoretic analysis of sulfur and cyanicides speciation during cyanidation of gold complex sulfidic ores.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoretic protocol for the separation and quantification of the most important species potentially liberated during the cyanidation of gold sulfide-rich ores was accomplished in this study. The separation of 11 ions: S2O3(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-), Fe(CN)6(4-), Fe(CN)6(3-), SCN(-), Au(CN)2(-), Ag(CN)2(-), SO4(2-), OCN(-), SO3(2-), and HS(-) was achieved using an indirect UV detection method. The robustness of the analytical protocol was tested by analyzing ions speciation during the cyanidation of two gold sulfide-rich ores. The 1-h cyanidation of the two ores released up to six complexes into solution: S2O3(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-), SCN(-), Fe(CN)6(4-), OCN(-), and SO4(2-). The mineralogy of the ore was found to influence directly the nature and the amount of the dissolved species. Conserving the cyanidation solution for 72 h after sampling resulted in 96% total sulfur recovery. These results allow us to conclude that the analytical protocol developed in this study can become very useful for the optimization of precious-metals cyanidation plants. PMID:19009541

Petre, Catalin Florin; Azizi, Abdelaaziz; Olsen, Caroline; Baçaoui, Abdelaziz; Larachi, Faïçal

2008-12-01

130

Anodic behaviour of alkaline solutions containing copper cyanide and sulfite on the graphite anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfite may be added to copper cyanide solutions to reduce cyanide oxidation at the anode during copper electrowinning. Anodic sulfite oxidation is enhanced in the presence of copper cyanide. Sulfite also suppresses the oxidation of copper cyanide. The effect of sulfite on the oxidation of copper cyanide decreases with increasing mole ratio of cyanide to copper. This is related to

J. Lu; D. B. Dreisinger; W. C. Cooper

2002-01-01

131

Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.  

PubMed

The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

2010-06-04

132

DESTRUCTION OF CYANIDE IN WASTEWATERS: REVIEW AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process...

133

Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Sodium Cyanide. List C, Case 3086.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the Agency's decision regarding the reregistration eligibility of the registered uses of sodium cyanide. The document consists of six sections. Section I is the introduction. Section II describes sodium cyanide, its uses, data requir...

1994-01-01

134

Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air. PMID:22704552

Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

2012-06-15

135

Solidification of hazardous wastes containing cyanide  

SciTech Connect

Industrial sludges and residues are often solidified by cement-based solidification systems employing OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). Metal plating wastes are considered compatible with OPC and have been processed using this binder for about 25 years. Recent research has shown that these wastes are capable of compromising OPC hydration reactions which are claimed to be responsible for effective solidification. Plating residues often contain significant levels of cyanide and when present in large quantities an oxidation process is employed to remove it. However, the potential exists for cyanide-containing wastes to be solidified and therefore the effect on the hydration of an OPC binder system is of importance. In a study to evaluate these effects, sodium cyanide has been added to OPC and has been found to retard hydration significantly. The retardation reaction was monitored by calorimetry, and XRD of the product showed that this was as a result of a complexation reaction involving iron.

Hills, C.D.; Sollars, C.J.; Perry, R. (Imperial Coll. of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Control and Waste Management)

1994-01-01

136

Particulates and iron cyanide complex removal  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for scrubbing a synthesis gas stream containing residual amounts of iron containing particulate solids and minor amounts of HCN comprising (a) contacting the synthesis gas stream with water in a contact zone and removing the particulate solids from the synthesis gas stream, producing an aqueous mixture containing solids and iron cyanide complex or complexes; (b) contacting mixture from step (a) with a member selected from ammonium polysulfide, sodium polysulfide, and mixtures thereof. The mixture is contacted at a temperature of from 110/sup 0/C. to 180/sup 0/C., in a contacting zone and converting iron cyanide complex or complexes in the mixture and producing a mixture having a substantially reduced iron cyanide complex or complexes content.

Baker, D.C.

1986-11-25

137

Nano-intercalated rhodanese in cyanide antagonism.  

PubMed

Present studies have focused on nano-intercalated rhodanese in combination with sulfur donors to prevent cyanide lethality in a prophylactic mice model for future development of an effective cyanide antidotal system. Our approach is based on the idea of converting cyanide to the less toxic thiocyanate before it reaches the target organs by utilizing sulfurtransferases (e.g., rhodanese) and sulfur donors in a close proximity by injecting them directly into the blood stream. The inorganic thiosulfate (TS) and the garlic component diallydisulfide (DADS) were compared as sulfur donors with the nano-intercalated rhodanese in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that DADS is not a more efficient sulfur donor than TS. However, the utilization of external rhodanese significantly enhanced the in vivo efficacy of both sulfur donor-nitrite combinations, indicating the potential usefulness of enzyme nano-delivery systems in developing antidotal therapeutic agents. PMID:20795898

Petrikovics, Ilona; Baskin, Steven I; Beigel, Keith M; Schapiro, Benjamin J; Rockwood, Gary A; Manage, Ananda B W; Budai, Marianna; Szilasi, Maria

2010-06-01

138

Method Kelada-01: Kelada Automated Test Methods for Total Cyanide, Acid Dissociable Cyanide, and Thiocyanate. Revision 1.2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Kelada-01 provides for rapid determination of total cyanide, acid dissociable cyanide, and thiocyanate in drinking water, wastewater, ambient water, and sludge, with minimal effects from interferences. Kelada-01 was developed by Dr. Nabih Kelada, and repr...

2001-01-01

139

Monoclonal antibodies as catalysts for cyanide removal  

SciTech Connect

We have shown that hydrogen cyanide reacts with alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones to form stable compounds under physiological conditions (temperature, pH). Although spontaneous reaction is too slow for protection against cyanide intoxication, rate enhancement in the presence of a suitable catalyst would permit the use of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones (enones) as prophylactics for cyanide exposure. Based on the accepted mechanism for this 1,4-addition reaction, we have designed and synthesized sized a transition state analog (TSA), conjugated it to protein and used the conjugate to produce more than 300 monoclonal antibodies which bind the TSA. Approximately 10% of these antibodies have been purified from ascites and tested for catalysis of the addition reaction of cyanide to enone. Product formation was measured by HPLC. Four antibodies have been found which significantly enhance the initial velocity of the reaction. The TSA markedly diminishes the reaction velocity, indicating the involvement of the antibody binding site in the observed enhancement. Preliminary kinetic analysis on one antibody gave values of K sub (enone) and K sub KCN 51 uM and 9.6 mM, respectively. The value of k sub (cat) was 2.33 hr-1. The data suggest a rate enhancement of 2 x 10 to the 4th power for the encounter of the enone with the antibody-cyanide complex, whereas the rate enhancement for encounter of cyanide with the antibody-enone complex is 70. To utilize the potential of genetic engineering for modifying the proper-lies of anti-TSA monoclonal antibodies, we are cloning heavy and light chain genes for sequencing and subsequent site-specific mutagenesis.

Cook, C.E.; Whisnant, C.C.; Miller, D.B.; Allen, D.A.; Basta, P.V.

1993-05-13

140

Analysis of Cyanide and Its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyanide is a toxic chemical that may be introduced into living organisms as a result of natural processes and/or anthropogenic uses (legal or illicit). Exposure to cyanide can be verified by analysis of cyanide or one of its breakdown products from biolog...

B. A. Logue D. M. Hinkens G. A. Rockwood S. I. Baskin

2010-01-01

141

Investigation of the physiological relationship between the cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cyanide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which demonstrates considerable respiratory versatility, possessing up to five terminal oxidases. One oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), has been previously shown to be resistant to the potent respiratory inhibitor cyanide, a toxin that is synthesized by this bacterium. This study investigated the physiological relationship between hydrogen cyanide production and the CIO. It was found

James E. A. Zlosnik; Gholam Reza Tavankar; Jacob G. Bundy; Dimitris Mossialos; Ronan O'Toole; Huw D. Williams

2006-01-01

142

Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens helps suppress black root rot of tobacco under gnotobiotic conditions.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 suppresses black root rot of tobacco, a disease caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. Strain CHA0 excretes several metabolites with antifungal properties. The importance of one such metabolite, hydrogen cyanide, was tested in a gnotobiotic system containing an artificial, iron-rich soil. A cyanidenegative (hcn) mutant, CHA5, constructed by a gene replacement technique, protected the tobacco plant less effectively than did the wild-type CHA0. Complementation of strain CHA5 by the cloned wild-type hcn genes restored the strain's ability to suppress disease. An artificial transposon carrying the hcn genes of strain CHA0 (Tnhcn) was constructed and inserted into the genome of another P.fluorescens strain, P3, which naturally does not produce cyanide and gives poor plant protection. The P3::Tnhcn derivative synthesized cyanide and exhibited an improved ability to suppress disease. All bacterial strains colonized the roots similarly and did not influence significantly the survival of T.basicola in soil. We conclude that bacterial cyanide is an important but not the only factor involved in suppression of black root rot. PMID:16453871

Voisard, C; Keel, C; Haas, D; Dèfago, G

1989-02-01

143

Effects of Methemoglobin versus Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were conducted to continue evaluating the effects of pre-existing methemoglobinemia induced by hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) on the ability of the dog to resist lethal cyanide (KCN) intoxication. The following items were a...

W. D. Johnson

1986-01-01

144

Diffusion of air (1); hydrogen cyanide (2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) hydrogen cyanide

J. Winkelmann

2007-01-01

145

Rapid sodium cyanide depletion in cell culture media: outgassing of hydrogen cyanide at physiological pH.  

PubMed

During the course of in vitro studies on cyanide exposure with SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, we found that sodium cyanide (NaCN) up to a concentration of 10 mM had no significant toxic effect under our culture conditions. Further investigation of this apparent cyanide resistance revealed that the sodium cyanide was being rapidly depleted from the cell culture medium. Cyanide was interacting with constituents of the cell culture medium and was somehow being detoxified or removed from solution. The reaction of cyanide with cell culture media in 96-well culture plates reduced cyanide concentrations rapidly (80-90% in 2 h at 37 degrees C). Running the same reaction in capped tubes significantly reduced cyanide loss from solution. Incubation of cyanide with individual constituents of the cell culture medium in solution showed that glucose, phenol red, and amino acids all acted to detoxify or remove cyanide from solution. When amino acids or buffers were incubated with sodium cyanide in aqueous solution at pH 7.4, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was found to degas from the solutions. We compared HCN outgassing over a range of pH values. As expected, HCN remained very soluble at high pH, but as the pH was reduced to 7.0, the rate of HCN formation and outgassing increased dramatically. Acid-base reactions involving cyanide and proton donors, such as amino acids and other cell culture media constituents, at physiological pH result in rapid HCN outgassing from solution at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that previous in vitro cyanide toxicity studies done in standard culture media with prolonged incubation times using gas-exchanging culture containers might have to be reevaluated in light of the fact that the effective cyanide concentrations in the culture media were significantly lower than reported. PMID:15797569

Arun, Peethambaran; Moffett, John R; Ives, John A; Todorov, Todor I; Centeno, Jose A; Namboodiri, M A Aryan; Jonas, Wayne B

2005-04-15

146

Metabolism of organonitriles to cyanide by rat nasal tissue enzymes.  

PubMed

1. A method for determination of cyanide release during microsomal metabolism of organonitriles was developed. 2. Vmax values for cyanide release from acetonitrile, propionitrile, butyronitrile, isobutyronitrile, acrylonitrile, benzyl cyanide and succinonitrile were determined for rat nasal and liver microsomal metabolism. 3. Km and Vmax values were determined for nasal and liver microsomal metabolism of benzyl cyanide to cyanide. 4. Vmax values were all greater in nasal microsomes than in liver microsomes. Except for acrylonitrile, butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile metabolism, the ethmoturbinate microsomes had higher activities than the maxilloturbinate microsomes. 5. Two methods for determining Vmax values indicate that rat liver, but not the nose, contains at least two cytochrome P-450 isozymes involved in metabolism of benzyl cyanide to cyanide. 6. These results, and previously reported nasal rhodanese activity data, indicate that inhaled organonitriles are substantially detoxicated in the nasal cavity. PMID:2618074

Dahl, A R; Waruszewski, B A

1989-11-01

147

Co-intensification of cyanide leaching gold by mercury ions and oxidant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of mercury ions on gold cyanidation were studied. The results show that under low cyanide concentration, gold cyanide process is controlled by CN? transfer, while at higher cyanide concentration, there forms passivation on gold surface. Therefore, chemical oxidation of gold in cyanide solution of higher concentration is controlled by surface reaction. Small quantity of additions of mercury ions

Qian LI; Tao JIANG; Yong-bin YANG; Guang-hui LI; Yu-feng GUO; Guan-zhou QIU

2010-01-01

148

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup  

PubMed Central

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants.

Chaouali, Nadia; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

2013-01-01

149

Relationship Between Levels of Cyanide in Sudangrass Hybrids Incorporated into Soil and Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla.  

PubMed

Sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 has been demonstrated to suppress infection of vegetables by Meloidogyne hapla (Mh). Hydrogen cyanide, released from the degradation of the cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin) during decomposition of Trudan 8, was the primary factor involved in suppression of Mh on vegetables. The cyanide ion level in leaf tissue of 14 hybrids of sudangrass varied between 0.04 (cv. SX-8) to 1.84 parts per million (cv. 840F). The suppressive activity of the sudangrass hybrids against Mh was assessed in greenhouse tests by incorporating various amounts of leaf tissue into organic soil. After 1 week, eggs of Mh were added to the soil (8 eggs/cm[sup3] soil), which was then planted with lettuce as a bioassay plant. After 8 weeks, the lettuce roots were washed and rated for root-gall severity (RGS). Incorporation of sudangrass tissue resulted in a reduction of RGS up to 54%. There was a correlation between the amount of free cyanide incorporated into the soil and the reduction in RGS. Other green manures of cyanogenic plants tested were white clover, which resulted in a 45% reduction in RGS, and flax, which resulted in a 53% reduction in Mh penetration of lettuce roots. These results suggest that cyanogenic plants have potential as nematicidal green manures. PMID:19265902

Widmer, T L; Abawi, G S

2002-03-01

150

Comparative Effects of Ethylene and Cyanide on Respiration, Polysome Prevalence, and Gene Expression in Carrot Roots 1  

PubMed Central

Treatment of carrot roots (Daucus carota L.) with 10 microliters per liter ethylene in O2 evokes a three- to four-fold increase in polysome prevalence and associated poly(A)+ RNA. The increase in polysome prevalence is attended by a similar change in CO2 evolution. The increase in polysomal poly(A)+ mRNA constitutes primarily a generic increase in constitutive mRNAs as assayed by in vitro translation. However, changes in the relative abundance of several in vitro translatable ethylene specific mRNAs do occur. Cyanide, at concentrations which inhibit cytochrome oxidase, initiates a respiratory rise very similar in kinetics and magnitude to that evoked by ethylene. Moreover, the combined treatment with cyanide and ethylene evokes a respiratory response resembling that caused by ethylene or cyanide alone. Nevertheless, cyanide, in the presence of ethylene, significantly inhibits the increase in polysome prevalence and new gene expression associated with ethylene treatment of carrot roots. Separation of in vitro translation products by one-dimensional and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis shows that several new in vitro translation products appear in cyanide-treated carrots different from those evoked by ethylene. Engagement of the less energy efficient alternative electron transport path by cyanide may be responsible for inhibition of the normal ethylene associated increase in polysome prevalence and new gene expression. The implications of these results on regulation of respiratory metabolism are discussed and compared with the results for similar experiments with avocado fruit (Tucker and Laties 1984 Plant Physiol 74: 307-315) in which cyanide does not inhibit an ethylene educed increase in polysome prevalence and change in gene expression. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Tucker, Mark L.; Laties, George G.

1984-01-01

151

Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.  

PubMed

The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra. PMID:21303323

Niederer, Peter F

2010-01-01

152

Hydroxyapatite nanoarray-based cyanide biosensor.  

PubMed

Here we report a simple, biomolecular-friendly protocol for the fabrication of a hydroxyapatite nanowires array (HANWA) biosensor of spatial positioning, large surface area, and abundant adsorbing sites and its application to cyanide sensing. The fabrication of HANWA is performed by template-assisted electrodeposition. The well-aligned hydroxyapatite nanoarray is composed of vertical nanowires with a diameter of approximately 200 nm and an average length of 1 microm. The electrochemical biosensor for the determination of cyanide through its inhibitory effect on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) encapsulated by chitosan (CHIT) on the platform of HANWA is demonstrated. The current organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure provides excellent enzyme-substrate contact with enzyme activity well maintained. The densely distributed HANWA with large surface area and abundant adsorbing sites can provide a favorable electrochemical interface for the construction of electrochemical biosensor. A sensitive detection limit of 0.6 ng ml(-1) was obtained for cyanide. The proposed CHIT-HRP/HANWA biosensor has the advantages of spatial resolution, high sensitivity, rapid regeneration, and fast response associated with individual nanowires. It broadens the possible applications of chemosensors and biosensors, and it offers an alternative method for toxic substance determination. The new device holds great promise for environmental and food industrial monitoring of toxins. PMID:19944059

Wang, Suiping; Lei, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Tang, Jian; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

2009-11-26

153

Sampling and determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for sampling and determination of hydrogen cyanide in cigarette smoke is described. Cigarette smoke is filtered\\u000a through a glass fiber filter paper, and only gaseous compounds, such as hydrogen cyanide, are collected in a dilute sodium\\u000a hydroxide solution. The cyanide is determined spectrophotometrically at 550 nm by the isonicotinic acid–pyrazolone method.\\u000a Maximum absorbance is achieved within 10 min

Y. Jiang; N. Lu; Feng Yu; Qing Li; Hongding Xu

1999-01-01

154

Effects of Long-term Cyanide Ingestion by Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal performance and health status are adversely affected by long-term cyanide ingestion; however, the effects of cyanide\\u000a ingestion by pigs have not been fully determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged exposure\\u000a to different doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) in growing-finishing swine. Twenty-four pigs, 45 days of age, were divided into\\u000a four equal

H. Manzano; A. Benedito de Sousa; B. Soto-Blanco; J. L. Guerra; P. C. Maiorka; S. L. Górniak

2007-01-01

155

Determination of the Cyanide Metabolite 2-Aminothiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Urine and Plasma by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline.4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a promising biomarker for cyanide exposure because of its stability and the limitations of direct determination of cyanide and more abundant cyanide metabolites. A simple, sensitive, and...

B. A. Logue N. P. Kirschten I. Petrikovics M. A. Moser G. A. Rockwood

2005-01-01

156

Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions.  

PubMed

Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions. PMID:23973584

Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

2013-08-01

157

[Cyanides--treatment beneath the shade of terror].  

PubMed

Although the use of cyanides as warfare agents has not been documented since the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, there are rising fears of cyanide being used by terrorists. An Al-Qaeda terror plot to use cyanide gas in the London Underground was foiled in 2002. The threat of similar events becomes more imminent in light of the terror attacks in our country and worldwide, accompanied by statements and threats by fundamentalist leaders to employ chemical weapons. Therefore, mass-intoxication with cyanides is not merely a hypothetical scenario. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is under constant evaluation and there is no international consensus on the subject. The medical treatment of victims at the scene and in hospitals should be rapid and efficient. Current treatment dictates establishing an intravenous line and a slow rate of administration of antidotes. Both demands are not feasible in this specific mass casualty event. The clinical signs of cyanide poisoning are complex, variable and not necessarily obvious for the medical team. There is great interest in reconsidering the existing treatment protocols for cyanide intoxication in light of current research. This review describes the mechanisms of cyanide toxicity, clinical signs of exposure, and current treatment protocols in use worldwide. On the basis of this evidence we suggest a medical treatment protocol for a mass casualty event caused by cyanide. PMID:17460933

Krivoy, Amir; Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Layish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Schein, Ophir; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

2007-03-01

158

Bibliography on Machine Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Design criteria; Theoretical solutions for the response of machine foundations to vibration; Determination of dynamic soil parameters; Design of machine foundations; Control of vibration; Abstracts and references. (Portions of this document are ...

P. J. Moore

1978-01-01

159

National Patient Safety Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... by @theNPSF Like Us on Facebook Copyright © 2013 National Patient Safety Foundation. All Rights Reserved. The National Patient Safety Foundation has been pursuing one mission since its founding ...

160

Study of the Anodic Current-Voltage Curves of a Binuclear Manganese (III) Cyanide Complex in Cyanide Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of two different manganese (III)-cyanide complexes in cyanide solution is detected when manganese (II)-cyanide solutions are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. A brown solution is obtained first which colour fades to give a nearly colourless solution. Manganese (III) is present both before and after this process.The electrochemical oxidation of the brown complex at a stationary platinum electrode in a

G. López-Cueto; A. Alonso-mateos

1978-01-01

161

Foundation Support of Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Foundation awards for evaluation work granted between 1972 and 1983 are described in terms of size of grants, nature of recipients and supporting foundations, yearly and geographic distribution patterns, and topical areas of primary support. Foundation resource materials are summarized. (Author/DWH)|

Smith, Nick L.

1985-01-01

162

Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase.  

PubMed

Two triphenylmethane based chemodosimeters for selective and chromogenic sensing of cyanide anions in aqueous environments and of hydrogen cyanide in gas phase were prepared and studied. PMID:23680816

Gotor, Raúl; Costero, Ana M; Gil, Salvador; Parra, Margarita; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix; Gaviña, Pablo

2013-05-17

163

Long-range effect of cyanide on mercury methylation in a gold mining area in southern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Small-scale gold mining in Portovelo-Zaruma, Southern Equador, performed by mercury amalgamation and cyanidation, yields 9-10 t of gold/annum, resulting in annual releases of around 0.65 t of inorganic mercury and 6000 t of sodium cyanide in the local river system. The release of sediments, cyanide, mercury, and other metals present in the ore such as lead, manganese and arsenic significantly reduces biodiversity downstream the processing plants and enriches metals in bottom sediments and biota. However, methylmercury concentrations in sediments downstream the mining area were recently found to be one order of magnitude lower than upstream or in small tributaries. In this study we investigated cyanide, bacterial activity in water and sediment and mercury methylation potentials in sediments along the Puyango river watershed, measured respectively by in-situ spectrophotometry and incubation with (3)H-leucine and (203)Hg(2+). Free cyanide was undetectable (<1 ?g·L(-1)) upstream mining activities, reached 280 ?g·L(-1) a few km downstream the processing plants area and was still detectable about 100 km downstream. At stations with detectable free cyanide in unfiltered water, 50% of it was dissolved and 50% associated to suspended particles. Bacterial activity and mercury methylation in sediment showed a similar spatial pattern, inverse to the one found for free cyanide in water, i.e. with significant values in pristine upstream sampling points (respectively 6.4 to 22 ?gC·mg wet weight(-1)·h(-1) and 1.2 to 19% of total (203) Hg·gdry weight(-1)·day(-1)) and undetectable downstream the processing plants, returning to upstream values only in the most distant downstream stations. The data suggest that free cyanide oxidation was slower than would be expected from the high water turbulence, resulting in a long-range inhibition of bacterial activity and hence mercury methylation. The important mercury fluxes resultant from mining activities raise concerns about its biomethylation in coastal areas where many mangrove areas have been converted to shrimp farming. PMID:21908015

Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davée; Betancourt, Oscar; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; Barriga, Ramiro; Cueva, Edwin; Betancourt, Sebastián

2011-09-10

164

Specific Spot Tests Based on the Release of Hydrogen Cyanide from Acidic Mercuric Cyanide Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was found that mixtures of equal parts of 1-2% mercuric cyanide and 0.1-0.2 N oxalic or sulfuric acid remain unaltered even when warmed. Addition of small amount of alkali chloride, bromide, iodide or thiocyanante to such mixture provokes rapid release...

F. Feigl F. L. Chan

1966-01-01

165

Photo/photochemical oxidation of cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes: ultraviolet A versus ultraviolet C.  

PubMed

Degradation of free cyanide (CN(-)), weak-acid dissociable (WAD) (Zn(CN)4(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-)) and strong-acid dissociable (SAD) (Fe(CN)6(4-) cyanide complexes by photo and photochemical oxidation with ultraviolet (UV) light and H2O2 was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch reactors under ultraviolet A (UVA; 395 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC; 254 nm) light; the degradation efficiency was followed in terms of free cyanide, complex and metal concentrations. UVC and UVA photo-oxidations were found to be equally effective in CN(-) and WAD degradation, while the degradation of the SAD complex was more difficult for both UV wavelengths, and UVC was more effective. The initial pH of the solution has influenced the degradation of all cyanide species and the optimum initial pH was evaluated as 10.5 for CN(-) and Cu(CN)3(2-); 12.0 for Zn(CN)4(2-) and 9.0 for Fe(CN)6(4-) degradation. Photochemical oxidation using H202 provided higher degradation at shorter durations with both UVA and UVC. Time-dependent variations in free cyanide and metal concentrations have indicated that metal-cyanide complexes are firstly degraded into metal and CN(-) ions, followed by oxidation of CN(-) ions, while metals in the system were partially removed as hydroxide precipitates. Therefore, depending upon the effluent requirements, the studied UV photo/photochemical oxidations were offered as either a pre-treatment method for the separation of metal and the cyanide, or as an oxidation technology to degrade especially WAD complexes and CN(-). Estimated operational cost of photo-oxidation by UVC was 1.6-2.5-fold higher than UVA degradation, although degradation times were close. In the photochemical oxidation with H2O2, the operational costs of UVC and UVA degradation were closer, owing to peroxide costs, but UVC was still more expensive. PMID:23240184

Ozcan, Ercan; Gok, Zehra; Yel, Esra

2012-09-01

166

Inhibition of aerobic respiration and dissimilatory perchlorate reduction using cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low concentrations of cyanide on dissimilatory perchlorate and chlorate reduction and aerobic respiration was examined using pure cultures of Azospira sp. KJ. Cyanide at a concentration of 38 ?M inhibited cell growth on perchlorate, chlorate and molecular oxygen, but it did not inhibit the activity of chlorite dismutase. When oxygen accumulation was prevented by adding an oxygen

Yanguang Song; Bruce E. Logan

2004-01-01

167

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CYANIDES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on cyanide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of cyanides; Toxicokinetics and human expos...

