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1

Complete Genome Structure of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, a Cyanobacterium that Lacks Thylakoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of a cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 was determined. The genome of G. violaceus was a single circular chromosome 4,659,019 bp long with an average GC content of 62%. No plasmid was detected. The chromosome comprises 4430 potential protein-encoding genes, one set of rRNA genes, 45 tRNA genes representing 44 tRNA species and

Yasukazu Nakamura; Takakazu Kaneko; Shusei Sato; Mamoru Mimuro; Hideaki Miyashita; Tohru Tsuchiya; Shigemi Sasamoto; Akiko Watanabe; Kumiko Kawashima; Yoshie Kishida; Chiaki Kiyokawa; Mitsuyo Kohara; Midori Matsumoto; Ai Matsuno; Naomi Nakazaki; Sayaka Shimpo; Chie Takeuchi; Manabu Yamada; Satoshi Tabata

2003-01-01

2

The Plasma Membrane of the Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus Contains Segregated Bioenergetic Domains C W  

E-print Network

The Plasma Membrane of the Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus Contains Segregated Bioenergetic the appearance of thylakoids and harbors the photosynthetic complexes in the plasma membrane. Thus, studies on G membranes, it does have localized domains with apparently specialized functions in its plasma membrane

Roegner, Matthias

3

The Plasma Membrane of the Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus Contains Segregated Bioenergetic Domains[C][W  

PubMed Central

The light reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis almost invariably take place in the thylakoid membranes, a highly specialized internal membrane system located in the stroma of chloroplasts and the cytoplasm of cyanobacteria. The only known exception is the primordial cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus, which evolved before the appearance of thylakoids and harbors the photosynthetic complexes in the plasma membrane. Thus, studies on G. violaceus not only shed light on the evolutionary origin and the functional advantages of thylakoid membranes but also might include insights regarding thylakoid formation during chloroplast differentiation. Based on biochemical isolation and direct in vivo characterization, we report here structural and functional domains in the cytoplasmic membrane of a cyanobacterium. Although G. violaceus has no internal membranes, it does have localized domains with apparently specialized functions in its plasma membrane, in which both the photosynthetic and the respiratory complexes are concentrated. These bioenergetic domains can be visualized by confocal microscopy, and they can be isolated by a simple procedure. Proteomic analysis of these domains indicates their physiological function and suggests a protein sorting mechanism via interaction with membrane-intrinsic terpenoids. Based on these results, we propose specialized domains in the plasma membrane as evolutionary precursors of thylakoids. PMID:21642550

Rexroth, Sascha; Mullineaux, Conrad W.; Ellinger, Dorothea; Sendtko, Esther; Rogner, Matthias; Koenig, Friederike

2011-01-01

4

Unique properties vs. common themes: the atypical cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 is capable of state transitions and blue-light-induced fluorescence quenching.  

PubMed

The atypical unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, which diverged very early during the evolution of cyanobacteria, can be regarded as a key organism for understanding many structural, functional, regulatory and evolutionary aspects of oxygenic photosynthesis. In the present work, the performance of two basic photosynthetic adaptation/protection mechanisms, common to all other oxygenic photoautrophs, had been challenged in this ancient cyanobacterium which lacks thylakoid membranes: state transitions and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching. Both low temperature fluorescence spectra and room temperature fluorescence transients show that G. violaceus is capable of performing state transitions similar to evolutionarily more recent cyanobacteria, being in state 2 in darkness and in state 1 upon illumination by weak blue or far-red light. Compared with state 2, variable fluorescence yield in state 1 is strongly enhanced (almost 80%), while the functional absorption cross-section of PSII is only increased by 8%. In contrast to weak blue light, which enhances fluorescence yield via state 1 formation, strong blue light reversibly quenches Chl fluorescence in G. violaceus. This strongly suggests regulated heat dissipation which is triggered by the orange carotenoid protein whose presence was directly proven by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry in this primordial cyanobacterium. The results are discussed in the framework of cyanobacterial evolution. PMID:22302714

Bernát, Gábor; Schreiber, Ulrich; Sendtko, Esther; Stadnichuk, Igor N; Rexroth, Sascha; Rögner, Matthias; Koenig, Friederike

2012-03-01

5

The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an “evolutionary curiosity” with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide. PMID:23823729

Mares, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kana, Radek; Ventura, Stefano; Strunecky, Otakar; Komarek, Jiri

2013-01-01

6

Study, by use of coarse-grained models, of the functionally crucial residues and allosteric pathway of anesthetic regulation of the Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel.  

PubMed

Although pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) have been found to be the targets of general anesthetics, the mechanism of the effects of anesthetics on pLGICs remains elusive. pLGICs from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) can be inhibited by the anesthetic ketamine. X-ray crystallography has shown that the ketamine binding site is distant from the channel gate of the GLIC. It is still not clear how ketamine controls the function of the GLIC by long-range allosteric regulation. In this work, the functionally crucial residues and allosteric pathway of anesthetic regulation of the GLIC were identified by use of a coarse-grained thermodynamic method developed by our group. In our method, the functionally crucial sites were identified as the residues thermodynamically coupled with binding of ketamine. The results from calculation were highly consistent with experimental data. Our study aids understanding of the mechanism of the anesthetic action of ketamine on the GLIC by long-range allosteric modulation. PMID:25367560

Li, Xing Yuan; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Jing Chao; Su, Ji Guo

2014-12-01

7

Cyanobacterial Light-Driven Proton Pump, Gloeobacter Rhodopsin: Complementarity between Rhodopsin-Based Energy Production and Photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

A homologue of type I rhodopsin was found in the unicellular Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421, which is believed to be primitive because of the lack of thylakoids and peculiar morphology of phycobilisomes. The Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) gene encodes a polypeptide of 298 amino acids. This gene is localized alone in the genome unlike cyanobacterium Anabaena opsin, which is clustered together with 14 kDa transducer gene. Amino acid sequence comparison of GR with other type I rhodopsin shows several conserved residues important for retinal binding and H+ pumping. In this study, the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and bound all-trans retinal to form a pigment (?max ?=?544 nm at pH 7). The pKa of proton acceptor (Asp121) for the Schiff base, is approximately 5.9, so GR can translocate H+ under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). In order to prove the functional activity in the cell, pumping activity was measured in the sphaeroplast membranes of E. coli and one of Gloeobacter whole cell. The efficient proton pumping and rapid photocycle of GR strongly suggests that Gloeobacter rhodopsin functions as a proton pumping in its natural environment, probably compensating the shortage of energy generated by chlorophyll-based photosynthesis without thylakoids. PMID:25347537

Choi, Ah Reum; Shi, Lichi; Brown, Leonid S.; Jung, Kwang-Hwan

2014-01-01

8

Cyanobacterial Light-Driven Proton Pump, Gloeobacter Rhodopsin: Complementarity between Rhodopsin-Based Energy Production and Photosynthesis.  

PubMed

A homologue of type I rhodopsin was found in the unicellular Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421, which is believed to be primitive because of the lack of thylakoids and peculiar morphology of phycobilisomes. The Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) gene encodes a polypeptide of 298 amino acids. This gene is localized alone in the genome unlike cyanobacterium Anabaena opsin, which is clustered together with 14 kDa transducer gene. Amino acid sequence comparison of GR with other type I rhodopsin shows several conserved residues important for retinal binding and H+ pumping. In this study, the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and bound all-trans retinal to form a pigment (?max ?=?544 nm at pH 7). The pKa of proton acceptor (Asp121) for the Schiff base, is approximately 5.9, so GR can translocate H+ under physiological conditions (pH 7.4). In order to prove the functional activity in the cell, pumping activity was measured in the sphaeroplast membranes of E. coli and one of Gloeobacter whole cell. The efficient proton pumping and rapid photocycle of GR strongly suggests that Gloeobacter rhodopsin functions as a proton pumping in its natural environment, probably compensating the shortage of energy generated by chlorophyll-based photosynthesis without thylakoids. PMID:25347537

Choi, Ah Reum; Shi, Lichi; Brown, Leonid S; Jung, Kwang-Hwan

2014-01-01

9

A cyanobacterium which lacks thylakoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gloebacter violaceus gen. and sp. n. is a unicellular photosynthetic prokaryote of unusual cellular structure. The only unit membrane in the small, rod-shaped cells is the cytoplasmic membrane, which has a simple contour, without intrusions. Immediately underlying it is an electron-dense layer 80 nm thick. Gloeobacter is an aerobic photoautotroph which contains chlorophyll a, ß-carotene and other carotenoids, allophycocyanin, phycocyanin

R. Rippka; J. Waterbury; G. Cohen-Bazire

1974-01-01

10

Cultivation and Complete Genome Sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a Lava Cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421T is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain's genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1T, from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i. The strain's genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1T and G. violaceus PCC 7421T genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1T, for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1T has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute's Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1T genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1T may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:24194836

Saw, Jimmy H. W.; Schatz, Michael; Brown, Mark V.; Kunkel, Dennis D.; Foster, Jamie S.; Shick, Harry; Christensen, Stephanie; Hou, Shaobin; Wan, Xuehua; Donachie, Stuart P.

2013-01-01

11

Cultivation and complete genome sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a lava cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i.  

PubMed

The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421(T) is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain's genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1(T), from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i. The strain's genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1(T) and G. violaceus PCC 7421(T) genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1(T), for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1(T) has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute's Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1(T) genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1(T) may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:24194836

Saw, Jimmy H W; Schatz, Michael; Brown, Mark V; Kunkel, Dennis D; Foster, Jamie S; Shick, Harry; Christensen, Stephanie; Hou, Shaobin; Wan, Xuehua; Donachie, Stuart P

2013-01-01

12

Photosynthesis Research 72: 307319, 2002. 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

in the Netherlands. 307 Regular paper Photosystem I from the unusual cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus Dedicated performance liquid chromatography; IEC ­ ion exchange chromatography; GF ­ gel filtration; LHC I ­ light

Roegner, Matthias

13

Reconstitution of Gloeobacter Rhodopsin with Echinenone: Role of the 4-keto Group†  

PubMed Central

In previous work we reconstituted salinixanthin, the C40-carotenoid acyl glycoside that serves as a light-harvesting antenna to light-driven proton pump xanthorhodopsin, into a different protein, gloeobacter rhodopsin expressed in E. coli, and demonstrated that it transfers energy to the retinal chromophore (Imasheva et al. 2009. Biochemistry 48, 10948). The key to binding of salinixanthin was the accommodation of its ring near the retinal ?-ionone ring. Here we examine two questions: do any of the native Gloeobacter carotenoids bind to gloeobacter rhodopsin, and does the 4-keto group of the ring play a role in binding. There is no salinixanthin in Gloeobacter violaceous, but a simpler carotenoid, echinenone, also with a 4-keto group that lacks the acyl glycoside, is present in addition to ?-carotene and oscillol. We show that ?-carotene does not bind to gloeobacter rhodopsin, but its 4-keto derivative, echinenone, does and functions as a light-harvesting antenna. This indicates that the 4-keto group is critical for the carotenoid binding. Further evidence for this is that salinixanthol, an analogue of salinixanthin in which the 4-keto group is reduced to hydroxyl, does not bind and is not engaged in energy transfer. According to the crystal structure of xanthorhodopsin, the ring of salinixanthin in the binding site is turned out of the plane of the polyene conjugated chain. Similar conformation is expected for echinenone in the gloeobacter rhodopsin. We suggest that the 4-keto group in salinixanthin and echinenone allows for the twisted conformation of the ring around C6-C7 bond and probably is engaged in interaction that locks the carotenoid in the binding site. PMID:20942439

Balashov, Sergei P.; Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Liaaen-Jensen, Synn?ve; Lanyi, Janos K.

2010-01-01

14

Male satin bowerbirds ( Ptilonorhynchus violaceus ) compensate for sexual signal loss by enhancing multiple display features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have focussed on the relationship between female choice and the multiple exaggerated sexual traits of males.\\u000a However, little is known about the ability of males to actively enhance specific components of their display in response to\\u000a the loss of one component. We investigated the capacity of male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) to respond to the loss of one

Benjamin D. Bravery; Anne W. Goldizen

2007-01-01

15

Looking at both sides of the invasion: patterns of colonization in the violet tunicate Botrylloides violaceus.  

PubMed

Understanding the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape the genetic structure of invasive populations and facilitate their expansion across a large spectrum of environments is critical for the prediction of spread and management of ongoing invasions. Here, we study the dynamics of postestablishment colonization in the colonial ascidian Botrylloides violaceus, a notorious marine invader. After its initial introduction from the Northwest Pacific, B. violaceus spread rapidly along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America, impacting both aquaculture facilities and natural ecosystems. We compare genetic diversity and patterns of gene flow among 25 populations (N=679) from the West and East coasts, and evaluate the contribution of sexual vs. asexual reproduction to this species' invasion success using data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 13 nuclear polymorphic microsatellite loci. Our results reveal contrasting patterns of spread in the coastal waters of North America. While the West coast was colonized by noncontiguous (long-distance) dispersal, the East coast invasion appears to have occurred through contiguous (stepping-stone) spread. Molecular data further indicate that although dispersal in colonial ascidians is predominantly achieved through sexually produced propagules, aquaculture practices such as high-pressure washing can facilitate fragmentation and potentially exacerbate infestations and spread via asexual propagules. The results presented here suggest that caution should be used against the general assumption that all invasions, even within a single species, exhibit similar patterns of colonization, as highly contrasting dynamics may transpire in different invaded ranges. PMID:21199029

Bock, D G; Zhan, A; Lejeusne, C; MacIsaac, H J; Cristescu, M E

2011-02-01

16

GISH and AFLP analyses of novel Brassica napus lines derived from one hybrid between B. napus and Orychophragmus violaceus.  

PubMed

New Brassica napus inbred lines with different petal colors and with canola quality and increased levels of oleic (approximately 70%, 10% higher than that of B. napus parent) and linoleic (28%) acids have been developed in the progenies of one B. napus cv. Oro x Orychophragmus violaceus F5 hybrid plant (2n = 31). Their genetic constituents were analyzed by using the methods of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP). No intact chromosomes of O. violaceus origin were detected by GISH in their somatic cells of ovaries and root tips (2n = 38) and pollen mother cells (PMCs) with normal chromosome pairing (19 bivalents) and segregation (19:19), though signals of variable sizes and intensities were located mainly at terminal and centromeric parts of some mitotic chromosomes and meiotic bivalents at diakinesis or chromosomes in anaphase I groups and one large patch of chromatin was intensively labeled and separated spatially in some telophase I nuclei and metaphase II PMCs. AFLP analysis revealed that substantial genomic changes have occurred in these lines and O. violaceus-specific bands, deleted bands in 'Oro' and novel bands for two parents were detected. The possible mechanisms for these results were discussed. PMID:16770628

Ma, Ni; Li, Zai-Yun; Cartagena, J A; Fukui, K

2006-10-01

17

Microbial community dynamics of soil mesocosms using Orychophragmus violaceus combined with Rhodococcus ruber Em1 for bioremediation of highly PAH-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Understanding of the effects of perturbation strategies on soil microorganisms is helpful in optimizing bioremediation systems and enhancing their efficiency. Four soil mesocosms were constructed for bioremediation of highly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using the flowering plant Orychophragmus violaceus and/or bacterium Rhodococcus ruber Em1. Bacterial community dynamics were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing, and Em1 abundance was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the diversity of the bacterial community increased gradually with time; the degree of increase was in the order mesocosm PE (combination of O. violaceus and Em1), mesocosm WE (Em1), mesocosm PC (O. violaceus only), mesocosm WA (attenuation). Increased diversity may be predictive of PAH degradation. O. violaceus had a marked effect on bacterial community evolution and promoted the growth of Em1. The bacterial community of mesocosm PE gradually separated from the others, as indicated by Venn diagrams and weight-principal component analysis. Abundances of the families Cytophagaceae?+?Nocardioidaceae?+?Iamiacaeae (Actinobacteria), and Alcanivoracaceae?+?Pseodomonadaceae?+?Xanthomonadaceae (Gammaproteobacteria) were positively correlated with PAH degradation. Our findings help bridge the gap between field bioremediation and laboratory approaches, provide insight into processes of microbial ecological recovery, and will be useful in developing strategies to optimize bioremediation by modifying plant-microbe interaction patterns. PMID:25081560

Sun, Guang-Dong; Xu, Yang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Pei

2014-12-01

18

The effect of temperature on the germination of Melocactus violaceus Pfeiff. (Cactaceae), a threatened species in restinga sandy coastal plain of Brazil.  

PubMed

Melocactus violaceus is an endangered species due to habitat destruction and the overcollection of this species for ornamental use. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different temperatures on the germination of M. violaceus. Three treatments were conducted: a constant temperature of 25şC, a 20-35şC alternating temperature, both inside germination chamber, and an alternating temperature under room temperature (mean temperature ranged from 25-37şC). The final seed germination rates at the alternating temperature treatments were not significantly different (65% in the seed germinator and 62.5% at room condition). However, both treatments with alternating temperatures had significantly higher germination rates compared to the treatment kept at the constant temperature (8%). Our study showed that alternating temperatures between 20 and 37şC provides satisfactory conditions to induce a high percentage of seed germination of M. violaceus, without the passage of seeds through the digestive tract of its natural disperser, the lizard Tropidurus torquatus. This condition contributes to efficiently producing seedlings that can be reintroduced into conservation areas or used as ornamentals that may help reduce the overcollection of the remaining native populations. PMID:23828368

Zamith, Luiz R; Cruz, Denise D; Richers, Bárbara T T

2013-01-01

19

Heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.  

PubMed Central

The morphological and ultrastructural aspects of heterocyst differentiation in the branching, filamentous cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus were examined with light and electron microscopy. The earliest differentiation stages involved cytoplasmic changes, including (i) rapid degradation of carboxysomes, (ii) degradation of polysaccharide granules, and (iii) accumulation of electron-dense ribosomal or protein material (or both). Intermediate differentiation stages involved synthesis of a homogeneous extra wall layer, development of necks leading to adjacent cells, and elaboration of a complex system of intracytoplasmic membranes. Late differentiation stages included further development of necks and continued elaboration of membranes. Mature heterocysts possessed a uniformly electron-dense cytoplasm that contained large numbers of closely packed membranes, some of which were arranged in lamellar stacks. Mature heterocysts lacked all of the inclusion bodies present in undifferentiated vegetative cells, but contained a number of unusual spherical inclusions of variable electron density. Cells in both narrow and wide filaments were capable of differentiating. No regular heterocyst spacing pattern was observed in the narrow filaments; the number of vegetative cells between consecutive heterocysts of any given filament varied by a factor of 10. Heterocysts developed at a variety of locations in the wide, branching filaments, although the majority of them were situated adjacent to branch points. M. laminosus displayed a marked tendency to produce sets of adjacent heterocysts or proheterocysts (or both) that were not separated from each other by vegetative cells. Groups of four or more adjacent heterocysts or proheterocysts occurred frequently in wide filaments, and in some of these filaments virtually all of the cells appeared to be capable of differentiating into heterocysts. Images PMID:6420391

Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Balkwill, D L; Stevens, S E

1984-01-01

20

Myxococcal predation of the cyanobacterium Phormidium luridum in aqueous environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Myxococcus xanthus, and a strain of Myxococcus fulvus were compared with respect to their ability to entrap and lyse trichomes of the cyanobacterium Phormidium luridum var. olivaceae. All of these isolates form colonial aggregates and spherules in either axenic culture with a tryptone-salts medium or in a mixed culture with viable cyanobacterial cells as the sole source

Jeffrey C. Burnham; Susan A. Collart; Melvin J. Daft

1984-01-01

21

Fermentative metabolism to produce hydrogen gas and organic compounds in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non nitrogen-fixing and filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis NIES-46 produced hydrogen gas, ethanol, and low molecular organic acids auto-fermentatively under dark and anaerobic conditions. The fermentative productivity was enhanced by incubating the cyanobacterium under nitrogen-starved conditions. Cell-free extracts of the cyanobacterium catalyzed hydrogen production by the addition of acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate. Pyruvate-degrading and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were observed in

Katsuhiro Aoyama; Ieaki Uemura; Jun Miyake; Yasuo Asada

1997-01-01

22

Hormogonium Differentiation in the Cyanobacterium Calothrix: A Photoregulated Developmental Process.  