168

Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.  

PubMed Central

A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H2O----HCOOH + NH3) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN-) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The soluble enzyme was purified approximately 160-fold, and the first 25 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by automated Edman degradation. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, greater than 97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be greater than 300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles. Images

Ingvorsen, K; H?jer-Pedersen, B; Godtfredsen, S E

1991-01-01

169

Proceedings of the International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Cyanide Detection Testing Workshop was conceived to identify possible options for reducing the use of cyanide in the capture of coral reef fishes for the marine aquarium trade and the live reef food fish trade. Because the emphasis was o...

A. W. Bruckner G. G. Roberts

2008-01-01

170

Effect of antagonists on the physiologic disposition of sodium cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts were made to evaluate the effects of pretreatment with air and oxygen either alone or in various combinations with sodium nitrite and\\/or sodium thiosulfate on the physiological disposition of C?labeled sodium cyanide in mice. The radioactive respiratory excretion was studied by radiorespirometry, and the effects of various combinations of cyanide antagonists were compared. Oxygen either alone or in combination

George E. Burrows; David H. W. Liu; Gary E. Isom

1982-01-01

171

DEMONSTRATION OF ZINC CYANIDE RECOVERY USING REVERSE OSMOSIS AND EVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A field test was conducted to demonstrate closed-loop recovery of zinc cyanide at a job plating facility. Since the zinc cyanide bath operates at room temperature with very little evaporation from the bath, reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of the rinsewater must be supplemented by ...

172

Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide.  

PubMed

The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond. PMID:17976798

Eckstein, Marc

2007-08-29

173

The origin of proteins: Heteropolypeptides from hydrogen cyanide and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial chemistry is presented consistent with the hypothesis that the original heteropolypeptides on Earth were synthesized spontaneously from hydrogen cyanide and water without the intervening formation of a-amino acids, a key step being the direct polymerization of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide to polyaminomalononitrile (IV) via dimeric HCN. Molecular orbital calculations (INDO) show that the most probable structure

Clifford N. Matthews

1975-01-01

174

HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

2012-08-01

175

Results of boron, surfactant, and cyanide investigation, Beale AFB, California. Final report, Feb-Mar 91  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this field survey was to investigate wastewater treatment plant effluent levels for boron, methylene blue active substances (MBAS-surfactants), and total cyanide. Historical sampling data were insufficient to clarify whether Beale AFB exceeded their National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limitations. Up to 30 composite samples were taken of each contaminant. The results showed the base met boron permit limitations, exceeded the daily limit on one day for MBAS, and exceeded both the monthly average limitation and the daily limit for cyanide. Beale AFB has already taken numerous steps to eliminate contaminants from their discharges, e.g., increased sample data collection, product substitution, waste stream isolation and treatment, and split sampling. The report recommends the base systematically review past actions for areas that may have been overlooked or deemed too minor to address. Alternatively, the report recommends follow-up survey work by Armstrong Laboratory or an Armstrong Laboratory contactor.

Garland, J.G.

1991-07-01

176

Interaction of cyanide with enzymes containing vanadium, manganese, non-heme iron, and zinc.  

PubMed

Since the early discovery of Prussian Blue, cyano transition metal complexes have played a fundamental role in coordination chemistry. They represent important compounds with fascinating chemical and physical properties which turn them into valuable tools for both chemists and biologists. HCN as a precursor in prebiotic chemistry has gained interest in view of its polymers being involved in the formation of amino acids, purines, and orotic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of uracil. Clearly, the rapid formation of adenine by aqueous polymerization of HCN is one of the key discoveries in these experiments. The cyanide anion is usually toxic for most aerobic organisms because of its inhibitory effects on respiratory enzymes, but as a substrate it is an important source of carbon and nitrogen for microorganisms, fungi and plants. Most interestingly, the cyanide anion is a ligand of important metal-dependent biomolecules, such as the hydrogenases and the cobalt site in vitamin B(12). PMID:20877800

Sosa-Torres, Martha E; Kroneck, Peter M H

2009-01-30

177

A New Facile Method to Measure Cyanide in Blood  

PubMed Central

Cyanide, a well-known toxic substance that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction, is likely responsible for a substantial percentage of smoke inhalation deaths. The vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide binds cyanide with high affinity, changing color and, correspondingly, its spectrophotometric spectrum in the ultraviolet/visible light range. Based on these spectral changes, we developed a new facile method to measure cyanide in blood using cobinamide. The limit of detection was 0.25 nmol, while the limit of quantitation was ~ 0.5 nmol. The method was reliable, requires minimal equipment, and correlated well with a previously established method. Moreover, we adapted it for rapid qualitative assessment of cyanide concentration, which could be used in the field to identify cyanide-poisoned subjects for immediate treatment.

Blackledge, William C.; Blackledge, Charles W.; Griesel, Alexa; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

2010-01-01

178

Direct detection of residual cyanide in cassava using spectroscopic techniques.  

PubMed

Fluorescence, infrared, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been applied to monitor the effect of processing mode on the residual cyanogens in cassava roots. The processed samples' infrared spectra have shown that only the boiled sample contains residual cyanide. SEM micrographs have revealed that irregularly shaped granules of about 100-microm size contain cyanide, while spherical granules of about 10-microm size do not. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that the intensities of peaks are not affected by the presence of cyanide in the cassava samples. Fluorescence and UV-visible studies have detected the presence of cyanide converted to cyanate in water used for soaking processes. The thermal behavior of cassava samples with respect to the cyanide content and the role of oxygen and different ions present in water used for soaking processes are also discussed. PMID:17973447

Phambu, Nsoki; Meya, Anderson Sunda; Djantou, Elie Beaudelaire; Phambu, Esther Nzuzi; Kita-Phambu, Pambu; Anovitz, Lawrence M

2007-11-01

179

Investigation of the physiological relationship between the cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cyanide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which demonstrates considerable respiratory versatility, possessing up to five terminal oxidases. One oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), has been previously shown to be resistant to the potent respiratory inhibitor cyanide, a toxin that is synthesized by this bacterium. This study investigated the physiological relationship between hydrogen cyanide production and the CIO. It was found that cyanide is produced in P. aeruginosa at similar levels irrespective of its complement of CIO, indicating that the CIO is not an obligatory electron sink for cyanide synthesis. However, MICs for cyanide and growth in its presence demonstrated that the CIO provides P. aeruginosa with protection against the effects of exogenous cyanide. Nevertheless, the presence of cyanide did not affect the viability of cio mutant strains compared to the wild-type during prolonged incubation in stationary phase. The detection of the fermentation end products acetate and succinate in stationary-phase culture supernatants suggests that P. aeruginosa, irrespective of its CIO complement, may in part rely upon fermentation for energy generation in stationary phase. Furthermore, the decrease in cyanide levels during incubation in sealed flasks suggested that active breakdown of HCN by the culture was taking place. To investigate the possibility that the CIO may play a role in pathogenicity, wild-type and cio mutant strains were tested in the paralytic killing model of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model in which cyanide is the principal toxic agent leading to nematode death. The CIO mutant had delayed killing kinetics, demonstrating that the CIO is required for full pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in this animal model. PMID:16622057

Zlosnik, James E A; Tavankar, Gholam Reza; Bundy, Jacob G; Mossialos, Dimitris; O'Toole, Ronan; Williams, Huw D

2006-05-01

180

Toxicology Education Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... increase the public understanding of toxicology. ! Support for the Toxicology Education Foundation comes from individuals, government, institutions and companies. ---Select---- Programs & Activities Travel Awards ...

181

National technology foundation proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A bill that would combine sections of the National Science Foundation and the Department of Commerce into a National Technology Foundation was introduced in June by Rep. George E. Brown, Jr. (D-Calif.), chairman of the House Science and Technology Committee. Purpose of the foundation would be to ‘promote the advance of technology, technological innovation, technology utilization, and the supply of technological manpower for the improvement of the economic, environmental, and social well-being of the United States.’ The bill has been sent to congressional committee.‘Among other things, the National Technology Foundation would recognize the importance of engineering and help harness its potential,’ Brown told the House.

Richman, Barbara T.

182

CYANIDE IN MINING: SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHEMISTRY, TOXICITY AND ANALYSIS OF MINING-RELATED WATERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cyanide compounds in mining is frequently a controversial issue. Environmental groups often focus on the acutely toxic properties of many cyanide compounds to humans. The mining industry has argued that the dilute cyanide concentrations employed, the methods of use, and the rapid decomposition of these compounds make cyanide extraction a very safe alternative. Clearly the spill of

Robert E. Moran

183

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

184

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium.

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

185

D-Erythroascorbic acid activates cyanide-resistant respiration in Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Higher plants, protists and fungi possess cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway, which is mediated by alternative oxidase (AOX). The activity of AOX has been found to be dependent on several regulatory mechanisms including gene expression and posttranslational regulation. In the present study, we report that the presence of cyanide in culture medium remarkably retarded the growth of alo1/alo1 mutant of Candida albicans, which lacks d-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) that catalyzes the final step of d-erythroascorbic acid (EASC) biosynthesis. Measurement of respiratory activity and Western blot analysis revealed that increase in the intracellular EASC level induces the expression of AOX in C. albicans. AOX could still be induced by antimycin A, a respiratory inhibitor, in the absence of EASC, suggesting that several factors may act in parallel pathways to induce the expression of AOX. Taken together, our results suggest that EASC plays important roles in activation of cyanide-resistant respiration in C. albicans. PMID:18282465

Huh, Won-Ki; Song, Yong Bhum; Lee, Young-Seok; Ha, Cheol Woong; Kim, Seong-Tae; Kang, Sa-Ouk

2008-02-20

186

Arbor Day Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arbor Day was first observed in 1872, and the Arbor Day Foundation was founded in 1972 in Nebraska. The Arbor Day website contains a trove of information for visitors to peruse, make plans around, and learn from. The "Trees" section of the website includes "What Tree is That?", an online guide for tree identification; a "Tree Guide", that covers more than 200 different species of trees; and a quiz called "The Right Tree in the Right Place", about how and why to first make a simple plan, considering size and shape, when planting trees around a house. The "Programs" section of the website is an excellent resource for visitors such as teachers, parents and students. "Nature Explore" helps connect kids with nature via the "Resource Guide", which contains "field-tested resources developed to bring nature into children's daily learning in sustainable, significant, positive and joyful ways." Interested visitors can use the link entitled "Request a Resource Guide", to get a free copy. "Nature Explore Classroom Certification" links teachers to the certification process and examples of certified classrooms and classrooms in-progress.

187

Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide  

PubMed Central

Diaquacobinamide (H2O)2Cbi2+ or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H2O)Cbi+)) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H2O)Cbi+ is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H2O)Cbi+ should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H2O)Cbi+ is virtually the same as that of OH(H2O)Cbi+. It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H2O)Cbi+, (CN)2Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H2O)Cbi+. This understanding implies that CN(H2O)Cbi+ will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic - charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 ?M, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h?1. The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds.

Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Zelder, Felix H.; Boss, Gerry R.

2012-01-01

188

Foundations and Piles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integrate Publishing provides this engineering information site, which is an excellent resource for anyone who needs background information on building structures. This specific page offers an introduction to some of the common types of foundations and piles used for building construction. Both definitions and illustrations of common foundation types are included here for your perusal.

2008-04-17

189

Cyanide Soap? Dissolved material in Titan's Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it is evident that Titan's lakes and seas are dominated by ethane, methane, nitrogen, and (in some models) propane, there is divergence on the predicted relative abundance of minor constituents such as nitriles and C-4 alkanes. Nitriles such as hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile, which have a significant dipole moment, may have a disproportionate influence on the dielectric properties of Titan seas and may act to solvate polar molecules such as water ice. The hypothesis is offered that such salvation may act to enhance the otherwise negligible solubility of water ice bedrock in liquid hydrocarbons. Such enhanced solubility may permit solution erosion as a formation mechanism for the widespread pits and apparently karstic lakes on Titan. Prospects for testing this hypothesis in the laboratory, and with measurements on Titan, will be discussed.

Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Neish, C. D.

2011-10-01

190

Sources and Geochemical Evolution of Cyanide and Formaldehyde (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere...

G. Arrhenius

1991-01-01

191

SUBSTITUTING CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The environmental and economic implications of substituting zinc chloride electroplating for cadmium cyanide electroplating were evaluated. he process substitution was successful in achieving product quality to satisfy the customer requirements for corrosion resistance. orrosion ...

192

Simulation Studies of Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of computer studies showing the effect of cyanide (CN) on the electrophysiology of cardiac tissue is presented. A mathematical model of the electrophysiology of cardiac tissue, with initial and boundary conditions based on experimental data from ...

C. K. Zoltani G. E. Platoff S. I. Baskin

2005-01-01

193

Mechanism of Chemical Action and Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This contact was concerned with the development , validation, and use of a coincubation system composed of hepatocyte monolayer cultures and erythrocytes in suspension in the culture medium for study of cyanide and antidotal mechanisms and for preliminary...

C. A. Tyson

1986-01-01

194

Cyanide Chemistry: Precious Metals Processing and Waste Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is a compilation of fundamental cyanide chemistry data obtained through an extensive review of the scientific literature. The review includes thermodynamics and chemical equilibria, ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectra, and chemistry ...

C. M. Flynn S. M. Haslem

1995-01-01

195

Cyanide Stimulation of Tri-N-Butyltin Mediated Hemolysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of tributyltin and sodium cyanide on hemolysis in human erythrocytes are described. Tributyltin has a sharp cut-off concentration for induction of hemolysis. A 5 micromole concentration of tributyltin induces hemolysis and mircromole less does...

B. H. Gray M. Porvaznik L. H. Lee

1986-01-01

196

fundamental aspects of the gold cyanidation process: a review  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews and examines the different theories that have been published concerning the chemistry, mechanisms of extraction, and rate-controlling factors involved in the dissolution of gold in alkaline cyanide solutions. Since Elsner (1846) recognized that oxygen or air was necessary for the dissolution of gold in cyanide solutions, and later when MacArthur and the Forrests (1889) patented the process, cyanidation has become widespread for gold extraction, replacing the amalgamation and chlorination processes because of its economic, metallurgical, and environmental advantages. Many investigations have been conducted relating to the kinetics of the dissolution of gold in alkaline cyanide solutions. Although the authors agree that the rate of gold dissolution is diffusion controlled, there is disagreement concerning the mechanisms of the reactions.

Cornejo, L.M.; Spottiswood, D.J.

1984-03-01

197

Treatment of Complex Cyanide Compounds for Reuse or Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complex cyanides (ferro-and ferricyanide) in industrial waste water effluents impose a direct threat upon the environment. Methods to recover or destroy these compounds were evaluated in laboratory studies. The techniques tested include electrolysis, ozon...

T. N. Hendrickson L. G. Daignault

1973-01-01

198

Laboratory Evaluation of Some Factors in Cyaniding Gold Placers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inplace cyanidation leaching of gold from placer deposits is a potential method for treating gravels too deeply buried and too low in gold content to be processed economically by conventional dredging methods. Laboratory experiments were made to evalu...

B. K. Shibler H. B. Salisbury I. L. Nichols

1971-01-01

199

Toxicity to Fish of Cyanides and Related Compounds. A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world literature on the toxicity to fish of simple and complex cyanides, nitriles, cyanogen chloride, thiocyanates, and cyanates is reviewed. Differently determined limits of toxicant concentrations tolerated by various fishes are compared, and their ...

P. Doudoroff

1976-01-01

200

Builder's foundation handbook  

SciTech Connect

This handbook contains a worksheet for selecting insulation levels based on specific building construction, climate, HVAC equipment, insulation cost, and other economic considerations. The worksheet permits optimization of foundation insulation levels for new or retrofit applications. Construction details representing good practices for the design and installation of energy efficient basement, crawl space, and slab-n-grade foundations are the focal point of the handbook. The construction details are keyed to lists of critical design information useful for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor control; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; and mold, mildew, odor, decay, termite, and radon control strategies. Another useful feature are checklist chapter summaries covering major design considerations for each foundation type--basement, crawl space, and slab-on-grade. These checklist summaries are useful during design and construction inspection. The information in this handbook is drawn heavily from the first foundation handbook from the DOE/ORNL Building Envelope Systems and Materials Program, the Building Foundation Design Handbook (Labs et al., 1988), which is an extensive technical reference manual. This book presents what to do in foundation design'' in an inviting, concise format. This handbook is intended to serve the needs of active home builders; however, the information is pertinent to anyone involved in foundation design and construction decisions including homeowners, architects, and engineers. 17 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

Carmody, J. (Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States). Underground Space Center); Christian, J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Labs, K. (Undercurrent Design Research, New Haven, CT (United States))

1991-05-01

201

Is Hydrogen Cyanide a Marker of Burkholderia cepacia Complex?  

PubMed

Biofilm cultures of Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) infection have been found to generate the nonvolatile cyanide ion. We investigated if gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was a marker of BCC infection. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry analysis showed HCN was not elevated in the headspace of planktonic or biofilm cultures or in the exhaled breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with chronic BCC infection. HCN is therefore not an in vitro or in vivo marker of BCC. PMID:23966502

Gilchrist, Francis J; Sims, Hayley; Alcock, Alice; Jones, Andrew M; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Smith, David; Spanel, Patrik; Webb, A Kevin; Lenney, Warren

2013-08-21

202

Cyanide intoxication in the rat: physiological and neuropathological aspects.  

PubMed Central

Sodium cyanide was given to rats by intravenous infusion at a rate that would avert apnoea (the first sign of overdosage) in the majority. There was full physiological monitoring in a group under anaesthesia and more limited monitoring in an unanaesthetized group. White matter was damaged in six animals and grey matter additionally in only one. It was concluded that cyanide can damage neurones only through the medium of secondary effects on circulation and respiration. Images

Brierley, J B; Brown, A W; Calverley, J

1976-01-01

203

Biodegradation of cyanide compounds by a Pseudomonas species (S1).  

PubMed

A Pseudomonas sp. (S1), isolated from soil by an enrichment technique was tested for its potential to degrade different cyanide compounds. Further, biodegradation/biotransformation of binary mixtures of the cyanide compounds by the culture was also studied. The results indicated that the culture could grow on the following nitriles by using them as carbon and nitrogen sources: acetonitrile, butyronitrile, acrylonitrile, adiponitrile, benzonitrile, glutaronitrile, phenylacetonitrile, and succinonitrile. Studies on the biodegradation of these cyanide compounds in binary mixtures showed that the presence of acrylonitrile or KCN delayed the degradation of acetonitrile in a mixture, while none of the other cyanide compounds affected the degradation of one another. The transformation products of the nitriles were their corresponding acids, and similarly, KCN was also directly transformed to formic acid. Studies on the transformation of these cyanide compounds showed that the rate of transformation of nitriles to their corresponding carboxylic acids was acrylonitrile > acetonitrile > adiponitrile > benzonitrile > KCN. This culture has the unique characteristic of transforming representatives of saturated aliphatic, aliphatic olefinic, aromatic, and aralkyl nitriles, as well as alkali cyanide, to their corresponding carboxylic acids. PMID:10408092

Dhillon, J K; Shivaraman, N

1999-03-01

204

Semi-quantitative "spot-test" of cyanide.  

PubMed

A selective, sensitive, rapid and simple-handling analytical method for the determination of cyanide at low detection limits in surface and underground water, soil and industrial waste samples was developed. The method is based on a reaction, proposed by Guilbault and Kramer, where free cyanide reacts with p-nitrobenzaldehyde to form an intermediate cyanohydrin, which reacts with o-dinitrobenzene to give a highly colored purple compound. The original procedure was modified for application in a small device containing a gas-permeable membrane. The cyanide is converted in the volatile hydrogen cyanide, which permeates through a PTFE membrane, reaching colorimetric reagents. In order to obtain semi-quantitative results, printed color scales were built. The method allows rapid, accurate, selective, low-cost and simple-handling determinations of free cyanide, even in complex samples. About 150 real samples were analyzed. Less than 10 ng of free cyanide per ml (10 microg l(-1)) can be easily detected. For more concentrated solutions, the results had been compared to those obtained using differential pulse polarography. The standard addition method was used for more diluted solutions. PMID:12945666

Fávero, José Arnaldo Dibbern; Tubino, Matthieu

2003-08-01

205

Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.  

PubMed

Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity. PMID:23345455

Nath, Anjali K; Roberts, Lee D; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L; Boss, Gerry R; Rockwood, Gary A; MacRae, Calum A; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

2013-01-23

206

Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... The MMRC Funded Grants For Academic Researchers For Industry CoMMpass ? Study Genomics Initiative Ways to Donate Join ... Myeloma Research Foundation Big Data + Open Access + Worldwide Networks = Cures Speak to a Nurse Contact Us Welcome ...

207

Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Support Groups Upcoming Events You Are Not Alone Youth Initiative Links About WED/RLS ... us today to receive great benefits Donate Now Donate to the RLS Foundation Send me a Free Newsletter Learn ...

208

Design of Pile Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pile foundations are used by all state highway agencies and by other organizations involved in civil engineering projects. However, present procedures for design vary considerably among agencies and in some cases do not reflect the best available informat...

A. S. Vesic

1977-01-01

209

Building foundation design handbook  

SciTech Connect

This design handbook contains a concise set of typical residential foundation construction details and recommends cost-effective insulation levels for a variety of basements, crawl spaces, and slab-on-grade foundations for most US regions. The construction details are accompanied by the critical design information needed for specifying structural integrity; thermal and vapor controls; subsurface drainage; waterproofing; backfilling and compaction; and decay, termite, and radon control measures. 402 refs., 122 figs., 97 tabs.

Labs, K.; Carmody, J.; Sterling, R.; Shen, L.; Huang, Yu Joe; Parker, D.

1988-05-01

210

The Groundwater Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Groundwater Foundation is a nonprofit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. This web site features a broad selection of educational tools for the protection and management of groundwater. Examples include fact sheets on groundwater conservation, children's educational projects, newsletters and other publications. The Groundwater Foundation also sponsors educational activities such as water festivals, source water protection programs, the Groundwater Guardian program, the Applying Community Technology Today project, professional training workshops, and summer camps for kids.

Foundation, The G.

211

The National Book Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charge of the National Book Foundation has been to highlight great American writers and writings. As the preeminent organization devoted to literature "the Foundation has sought to fulfill this mission in two ways. Through The National Book Awards -- the nation's preeminent literary prize -- the Foundation recognizes books of exceptional merit written by Americans. Through its unique outreach programs featuring National Book Award authors, communities participate in the writing life of the nation by reading and writing together." Over the years, the awards have featured the names of such exemplary and inimitable authors as Saul Bellow, Rachel Carson, Thornton Wilder, William Faulkner, and Lauren Bacall, and include such genres as autobiography, poetry, religion, history, fiction, and more. With September 2003 came the addition of Stephen King -- the author of numerous short stories and books that take the reader through twisted, snaring plots in stories such as Carrie, Christine, and Misery -- to this illustrious list of honorees by receiving the foundation's Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. At this Web site, visitors can peruse a listing of all of the award winners, learn about the annual National Book Month (celebrated in October), and explore the many other offerings of the foundation including workshops, writing camps, and available resources.

212

Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7% Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.0 M sodium hydroxide was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1% sodium cyanide and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95% Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50%. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.

1995-06-01

213

Cyanide-induced neurotoxicity: mechanisms of attenuation by chlorpromazine.  

PubMed

Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an effective cyanide antidote, with its greatest efficacy displayed when combined with the antidotes, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate. Since the central nervous system is a primary target organ in cyanide toxicity, the objective of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which CPZ prevents cyanide-induced damage in neural systems. KCN (10 mM) increased cytosolic free calcium in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as indicated by the fluorescent dye quin 2. This was blocked by addition of CPZ (0.1 mM) to the cells 15 min prior to addition of KCN. Incubation of cells with KCN (0.1 mM) increased the levels of lipid conjugated dienes and this was blocked by addition of CPZ (1 microM). Peroxidation of brain lipids in mice administered KCN (7-15 mg/kg, sc) was also attenuated by pretreatment with CPZ. Furthermore, production of lipid peroxidation in fresh mouse brain slices, following incubation with 0.1 mM KCN, was blocked by simultaneous addition of CPZ. These observations indicate CPZ prevents cyanide-induced calcium influx and decreases peroxidation of membrane lipids. Thus the antidotal activity of CPZ in cyanide toxicity appears to be related to maintenance of cellular calcium homeostasis and membrane integrity. PMID:3188027

Maduh, E U; Johnson, J D; Ardelt, B K; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

1988-10-01

214

The Commonwealth Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1965, the Commonwealth Foundation was created with a mandate to strengthen civil society in all of the member nations. Membership of the Foundation is open to all Commonwealth countries and as of 2006 membership stood at 45 governments. Over the past four decades, they have worked on issues including human rights, gender equality, poverty eradication, and good governance. As might be expected, the site contains ample material on their various initiatives, along with information for those who might be seeking funding for their own projects (if they happen to be a citizen of a member Commonwealth). The "Resource Material" includes audiovisual materials that include some very fun and interesting short stories submitted for the annual Commonwealth Short Story Competition and their in-house publication, "Commonwealth People". For visitors who wish to stay abreast of the Foundation's work, there is a place here to sign up to receive their electronic newsletter.

215

World Lung Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lung diseases and related conditions are serious matters, and the World Lung Foundation is dedicated to improving lung health in all regions of the world. The Foundation works with a number of like-minded organizations, including the World Health Organization and the STOP TB Partnership. The Foundation is primarily concerned with researching lung ailments such as acute respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and they also have created a number of education and training programs for health personnel. The site contains six primary thematic areas, including "Tobacco", "TB and Lung Disease", and "Lung Health News". First-time visitors will want to look at the "Lung Health News" area first, as it contains a number of direct news links to recent articles that deal primarily with the worldwide fight against tuberculosis. The site also contains a rather helpful photo image library that includes images of air pollution, tobacco use, and asthma.

216

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1966, the Kauffman Foundation was the brainchild of Ewing Kauffman who displayed a great curiosity about the world and who also happened to be a great believer in the importance of philanthropy. Over the past forty years, the Foundation has worked on a variety of initiatives, including work on supporting early education, entrepreneurship, and school reform. On the homepage, visitors will find five primary sections, including "Advancing Innovation", "Education", and "Research & Policy". The first place to start is the "Research & Policy" area. Here, visitors can find data reports and analysis papers on national entrepreneurship trends and technology innovation strategies. In each section, visitors can also view media clips featuring commentary from Kauffman Foundation scholars and experts. Moving on, the "Grants" area is a great way to learn about grant opportunities and recipients listed by date and name. Finally, the "Stay Connected" area contains a place where visitors can sign up to receive their various e-newsletters.

217

Ford Foundation: Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every year, the Ford Foundation produces reams of working papers, policy documents, and research briefs. This section of the website provides users with access to annual reports, a multimedia area, regional brochures, and studies. Visitors interested in the operations and priorities of the Ford Foundation should definitely peruse its annual report, as it contains information about groups the Foundation funds and its thematic areas of operation. The reports here date back to 2000. The multimedia area contains video programs that cover topics like human rights, American values, and a rather intriguing program titled "Demystifying Global Finance." Scholars and policy makers will want to consider the diverse group of studies here, including "Weaving Success: Voices of Change in African Higher Education" and "Liberal Education and Civic Engagement." Also, the site includes a helpful search engine which can be used to find specific resources quickly.

2012-06-29

218

The Eurasia Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Under the banner of ÂEngaging Citizens, Empowering CommunitiesÂ, the Eurasia Foundation is a non-profit organization supported by the United States Agency for International Development. Incorporated in 1992, the Eurasia Foundation has made over $335 million in grants to countries in the region, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova, and Georgia. In general, the Foundation works within three broad mandate areas, including private enterprise development, public administration and policy and civil society. Visitors are invited to learn about their activities on the website, and they may do so by browsing by geographical region, or by looking within the ÂPublications area. This area contains annual reports, news briefs, and feature reports, which include recent titles such as ÂOpening the Georgian Military and ÂPromoting the Non-Profit Sector in the PamirsÂ.

219

Film Noir Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you're a fan of the Fred McMurray vehicle "Double Indemnity" or Ricardo Montalban's turn as a detective in "Mystery Street", lovers of film noir will find much to admire on the Film Noir Foundation website. The Film Noir Foundation was created to serve as an "educational resource regarding the cultural, historical, and artistic significance of film noir as an original American cinematic movement." The materials on the site are divided into nine sections, including "Video Archives", "NoirCity", and "News". The "Video Archives" are fantastic with interviews that include June Lockhart, Harry Belafonte, and a riotous performance by Ernest Borgnine. Moving along, the "Resources" area includes audio clips of Bob Dylan talking about his own noir literary inspirations and an interview with Robert Mitchum about his own poetry. Finally, visitors can chime in with their own thoughts in the "Forum" and also make a donation to the Foundation.

220

Meningitis Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Meningitis Research Foundation is a charity organization focused on the prevention and treatment of meningitis (and associated infections) through research and public education. The Foundation website describes common symptoms (with photographs); and contains a variety of specific information about meningitis and septicaemia. For health professionals, the site offers "guidance notes and protocols to promote best practice in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with meningitis and septicaemia." The website's Research section contains separate Public Information and Scientific Information sections as well as separate Scientific and Layperson's Archive sections with reports from funded projects. The Foundation website provides audio and written information about meningitis and speticaemia in 18 languages.

221

Cyanide and Central Nervous System: A Study with Focus on Brain Dopamine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The brain is a major target site in acute cyanide intoxication, as indicated by several symptoms and signs. Cyanide inhibits the enzyme cytochrome oxidase. This inhibition causes impaired oxygen utilization in all cells affected, severe metabolic acidosis...

G. Cassel

1993-01-01

222

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of sodium and potassium cyanide as a forensic signature.  

PubMed

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. Upon analysis, a few of the cyanide samples displayed nonhomogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of the 65 cyanide samples, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples. PMID:22040310

Kreuzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

2011-10-31

223

The Groundwater Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Groundwater Foundation is a non-profit organization dedicated to educating and motivating people to care for and about groundwater. The section Groundwater Basics contains numerous information on groundwater issues, including the following subjects: what is groundwater; how much do we depend on groundwater; groundwater protection, hydrologic cycle, contamination and concerns, sources of groundwater contamination, wells and how they work, ten ways to help conserve and protect groundwater, groundwater ABCs - a glossary of groundwater-related terminology, and source water assessment and protection guide and training materials. Also of interest are kids and youth sections with activities and games, as well as a listing of the foundation's publications and events.

224

The Chemistry of Cyanide-Metal Complexes in Relation to Hydrometallurgical Processes of Precious Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic stability diagrams have been constructed for the cyanide-metal-sulphide\\/telluride\\/selenide systems. These were used to study the solution chemistry of the various metal-cyanide complexes in connection with cyanide leaching of gold and silver from complex sulphide, arsenosulphide, telluride and selenide ores. The results show that the formation of the metal-cyanide complexes and their stability relative to the metal oxides and sulphides

XIANGHUAI WANG; K. S. ERIC FORSSBERG

1990-01-01

225

Anodic oxidation of copper cyanide on graphite anodes in alkaline solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic oxidation of copper cyanide has been studied using a graphite rotating disc with reference to cyanide concentration (0.05–4.00 M), CN:Cu mole ratio (3–12), temperature (25–60 °C) and hydroxide concentration (0.01–0.25 M). Copper had a significant catalytic effect on cyanide oxidation. In the low polarization region (about 0.4 V vs SCE or less), cuprous cyanide is oxidized to cupric

J. Lu; D. B. Dreisinger; W. C. Cooper

2002-01-01

226

The cyanide hydratase from Neurospora crassa forms a helix which has a dimeric repeat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal cyanide hydratases form a functionally specialized subset of the nitrilases which catalyze the hydrolysis of cyanide\\u000a to formamide with high specificity. These hold great promise for the bioremediation of cyanide wastes. The low resolution\\u000a (3.0 nm) three-dimensional reconstruction of negatively stained recombinant cyanide hydratase fibers from the saprophytic\\u000a fungus Neurospora crassa by iterative helical real space reconstruction reveals that

Kyle C. Dent; Brandon W. Weber; Michael J. Benedik; B. Trevor Sewell

2009-01-01

227

Source characteristics of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne trace gas measurements from Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), Pacific Exploratory Mission (PEM)-Tropics B, and Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-NA) experiments are analyzed to examine the major source factors contributing to the observed variabilities of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and cyanides. The positive matrix factorization method is applied to coincident measurements of 11 chemicals including CH3OH, CH3COCH3, CH3CHO, C2H2, C2H6, i-C5H12, CO, CH3Cl, and CHBr3. Measurements of HCN and CH3CN are available for TRACE-P and INTEX-NA. We identify major source contributions from the terrestrial biosphere, biomass burning, industry/urban regions, and oceans. Spatial and back trajectory characteristics of these factors are examined. On the basis of TRACE-P and PEM-Tropics B data, we find a factor that explains 80-88% of the CH3OH variability, 20-40% of CH3COCH3, 7-35% of CH3CHO, and 41% of HCN, most likely representing the emissions from terrestrial biosphere. Our analysis suggested that biogenic emissions of HCN may be significant. Cyanogenesis in plants is likely a major emission process for HCN, which was not fully accounted for previously. Larger contributions than previous global estimations to CH3COCH3 and CH3CHO by biomass burning and industry/urban sources likely reflect significant secondary production from volatile organic compound oxidation. No evidence was found for large emissions of CH3COCH3 from the ocean. The oceanic CH3CHO contribution implies large regional variations.

Shim, Changsub; Wang, Yuhang; Singh, Hanwant B.; Blake, Donald R.; Guenther, Alex B.

2007-05-01

228

Source characteristics of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne trace gas measurements from TRACE-P, PEM-Tropics B, and INTEX-NA experiments are analyzed to examine the major source factors contributing to the observed variabilities of oxygenated volatile organic compounds and cyanides. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is applied to coincident measurements of 11 chemicals including CH3OH, CH3COCH3, CH3CHO, C2H2, C2H6, i-C5H12, CO, CH3Cl, and CHBr3. Measurements of HCN and CH3CN are available for TRACE-P and INTEX-NA. We identify major source contributions from the terrestrial biosphere, biomass burning, industry/urban regions, and oceans. Spatial and backtrajectory characteristics of these factors are examined. Based on TRACE-P and PEM-Tropics B data, we find that the terrestrial biogenic factor explains 80-88% of the CH3OH variability, 20-40% of CH3COCH3, 7-35% of CH3CHO, and 41% of HCN. The biogenic contribution to HCN derived from this analysis is much larger than previous global estimates. Cyanogenesis in plants is likely a major emission process for HCN, not fully accounted for previously. Larger contributions than previous global estimations to CH3COCH3 and CH3CHO by biomass burning and industry/urban sources likely reflect significant secondary production from volatile organic compounds (VOC) oxidation. No evidence was found for large emissions of CH3COCH3 from the ocean. The oceanic CH3CHO contribution implies large regional variations.

Wang, Y.; Shim, C.; Singh, H.; Blake, D.; Guenther, A.

2006-12-01

229

Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels.  

PubMed

Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. PMID:21856998

Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

2011-09-01

230

NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE  

SciTech Connect

The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)], E-mail: Carolyn.S.Brauer@jpl.nasa.gov

2009-09-01

231

Cardiorespiratory response to cyanide of arterial chemoreceptors in fetal lambs  

SciTech Connect

Cardiorespiratory response to the stimulation of the carotid and aortic receptors by sodium cyanide was examined in fetal lambs in utero at 0.8 (120 days) gestation. Injections of 50-400 ..mu..g cyanide into the inferior vena cava or the carotid artery of intact fetuses elicited bradycardia and respiratory responses that varied from a single gasp to rhythmic respiratory movements but no significant change in arterial blood pressure. Carotid sinus denervation eliminated the cardiorespiratory response to intracarotid injection of cyanide and sinoaortic denervation abolished the response to inferior vena caval injection. It is concluded that in fetal lamb in utero the aortic and carotid bodies are active, and hypoxic stimulation of these chemoreceptors results in cardiorespiratory response characterized by slowing of fetal heart rate, respiratory effort, and no consistent change in arterial blood pressure.

Itskovitz, J.; Rudolph, A.M.

1987-05-01

232

Encapsulation of thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase by mouse erythrocytes  

SciTech Connect

Murine carrier erythrocytes, prepared by hypotonic dialysis, were employed in the encapsulation of several compounds including (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and bovine thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese), a mitochondrial enzyme which converts cyanide to thiocyanate. Approximately 30% of the added (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and rhodanese was encapsulated by predialyzed erythrocytes, and a decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin was observed. In the encapsulation of rhodanese a recovery of 95% of the erythrocytes was achieved and an 85% equilibrium was established. The addition of potassium cyanide (50 mM) to intact, rhodanese-loaded erythrocytes containing sodium thiosulfate resulted in its metabolism to thiocyanate. These results establish the potential use of erythrocytes as biodegradable drug carrier in drug antagonism.

Leung, P.; Ray, L.E.; Sander, C.; Way, J.L.; Sylvester, D.M.; Way, J.L.

1986-03-30

233

Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels.  

PubMed

Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion. PMID:22694886

Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

2011-05-24

234

The origin of proteins: Heteropolypeptides from hydrogen cyanide and water.  

PubMed

Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial chemistry is presented consistent with the hypothesis that the original heteropolypeptides on Earth were synthesized spontaneously from hydrogen cyanide and water without the intervening formation of chi-amino acids, a key step being the direct polymerization of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide to polyaminomalononitrile (IV) via dimeric HCN. Molecular orbital calculations (INDO) show that the most probable structure for (HCN)2 is azacyclopropenylidenimine. Successive reactions of hydrogen cyanide with the reactive nitrile side chains of IV then yield heteropolyamidines which are converted by water to heteropolypeptides. To study this postulated modification of a homopolymer to a heteropolymer, poly-chi-cyanoglycine (IX) was prepared from the N-carboxyanhydride of chi-cyanoglycine. Hydrolysis of IX, a polyamide analog of the polyamidine IV, yielded glycine. However, when IX was hydrolysed after being treated with hydrogen cyanide, other chi-amino acids were also obtained including alanine, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, suggesting that the nitrile groups of IX (and therfore of IV) are indeed readily attacked by hydrogen cyanide as predicted. Further theoretical and experimental studies support the view that hydrogen cyanide polymerization along these lines is a universal process that accounts not only for the past formation of primitive proteins on Earth, but also for the yellow-brown-orange colors of Jupiter today and for the presence of water-soluble compounds hydrolyzable to chi-amino acids in materials obtained from environments as diverse as the moon, carbonaceous chondrites and the reaction chambers used to simulate organic synthesis in planetary atmospheres. PMID:168535

Matthews, C N

235

Physiologische und cytomorphologische Effekte von Cyanid und anderen Inhibitoren an Innenepidermiszellen von Allium cepa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The physiological effects of cyanide and other inhibitors, with or without cyanide, were studied on the inner epidermis of the bulb scales ofAllium cepa. In regard to oxygen consumption 2-hydroxybenzhydroxamic acid, 2-desoxyglucose, amytal or fluoracetic acid showed no effect, whereas cyanide generated a pronounced increase. Shortly after application the respiration was twice as high as the untreated control and

ROBERT KARTUSCt-I

1976-01-01

236

Biological cyanide degradation in aerobic fluidized bed reactors: treatment of almond seed wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous aerobic transformation of synthetic cyanide waste-water, amygdalin solutions and almond seed extract containing cyanide was investigated in several fluidized bed reactors. Various inocula consisting of activated sludge or soil slurry were used. Successful inoculation was achieved with simple soil slurry. No significant influence was found between the performance of the systems inoculated with a cyanide contaminated soil and

S. Petrozzi; I. J. Dunn

1994-01-01

237

Oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution by chemical and photochemical process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide waste is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated from metallurgical operations. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper, oxidation of cyanide in aqueous solution was investigated using chemical and photochemical process. Chemical oxidation was studied at room temperature using H2O2 as oxidant and Cu2+ as catalyst. Photochemical oxidation was studied in an annular type batch

M. Sarla; M. Pandit; D. K. Tyagi; J. C. Kapoor

2004-01-01

238

Recovery of Silver and Gold From Cyanide Solution by Magnetic Species Formed in the Electrocoagulation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanidation is the predominant process by which gold and silver are recovered from their ores in metallurgical operations, and it is recognized that the Carbon in Pulp, the Merrill-Crowe, the Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction processes are used for concentration and purification of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. Among other available options for recovery of precious metals from cyanide

J. R. Parga; M. Rodríguez; V. Vázquez; J. L. Valenzuela; H. Moreno

2011-01-01

239

The Analysis of Cyanide and its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a toxic chemical that may be introduced into living organisms as a result of natural processes and\\/or anthropogenic uses (legal or illicit). Exposure to cyanide can be verified by analysis of cyanide or one of its breakdown products from biological samples. This verification may be important for medical, law-enforcement, military, forensic, research, or veterinary purposes. This review will

Brian A. Logue; Diane M. Hinkens; Steven I. Baskin; Gary A. Rockwood

2010-01-01

240

INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

241

Foundations of organization power  

Microsoft Academic Search

I shall argue that the foundations of organization power were laid down in practice through theories of power – in the sense that they sought to explain power – but through quite pragmatic practices that were not necessarily regarded as embodying a theory of power, which I shall maintain they most assuredly did. Thus, in a second move, I shall

Stewart Clegg

2009-01-01

242

Renewable Natural Resources Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following remarks were made at a press conference on May 21, 1973, at the Grosvenor estate, the proposed site for the complex of association headquarters to be built by the Renewable Natural Resources Foundation (RNRF). The American Geophysical Union is one of the 11 member societies of RNRF; the others are the American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta,

Athelstan Spilhaus

1973-01-01

243

Planetary Coral Reef Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Planetary Coral Reef Foundation was founded in 1991 to address the growing crisis of destruction of coral reefs. Topics include the PCRF's mission, its research activities at sea and in space, wastewater recycling, conservation tips that can help preserve reefs, and the organization's ship, R.V. Heraclitus.

244

Foundation for the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes some of the many programs sponsored by the National Science Foundation in its efforts to continue to promote systemic science and mathematics education reform. Brief descriptions of the following programs are included: (1) Interactive Math Program Restructures 9-12 Math Education; (2) Algebra I Project Sparks Citywide…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

245

Foundations of modern cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology

John F. Hawley; Katherine A. Holcomb

2005-01-01

246

Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste  

SciTech Connect

Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes.

Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

1993-02-01

247

Natural attenuation potential of cyanide via microbial activity in mine tailings.  

PubMed

Biological removal by indigenous microflora of cyanide, contained in old (6-9 years) and fresh tailings (3 months), was studied in order to assess its natural attenuation potential via biodegradation. To investigate the presence of indigenous microflora in tailings, total heterotrophic and cyanide resistant bacteria were counted using the spread-plate method. The free cyanide mineralization potential was estimated using K14CN in the presence of various unlabeled cyanide concentrations (0, 5, and 10 mg CN/kg). The biodegradation of cyanide contained initially in the samples was also investigated by monitoring formate, formamide, ammonia and total cyanide (CNT) concentrations over 111 days. The enumeration of total heterotrophic and cyanide-resistant bacteria in old tailings showed an average population of 105 cfu/g. However, no growth was detected in fresh tailings. Nevertheless, cyanide mineralization tests indicated the presence, in both old and fresh tailings, of a cyanide-degrading microflora. In old tailings, maximum mineralization percentages of free cyanide ranging from 85% to 100% were obtained after 65 days at all concentrations tested. A mineralization percentage of 83% after 170 days was also observed in fresh tailings. No decrease of total cyanide concentration in old tailings was observed when the biodegradation of endogenous cyanide was tested whereas a significant decrease was recorded in fresh tailings after 96 days. The presence of strong metal-cyanide complexes resistant to biodegradation could explain the absence of biodegradation in old tailings. This study demonstrated the presence of an indigenous free cyanide-degrading microflora in both old and fresh tailings, and suggests that natural attenuation of cyanide in gold mine tailings is likely to occur via microbial activity. PMID:11935195

Oudjehani, K; Zagury, G J; Deschênes, L

2001-12-21

248

The improved foundation modulus for the use of Winkler foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved calculating method for the foundation modulus of Winkler foundation is presented in this paper. The calculating results of foundation modulus respectively from Biot's and Vesic's model are different greatly through the analysis to the two methods. The matrix of using functions of buildings to site types is established and seven conditions are gotten. A new method to calculate

Chengzhong Qu

2010-01-01

249

Field observations on the use of sodium cyanide in stream surveys  

SciTech Connect

Sodium cyanide has been an effective method for sampling the stream fish populations in Eastern Tennessee. Its portability makes it a practical stream management tool. Cyanide is an excellent cold weather sampling method. Three ounces of cyanide in trout streams and 6 ounces in warmwater streams per cubic foot a second flow will sample 100 yards. In water colder than 55/sup 0/F mortality of fish is not acute. Rainbow trout and various warmwater fish collected with cyanide and held in aquaria showed no deleterious effects from exposure to the chemical. Reduction in stream invertebrate populations after cyanide application is evident. 3 references, 1 table.

Tatum, W.R.

1984-01-01

250

Selective recognition of sodium cyanide and potassium cyanide by diaza-crown ether-capped Zn-porphyrin receptors in polar solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new ditopic porphyrin receptors Zn1, incorporating a diaza-15-crown-5 unit, and Zn2, incorporating a diaza-18-crown-6 unit, have been prepared and characterized. UV–vis study in polar methanol has revealed that Zn1 is able to selectively recognize sodium cyanide over potassium cyanide (the ratio of their binding constant is ca. 56), whereas Zn2 exhibits a higher binding affinity for potassium cyanide over

Hui Liu; Xue-Bin Shao; Mu-Xin Jia; Xi-Kui Jiang; Zhan-Ting Li; Guang-Ju Chen

2005-01-01

251

REMOVAL OF CYANIDE FROM DILUTE SOLUTION USING A CELL WITH THREE-PHASE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRODE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of cyanide from dilute solutions containing free cyanide or cuprocyanide was experimentally investigated using a new electrochemical reactor, three-phase three-dimensional electrode cell. The experimental results were assessed in term of removal efficiency of cyanide. The results showed that the reactor could efficiently remove cyanide from the two solutions. The removal efficiency reached as high as about 93% for

Ya Xiong; Qingyang Zhong; Taicheng An; Yi Li; Zhanghong Cha; Xihai Zhu

2002-01-01

252

The Ford Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford, The Ford Foundation has distributed over $15.6 billion in monies for organizations working on issues such as human rights, social justice philanthropy, and access to education. For visitors new to the site, it's worth starting out by clicking on the "Issues" section. Here they can learn about the eight primary areas of focus within the Foundation, and also learn about some of their specific initiatives, like the "Advancing Public Service Media" initiative and the "Economic Opportunities for the Rural Poor" initiative. Moving on, visitors should check out the "Newsroom" area for a quick overview of recent success stories and reports, including their work on creating land banks as a way to fight urban blight and how iPhone apps could save public radio. Visitors can also use the interactive map on the homepage (and in the "Regions" section) to focus in on the different programs across the globe.

253

Mind Science Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The potential within the human mind and its connection to the rest of the human body is a subject that has consumed many of the world's brightest scientists. The Mind Science Foundation, founded by Thomas Baker Slick, is a place that is intimately concerned with such matters, and their website is a good way to learn about some of the issues surrounding their work and broader notions about how consciousness arises in human beings. It's a tall research order, and the website responds admirably by presenting a number of speeches from experts on the subject, along with links to the results of various research endeavors sponsored with funds from the Foundation. The site also contains an interactive database of researchers who are working in the area of consciousness and a library of books that might be of interest to those looking for additional resources.

254

The Bruner Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rudy Bruner Foundation and Award for Urban Excellence was created in 1986 by Simeon Bruner to honor his late father. The award seeks to honor those urban places that "are developed with such vision and imagination that they transform urban problems into creative solutions." The award is given every two years, and one gold medal prize is awarded (along with a $50,000 prize) and several silver medal winners are also awarded. On this site, visitors can learn about previous award winners, such as the Lower East Side Tenement Museum, the Camino Nuevo Charter Academy, and the Pike Place Market. Additionally, the Bruner Foundation makes a number of its publications available online, including compilations of materials about the winning places from 1991 to 2003.

255

Irish Architecture Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.

256

The Parents' Choice Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Parents of young people today may find it difficult to sort the proverbial wheat from the chaff when it comes to locating and evaluating quality educational activities and entertainment for their children. Fortunately there is the Parents' Choice Foundation, which (since 1978) has served as a non-partisan evaluator of children's books, videos, toys, audio products, computer software, television, and magazines. Each year, the foundation releases lists of its recommended products, based on the opinions of teachers, parents, and, appropriately, young people themselves. The criteria for selection is quite rigorous, as the judges are looking for products that honor universal human values, teach with flair, stimulate imagination, inspire creativity, and above all do not "extol violence." On the website, visitors can examine lists of these products dating back to 1995, read about the current award winners, and examine themed reading lists, such as those dealing with science fiction and those designed especially with compel young boys to develop a love of reading.