PubMed Central

Hormogonium differentiation is part of the developmental cycle in many heterocystous cyanobacteria. Hormogonia are involved in the dispersal and survival of the species in its natural habitat. The formation of these differentiated filaments has been shown to depend on several environmental conditions, including spectral light quality. We report here morphological and ultrastructural changes associated with the formation of hormogonia, as well as optimal light conditions required for their differentiation in the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp PCC 7601. The action spectrum for hormogonium differentiation is similar to that which triggers complementary chromatic adaptation because red and green radiation display antagonistic effects in both cases. However, these two photoregulated processes also show major differences. Transcription analyses of genes that are specifically expressed during hormogonium differentiation, as well as of genes encoding phycobiliproteins, suggest that two different photoregulatory pathways may exist in this cyanobacterium. PMID:12324595

Damerval, T; Guglielmi, G; Houmard, J; De Marsac, NT

1991-01-01

23

Cytochemical changes in the developmental process of Nostoc sphaeroides (cyanobacterium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several apparent developmental stages in the life cycle of Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing, an edible cyanobacterium found mainly in paddy fields in central China. The cytochemical changes in developmental\\u000a stages such as hormogonia, aseriate stage, filamentous stage and colony in N. sphaeroides were examined using fluorescent staining and colorimetric methods. The staining of acidic and sulfated polysaccharides increased\\u000a with

Dunhai Li; Wei Xing; Genbao Li; Yongding Liu

2009-01-01

24

Draft Genome Sequence of an Oscillatorian Cyanobacterium, Strain ESFC-1  

PubMed Central

The nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium strain ESFC-1 has recently been isolated from a marine microbial mat system, where it was identified as belonging to a recently discovered lineage of active nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this isolate. The assembly consists of 3 scaffolds and contains 5,632,035 bp with a GC content of 46.5%. PMID:23908279

Everroad, R. Craig; Woebken, Dagmar; Singer, Steven W.; Burow, Luke C.; Kyrpides, Nikos; Woyke, Tanja; Goodwin, Lynne; Detweiler, Angela; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie

2013-01-01

25

Modelling of growth conditions for cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cultivation conditions on the growth of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was investigated by using two types of photobioreactors. In a rotative photobioreactor the doubling time (td) was 3.54 days. The better value found for td in an aerated photobioreactor by changing the initial nitrogen concentration (NaNO3) at 0.003, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.060?M was 2.5 days. A factorial

Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Giani Andrea Linde; Daniel Ibraim Pires Atala; Guilherme Martinez Mibielli; Roselini Trapp Krüger

2000-01-01

26

Photosynthetic metabolism of cyanate by the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 degraded exogenously supplied cyanate (as KOCN) to CO2 and NH3 in a light-dependent reaction. NH3 release to the medium was as high as 80 µmol(mgChl)-1h-1 and increased 1.7-fold in the presence of methionine sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. Cyanate also supporte photosynthetic O2 evolution to a maximum rate of 188 µmol

Anthony G. Miller; George S. Espie

1994-01-01

27

Antialgal activity of a hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activity of toxin produced by a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa has been studied. When tested against certain green algae, cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, the toxin inhibited growth of only green algae and cyanobacteria. The toxin has been partially purified employing Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques and appears to be microcystin-LR (leucine–arginine). Both

Dhananjaya P. Singh; M. B. Tyagi; Arvind Kumar; J. K. Thakur; Ashok Kumar

2001-01-01

28

The Cyanobacterium (Order Stigonematales) Suspected of Causing Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy Is Confirmed in Florida Fresh Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a disease that has been reported to cause significant mortalities of birds such as bald eagles and waterfowl in the southeastern United States sinse 1994. The most likely etiological agent of AVM is a neurotoxin that originates from an unnamed toxic cyanobacterium in the Order Stigonematales. This cyanobacterium is epiphytic on submersed macrophytes. most notably

B. James Williams Jr; Cecilia Puchulutegui; Jan H. Landsberg; Sarah K. Williams

2009-01-01

29

Thrombin inhibitors from the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena compacta.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided investigation of the cyanobacterium Anabaena compacta extracts afforded spumigin J (1) and the known thrombin inhibitor spumigin A (2). The absolute configuration of 1 was analyzed by advanced Marfey's methodology. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited thrombin with EC(50) values of 4.9 and 2.1 ?M, and 0.7 and 0.2 ?M in the cathepsin B inhibitory assay, respectively. The MM-GBSA methodology predicted spumigin A with 2S-4-methylproline as the better thrombin inhibitor. PMID:22950366

Anas, Andrea Roxanne J; Kisugi, Takaya; Umezawa, Taiki; Matsuda, Fuyuhiko; Campitelli, Marc R; Quinn, Ronald J; Okino, Tatsufumi

2012-09-28

30

Chemokinetic motility responses of the cyanobacterium oscillatoria terebriformis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oscillatoria terebriformis, a gliding, filamentous, thermophilic cyanobacterium, exhibited an inhibition of gliding motility upon exposure to fructose. The observed response was transient, and the duration of nonmotility was directly proportional to the concentration of fructose. Upon resumption of motility, the rate of motility was also inversely proportional to the concentration of fructose. Sulfide caused a similar response. The effect of sulfide was specific and not due to either anoxia or negative redox potential. Exposure to glucose, acetate, lactate, or mat interstitial water did not elicit any motility response.

Richardson, Laurie L.; Castenholz, Richard W.

1989-01-01

31

Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in cyanobacterial cultures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

2014-09-30

32

First description of a cyanophage infecting the1 cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina)2  

E-print Network

1 First description of a cyanophage infecting the1 cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina of Applied Phycology 25 (2013) 195-203" #12;2 Introduction1 The genus Arthrospira (ex Spirulina) is a non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Entrapment and lysis of the cyanobacterium Phormidium luridum by aqueous colonies of Myxococcus xanthus PCO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Myxococcus xanthus isolate from a farm drainage ditch, designated strain PCO2, is capable of rapidly inducing lysis of both agar and liquid-grown cultures of the cyanobacterium, Phormidium luridum, var. olivacea. Microscopic studies of the predator-prey interaction demonstrate that lysis of the cyanobacterium occurs within clumps and spherules formed by the cells of M. xanthus PCO2. In the earliest stage,

Jeffrey C. Burnham; Susan A. Collart; Barbara W. Highison

1981-01-01

34

Effects of Heavy-Metal Stress on Cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of two metals, copper and cadmium, was studied on the growth and ultrastructures of cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae grown at three different temperatures: 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. The highest concentration of chlorophyll a was observed at 20°C and the lowest at 10°C. Both toxic metal ions, Cu 2+ and Cd 2+, inhibited growth of the tested cyanobacterium. Chlorophyll a

W. Surosz; K. A. Palinska

2004-01-01

35

Regulation of uridylic acid biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

The pathway of uridylic acid biosynthesis established by Leiberman, Kornberg, and Simms has been shown to be operative in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. The only enzyme of uridylic acid biosynthesis found to be lacking in two uracil-requiring strains of A. variabilis was aspartate transcarbamylase, the first enzyme in the pathway of de novo biosynthesis of uridvlic acid. Neither uracil-limited growth of a uracil-requiring mutant nor growth of the wild type in high concentrations of uracil resulted in substantial changes in the specific activities of enzymes of uridylic acid biosynthesis. It is therefore concluded that A. variabilis does not regulate all enzymes of this pathway by means of repression. However, control of the flow of intermediates through this pathway is possible by feedback inhibition of aspartate transcarbamylase by a variety of nucleotides. PMID:30757

Currier, T C; Wolk, C P

1978-01-01

36

Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium  

SciTech Connect

The present study supplies interaction data for combinations of mercuric ion (supplied as mercuric chloride), atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate) when tested towards growth of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena inaequalis. Mercury is one of the most important heavy metal pollutants and has been widely used in toxicology research. Atrazine is the most heavily used pesticide in the United States and its residues are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Permethrin is an important insecticide with expanding markets and is presently being evaluated for its environmental impact. A. inaequalis has been used extensively in this laboratory in previous interaction studies.

Stratton, G.W.

1985-05-01

37

Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae. PMID:415043

Oren, A; Padan, E

1978-01-01

38

A New Lyngbyatoxin from the Hawaiian Cyanobacterium Moorea producens  

PubMed Central

Lyngbyatoxin A from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) is known as the causative agent of “swimmer’s itch” with its highly inflammatory effect. A new toxic compound was isolated along with lyngbyatoxin A from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies revealed the isolated compound had the same planar structure with that of lyngbyatoxin A. The results of optical rotation and CD spectra indicated that the compound was a new lyngbyatoxin A derivative, 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A (1). While 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A showed comparable toxicities with lyngbyatoxin A in cytotoxicity and crustacean lethality tests, it showed more than 100 times lower affinity for protein kinase C? (PKC?) using the PKC?-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. PMID:24824022

Jiang, Weina; Zhou, Wei; Uchida, Hajime; Kikumori, Masayuki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Bryan; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

39

Sodium-coupled motility in a swimming cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

The energetics of motility in Synechococcus strain WH8113 were studied to understand the unique nonflagellar swimming of this cyanobacterium. There was a specific sodium requirement for motility such that cells were immotile below 10 mM external sodium and cell speed increased with increasing sodium levels above 10 mM to a maximum of about 15 microns/s at 150 to 250 mM sodium. The sodium motive force increased similarly with increasing external sodium from -120 to -165 mV, but other energetic parameters including proton motive force, electrical potential, the proton diffusion gradient, and the sodium diffusion gradient did not show such a correlation. Over a range of external sodium concentrations, cell speed was greater in alkaline environments than in neutral or acidic environments. Monensin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone inhibited motility and affected components of sodium motive force but did not affect ATP levels. Cells were motile when incubated with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and arsenate, which decreased cellular ATP to about 2% of control values. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion that the direct source of energy for Synechococcus motility is a sodium motive force and that below a threshold of about -100 mV, cells are immotile. PMID:3112121

Willey, J M; Waterbury, J B; Greenberg, E P

1987-01-01

40

Radiation characteristics and optical properties of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica.  

PubMed

This study presents experimental measurements of the absorption and scattering cross sections and the spectral complex index of refraction of filamentous cyanobacteria. Filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica was chosen as a model organism. Its filaments consisted of long chains of polydisperse cells. Their average mass scattering and absorption cross sections were measured from 400 to 750 nm at four different times during their batch growth in medium BG-11(-N) under 3000 lux of white fluorescent light. The effective real (or refraction index) and imaginary (or absorption index) parts of the complex index of refraction were retrieved using an inverse method based on a genetic algorithm. The microorganisms were modeled as infinitely long and randomly oriented volume-equivalent cylinders. The absorption index featured peaks corresponding to chlorophyll a (Chl a) at 436 and 676 nm and phycocyanin (PCCN) at 630 nm and a shoulder around 480 nm, corresponding to photoprotective carotenoids. The absorption peaks of Chl a and PCCN concentrations increased and the shoulder due to carotenoids decreased in response to photolimitation caused by biomass growth. Subsequent nitrogen limitation caused the PCCN absorption peak to decrease significantly due to degradation of PCCN as an endogenous source of nitrogen for nitrogenase maintenance and synthesis, as confirmed by increasing heterocyst differentiation. The results can be used for predicting and optimizing light transfer in photobioreactors for wastewater treatment and ammonia or biofuel production. PMID:24695147

Heng, Ri-Liang; Lee, Euntaek; Pilon, Laurent

2014-04-01

41

Isolation and preliminary characterization of auxotrophs of a filamentous Cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

Auxotrophic mutants of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis were isolated by a method in which, after mutagenesis and before penicllin enrichment, mutant and wild-type cells were separated by cavitation. Auxotrophs were identified by their inability to grow on minimal medium, and they were partially characterized by replica plating to media supplemented with single nutrients or specific groups of nutrients. Of the 83 auxotrophs isolated, 65 required an inorganic source of nitrogen for growth. In addition, auxotrophs were isolated that required methionine (six), uracil (two), adenine (one), biotin (two), and nicotinic acid (two). (The number of isolates of each type is indicated in parentheses.) The nutrient requirements of five auxotrophs appeared complex and were not determined. A large proportion of the mutants requiring inorgainic fixed nitrogen was altered in the differentiation of heterocysts. The following morphological aberrancies were observed: abnormally high and abnormally low frequencies of heterocysts; thick, uneven heterocyst envelopes; incompletely developed pore regions; very distinct pore regions; and protoplasts separated from the envelope of the heterocyst. Spontaneously occurring, N2-fixing, prototrophic revertants of mutants with aberrant heterocysts have been isolated at a frequency of 2 X 10(-8) to 4 X 10(-8) of the cells plated. That most such revertants produced morphologically normal heterocysts is consisten with the idea that heterocysts play an essential role in aerobic N2 fixation. Images PMID:403180

Currier, T C; Haury, J F; Wolk, C P

1977-01-01

42

Purification and characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from a cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) was purified 100-fold from the cyanobacterium Coccochloris peniocystis with a yield of 10%. A single isozyme was found at all stages of purification, and activity of other beta-carboxylase enzymes was not detected. The apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme was 560,000. Optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0 and 40 degrees C, yielding a Vmax of 8.84 mumol/mg of protein per min. The enzyme was not protected from heat inactivation by aspartate, malate, or oxalacetate. Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics were observed for various concentrations of PEP, Mg2+, and HCO3-, yielding Km values of 0.6, 0.27, and 0.8 mM, respectively. Enzyme activity was inhibited by aspartate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates and noncompetitively inhibited by oxalacetate, while activation by any compound was not observed. However, the enzyme was sensitive to metabolic control at subsaturating substrate concentrations at neutral pH. These data indicate that cyanobacterial PEP carboxylase resembles the enzyme isolated from C3 plants (plants which initially incorporate CO2 into C3 sugars) and suggest that PEP carboxylase functions anapleurotically in cyanobacteria. PMID:3093461

Owttrim, G W; Colman, B

1986-01-01

43

Multiphase calcification associated with the atmophytic cyanobacterium Scytonema julianum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scytonema julianum, which is an atmophytic cyanobacterium that lives in small clusters in shaded vadose settings throughout the world, is prone to rapid calcification. Specimens found on cavity walls in an inactive spring tower located in Shiqiang (Stone Wall) in China and cavity walls in a breccia that fills sinkholes in dolostones of the Cayman Formation (Miocene) on Grand Cayman are morphologically identical. The microbes (4-11 ?m diameter) are encased with thick, well-developed calcified sheaths with external diameters of 11 to 25 ?m, which developed through the sequential precipitation of amorphous CaCO3 (ACC), acicular calcite crystals, triradiate calcite crystals, and dendrite calcite crystals. The paragenetic relationship of these precipitates to the skeletal rhombic crystals that cover some specimens is unknown. Precipitation probably took place in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that covered the microbes when they were alive. Critically, the type of crystal evident on the surface of the sheath depends on the thickness of the calcified sheath, which is in accord with the sequential development of the different crystal forms. Available evidence indicates that precipitation was largely "microbially influenced" rather than "environment influenced" and also demonstrates that crystals commonly morphed from one crystal form into another as precipitation progressed. There is, for example, clear evidence that the dendrite crystals developed from the triradiate crystals. S. julianum can play a significant role in the development of microbialites in vadose settings by acting as nuclei for CaCO3 precipitation.

Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

2014-11-01

44

Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan  

PubMed Central

Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20?m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium–shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom. PMID:25112498

Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Isomura, Naoko; Sakai, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

45

Optimization of antibiotic production by the cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. TISTR 8208 immobilized on polyurethane foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacteriumScytonema sp. TISTR 8208 was cultivated under illumination with a polyurethane foam sheet as the biomass-supporting material. The cyanobacterium produced an antibiotic with a broad spectrum in the post-exponential phase of growth. Modification of the composition of the BGA medium by adding 1.5 g 1?1 NaNO3, increasing the Fe2(SO4)3.6H2O concentration to 0.025 g 1?1 not adding NaCl, using an

Aparat Chetsumon; Kenji Fujieda; Kazumasa Hirata; Kiyohito Yagi; Yoshiharu Miura

1993-01-01

46

Molecular characterization of an adenylate cyclase gene of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

A cyaA gene, encoding an adenylate cyclase, was isolated from a filamentous cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis, by functional complementation of a cya mutant of Escherichia coli, defective in adenylate cyclase activity. The predicted gene product of cyaA contains a signal peptide-like domain, a putative sensor domain similar to the gene product of vsrA of Pseudomonas solanacearum, a putative membrane-spanning domain and an adenylate cyclase-like catalytic domain. Two other positive clones that complemented the E. coli mutant were isolated from the same cyanobacterium, suggesting that several cya genes are functioning in S. platensis. PMID:8704152

Yashiro, K; Sakamoto, T; Ohmori, M

1996-04-01

47

Antagonistic interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about interactions between filamentous heterotrophs and filamentous cyanobacteria. Here, interactions between the filamentous heterotrophic bacteria Fibrella aestuarina (strain BUZ 2) and Fibrisoma limi (BUZ 3) with an axenic strain of the autotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum (SAG 25.82) were studied in mixed cultures under nutrient rich (carbon source present in medium) and poor (carbon source absent in medium) conditions. Findings F. aestuarina BUZ 2 significantly reduced the cyanobacterial population whereas F. limi BUZ 3 did not. Physical contact between heterotrophs and autotroph was observed and the cyanobacterial cells showed some level of damage and lysis. Therefore, either contact lysis or entrapment with production of extracellular compounds in close vicinity of host cells could be considered as potential modes of action. The supernatants from pure heterotrophic cultures did not have an effect on Nostoc cultures. However, supernatant from mixed cultures of BUZ 2 and Nostoc had a negative effect on cyanobacterial growth, indicating that the lytic compounds were only produced in the presence of Nostoc. The growth and survival of tested heterotrophs was enhanced by the presence of Nostoc or its metabolites, suggesting that the heterotrophs could utilize the autotrophs and its products as a nutrient source. However, the autotroph could withstand and out-compete the heterotrophs under nutrient poor conditions. Conclusions Our results suggest that the nutrients in cultivation media, which boost or reduce the number of heterotrophs, were the important factor influencing the outcome of the interplay between filamentous heterotrophs and autotrophs. For better understanding of these interactions, additional research is needed. In particular, it is necessary to elucidate the mode of action for lysis by heterotrophs, and the possible defense mechanisms of the autotrophs. PMID:21914201

2011-01-01

48

Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ?30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic

Jana Stöckel; Jon M. Jacobs; Thanura R. Elvitigala; Michelle L. Liberton; Eric A. Welsh; Ashoka D. Polpitiya; Marina A. Gritsenko; Carrie D. Nicora; David W. Koppenaal; Richard D. Smith; Himadri B. Pakrasi; Timothy Ravasi

2011-01-01

49

Stable transformation of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 induced by UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation of the photoheterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with low levels of UV light allows for stable, integrative transformation of these cells by heterologous DNA. In this system, transformation does not rely on an autonomously replicating plasmid and is independent of homologous recombination. Cells treated with UV light in the absence of DNA and cells given DNA but not

V. A. Dzelzkalns; L. Bogorad

1986-01-01

50

Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria. RESULTS: Deciphering the 5,172,804 bp sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa

Lionel Frangeul; Philippe Quillardet; Anne-Marie Castets; Jean-François Humbert; Diego Cortez; Andrew Tolonen; Cheng-Cai Zhang; Simonetta Gribaldo; Jan-Christoph Kehr; Yvonne Zilliges; Nadine Ziemert; Sven Becker; Emmanuel Talla; Amel Latifi; Alain Billault; Anthony Lepelletier; Elke Dittmann; Christiane Bouchier; Nicole Tandeau de Marsac

2008-01-01

51

Effects of phosphorus starvation versus limitation on the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4 II  

E-print Network

Effects of phosphorus starvation versus limitation on the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED and phosphorus cycles and shift these ecosys- tems towards P limitation (Karl, 1999; 2007). Thus, a thorough of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04103, USA. Summary Phosphorus (P) availability drives niche differentia- tion

52

Photoinactivation of photosystem II during photoinhibition in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sites of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative damage to the photosynthetic electrontransport system of the unicellular cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were identified by studies of the kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence induction by whole cells at room temperature and from partial photosynthetic electron-transport reactions in vitro in thylakoid preparations. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity decreased following photoinhibitory light treatment. This was attributed to decreases both in

E. M. Tytler; G. C. Whitelam; M. F. Hipkins; G. A. Codd

1984-01-01

53

Expression of Escherichia coli Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in a Cyanobacterium' Functional Complementation of Synechococcus PCC 7942 ppc  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene (ppc) coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942 has been inactivated via insertional mutagenesis while being function- ally complemented by Escherichia coli ppc. cyanobacterial cells functionally complemented by E. coli ppc showed decreased PEP- Case activity in crude cell lysates and detergent-permeabilized whole cell assays. Decreased rates of growth, reduced levels of chlorophyll a,

John R. Coleman

54

CRISPR-Cas Systems in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Exhibit Distinct Processing  

E-print Network

CRISPR-Cas Systems in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Exhibit Distinct Processing, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats ­ CRISPR associated proteins) system provides adaptive immunity in archaea and bacteria

Will, Sebastian

55

Draft Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. Strain Heron Island J, Exhibiting Chromatic Acclimation  

PubMed Central

Leptolyngbya sp. strain Heron Island is a cyanobacterium exhibiting chromatic acclimation. However, this strain has strong interactions with other bacteria, making it impossible to obtain axenic cultures for sequencing. A protocol involving an analysis of tetranucleotide frequencies, G+C content, and BLAST searches has been described for separating the cyanobacterial scaffolds from those of its cooccurring bacteria. PMID:24503993

Paul, Robin; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Buss, Kristina; Steel, Jason; Mohr, Remus; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Chen, Min

2014-01-01

56

Effects of iron limitation on the expression of metabolic genes in the marine cyanobacterium  

E-print Network

Effects of iron limitation on the expression of metabolic genes in the marine cyanobacterium Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Summary Iron deficiency the major iron-binding pro- teins, including psbA and psbE of photosystem II, psaA and psaC of photosystem I

57

Molybdate transport and its effect on nitrogen utilization in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Molybdenum is an essential component of the cofactors of many metalloenzymes including nitrate reductase and Mo-nitrogenase. The cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 uses nitrate and atmospheric N 2 as sources of nitrogen for growth. Two of the three nitrogenases in this strain are Mo-depen- dent enzymes, as is nitrate reductase; thus, transport of molybdate is important for growth of

Marta Zahalak; Brenda Pratte; Kelly J. Werth; Teresa Thiel

58

Major Role of the Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium in Nutrient Cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is a large (about 0.5 by 3 millimeters) phytoplankter that is common in tropical open-ocean waters. Measurements of abundance, plus a review of earlier observations, indicate that it, rather than the picophytoplankton, is the most important primary producer (about 165 milligrams of carbon per square meter per day) in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, nitrogen

Edward J. Carpenter; Kristen Romans

1991-01-01

59

Exopolysaccharide production by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 in batch and continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The halotolerant, filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 released, during the stationary growth phase in batch culture and, at low dilution rate, in continuous culture, large amounts of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) to the culture medium. Different environmental, nutritional and physical parameters affected production and accumulation of the EPS. The presence of either a combined nitrogen source or NaCl at

José Moreno; M. Angeles Vargas; Héctor Olivares; Joaqu??n Rivas; Miguel G Guerrero

1998-01-01

60

Transient state characteristics of changes in light conditions for the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii was subjected to changes in irradiance and to changes in light period. During transient states parameters as growth rate, pigment contents, photosynthetic activities and pool sizes of carbohydrate and proteins were followed. The changes in pigments and photosynthesis were similar for irradiance transitions and transitions in light period length. Carbohydrates served for the supply of carbon

A. F. Post

1987-01-01

61

Structural Identification of Glycerolipid Molecular Species Isolated from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.  

E-print Network

Structural Identification of Glycerolipid Molecular Species Isolated from Cyanobacterium- erolipids, were first isolated together from a fresh ex- tract. Using fast atom bombardment mass spectrome of the gliding movement of the Cytophaga- Flexibacter group of gliding bacteria, it was found that unusual

Kim, Myung Soo

62

Diversity of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium : characterization of the Woods Hole culture collection and quantification of field populations  

E-print Network

Trichodesmium is a colonial, N2-fixing cyanobacterium found in tropical oceans. Species of Trichodesmium are genetically similar but several species exist together in the same waters. In order to coexist, Trichodesmium ...

Hynes, Annette Michelle

2009-01-01

63

TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803  

SciTech Connect

The capture of solar energy and its conversion into chemical energy in photosynthetic organisms involves a series of charge reactions across photosynthetic membranes. Oxygen is generated by a proton-electron coupling in photosystem II (PSII) during a water oxidation process where hydrogen is extracted from water terminally bound to a Mn4Ca1Clx inorganic cluster [1]. Manganese is, therefore, an essential catalytic element for photosynthetic growth in cyanobacteria and plants. Since bioavailability of this micronutrient largely depends on the Mn concentration in natural environments, cells have to manage its uptake in order to endure Mn fluctuations. Previous studies have shown that metal biosorption in cyanobacteria can occur by passive adsorption to their outer membrane (pool A), and by metabolically mediated internal uptake [2]. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 has been widely used as a model organism for studying photosynthetic processes. This Gram-negative organism has an intricate architecture of internal thylakoid membranes where photosynthetic electron transfer takes place. Here we report on the spatial distribution of Mn biosorbed by cells in both external pool A and intracellular pool B, as observed and analyzed by methods of TEM. The Synechocystis 6803 cells were cultured in BG11 medium at 30 C with continuous irradiance and constant air bubbling. To determine the influence of solid or liquid Mn substrate and its oxidation state on the cell biosorption ability, cells were exposed to two Mn substrates: 1mM solution of MnCl2, and 0.5mM suspension of nanocrystalline MnO2. Cells were incubated with the respective Mn solutions for 48 hours, harvested, and processed using a modified protocol for plastic embedding of bacterial samples containing minerals that was developed in our laboratory [3]. In order to preserve the fragile redox conditions within the cells, all the common heavy metal-based fixatives and stains were omitted, resulting in cells with very low contrast produced principally by electron-dense manganese precipitates. Thin sections were imaged and analyzed using JEOL 2010 HRTEM coupled with EDS (Oxford) and EELS (Gatan) systems. Manganese uptake was measured using a colorimetric method. Cells incubated with Mn solutions were able to take up about 150uM of Mn(II) or Mn(IV) in 48 hours. The predominant accumulation of Mn was associated with the outer membrane for both Mn substrates. Massive deposits seemed to be related in a large extent to the external polymeric substances (EPS) as shown in Fig. 1A-C. Elemental analyses of these precipitates revealed a signal consistent with manganese phosphate. The potential of EPS such as polysaccharides for biosorption or reduction of metals has been described [4], however, the fact that Mn bound to the EPS withstood multiple washes during TEM sample processing is remarkable. From our work with Gram-negative soil bacteria, we hypothesized that the periplasm, an area between the outer and plasma membrane, might be the storage space for internal Mn in pool B. This phenomenon was not observed at any time point for either culture exposed to the Mn. Instead, thin layers of Mn deposits were often found lining the outer and plasma membrane (F). In the MnCl2 solution only, we also observed fine deposits of Mn precipitates along the thylakoid membranes deep inside the cells (Fig. E). Localization of Mn precipitation sites in Synechocystis has important implications for better understanding of the Mn transport and storage processes within cyanobacterial cells, as well as of metal precipitation, solubilization and cycling in the environment.

Dohnalkova, Alice; Bilskis, Christina L.; Kennedy, David W.

2006-09-01

64

Bouillonamide: A Mixed Polyketide-Peptide Cytotoxin from the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii  

PubMed Central

The tropical marine cyanobacterium, Moorea bouillonii, has gained recent attention as a rich source of bioactive natural products. Continued chemical investigation of this cyanobacterium, collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea, yielded a novel cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptide, bouillonamide (1), along with previously reported molecules, ulongamide A and apratoxin A. Planar structure of bouillonamide was established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including multi-edited HSQC, TOCSY, HBMC, and ROESY experiments. In addition to the presence of ?-amino acid residues, compound 1 contained two unique polyketide-derived moieties, namely a 2-methyl-6-methylamino-hex-5-enoic acid (Mmaha) residue and a unit of 3-methyl-5-hydroxy-heptanoic acid (Mhha). Absolute stereochemistry of the ?-amino acid units in bouillonamide was determined mainly by Marfey’s analysis. Compound 1 exhibited mild toxicity with IC50’s of 6.0 µM against the neuron 2a mouse neuroblastoma cells. PMID:23966034

Tan, Lik Tong; Okino, Tatsufumi; Gerwick, William H.

2013-01-01

65

Interaction of uranium with a filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa.  

PubMed

The filamentous, heterocystous, diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa was found to bind uranium from aqueous solutions containing 100 ?M uranyl carbonate at pH 7.8. The uranyl sequestration kinetics exhibited (a) an initial rapid phase, binding 48% uranium within 30 min resulting in a loading of 56 mg U g(-1) of dry wt, followed by (b) a slower phase, binding 65% uranium with resultant loading of 77.35 mg U g(-1) in 24h. Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of uranium loaded biomass revealed all components of UL X-rays (UL(l), UL(?), UL(?1) and UL(?2)). Heat killed cells or extracellular polysaccharides derived from live cells exhibited limited uranyl binding (~26%) highlighting the importance of cell viability for optimum uranyl binding. The present study revealed the involvement of acid soluble polyphosphates in uranium accumulation by this brackish water cyanobacterium. PMID:22522016

Acharya, C; Chandwadkar, P; Apte, S K

2012-07-01

66

Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spec- trometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification us- ing peptide mass fingerprinting (matrix-assisted laser desorption

Martin Ekman; Petter Tollback; Birgitta Bergman

2008-01-01

67

Cellular localization of cytochrome c 553 in the N 2 -fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “in situ” location of the electron carrier protein cytochrome C553 (cyt c553) has been investigated in both vegetative cells and heterocysts of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 using the antibody-gold technique, carried out as a post-ernbedding immunoelectron microscopy procedure. When using a rabbit polyclonal anti-cyt c553 specific antiserum an intense labelling, associated mainly with the cell periphery (cytoplasmic

Aurelio Serrano; Patricia Giménez; Siegfried Scherer; Peter Biiger

1990-01-01

68

Modeling Phosphate Influence on Arsenate Reduction Kinetics by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic speciation in natural surface-water systems can be highly impacted through biological processes that result in non-thermodynamically\\u000a predicted species to dominate the system. In laboratory experiments, arsenate reduction by a freshwater cyanobacterium exhibited\\u000a saturation kinetics increasingly inhibited by elevating solution phosphate concentrations. Approximately 100% arsenate reduction\\u000a occurred by days 4, 7, and 10 in the low (0.35 µm), middle (3.5 µm), and

Christopher T. Markley; Bruce E. Herbert

2010-01-01

69

A new UV-A/B protecting pigment in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune  

SciTech Connect

A new ultraviolet (UV)-A/B absorbing pigment with maxima at 312 and 330 nanometers from the cosmopolitan terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is described. The pigment is found in high amounts (up to 10% of dry weight) in colonies grown under solar UV radiation but only in low concentrations in laboratory cultures illuminated by artificial light without UV. Its experimental induction by UV as well as its capacity to efficiently protect Nostoc against UV radiation is reported.

Scherer, S.; Chen, T.W.; Boeger, P. (Universitaet Konstanz (West Germany))

1988-12-01

70

Eucapsitrione, an Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Anthraquinone Derivative from the Cultured Freshwater Cyanobacterium Eucapsis sp.  

PubMed Central

Eucapsitrione (1), an anthraquinone derivative with an indeno-anthracene-trione skeleton, was isolated from the cyanobacterium Eucapsis sp. (UTEX 1519) by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structure was determined by analyzing MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Eucapsitrione (1) showed anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity in the microplate Alamar blue assay and low-oxygen-recovery assay with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.4 µM, respectively. PMID:20795743

Sturdy, Megan; Krunic, Aleksej; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott; Orjala, Jimmy

2010-01-01

71

Eucapsitrione, an anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis anthraquinone derivative from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium Eucapsis sp.  

PubMed

Eucapsitrione (1), an anthraquinone derivative with an indeno-anthracene-trione skeleton, was isolated from the cyanobacterium Eucapsis sp. (UTEX 1519) by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structure was determined by analyzing MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Eucapsitrione (1) showed anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity in the microplate Alamar blue assay and low-oxygen-recovery assay with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.4 microM, respectively. PMID:20795743

Sturdy, Megan; Krunic, Aleksej; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott; Orjala, Jimmy

2010-08-27

72

Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa response to pentachlorophenol and comparison with that of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.  

PubMed

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) effects on a strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated at laboratory scale. This is the first systematic ecotoxicity study of the effects of PCP on an aquatic cyanobacterium. The microalga Chlorella vulgaris was studied in the same conditions as the cyanobacterium, in order to compare the PCP toxicity and its removal by the species. The cells were exposed to environmental levels of PCP during 10 days, in Fraquil culture medium, at nominal concentrations from 0.01 to 1000 ?g L(-1), to the cyanobacterium, and 0.01 to 5000 ?g L(-1), to the microalga. Growth was assessed by area under growth curve (AUC, optical density vs time) and chlorophyll a content (chla). The toxicity profiles of the two species were very different. The calculated effective concentrations EC20 and EC50 were much lower to M. aeruginosa, and its growth inhibition expressed by chla was concentration-dependent while by AUC was not concentration-dependent. The cells might continue to divide even with lower levels of chla. The number of C. vulgaris cells decreased with the PCP concentration without major impact on the chla. The effect of PCP on M. aeruginosa is hormetic: every concentration studied was toxic except 1 ?g L(-1), which promoted its growth. The legal limit of PCP set by the European Union for surface waters (1 ?g L(-1)) should be reconsidered since a toxic cyanobacteria bloom might occur. The study of the removal of PCP from the culture medium by the two species is an additional novelty of this work. M. aeruginosa could remove part of the PCP from the medium, at concentrations where toxic effects were observed, while C. vulgaris stabilized it. PMID:24462928

de Morais, Paulo; Stoichev, Teodor; Basto, M Clara P; Ramos, V; Vasconcelos, V M; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

2014-04-01

73

Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m² basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input

Yoshitomo Watanabe; D. O. Hall; J. De La Nouee

1995-01-01

74

The response of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis to increased NaCl concentrations (0.25–1.0 M) in addition to the concentration of sodium in the growth medium were studied. A two stage response to the salt stress was observed. This consisted of a relatively short shock stage, followed by adaptation process. It was shown that upon exposure to high salt concentrations of

Avigad Vonshak; Rachel Guy; Micha Guy

1988-01-01

75

Phenotype and temperature affect the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon in a cyanobacterium Microcystis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Microcystis is the most common bloom-forming species in eutrophicated water bodies. Known eco-physiological advantages of this organism\\u000a help it to compete effectively with other algae and cyanobacteria; however, little is known about the physiological characteristics\\u000a competence of colonial Microcystis. In the present study, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and the transcription\\u000a of

Xinghua Wu; Zhongxing Wu; Lirong Song

76

Expression of the Gene for the ?9 Acyl-Lipid Desaturase in the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-copy gene resembling the gene for the ?9 acyl- lipid desaturase (desC) was cloned from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus. Expression of desC in Escherichia coli confirmed that it encodes the ?9 desaturase. The nucleotide sequence of the desC was characterized by high G+C content that is typical of the sequences of thermophilic bacteria. The deduced amino acid sequence

Larisa L. Kiseleva; Tatiana S. Serebriiskaya; Ibolya Horvŕth; Lŕszlo Vigh; Alexander A. Lyukevich; Dmitry A. Los

2000-01-01

77

Novelties of Heat Shock Response in the Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Sp. Strain L-31  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t Studies on heat shock response in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain L-31 revealed the synthesis of several Hsps, many of which were similar to those observed in Escherichia coli in terms of molecular mass. Of the several Hsps synthesised, the 59 and 61 kDa GroEL proteins, which act as molecular chaperones,

Hema Rajaram; Shree Kumar Apte

78

Light-dependent expression of superoxide dismutase from cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygenic phototrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 inevitably evolves superoxide during photosynthesis. Synechocystis 6803 contains only one type of superoxide dismutase, designated as SodB; therefore, this protein plays an important role in preventing oxidative damages caused by light. Because there was no direct evidence that SodB in Synechocystis 6803 could be regulated by light, the relationship between SodB

Jae-Hyun Kim; Kyong Hoon Suh

2005-01-01

79

Early candidacy for differentiation into heterocysts in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 fixes dinitrogen facultatively. Upon depletion of combined nitrogen, about 10% of vegetative cells within the\\u000a filaments differentiate terminally into nitrogen-fixing cells. The heterocyst has been studied as a model system of prokaryotic\\u000a cell differentiation, with major focus on signal transduction and pattern formation. The fate of heterocyst differentiation\\u000a is determined at about the

Masakazu Toyoshima; Naobumi V. Sasaki; Makoto Fujiwara; Shigeki Ehira; Masayuki Ohmori; Naoki Sato

2010-01-01

80

Molecular characterization of an adenylate cyclase gene of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyaA gene, encoding an adenylate cyclase, was isolated from a filamentous cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis, by functional complementation of a cya mutant of Escherichia coli, defective in adenylate cyclase activity. The predicted gene product of cyaA contains a signal peptide-like domain, a putative sensor domain similar to the gene product of vsrA of Pseudomonas solanacearum, a putative membrane-spanning domain and

Kumiko Yashiro; Toshio Sakamoto; Masayuki Ohmori

1996-01-01

81

Influence of Leaching Parameters on the Biological Removal of Uranium from Coal by a Filamentous Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Axenic cultures of the filamentous cyanobacterium LPP OL3 were incubated with samples of uraniumbearing coal from a German mining area. The influence of leaching parameters such as coal concentration (pulp density), initial biomass, particle size, temperature, and composition of the growth medium on the leaching of uranium from the ore by the cyanobacterial strain was studied. When low pulp densities were applied, the yield of biologically extracted uranium was optimal (reaching 96% at 1% [wt/vol] coal) and all released uranium was found in the culture liquid. Above 10% (wt/vol) coal in the medium, the amount of cell-bound uranium increased. Initial biomass concentration (protein content of the cultures) and particle size were not critical parameters of leaching by LPP OL3. However, temperature and composition of the growth medium profoundly influenced the leaching of uranium and growth of the cyanobacterium. The yield of leached uranium (at 10% [wt/vol] coal) could not be raised with a tank leaching apparatus. Also, coal ashes were not suitable substrates for the leaching of uranium by LPP OL3. In conclusion, the reactions of the cyanobacterium to variations in leaching parameters were different from reactions of acidic leaching organisms. Images PMID:16346934

Lorenz, Michael G.; Krumbein, Wolfgang E.

1985-01-01

82

Genome Erosion in a Nitrogen-Fixing Vertically Transmitted Endosymbiotic Multicellular Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Background An ancient cyanobacterial incorporation into a eukaryotic organism led to the evolution of plastids (chloroplasts) and subsequently to the origin of the plant kingdom. The underlying mechanism and the identities of the partners in this monophyletic event remain elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To shed light on this evolutionary process, we sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium residing extracellularly in an endosymbiosis with a plant, the water-fern Azolla filiculoides Lam. This symbiosis was selected as it has characters which make it unique among extant cyanobacterial plant symbioses: the cyanobacterium lacks autonomous growth and is vertically transmitted between plant generations. Our results reveal features of evolutionary significance. The genome is in an eroding state, evidenced by a large proportion of pseudogenes (31.2%) and a high frequency of transposable elements (?600) scattered throughout the genome. Pseudogenization is found in genes such as the replication initiator dnaA and DNA repair genes, considered essential to free-living cyanobacteria. For some functional categories of genes pseudogenes are more prevalent than functional genes. Loss of function is apparent even within the ‘core’ gene categories of bacteria, such as genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient uptake. In contrast, serving as a critical source of nitrogen for the host, genes related to metabolic processes such as cell differentiation and nitrogen-fixation are well preserved. Conclusions/Significance This is the first finding of genome degradation in a plant symbiont and phenotypically complex cyanobacterium and one of only a few extracellular endosymbionts described showing signs of reductive genome evolution. Our findings suggest an ongoing selective streamlining of this cyanobacterial genome which has resulted in an organism devoted to nitrogen fixation and devoid of autonomous growth. The cyanobacterial symbiont of Azolla can thus be considered at the initial phase of a transition from free-living organism to a nitrogen-fixing plant entity, a transition process which may mimic what drove the evolution of chloroplasts from a cyanobacterial ancestor. PMID:20628610

Vigil-Stenman, Theoden; Nylander, Johan A. A.; Ininbergs, Karolina; Zheng, Wei-Wen; Lapidus, Alla; Lowry, Stephen; Haselkorn, Robert; Bergman, Birgitta

2010-01-01

83

A new chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium: evidence for niche adaptation in the genus Acaryochloris.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll d is a photosynthetic pigment that, based on chemical analyses, has only recently been recognized to be widespread in oceanic and lacustrine environments. However, the diversity of organisms harbouring this pigment is not known. Until now, the unicellular cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only characterized organism that uses chlorophyll d as a major photopigment. In this study we describe a new cyanobacterium possessing a high amount of chlorophyll d, which was isolated from waters around Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef (23° 26' 31.2? S, 151° 54' 50.4? E). The 16S ribosomal RNA is 2% divergent from the two previously described isolates of A. marina, which were isolated from waters around the Palau islands (Pacific Ocean) and the Salton Sea lake (California), suggesting that it belongs to a different clade within the genus Acaryochloris. An overview sequence analysis of its genome based on Illumina technology yielded 871 contigs with an accumulated length of 8?371?965?nt. Their analysis revealed typical features associated with Acaryochloris, such as an extended gene family for chlorophyll-binding proteins. However, compared with A. marina MBIC11017, distinct genetic, morphological and physiological differences were observed. Light saturation is reached at lower light intensities, Chl d/a ratios are less variable with light intensity and the phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is lacking, suggesting that cyanobacteria of the genus Acaryochloris occur in distinct ecotypes. These data characterize Acaryochloris as a niche-adapted cyanobacterium and show that more rigorous attempts are worthwhile to isolate, cultivate and analyse chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacteria for understanding the ecophysiology of these organisms. PMID:20505751

Mohr, Remus; Voss, Björn; Schliep, Martin; Kurz, Thorsten; Maldener, Iris; Adams, David G; Larkum, Anthony D W; Chen, Min; Hess, Wolfgang R

2010-11-01

84

Effects of heavy-metal stress on cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae.  