257

Thomas B. Fordham Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation is dedicated to an agenda of education reform not unlike the President George W. Bush: testing and accountability, charter schools, school choice, and the like. Its Website provides a number of recently written reports and papers relating to these issues. Recent documents include a "Memo to the New President," offering advice on how to bridge the "partisan divide" and enact reform, a history of teacher certification that examines the rise to political power of professional teacher organizations, a critique of whole language reading instruction, and The State of the State Standards, 2000, a comprehensive assessment of state standards. The publications section includes selected readings on school reform, teacher quality, charter schools, and more. The site features a search engine and a detailed site map. All in all, a fine resource for materials in the school reform debate from what many would characterize as the conservative perspective. The foundation is affiliated with the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research.

258

The Leakey Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Leakey Foundation is "a member supported organization committed to research related to human origins." This well-designed, interactive website offers a variety of information related to the research interests including information about Recently Funded Projects, Educational Resources, and News and Upcoming Events. One exceptional feature of the website is the Audio Archives that allows visitors to listen to recorded excerpts from interviews with, and lectures by, renowned scientists like Dian Fossey, Jane Goodall, Margaret Mead, and Mary Leakey. The Educational Resources section also offers great features including an extensive Bibliography, Recommended Links to other quality websites, a Visual Glossary, and an Ask A Scientist service whereby users can email questions to the Leakey Foundation. This website artfully integrates good photos of past and present with text sections and also contains biographies of the Leakey Family.

259

The Foundation of Kinship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men’s hunting has dominated the discourse on energy capture and flow in the past decade or so. We turn to women’s roles as\\u000a critical to household formation, pair-bonding, and intergenerational bonds. Their pivotal contributions in food processing\\u000a and distribution likely promoted kinship, both genetic and affinal, and appear to be the foundation from which households\\u000a evolved. With conscious recognition of

Donna L. Leonetti; Benjamin Chabot-Hanowell

2011-01-01

260

CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

S. Romanos

1995-03-10

261

Cyanide toxicity from the thermal degradation of rigid polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

Thermal degradation products (tdp) from a model, rigid polyurethane foam were collected in such a manner as to eliminate carbon monoxide and other gases with low boiling points. The effects in rats resulting from intratracheal intubation (I.T.) of the tdp are discussed. Cyanide was found to be a major factor associated with severe toxic responses of the experimental rats. PMID:517435

Bell, R H; Stemmer, K L; Barkley, W; Hollingsworth, L D

1979-09-01

262

90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

263

169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

264

Shock Tube Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Hydrogen Cyanide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decomposition rate of hydrogen cyanide, HCN + M yields H + CN + M (M = Ar) has been determined in the temperature range 3570 - 5036 K using a shock tube technique. HCN - Ar mixtures (3 - 142 ppmv HCN) were heated by incident shock waves at post-shock ...

A. Szekely R. K. Hanson C. T. Bowman

1981-01-01

265

Mechanism of Chemical Action and Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the second year under this contract, the combined hepatocyte/erythrocyte in vitro system developed in the first year was applied to the study of cyanide and antidotal mechanisms of action. Sodium nitrite and 4-dimethylaminophenol were found to reverse ...

C. A. Tyson

1986-01-01

266

Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron  

DOEpatents

This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

267

Selective Electrowinning of Silver and Gold from Cyanide Process Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated the selective electrowinning of Ag and Au from cyanide solutions contaminated with Cu with the goal of decreasing the amount of Cu co-deposited. Decreasing Cu co-deposited will reduce refinery costs. Direct current wa...

F. H. Nehl J. E. Murphy G. B. Atkinson L. A. Walters

1993-01-01

268

Effects of Acute Lethal Cyanide Intoxication on Central Dopaminergic Pathways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In rats treated with sodium cyanide (NaCN), 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally, the striatal dopamine (DA) level was decreased within 60 sec. compared to controls injected with NaCl 0.9%. Treatment with NaCN also increased the naturally occuring L-DOPA in the str...

G. Cassel S. A. Persson

1992-01-01

269

REVERSE OSMOSIS FIELD TEST: TREATMENT OF COPPER CYANIDE RINSE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Field tests of reverse osmosis (RO) were conducted on copper cyanide rinse waters at two different sites: Whyco Chromium Co. and New England Plating Co. At both sites, closed-loop treatment was used with plating chemicals recycled to the bath and purified water recycled to the ri...

270

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

2001-01-01

271

Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.  

PubMed

In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide. PMID:20402491

Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

2010-05-15

272

Destruction of cyanide in aqueous waste by electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was carried out by electrochemical oxidation to destroy cyanide in aqueous waste. The electrode used in this study was a triple oxide coated titanium based mesh type anode and a carbon cathode. Direct and indirect methods were both carried out at alkaline conditions and indirect oxidation method in the presence of chloride was found to be more efficient. PMID:14672374

Priya, Nisha; Palanivelu, Kandasamy

273

Catalytic Antibodies for Prophylaxis/Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hydrogen cyanide reacts with a,b-unsaturated ketones (enones) to form stable compounds under physiological conditions (temperature, pH). Rate enhancement by the presence of a suitable catalyst would permit the use of enones as prophylactic drugs for cyani...

C. E. Cook C. C. Whisnant D. Miller D. Allen

1993-01-01

274

Mechanistic and kinetic aspects of silver dissolution in cyanide solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing the dissolution kinetics of pure silver in cyanide solution have been analysed in terms of an electrochemical mechanism. A kinetic model is presented which incorporates coupled diffusion and charge transfer for the anodic branch, and combined diffusion, adsorption and charge transfer for the cathodic branch. The anodic oxidation of silver has been investigated using a silver rotating-disc

J. B. Hiskey; V. M. Sanchez

1990-01-01

275

Protein Kinase C Inhibitor Attenuates Cyanide Toxicity in Vivo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, l-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micr...

E. U. Maduh E. W. Nealley H. Song P. C. Wang S. I. Baskin

1995-01-01

276

Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite. PMID:23356016

Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

2012-11-01

277

John Templeton Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Templeton and the foundation which bears his name have never been interested in just looking into the small questions of humanity. Templeton began his career as a very successful Wall Street investor in 1937, and over the following years he remained interested in scientific research and open-minded inquiry. The Templeton Foundation was started in 1987 in order "to serve as a philanthropic catalyst for discovery in areas engaging life's biggest questions". Over the years, these questions have included investigations into the laws of nature and the universe, along with the nature of love, gratitude, forgiveness and creativity. Visitors who wish to learn more about the Foundation's work may wish to take a look through the FAQ section in the "About Us" area. Another way to get a feel for their work is to look over their "Big Questions" section. Here, visitors can read conversations between leading intellectuals on such questions as "Does science make belief in God obsolete?" and "Does the universe have a purpose?" Other sections of the site cover their funding areas, submitting a proposal for funding, and a newsroom area.

278

Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol.  

PubMed

Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O(3)) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction. PMID:12623093

Parga, J R; Shukla, S S; Carrillo-Pedroza, F R

2003-01-01

279

Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

280

Volatile-mediated killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by bacteria is mainly due to hydrogen cyanide.  

PubMed

The volatile-mediated impact of bacteria on plant growth is well documented, and contrasting effects have been reported ranging from 6-fold plant promotion to plant killing. However, very little is known about the identity of the compounds responsible for these effects or the mechanisms involved in plant growth alteration. We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains. Using a collection of environmental and clinical strains differing in cyanogenesis, as well as a defined HCN-negative mutant, we demonstrate that bacterial HCN accounts to a significant extent for the deleterious effects observed when growing Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of certain bacterial volatiles. The environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 was less cyanogenic and less plant growth inhibiting than the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Quorum-sensing deficient mutants of C. violaceum CV0, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa PUPa3 showed not only diminished HCN production but also strongly reduced volatile-mediated phytotoxicity. The double treatment of providing plants with reactive oxygen species scavenging compounds and overexpressing the alternative oxidase AOX1a led to a significant reduction of volatile-mediated toxicity. This indicates that oxidative stress is a key process in the physiological changes leading to plant death upon exposure to toxic bacterial volatiles. PMID:21115704

Blom, Dirk; Fabbri, Carlotta; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

2010-11-29

281

Volatile-Mediated Killing of Arabidopsis thaliana by Bacteria Is Mainly Due to Hydrogen Cyanide? †  

PubMed Central

The volatile-mediated impact of bacteria on plant growth is well documented, and contrasting effects have been reported ranging from 6-fold plant promotion to plant killing. However, very little is known about the identity of the compounds responsible for these effects or the mechanisms involved in plant growth alteration. We hypothesized that hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a major factor accounting for the observed volatile-mediated toxicity of some strains. Using a collection of environmental and clinical strains differing in cyanogenesis, as well as a defined HCN-negative mutant, we demonstrate that bacterial HCN accounts to a significant extent for the deleterious effects observed when growing Arabidopsis thaliana in the presence of certain bacterial volatiles. The environmental strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PUPa3 was less cyanogenic and less plant growth inhibiting than the clinical strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Quorum-sensing deficient mutants of C. violaceum CV0, P. aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa PUPa3 showed not only diminished HCN production but also strongly reduced volatile-mediated phytotoxicity. The double treatment of providing plants with reactive oxygen species scavenging compounds and overexpressing the alternative oxidase AOX1a led to a significant reduction of volatile-mediated toxicity. This indicates that oxidative stress is a key process in the physiological changes leading to plant death upon exposure to toxic bacterial volatiles.

Blom, Dirk; Fabbri, Carlotta; Eberl, Leo; Weisskopf, Laure

2011-01-01

282

Engineering pH-tolerant mutants of a cyanide dihydratase.  

PubMed

Cyanide dihydratase is an enzyme in the nitrilase family capable of transforming cyanide to formate and ammonia. This reaction has been exploited for the bioremediation of cyanide in wastewater streams, but extending the pH operating range of the enzyme would improve its utility. In this work, we describe mutants of Bacillus pumilus C1 cyanide dihydratase (CynD(pum)) with improved activity at higher pH. Error-prone PCR was used to construct a library of CynD(pum) mutants, and a high-throughput screening system was developed to screen the library for improved activity at pH 10. Two mutant alleles were identified that allowed cells to degrade cyanide in solutions at pH 10, whereas the wild-type was inactive above pH 9. The mutant alleles each encoded three different amino acid substitutions, but for one of those, a single change, E327G, accounted for the phenotype. The purified proteins containing multiple mutations were five times more active than the wild-type enzyme at pH 9, but all purified enzymes lost activity at pH 10. The mutation Q86R resulted in the formation of significantly longer fibers at low pH, and both E327G and Q86R contributed to the persistence of active oligomeric assemblies at pH 9. In addition, the mutant enzymes proved to be more thermostable than the wild type, suggesting improved physical stability rather than any change in chemistry accounts for their increased pH tolerance. PMID:21993481

Wang, Lan; Watermeyer, Jean M; Mulelu, Andani E; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

2011-10-13

283

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE CYANIDES, TOTAL CYANIDE, AND THIOCYANATE IN WATER AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Seven methods for the analysis of simple cyanides have been investigated. Included are (1) an ion-exchange procedure, (2) a continuous-flow distillation, (3) and EDTA electrode method, (4) the American Iron and Steel Institute aeration method, (5) an EDTA aeration method, (6) the...

284

California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom works with K-12 teachers, students, and community leaders, to enhance education using agricultural examples. This site provides information about teacher training, student programs, agriculture weblinks, and many resource materials for the classroom. Those materials include downloadable curriculum units covering topics such as heredity, cycles, food, plants, health, engineering and insects. Also included are fact sheets, a quiz, an education newsletter and much more.

285

Foundation fieldbus economics comparison  

PubMed

This paper will provide a life cycle cost comparison between installations of three different control system configurations. 1. Conventional analogue instruments. 2. HART protocol instruments with a parallel asset management system. 3. Foundation fieldbus installation. Engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning and ongoing maintenance costs will be included as part of the analysis. Data for the analysis includes equipment from multiple manufacturers so a range of expected expenses will also be provided to indicate the sensitivity of the economic calculations to supplier. All calculations will be based on the median equipment values. PMID:10871221

Verhappen

2000-01-01

286

Organic Farming Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the Organic Farming Research Foundation, an organization "dedicated to promoting organic farming through funding of on-farm research and dissemination of the results." OFRF offers grants and technical support to researchers, farmers, and students interested in developing and conducting organic farming studies. The website's Grantmaking and Research section includes guidelines for applying for OFRF Grants, a guide to conducting on-farm research, PDF files for OFRF-funded research reports, and more. The OFRF site links to a short list of publications, policy news and updates, special events, and press releases and clippings. The site also links to information about the Scientific Congress on Organic Agricultural Research.

287

Foundations of isomathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santilli's isomathematics has a strong foundation in the early literature of mathematics surveyed by R.H. Bruck in his land mark book `A Survey of Binary Systems' [1] dating back to 1958. This work aims at exploring the very basics of Isomathematics as suggested by Santilli [7] and [8]. The concept of `Isotopy' plays a vital role in the development of this new age mathematics. Starting with Isotopy of groupoids we develop the study of Isotopy of quasi groups and loops via Partial Planes, Projective planes, 3-nets and multiplicative 3-nets.

Muktibodh, A. S.

2013-10-01

288

The effect of cyanide and lead ions on the cementation rate, stoichiometry and morphology of silver in cementation from cyanide solutions with zinc powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cementation of silver on zinc powder from solutions with a wide concentration range of cyanide has been investigated in the absence and presence of lead ions through stirred reactor batch tests and scanning electron microscopy studies on the cementation product. The concentration of cyanide ions affected the morphology of the product, the nature of cementation reaction and the cementation

G. Viramontes Gamboa; M. Medina Noyola; A. López Valdivieso

2005-01-01

289

Cloning and properties of a cyanide hydratase gene from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi.  

PubMed

The Cht gene encoding cyanide hydratase (CHT, EC 4.2.1.66), which detoxifies HCN and is thought to be important in fungal infection of cyanogenic plants, has been cloned from the phytopathogenic fungus Gloeocercospora sorghi. The gene was isolated by screening an expression library of G. sorghi using a CHT-specific antibody and using one of the positive cDNA clones as a probe in Southern hybridization to identify a 3.1 kb PstI genomic fragment. This PstI fragment expressed CHT activity when transformed into Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that normally lacks CHT activity. Sequence analysis identified a single open reading frame of 1,107 base pairs which encodes a polypeptide of 40,904 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence of CHT shares 36.5% identity to a nitrilase from the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae. PMID:1382413

Wang, P; VanEtten, H D

1992-09-16

290

Cyanide-resistant Respiration of Sweet Potato Mitochondria 1  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of malate and succinate by sweet potato mitochondria (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) was blocked only partly by inhibitors of complexes III (2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide) and IV (cyanide and azide). The respiration insensitive to inhibitors of complexes III and IV was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid. Essentially complete inhibition was obtained with inhibitors of complex I (rotenone, amytal, and thenoyltrifluoroacetone) and complex II (thenoyltrifluoroacetone). The observations indicated that electrons were transferred to the cyanide-resistant pathway from ubiquinone or from nonheme iron (iron-sulfur) proteins of complexes I and II before reaching the b cytochromes. In contrast, the oxidation of exogenous NADH did not involve the alternate pathway, as indicated by complete inhibition by inhibitors of complexes III and IV and the absence of an effect of inhibitors of complexes I and II. Hence, electrons from exogenous NADH appear to pass directly to complex III in sweet potato mitochondria.

Tomlinson, Philip F.; Moreland, Donald E.

1975-01-01

291

Sequential determination of free and total cyanide by flow injection.  

PubMed

This study presents a flow injection system for the sequential determination of free (CN(-)) and total (CN(-)+ HCN) cyanide using a potentiometric method which employs two different processes for the determination of these two chemical species. The first process is based on direct detection of CN(-) using an ion-selective electrode for cyanide. In the second process, the sample is mixed with acid, and the released HCN is transferred across a PTFE membrane. The flow system employs three solenoid valves, a gas diffusion chamber, an ion-selective electrode, a potentiometer, and a computer with an AID conversion card. A Turbo Pascal computer program automatically performs all the steps involved in data acquisition and processing. The standard deviation for the results obtained with the proposed method was 0.5%. PMID:18924840

Martin, M A; Ganzarolli, E M; Lehmkuhl, A; de Souza, I G; de Queiróz, R R

1999-01-01

292

Sequential determination of free and total cyanide by flow injection  

PubMed Central

This study presents a flow injection system for the sequential determination of free (CN-) and total (CN-+ HCN) cyanide using a potentiometric method which employs two different processes for the determination of these two chemical species. The first process is based on direct detection of CN- using an ion-selective electrode for cyanide. In the second process, the sample is mixed with acid, and the released HCN is transferred across a PTFE membrane. The flow system employs three solenoid valves, a gas diffusion chamber, an ion-selective electrode, a potentiometer, and a computer with an AID conversion card. A Turbo Pascal® computer program automatically performs all the steps involved in data acquisition and processing. The standard deviation for the results obtained with the proposed method was 0.5%.

Martin, Maria Angelica Bonadiman; Ganzarolli, Edgard Moreira; Lehmkuhl, Arilson; de Souza, Ivan Gonclves; de Queiroz, Roldao Roosevelt Urzedo

1999-01-01

293

Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide in the hydrocyclone cell  

SciTech Connect

A diluted electroplating cyanide rinse water has been used to test the use of the hydrocyclone cell (HCC) in batch recycle mode of operation for the simultaneous oxidation of cyanide during the electrodeposition of silver. The results obtained in this work with regard to the final products, current efficiency and the number of transferred electrons per CN{sup {minus}} helped to establish a probable reaction scheme. According to this, the process occurs mainly with one-electron transfer, through cyanate and cyanogen as intermediate species. Meanwhile, under conditions where the electrolyte circulates in an open bath and flows successively through the cathodic and the anodic compartments, as in the case of the HCC system, the cyanate could be produced by the direct oxidation through air and/or generated peroxide and CN could be lost as HCN (g).

Dhamo, N. [TU Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallurgie

1996-12-31

294

Cyanide recycling using strong-base ion-exchange resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the techniques available to recover cyanide and metal cyanocomplexes from diluted streams, ion-exchange resins seem attractive because of the possibility of treating either pulps or clear solutions with this process. This article discusses the results of adsorption and elution of metal cyanocomplexes obtained with industrial effluents and selected data from the literature. The behavior of iron and copper cyanocomplexes during elution is emphasized.

Leão, Versiane Albis; Ciminelli, Virgínia S. T.; Costa, Renato De Souza

1998-10-01

295

Intensity asymmetry in the Mossbauer spectra of a layered cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of 57Fe Mossbauer investigation in a layered cyanide Mg(Mg((CH2)6N4)2Fe(CN)6)2.nH2O for different stages of hydration are presented. Mossbauer spectra in the partially hydrated stages show an asymmetry in the intensity of the two absorption peaks of the quadrupolar doublet. The powder pattern has been analysed in terms of superposition of two asymmetric doublets arising from two inequivalent sites. An explanation

S. Das; S. Ganguli; M. Bhattacharya

1990-01-01

296

Is cyanide really a strong-field ligand?  

PubMed

Iron man or weakling? Ligand-field strengths are conveniently expressed by the empirical spectrochemical series. Although cyanide has been deeply entrenched as a strong-field ligand, a couple of recent examples cast doubt toward the position of this ligand, namely the high-spin (S = 2) states of [Cr(II)(CN)(5)](3-) and [Fe(II)(tpp)(CN)](-). tpp = meso-tetraphenylporphinate. PMID:19222066

Nakamura, Mikio

2009-01-01

297

ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF SODIUM CYANIDE IN BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Callus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulganis), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD5O's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine

Stanley N. Wiemeyer; Elwood F. Hill; James W. Carpenter; Alexander J. Krynitsky

1986-01-01

298

A protein kinase C inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg\\/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs© (6–10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, 1

Edward U. Maduh; Eric W. Nealley; Huafu Song; Paul C. Wang; Steven I. Baskin

1995-01-01

299

Biological treatment of gold ore cyanidation wastewater in fixed bed reactors.  

PubMed

The treatment of a cyanidation effluent containing thiocyanate, free cyanide, and complexed cyanide was continuously performed for a period of 6 months. Activated carbon, pozzolana, and a mixture of pumice stone and zeolite were tested as supports in fixed bed reactors. Activated carbon adsorbed the different forms of cyanide. In contrast, the other supports did not remove any pollutants from the effluent during an adsorption experiment. All supports successfully allowed fixation of bacteria. More than 90% of the thiocyanate was biologically decomposed into NH4+, CO2 and SO4(2-), even when increasing the feed flow-rate and the pollutant concentrations. Free and complexed cyanides were eliminated, probably through a combination of precipitation and biological degradation. The oxidation of ammonium into nitrate was only performed by the activated carbon-containing column and with the more diluted feeding. The nitrification process was inhibited in all reactors when the cyanide concentrations and feed flow-rates were increased. PMID:15093367

Dictor, M C; Battaglia-Brunet, F; Morin, D; Bories, A; Clarens, M

1997-01-01

300

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

2012-01-03

301

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

Kruzer, Helen W [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Horita, Juske [ORNL; Moran, James J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tomkins, Bruce A [ORNL; Janszen, Derek B [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Carman, April [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2012-01-01

302

The W. M. Keck Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The funding mission of the W. M. Keck Foundation is "to make grants designed to provide far-reaching benefits for humanity in the fields of science, engineering, and medical research." In a recent announcement, the Keck Foundation will consider proposals for "research which opens new directions and could lead to breakthrough discoveries and the development of new technologies." Proposal deadlines are November 15, 1998, and May 15, 1999. Interested parties should contact the Keck Foundation.

1998-01-01

303

Physiology and pathophysiology of respiratory arrest by cyanide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory arrest, preceded by hyperventilation, is the primary cause of death in acute cyanide poisoning. Hyperventilation followed by apnea is also observed without intoxication. Hyperventilation and apnea in untoxicated subjects and animals are analyzed for the underlying physiological and biochemical changes and compared with those found during cyanide poisoning. The study reveals that the respiratory autoregulation appears to be the same under both conditions. Respiratory arrest is controlled by cerebral PCO2 and can occur without hypoxia or inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. It is postulated that respiratory arrest is a 'desperate act' thrust on the respiratory neurons by a critical exhaustion of their energy store (ATP) due to the rapid firing in the period of hyperventilation. The point of no return may be reached when anoxia and/or partial inhibition of cytochrome oxidase prevent the neurons from replenishing the ATP store. The formation of Fe3+ cyanide complexes. exemplified by the metHb producer DMAP, appears to give the best results with regard to the restoration of spontaneous respiration. The study of respiratory autoregulation may also be helpful in developing and understanding other therapeutic approaches.

Klimmek, R.

1993-05-13

304

Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning  

SciTech Connect

The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

1993-12-31

305

A Series of Cyanide-Bridged Binuclear Complexes  

PubMed Central

A series of cyanide-bridged binuclear complexes, (‘S3’)Ni–CN–M[TptBu] (‘S3’ = bis(2-mercaptophenyl)sulfide, TptBu = hydrotris(3-tert-butylpyrazolyl)borate, M = Fe (2-Fe), Co (2-Co), Ni (2-Ni), Zn (2-Zn)) was prepared by the coupling of K[(‘S3’)Ni(CN)] with [TptBu]MX. The isostructural series of complexes was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. A similar coupling strategy was used to synthesize the anionic copper(I) analogue, Et4N{(‘S3’)Ni–CN–Cu[TptBu]}, 2-Cu. An alternative synthesis was devised for the preparation of the linkages isomers of 2-Zn, i.e. of cyanide-bridged linkage isomers. X-ray diffraction, 13C NMR and IR spectral studies established that isomerization to the more stable Ni–CN–Zn isomer occurs. DFT computational results buttressed the experimental observations indicating that the cyanide-bridged isomer is ca. 5 kcal/mol more stable than its linkage isomer.

Mock, Michael T.; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T.; Popescu, Codrina V.; Gasda, Patrick; Yap, Glenn P. A.

2009-01-01

306

Indirect determination of cyanide by single-column ion chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The procedure was developed by modification of a pneumoamperometric method which uses the reaction of cyanide with iodine, since the final concentration of iodide is proportional to the initial concentration of cyanide. The sample is diluted so that the cyanide concentration is in the range of .5 - 10 ppm, acetate buffer is added to adjust the pH to a value between 4.5 and 6. Excess iodine is added in 95% ethanol, sample is diluted to constant volume and allowed to stand for ca 5 min. Small aliquots of sample are injected slowly into the ion chromatograph through a precolumn containing XAD-4 resin. The excess iodine is adsorbed on this precolumn. The ion chromatograph adsorbs the iodide reaction product on XAD-1 resin. The iodide is removed by elution with sodium phthalate. Retention time is ca 5 min. Contamination of the system may be prevented by the removal of the precolumn for iodine desorption using nitric acid in acetone and water. 2 figures, 3 tables.

DuVal, D.L.; Fritz, J.S.; Gjerde, D.T.

1982-04-01

307

Electronic Frontier Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1990, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an organization that is dedicated to preserving the various freedoms and rights within the digital "frontier", which includes blogs, online intellectual property, and so on. On their homepage, visitors can learn about news items of particular relevance, and also read about some of the cases they are currently working on. For those who might have an inkling of what they are looking for, a "Topics" section includes links to information about bloggers' rights, file-sharing, e-voting, and surveillance. Other visitors might want to take a look at their white papers, which include such titles as "Noncommercial Email Lists: Collateral Damage in the Fight Against Spam" and "Dangerous Terms-A User's Guide to End User License Agreements". Finally, visitors should also note that a number of the materials are available in Spanish, and that RSS feeds are available as well.