PubMed

The influence of two metals, copper and cadmium, was studied on the growth and ultrastructures of cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae grown at three different temperatures: 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 30 degrees C. The highest concentration of chlorophyll a was observed at 20 degrees C and the lowest at 10 degrees C. Both toxic metal ions, Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), inhibited growth of the tested cyanobacterium. Chlorophyll a concentration decreased with the increase of metal concentration. A 50% decrease in the growth of A. flos-aquae population, compared with the control, was reached at 0.61 mg l(-1) cadmium and at 0.35 mg l(-1) copper (at 20 degrees C). Copper at all temperatures tested was proven to be more toxic than cadmium. At 3 mg l(-1), the lysis and distortion of cells was observed; however, after incubation at 9 mg l(-1) cadmium, most of the cells were still intact, and only intrathylakoidal spaces started to appear. Copper caused considerably greater changes in the protein system of A. flos-aquae than did cadmium; in this case, not only phycobilins but also total proteins were destructed. The aim of this study was also to identify the place of metal accumulation and sorption in the tested cyanobacterium. Analysis of the energy-dispersion spectra of the characteristic x-ray radiation of trichomes and their sheaths showed that cadmium was completely accumulated in cells but was not found in the sheath. Spectrum of the isolated sheath after treatment with copper exhibited only traces of the metal, but isolated cells without a sheath showed a high peak of copper. PMID:15657804

Surosz, W; Palinska, K A

2005-01-01

85

Intramolecular Modulation of Serine Protease Inhibitor Activity in a Marine Cyanobacterium with Antifeedant Properties  

PubMed Central

Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many serine protease inhibitors. Further chemical and NMR spectroscopic investigation led us to isolate and structurally characterize a new serine protease inhibitor 1 that is formally derived from an intramolecular condensation of largamide D (2). The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested. This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors. PMID:20631871

Matthew, Susan; Ratnayake, Ranjala; Becerro, Mikel A.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2010-01-01

86

Photosynthetic production of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a cone-shaped helical tubular photobioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic productivity of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was investigated in a cone-shaped helical tubular photobioreactor. A laboratory-scale photobioreactor was constructed with a 0.255-m2 basal area and a conical shape (0.64rm highǴ.57rm top diameter). The photostage comprised transparent reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing with spirally wound, metal-wire reinforcing in the tubing wall (31rm in length and 1.6rcm internal diameter

Y. Watanabe; D. O. Hall

1996-01-01

87

Cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic exometabolites of the cyanobacterium Nostoc insulare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isolation, identification and quantification of exometabolites from culture media of the cyanobacterium Nostoc insulare are described. Besides the known exometabolite 4,4?-dihydroxybiphenyl (I), two more compounds, the ?-carboline 9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole\\u000a (norharmane, II) and N,N?-(4,5-dimethyl-1,2-phenylene)bis-acetamide (III), were discovered. Concentrations of all three compounds\\u000a in media and biomass of five 250 L cultures of N. insulare were determined. Culture medium values for I ranged

Rainer-B. Volk; Sabine Mundt

2007-01-01

88

Computational inference and experimental validation of the nitrogen assimilation regulatory network in cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH 8102  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deciphering the regulatory networks encoded in the genome of an organism represents one of the most interesting and challenging tasks in the post- genome sequencing era. As an example of this problem, we have predicted a detailed model for the nitrogen assimilation network in cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 (WH8102) using a com- putational protocol based on comparative genomics analysis

Zhengchang Su; Fenglou Mao; Phuongan Dam; Hongwei Wu; Victor Olman; Ian T. Paulsen; Brian Palenik; Ying Xu

2006-01-01

89

Arsenate uptake, sequestration and reduction by a freshwater cyanobacterium: a potenial biologic control of arsenic in South Texas  

E-print Network

and biotransform arsenate. In this experiment, net uptake of arsenic over time by a freshwater cyanobacterium never previously exposed to arsenate was quantified as a function of increasing As concentrations and increasing N:P ratios. Toxic effects were not evident...

Markley, Christopher Thomas

2005-08-29

90

Structure of Trichamide, a Cyclic Peptide from the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, Predicted from the Genome Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new small cyclic peptide, dubbed trichamide, was discovered in the genome of the global, bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ISM101 because of striking similarities to the previously characterized patellamide biosynthesis cluster. The tri cluster consists of a precursor peptide gene containing the amino acid sequence for mature trichamide, a putative heterocycliza- tion

Sebastian Sudek; Margo G. Haygood; Diaa T. A. Youssef; Eric W. Schmidt

2006-01-01

91

Sulfide and pH effects on variable fluorescence of photosystem II in two strains of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria amphigranulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in fluorescence of photosystem II (PS II) chlorophyll were used to monitor the in vivo effects of sulfide and pH on photosynthesis by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria amphigranulata. O. amphigranulata is capable of both oxygenic photosynthesis and sulfide dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis. A genetic variant of O. amphigranulata which photosynthesizes oxygenically at normal rates, but is incapable of anoxygenic photosynthesis and

Walter K. Dodds; Richard W. Castenholz

1990-01-01

92

Fungal infection for cyanobacterium Anabaena smithii by two chytrids in eutrophic region of large reservoir Lake Shumarinai, Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal infection of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena smithii was observed in Lake Shumarinai in 2004–2006. Two fungal species were found to parasitize the specialized cells of A. smithii. These fungi might not correspond to the chytrid species that the previous studies reported as the parasites for Anabaena species. One fungus showed selective attachment to the akinete (akinete type). The filaments

Keishi Takano; Yasushi Ishikawa; Hidetoshi Mikami; Seiki Igarashi; Shuji Hino; Takahito Yoshioka

2008-01-01

93

Factors regulating recruitment from the sediment to the water column in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. The influence of light, temperature, sediment mixing and sediment origin (water depth) on the recruitment of the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata was examined in the laboratory. 2. Light and temperature were the most important factors initiating germination in G. echinulata. 3. The extent of germination (recruited biovolume) was mainly regulated by temperature and sediment mixing. Furthermore, sediment mixing significantly

IRENE K ARLSSON-ELFGREN; K ARIN R ENGEFORS; S USANNE G USTAFSSON

94

Net light-induced oxygen evolution in photosystem I deletion mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

E-print Network

. Introduction The light-driven reactions of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants are describedNet light-induced oxygen evolution in photosystem I deletion mutants of the cyanobacterium Keywords: Photosynthesis Electron transport CO2 assimilation Photosystem I Oxygen evolution Synechocystis

Govindjee

95

Culture of the marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula (Oscillatoriaceae), for bioprocess intensified production of cyclic and linear lipopeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are an ancient and diverse group of photosynthetic microorganisms, which inhabit many different and extreme environments. This indicates a high degree of biological adaptation, which has enabled these organisms to thrive and compete effectively in nature. The filamentous cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, produces several promising antifungal and cytotoxic agents, including laxaphycin A and B and curacin A. Samples of L.

A. M. Burja; E. Abou-Mansour; B. Banaigs; C. Payri; J. G. Burgess; P. C. Wright

2002-01-01

96

Discovery of an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A in Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae).  

PubMed

Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae) is a coastal coccolithophore with a long fossil record, extending back to the late Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma). A recent study revealed close phylogenetic relationships between B. bigelowii, Chrysochromulina parkeae (Prymnesiophyceae), and a prymnesiophyte that forms a symbiotic association with the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A. In order to further examine these relationships, we conducted transmission electron microscopic and molecular phylogenetic studies of B. bigelowii. TEM studies showed that, in addition to organelles, such as the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria, B. bigelowii contains one or two spheroid bodies with internal lamellae. In the 18S rDNA tree of the Prymnesiophyceae, C. parkeae fell within the B. bigelowii clade, and was close to B. bigelowii Genotype III (99.89% similarity). Plastid 16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were close to the unidentified sequences from the oligotrophic SE Pacific Ocean (e.g. HM133411) (99.86% similarity). Bacterial16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were identical to the UCYN-A sequence AY621693 from Arabian Sea, and fell in the UCYN-A clade. From these results, we suggest that; 1) C. parkeae is the alternate life cycle stage of B. bigelowii sensu stricto or that of a sibling species of B. bigelowii, and 2) the spheroid body of B. bigelowii originated from endosymbiosis of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A. PMID:24324722

Hagino, Kyoko; Onuma, Ryo; Kawachi, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Takeo

2013-01-01

97

Dynamics of the Toxin Cylindrospermopsin and the Cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum in a Mediterranean Eutrophic Reservoir.  

PubMed

Chrysosporum ovalisporum is a cylindrospermopsin toxin producing cyanobacterium that was reported in several lakes and reservoirs. Its growth dynamics and toxin distribution in field remain largely undocumented. Chrysosporum ovalisporum was reported in 2009 in Karaoun Reservoir, Lebanon. We investigated the factors controlling the occurrence of this cyanobacterium and vertical distribution of cylindrospermopsin in Karaoun Reservoir. We conducted bi-weekly sampling campaigns between May 2012 and August 2013. Results showed that Chrysosporum ovalisporum is an ecologically plastic species that was observed in all seasons. Unlike the high temperatures, above 26 °C, which is associated with blooms of Chrysosporum ovalisporum in Lakes Kinneret (Israel), Lisimachia and Trichonis (Greece) and Arcos Reservoir (Spain), Chrysosporum ovalisporum in Karaoun Reservoir bloomed in October 2012 at a water temperature of 22 °C during weak stratification. Cylindrospermopsin was detected in almost all water samples even when Chrysosporum ovalisporum was not detected. Chrysosporum ovalisporum biovolumes and cylindrospermopsin concentrations were not correlated (n = 31, r2 = -0.05). Cylindrospermopsin reached a maximum concentration of 1.7 µg L-1. The vertical profiles of toxin concentrations suggested its possible degradation or sedimentation resulting in its disappearance from the water column. The field growth conditions of Chrysosporum ovalisporum in this study revealed that it can bloom at the subsurface water temperature of 22 °C increasing the risk of its development and expansion in lakes located in temperate climate regions. PMID:25354130

Fadel, Ali; Atoui, Ali; Lemaire, Bruno J; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Slim, Kamal

2014-01-01

98

Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad.  

PubMed

Natural substances offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development with regard to broad spectrum antiviral properties and novel modes of action. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital herpetic infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug-resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. A nontoxic cyanobacterium Arthrospira strain from Chad has been characterized by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the phycocyanin gene. This cyanobacterium was identified as Arthrospira fusiformis by phylogenetic tree analysis. The antiherpetic activity of crude aqueous extracts from the Chad A. fusiformis isolate was determined. Antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex virus of cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract was assessed in plaque reduction assays and their mode of antiherpetic action was analysed. In virus suspension assays, cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract inhibited virus infectivity by 54.9%, 64.6%, and 99.8%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of cyanobacterial extracts separately at different time periods during the viral infection cycle. Extracts of A. fusiformis strain clearly inhibited herpesvirus multiplication before and during virus infection of host cells. The phosphate buffer extract of the A. fusiformis strain affected free herpes simplex virus prior to infection of host cells and inhibited intracellular viral replication. It is concluded, that Arthrospira compounds warrant further investigation to examine their potential role in the treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:23802437

Sharaf, M; Amara, A; Aboul-Enein, A; Helmi, S; Ballot, A; Schnitzler, P

2013-05-01

99

Dynamics of the Toxin Cylindrospermopsin and the Cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum in a Mediterranean Eutrophic Reservoir  

PubMed Central

Chrysosporum ovalisporum is a cylindrospermopsin toxin producing cyanobacterium that was reported in several lakes and reservoirs. Its growth dynamics and toxin distribution in field remain largely undocumented. Chrysosporum ovalisporum was reported in 2009 in Karaoun Reservoir, Lebanon. We investigated the factors controlling the occurrence of this cyanobacterium and vertical distribution of cylindrospermopsin in Karaoun Reservoir. We conducted bi-weekly sampling campaigns between May 2012 and August 2013. Results showed that Chrysosporum ovalisporum is an ecologically plastic species that was observed in all seasons. Unlike the high temperatures, above 26 °C, which is associated with blooms of Chrysosporum ovalisporum in Lakes Kinneret (Israel), Lisimachia and Trichonis (Greece) and Arcos Reservoir (Spain), Chrysosporum ovalisporum in Karaoun Reservoir bloomed in October 2012 at a water temperature of 22 °C during weak stratification. Cylindrospermopsin was detected in almost all water samples even when Chrysosporum ovalisporum was not detected. Chrysosporum ovalisporum biovolumes and cylindrospermopsin concentrations were not correlated (n = 31, r2 = ?0.05). Cylindrospermopsin reached a maximum concentration of 1.7 µg L?1. The vertical profiles of toxin concentrations suggested its possible degradation or sedimentation resulting in its disappearance from the water column. The field growth conditions of Chrysosporum ovalisporum in this study revealed that it can bloom at the subsurface water temperature of 22 °C increasing the risk of its development and expansion in lakes located in temperate climate regions. PMID:25354130

Fadel, Ali; Atoui, Ali; Lemaire, Bruno J.; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Slim, Kamal

2014-01-01

100

Aluminum effects on uptake and metabolism of phosphorus by the Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum severely affects the growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica and induces symptoms indicating phosphorus starvation. Pre- or post-treating the cells with high (90 micromolar) phosphorus reduces the toxicity of aluminum compared to cells receiving a lower orthophosphate concentration. In this study aluminum (ranging from 9 to 36 micromolar) and phosphorus concentrations were chosen so that the precipitation of insoluble AlPO/sub 4/ never exceeded 10% of the total phosphate concentration. The uptake of /sup 32/P-phosphorus is not disturbed by aluminium either at high (100 micromolar) or low (10 micromolar) concentrations of phosphate. Also, the rapid accumulation of polyphosphate granules in cells exposed to aluminum indicates that the incorporation of phosphate is not disturbed. However, a significant decrease in the mobilization of the polyphosphates is observed, as is a lowered activity of the enzyme acid phosphatase, in aluminum treated cells. We conclude that aluminum acts on the intracellular metabolism of phosphate, which eventually leads to phosphorus starvation rather than on its uptake in the cyanobacterium A. cylindrica.

Pettersson, A.; Haellbom, L. Bergman, B.

1988-01-01

101

Allelopathic effects of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on duckweed, Lemna gibba L.  

PubMed

Cyanotoxins are a group of compounds produced by cyanobacteria that can have severe physiological effects on other organisms, including humans. The potential allelopathic effects of Microcystis aeruginosa, a toxic cyanobacterium, on the duckweed plant, Lemna gibba L., were examined using three experimental methods: (1) a series of toxicity bioassays, (2) evaluation of toxin production by M. aeruginosa in the direct and indirect presence of L. gibba, and (3) inhibition of oxygen evolution in photosynthesis. The results showed that, first, there were no clear dose-dependent effects of the microcystin-LR standard or the toxic M. aeruginosa culture filtrate on any of the end points measured in the toxicity bioassays (plant and frond number, dry weight, growth rate, chlorophyll content; one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In those cases in which an EC(50) value could be obtained, chlorophyll a was the most sensitive end point, as it had the lowest EC(50) value (14.47 microg/L microcystin-LR) of all the end points. Second, the presence of L. gibba did not result in higher microcystin-LR production in the toxic M. aeruginosa culture. And, last, oxygen evolution was not affected in isolated chloroplasts exposed directly to microcystin-LR. Therefore, microcystins from the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa do not appear to have an allelopathic effect on the common aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba. PMID:15712290

LeBlanc, Susan; Pick, Frances R; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio

2005-02-01

102

Physiological effects of nickel chloride on the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. IU 625  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious environmental problem globally. The ability of cyanobacteria, one of the major causative agents of HABs, to grow in heavy metal polluted areas is proving a challenge to environmental restoration initiatives. Some cyanobacteria secrete toxins, such as microcystin, that are potentially dangerous to animals and humans. In this study, the physiology of a cyanobacterium was assessed to nickel chloride exposure. Cell growths were monitored throughout the study with various nickel chloride concentrations (0, 10, 25 or 50 mg/L). Morphological abnormalities were observed with microscopic image analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was carried out to trace the distribution of nickel during the growth period. This study provides insight on potential nickel response mechanisms in freshwater cyanobacteria, which may lead to effective HAB prevention strategy development. PMID:24073357

Nohomovich, Brian; Nguyen, Bao T.; Quintanilla, Michael; Lee, Lee H.; Murray, Sean R.; Chu, Tin-Chun

2013-01-01

103

Simultaneous Transport of CO2 and HCO3? by the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 1  

PubMed Central

A mass spectrometer was used to simultaneously follow the time course of photosynthetic O2 evolution and CO2 depletion of the medium by cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Analysis of the data indicated that both CO2 and HCO3? were simultaneously and continuously transported by the cells as a source of substrate for photosynthesis. Initiation of HCO3? transport by Na+ addition had no effect on ongoing CO2 transport. This result is interpreted to indicate that the CO2 and HCO3? transport systems are separate and distinctly different transport systems. Measurement of CO2-dependent photosynthesis indicated that CO2 uptake involved active transport and that diffusion played only a minor role in CO2 acquisition in cyanobacteria. PMID:16666182

Espie, George S.; Miller, Anthony G.; Birch, Douglas G.; Canvin, David T.

1988-01-01

104

Effect of glutamine on growth and heterocyst differentiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis that were capable of increased uptake of glutamine, as compared with that in the parental strains, were isolated. Growth of these mutants and their parental strains was measured in media containing N2, ammonia, or glutamine as a source of nitrogen. All strains grew well with any one of these sources of fixed nitrogen. Much of the glutamine taken up by the cells was converted to glutamate. The concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, arginine, ornithine, and citrulline in free amino acid pools in glutamine-grown cells were high compared with the concentrations of these amino acids in ammonia-grown or N2-grown cells. All strains capable of heterocyst differentiation, including a strain which produced nonfunctional heterocysts, grew and formed heterocysts in the presence of glutamine. However, nitrogenase activity was repressed in glutamine-grown cells. Glutamine may not be the molecule directly responsible for repression of the differentiation of heterocysts. PMID:2877968

Thiel, T; Leone, M

1986-01-01

105

Composition and occurrence of lipid droplets in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.  

PubMed

Inclusions of neutral lipids termed lipid droplets (LDs) located throughout the cell were identified in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme by staining with lipophylic fluorescent dyes. LDs increased in number upon entry into stationary phase and addition of exogenous fructose indicating a role for carbon storage, whereas high-light stress did not increase LD numbers. LD accumulation increased when nitrate was used as the nitrogen source during exponential growth as compared to added ammonia or nitrogen-fixing conditions. Analysis of isolated LDs revealed enrichment of triacylglycerol (TAG), ?-tocopherol, and C17 alkanes. LD TAG from exponential phase growth contained mainly saturated C16 and C18 fatty acids, whereas stationary phase LD TAG had additional unsaturated fatty acids characteristic of whole cells. This is the first characterization of cyanobacterial LD composition and conditions leading to their production. Based upon their abnormally large size and atypical location, these structures represent a novel sub-organelle in cyanobacteria. PMID:25135835

Peramuna, Anantha; Summers, Michael L

2014-12-01

106

BMAA Inhibits Nitrogen Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms. PMID:23966039

Berntzon, Lotta; Erasmie, Sven; Celepli, Narin; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

2013-01-01

107

Live cell chemical profiling of temporal redox dynamics in a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

Protein reduction-oxidation (redox) modification is an important mechanism that allows microorganisms to sense environmental changes and initiate cellular responses. We have developed a quantitative chemical probe approach for live cell labeling and imaging of proteins that are sensitive to redox modifications. We utilize this in vivo strategy to identify 176 proteins undergoing ?5-10-fold dynamic redox change in response to nutrient limitation and subsequent replenishment in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We detect redox changes in as little as 30 s after nutrient perturbation and oscillations in reduction and oxidation for 60 min following the perturbation. Many of the proteins undergoing dynamic redox transformations participate in the major components for the production (photosystems and electron transport chains) or consumption (Calvin-Benson cycle and protein synthesis) of reductant and/or energy in photosynthetic organisms. Thus, our in vivo approach reveals new redox-susceptible proteins and validates those previously identified in vitro. PMID:24168666

Sadler, Natalie C; Melnicki, Matthew R; Serres, Margrethe H; Merkley, Eric D; Chrisler, William B; Hill, Eric A; Romine, Margaret F; Kim, Sangtae; Zink, Erika M; Datta, Suchitra; Smith, Richard D; Beliaev, Alexander S; Konopka, Allan; Wright, Aaron T

2014-01-17

108

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of plastocyanin from cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942.  

PubMed

A plastocyanin from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 has been crystallized in two different forms by hanging-drop vapour diffusion with ammonium sulfate as precipitant. Form I is hexagonal, space group P61 or P65, with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 34.62 and c = 107.22 A. Form II is tetragonal, space group P41 or P43, with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 43.05 and c = 56.94 A. Form I crystals diffract to 2.5 A using graphite-monochromated Cu Kalpha radiation from a Rigaku RU-300 rotating-anode generator operated at 40 kV and 100 mA. Form II crystals diffract to 1.9 A using synchrotron radiation at beamline BL6A of the Photon Factory (KEK). Molecular-replacement calculations using the structure of plastocyanin from Ulva pertusa have been performed. PMID:10089469

Inoue, T; Sugawara, H; Hamanaka, S; Tsukui, H; Suzuki, E; Kohzuma, T; Kai, Y

1999-03-01

109

First report of microcystin-LR in the cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata.  

PubMed

Gloeotrichia echinulata is a bloom-forming cyanobacterium that is common in eutrophic lakes, and less prevalent but increasing in oligotrophic lakes. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis to test for the presence of the hepatotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in G. echinulata collected from an oligotrophic lake in central New Hampshire, USA. We found that G. echinulata contained MC-LR at mean concentrations of 97.07 +/- 7.78 (1 s.e.) ng MC-LR g(-1) dry wt colonies. This suggests that recent outbreaks of G. echinulata in oligotrophic lakes used as water sources throughout New England (USA) may pose a health concern. The toxicity of G. echinulata reported here suggests the need for future monitoring of microcystins in oligotrophic lakes. PMID:17497639

Carey, Cayelan C; Haney, James F; Cottingham, Kathryn L

2007-06-01

110

Oscillapeptin J, a new grazer toxin of the freshwater cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens.  

PubMed

Oscillapeptin J (1), a new and highly potent crustacean grazer toxin, was isolated from the axenic cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens, which frequently forms blooms in freshwater lakes. Chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including high resolving MS and two-dimensional NMR, were used to elucidate the compound's structure as a depsiheptapeptide of the oscillapeptin type. Strict application of a bioassay-guided isolation procedure proved this compound to be one of the major causative agents (besides [d-Asp(3),(E)-Dhb(7)]microcystin-RR) of the acute grazer toxicity of P. rubescens from Lake Zürich. The LC(50) value of oscillapeptin J as determined for the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus was 15.6 microM. PMID:12662108

Blom, Judith F; Bister, Bojan; Bischoff, Daniel; Nicholson, Graeme; Jung, Günther; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Jüttner, Friedrich

2003-03-01

111

Genotype x genotype interactions between the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis and its grazer, the waterflea Daphnia  

PubMed Central

Toxic algal blooms are an important problem worldwide. The literature on toxic cyanobacteria blooms in inland waters reports widely divergent results on whether zooplankton can control cyanobacteria blooms or cyanobacteria suppress zooplankton by their toxins. Here we test whether this may be due to genotype × genotype interactions, in which interactions between the large-bodied and efficient grazer Daphnia and the widespread cyanobacterium Microcystis are not only dependent on Microcystis strain or Daphnia genotype but are specific to genotype × genotype combinations. We show that genotype × genotype interactions are important in explaining mortality in short-time exposures of Daphnia to Microcystis. These genotype × genotype interactions may result in local coadaptation and a geographic mosaic of coevolution. Genotype × genotype interactions can explain why the literature on zooplankton–cyanobacteria interactions is seemingly inconsistent, and provide hope that zooplankton can contribute to the suppression of cyanobacteria blooms in restoration projects.

Lemaire, Veerle; Brusciotti, Silvia; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Vyverman, Wim; Vanoverbeke, Joost; De Meester, Luc

2012-01-01

112

Tiglicamides A-C, cyclodepsipeptides from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya confervoides  

PubMed Central

The Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya confervoides afforded three new cyclodepsipeptides, termed tiglicamides A–C (1–3), along with their previously reported analogues largamides A–C (4–6), all of which possess an unusual tiglic acid moiety. Their structures were deduced by one- and two-dimensional NMR combined with mass spectrometry and the absolute configurations established by chiral HPLC and Marfey’s analysis of the degradation products. Compounds 1–3 moderately inhibited porcine pancreatic elastase in vitro with IC50 values from 2.14 to 7.28 µM. Compounds 1–6 differ from each other by one amino acid residue within the cyclic core structure, suggesting an unusually relaxed substrate specificity of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase that is the putative biosynthetic enzyme responsible for the corresponding amino acid incorporation. PMID:19815244

Matthew, Susan; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2009-01-01

113

Sacrolide A, a new antimicrobial and cytotoxic oxylipin macrolide from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum  

PubMed Central

Summary Macroscopic gelatinous colonies of freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, a luxury ingredient for Japanese cuisine, were found to contain a new oxylipin-derived macrolide, sacrolide A (1), as an antimicrobial component. The configuration of two chiral centers in 1 was determined by a combination of chiral anisotropy analysis and conformational analysis of different ring-opened derivatives. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of some species of Gram-positive bacteria, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, and was also cytotoxic to 3Y1 rat fibroblasts. Concern about potential food intoxication caused by accidental massive ingestion of A. sacrum was dispelled by the absence of 1 in commercial products. A manual procedure for degrading 1 in raw colonies was also developed, enabling a convenient on-site detoxification at restaurants or for personal consumption. PMID:25161741

Oku, Naoya; Matsumoto, Miyako; Yonejima, Kohsuke; Tansei, Keijiroh

2014-01-01

114

Live Cell Chemical Profiling of Temporal Redox Dynamics in a Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium  

SciTech Connect

Protein reduction-oxidation (redox) modification is an important mechanism that allows microorganisms to sense environmental changes and initiate cellular responses. We have developed a quantitative chemical probe approach for live cell labeling of proteins that are sensitive to redox modifications. We utilize this in vivo strategy to identify 176 proteins undergoing ~5-10 fold dynamic redox change in response to nutrient limitation and subsequent replenishment in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We detect redox changes in as little as 30 seconds after nutrient perturbation, and oscillations in reduction and oxidation for 60 minutes following the perturbation. Many of the proteins undergoing dynamic redox transformations participate in the major components for the production (photosystems and electron transport chains) or consumption (Calvin-Benson cycle and protein synthesis) of reductant and/or energy in photosynthetic organisms. Thus, our in vivo approach reveals new redox-susceptible proteins, in addition to validating those previously identified in vitro.

Sadler, Natalie C.; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Merkley, Eric D.; Chrisler, William B.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Kim, Sangtae; Zink, Erika M.; Datta, Suchitra; Smith, Richard D.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Wright, Aaron T.

2014-01-01

115

Synergistic Effect of Deoxyanthocyanins from Symbiotic Fern Azolla spp. on hrmA Gene Induction in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hrmA gene of the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme functions in repressing the formation of transi- tory motile filaments, termed hormogonia, by plant-associ- ated vegetative filaments. Here, we report that antho- cyanins can contribute to induction of hrmA expression. Aqueous extract from fronds of the fern Azolla pinnata, a host of symbiotic Nostoc spp., was found to be a potent

Michael F. Cohen; Yasuko Sakihama; Yojiro C. Takagi; Toshio Ichiba; Hideo Yamasaki

2002-01-01

116

Proteomic Analysis of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 and Implications for Estimates of the Cellular Iron Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteome of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 was analyzed by nanospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nLC-MS) with two major goals: to provide a first examination of the relative abundance of the most abundant proteins in this important microbe and to provide the necessary mass spectra for future quantification of biogeochemically significant proteins. Analyses of 37 nLC-MS runs of whole

M. A. Saito; E. M. Bertrand; V. Bulygin; D. Moran; J. B. Waterbury

2008-01-01

117

Lyngbyaureidamides A and B, Two Anabaenopeptins from the Cultured Freshwater Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. (SAG 36.91)  

PubMed Central

Two anabaenopeptin-type peptides, lyngbyaureidamides A and B, together with two previously reported peptides lyngbyazothrins C and D, were isolated from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. (SAG 36.91). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Lyngbyazothrins C and D were also able to inhibit the 20S proteasome with IC50 values of 7.1 ?M and 19.2 ?M, respectively, while lyngbyaureidamides A and B were not active at 50 ?M. PMID:22152977

Zi, Jiachen; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Orjala, Jimmy

2011-01-01

118

Complete nucleotide sequence of the freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 chromosome: gene content and organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 (formerly Anacystis nidulans Berkeley strain 6301) was sequenced. The genome consisted of a circular chromosome 2,696,255 bp long. A total of 2,525 potential\\u000a protein-coding genes, two sets of rRNA genes, 45 tRNA genes representing 42 tRNA species, and several genes for small stable\\u000a RNAs were assigned to the chromosome by

Chieko Sugita; Koretsugu Ogata; Masamitsu Shikata; Hiroyuki Jikuya; Jun Takano; Miho Furumichi; Minoru Kanehisa; Tatsuo Omata; Masahiro Sugiura; Mamoru Sugita

2007-01-01

119

Gene Transfer in Leptolyngbya sp. Strain BL0902, a Cyanobacterium Suitable for Production of Biomass and Bioproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current cyanobacterial model organisms were not selected for their growth traits or potential for the production of renewable biomass, biofuels, or other products. The cyanobacterium strain BL0902 emerged from a search for strains with superior growth traits. Morphology and 16S rRNA sequence placed strain BL0902 in the genus Leptolyngbya. Leptolyngbya sp. strain BL0902 (hereafter Leptolyngbya BL0902) showed robust growth at

Arnaud Taton; Ewa Lis; Dawn M. Adin; Guogang Dong; Scott Cookson; Steve A. Kay; Susan S. Golden; James W. Golden

2012-01-01

120

Heat-shock response and its contribution to thermotolerance of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to Escherichia coli, the nitrogen-fixing soil cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain L-31 exhibited significantly superior abilities to survive prolonged and continuous heat stress and recover therefrom. Temperature upshift induced the synthesis of heat-shock proteins of similar molecular mass in the two microbes. However, in Anabaena sp. strain L-31 the heat-shock proteins (particularly the GroEL proteins) were synthesised throughout the stress

Hema Rajaram; Shree Kumar Apte

2003-01-01

121

Somatic and population growth in selected cladoceran and rotifer species offered the cyanobacterium it Microcystis aeruginosa as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of cladocerans and rotifers to utilise the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was tested by comparing the somatic\\u000a and population growth in cultures using Chlorella and Microcystis as food types. Five species of cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia\\u000a cornuta, Scapholeberis kingi, Moina macrocopa, Daphnia carinata, Simocephalus vetulus) and two species of rotifers (Brachionus\\u000a calyciflorus, Hexarthra mira) were used in this study. In order

S. Nandini; T. R. Rao

1997-01-01

122

Low cellular P-quota and poor metabolic adaptations of the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena fertilissima Rao during Pi-limitation.  

PubMed

Anabaena fertilissima is a filamentous freshwater N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium, isolated from a paddy field. Growth of the cyanobacterium was limited by the non-availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the growth medium and was found to be directly related to the cellular P quota, which declined rapidly in Pi-deficient cells. To overcome Pi-deficiency, cells induced both cell-bound and cell-free alkaline phosphatase activities (APase). The activity of cell-bound APase was rapid and 5-6 times higher than that of the cell-free APase activity. Native gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of two APase activity bands for both the cell bound and cell-free APase (Mr ?42 and 34 kDa). For Pi-deficient cells, APase activity was inversely related to cellular P-quota. In A. fertilissima phosphate uptake was facilitated by single high-affinity phosphate transporter (K ( s ), 4.54 ?M; V(max), 4.84 ?mol mg protein(-1) min(-1)). Pi-deficiency severely reduced the photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and nitrate uptake, as well as the activities of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and nitrogenase enzymes. In photosynthesis, PSII activity was maximally inhibited, followed by PSI and whole chain activities. Transcript levels of five key glycolytic enzymes showed the poor adaptability of the cyanobacterium to switch its metabolic activity to PPi-dependent enzyme variants, which has rather constant cellular concentrations. PMID:22968428

Tripathi, Keshawanand; Sharma, Naveen K; Rai, Vandna; Rai, Ashwani K

2013-02-01

123

Lab-Scale Study of the Calcium Carbonate Dissolution and Deposition by Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium subcapitatum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suggestions that calcification in marine organisms changes in response to global variations in seawater chemistry continue to be advanced (Wilkinson, 1979; Degens et al. 1985; Kazmierczak et al. 1986; R. Riding 1992). However, the effect of [Na+] on calcification in marine cyanobacteria has not been discussed in detail although [Na+] fluctuations reflect both temperature and sea-level fluctuations. The goal of these lab-scale studies therefore was to study the effect of environmental pH and [Na+] on CaCO3 deposition and dissolution by marine cyanobacterium Phormidium subcapitatum. Marine cyanobacterium P. subcapitatum has been cultivated in ASN-III medium. [Ca2+] fluctuations were monitored with Ca(2+) probe. Na(+) concentrations were determined by the initial solution chemistry. It was found that the balance between CaCO3 dissolution and precipitation induced by P. subcapitatum grown in neutral ASN III medium is very close to zero. No CaCO3 precipitation induced by cyanobacterial growth occurred. Growth of P. subcapitatum in alkaline ASN III medium, however, was accompanied by significant oscillations in free Ca(2+) concentration within a Na(+) concentration range of 50-400 mM. Calcium carbonate precipitation occurred during the log phase of P. subcapitatum growth while carbonate dissolution was typical for the stationary phase of P. subcapitatum growth. The highest CaCO3 deposition was observed in the range of Na(+) concentrations between 200-400 mM. Alkaline pH also induced the clamping of P. subcapitatum filaments, which appeared to have a strong affinity to envelop particles of chemically deposited CaCO3 followed by enlargement of those particles size. EDS analysis revealed the presence of Mg-rich carbonate (or magnesium calcite) in the solution containing 10-100 mM Na(+); calcite in the solution containing 200 mM Na(+); and aragonite in the solution containing with 400 mM Na(+). Typical present-day seawater contains xxmM Na(+). Early (Archean) seawater was likely less saline. The division of marine cyanobacterium P. subcapitatum is associated with periodic deposition and dissolution of CaCO3, the rhythms and intensity of which are dependent on concentrations of both OH(-) and Na(+). Thus, the role of present-day marine cyanobacteria in the global carbonate cycle might be reduced to aggregation and recrystallization of available CaCO3 particles in marine water rather than long-term precipitation and accumulation of CaCO3 deposits. For lower Na(+) concentrations, precipitation of carbonates by cyanobacteria would be even less significant. These results suggest that the lack of calcified cyanobacteria in stromatalite-bearing Precambrian sequences can be explained not only by high dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations but also by lower salinity, as well as possible lower pH compared to present-day oceans.

Karakis, S. G.; Dragoeva, E. G.; Lavrenyuk, T. I.; Rogochiy, A.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; McKay, D. S.; Brown, I. I.

2006-01-01

124

Molecular exploration of the highly radiation resistant cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arthrospira (Spirulina) is a photosynthetic cyanobacterium able to use sunlight to release oxygen from water and remove carbon dioxide and nitrate from water. In addition, it is suited for human consumption (edible). For these traits, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of the life support system MELiSSA for recycling oxygen, water, and food during future long-haul space missions. However, during such extended missions, Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 will be exposed to continuous artificial illumination and harmful cosmic radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate how Arthrospira will react and behave when exposed to such stress environment. The cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 was exposed to high gamma rays doses in order to unravel in details the response of this bacterium following such stress. Test results showed that after acute exposure to high doses of 60Co gamma radiation upto 3200 Gy, Arthrospira filaments were still able to restart photosynthesis and proliferate normally. Doses above 3200 Gy, did have a detrimental effect on the cells, and delayed post-irradiation proliferation. The photosystem activity, measured as the PSII quantum yield immediately after irradiation, decreased significantly at radiation doses above 3200 Gy. Likewise through pigment content analysis a significant decrease in phycocyanin was observed following exposure to 3200 Gy. The high tolerance of this bacterium to 60Co gamma rays (i.e. ca. 1000x more resistant than human cells for example) raised our interest to investigate in details the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind this amazing resistance. Optimised DNA, RNA and protein extraction methods and a new microarray chip specific for Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 were developed to identify the global cellular and molecular response following exposure to 3200 Gy and 5000 Gy A total of 15,29 % and 30,18 % genes were found differentially expressed in RNA following respectively 3200 Gy and 5000 Gy. Furthermore proteomics analysis confirmed the presence of proteins for a set of the genes overexpressed in mRNA level. The results allowed to identify the network of genes, involved in antioxidant production and damage repair, and to map the mechanistic response used by Arthrospira sp. PCC8005 to cope with high doses ionizing radiation. This advanced integration between transcriptomic data and proteomics analysis, allowed also the identification of new set of conserved proteins which were never reported or described, and which were found to be expressed in a dose dependent manner upon exposure to ionising radiation in Arthrospira sp. PCC8005. The exact role of this new set of genes and proteins in the radiation resistance of Arthrospira needs to be further elucidated. Nevertheless, this finding of high radiation resistance of an edible bacterium, that can also be used for life support, is peculiar and opens new horizons to perused further research into its possible function in radiation protection. This work was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the ARTEMISS project, which is part of the MELiSSA program.

Badri, Hančne; Leys, Natalie; Wattiez, Ruddy

125

Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.  

PubMed Central

Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

1997-01-01

126

Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.  

PubMed

Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

1997-08-01

127

Apratoxin H and Apratoxin A Sulfoxide from the Red Sea Cyanobacterium Moorea producens  

PubMed Central

Cultivation of the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens, collected from the Nabq Mangroves in the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea), led to the isolation of new apratoxin analogues, apratoxin H (1) and apratoxin A sulfoxide (2), together with the known apratoxins A-C, lyngbyabellin B and hectochlorin. The absolute configuration of these new potent cytotoxins was determined by chemical degradation, MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy. Apratoxin H (1) contains pipecolic acid in place of the proline residue present in apratoxin A, expanding the known suite of naturally occurring analogues that display amino acid substitutions within the final module of the apratoxin biosynthetic pathway. The oxidation site of apratoxin A sulfoxide (2) was deduced from MS fragmentation patterns and IR data, and 2 could not be generated experimentally by oxidation of apratoxin A. The cytotoxicity of 1 and 2 to human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells (IC50 = 3.4 and 89.9 nM, respectively) provides further insight into the structure–activity relationships in the apratoxin series. Phylogenetic analysis of the apratoxin-producing cyanobacterial strains belonging to the genus Moorea, coupled with the recently annotated apratoxin biosynthetic pathway, supports the notion that apratoxin production and structural diversity may be specific to their geographical niche. PMID:24016099

Thornburg, Christopher C.; Cowley, Elise S.; Sikorska, Justyna; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Ishmael, Jane E.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; McPhail, Kerry L.

2014-01-01

128

Composition of the carbohydrate granules of the cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that temporally separates O2-sensitive N2 fixation from oxygenic photosynthesis. The energy and reducing power needed for N2 fixation appears to be generated by an active respiratory apparatus that utilizes the contents of large interthylakoidal carbohydrate granules. We report here on the carbohydrate and protein composition of the granules of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142. The carbohydrate component is a glucose homopolymer with branches every nine residues and is chemically identical to glycogen. Granule-associated protein fractions showed temporal changes in the number of proteins and their abundance during the metabolic oscillations observed under diazotrophic conditions. There also were temporal changes in the protein pattern of the granule-depleted supernatant fractions from diazotrophic cultures. None of the granule-associated proteins crossreacted with antisera directed against several glycogen-metabolizing enzymes or nitrogenase, although these proteins were tentatively identified in supernatant fractions. It is suggested that the granule-associated proteins are structural proteins required to maintain a complex granule architecture.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

129

Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting [matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS)], tandem MS analyses, and sequence homology searches resulted in an identification success rate of 79% of proteins analysed in the unsequenced cyanobiont. Compared with a free-living strain, processes related to energy production, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and stress-related functions were up-regulated in the cyanobiont while photosynthesis and metabolic turnover rates were down-regulated, stressing a slow heterotrophic mode of growth, as well as high heterocyst frequencies and nitrogen-fixing capacities. The first molecular data set on the nature of the NifH post-translational modification in cyanobacteria was also obtained: peptide mass spectra of the protein demonstrated the presence of a 300-400 Da protein modification localized to a specific 13 amino acid sequence, within the part of the protein that is ADP-ribosylated in other bacteria and close to the active site of nitrogenase. Furthermore, the distribution of the highest scoring database hits for the identified proteins points to the possibility of using proteomic data in taxonomy. PMID:18065763

Ekman, Martin; Tollbäck, Petter; Bergman, Birgitta

2008-01-01

130

Glycosylated Porphyra-334 and Palythine-Threonine from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune  

PubMed Central

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally different MAAs have been identified in eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. In this study novel glycosylated MAAs were found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (N. commune). An MAA with an absorption maximum at 334 nm was identified as a hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 508 Da. Another MAA with an absorption maximum at 322 nm was identified as a two hexose-bound palythine-threonine derivative with a molecular mass of 612 Da. These purified MAAs have radical scavenging activities in vitro, which suggests multifunctional roles as sunscreens and antioxidants. The 612-Da MAA accounted for approximately 60% of the total MAAs and contributed approximately 20% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract, indicating that it is the major water-soluble UV-protectant and radical scavenger component. The hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative and the glycosylated palythine-threonine derivatives were found in a specific genotype of N. commune, suggesting that glycosylated MAA patterns could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the characterization of the morphologically indistinguishable N. commune. The glycosylation of porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine in N. commune suggests a unique adaptation for terrestrial environments that are drastically fluctuating in comparison to stable aquatic environments. PMID:24065157

Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Yamaba, Minami; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

2013-01-01

131

Emulsifying, flocculating, and physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.  