Foundation, Electronic F.

308

Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on a wide range of experts, the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation works on funding high quality and promising research projects from around the world and serving in an advisory capacity through their efforts in Washington D.C. On their homepage, users can look at their online discussion board, read resources for patients coping with this condition, and become acquainted with their research funding opportunities. Those persons who have recently been diagnosed with mesothelioma can click on the "Get Help" area to submit questions to a medical professional. Scholars already in the field can navigate over to the "Research" area to read up on their grant programs and read research articles and publications relevant to mesothelioma. The site is rounded out by an "Advocacy" area, which provides information about interested parties wishing to help out this cause.

2008-01-01

309

National Science Foundation: Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Everyday, research sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) turns up a new discovery, an interesting facet of a scientific endeavor, and sometimes, just something that might delight and amaze even the casual observer. Recently the NSF created this website to serve as a clearinghouse of information about the work they sponsor. The "Discoveries" site can be searched in its entirety, or visitors can just peruse the chronological list that's front and center on their homepage. Over in the "Research Areas" section, visitors can wander through "Biology", "Education", "Nanoscience", and eight other topical areas. Some summaries that might be of particular interest include "Mysteries of the Unregulated Internet" and "The Bizarre Creatures of Madagascar". Also, it's worth nothing that parties who enjoy the site can sign up for their RSS feed here.

310

European Training Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Working in conjunction with a host of other inter-governmental agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) is committed to "developing a range of quality of education and training systems" across Europe and into Asia. First-time visitors to the site will want to take a look at their "About the ETF" area to learn more about their mission, and then proceed to the "Themes" area, which contains basic information about their work in such areas as adult learning and online education. As might be expected from such an organization, their publications area is a real treasure-trove for policy analysts and others, as it contains works on "best practices" and overviews of educational systems throughout the region. In keeping with the strong emphasis place on vocational education, the site also contains a number of related events and conferences that will be of great interest as well.

311

The foundation of physicianship.  

PubMed

Although the practice of medicine continually changes in response to new biomedical understanding, novel technologies, and evolving cultural contexts, the ethical foundations of the clinical relationship between patient and physician paradoxically remain constant. There are fundamental characteristics with respect to character, behavior, and responsibilities that are descriptive of and necessary to the role of healer and that underpin the notion of physicianship. This article discusses the underlying characteristics or virtues that are necessary to the practice of medicine from the perspectives of three different philosophic traditions: the Aristotelian idea of phronesis as developed in the work of Edmund Pellegrino; the notion of alterity as framed by Emmanuel Levinas; and the attributes necessary to healing as laid out in the kabbala. PMID:22643720

Fuks, Abraham; Brawer, James; Boudreau, J Donald

2012-01-01

312

American Architectural Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who have scoured the web for architecture sites may have come across the homepage of the American Architectural Foundation (AAF), but those who haven't will find this site to be quite a find. Founded in 1943, the AAF "seeks to educate individuals and community leaders about the power of architecture to improve lives and transform the places where we live, learn, work, and play." Visitors to the site can take advantage of a number of online resources, including their online publications. These publications include findings from their design study charrettes and their investigations into creating effective learning spaces for students in the 21st century. Within the "Video" section of the site, visitors can look at short films made to complement some of their publications. The site is rounded out by the "News" area where visitors can learn about their well-regarded conferences, which include the National Summit on School Design.

313

Sunlight Foundation's Party Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 2006, the Sunlight Foundation employs and develops new internet technologies "to create greater political transparency and to foster more openness and accountability in government." This website focuses on the political partying circuit, also known as fundraising. These parties reveal, "the relationships between lobbyists, congressional candidates, issues being lobbied and campaign money received." Thus, the parties are an excellent resource for citizen journalists, activists, and other interested members of the public. Visitors can view the invitations to the latest parties by clicking on "Upcoming Events". Some of the invitations include a golf tournament for Rep. Loretta Sanchez, a BBQ for Rep. Chet Edwards, and a "Crabs and Spaghetti Dinner" for Rep. Frank LoBiondo at Strategic Healthcare Townhouse. The "PARTYFINDER" allows visitors to search for parties by "beneficiary", "host", "venue name" or "entertainment type". Finally, there are several widgets visitors can put on their website or blog to display "Upcoming parties", "Upcoming leadership PAC parties", and "Parties by candidate state".

314

National Science Foundation: Nanoscience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basic premise behind nanoscience is that manipulating individual atoms and molecules makes it "possible to build machines on the scale of human cells or create materials and structures from the bottom up with novel properties." This rather useful website from the National Science Foundation offers a great primer on nanoscience, complete with answers to basic questions like What is nanoscience? On the website, visitors can make their way through answers to this question and others via illustrative graphics, helpful descriptions, and short video clips. Near the bottom of the homepage, visitors will find areas like Nanoscience Discoveries. This area contains information about recent news from the field, such as work being done to create additional resources for those who rely on prosthetic devices and limbs.

2012-09-28

315

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

316

National Science Foundation: Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Current, is a newsletter published monthly by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the scope of each newsletter is to highlight the research and education that is supported by NSF. One of the goals of NSF is "to promote the progress of science and to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare of the nation." Current provides a good view of the breadth of the NSF's funding activities. For example, a recent newsletter offers reports on sun spot models, exoplanets, the Nanoscience Center, supernovae, and robots in the Senate. The NSF in the News section highlights "newsworthy" research that was funded in whole or in part by the NSF. Each issue can be viewed or downloaded, and an online archive that dates back to 2005 is available on the site. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive the newsletter by email.

2009-10-19

317

Foundation for Landscape Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographers, historians, landscape designers, urban planners, and poets have all been fascinated with both natural and human-made landscapes for centuries. The mission statement of the Foundation for Landscape Studies might resonate with many of these groups of people: "To foster an active understanding of the importance of place in human life.� From the organization's homepage, visitors can learn more about their organization, read about their overarching goals, and examine their photo gallery. In the gallery, they will find photo essays that include "Ancient Sites of the Andean Desert" and "New Orleans After the Flood". The site is rounded out by their in-house journal, "Site/Lines". Visitors can look over the complete run of the journal, which includes pieces on landscape architecture, landscape management, and the portrayal of idealized landscapes.

318

The Heritage Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Heritage Foundation is one of the best known conservative think tanks in the U.S., and its Web site offers voluminous information on various topics. Its publications library offers full text in twelve subject categories from its "FYI," "Heritage Lecture," "Backgrounder," and "Executive Memorandum" series. Selected stories from "Policy Review: The Journal of American Citizenship," are available, as well as articles from "The Insider Newsletter." Its "Congressional District Ranking Book" gives rankings based on census figures for vital statistics, education, housing, and employment. It also provides an "Index for Economic Freedom" for over 100 countries. Links to conservative public policy organizations are provided, as well as a job bank and internship program. This is a powerhouse site for conservative (and other) internauts.

1998-01-01

319

Foundations of modern cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent discoveries in astronomy, especially those made with data collected by satellites such as the Hubble Space Telescope and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, have revolutionized the science of cosmology. These new observations offer the possibility that some long-standing mysteries in cosmology might be answered, including such fundamental questions as the ultimate fate of the universe. Foundations of modern cosmology provides an accessible, thorough and descriptive introduction to the physical basis for modern cosmological theory, from the big bang to a distant future dominated by dark energy. This second edition includes the latest observational results and provides the detailed background material necessary to understand their implications, with a focus on the specific model supported by these observations, the concordance model. Consistent with the book's title, emphasis is given to the scientific framework for cosmology, particularly the basics concepts of physics that underlie modern theories of relativity and cosmology; the importance of data and observations is stressed throughout. The book sketches the historical background of cosmology, and provides a review of the relevant basic physics and astronomy. After this introduction, both special and general relativity are treated, before proceeding to an in-depth discussion of the big bang theory and physics of the early universe. The book includes current research areas, including dark matter and structure formation, dark energy, the inflationary universe, and quantum cosmology. The authors' website (http://www.astro.virginia.edu/~jh8h/Foundations) offers a wealth of supplemental information, including questions and answers, references to other sources, and updates on the latest discoveries.

Hawley, John F.; Holcomb, Katherine A.

2005-07-01

320

A monostyryl-boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) derivative as colorimetric and fluorescent probe for cyanide ions.  

PubMed

We developed a novel boradiazaindacene derivative to detect cyanide ions in solution at micromolar concentrations. This structurally simple chemosensor displays a large decrease in emission intensity and a reversible color change from red to blue on contact with cyanide ions. Highly fluorescent polymeric films can be obtained by doping with the chemosensor. Such polymeric materials can be used for the sensing of the cyanide ions in polymer matrices. PMID:18181636

Ekmekci, Zeynep; Yilmaz, M Deniz; Akkaya, Engin U

2008-01-09

321

Mechanistic studies on the decomposition of sodium cyanide in aqueous solution and in the solid state  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the spontaneous decomposition of sodium cyanide in aqueous solution and in the solid state was studied by ion chromatography (IC), FT–Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS), and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR). In the aqueous solution, gradual decomposition of the cyanide to carbonate by a displacement reaction was observed. In the solid state, sodium cyanide

Hiroshi Nishioka; Mayumi Nishikawa; Munehiro Katagi; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi; Osamu Muraoka

2005-01-01

322

Critical evaluation of treatment strategies involving adsorption and chelation for wastewater containing copper, zinc and cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and cyanide requires treatment for removal of both metals and cyanide before disposal. Conventional methods for treatment of such wastewater involve alkaline-chlorination for cyanide destruction, followed by pH adjustment for metal precipitation, and subsequent removal of precipitate by solid–liquid separation processes. However, excessive sludge production, slow metal precipitation kinetics, and inefficient metal removal due to

Purnendu Bose; M Aparna Bose; Sunil Kumar

2002-01-01

323

Utilization of ammonia, generated from abiotic cyanide degradation, by Rhodotorula rubra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viability of the yeast Rhodotorula rubra, isolated from liquid samples of gold-mine effluents, was not affected by the presence of 11.52 mM cyanide. The yeast was able to utilize ammonia, generated from abiotic cyanide degradation in the presence of reducing sugars, in aerobic culture at pH 9.0. These physiological characteristics encourage studies with mixed cultures of cyanide-degrading organisms, using

M. C. Andrade; M. M. Figueira; V. R. Linardi

1995-01-01

324

Toxicity of cobalt-complexed cyanide to Oncorhynchus mykiss, Daphnia magna , and Ceriodaphnia dubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cobalt cyanide complexes often result when ore is treated with cyanide solutions to extract gold and other metals. These have\\u000a recently been discovered in low but significant concentrations in effluents from gold leach operations. This study was conducted\\u000a to determine the potential toxicity of cobalt-cyanide complexes to freshwater organisms and the extent to which ultraviolet\\u000a radiation (UV) potentiates this toxicity.

Edward E. Little; Robin D. Calfee; Peter Theodorakos; Zoe Ann Brown; Craig A. Johnson

2007-01-01

325

Acute effects of acetyl-l-carnitine on sodium cyanide-induced behavioral and biochemical deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the effects of acute treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine (50 mg?kg, i.v. 90 min before the sodium cyanide injection) on a sodium cyanide-induced behavioral deficit in the Morris water escape task. In a first experiment the spatial discrimination performance of the rats was found to be dose-dependently impaired after an i.c.v. injection of sodium cyanide (2.5

Jos Prickaerts; Arjan Blokland; John Bothmer; Wiel Honig; Marjanne Markerink-Van Ittersum; Jelle Jolles

1998-01-01

326

Cyanide Degradation under Alkaline Conditions by a Strain of Fusarium solani Isolated from Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cyanide-tolerant microorganisms have been selected from alkaline wastes and soils contaminated with cyanide. Among them, a fungus identified as Fusarium solani IHEM 8026 shows a good potential for cyanide biodegradation under alkaline conditions (pH 9.2 to 10.7). Results of K 14 CN biodegradation studies show that fungal metabolism seems to proceed by a two-step hydrolytic mechanism: (i) the first

ALAIN DUMESTRE; THERESE CHONE; JEAN-MARIE PORTAL; MYLENE GERARD; JACQUES BERTHELIN

1997-01-01

327

Changes in endogenous cyanide and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid levels during the hypersensitive response of tobacco mosaic virus-infected tobacco leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi necroticum plants form local necrotic lesions at the site of infection by tobacco mosaic virus. During the first seven days post-inoculation, endogenous levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and N-malonyl-ACC increased in the lesion area. The time course of ACC accumulation coincided with an increase in the endogenous cyanide level which began within two

F. Siefert; J. Kwiatkowski; S. Sarkar; K. Grossmann

1995-01-01

328

Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.  

PubMed

Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types: ladder structures with conjugated -C=N- bonds and polyamidines readily converted by water to polypeptides. Thermochemolysis GC-MS studies show that cleavage products of the polymer include alpha-amino acids, nitrogen heterocycles such as purines and pyrimidines, and provide evidence for peptide linkages. Hydrogen cyanide polymers are a plausible link between cosmochemistry and the origin of informational macromolecules. Implications for prebiotic chemistry are profound. Following persistent bolide bombardment, primitive Earth may have been covered by water and carbonaceous compounds, particularly HCN polymers which would have supplied essential components for establishing protein/nucleic acid life. PMID:17191459

Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

2006-01-01

329

Hydrogen cyanide in ambient air near a gold heap leach field: Measured vs. modeled concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To extract gold from low-grade ores, a solution of sodium cyanide is trickled over pads of crushed ore. During this operation, small quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas may escape to the ambient air. To assess these emissions, we collected air samples at monitoring stations located on opposite sides of a gold heap leach field at distances ranging from 1100 to 1500 ft from the center of the field. Hydrogen cyanide was detected in 6 of 18 ambient air samples at concentrations ranging from 0.26 to 1.86 parts per billion (ppb). Ambient air samples collected at residential properties located within 2600 ft of the leach field did not contain detectable concentrations of cyanide (detection level of 0.2 ppb). We used site-specific data and two steady-state air dispersion models, ISCST3 and AERMOD, to predict ambient air concentrations of cyanide at the sampling points. The ISCST3 model over-predicted the measured 8-h concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 2.4, on average, and the AERMOD model under-predicted the air concentrations of hydrogen cyanide by a factor of 0.76, on average. The major sources of uncertainty in the model predictions were the complex terrain of the area and the uncertainty in the emission rates of cyanide from the leach field. The measured and predicted concentrations of cyanide in the air samples were not at levels that would pose a human health hazard for acute or chronic exposures.

Orloff, Kenneth G.; Kaplan, Brian; Kowalski, Peter

330

Effects of cyanide and dissolved oxygen concentration on biological Au recovery.  

PubMed

The number of discarded electric devices containing traces of Au is currently increasing. It is desirable to recover this Au because of its valuable physicochemical properties. Au is usually dissolved with relatively high concentrations of cyanide, which is associated with environmental risk. Chromobacterium violaceum is able to produce and detoxify small amounts of cyanide, and may thus be able to recover Au from discarded electric devices. This study investigated the effects of cyanide and dissolved oxygen concentration on biological Au recovery. Cyanide production by C. violaceum was sufficient to dissolve Au, while maintaining a high cyanide concentration did not enhance Au dissolution. Increased oxygen concentration enhanced Au dissolution from 0.04 to 0.16 mmol/l within the test period of 70 h. Electrochemical measurement clarified this phenomenon; the rest potential of Au in the cyanide solution produced by C. violaceum increased from -400 to -200 mV, while in the sterile cyanide solution, it was constant in cyanide concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5 mmol/l and increased in dissolved oxygen concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.25 mmol/l. Therefore, it was clarified that dissolved oxygen concentration is the main factor affecting the efficiency of cyanide leaching of gold by using bacteria. PMID:16567012

Kita, Yoshito; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Takemoto, Tadashi

2006-03-29

331

``In situ'' radiation cleaning of underground water contaminated with cyanides - six years of experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The locality of underground water, contaminated with cyanides, has been successfully cleaned by using the hydraulic barrier method (assembly of pumped wells) since 1986. The average cyanide concentrations in the outflow exceeded 35 m per litre. Contamination had to be eliminated before the discharge into the sewer system. The radiation approach ``in situ'' i.e. decomposition of cyanides by barrier, was applied and is still being used today. The cyanide concentration was lowered more than one order of magnitude. This process was approved by the Czechoslovak radiation security authorities and further applications of ``in Situ'' regeneration of underground water contamination is anticipated.

Pastuszek, F.; Vacek, K.; Vondruska, V.

1993-10-01

332

Cyanide-induced lipid peroxidation in different organs: subcellular distribution and hydroperoxide generation in neuronal cells.  

PubMed

To evaluate hydroperoxide generation as a potential mechanism of cyanide neurotoxicity, mice were treated with KCN (7 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)) and the level of lipid peroxidation (expressed as conjugated dienes) was measured later in various organs. Brain showed elevated conjugated diene levels after cyanide but the liver, which is not considered a target for cyanide toxicity, showed no increase. The heart also showed no increase, whereas kidney conjugated dienes slowly increased to a peak 1 h after cyanide. In vitro studies show elevation of peroxidized lipids in mouse brain cortical slices following incubation with KCN (0.1 mM). Omission of calcium from the medium or pretreatment of brain slices with diltiazem (a calcium channel blocker) prevented formation of conjugated dienes by KCN. Calcium thus appears to play a critical role in cyanide-induced generation of peroxidized lipids in neuronal cells. Subcellular fractionation of brains from mice treated with cyanide showed that lipid peroxidation increased in the microsomal fraction but not in the mitochondrial fraction. Fluorescent studies using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (a hydroperoxide sensitive fluorescent dye) show that hydroperoxides are generated rapidly after cyanide treatment of PC12 cells, a neuron-like cell, and hydroperoxide levels remain elevated for many minutes in the presence of cyanide. These results suggest that hydroperoxide generation with subsequent peroxidation of lipids may lead to changes in structure and function of certain membranes and contribute to the neurotoxic damage produced by cyanide. PMID:8197590

Ardelt, B K; Borowitz, J L; Maduh, E U; Swain, S L; Isom, G E

1994-04-18

333

Formation of cyanide from carbon 1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid during its conversion to ethylene  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the immediate precursor of ethylene, which is derived from C-2 and C-3 of ACC. When [1-14C]ACC was administered to etiolated mungbean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls, ?16% of the ACC was converted to ethylene and about 10% of the radioactivity was converted to [14C]asparagine in 7 hr. In etiolated epicotyls of common vetch (Vicia sativa), after 7 hr about 14% of the ACC was converted to ethylene and 16% of the radioactivity was converted to ?-cyanoalanine plus ?-glutamyl-?-cyanoalanine. Itis known that in most plants cyanide is metabolized to asparagine via the intermediate ?-cyanoalanine, whereas in a fewplants such as V. sativa, ?-cyanoalanine is converted to the conjugate ?-glutamyl-?-cyanoalanine. We confirmed that [14C]cyanide was metabolized into [14C]asparagine in mungbean and into [14C]cyanoalanine plus its conjugate in V. sativa. Moreover, after feeding plant tissue with [1-14C]ACC, [14C]asparagine isolated from mungbean and ?-[14C]cyanoalanine from V. sativa were labeled in the C-4 position, as would be expected if these two compounds were derived from [14C]cyanide. When the conversion of ACC to ethylene in V. sativa tissue was inhibited by high temperature (41°C), the conversion of [1-14C]ACC to ?-[14C]cyanoalanine and ?-glutamyl-?-[14C]cyanoalanine was similarly inhibited. When [carboxyl-14C]ACC was administered to mungbean and V. sativa, 14CO2 was recovered in an amount equivalent to the amount of ethylene produced. These data indicate that in the conversion of ACC to ethylene the carboxyl group yields CO2, and C-1 is released as HCN.

Peiser, Galen D.; Wang, Tsu-Tsuen; Hoffman, Neil E.; Yang, Shang Fa; Liu, Hung-wen; Walsh, Christopher T.

1984-01-01

334

The Foundation Coalition [engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In its first year of NSF support the Foundation Coalition has accomplished its major initial goals of developing and beginning implementation of first year, i.e., freshman, “Foundation Curricula” at each coalition site. These curricula are characterized by integration, active learning, and enabling technologies utilized against a backdrop of continuous improvement through assessment, evaluation, and dissemination. The synergism produced by combinations

C. A. Erdman

1994-01-01

335

Foundation Degrees: A Risky Business?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Foundation degrees, the new proposal for sub-degree vocational education in the UK, are characterised by innovation both in their design (curriculum, teaching, learning and assessment) and in the marketplace for which they are designed. This article argues that the development and delivery of foundation degrees carry a high level of risk,…

Rowley, Jennifer

2005-01-01

336

A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.  

PubMed

Wildlife deaths associated with cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions have plagued the gold mining industries for many years, yet there is little published data showing the relationship between wildlife mortality and cyanide toxicity. A gap of knowledge exists in monitoring, understanding the causal relationships and managing risks to wildlife from cyanide-bearing waste solutions and tailings. There is a need for the gold industry to address this issue and to meet the International Cyanide Management Code (ICMC) guidelines. The perceived extent of the issue varies, with one study finding the issue inadequately monitored and wildlife deaths grossly underestimated. In Nevada, USA during 1990 and 1991, 9512 carcasses were reported of over 100 species, although there was underestimation due to reporting being voluntary. Of these, birds comprised 80-91% of vertebrate carcasses reported annually. At Northparkes, Australia in 1995, it was initially estimated that 100 bird carcasses were present by mine staff following a tailings incident; when a thorough count was conducted, 1583 bird carcasses were recorded. Eventually, 2700 bird deaths were documented over a four-month period. It is identified that avian deaths are usually undetected and significantly underestimated, leading to a perception that a risk does not exist. Few guidelines and information are available to manage the risks of cyanide to wildlife, although detoxification, habitat modification and denying wildlife access have been used effectively. Hazing techniques have proven ineffective. Apparently no literature exists that documents accurate wildlife monitoring protocols on potentially toxic cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions or any understanding on the analysis of any derived dataset. This places the onus on mining operations to document that no risk to wildlife exists. Cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities are environmental control structures to contain tailings, a standard practice in the mining industry. Cyanide concentrations below 50 mg/L weak-acid-dissociable (WAD) are deemed safe to wildlife but are considered an interim benchmark for discharge into tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Cyanide is a fast acting poison, and its toxicity is related to the types of cyanide complexes that are present. Cyanide in biota binds to iron, copper and sulfur-containing enzymes and proteins required for oxygen transportation to cells. The accurate determination of cyanide concentrations in the field is difficult to achieve due to sampling techniques and analytical error associated with loss and interferences following collection. The main WAD cyanide complexes in gold mine tailings are stable in the TSF environment but can release cyanide ions under varying environmental conditions including ingestion and absorption by wildlife. Therefore distinction between free, WAD and total cyanide forms in tailings water for regulatory purposes is justified. From an environmental perspective, there is a distinction between ore bodies on the basis of their copper content. For example, wildlife deaths are more likely to occur at mines possessing copper-gold ores due to the formation of copper-cyanide complexes which is toxic to birds and bats. The formation of copper-cyanide complex occurs preferentially to gold cyanide complex indicating the relative importance of economic vs. environmental considerations in the tailings water. Management of cyanide to a perceived threshold has inherent risks since cyanide has a steep toxicity response curve; is difficult to accurately measure in the field; and is likely to vary due to variable copper content of ore bodies and ore blending. Consequently, wildlife interaction needs to be limited to further reduce the risks. A gap in knowledge exists to design or manage cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions to render such facilities unattractive to at-risk wildlife species. This gap may be overcome by understanding the wildlife behaviour and habitat usage of cyanide-bearing solutions. PMID:17540445

Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

2007-05-30

337

Projectile foundation moment generation  

SciTech Connect

This paper represents the presentation of three years of effort conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under funding and direction of the US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory. The thrust of the effort has been to investigate the ineraction between typical nylon obturators of APFSDS projectiles and the gun tube, when a projectile experiences balloting (wobbling) motion. It has been thought in the past that the moment imparted to the projectile which is reacted by the gun barrel when the projectile cocks in-bore was an insignificant quantity. The results of this study show that, in fact this moment is probably the dominant force on the projectile early in the ballistic cycle. The project was a combination of an analytical and experimental study to determine the magnitude of the foundation moment, and the influence that design of the obturator has on the magnitude of the moment. The experimental work was initially done with a static test fixture which simulated the gun bore, the interference between projectile and gun bore, and a simulated obturated projectile.

Patton, E.M.

1985-01-01

338

The Electronic Literature Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Literature teachers, scholars, and lovers of the classics will warmly welcome this excellent online project. ELF's mission is to provide advanced, free electronic texts from world literature in several formats and languages. For instance, the ELF site includes four full editions of The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri: "the original Italian text, and English translations by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Rev. H.F. Cary, and Allen Mandelbaum. Annotations from the Cary and Longfellow editions are also available." As with ELF's Canterbury Tales, which is offered in Middle and Modern English, the texts can be read line-by-line or in enface ("facing page") format, which juxtaposes the original text and translation. The Foundation currently features two other texts: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, offered in three editions, and a preliminary version of Milton's Paradise Lost (the complete version is scheduled for April 1). All of the ELF texts include internal search engines and numerous contemporary and modern illustrations. Works in development include The Arabian Nights (scheduled for May 1), the works of Thomas Hardy, and Goethe's Faust.