PubMed

The emulsifying, flocculating, and physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) of terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme cultured in liquid media were investigated. The EPS was defined as heteropolysaccharide composed by 41.2 % glucose, 21.1 % galactose, 21.0 % mannose, 2.5 % fructose, 3.6 % ribose, 1.7 % xylose, 0.6 % arabinose, 3.0 % rhamnose, 0.9 % fucose, and 4.3 % glucuronic acid. The EPS possessed higher intrinsic viscosity than other cyanobacterial strains as reported and displayed pseudoplastic behavior in aqueous solution. The EPS produced more stable emulsions with tested hydrocarbons and oils than xanthan gum, and the emulsification indexes with n-hexadecane, liquid paraffin, and peanut oil were higher than 50 %, indicating the strong emulsion-stabilizing capacity. The EPS showed peak flocculating rates of 93.5 and 86.1 % in kaolin and MgO suspension, respectively, and exhibited a better flocculation performance than Al2(SO4)3 and xanthan gum. These results demonstrated that the EPS of N. flagelliforme was a very promising candidate for numerous industrial applications, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, good emulsification activity, and excellent flocculation capability. PMID:24043454

Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Wu, Xiao-ying; Yuan, Ying-jin; Dai, Yu-jie; Jia, Shi-ru

2014-01-01

132

Engineered platform for bioethylene production by a cyanobacterium expressing a chimeric complex of plant enzymes.  

PubMed

Ethylene is an industrially important compound, but more sustainable production methods are desirable. Since cellulosomes increase the ability of cellulolytic enzymes by physically linking the relevant enzymes via dockerin-cohesin interactions, in this study, we genetically engineered a chimeric cellulosome-like complex of two ethylene-generating enzymes from tomato using cohesin-dockerins from the bacteria Clostridium thermocellum and Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. This complex was transformed into Escherichia coli to analyze kinetic parameters and enzyme complex formation and into the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, which was then grown with and without 0.1 mM isopropyl ?-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. Only at minimal protein expression levels (without IPTG), the chimeric complex produced 3.7 times more ethylene in vivo than did uncomplexed enzymes. Thus, cyanobacteria can be used to sustainably generate ethylene, and the synthetic enzyme complex greatly enhanced production efficiency. Artificial synthetic enzyme complexes hold great promise for improving the production efficiency of other industrial compounds. PMID:24933350

Jindou, Sadanari; Ito, Yuki; Mito, Natsumi; Uematsu, Keiji; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

2014-07-18

133

Photoregulation of morphological structure and its physiological relevance in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.  

PubMed

The spiral structure of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (Nordst.) Gomont was previously found to be altered by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm). However, how photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and UVR interact in regulating this morphological change remains unknown. Here, we show that the spiral structure of A. platensis (D-0083) was compressed under PAR alone at 30 degrees C, but that at 20 degrees C, the spirals compressed only when exposed to PAR with added UVR, and that UVR alone (the PAR was filtered out) did not tighten the spiral structure, although its presence accelerated morphological regulation by PAR. Their helix pitch decreased linearly as the cells received increased PAR doses, and was reversible when they were transferred back to low PAR levels. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that a 52.0 kDa periplasmic protein was more abundant in tighter filaments, which may have been responsible for the spiral compression. This spiral change together with the increased abundance of the protein made the cells more resistant to high PAR as well as UVR, resulting in a higher photochemical yield. PMID:19466449

Ma, Zengling; Gao, Kunshan

2009-07-01

134

Photoinactivation of photosystem II during photoinhibition in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Sites of photoinhibition and photo-oxidative damage to the photosynthetic electrontransport system of the unicellular cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa were identified by studies of the kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence induction by whole cells at room temperature and from partial photosynthetic electron-transport reactions in vitro in thylakoid preparations. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity decreased following photoinhibitory light treatment. This was attributed to decreases both in the activity of photosystem II and in electron flow through the primary electron acceptor, Q. This inhibition was only partially reversed over a 50-min dark recovery period. Partial photosynthetic electron-transport experiments in vitro demonstrated that photosystem I was not affected by the photoinhibitory treatment. Light damage was associated exclusively with the light reactions, of photosystem II, at a site close to the reaction centre, between the site where diphenylcarbazide can donate electrons and the site where silicomolybdate can accept electrons. This damage presumably reduced production of ATP by noncyclic photophosphorylation and production of NADPH by photosystem I, decreasing the availability of these co-factors for reducing CO2 in the 'dark' reactions of photosynthesis. The importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:24258505

Tytler, E M; Whitelam, G C; Hipkins, M F; Codd, G A

1984-03-01

135

Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis  

SciTech Connect

The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m{sup 2} basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input of photosynthetically active radiation into the photobioreactor was 2,920 kJ per day. An air-lift system incorporating 4% CO{sub 2} was used to circulate the growth medium in the tubing. The maximum productivity achieved in batch culture was 7.18 g dry biomass per day which corresponded to a photosynthetic (PAR) efficiency of 5.45%. The CO{sub 2} was efficiently removed from the gaseous stream; monitoring the CO{sub 2} in the outlet and inlet gas streams showed a 70% removal of CO{sub 2} from the inlet gas over an 8-h period with almost maximum growth rate.

Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Hall, D.O. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Nouee, J. De La [Univ. Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology

1995-07-20

136

Anilofos Tolerance and Its Mineralization by the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PUPCCC 64  

PubMed Central

This study deals with anilofos tolerance and its mineralization by the common rice field cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PUPCCC 64. The organism tolerated anilofos up to 25 mg L?1. The herbicide caused inhibitory effects on photosynthetic pigments of the test organism in a dose-dependent manner. The organism exhibited 60, 89, 96, 85 and 79% decrease in chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin, respectively, in 20 mg L?1 anilofos on day six. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase increased by 1.04 to 1.80 times over control cultures in presence of 20 mg L?1 anilofos. Glutathione content decreased by 26% while proline content was unaffected by 20 mg L?1 anilofos. The test organism showed intracellular uptake and metabolized the herbicide. Uptake of herbicide by test organism was fast during initial six hours followed by slow uptake until 120 hours. The organism exhibited maximum anilofos removal at 100 mg protein L?1, pH 8.0 and 30°C. Its growth in phosphate deficient basal medium in the presence of anilofos (2.5 mg L?1) indicated that herbicide was used by the strain PUPCCC 64 as a source of phosphate. PMID:23382844

Singh, D. P.; Khattar, J. I. S.; Kaur, Mandeep; Kaur, Gurdeep; Gupta, Meenu; Singh, Yadvinder

2013-01-01

137

Malyngolide from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula interferes with quorum sensing circuitry.  

PubMed

Extracts of several cyanobacterial species collected from different marine and estuarine locations predominately in Florida (USA), with one sample each from Belize and Oman, were screened for their ability to disrupt quorum sensing (QS) in the reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV017. Inhibitory activities were detected in the ethyl acetate?:?methanol (1:1) extracts of several Lyngbya spp., and extracts of Lyngbya majuscula contained the strongest QS inhibitory activities. Extracts of L. majuscula from the Indian River Lagoon, FL, USA, were further purified by bioassay-guided fractionation. The antibiotic malyngolide (MAL) was identified as a QS inhibitor. Activity of MAL was investigated using N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) reporters based on the LasR receptor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MAL at concentrations ranging from 3.57?µM to 57?µM (EC50 ?=?12.2?±?1.6?µM) inhibited responses of the LasR reporters without affecting bacterial growth. MAL inhibited (EC50 ?=? 10.6?±?1.8?µM) Las QS-dependent production of elastase by P. aeruginosa PAO1. We propose that this QS inhibitor plays a role in controlling interactions of heterotrophic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium L. majuscula. PMID:23766278

Dobretsov, Sergey; Teplitski, Max; Alagely, Ali; Gunasekera, Sarath P; Paul, Valerie J

2010-12-01

138

Nutrient-related changes in the toxicity of field blooms of the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.  

PubMed

Nutrients have the capacity to change cyanobacterial toxin loads via growth-related toxin production, or shifts in the dominance of toxic and nontoxic strains. This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus on cell division and strain-related changes in production of the toxins, cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) by the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Two short-term experiments were conducted with mixed phytoplankton populations dominated by C. raciborskii in a subtropical reservoir where treatments had nitrate (NO3 ), urea (U) and inorganic phosphorus (P) added alone or in combination. Cell division rates of C. raciborskii were only statistically higher than the control on day 5 when U and P were co-supplied. In contrast, cell quotas of CYNs (QCYNS ) increased significantly in treatments where P was supplied, irrespective of whether N was supplied, and this increase was not necessarily related to cell division rates. Increased QCYNS did correlate with an increase in the proportion of the cyrA toxin gene to 16S genes in the C. raciborskii-dominated cyanobacterial population. Therefore, changes in strain dominance are the most likely factor driving differences in toxin production between treatments. Our study has demonstrated differential effects of nutrients on cell division and strain dominance reflecting a C. raciborskii population with a range of strategies in response to environmental conditions. PMID:24735048

Burford, Michele A; Davis, Timothy W; Orr, Philip T; Sinha, Rati; Willis, Anusuya; Neilan, Brett A

2014-07-01

139

Ultrafast primary processes in photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed Central

Ultrafast primary processes in the trimeric photosystem I core antenna-reaction center complex of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have been examined in pump-probe experiments with approximately 100 fs resolution. A global analysis of two-color profiles, excited at 660 nm and probed at 5 nm intervals from 650 to 730 nm, reveals 430 fs kinetics for spectral equilibration among bulk antenna chlorophylls. At least two lifetime components (2.0 and 6.5 ps in our analysis) are required to describe equilibration of bulk chlorophylls with far red-absorbing chlorophylls (>700 nm). Trapping at P700 occurs with 24-ps kinetics. The multiphasic bulk left arrow over right arrow red equilibration kinetics are intriguing, because prior steady-state spectral studies have suggested that the core antenna in Synechocystis sp. contains only one red-absorbing chlorophyll species (C708). The disperse kinetics may arise from inhomogeneous broadening in C708. The one-color optical anisotropy at 680 nm (near the red edge of the bulk antenna) decays with 590 fs kinetics; the corresponding anisotropy at 710 nm shows approximately 3.1 ps kinetics. The latter may signal equilibration among symmetry-equivalent red chlorophylls, bound to different monomers within trimeric photosystem I. PMID:10354453

Savikhin, S; Xu, W; Soukoulis, V; Chitnis, P R; Struve, W S

1999-01-01

140

The impact of physical stresses on the growth of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis-S5.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterium Spirulina is in ever increasing demand internationally due to its high value bio-chemical constituents which find application in areas like health foods and therapeutics, especially for its high protein content. The Spirulina protein is superior to practically all proteins including those from legumes, and is comparable to milk proteins for that matter. Moreover, interest in its phycocyanin, b-carotene, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA) and super oxide dismutase (SOD) contents has attracted the attention of researchers the world over towards protecting, promoting and preserving the production of this useful micro-organism. The present investigation deals with examining the impact of various physical stresses viz. intensity and photo-period of light, varying chromatic regimes, temperature, pH, etc., on the growth of Spirulina platensis-S5 to spell the appropriate conditions for raising the strain in laboratory. No earlier report of this kind is available, so far, to our knowledge. The experimental results suggested that 16 : 8 hours light : dark regime at light intensity of 2000 +/- 200 lux, temperature of 30 +/- 1 degrees C and pH of 9.1 are the optimal growth conditions for the test micro-organisim. The growth under different chromatic regimes observed the order yellow> red> green> blue. PMID:16649630

Jetley, U K; Choudhary, Menakshi; Fatma, Tasneem

2004-10-01

141

Complete genome structure of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic organisms capable of oxygen-producing photosynthesis similar to that in eukaryotic algae and plants, and because of this, they have been used as model organisms for the study of the mechanism and regulation of oxygen-producing photosynthesis. To understand the entire genetic system in cyanobacteria, the nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 has been determined. The total length of the circular genome is 3,573,470 bp, with a GC content of 47.7%. A total of 3,168 potential protein coding genes were assigned. Of these, 145 (4.6%) were identical to reported genes, and 1,259 (39.6%) and 342 (10.8%) showed similarity to reported and hypothetical genes, respectively. The remaining 1,422 (45.0%) showed no apparent similarity to any genes registered in the databases. Classification of the genes by their biological function and comparison of the gene complement with those of other organisms have revealed a variety of features of the genetic information characteristic of a photoautotrophic organism. The sequence data, as well as other information on the Synechocystis genome, is presented in CyanoBase on WWW [http:/(/)www.kazusa.or.jp/cyano/]. PMID:9435137

Kaneko, T; Tabata, S

1997-11-01

142

Interplay between gold nanoparticle biosynthesis and metabolic activity of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many microorganisms have long been known to be able to synthesize nanoparticles either in extracellular media or inside cells but the biochemical mechanisms involved in biomineralization are still poorly understood. In this paper we report the intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 exposed to an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid. We assess the interplay between the biomineralization process and the metabolic activities (i.e. photosynthesis and respiration) of cyanobacteria cells by correlating the GNP synthesis yield with the amount of respiratory and photosynthetic oxygen exchange. The biogenic GNPs are compared in terms of their internalization and biological effects to GNPs synthesized by a standard citrate reduction procedure (cGNPs). The TEM analysis, in conjunction with spectroscopic measurements (i.e. surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence quenching and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, SERS), reveals the localization of biogenic GNPs at the level of intracytoplasmic membranes whereas the pre-formed cGNPs are located at the level of external cellular membrane. Our findings have implications for better understanding the process of biomineralization and assessing the potential risks associated with the accumulation of nanomaterials by various biological systems.

Focsan, Monica; Ardelean, Ioan I.; Craciun, Constantin; Astilean, Simion

2011-12-01

143

Ultradian metabolic rhythm in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142.  

PubMed

The unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51142 is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis during the day and microoxic nitrogen fixation at night. These mutually exclusive processes are possible only by temporal separation by circadian clock or another cellular program. We report identification of a temperature-dependent ultradian metabolic rhythm that controls the alternating oxygenic and microoxic processes of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under continuous high irradiance and in high CO2 concentration. During the oxygenic photosynthesis phase, nitrate deficiency limited protein synthesis and CO2 assimilation was directed toward glycogen synthesis. The carbohydrate accumulation reduced overexcitation of the photosynthetic reactions until a respiration burst initiated a transition to microoxic N2 fixation. In contrast to the circadian clock, this ultradian period is strongly temperature-dependent: 17 h at 27 °C, which continuously decreased to 10 h at 39 °C. The cycle was expressed by an oscillatory modulation of net O2 evolution, CO2 uptake, pH, fluorescence emission, glycogen content, cell division, and culture optical density. The corresponding ultradian modulation was also observed in the transcription of nitrogenase-related nifB and nifH genes and in nitrogenase activities. We propose that the control by the newly identified metabolic cycle adds another rhythmic component to the circadian clock that reflects the true metabolic state depending on the actual temperature, irradiance, and CO2 availability. PMID:23878254

?ervený, Jan; Sinetova, Maria A; Valledor, Luis; Sherman, Louis A; Nedbal, Ladislav

2013-08-01

144

Proteome-wide analysis and diel proteomic profiling of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.  

PubMed

The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hančne; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

2014-01-01

145

Anaerobic biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in the cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria limnetica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism for synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was studied in the facultative anaerobic cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria limnetica. The hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) of aerobically grown O. limnetica was shown to contain both the delta 7 (79%) and delta 9 (21%) isomers, while the octadecenoic (C18:1) acid was entirely the delta 9 acid. Incorporation of [2-14C] acetate into the fatty acids under aerobic conditions resulted in synthesis of the delta 7 and delta 9 C16:1 and the delta 9 C18:1. Synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of DCMU required sulfide. Anaerobic incubations in the presence of DCMU and sulfide (less than 0.003% atmospheric oxygen) resulted in a two-fold increase in monounsaturated fatty acids of both delta 7 and delta 9 C16:1 and delta 9 and delta 11 C18:1. The synthesis of these is characteristic of a bacterial-type, anaerobic pathway.

Jahnke, L. L.; Lee, B.; Sweeney, M. J.; Klein, H. P.

1989-01-01

146

Refolding and Enzyme Kinetic Studies on the Ferrochelatase of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Heme is a cofactor for proteins participating in many important cellular processes, including respiration, oxygen metabolism and oxygen binding. The key enzyme in the heme biosynthesis pathway is ferrochelatase (protohaem ferrolyase, EC 4.99.1.1), which catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX. In higher plants, the ferrochelatase enzyme is localized not only in mitochondria, but also in chloroplasts. The plastidic type II ferrochelatase contains a C-terminal chlorophyll a/b (CAB) motif, a conserved hydrophobic stretch homologous to the CAB domain of plant light harvesting proteins and light-harvesting like proteins. This type II ferrochelatase, found in all photosynthetic organisms, is presumed to have evolved from the cyanobacterial ferrochelatase. Here we describe a detailed enzymological study on recombinant, refolded and functionally active type II ferrochelatase (FeCh) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. A protocol was developed for the functional refolding and purification of the recombinant enzyme from inclusion bodies, without truncation products or soluble aggregates. The refolded FeCh is active in its monomeric form, however, addition of an N-terminal His6-tag has significant effects on its enzyme kinetics. Strikingly, removal of the C-terminal CAB-domain led to a greatly increased turnover number, kcat, compared to the full length protein. While pigments isolated from photosynthetic membranes decrease the activity of FeCh, direct pigment binding to the CAB domain of FeCh was not evident. PMID:23390541

Storm, Patrik; Tibiletti, Tania; Hall, Michael; Funk, Christiane

2013-01-01

147

Anti-Chikungunya Viral Activities of Aplysiatoxin-Related Compounds from the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum  

PubMed Central

Tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria have emerged as a viable source of novel bioactive natural products for drug discovery and development. In the present study, aplysiatoxin (1), debromoaplysiatoxin (2) and anhydrodebromoaplysiatoxin (3), as well as two new analogues, 3-methoxyaplysiatoxin (4) and 3-methoxydebromoaplysiatoxin (5), are reported for the first time from the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum. The identification of the bloom-forming cyanobacterial strain was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequences. Structural determination of the new analogues was achieved by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with NMR spectral data of known compounds. In addition, the antiviral activities of these marine toxins were assessed using Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-infected cells. Post-treatment experiments using the debrominated analogues, namely compounds 2, 3 and 5, displayed dose-dependent inhibition of CHIKV when tested at concentrations ranging from 0.1 µM to 10.0 µM. Furthermore, debromoaplysiatoxin (2) and 3-methoxydebromoaplysiatoxin (5) exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activities with EC50 values of 1.3 ?M and 2.7 ?M, respectively, and selectivity indices of 10.9 and 9.2, respectively. PMID:24394406

Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Parveen; Leong, See Ting; Tan, Lik Tong; Prinsep, Michele R.; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2014-01-01

148

Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes. PMID:23089958

Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Pawe?; Lipok, Jacek

2013-05-01

149

Complete Genomic Structure of the Bloom-forming Toxic Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843  

PubMed Central

Abstract The nucleotide sequence of the complete genome of a cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843, was determined. The genome of M. aeruginosa is a single, circular chromosome of 5 842 795 base pairs (bp) in length, with an average GC content of 42.3%. The chromosome comprises 6312 putative protein-encoding genes, two sets of rRNA genes, 42 tRNA genes representing 41 tRNA species, and genes for tmRNA, the B subunit of RNase P, SRP RNA, and 6Sa RNA. Forty-five percent of the putative protein-encoding sequences showed sequence similarity to genes of known function, 32% were similar to hypothetical genes, and the remaining 23% had no apparent similarity to reported genes. A total of 688 kb of the genome, equivalent to 11.8% of the entire genome, were composed of both insertion sequences and miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements. This is indicative of a plasticity of the M. aeruginosa genome, through a mechanism that involves homologous recombination mediated by repetitive DNA elements. In addition to known gene clusters related to the synthesis of microcystin and cyanopeptolin, novel gene clusters that may be involved in the synthesis and modification of toxic small polypeptides were identified. Compared with other cyanobacteria, a relatively small number of genes for two component systems and a large number of genes for restriction-modification systems were notable characteristics of the M. aeruginosa genome. PMID:18192279

Kaneko, Takakazu; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Okamoto, Shinobu; Suzuki, Iwane; Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Tamaoki, Masanori; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kasai, Fumie; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Ono, Akiko; Shimizu, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Chika; Minami, Chiharu; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Katoh, Midori; Nakazaki, Naomi; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Tabata, Satoshi; Watanabe, Makoto M.

2007-01-01

150

Molecular weight determination of an active photosystem I preparation from a thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus  

SciTech Connect

An active photosystem I (PSI) complex was isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus by a procedure consisting of three steps: First, extraction of photosystem II from the thylakoids by a sulfobetaine detergent yields PSI-enriched membranes. Second, the latter are treated with Triton X-100 to extract PSI particles, which are further purified by preparative isoelectric focusing. Third, anion-exchange chromatography is used to remove contaminating phycobilisome polypeptides. The purified particles show three major bands in sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of apparent molecular mass of 110, 15, and 10 kDa. Charge separation was monitored by the kinetics of flash-induced absorption changes at 820 nm. A chlorophyll/P700 ratio of 60 was found. When the particles are stored at 4 degrees C, charge separation was stable for weeks. The molecular mass of the PSI particles, determined by measurement of zero-angle neutron scattering intensity, was 217,000 Da. The PSI particles thus consist of one heterodimer of the 60-80-kDa polypeptides and presumably one copy of the 15- and 10-kDa polypeptides, respectively.

Schafheutle, M.E.; Setlikova, E.; Timmins, P.A.; Johner, H.; Gutgesell, P.; Setlik, I.; Welte, W. (Institut fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie, Freiburg (Germany, F.R.))

1990-02-06

151

Genomic Structure of an Economically Important Cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39  

PubMed Central

A filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, is an important organism for industrial applications and as a food supply. Almost the complete genome of A. platensis NIES-39 was determined in this study. The genome structure of A. platensis is estimated to be a single, circular chromosome of 6.8 Mb, based on optical mapping. Annotation of this 6.7 Mb sequence yielded 6630 protein-coding genes as well as two sets of rRNA genes and 40 tRNA genes. Of the protein-coding genes, 78% are similar to those of other organisms; the remaining 22% are currently unknown. A total 612 kb of the genome comprise group II introns, insertion sequences and some repetitive elements. Group I introns are located in a protein-coding region. Abundant restriction-modification systems were determined. Unique features in the gene composition were noted, particularly in a large number of genes for adenylate cyclase and haemolysin-like Ca2+-binding proteins and in chemotaxis proteins. Filament-specific genes were highlighted by comparative genomic analysis. PMID:20203057

Fujisawa, Takatomo; Narikawa, Rei; Okamoto, Shinobu; Ehira, Shigeki; Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Suzuki, Iwane; Masuda, Tatsuru; Mochimaru, Mari; Takaichi, Shinichi; Awai, Koichiro; Sekine, Mitsuo; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Isao; Omata, Seiha; Takarada, Hiromi; Katano, Yoko; Kosugi, Hiroki; Tanikawa, Satoshi; Ohmori, Kazuko; Sato, Naoki; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ohmori, Masayuki

2010-01-01

152

Membrane development in the cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans, during recovery from iron starvation  

SciTech Connect

Deprivation of iron from the growth medium results in physiological as well as structural changes in the unicellular cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2. Important among these changes are alterations in the composition and function of the photosynthetic membranes. Room-temperature absorption spectra of iron-starved cyanobacterial cells show a chlorophyll absorption peak at 672 nanometers, 7 nanometers blue-shifted from its normal position at 679 nanometers. Iron-starved cells have decreased amounts of chlorophyll and phycobilins. Their fluorescence spectra (77K) have one prominent chlorophyll emission peak at 684 nanometers as compared to three peaks at 687, 696, and 717 nanometers from normal cells. Chlorophyll-protein analysis of iron-deprived cells indicated the absence of high molecular weight bands. Addition of iron to iron-starved cells induced a restoration process in which new components were initially synthesized and integrated into preexisting membranes; at later times, new membranes were assembled and cell division commenced. Synthesis of chlorophyll and phycocyanins started almost immediately after the addition of iron. The origin of the fluorescence emission at 687 and 696 nanometers is discussed in relation to the specific chlorophyll-protein complexes formed during iron reconstitution. 26 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Pakrasi, H.B.; Goldenberg, A.; Sherman, L.A.

1985-09-01

153

Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005  

PubMed Central

The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jeremy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hanene; Deschoenmaeker, Frederic; Wattiez, Ruddy

2014-01-01

154

Draft genome sequence of Rubidibacter lacunae strain KORDI 51-2T, a cyanobacterium isolated from seawater of Chuuk lagoon  

PubMed Central

A photoautotrophic cyanobacterium, Rubidibacter lacunae was reported in 2008 for the first time. The type strain, KORDI 51-2T, was isolated from seawater of Chuuk lagoon located in a tropical area. Although it belonged to a clade exclusively comprised of extremely halotolerant strains by phylogenetic analyses, R. lacunae is known to be incapable of growth at high salt concentration over 10%. Here we report the main features of the genome of R. lacunae strain KORDI 51-2T. The genome of R. lacunae contains a gene cluster for phosphonate utilization encoding three transporters, one regulator and eight C-P lyase subunits. PMID:24501656

Choi, Dong Han; Ryu, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Kae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Changhoon; Lee, Charity M.

2013-01-01

155

Physiological characterization and light response of the CO 2 -concentrating mechanism in the filamentous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. CPCC 696  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the interactions of the CO2-concentrating mechanism and variable light in the filamentous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. CPCC 696 acclimated to low light (15 ?mol m?2 s?1 PPFD) and low inorganic carbon (50 ?M Ci). Mass spectrometric and polarographic analysis revealed that mediated CO2 uptake along with both active Na+-independent and Na+-dependent HCO3\\u000a ? transport, likely through Na+\\/HCO3\\u000a ? symport, were employed to concentrate Ci

Elvin D. de Araujo; Jason Patel; Charlotte de Araujo; Susan P. Rogers; Steven M. Short; Douglas A. Campbell; George S. Espie

156

Isolation and Characterization of a Cyanophage Infecting the Toxic Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

We isolated a cyanophage (Ma-LMM01) that specifically infects a toxic strain of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virion is composed of anisometric head and a tail complex consisting of a central tube and a contractile sheath with helical symmetry. The morphological features and the host specificity suggest that Ma-LMM01 is a member of the cyanomyovirus group. Using semi-one-step growth experiments, the latent period and burst size were estimated to be 6 to 12 h and 50 to 120 infectious units per cell, respectively. The size of the phage genome was estimated to be ca. 160 kbp using pulse-field gel electrophoresis; the nucleic acid was sensitive to DNase I, Bal31, and all 14 restriction enzymes tested, suggesting that it is a linear double-stranded DNA having a low level of methylation. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences of two open reading frames coding for ribonucleotide reductase alpha- and beta-subunits showed that Ma-LMM01 forms a sister group with marine and freshwater cyanobacteria and is apparently distinct from T4-like phages. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the putative sheath protein showed that Ma-LMM01 does not form a monophyletic group with either the T4-like phages or prophages, suggesting that Ma-LMM01 is distinct from other T4-like phages that have been described despite morphological similarity. The host-phage system which we studied is expected to contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Microcystis blooms and the genetics of cyanophages, and our results suggest the phages could be used to control toxic cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:16461672

Yoshida, Takashi; Takashima, Yukari; Tomaru, Yuji; Shirai, Yoko; Takao, Yoshitake; Hiroishi, Shingo; Nagasaki, Keizo

2006-01-01

157

Temporal dynamics of ROS biogenesis under simulated solar radiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937.  

PubMed

We studied the temporal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 under simulated solar radiation using WG 280, WG 295, WG 305, WG 320, WG 335, WG 345, and GG 400 nm cut-off filters to find out the minimum exposure time and most effective region of the solar spectrum inducing highest level of ROS. There was no significant generation of ROS in all treatments in comparison to the samples kept in the dark during the first 8 h of exposure; however, after 12 h of exposure, ROS were significantly generated in samples covered with 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filters. In contrast with ROS, the fragmentation of filaments was predominantly seen in 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 12 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, ROS levels were significantly higher in all samples than in the dark; however, the ROS signals were more pronounced in 320, 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples. In contrast, the length of filaments was reduced in 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 24 h of exposure. Thus, fragmentation of the filament was induced by all wavelengths of the UV-B region contrary to the UV-A region where only shorter wavelengths were able to induce the fragmentation. In contrast, ROS were generated by all wavelengths of the solar spectrum after 24 h of exposure; however, shorter wavelengths of both the UV-A and the UV-B regions were more effective in generating ROS in comparison to their higher wavelengths and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Moreover, lower wavelengths of UV-B were more efficient than the lower wavelengths of the UV-A radiation. Findings from this study suggest that certain threshold levels of ROS are required to induce the fragmentation of filaments. PMID:24633292

Singh, Shailendra P; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Häder, Donat-P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

2014-09-01

158

Global Transcriptional Profiles of the Copper Responses in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Copper is an essential element involved in fundamental processes like respiration and photosynthesis. However, it becomes toxic at high concentration, which has forced organisms to control its cellular concentration. We have recently described a copper resistance system in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is mediated by the two-component system, CopRS, a RND metal transport system, CopBAC and a protein of unknown function, CopM. Here, we report the transcriptional responses to copper additions at non-toxic (0.3 µM) and toxic concentrations (3 µM) in the wild type and in the copper sensitive copR mutant strain. While 0.3 µM copper slightly stimulated metabolism and promoted the exchange between cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin as soluble electron carriers, the addition of 3 µM copper catalyzed the formation of ROS, led to a general stress response and induced expression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis genes. According to this, a double mutant strain copRsufR, which expresses constitutively the sufBCDS operon, tolerated higher copper concentration than the copR mutant strain, suggesting that Fe-S clusters are direct targets of copper toxicity in Synechocystis. In addition we have also demonstrated that InrS, a nickel binding transcriptional repressor that belong to the CsoR family of transcriptional factor, was involved in heavy metal homeostasis, including copper, in Synechocystis. Finally, global gene expression analysis of the copR mutant strain suggested that CopRS only controls the expression of copMRS and copBAC operons in response to copper. PMID:25268225

Giner-Lamia, Joaquin; López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J

2014-01-01

159

Characterization of the response to zinc deficiency in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Zur regulators control zinc homeostasis by repressing target genes under zinc-sufficient conditions in a wide variety of bacteria. This paper describes how part of a survey of duplicated genes led to the identification of the open reading frame all2473 as the gene encoding the Zur regulator of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. All2473 binds to DNA in a zinc-dependent manner, and its DNA-binding sequence was characterized, which allowed us to determine the relative contribution of particular nucleotides to Zur binding. A zur mutant was found to be impaired in the regulation of zinc homeostasis, showing sensitivity to elevated concentrations of zinc but not other metals. In an effort to characterize the Zur regulon in Anabaena, 23 genes containing upstream putative Zur-binding sequences were identified and found to be regulated by Zur. These genes are organized in six single transcriptional units and six operons, some of them containing multiple Zur-regulated promoters. The identities of genes of the Zur regulon indicate that Anabaena adapts to conditions of zinc deficiency by replacing zinc metalloproteins with paralogues that fulfill the same function but presumably with a lower zinc demand, and with inducing putative metallochaperones and membrane transport systems likely being involved in the scavenging of extracellular zinc, including plasma membrane ABC transport systems and outer membrane TonB-dependent receptors. Among the Zur-regulated genes, the ones showing the highest induction level encode proteins of the outer membrane, suggesting a primary role for components of this cell compartment in the capture of zinc cations from the extracellular medium. PMID:22389488

Napolitano, Mauro; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Robinson, Nigel J; Luque, Ignacio

2012-05-01

160

Characterization of the Response to Zinc Deficiency in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

Zur regulators control zinc homeostasis by repressing target genes under zinc-sufficient conditions in a wide variety of bacteria. This paper describes how part of a survey of duplicated genes led to the identification of the open reading frame all2473 as the gene encoding the Zur regulator of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. All2473 binds to DNA in a zinc-dependent manner, and its DNA-binding sequence was characterized, which allowed us to determine the relative contribution of particular nucleotides to Zur binding. A zur mutant was found to be impaired in the regulation of zinc homeostasis, showing sensitivity to elevated concentrations of zinc but not other metals. In an effort to characterize the Zur regulon in Anabaena, 23 genes containing upstream putative Zur-binding sequences were identified and found to be regulated by Zur. These genes are organized in six single transcriptional units and six operons, some of them containing multiple Zur-regulated promoters. The identities of genes of the Zur regulon indicate that Anabaena adapts to conditions of zinc deficiency by replacing zinc metalloproteins with paralogues that fulfill the same function but presumably with a lower zinc demand, and with inducing putative metallochaperones and membrane transport systems likely being involved in the scavenging of extracellular zinc, including plasma membrane ABC transport systems and outer membrane TonB-dependent receptors. Among the Zur-regulated genes, the ones showing the highest induction level encode proteins of the outer membrane, suggesting a primary role for components of this cell compartment in the capture of zinc cations from the extracellular medium. PMID:22389488

Napolitano, Mauro; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Robinson, Nigel J.

2012-01-01

161

DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F.  

PubMed Central

An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-[14C]glutamate from 2-keto-[1-14C]glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with [14C]bicarbonate and L-[1-14C]ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Images PMID:2880834

Chen, C H; Van Baalen, C; Tabita, F R

1987-01-01

162

Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface.  

PubMed

The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect) biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co-existing species. PMID:21304826

Morris, J Jeffrey; Johnson, Zackary I; Szul, Martin J; Keller, Martin; Zinser, Erik R

2011-01-01

163

The Biosynthetic Pathway for Myxol-2? Fucoside (Myxoxanthophyll) in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002? †  

PubMed Central

Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 produces a variety of carotenoids, which comprise predominantly dicylic ?-carotene and two dicyclic xanthophylls, zeaxanthin and synechoxanthin. However, this cyanobacterium also produces a monocyclic myxoxanthophyll, which was identified as myxol-2? fucoside. Compared to the carotenoid glycosides produced by diverse microorganisms, cyanobacterial myxoxanthophyll and closely related compounds are unusual because they are glycosylated on the 2?-OH rather than on the 1?-OH position of the ? end of the molecule. In this study, the genes encoding two enzymes that modify the ? end of myxoxanthophyll in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 were identified. Mutational and biochemical studies showed that open reading frame SynPCC7002_A2032, renamed cruF, encodes a 1?-hydroxylase and that open reading frame SynPCC7002_A2031, renamed cruG, encodes a 2?-O-glycosyltransferase. The enzymatic activity of CruF was verified by chemical characterization of the carotenoid products synthesized when cruF was expressed in a lycopene-producing strain of Escherichia coli. Database searches showed that homologs of cruF and cruG occur in the genomes of all sequenced cyanobacterial strains that are known to produce myxol or the acylic xanthophyll oscillaxanthin. The genomes of many other bacteria that produce hydroxylated carotenoids but do not contain crtC homologs also contain cruF orthologs. Based upon observable intermediates, a complete biosynthetic pathway for myxoxanthophyll is proposed. This study expands the suite of enzymes available for metabolic engineering of carotenoid biosynthetic pathways for biotechnological applications. PMID:19304845

Graham, Joel E.; Bryant, Donald A.

2009-01-01

164

Global Transcriptional Profiles of the Copper Responses in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Copper is an essential element involved in fundamental processes like respiration and photosynthesis. However, it becomes toxic at high concentration, which has forced organisms to control its cellular concentration. We have recently described a copper resistance system in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is mediated by the two-component system, CopRS, a RND metal transport system, CopBAC and a protein of unknown function, CopM. Here, we report the transcriptional responses to copper additions at non-toxic (0.3 µM) and toxic concentrations (3 µM) in the wild type and in the copper sensitive copR mutant strain. While 0.3 µM copper slightly stimulated metabolism and promoted the exchange between cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin as soluble electron carriers, the addition of 3 µM copper catalyzed the formation of ROS, led to a general stress response and induced expression of Fe-S cluster biogenesis genes. According to this, a double mutant strain copRsufR, which expresses constitutively the sufBCDS operon, tolerated higher copper concentration than the copR mutant strain, suggesting that Fe-S clusters are direct targets of copper toxicity in Synechocystis. In addition we have also demonstrated that InrS, a nickel binding transcriptional repressor that belong to the CsoR family of transcriptional factor, was involved in heavy metal homeostasis, including copper, in Synechocystis. Finally, global gene expression analysis of the copR mutant strain suggested that CopRS only controls the expression of copMRS and copBAC operons in response to copper. PMID:25268225

Giner-Lamia, Joaquin; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J.

2014-01-01

165

Diurnal rhythm of a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium under mixotrophic conditions and elevated carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Mixotrophic cultivation of cyanobacteria in wastewaters with flue gas sparging has the potential to simultaneously sequester carbon content from gaseous and aqueous streams and convert to biomass and biofuels. Therefore, it was of interest to study the effect of mixotrophy and elevated CO2 on metabolism, morphology and rhythm of gene expression under diurnal cycles. We chose a diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 as a model, which is a known hydrogen producer with robust circadian rhythm. Cyanothece 51142 grows faster with nitrate and/or an additional carbon source in the growth medium and at 3 % CO2. Intracellular glycogen contents undergo diurnal oscillations with greater accumulation under mixotrophy. While glycogen is exhausted by midnight under autotrophic conditions, significant amounts remain unutilized accompanied by a prolonged upregulation of nifH gene under mixotrophy. This possibly supports nitrogen fixation for longer periods thereby leading to better growth. To gain insights into the influence of mixotrophy and elevated CO2 on circadian rhythm, transcription of core clock genes kaiA, kaiB1 and kaiC1, the input pathway, cikA, output pathway, rpaA and representatives of key metabolic pathways was analyzed. Clock genes' transcripts were lower under mixotrophy suggesting a dampening effect exerted by an external carbon source such as glycerol. Nevertheless, the genes of the clock and important metabolic pathways show diurnal oscillations in expression under mixotrophic and autotrophic growth at ambient and elevated CO2, respectively. Taken together, the results indicate segregation of light and dark associated reactions even under mixotrophy and provide important insights for further applications. PMID:23881383

Gaudana, Sandeep B; Alagesan, Swathi; Chetty, Madhu; Wangikar, Pramod P

2013-11-01

166

Low temperature delays timing and enhances the cost of nitrogen fixation in the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece.  

PubMed

Marine nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are largely confined to the tropical and subtropical ocean. It has been argued that their global biogeographical distribution reflects the physiologically feasible temperature range at which they can perform nitrogen fixation. In this study we refine this line of argumentation for the globally important group of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, and pose the following two hypotheses: (i) nitrogen fixation is limited by nitrogenase activity at low temperature and by oxygen diffusion at high temperature, which is manifested by a shift from strong to weak temperature dependence of nitrogenase activity, and (ii) high respiration rates are required to maintain very low levels of oxygen for nitrogenase, which results in enhanced respiratory cost per molecule of fixed nitrogen at low temperature. We tested these hypotheses in laboratory experiments with the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. BG043511. In line with the first hypothesis, the specific growth rate increased strongly with temperature from 18 to 30?°C, but leveled off at higher temperature under nitrogen-fixing conditions. As predicted by the second hypothesis, the respiratory cost of nitrogen fixation and also the cellular C:N ratio rose sharply at temperatures below 21?°C. In addition, we found that low temperature caused a strong delay in the onset of the nocturnal nitrogenase activity, which shortened the remaining nighttime available for nitrogen fixation. Together, these results point at a lower temperature limit for unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, which offers an explanation for their (sub)tropical distribution and suggests expansion of their biogeographical range by global warming. PMID:23823493

Brauer, Verena S; Stomp, Maayke; Rosso, Camillo; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; Emmerich, Barbara; Stal, Lucas J; Huisman, Jef

2013-11-01

167

The genome of Cyanothece 51142, a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium important in the marine nitrogen cycle  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that have significant roles in global biological carbon sequestration and oxygen production. They occupy a diverse range of habitats, from open ocean, to hot springs, deserts, and arctic waters. Cyanobacteria are known as the progenitors of the chloroplasts of plants and algae, and are the simplest known organisms to exhibit circadian behavior4. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a unicellular marine cyanobacterium capable of N2-fixation, a process that is biochemically incompatible with oxygenic photosynthesis. To resolve this problem, Cyanothece performs photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night, thus temporally separating these processes in the same cell. The genome of Cyanothece 51142 was completely sequenced and found to contain a unique arrangement of one large circular chromosome, four small plasmids, and one linear chromosome, the first report of such a linear element in a photosynthetic bacterium. Annotation of the Cyanothece genome was aided by the use of highthroughput proteomics data, enabling the reclassification of 25% of the proteins with no informative sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that nitrogen fixation is an ancient process that arose early in evolution and has subsequently been lost in many cyanobacterial strains. In cyanobacterial cells, the circadian clock influences numerous processes, including carbohydrate synthesis, nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis, respiration, and the cell division cycle. During a diurnal period, Cyanothece cells actively accumulate and degrade different storage inclusion bodies for the products of photosynthesis and N2-fixation. This ability to utilize metabolic compartmentalization and energy storage makes Cyanothece an ideal system for bioenergy research, as well as studies of how a unicellular organism balances multiple, often incompatible, processes in the same cell.

Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Stockel, Jana; Loh, Thomas; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Wang, Chunyan; Wollam, Aye; Fulton, Robert S.; Clifton, Sandra W.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Sherman, Louis A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilson, Richard K.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2008-09-30

168

Dependence of the Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Microbes for Growth at the Ocean's Surface  

PubMed Central

The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect) biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co-existing species. PMID:21304826

Morris, J. Jeffrey; Johnson, Zackary I.; Szul, Martin J.; Keller, Martin; Zinser, Erik R.