1999-01-01

339

Raising Money Through an Institutionally Related Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The creation of foundations for fund raising at public colleges and new ideas and techniques for established foundations are discussed in 13 chapters. The relationship of the foundation and the institution is described from the viewpoint of the institution and also that of the foundation. Article titles and authors include: "How the Foundation…

Reilley, Timothy A., Ed.

340

Partial Exploration of the Potential Energy Surfaces of SCN and HSCN: Implications for the Enzyme-Mediated Detoxification of Cyanide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyanide (CN) is considered to be a terrorist chemical weapon due to its ready availability in multikilogram quantities and multi-modal means of intoxication. The body uses the sulfur transferase enzyme rhodanese to detoxify cyanide via conversion of cyani...

M. A. Zottola

2009-01-01

341

The effect of cyanide on apparent potassium conductance across the peritubular cell membrane of frog proximal tubules  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test for the effect of cyanide on frog proximal renal tubules the potential difference across the peritubular cell membrane (PDpt) has been recorded continuously before and during peritubular application of 1 mmol\\/l cyanide using conventional microelectrodes.

W. Rehwald; F. Lang

1986-01-01

342

Research study of coal preparation plant and by-product coke plant effluents. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source stream characterizations and bench\\/pilot treatability studies were performed on waste water from an integrated coal washery\\/by-product coking operation at an iron and steel plant. Major parameters of interest were phenolics, cyanide, ammonia, and suspended solids. The feasible treatment schemes identified among nine procedures tested were: biological activated sludge and carbon adsorption (for phenolics and cyanide); steam stripping\\/acid adsorption (for

1974-01-01

343

Effects of light on cyanide-resistant respiration and alternative oxidase function in Arabidopsis seedlings.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX), the unique respiratory terminal oxidase in plants, catalyzes the energy wasteful cyanide (CN)-resistant respiration and plays a role in optimizing photosynthesis. Although it has been demonstrated that leaf AOX is upregulated after illumination, the in vivo mechanism of AOX upregulation by light and its physiological significance are still unknown. In this report, red light and blue light-induced AOX (especially AOX1a) expressions were characterized. Phytochromes, phototropins and cryptochromes, all these photoreceptors mediate the light-response of AOX1a gene. When aox1a mutant seedlings were grown under a high-light (HL) condition, photobleaching was more evident in the mutant than the wild-type plants. More reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and inefficient dissipation of chloroplast reducing-equivalents in aox1a mutant may account for its worse adaptation to HL stress. When etiolated seedlings were exposed to illumination for 4 h, chlorophyll accumulation was largely delayed in aox1a plants. We first suggest that more reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and more accumulation of reducing-equivalents in the mutant during de-etiolation might be the main reasons. PMID:20716069

Zhang, Da-Wei; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Chen, Yang-Er; Du, Jun-Bo; Jia, Shu-Dan; Yuan, Shu; Lin, Hong-Hui

2010-09-10

344

A Monostyryl-boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) Derivative as Colorimetric and Fluorescent Probe for Cyanide Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a novel boradiazaindacene derivative to detect cyanide ions in solution at micromolar concentrations. This structurally simple chemosensor displays a large decrease in emission intensity and a reversible color change from red to blue on contact with cyanide ions. Highly fluorescent polymeric films can be obtained by doping with the chemosensor. Such polymeric materials can be used for the

Zeynep Ekmekci; M. Deniz Yilmaz; Engin U. Akkaya

2008-01-01

345

MERCURY CYANIDE CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER FROM GOLD MINING AND PROSPECTS FOR REMOVAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ore bodies from which gold is mined are often composed of minerals containing sulfur, sellenium and tellurium. Mercury is also associated with these three elements and is simultaneously dissolved during gold extraction. When cyanide salts are used to extract gold, mercury cyanide complexes that form enhance mercury mobility and increase mercury concentrations in groundwater. In one instance this resulted in

Cynthia A. Coles

346

Effect of Pressure on the Overall and Internal Rotation in Liquid Benzyl Cyanide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pressure dependence of the deuteron spin-lattice relaxation times of benzyl-4-d1 cyanide and alpha, alpha-dideuteriobenzyl cyanide has been measured up to 3 kbars at 30 and 150C. Detailed temperature dependence of these relaxation times has also been ...

J. DeZwaan J. Jonas

1973-01-01

347

Zinc Sludge Recycling After Kastone Treatment of Cyanide-Bearing Rinse Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of reclaiming sludge. The sludge was produced by the destruction of cyanide by Kastone in zinc-cyanide dragout rinse water. The clear supernatant was discharged to the municipal sewer and the ...

J. G. Moser

1977-01-01

348

Synthesis of 3-cyanoindole derivatives mediated by copper(I) iodide using benzyl cyanide.  

PubMed

Copper-mediated direct and regioselective C3-cyanation of indoles using benzyl cyanide as the cyanide anion source is presented. A wide range of indoles undergo cyanation smoothly by employing a reaction system of copper(I) iodide under open-to-air vessels. PMID:23448701

Yuen, On Ying; Choy, Pui Ying; Chow, Wing Kin; Wong, Wing Tak; Kwong, Fuk Yee

2013-03-11

349

Photocatalytic detoxification of cyanide and metal cyano-species from precious-metal mill effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photochemically-induced detoxification of various cyanide species from a selected precious-metal mills tailings was investigated in detail. The studies were conducted in the presence or absence of a titanium (IV) oxide semiconductor photocatalyst utilizing simulated sunlight as the irradiation source. It was established that the cyanide ion (both free and complexed) was photocatalytically oxidized to nitrate via cyanate and nitrite. In

W. Scott Rader; Ljiljana Solujic; Emil B. Milosavljevic; James L. Hendrix; John H. Nelson

1995-01-01

350

Simultaneous degradation of cyanide and phenol in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.  

PubMed

Coal coking, precious metals mining and nitrile polymer industries generate over several billion liters of cyanide-containing waste annually. Economic and environmental considerations make biological technologies attractive for treatment of wastes containing high organic content, in which the microbial cultures can remove concentrations of organics and cyanide simultaneously. For cyanide and phenol bearing waste treatment, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor has been developed, which successfully removed free cyanide 98% (with feed concentration of 20 mg 1(-1)) in presence of phenol. The effect of cyanide on phenol degradation was studied with varying concentrations of phenol as well as cyanide under anaerobic conditions. This study revealed that the methanogenic degradation of phenol can occur in the presence of cyanide concentration 30-38 mg 1(-1). Higher cyanide concentration inhibited the phenol degradation rate. The inhibition constant Ki was found to be 38 mg 1(-1) with phenol removal rate of 9.09 mg 1(-1.) x h. PMID:23029928

Kumar, M Suresh; Mishra, Ram Sushil; Jadhav, Shilpa V; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, T

2011-07-01

351

PEPTIDE FORMATION MEDIATED BY HYDROGEN CYANIDE TETRAMER: A POSSIBLE PREBIOTIC PROCESS  

PubMed Central

Chemical evolution on the primitive earth must have involved condensation of ?-amino acids to peptides. Under aqueous conditions consistent with current conceptions of primordial waters, heating glycerine with the hydrogen cyanide tetramer, diaminomaleonitrile, yields dipeptide. If nitrogen was cycled through primordial waters as cyanide, peptide synthesis by stepwise tetramer-mediated condensation of ?-amino acids would have been a plausible process.

Chang, Sherwood; Flores, Jose; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

1969-01-01

352

Gold recovery enhancement from complex sulphide ores through combined bioleaching and cyanidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of gold finely intergrown with the complex metal sulphides in the Tertiary volcanites of the Serrenti-Furtei district in central and southern Sardinia, prompted the investigation of gold extraction methods that are both economically viable and environmentally friendly. Here two types of integrated processes for gold extraction are compared: roasting plus cyanidation and bioleaching plus cyanidation. With the

L. Curreli; G. Loi; R. Peretti; G. Rossi; P. Trois; A. Zucca

1997-01-01

353

Degradation of aqueous solution of potassium iodide and sodium cyanide in the presence of carbon tetrachloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of potassium iodide, carbon tetrachloride and sodium cyanide has been studied using an ultrasounic probe of 20 kHz frequency. In the case of potassium iodide and sodium cyanide, the rate of degradation was much higher in presence of CCl4. The location of the ultrasonic horn showed a significant effect in the degradation of CCl4.

I. Z. Shirgaonkar; A. B. Pandit

1997-01-01

354

Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the

J. M. Cervino; R. L. Hayes; M. Honovich; T. J. Goreau; S. Jones; P. J. Rubec

2003-01-01

355

Effects of Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis on the Distribution of Cyanide into the Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether respiratory acidosis favors the cerebral distribution of cyanide, and con- versely, if respiratory alkalosis limits its distribution. The phar- macokinetics of a nontoxic dose of cyanide were first studied in a group of 7 rats in order to determine the distribution phase. The pharmacokinetics were found to best fit a 3-compartment

Amina Djerad; Claire Monier; Pascal Houze; Stephen W. Borron; Jeanne-Marie Lefauconnier; Frederic J. Baud

2001-01-01

356

Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and

Helen W Kruzer; Juske Horita; James J Moran; Bruce A Tomkins; Derek B Janszen; April Carman

2012-01-01

357

Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996  

SciTech Connect

Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

Isom, G.E.

1996-02-01

358

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of

M. G. Paschka; R. S. Ghosh; D. A. Dzombak

1999-01-01

359

MK-801 prevents cyanide-induced changes of fos levels in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acute cyanide intoxication on levels of transcriptional regulatory proteins Fos and c-Jun in rat cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem was studied. Western blot analysis showed a differential effect of cyanide on Fos levels in the selected brain areas. The most prominent changes were seen 60 min. following ip. injection of KCN in all brain areas except

Goran Pavlakovi?; Appu Rathinavelu; Gary E. Isom

1994-01-01

360

Energy efficient residential building foundations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a well-designed foundation not only is structurally sound and insulated to save energy, but also provides appropriate moisture, radon and termite control. Reflecting increased concern for energy conservation, several national building energy codes and standards were revised in 1989-91 to recommend foundation insulation in climates with over 2,500 heating degree days. The importance of proper foundation insulation can be better appreciated by knowing that an uninsulated, conditioned basement may represent up to 50% of the annual heat loss in a tightly sealed house that is well insulated above grade.

Christian, J.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1991-11-01

361

Characterization of liposomal vesicles encapsulating rhodanese for cyanide antagonism.  

PubMed

The major mechanism of removing cyanide from the body is its enzymatic conversion by a sulfurtransferase, e.g. rhodanese, to the less toxic thiocyanate in the presence of a sulfur donor. Earlier results demonstrated that externally administered encapsulated rhodanese significantly enhances the in vivo efficacy of the given sulfur donor. Present studies are focused on liposomal carrier systems encapsulating rhodanese. Physicochemical properties, e.g. membrane rigidity, size distribution, surface potential, osmolarity, and viscosity, were determined for various liposomal lipid compositions and hydrating buffers to establish in vitro stability and in vivo fate. Lipid composition was also optimized to achieve maximum encapsulation efficiency. PMID:19606945

Petrikovics, I; Budai, M; Baskin, S I; Rockwood, G A; Childress, J; Budai, L; Gróf, P; Klebovich, I; Szilasi, M

2009-08-01

362

A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications  

PubMed Central

Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored.

Fraley, Lawrence E.

1998-01-01

363

Cell-free extract(s) of Pseudomonas putida catalyzes the conversion of cyanides, cyanates, thiocyanates, formamide, and cyanide-containing mine waters into ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our isolate, Pseudomonas putida, is known to be capable of utilizing cyanides as the sole source of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) both in the form of free\\u000a cells and cells immobilized in calcium alginate. In the present study, the cell-free extract(s) were prepared from the cells\\u000a of P. putida grown in the presence of sodium cyanide. The ability of

G. R. V. Babu; O. K. Vijaya; V. L. Ross; J. H. Wolfram; K. D. Chapatwala

1996-01-01

364

Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.  

PubMed

Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 ?g cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 ?g cyanide/g and 200 ?g amygdalin/g. PMID:22564183

Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

2012-05-07

365

Cyanogenesis in Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen.

Poulton, Jonathan E.

1990-01-01

366

Plant for the Planet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video describes the foundation Plant for the Planet, a foundation created by a 9-year-old German boy, Felix. This foundation has planted more than 500,000 trees in Germany, which he says help sequester carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The student rallies, first his community and then other children, to plant millions of trees to offset our energy-use emissions.

Change, Young V.

367

NEWS: Solid foundations?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the initiatives to be found at UK universities is a vocational award with the title `University Foundation Degree' at Nottingham Trent University. This qualification will be offered in 14 different subjects including four in the Faculty of Science and Mathematics, in the areas of applied biology, applied sciences, chemistry and physics. The courses will be available on a two-year full-time, three-year sandwich or a part-time basis. Set at a higher standard and specification than the Higher National Diplomas which it replaces, the UFD has been devised in consultation with industry and will cover the technical and specialist areas demanded by employers to combat skills shortages. The UFD in applied sciences concentrates on practical applications through laboratory, IT and project work, supported by lectures and seminars. At the end students can enter the employment market or transfer onto the second year of a degree course. Science-based careers including research and development would be the aim of those taking the UFD in physics. The first year develops the fundamentals of modern physics supported by studies in mathematics, IT and computer programming, whilst year 2 is vocational in nature with industrial problem solving and work experience as well as an academic theme associated with environmental aspects of the subject. Those who complete the UFD will be allowed automatic progression to a specified honours degree course and would normally be expected to study for a further two years for this award. However, those demonstrating an outstanding academic performance can transfer to the linked degree programme at the end of the first year via fast-track modules. Back in May the UK's Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) announced new standard benchmarks for degrees. These will be introduced into higher education institutions from 2002 to outline the knowledge, understanding and skills a student should gain from a particular higher education course. These benchmark statements should help students to make informed choices about their degree and subsequent employability, as well as informing employers about the skills and knowledge of the graduates they propose to employ. Academics from each discipline have agreed the statements for their areas of expertise to a common framework.

2000-07-01

368

Accumulation of ?-Keto Acids as Essential Components in Cyanide Assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate (Pyr) and ?-ketoglutarate (?Kg) accumulated when cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 were cultivated on growth-limiting amounts of ammonia or cyanide and were shown to be responsible for the nonenzymatic removal of cyanide from culture fluids as previously reported (J.-L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61–67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 ?mol of cyanide removed min?1 ml of culture fluid?1) being recovered after 72 h of cultivation, at which time the keto acid concentration was 23 mM. The reaction products that formed between the biologically formed keto acids and cyanide were unambiguously identified as the corresponding cyanohydrins by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the Pyr and ?-Kg cyanohydrins were further metabolized by cell extracts and served also as nitrogenous growth substrates. Radiotracer experiments showed that CO2 (and NH3) were formed as enzymatic conversion products, with the keto acid being regenerated as a coproduct. Evidence that the enzyme responsible for cyanohydrin conversion is cyanide oxygenase, which was shown previously to be required for cyanide utilization, is based on results showing that (i) conversion occurred only when extracts were induced for the enzyme, (ii) conversion was oxygen and reduced-pyridine nucleotide dependent, and (iii) a mutant strain defective in the enzyme was unable to grow when it was provided with the cyanohydrins as a growth substrate. Pyr and ?Kg were further shown to protect cells from cyanide poisoning, and excretion of the two was directly linked to utilization of cyanide as a growth substrate. The results provide the basis for a new mechanism of cyanide detoxification and assimilation in which keto acids play an essential role.

Kunz, Daniel A.; Chen, Jui-Lin; Pan, Guangliang

1998-01-01

369

Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

Context Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, since current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. Objective We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide, the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B12), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cobinamide has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. Materials and Methods We studied cobinamide in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. Results We found cobinamide more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over two minutes. In range finding studies, cobinamide sulfite at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. Discussion and Conclusion These studies demonstrate that cobinamide is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as cobinamide sulfite. Based on these animal data cobinamide sulfite appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties.

Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M.; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R.; Bigby, Timothy D.

2011-01-01

370

Foundation futures: Energy saving opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant energy savings will result from compliance to the foundation insulation recommendations in ASHRAE Standard 90.2P, \\/open quotes\\/Energy Efficient Design of New, Low-Rise Residential Buildings\\/close quotes\\/ (ASHRAE 1987). This paper summarizes an assessment of current US energy savings from foundation insulation and estimates future savings resulting from broad-scale adoption of ASHRAE 90.2P. The assessment is based on the premise that

Christian

1988-01-01

371

Determination of cyanide and cyanogenic compounds in biological systems.  

PubMed

A survey of methods for the qualitative and quantitative determination of cyanide and cyanogenic compounds is presented. Particular attention is paid to determination in complex matrices. Chromatographic methods able to separate mixtures of closely related structures, such as glycosides of enantiomeric hydroxynitriles or lipids with slightly differing fatty acid spectra, are included, as are highly selective methods of detection, such as enzymic post-column cleavage combined with electrochemical detection as used in high-performance liquid chromatography. Details of thin-layer chromatography, including methods for detection, are given for both straight-phase and reverse-phase systems. The survey includes simple field methods as well as automated laboratory methods for the determination of 'free', 'bound' and 'total' cyanide, for example in processed food products from Manihot esculenta Cranz. Sources of enzymes are listed and attention is given to problems of sample storage and preparation. References are given to review articles which include data from methods such as ultraviolet, infrared and proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. PMID:3073056

Brimer, L

1988-01-01

372

Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN).

Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

1993-09-01

373

Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.  

PubMed

In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. PMID:23726700

Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

2013-04-25

374

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

375

Indirect determination of cyanide compounds by ion chromatography with conductivity measurement  

SciTech Connect

Ion chromatography (IC) is a suitable analytical technique for the determination of anions. The cyanide is not detected by the conductivity detector of the ion chromatograph due to its low dissolution constant (pK = 9.2). This paper describes an IC procedure for the determination of free cyanide and metal cyanide complexes that uses a conductivity detector. It is based on the oxidation of cyanide ion by sodium hypochlorite to cyanate ion (pK = 3.66). Therefore, cyanide ion can now be measured indirectly by the conductivity detector. In this procedure, optimum operating conditions were examined. In addition, the interferences from anions and reducing agents were investigated. The method was applied to the determination of metal cyanide complexes. The coefficients of variation (%) for CN/sup -/ (1.05 mg/L), Zn(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.80 mg/L), and Ni(CN)/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (CN/sup -/, 0.96 mg/L) were 1.1%, 1.5%, and 0.5%, respectively. The proposed method proved to be useful for the determination of cyanide compounds in natural water and waste water.

Nonomura, M.

1987-09-01

376

Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed

Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for thiocyanate in plasma and urine, and ATCA showed significant differences in plasma and saliva. Additionally, biomarker concentration ratios, correlations between markers of cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure. PMID:22889346

Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

2012-08-13

377

Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles  

SciTech Connect

Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

1985-05-01

378

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

1999-10-01

379

Bioaugmentation of cyanide-degrading microorganisms in a full-scale cokes wastewater treatment facility.  

PubMed

To enhance biological removal efficiency of total cyanides, bioaugmentation was applied to a full-scale cokes wastewaters treatment process. After a laboratorial-scale cultivation (up to 1.2 m(3)) of a cyanide-degrading yeast (Cryptococcus humicolus) and unidentified cyanide-degrading microorganisms, the microbial consortium was inoculated into a fluidized-bed type process (1280 m(3)), and then enriched for two months with a huge supply of glucose, KCN and other nutrients. Target wastewater was effluent of a biological pre-denitrification process for treating cokes wastewater, and contained about 14 mg/L of total cyanides in the form of ferric cyanide. This may be a first or rare report on the full-scale bioaugmentation of specialized-microorganisms. However, continuous operation of the full-scale cyanides-degrading bioprocess showed poor removal efficiency than expected owing to poor settling performance of microbial flocs, slow biodegradation rate of ferric cyanide and lack of organic carbon sources within the wastewater. Therefore, there is a need for further studies on how to solve these operating problems in full-scale bioaugmentation approach. PMID:17513106

Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

2007-05-21

380

Host-plant selectivity of rhizobacteria in a crop/weed model system.  

PubMed

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents. PMID:17786217

Zeller, Simon L; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

2007-09-05

381

Host-Plant Selectivity of Rhizobacteria in a Crop/Weed Model System  

PubMed Central

Belowground microorganisms are known to influence plants' performance by altering the soil environment. Plant pathogens such as cyanide-producing strains of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas may show strong host-plant selectivity. We analyzed interactions between different host plants and Pseudomonas strains and tested if these can be linked to the cyanide sensitivity of host plants, the cyanide production of bacterial strains or the plant identity from which strains had been isolated. Eight strains (four cyanide producing) were isolated from roots of four weed species and then re-inoculated on the four weed and two additional crop species. Bacterial strain composition varied strongly among the four weed species. Although all six plant species showed different reductions in root growth when cyanide was artificially applied to seedlings, they were generally not negatively affected by inoculation with cyanide-producing bacterial strains. We found a highly significant plant species x bacterial strain interaction. Partitioning this interaction into contrasts showed that it was entirely due to a strongly negative effect of a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas kilonensis/brassicacearum, isolated from Galium mollugo) on Echinochloa crus-galli. This exotic weed may not have become adapted to the bacterial strain isolated from a native weed. Our findings suggest that host-specific rhizobacteria hold some promise as biological weed-control agents.

Zeller, Simon L.; Brandl, Helmut; Schmid, Bernhard

2007-01-01

382

Private foundation funding of applied communication research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication researchers increasingly have a primed and attentive audience in private foundations. Yet most foundations are quite dissimilar to the types of organizations that we as communication scholars know and understand. Here we discuss private foundation funding for applied communication research, including how funding priorities are set, and how potential grantees may position themselves for foundation funds. In doing so,

James Dearing; Sam Larson

2002-01-01

383

Foundation design and construction. Sixth edition  

SciTech Connect

This is an up-to-date and authoritative guide on the design of foundations for buildings and bridges. Backed up by the author`s 25-plus years of experience as a contractor`s engineer and consulting engineer specializing in foundations and earthworks, the book covers all types of foundations: shallow strip, pad and raft, basement structures, driven and bored piles, and deep shafts. One will find practical advice on foundation design; explanation of new techniques of construction; examples of new techniques of foundation construction; a general update for design methods; and a special chapter on bridge foundations. There is also important information on foundation design for swelling and shrinking clays, filled ground, and mining subsidences. Contents include: site investigations and soil mechanics; the general principles of foundation design; foundation design in relation to ground movements; spread deepshaft foundations; buoyancy rafts and basements (box foundations); bridge foundation; piled foundations 1 -- the carrying capacity of piles and pile groups; piled foundations 2 -- structural design and construction methods; foundation construction; cofferdams; geotechnical processes; shoring and underpinning; protection of foundation structures against attack by soils and groundwater; appendices -- properties of materials; and conversion tables.

Tomlinson, M.J.

1995-12-31

384

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) "Foundation was formed to support education, research, treatment and cure for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus." One notable NDI Foundation website service is a sizable glossary of medical terminology with definitions for such terms as apoenzyme, basal nuclei, neuroglia, valine, and many more. The website also contains numerous abstracts of related journal articles. The article references and abstracts can be located by browsing extensive lists organized by Date, Author, and Journal. In addition to abstracts, some of the article references also link to less technical Lay Translations. The Foundation has requested permission from publishers to display full-text articles, and some of these versions are currently available as well. The referenced articles span more than a decade, and have appeared in such journals as _Endocrinology_, _American Journal of Physiology_, _Journal of Biological Chemistry_, and _Nature_, to name a few. An additional website service is the Researcher Directory which lists related researchers alphabetically, as well as by Institution, and Country.

2005-11-03

385

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) "Foundation was formed to support education, research, treatment and cure for Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus." One notable NDI Foundation website service is a sizable glossary of medical terminology with definitions for such terms as apoenzyme, basal nuclei, neuroglia, valine, and many more. The website also contains numerous abstracts of related journal articles. The article references and abstracts can be located by browsing extensive lists organized by Date, Author, and Journal. In addition to abstracts, some of the article references also link to less technical Lay Translations. The Foundation has requested permission from publishers to display full-text articles, and some of these versions are currently available as well. The referenced articles span more than a decade, and have appeared in such journals as _Endocrinology_, _American Journal of Physiology_, _Journal of Biological Chemistry_, and _Nature_, to name a few. An additional website service is the Researcher Directory which lists related researchers alphabetically, as well as by Institution, and Country.

386

Physical and Chemical Transformations of Sodium Cyanide at High pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-induced physical and chemical transformations of Sodium Cyanide (NaCN) have been studied up to 50 GPa in diamond-anvil cells, using micro-Raman spectroscopy and angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The present results suggest three phase transitions to occur in this pressure range: from NaCN-I (cubic) to NaCN-II (orthorhombic) at 2 GPa, to NaCN-III (monoclinic) at 8 GPa, and to NaCN-IV (tetragonal) at 15 GPa. At higher pressures, NaCN-IV undergoes irreversible chemical changes, which occurs over a large pressure range between 25 and 34 GPa. The new material exhibits a broad yet strong Raman band at around 1600 cm-1, indicating the formation of C=N bonds in a similar configuration of carbon graphite.

Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2009-03-01

387

Metal loaded zeolite adsorbents for hydrogen cyanide removal.  

PubMed

Metal (Cu, Co, or Zn) loaded ZSM-5 and Y zeolite adsorbents were prepared for the adsorption of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) toxic gas. The results showed that the HCN breakthrough capacity was enhanced significantly when zeolites were loaded with Cu. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbents that influence the HCN adsorption capacity were analyzed. The maximal HCN breakthrough capacities were about the same for both zeolites at 2.2 mol of HCN/mol of Cu. The Cu2p XPS spectra showed that the possible species present were Cu2O and CuO. The N1s XPS data and FT-IR spectra indicated that CN(-) would be formed in the presence of Cu+/Cu2+ and oxygen gas, and the reaction product could be adsorbed onto Cu/ZSM-5 zeolite more easily than HCN. PMID:23923791

Ning, Ping; Qiu, Juan; Wang, Xueqian; Liu, Wei; Chen, Wei

2013-04-01

388

Protein kinase c inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, l-(5-isoquinoline sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 3/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Tesla horizontal bore magnet. H-7, I mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

Maduh, E.U.; Nealley, E.W.; Song, H.; Wang, P.C.; Baskin, S.I.

1995-12-31

389

A protein kinase C inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo.  

PubMed

We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Telsa horizontal bore magnet. H-7, 1 mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN-). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN- administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN- antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication. PMID:7624870

Maduh, E U; Nealley, E W; Song, H; Wang, P C; Baskin, S I

1995-06-26

390

Early Signs of Oxidative Stress in Wheat Plants Subjected to Zinc Deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-oxidative defense systems in wheat plants were studied as a function of zinc deficiency in solution culture under glasshouse conditions. Zinc (Zn) deficiency enhanced cyanide-insensitive superoxide dismutase activity significantly, and decreased the activity of cyanide-sensitive superoxide dismutase before the appearance of visible effects of Zn deficiency. The plants with incipient deficiency of Zn also had significantly higher activities of nonspecific

Parma Nand Sharma; Praveen Kumar; Rajesh Kumar Tewari

2004-01-01

391

Operational foundation of quantum logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The logic of quantum mechanical propositions—called quantum logic—is constructed on the basis of the operational foundation of logic. Some obvious modifications of the operational method, which come from the incommensurability of the quantum mechanical propositions, lead to the effective quantum logic. It is shown in this paper that in the framework of a calculization of this effective quantum logic the

P. Mittelstaedt; E. W. Stachow

1974-01-01

392

Theoretical Foundations of Associations Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a formal framework for the problem of mining association rules. The theoretical foundation is based on the field of formal concept analysis. A concept is composed of closed subsets of attributes (itemsets) and objects (transactions). We show that all frequent itemsets are uniquely determined by the frequent concepts. We further show how this lattice-theoretic framework

Mohammed J. Zaki; Mitsunori Ogihara

1998-01-01

393

Customer relationship management: Barnard's foundations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to delve into Barnard's works to construct foundations of customer relationship management (CRM). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper identifies Barnard's insights on customer participation using a post-analytic method and uses them as inputs to the analysis of current CRM practices. Findings – As an outcome of the analysis, the paper identifies the practices

Milorad Novicevic; Hugh Sloan; Allison Duke; Erin Holmes; Jacob Breland

2006-01-01

394

Logical foundation of quantum mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of this article is the reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of a formal language of quantum mechanical propositions. During recent years, research in the foundations of the language of science has given rise to adialogic semantics that is adequate in the case of a formal language for quantum physics. The system ofsequential logic which is comprised

E. W. Stachow; Theoretische Physik

1980-01-01

395

State Regulations versus Private Foundations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|State governments recognize higher education's need to reach out aggressively to industry and other private donors for financial support, but may also closely regulate the activities of private foundations that seek and manage funds for public institutions of higher education. Both private and public higher education institutions should be…

Sansbury, Olin B., Jr.

1984-01-01

396

Soils and Foundations: A Syllabus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The teaching guide and course outline for a 12-week course in soils and foundations is designed to help student technicians in a two-year associate degree civil engineering technology program to obtain entry level employment as highway engineering aides, soil testing technicians, soil mappers, or construction inspectors. The seven teaching units…

Long, Melvin J.

397

Foundation Level Training. Trainer's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This trainer's manual was developed to provide a consistent knowledge and skill base (i.e., a "foundation") for all individuals employed in programs funded by Oklahoma's Developmental Disabilities Services Division. They include van drivers, recreation workers, residential staff, administrators, case managers, secretarial/clerical staff,…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Human Services, Oklahoma City. Developmental Disabilities Services Div.

398

Foundations of Responsibility for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements…

Dillen, Annemie

2008-01-01

399

Foundation GNVQ: an invisible cohort?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the implications of current government education policy for those learners within the English post-compulsory sector undertaking General National Vocational Qualification (GNVQ) Foundation (level 1) programmes. It argues that within the current policy context, a lower value is placed on young people working towards certain credentials than on others and that this value is determined by the potential

Liz Atkins

2005-01-01

400

Mathematical foundations of minimal cutsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their introduction in the reliability field, binary decision diagrams have proved to be the most efficient tool to assess Boolean models such as fault trees. Their success increases the need of sound mathematical foundations for the notions that are involved in reliability and dependability studies. This paper clarifies the mathematical status of the notion of minimal cutsets which have

Antoine Rauzy

2001-01-01

401

Earthquake-protective pneumatic foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the research in progress is to evaluate the applicability of an innovative earthquake-protective system called pneumatic foundation to building construction and industrial equipment. The system represents kind of seismic soil isolation. The research is analytical and accompanied with limited testing on a shake table. The concept of partial suppression of seismic energy flow inside a structure is known as a seismic or base isolation. Normally, this technique needs some pads to be inserted into all major load-carrying elements in a base of the building. It also requires creating additional rigidity diaphragms in the basement and a moat around the building, as well as making additional provisions against overturning and/or P-(Delta ) effect. Besides, potential benefits of base isolation techniques should not be taken for granted: they depend on many internal and external factors. The author developed a new earthquake protective technique called pneumatic foundation. Its main components are: a horizontal protective layer located under the footing at a certain depth, and a vertical one installed along the horizontal protective layer perimeter. The first experiments proved a sizable screening effect of pneumatic foundation: two identical models of a steel frame building, put simultaneously on the same vibrating support simulating an earthquake, performed in a strikingly different manner: while the regular building model shook vigorously, the model on a pneumatic foundation just slightly trembled.

Shustov, Valentin

2000-04-01

402

Nursery Rhymes: Foundation for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article considers nursery rhymes as the foundation for learning. It is said that nursery rhymes carry all the parts of language that lead to speaking and reading. Because rhymes are short, they are easy for children to repeat, and become some of the first sentences children utter. The rhymes expand vocabulary, exposing children to words they…

Kenney, Susan

2005-01-01

403

A Foundation for Systems Anthropometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

System Anthropometry has laid the foundation for a three-dimensional anthropometry. A unique, dedicated laboratory has been built and is currently used in an investigation of the lumbar/pelvic/femur linkage system. Data have been analyzed describing the t...

H. M. Reynolds J. Marcus J. Freeman L. Batzer

1980-01-01

404

On the foundations of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of new, concise foundations, this paper establishes the four laws of thermodynamics, the Maxwell relations, and the stability requirements for response functions, in a form applicable to global (homogeneous), local (hydrodynamic) and microlocal (kinetic) equilibrium. The present, self-contained treatment needs very little formal machinery and stays very close to the formulas as they are applied by the

Arnold Neumaier

2007-01-01

405

Foundations of Thai. Book II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This text is intended for use in second-year university level Thai courses after completion of "Foundation of Thai, Book I" (ED 014 690, ED 014 691) in the first year. Twenty lessons comprise the core of the text. Much carefully selected material is introduced in the dialogs, and each dialog is followed by a list of new expressions appearing in…

Anthony, Edward M.; And Others

406

Effect of additives on the flow-analysis determination of weak-acid-dissociable and total cyanide.  

PubMed

The effect of reductants, complexants, and nitrite eliminators on the flow-analysis determination of weak-acid-dissociable and total cyanide has been studied for: 1. cyanide recovery from copper, nickel, and iron complexes; 2. cyanide generation from the reagents in the presence of common interferents; and 3. cyanide consumption by the reagents in the presence of those interferents. In the absence of additives the UV-assisted recovery of (total) cyanide from the iron complexes (using a succinate buffer) was insufficient. Arsenite and hypophosphite had no measurable effect on the recovery, ascorbic acid resulted in total recovery but under these conditions nitrite and sulfite seemed to destroy cyanide. Phenanthroline promoted the recovery of cyanide from iron complexes but led to formation of cyanide from thiocyanate. Citrate resulted in good recovery but in the presence of nitrite cyanide was formed; the recovery with EDTA was also good. It proved necessary to destroy nitrite by use of sulfamic acid. If a combination of EDTA, citrate, and sulfamic acid is used rather high concentrations of thiocyanate, nitrite, thiosulfate, and sulfite can be tolerated in the samples. It is strongly advisable to test modifications of the cyanide determination comprehensively, because some surprising results have been obtained. PMID:11760047

Heckemann, H J; Stadler, B; Schulz, D

2001-10-01

407

Energy Effective Contaminant Removal from Closed Loop Recovery Systems for Cyanide Based Electroplating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ultra-low-temperature heat pump evaporator was developed to provide a feasible alternative to conventional chemical treatment and sludge disposal of heat sensitive cyanide based electroplating wastes. The evaporator system, trademarked Fridgevap, was s...

R. C. Williamson W. R. Williamson C. H. Roy

1987-01-01

408

Calcium Sulfide Precipitation of Mercury from Gold-Silver Cyanide-Leach Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During cyanidation of mercury-bearing gold-silver ores, significant amounts of mercury are extracted. The presence of mercury decreases gold loading and increases mercury stripping time on activated carbon, complicates fire refining of the gold cathodes, ...

W. W. Simpson W. L. Staker R. G. Sandberg

1986-01-01

409

APPLICATION AND EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES FOR TRACE METALS, TOTAL CYANIDES AND PHENOLICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical procedures for the determination of trace metals, total cyanides and phenolics were systematically evaluated for their applicability industry-wide. Matrix interferences, methods equivalency, and analytical precision were investigated through a series of duplicate and s...

410

Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap.  

PubMed

In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities. PMID:11918005

Johnson, Craig A; Leinz, Reinhard W; Grimes, David J; Rye, Robert O

2002-03-01

411

MOVEMENT OF SELECTED METALS, ASBESTOS, AND CYANIDE IN SOIL: APPLICATIONS TO WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents information on movement of selected hazardous substances in soil which can be applied to problems of selecting and operating land disposal sites for wastes containing arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, cyanide, iron, lead, mercury, selen...

412

Electrochemical Studies of Platinum-Group Metals in Molten Alkali Metal Cyanides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has studied the electrochemical parameters important to the preparation of coatings of the platinum-group metals. Using molten mixtures of sodium and potassium cyanides in an inert atmosphere, techniques have been developed that permit...

D. R. Flinn C. L. Manger

1982-01-01

413

Process for the removal of mercury from precious metal-cyanide liquors  

SciTech Connect

A process for removing mercury from a cyanide solution is described comprising: (a) reacting solubilized mercury with a sulfide ion-providing compound in a precious metal-containing, cyanide leach solution to produce mercuric sulfide, the sulfide ion-providing compound being a member selected from the group consisting of sodium sulfide, sodium hydrosulfide, and hydrogen sulfide; (b) flocculating the mercuric sulfide with a flocculating agent, the flocculating agent being an anionic, high molecular polyacrylamide polymer, whereby flocs of mercuric sulfide are formed to produce a mercury-free precious metal-containing, cyanide solution; and (c) separating the mercuric sulfide flocs from the mercury-free precious metal-containing, cyanide solution.

Touro, F.J.

1988-02-23

414

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

SciTech Connect

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-05-01

415

Leaching Gold-Silver Ores with Sodium Cyanide and Thiourea under Comparable Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is currently much interest in how extraction of gold and silver from ores with acidic thiourea solution compares with extraction using alkaline cyanide solution. Agitation leaching tests were performed by the Bureau of Mines on 14 precious metal ore...

J. A. Eisele A. H. Hunt D. L. Lampshire

1988-01-01

416

Use of electrolysis for removal of cyanides, phenols and oils from wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

The data available in the literature on the use of electrolysis for removal of cyanides, phenols and oils from wastewaters are systematized. Designs of industrial electrolysis cells are described. 37 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Kharlamova, T.A.; Tedoradze, G.A.

1981-02-01

417

Determination of Cyanide in Aluminum Industrial Waste Water by Ion Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ion chromatography, coupled with electrochemical detection, was applied in determining cyanide concentrations in the waste waters generated by the processing of calthode electrodes in the aluminum industry. Ion chromatography data were compared with the r...

D. L. Wilson H. B. Durham R. C. Thurnau

1986-01-01

418

Chemical degradation of cyanides by Fenton's reagent in aqueous and soil-containing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the effects of pH of the medium, composition of Fenton's reagent, and the effect of soil's preequilibration with the chemical, on the degradation of [sup 14]C-labeled free and complex cyanide in aqueous and soil-containing systems. The application of Fenton's reagent resulted in degradation of 80% and 67% of potassium cyanide in aqueous systems at pH

Boris N. Aronstein; Raheem A. Lawal; Andrea Maka

1994-01-01

419

Degradation of cyanide by Trichoderma mutants constructed by restriction enzyme mediated integration (REMI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

REMI technique was used to construct mutants with improved cyanide-degradation ability from biocontrol fungus Trichoderma koningii strain T30. The plasmid pV2 transformation was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Out of 21 transformants, 15 single-copied transformants (71.4%) were found. To compare enzyme activities of rhodanese and cyanide hydratase, T. atroviride T23, T. harzianum T21 and their transformants constructed by

Xiaoying Zhou; Shufa Xu; Lixing Liu; Jie Chen

2007-01-01

420

Cyanide content of cassava ( Manihot esculenta , Euphorbiaceae) cultivars used by Tukanoan Indians in Northwest Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a cyanide-containing food crop used by many indigenous peoples in Amazonia. Tukanoan Indians in Northwest Amazonia utilize\\u000a both “bitter” and “sweet” cassava cultivars. Those classified as “bitter” are the dietary staple. Analysis of 13 commonly\\u000a used “bitter” cultivars indicates that they are high in cyanide in comparison to values reportedin the literature. The Tukanoan\\u000a practice of

Darna L. Dufour

1988-01-01

421

Novel Ni?Fe-oxide systems for catalytic oxidation of cyanide in an aqueous phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic activity of mixed Ni?Fe oxide systems with respect to air oxidation of aqueous cyanide solution at 308 K was investigated.\\u000a The catalysts employed were prepared by an oxidation-precipitation method at room temperature and were characterized by powder\\u000a X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The cyanide oxidation rate was found to be dependent\\u000a on the catalyst's calcination temperature,

Maria K. Stoyanova; Stoyanka G. Christoskova

2005-01-01

422

The recovery of silver from mining wastewaters using hybrid cyanidation and high-pressure membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this work was to investigate the recovery of silver from mining wastewaters using a hybrid cyanidation and high-pressure membrane process. The tested hybrid process in lab-scale experiments includes the concentration and recovery of silver by nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) after the silver is taken into solution as AgCN employing re-cyanidation and subsequent sedimentation and\\/or

H. Koseoglu; M. Kitis

2009-01-01

423

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}CsâNiFe (CN)â) were produced in a scavenging process to remove ¹³⁷Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance

W. I. Winters; K. H. Pool

1994-01-01

424

Measurement of the methyl cyanide E/A ratio in TMC-1.  

PubMed

We have observed the methyl cyanide (CH3CN) J = 2-1 K=0 and 1 transitions toward the cyanopolyyne peak of TMC-1 and have derived an E/A (ortho/para) abundance ratio NE/NA approximately 0.75 +/- 0.10. The total methyl cyanide column density is Ntotal = 5 10(12) cm-2 toward TMC-1, in agreement with earlier results from the J=1-0 lines. PMID:11539497

Minh, Y C; Irvine, W M; Ohishi, M; Ishikawa, S; Saito, S; Kaifu, N

1993-01-01

425

Electrochemical treatment of dilute cyanide solutions containing zinc complexes by oxidation at carbon felt (Sigratherm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of dilute solutions containing cyanide complexes of zinc using a carbon felt anode is described. The composition of the solution was determined using stability constants for particular complexes. The application of a GFA5 electrode enables the oxidation of cyanides (10 mmol dm-3) in 99.2% at 0.7 V and 30 C (1.5 Qt). Under these conditions, the electrical

A. Socha; E. Ku?mierek; E. Chrze?cija?ska

2002-01-01

426

Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)  

SciTech Connect

The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

1992-04-01

427

Impact of sodium cyanide on catalase activity in the freshwater exotic carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cyprinus carpio fingerlings on exposure to lethal (1mg\\/L) and sub lethal concentrations (0.066mg\\/L) of sodium cyanide showed inhibition in the activity of catalase. The disruption of catalase activity in freshwater fish, C. carpio is demonstrated in the present study using UV–visible spectrophotometer at 240nm using hydrogen peroxide as a substrate. It suggests toxic effects of sodium cyanide and consequent

Muniswamy David; Vadingadu Munaswamy; Ramesh Halappa; Shambangouda R. Marigoudar

2008-01-01

428

Pretreatment of Refractory and Cyanide-Containing Pesticide Wastewater Using Sodium Hypochlorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanide-containing wastewater mainly derives from chemical Engineering industry such as pesticide production, electroplating and metallurgy. It is very important to treat this kind of wastewater, because of the redundant toxic contaminants it contains.In this paper,using refractory and cyanide-containing pesticide wastewater as the subject investigated the effect of sodium hypochlorite to its pretreatment. The results show that sodium hypochlorite degradation

Zhou Li; Lin Hai; Fu Kaibin; Yu Lulu; Wang Xiu; Tan Yuansi

2010-01-01

429

Multiparameter behavioral analyses provide insights to mechanisms of cyanide resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Environmental toxicants influence development, behavior, and ultimately survival. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be an exceptionally powerful model for toxicological studies. Here, we develop novel technologies to describe the effects of cyanide toxicity with high spatiotemporal resolution. Importantly, we use these methods to examine the genetic underpinnings of cyanide resistance. Caenorhabditis elegans that lack the EGL-9 oxygen sensing enzyme have been shown to be resistant to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas produced by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. We demonstrate that the cyanide resistance exhibited by egl-9 mutants is completely dependent on the HIF-1 hypoxia-inducible factor and is mediated by the cysl-2 cysteine synthase, which likely functions in metabolic pathways that inactivate cyanide. Further, the expression of cysl-2 correlates with the degree of cyanide resistance exhibited in each genetic background. We find that each mutant exhibits similar relative resistance to HCN gas on plates or to aqueous potassium cyanide in microfluidic chambers. The design of the microfluidic devices, in combination with real-time imaging, addresses a series of challenges presented by mutant phenotypes and by the chemical nature of the toxicant. The microfluidic assay produces a set of behavioral parameters with increased resolution that describe cyanide toxicity and resistance in C. elegans, and this is particularly useful in analyzing subtle phenotypes. These multiparameter analyses of C. elegans behavior hold great potential as a means to monitor the effects of toxicants or chemical interventions in real time and to study the biological networks that underpin toxicant resistance. PMID:23805000

Saldanha, Jenifer N; Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

2013-06-26

430

Cyanide exposure affects the production and excretion of ammonia by the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddaerti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ammonia in the plasma of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddaerti exposed to cyanide for 1–6 days were significantly greater than the respective values of the controls. This was due to an increase in the production of NH3 in the muscle and an increase in the retention of NH3 and\\/or NH4+ in the blood of the cyanide-exposed fish when

Shit F Chew; Elaine Goh; Cheng B Lim; Yuen K Ip

1998-01-01

431

Kinetics of the reaction of gold cyanidation in the presence of a thallium(I) salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneous kinetics of gold cyanidation in the presence of a thallium(I) salt, which is known to act as accelerator of the reaction, are described in this paper. The rate of gold dissolution in the conventional gold cyanidation decreases dramatically at pH values higher than 11.5. The presence of thallium increases this maximum value of pH to over 13.5. The

J. M. Chimenos; M. Segarra; L. Guzman; A. Karagueorguieva; F. Espiell

1997-01-01

432

Adsorption of cyanide-containing species from dicyanoaurate solutions on gold electrodeposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of cyanide-containing species from 5 × 10?6–5 × 10?3 M KAu(CN)2 solutions in alkaline supporting electrolyte (0.1 M K3PO4) on gold electrodeposits was investigated over a wide potential range (from ?1.5 to 1.5 V\\/SHE) using the radioactive labeling (14C) method. The results obtained from dicyanoaurate solutions were compared with those obtained from cyanide solutions at the same total ligand

D. Poškus; G. Agafonovas

1995-01-01

433

Selection of a Commercial Anode Oxide Coating for Electrooxidation of Cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

® ) oxide coatings in the electrochemical process for cyanide oxidation. The coatings studied were 70TiO 2 \\/30RuO 2 and 55Ta 2 O 5 \\/45IrO 2 , on Ti substrate. The efficiency of both materials in the electro-oxidation of free cyanide was compared using linear voltammetry and electrolysis at constant potential. The 70TiO 2 \\/30RuO 2 electrode shows a better

Marcos Roberto; V. Lanza

2002-01-01

434

Plasma membrane hyperpolarization by cyanide in chromaffin cells: role of potassium channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to cyanide produces elevation of cytosolic calcium, impaired Na+?H+ exchange, membrane lipid peroxidation and release of neurotransmitters. Since these observations suggested cyanide alters\\u000a plasma membrane function, the present study examined the effect of NaCN on the membrane potential of undifferentiated PC12\\u000a cells in suspension. In PC12 cells loaded with the voltage sensitive fluorescent dye,

M. V. Latha; J. L. Borowitz; G. K. W. Yim; A. Kanthasamy; G. E. Isom

1994-01-01

435

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-14

436

Impedance spectroscopy and conductometric biosensing for probing catalase reaction with cyanide as ligand and inhibitor.  

PubMed

In this work, a new biosensor was prepared through immobilization of bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly (vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of a conductometric transducer. This biosensor was used to study the kinetics of catalase-H(2)0(2) reaction and its inhibition by cyanide. Immobilized catalase exhibited a Michaelis-Menten behaviour at low H(2)0(2) concentrations (<100mM) with apparent constant K(M)(app)=84±3mM and maximal initial velocity V(M)(app)=13.4?S min(-1). Inhibition by cyanide was found to be non-competitive and inhibition binding constant K(i) was 13.9±0.3?M. The decrease of the biosensor response by increasing cyanide concentration was linear up to 50?M, with a cyanide detection limit of 6?M. In parallel, electrochemical characteristics of the catalase/PVA biomembrane and its interaction with cyanide were studied by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Addition of the biomembrane onto the gold electrodes induced a significant increase of the interfacial polarization resistance R(P). On the contrary, cyanide binding resulted in a decrease of Rp proportional to KCN concentration in the 4 to 50?M range. Inhibition coefficient I(50) calculated by this powerful label-free and substrate-free technique (24.3?M) was in good agreement with that determined from the substrate-dependent conductometric biosensor (24.9?M). PMID:20813591

Bouyahia, Naima; Hamlaoui, Mohamed Larbi; Hnaien, Mouna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

2010-08-14

437

Cyanide-induced neurotoxicity: calcium mediation of morphological changes in neuronal cells.  

PubMed

Calcium channel blockade decreases the elevation of brain calcium as well as the tremors produced by cyanide in mice. To determine if cyanide-induced morphological changes could also be inhibited by calcium channel blockade, the effect of diltiazem was studied in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a neuronal model. Incubation with KCN (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) caused depletion of secretory granules, alignment of remaining granules along the plasma membrane, and mitochondrial swelling. All these effects were inhibited by pretreatment with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that cyanide (1 to 10 mM for 1 to 2 hr) produced loss of microvilli and bleb formation in PC12 cells. These changes were partially inhibited by preincubation with 0.01 mM diltiazem. Incubation of cells with 10 mM cyanide increased release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture media at 60 and 120 min. A decrease in cell viability, as determined by trypan blue dye exclusion, paralleled the release of LDH. At 120 min of cyanide incubation, 24% of the cells excluded dye. Both the release of LDH and decreased cell viability were attenuated by pretreatment with diltiazem. The results indicate that the influx of extracellular calcium is an important factor mediating cyanide-induced morphologic changes in neuronal cells. PMID:2330585

Maduh, E U; Turek, J J; Borowitz, J L; Rebar, A; Isom, G E

1990-04-01

438

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-21

439

Removal of cyanide from dilute solution using a cell with three-phase three-dimensional electrode.  

PubMed

The removal of cyanide from dilute solutions containing free cyanide or cuprocyanide was experimentally investigated using a new electrochemical reactor, three-phase three-dimensional electrode cell. The experimental results were assessed in term of removal efficiency of cyanide. The results showed that the reactor could efficiently remove cyanide from the two solutions. The removal efficiency reached as high as about 93% for the two solutions by electrolysis for 10 min at 20 V cell voltage and 0.16 m3/h airflow. It was also observed that the removal efficiency depended on the applied cell voltage, airflow, interelectrode and initial pH value of the containing-cyanide solution. The former two factors have a positive effect while the latter two have a negative effect on cyanide removal in the experimental range. PMID:12046668

Xiong, Ya; Zhong, Qingyang; An, Taicheng; Li, Yi; Cha, Zhanghong; Zhu, Xihai

2002-01-01

440

Level of Chemical Substances in Farm Crops Grown on Soil Irrigated by Waste Waters from by-Product Coking Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies were conducted on potatoes and maize grown on land irrigated with waste water from coking plants. Results showed that nitrates, ammonia, sulfates, and chlorides accumulated in the crops. Other organic substances such as sulfides, cyanides, and thi...

N. M. Barabanova L. P. Polushchuk L. A. Stemikovskaya

1973-01-01

441

Binding of Butyl Gallate to Plant Mitochondria 1  

PubMed Central

[14C]butyl gallate was used in binding studies to investigate the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in mitochondria isolated from a variety of sources displaying varying levels of cyanide resistance. Highly cyanide-resistant mitochondria were isolated from aroid spadices, while moderately cyanide-resistant mitochondria were isolated from either mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyls or carbon dioxide/oxygen/ethylene-treated tubers. Totally cyanide-sensitive mitochondria were isolated from untreated tubers and rat liver. With one exception, all the plant mitochondria showed a reversible butyl gallate binding site which saturated at a level of 1.0 to 2.0 nanomoles per milligram protein. The exception, freshly harvested white potato tubers (<1 month from harvest), showed little specific butyl gallate binding, and also showed no appreciable induction of the cyanide-resistant pathway following carbon dioxide/oxygen/ethylene treatment. Only a low level, linear binding, well below that seen with plant mitochondria, was observed with rat liver mitochondria. Taken together, these results suggest a model for the interaction of the alternative pathway with the cytochrome pathway. In this model, the butyl gallate binding site (alternative oxidase) is a constitutive component in those mitochondria that are capable of developing the alternative pathway, and the binding sites associated with a second, inducible component that functions to couple the oxidase to the cytochrome pathway.

Stegink, Steven J.; Siedow, James N.

1986-01-01

442

Space Foundation: Educator Professional Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Web site, the Space Foundation addresses its role in providing professional development for kindergarten through twelfth grade teachers. Educators can learn about the four in-service programs the Space Foundation offers in order to provide scientific materials and to demonstrate classroom applications. After filling out the free registration, educators can view five modules developed to help teachers establish space and earth science principles in their curriculum. These modules, discussing everything from the history of science and flight to various types of digital media, each have a pretest, discussion, posttest, activities for students, and an integration section. Teachers can also learn about the educational conference, The Celebration of Flight: Past, Present, and Future, on November 6 and 7, 2003; which includes an educator training, kindergarten through twelfth grade student activities, and tours of the United State Air Force Academy.

443

International Foundation for Election Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1987, the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) has provided technical assistance in all areas of election administration and election management. IFES is a non-profit non-governmental organization which has also been a part of the electoral process in over 100 countries over the past fifteen years. On the site, visitors can learn about the foundation's ongoing research projects, which revolve around a number of thematic issues such as civil society, rule of law and governance, and many others. Visitors may also be interested in the various employment opportunities and upcoming lectures and related events. The publication area is quite extensive as well, as it includes access to the tri-annually published magazine, _Elections Today_, and a number of other helpful white papers, reports, and surveys, such as Public Opinion in Ukraine and the annual reports.

444

Grassroots Development: The African Development Foundation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The African Development Foundation (ADF) is a small U.S. development assistance agency faced with supporting grassroots development in Africa. The report, is intended to assist Congress with decisions about the African Development Foundation's role in U.S...

1988-01-01

445

Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

Johnson, C. A.; Grimes, D. J.; Rye, R. O.

2000-01-01

446

A kinetic study on the bioremediation of sodium cyanide and acetonitrile by free and immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida capable of utilizing organic nitrile (acetonitrile) and inorganic cyanide (sodium cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and\\u000a nitrogen was isolated from contaminated industrial sites and waste water. The bacterium possesses nitrile aminohydrolase (EC\\u000a 3.5.5.1) and amidase (EC 3.5.1.4), which are involved in the transformation of cyanides and nitriles into ammonia and CO2 through the formation of amide

Kirit D. Chapatwala; G. R. V. Babu; Eddie R. Armstead; Evelyn M. White; James H. Wolfram

1995-01-01

447

Biodegradation of cyanides, cyanates and thiocyanates to ammonia and carbon dioxide by immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas putida   utilizes cyanide as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Agar, alginate, and carrageenan were screened as the encapsulating\\u000a matrices for P. putida. Alginate-immobilized cells of P. putida degraded sodium cyanide (NaCN) more efficiently than non-immobilized cells or cells immobilized in agar or carrageenan. The\\u000a end products of biodegradation of cyanide were identified as ammonia (NH3) and carbon

K D Chapatwala; G R V Babu; O K Vijaya; K P Kumar; J H Wolfram

1998-01-01

448

Removal of toxic cyanide and Cu(II) Ions from water by illuminated TiO 2 catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its strong complex formation potential, cyanide (CN?) has been used in a variety of metal processing and metal extracting processes. As a result, the wastewaters generated from such processes always contain a mixture of cyanide and metal ions. Photocatalytic degradation using ultraviolet-irradiated TiO2 suspension has been investigated for destroying both free and complex cyanide with a concurrent removal

M. A Barakat; Y. T Chen; C. P Huang

2004-01-01

449

A fluorescence turn-on detection of cyanide in aqueous solution based on the aggregation-induced emission.  

PubMed

The nucleophilic addition of cyanide to the trifluoroacetylamino group in 2 yields an amphiphilic species which would induce the aggregation of silole 1, and as a result, the fluorescence of the ensemble increases largely. Accordingly, a fluorescence turn-on detection of cyanide in aqueous solution can be established with the ensemble of silole 1 and compound 2. Also, this ensemble displays good selectivity toward cyanide over other common inorganic anions. PMID:19344183

Peng, Lihua; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing; Zhu, Daoben

2009-05-01

450

Cognitive Foundations for Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we provide an overview of scientific/technical literature on information visualization and VA. Topics discussed include an update and overview of the extensive literature search conducted for this study, the nature and purpose of the field, major research thrusts, and scientific foundations. We review methodologies for evaluating and measuring the impact of VA technologies as well as taxonomies that have been proposed for various purposes to support the VA community. A cognitive science perspective underlies each of these discussions.

Greitzer, Frank L.; Noonan, Christine F.; Franklin, Lyndsey

2011-02-25

451

Conceptual Foundations of Interrogative Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Reasoning by interrogation is one,of the,most ancient and experimented ways of reasoning. Originated by the Aristotelian elenchus, it has been used for many purposes, such as the resolution of mathematical and daily problems [25], [26], the discovery of new knowledge [19], [34], [36], the realization of questioning\\/answering processes [23]. In this paper we present the conceptual foundations of interrogative agents,

Vincenzo Deufemia; Giuseppe Polese; Genoveffa Tortora; Mario Vacca

2007-01-01

452

Foundations of responsibility for children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social?constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are important in the reflection on responsibility, that is, the social?culturally determined way in

Annemie Dillen

2008-01-01

453

Effects of cyanogenic plants on fitness in two host strains of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).  

PubMed

The generalist moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) consists of two genetic subgroups (host strains) that differ in their distribution among host plant species. The corn strain prefers crop plants such as corn, sorghum, and cotton, while the rice strain is found in small grasses such as Cynodon spp. and rice. Little is known about the physiological factors that drive this host preference. Here, we report a feeding study with natural host plants and an artificial diet containing cyanide. We found that corn, two Cynodon spp. (bermudagrass C. dactylon (L.) Persoon, 'NuMex Sahara', and stargrass C. nlemfuensis var. nlemfuensis Vanderyst, 'Florona'), and a hybrid between bermudagrass and stargrass, 'Tifton 85', exhibited differences in the concentration of the cyanogenic precursors or cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and the release of hydrogen cyanide per unit time or cyanogenic capacity (HCNc). Corn plants released low levels of hydrogen cyanide, while stargrass had greater HCNp/HCNc than bermudagrass and 'Tifton 85'. Feeding studies showed that corn strain larvae experienced higher mortality than the rice strain when fed stargrass or artificial diet supplemented with cyanide. Also, corn strain larvae excreted higher levels of cyanogenic compounds than the rice strain when fed Cynodon spp. These differences in excretion suggest potential disparities in cyanide metabolism between the two strains. We hypothesize that differences in the susceptibility to cyanide levels in various host plants could play a role in driving strain divergence and what appears to be the incipient speciation of this moth. PMID:22173887

Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Meagher, Robert L; Nagoshi, Rodney N

2011-12-16

454

Global SchoolNet Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet has facilitated thousands of collaborative learning environments and projects since its creation, and the Global SchoolNet Foundation has been there since the beginning. The Foundation traces its roots to the year 1984, when two San Diego teachers began linking their students to classrooms on the East Coast to participate in online writing projects. The actual Global Schoolhouse Project began in 1992, with a grant from the National Science Foundation. Currently, schools from over 100 countries participate in the various GlobalSchoolNet online projects. Simply put, both the project's mission and website are exemplars of the type of collaborative educational projects that have become possible via the Internet. First-time visitors will find much of interest here, including the collaboration center clearinghouse that contains helpful material on content, potential collaborative partners, learning tools, and implementation strategies, all related to online shared learning initiatives. Teachers will definitely want to visit the CyberFair section of the site as well. Here they can learn about this learning program where young people conduct research, publish their findings on the Web, and have the opportunity to garner accolades in one of eight categories, including local leaders, community organizations, and environment.

455

Moral Foundation Theory and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral foundation theory argues that there are five basic moral foundations: (1) harm\\/care, (2) fairness\\/reciprocity, (3) ingroup\\/loyalty, (4) authority\\/respect, and (5) purity\\/sanctity. These five foundations comprise the building blocks of morality, regardless of the culture. In other words, while every society constructs its own morality, it is the varying weights that each society allots to these five universal foundations that

Colin Prince

2010-01-01

456

Cognitive Foundations of Arithmetic: Evolution and Ontogenisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehaene (this volume) articulates a naturalistic approach to the cognitive foundations of mathematics. Further, he argues that the 'number line' (analog magnitude) system of representation is the evolutionary and ontogenetic foundation of numerical concepts. Here I endorse Dehaene's naturalistic stance and also his charac- terization of analog magnitude number representations. Although analog magnitude representations are part of the evolutionary foundations

Susan Carey

2001-01-01

457

National Science Foundation Annual Report, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Science Foundation is an independent federal agency created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 (P.L. 81-507). Its aim is to promote and advance scientific progress in the United States. The idea of such a foundation was an outgrow...

1988-01-01

458

Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

2010-01-01

459

The Community College Foundation Manual & Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of resources and information about community college foundations includes brief articles, selected data, materials from foundations, sample mission statements and articles of incorporation, sample forms and correspondence, relevant educational legislation, and other related materials from specific active foundations at two-year…

Anderson, James M., Comp.; Snyder, Tom, Comp.

460

New technologies and equipment for constructing foundations  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses new technologies for constructing combined foundations under large loads, a waste-free technology with sinking of driven piles to a given level on the basis of static sounding, a jet technology for constructing supports, the use of piles with small cross sections, methods of constructing foundations on slopes and sites with mine workings, and construction of foundations in rammed pits.

Goncharov, B.V.; Kogan, V.L.; Enikeev, A.Kh.; Khazin, V.G.

1994-05-01

461

National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowships for 19721973  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Research Council has been called upon again to advise the National Science Foundation in the selection of candiates for the Foundations program of graduate fellowships. Panels of outstanding scientists appointed by the Research Council will evaluate applications of candidates. Final selection will be made by the Foundation, with awards to be announced on March 15, 1972.

Anonymous

1971-01-01

462

Physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide at high pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-induced physical and chemical transformations of sodium cyanide (NaCN) have been studied up to 50 GPa in diamond-anvil cells, using micro-Raman spectroscopy and angle-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction. We observe three phase transitions in this pressure range: NaCN-IIA (orthorhombic, Immm), to NaCN-IIB (orthorhombic, Pmmn) at 4 GPa, to NaCN-III (monoclinic, Cm) at 8 GPa, and to NaCN-IV (tetragonal, P4mm) at 15 GPa, which is stable to 25 GPa. At higher pressures, NaCN-IV undergoes an irreversible chemical change, which occurs over a large pressure range between 25 and 34 GPa. The new material exhibits a broad yet strong Raman band at around 1550 cm-1, indicating the formation of C=N bonds in a similar configuration of carbon graphite. The absence of sharp diffraction lines in this material suggests an amorphous nature of CN polymer products.

Chen, Jing-Yin; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2009-10-01

463

Selective electrowinning of silver and gold from cyanide process solutions  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines investigated the selective electrowinning of Ag and Au from cyanide solutions contaminated with Cu, with the goal of decreasing the amount of Cu codeposited. Decreasing Cu codeposited will reduce refinery costs. Direct current was applied to the cell in pulsed and square wave voltages at 0.70 A [center dot] h per 150 mL of solution. Times tested for each cycle ranged from 1 to 100,000 ms. Graphite, lead, and stainless steel were evaluated as electrode materials. Square wave electrowinning at 70 C gave the best separation of Ag and Au from Cu. Applying 2.5 V during the duty cycle, 0.0 V the rest of the period, a duty cycle to 10 to 30%, and a period of 100 to 1,000 ms gave the following results: Ag concentrations decreased from 34 to 0.1 [mu]g/mL, Au concentrations decreased from 54 to 0.2 [mu]g/mL, and Cu concentrations remained almost constant at 560 [mu]g/mL.

Nehl, F.H.; Murphy, J.E.; Atkinson, G.B.; Walters, L.A.

1993-01-01

464

Electronic Structure of Hole-Doped Transition Metal Cyanides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic structures of hole-doped transition metal cyanides, Na0.84-xCo[Fe(CN)6]0.71\\cdot3.8H2O (NCF71), Na0.72-xNi[Fe(CN)6]0.68\\cdot5.1H2O (NNF68) and Na1.60-xCo[Fe(CN)6]0.90\\cdot2.9H2O (NCF90), were investigated by means of the x-ray absorption spectroscopy and the valence differential spectroscopy. The x-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the holes are introduced on the Fe, Fe, and Co sites for the NCF71, NNF68 and NCF90 films, respectively. Owning to the valence differential spectroscopy, we unambiguously assigned the spectral components to the respective optical transitions. We further found that an ab initio band calculation based on the local density approximation with the on-site Columbic repulsion (LDA+U) semi-quantitatively explains the optical transitions.

Kurihara, Yutaro; Funashima, Hiroki; Ishida, Masaya; Hamada, Noriaki; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Igarashi, Kazuhiro; Tanida, Hajime; Uruga, Tomoya; Moritomo, Yutaka

2010-04-01

465

Cyanide conversion to thiocyanate by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST)  

SciTech Connect

Cyanide (CN) metabolism by MPST may detoxify CN to its less harmful product thiocyanate (SCN). In addition, MPST displays greater activity than rhodanese in extramitochondrial sites and in other organs which may play an important role in CN's toxicity. A 3% (W/V) homogenate of bovine kidney MPST was prepared. It was assayed using CN and mercaptopyruvate. The buffered (pH 9.5) suspension was incubated for 10 minutes. The reaction was stopped with 38% formaldehyde containing 20% ferric nitrate in nitric acid and measured at 460 nm. Phosphate buffer decreased the apparent rate of conversion of CN to SCN by 90% compared with glycine, borate, or bistris propane buffers. Hypotaurine and propanethiosulfate, but not taurine or thiomallic acid, increased the activity of MPST in a dose-related manner; e.g., hypotaurine, 0.1, 1 and 10 mmole, increased MPST indicates that several compounds increase the rate of formation of SCN from CN and may provide a potential new class of antidotes against the toxicity of CN.

Baskin, S.I.; Wing, D.A.; Kirby, S.D.

1990-02-26

466

Metalloporphyrin Co(III)TMPyP ameliorates acute, sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice.  

PubMed

The formation of Co(III)TMPyP(CN)(2) at pH 7.4 has been shown to be completely cooperative (?(H) = 2) with an association constant of 2.1 (±0.2) × 10(11). The kinetics were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and revealed a complicated net reaction exhibiting 4 phases at pH 7.4 under conditions where cyanide was in excess. The data suggest molecular HCN (rather than CN(-)) to be the attacking nucleophile around neutrality. The two slower phases do not seem to be present when cyanide is not in excess, and the other two phases have rates comparable to that observed for cobalamin, a known effective cyanide scavenger. Addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not affect the cooperativity of cyanide binding to Co(III)TMPyP, only lowered the equilibrium constant slightly to 1.2 (±0.2) × 10(11) and had an insignificant effect on the observed rate. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of Co(III)TMPyP as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of Co(III)TMPyP to sodium cyanide intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving mice to right themselves from a supine position being significantly decreased (9 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (33 ± 2 min). All observations were consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of Co(III)TMPyP operating through a cyanide-binding (i.e., scavenging) mechanism. PMID:23148604

Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Amoscato, Andrew A; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

2012-12-03

467

Heterologous expression analyses of rice OsCAS in Arabidopsis and in yeast provide evidence for its roles in cyanide detoxification rather than in cysteine synthesis in vivo  

PubMed Central

While most dicot plants produce little ethylene in their vegetative stage, many monocots such as rice liberate a relatively large amount of ethylene with cyanide as a co-product in their seedling stage when etiolated. One of the known functions of ?-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) is to detoxify the co-product cyanide during ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants. Based on a tryptic peptide sequence obtained from a partially purified CAS activity protein preparation in etiolated rice seedlings, the full-length putative rice CAS-encoding cDNA sequence (OsCAS), which is homologous to those O-acetylserine sulphydrylase (OASS) genes, was cloned. Unlike most of the CAS genes reported from dicots, the transcription of OsCAS is promoted by auxins but suppressed by ethylene. To address the function and the subcellular localization of this gene product in planta, a binary vector construct consisting of this gene appended with a yellow fluorescent protein-encoding sequence was employed to transform Arabidopsis. Specific activities on CAS and OASS of the purified recombinant protein from transgenic Arabidopsis were 181.04 ?mol H2S mg?1 protein min?1 and 0.92 ?mol Cys mg?1 protein min?1, respectively, indicating that OsCAS favours CAS activity. The subcellular localization of OsCAS was found mostly in the mitochondria by immunogold electron-microscopy. Chemical cross-linking and in-gel assay on a heterodimer composed of functional and non-functional mutants in a yeast expression system on OsCAS suggested that OsCAS functions as a homodimer, similar to that of OASS. Despite the structural similarity of OsCAS with OASS, it has also been confirmed that OsCAS could not interact with serine-acetyltransferase, indicating that OsCAS mainly functions in cyanide detoxification.

Lai, Kwok Wai; Yau, Chi Ping; Tse, Yu Chung; Jiang, Liwen; Yip, Wing Kin

2009-01-01

468

Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor  

PubMed Central

Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era.

Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M.; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P.; Tuinstra, Mitchell R.

2013-01-01

469

QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

2010-01-01

470

Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).  

PubMed

The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources. PMID:23395455

Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

2013-02-08

471

Forward Genetics by Genome Sequencing Reveals That Rapid Cyanide Release Deters Insect Herbivory of Sorghum bicolor.  

PubMed

Whole genome sequencing has allowed rapid progress in the application of forward genetics in model species. In this study, we demonstrated an application of next-generation sequencing for forward genetics in a complex crop genome. We sequenced an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant of Sorghum bicolor defective in hydrogen cyanide release and identified the causal mutation. A workflow identified the causal polymorphism relative to the reference BTx623 genome by integrating data from single nucleotide polymorphism identification, prior information about candidate gene(s) implicated in cyanogenesis, mutation spectra, and polymorphisms likely to affect phenotypic changes. A point mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of dhurrinase2, which encodes a protein involved in the dhurrin catabolic pathway, was responsible for the acyanogenic phenotype. Cyanogenic glucosides are not cyanogenic compounds but their cyanohydrins derivatives do release cyanide. The mutant accumulated the glucoside, dhurrin, but failed to efficiently release cyanide upon tissue disruption. Thus, we tested the effects of cyanide release on insect herbivory in a genetic background in which accumulation of cyanogenic glucoside is unchanged. Insect preference choice experiments and herbivory measurements demonstrate a deterrent effect of cyanide release capacity, even in the presence of wild-type levels of cyanogenic glucoside accumulation. Our gene cloning method substantiates the value of (1) a sequenced genome, (2) a strongly penetrant and easily measurable phenotype, and (3) a workflow to pinpoint a causal mutation in crop genomes and accelerate in the discovery of gene function in the postgenomic era. PMID:23893483

Krothapalli, Kartikeya; Buescher, Elizabeth M; Li, Xu; Brown, Elliot; Chapple, Clint; Dilkes, Brian P; Tuinstra, Mitchell R

2013-07-26

472

Cyanide-induced alteration of cytosolic pH: involvement of cellular hydrogen ion handling processes.  

PubMed

Neuronal cells exposed to cyanide rapidly lose the capacity to regulate internal Ca2+ homeostasis, thereby accumulating an excess cytosolic Ca2+ load. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of KCN on another important ion: hydrogen ion. KCN (1-10 mM) rapidly decreased intracellular pH (pHi) of cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as indicated by the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Removal of Ca2+ from the media or pretreating the cells with diltiazem (10(-5) M), a calcium channel blocker, delayed the onset and reduced the magnitude of the drop in pHi. Lowering the pH of the incubation medium (pHo) to 6.9 exaggerated the drop in pHi, while raising it to 7.9 attenuated the change in pHi. Removal of Na+ from the media enhanced the cyanide effect. Reintroduction of Na+ or substitution with Li+ reversed the cytosolic acidification, suggesting involvement of the Na+/H+ exchanger in the cyanide action. Pretreatment of cells with amiloride, 0.2 mM, blunted the cytosolic acidification induced by KCN, possibly by decreasing intracellular Na+ accumulation and disrupting H+ efflux. Cyanide thus produces a rapid dysfunction of hydrogen ion handling mechanisms and this may play a role in cyanide neurotoxicity. PMID:2256111

Maduh, E U; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

1990-11-01

473

Cyanide-induced alteration of the adenylate energy pool in a rat neurosecretory cell line.  

PubMed

Cultures of a rat PC12 pheochromocytoma neurosecretory cell line were used to determine the responsiveness of oxidative energy status of isolated neuronal cells to cyanide exposure. Intracellular levels of ATP and its immediate metabolites, ADP and AMP, were measured in monolayer cultures of PC12 cells incubated for 0-30 min with KCN (10 mM). Over the period 2.5-30 min. cyanide treatment decreased ATP levels by 32-51% but ADP and AMP levels were not altered significantly. Additionally, ATP/ADP and ATP/AMP ratios were significantly reduced in KCN-intoxicated cells. These alterations in energy status may explain the prompt ablation of ion homeostasis reported previously in this model upon exposure to KCN. The energy-depleting actions of cyanide were not modified by pretreatment of cells with diltiazem, a calcium channel antagonist demonstrated to possess cytoprotective activity against histotoxic hypoxia induced by cyanide. Since PC12 cells rapidly respond to cyanide, with predictable depletions of the cell adenylate energy pool, this cell line can serve as a suitable in vitro model for studies of neurotoxicity involving ischemic/hypoxic conditions. PMID:2061557

Maduh, E U; Borowitz, J L; Isom, G E

1991-04-01

474

High cyanide level in a homicide victim burned after death: evidence of post-mortem diffusion.  

PubMed

Elevated levels of carbon monoxide and cyanide serve as evidence of intravital burning in fire victims. Hydrogen cyanide is released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic material such as plastics and wool. We present a case of a man who died of haemopneumothorax caused by a stab wound. According to several eye witnesses the body was wrapped in a plastic sheet and burned 2 days after death with the aid of gasoline. No coal pigment was observed in the mucosa of the upper airways at autopsy. The blood sample taken from the pulmonary vessels 6 days after death disclosed a level of blood carboxyhaemoglobin of 4% and of blood cyanide of 10 mg/l. The low carboxy-haemoglobin level was consistent with the smoking habits of the victim. The thoracic cavity had been opened by burning of the intercostal soft tissue. This allowed hydrogen cyanide gas to enter the thoracic cavity and diffuse into the blood probably causing the high blood-cyanide level. PMID:1649787

Karhunen, P J; Lukkari, I; Vuori, E

1991-03-01

475

Foundational issues in evolution education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a great need for effective evolution education. This paper reviews some of the evidence that demonstrates that need and analyzes some of the foundational semantic, epistemological, and philosophical issues involved. This analysis is used to provide a functional understanding of the distinction between science and non-science. Special emphasis is placed the scientific meaning of the terms theory, hypothesis, fact, proof, evidence, and truth, focusing on the difference between religious belief and acceptance of a scientific theory. Science is viewed as theologically neutral and as not mutually exclusive from religion. Finally, a number of practical recommendations to the classroom biology teacher are presented.

Smith, Mike U.; Siegel, Harvey; McIn