2011-01-01

169

Sustained H2 Production Driven by Photosynthetic Water Splitting in a Unicellular Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The relationship between dinitrogenase-driven H2 production and oxygenic photosynthesis was investigated in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, using a novel custom-built photobioreactor equipped with advanced process control. Continuously illuminated nitrogen-deprived cells evolved H2 at rates up to 400 µmol ? mg Chl?1 ? h?1 in parallel with uninterrupted photosynthetic O2 production. Notably, sustained coproduction of H2 and O2 occurred over 100 h in the presence of CO2, with both gases displaying inverse oscillations which eventually dampened toward stable rates of 125 and 90 µmol ? mg Chl?1 ? h?1, respectively. Oscillations were not observed when CO2 was omitted, and instead H2 and O2 evolution rates were positively correlated. The sustainability of the process was further supported by stable chlorophyll content, maintenance of baseline protein and carbohydrate levels, and an enhanced capacity for linear electron transport as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence throughout the experiment. In situ light saturation analyses of H2 production displayed a strong dose dependence and lack of O2 inhibition. Inactivation of photosystem II had substantial long-term effects but did not affect short-term H2 production, indicating that the process is also supported by photosystem I activity and oxidation of endogenous glycogen. However, mass balance calculations suggest that carbohydrate consumption in the light may, at best, account for no more than 50% of the reductant required for the corresponding H2 production over that period. Collectively, our results demonstrate that uninterrupted H2 production in unicellular cyanobacteria can be fueled by water photolysis without the detrimental effects of O2 and have important implications for sustainable production of biofuels. PMID:22872781

Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alexander S.

2012-01-01

170

Isolation and characterization of nitrogenase-derepressed mutant strains of cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

A positive selection method for isolation of nitrogenase-derepressed mutant strains of a filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena variabilis, is described. Mutant strains that are resistant to a glutamate analog, L-methionine-D,L-sulfoximine, were screened for their ability to produce and excrete NH4+ into medium. Mutant strains capable of producing nitrogenase in the presence of NH4+ were selected from a population of NH4+-excreting mutants. One of the mutant strains (SA-1) studied in detail was found to be a conditional glutamine auxotroph requiring glutamine for growth in media containing N2, NO3-, or low concentrations of NH4+ (less than 0.5 mM). This glutamine requirement is a consequence of a block in the assimilation of NH4+ produced by an enzyme system like nitrogenase. Glutamate and aspartate failed to substitute for glutamine because of a defect in the transport and utilization of these amino acids. Strain SA-1 assimilated NH4+ when the concentration in the medium reached about 0.5 mM, and under these conditions the growth rate was similar to that of the parent. Mutant strain SA-1 produced L-methionine-D,L-sulfoximine-resistant glutamine synthetase activity. Kinetic properties of the enzyme from the parent and mutant were similar. Mutant strain SA-1 can potentially serve as a source of fertilizer nitrogen to support growth of crop plants, since the NH4+ produced by nitrogenase, utilizing sunlight and water as sources of energy and reductant, respectively, is excreted into the environment. PMID:2867990

Spiller, H; Latorre, C; Hassan, M E; Shanmugam, K T

1986-01-01

171

Isolation and Characterization of the Small Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme*  

PubMed Central

In nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, hydrogen evolution is associated with hydrogenases and nitrogenase, making these enzymes interesting targets for genetic engineering aimed at increased hydrogen production. Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that expresses the uptake hydrogenase HupSL in heterocysts under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Little is known about the structural and biophysical properties of HupSL. The small subunit, HupS, has been postulated to contain three iron-sulfur clusters, but the details regarding their nature have been unclear due to unusual cluster binding motifs in the amino acid sequence. We now report the cloning and heterologous expression of Nostoc punctiforme HupS as a fusion protein, f-HupS. We have characterized the anaerobically purified protein by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Our results show that f-HupS contains three iron-sulfur clusters. UV-visible absorption of f-HupS has bands ?340 and 420 nm, typical for iron-sulfur clusters. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized f-HupS shows a narrow g = 2.023 resonance, characteristic of a low-spin (S = ˝) [3Fe-4S] cluster. The reduced f-HupS presents complex EPR spectra with overlapping resonances centered on g = 1.94, g = 1.91, and g = 1.88, typical of low-spin (S = ˝) [4Fe-4S] clusters. Analysis of the spectroscopic data allowed us to distinguish between two species attributable to two distinct [4Fe-4S] clusters, in addition to the [3Fe-4S] cluster. This indicates that f-HupS binds [4Fe-4S] clusters despite the presence of unusual coordinating amino acids. Furthermore, our expression and purification of what seems to be an intact HupS protein allows future studies on the significance of ligand nature on redox properties of the iron-sulfur clusters of HupS. PMID:23649626

Raleiras, Patricia; Kellers, Petra; Lindblad, Peter; Styring, Stenbjorn; Magnuson, Ann

2013-01-01

172

Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

173

Chemical and rheological properties of an extracellular polysaccharide produced by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS) during the stationary growth phase in batch culture. Chemical analysis of EPS revealed a heteropolysaccharidic nature, with xylose, glucose, galactose, and mannose the main neutral sugars found. The infrared (IR) spectrum of EPS showed absorption bands of carboxylate groups. The average molecular mass of the polymer was 1.35 MDa. Aqueous dispersions at EPS concentrations ranging from 0.2% to 0.6% (w/w) showed marked shear-thinning properties (power-law behavior). Linear dynamic viscoelastic properties showed that the elastic component was always higher than the viscous component. Viscous and viscoelastic properties demonstrated the absence of conformational changes within the concentration range studied. Stress-growth experiments revealed that 0.4% and 0.6% (w/w) EPS dispersions showed thixotropic properties. A detailed comparison of the linear dynamic viscoelasticity, transient flow, and decreasing shear rate flow curve properties was made for 0.4% (w/w) dispersions of xanthan gum (XG), Alkemir 110 (AG), and EPS. Viscoelastic spectra demonstrated that the EPS dispersion turned out to be more "fluidlike" than the AG and XG dispersions. The flow indexes indicated that the EPS dispersion was less shear-sensitive than that of XG, showing essentially the same viscosity, that is, >50 s(-1). The fact that viscosities of EPS and AG dispersions were not substantially different within the shear-rate range covered must be emphasized, in relation to EPS potential applications. The rheological behavior of EPS dispersions indicates the formation of an intermediate structure between a random-coil polysaccharide and a weak gel. PMID:10620258

Moreno, J; Vargas, M A; Madiedo, J M; Muńoz, J; Rivas, J; Guerrero, M G

2000-02-01

174

Preliminary evidence of toxicity associated with the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium in South Australia.  

PubMed

In April 2000, the water supply for Yorke Peninsula in South Australia was deemed non-potable when extracts from a proliferation of the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium aff. formosum in Upper Paskeville Reservoir were found to be lethally toxic by intraperitoneal injection into mice (400 mg kg-1). Routine water quality monitoring had failed to detect the development of the Phormidium until complaints of musty taste and odour, attributable to the production of 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB), were received from the consumers. The 185 ML open-balancing storage, receiving filtered and chloraminated water from the River Murray, was isolated from the drinking water supply and a health alert was issued to approximately 15,000 consumers. The identity of the toxin(s) is thus far unknown, but clinical symptoms of toxicity in mice and chemical characteristics are distinct from the known major cyanotoxins. Preliminary characterisation of this toxin indicates that it has low solubility in water and organic solvents and is strongly associated with the particulate cellular material of the filaments. Toxicity of extracts was diminished by boiling and by treatment with chlorine, but not by chloramines. Further testing of floating cyanobacterial mats in the Torrens Lake in the city of Adelaide (Phormidium aff. formosum) and Myponga Reservoir (Phormidium aff. amoenum) in 2000/2001 was also found to be toxic by mouse bioassay. Toxicity is yet to be confirmed in monospecific cultured strains and further studies are required to identify the toxin and assess its health significance. Genetic characterisation of isolates has commenced in an attempt to classify their relatedness and to assist in the rapid identification of potentially toxic strains. PMID:11769248

Baker, P D; Steffensen, D A; Humpage, A R; Nicholson, B C; Falconer, I R; Lanthois, B; Fergusson, K M; Saint, C P

2001-01-01

175

Horizontal transfer of the nitrogen fixation gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes.  

PubMed

The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes is a cosmopolitan organism, known to build microbial mats in a variety of different environments. Although most of these cyanobacterial mats are known for their capacity to fix dinitrogen, M. chthonoplastes has not been assigned as a diazotrophic organism. None of the strains that were correctly identified as M. chthonoplastes has been shown to fix dinitrogen and it has repeatedly been reported that these organisms lacked the cyanobacterial nifH, the structural gene for dinitrogenase reductase. In this study, we show that a complete nif-gene cluster is present in the genome of M. chthonoplastes PCC 7420 and that the three structural nitrogenase genes, nifHDK, are present in a collection of axenic strains of M. chthonoplastes from distant locations. Phylogenetic analysis of nifHDK revealed that they cluster with the Deltaproteobacteria and that they are closely related to Desulfovibrio. The nif operon is flanked by typical cyanobacterial genes, suggesting that it is an integral part of the M. chthonoplastes genome. In this study, we provide evidence that the nif operon of M. chthonoplastes is acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Moreover, the presence of the same nif-cluster in M. chthonoplastes isolates derived from various sites around the world suggests that this horizontal gene transfer event must have occurred early in the evolution of M. chthonoplastes. We have been unable to express nitrogenase in cultures of M. chthonoplastes, but we show that these genes were expressed under natural conditions in the field. PMID:19741736

Bolhuis, Henk; Severin, Ina; Confurius-Guns, Veronique; Wollenzien, Ute I A; Stal, Lucas J

2010-01-01

176

Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria. Results Deciphering the 5,172,804 bp sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 has revealed the high plasticity of its genome: 11.7% DNA repeats containing more than 1,000 bases, 6.8% putative transposases and 21 putative restriction enzymes. Compared to the genomes of other cyanobacterial lineages, strain PCC 7806 contains a large number of atypical genes that may have been acquired by lateral transfers. Metabolic pathways, such as fermentation and a methionine salvage pathway, have been identified, as have genes for programmed cell death that may be related to the rapid disappearance of Microcystis blooms in nature. Analysis of the PCC 7806 genome also reveals striking novel biosynthetic features that might help to elucidate the ecological impact of secondary metabolites and lead to the discovery of novel metabolites for new biotechnological applications. M. aeruginosa and other large cyanobacterial genomes exhibit a rapid loss of synteny in contrast to other microbial genomes. Conclusion Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 appears to have adopted an evolutionary strategy relying on unusual genome plasticity to adapt to eutrophic freshwater ecosystems, a property shared by another strain of M. aeruginosa (NIES-843). Comparisons of the genomes of PCC 7806 and other cyanobacterial strains indicate that a similar strategy may have also been used by the marine strain Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 to adapt to other ecological niches, such as oligotrophic open oceans. PMID:18534010

Frangeul, Lionel; Quillardet, Philippe; Castets, Anne-Marie; Humbert, Jean-Francois; Matthijs, Hans CP; Cortez, Diego; Tolonen, Andrew; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Kehr, Jan-Christoph; Zilliges, Yvonne; Ziemert, Nadine; Becker, Sven; Talla, Emmanuel; Latifi, Amel; Billault, Alain; Lepelletier, Anthony; Dittmann, Elke; Bouchier, Christiane; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole

2008-01-01

177

Quest for minor but key chlorophyll molecules in photosynthetic reaction centers – unusual pigment composition in the reaction centers of the chlorophyll d -dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short overview, based on our own findings, is given of the minor pigments that function as key components in photosynthesis.\\u000a Recently, we found the presence of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll d? and pheophytin a as minor pigments in the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

Machiko Akiyama; Hideaki Miyashita; Hideo Kise; Tadashi Watanabe; Mamoru Mimuro; Shigetoh Miyachi; Masami Kobayashi

2002-01-01

178

Isolation, sequence and expression of two members of the 32 kd thylakoid membrane protein gene family from the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Anabaena contains at least three copies of DNA sequences related to the unique gene encoding the 32 kd thylakoid membrane protein in spinach chloroplast DNA, based on hybridization with the cloned spinach probe. Two of the identified Anabaena DNA fragments were isolated from a recombinant lambda library and the complete nucleotide sequences of the coding regions were determined.

Stephanie E. Curtis; Robert Haselkorn

1984-01-01

179

Analysis of UV-absorbing photoprotectant mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. CU2556.  

PubMed

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are ecologically important biomolecules with great photoprotective potential. The present study aimed to investigate the biosynthesis of MAAs in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. CU2556. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode-array detection studies revealed the presence of a UV-absorbing compound with an absorption maximum at 310 nm. Based on its UV absorption spectrum and ion trap liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis, the compound was identified as a primary MAA mycosporine-glycine (m/z: 246). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence of MAA mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly) in Arthrospira strains studied so far. In contrast to photosynthetic activity under UV-A radiation, the induction of the biosynthesis of M-Gly was significantly more prominent under UV-B radiation. The content of M-Gly was found to increase with the increase in exposure time under UV-B radiation. The MAA M-Gly was highly stable under UV radiation, heat, strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. It also exhibited good antioxidant activity and photoprotective ability by detoxifying the in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by UV radiation. Our results indicate that the studied cyanobacterium may protect itself by synthesizing the UV-absorbing/screening compounds as important defense mechanisms, in their natural brightly-lit habitat with high solar UV-B fluxes. PMID:24769912

Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran

2014-07-01

180

A Nostoc punctiforme Sugar Transporter Necessary to Establish a Cyanobacterium-Plant Symbiosis1[C][W  

PubMed Central

In cyanobacteria-plant symbioses, the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium has low photosynthetic activity and is supplemented by sugars provided by the plant partner. Which sugars and cyanobacterial sugar uptake mechanism(s) are involved in the symbiosis, however, is unknown. Mutants of the symbiotically competent, facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme were constructed bearing a neomycin resistance gene cassette replacing genes in a putative sugar transport gene cluster. Results of transport activity assays using 14C-labeled fructose and glucose and tests of heterotrophic growth with these sugars enabled the identification of an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter for fructose (Frt), a major facilitator permease for glucose (GlcP), and a porin needed for the optimal uptake of both fructose and glucose. Analysis of green fluorescent protein fluorescence in strains of N. punctiforme bearing frt::gfp fusions showed high expression in vegetative cells and akinetes, variable expression in hormogonia, and no expression in heterocysts. The symbiotic efficiency of N. punctiforme sugar transport mutants was investigated by testing their ability to infect a nonvascular plant partner, the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. Strains that were specifically unable to transport glucose did not infect the plant. These results imply a role for GlcP in establishing symbiosis under the conditions used in this work. PMID:23463784

Ekman, Martin; Picossi, Silvia; Campbell, Elsie L.; Meeks, John C.; Flores, Enrique

2013-01-01

181

Insights into the complex 3-D architecture of thylakoid membranes in unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142.  

PubMed

In cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, thylakoids are the complex internal membrane system where the light reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis occur. In plant chloroplasts, thylakoids are differentiated into a highly interconnected system of stacked grana and unstacked stroma membranes. In contrast, in cyanobacteria, the evolutionary progenitors of chloroplasts, thylakoids do not routinely form stacked and unstacked regions, and the architecture of the thylakoid membrane systems is only now being described in detail in these organisms. We used electron tomography to examine the thylakoid membrane systems in one cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Our data showed that thylakoids form a complicated branched network with a rudimentary quasi-helical architecture in this organism. A well accepted helical model of grana-stroma architecture of plant thylakoids describes an organization in which stroma thylakoids wind around stacked granum in right-handed spirals. Here we present data showing that the simplified helical architecture in Cyanothece 51142 is left-handed in nature. We propose a model comparing the thylakoid membranes in plants and this cyanobacterium in which the system in Cyanothece 51142 is composed of non-stacked membranes linked by fret-like connections to other membrane components of the system in a limited left-handed arrangement. PMID:21445014

Liberton, Michelle; Austin, Jotham R; Berg, R Howard; Pakrasi, Himadri B

2011-04-01

182

Optimization and effects of different culture conditions on growth of Halomicronema hongdechloris - a filamentous cyanobacterium containing chlorophyll f  

PubMed Central

A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris) was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. The extremely slow growth rate of H. hongdechloris has hindered research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for future research. This work investigated the effects of various culture conditions, essential nutrients and light environments to determine the optimal growth conditions for H. hongdechloris and the biosynthetic rate of chlorophyll f. Based on the total chlorophyll concentration, an optimal growth rate of 0.22 ± 0.02 day-1(doubling time: 3.1 ± 0.3 days) was observed when cells were grown under continuous illumination with far-red light with an intensity of 20 ?E at 32°C in modified K + ES seawater (pH 8.0) with additional nitrogen and phosphor supplements. High performance liquid chromatography on H. hongdechloris pigments confirmed that chlorophyll a is the major chlorophyll and chlorophyll f constitutes ~10% of the total chlorophyll from cells grown under far-red light. Fluorescence confocal image analysis demonstrated changes of photosynthetic membranes and the distribution of photopigments in response to different light conditions. The total photosynthetic oxygen evolution yield per cell showed no changes under different light conditions, which confirms the involvement of chlorophyll f in oxygenic photosynthesis. The implications of the presence of chlorophyll f in H. hongdechloris and its relationship with the ambient light environment are discussed. PMID:24616731

Li, Yaqiong; Lin, Yuankui; Loughlin, Patrick C.; Chen, Min

2014-01-01

183

Insertional mutagenesis by random cloning of antibiotic resistance genes into the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed Central

The facultative heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was transformed by HaeII Cmr fragments ligated at random to HaeII DNA fragments of the host genome. A similar transformation was done with an AvaII Kmr marker ligated to AvaII host DNA fragments. Integration of the resistance markers into the host genome led to a high frequency of stable Kmr and Cmr transformants. Physical analysis of individual transformants indicated that this result was due to homologous recombination by conversionlike events leading to insertion of the Cmr (or Kmr) gene between two HaeII (or AvaII) sites of the host genome, with precise deletion of the host DNA between these sites. In contrast, integrative crossover of circular DNA molecules with homology to the host DNA is very rare in this cyanobacterium. Strain PCC 6803 was shown to have about 12 genomic copies per cell in standard growth conditions, which complicates the detection of recessive mutations induced by chemical or UV mutagenesis. Random disruption of the host DNA by insertional transformation provides a convenient alternative to transposon mutagenesis in cyanobacteria and may help to overcome the difficulties encountered in generating recessive mutants by classical mutagenesis. Images PMID:2498291

Labarre, J; Chauvat, F; Thuriaux, P

1989-01-01

184

Site-specific recombination in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 catalyzed by the integrase of coliphage HK022.  

PubMed

The integrase (Int) of the lambda-like coliphage HK022 catalyzes the site-specific integration and excision of the phage DNA into and from the chromosome of its host, Escherichia coli. Int recognizes two different pairs of recombining sites attP x attB and attL x attR for integration and excision, respectively. This system was adapted to the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 as a potential tool for site-specific gene manipulations in the cyanobacterium. Two plasmids were consecutively cointroduced by conjugation into Anabaena cells, one plasmid that expresses HK022 Int recombinase and the other plasmid that carries the excision substrate P(glnA)-attL-T1/T2-attR-lacZ, where T1/T2 are the strong transcription terminators of rrnB, to prevent expression of the lacZ reporter under the constitutive promoter P(glnA). The Int-catalyzed site-specific recombination reaction was monitored by the expression of lacZ emanating as a result of T1/T2 excision. Int catalyzed the site-specific excision reaction in Anabaena cells when its substrate was located either on the plasmid or on the chromosome with no need to supply an accessory protein, such as integration host factor and excisionase (Xis), which are indispensable for this reaction in its host, E. coli. PMID:19429625

Melnikov, Olga; Zaritsky, Arieh; Zarka, Aliza; Boussiba, Sammy; Malchin, Natalia; Yagil, Ezra; Kolot, Mikhail

2009-07-01

185

Na+-Independent HCO3? Transport and Accumulation in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 1  

PubMed Central

The active transport and intracellular accumulation of HCO3? by air-grown cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 (PCC 6301) was strongly promoted by 25 millimolar Na+.Na+-dependent HCO3? accumulation also resulted in a characteristic enhancement in the rate of photosynthetic O2 evolution and CO2 fixation. However, when Synechococcus was grown in standing culture, high rates of HCO3? transport and photosynthesis were observed in the absence of added Na+. The internal HCO3? pool reached levels up to 50 millimolar, and an accumulation ratio as high as 970 was observed. Sodium enhanced HCO3? transport and accumulation in standing culture cells by about 25 to 30% compared with the five- to eightfold enhancement observed with air-grown cells. The ability of standing culture cells to utilize HCO3? from the medium in the absence of Na+ was lost within 16 hours after transfer to air-grown culture and was reacquired during subsequent growth in standing culture. Studies using a mass spectrometer indicated that standing culture cells were also capable of active CO2 transport involving a high-affinity transport system which was reversibly inhibited by H2S, as in the case for air-grown cells. The data are interpreted to indicate that Synechococcus possesses a constitutive CO2 transport system, whereas Na+-dependent and Na+-independent HCO3? transport are inducible, depending upon the conditions of growth. Intracellular accumulation of HCO3? was always accompanied by a quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence which was independent of CO2 fixation. The extent of fluorescence quenching was highly dependent upon the size of the internal pool of HCO3? + CO2. The pattern of fluorescence quenching observed in response to added HCO3? and Na+ in air-grown and standing culture cells was highly characteristic for Na+-dependent and Na+-independent HCO3? accumulation. It was concluded that measurements of fluorescence quenching provide an indirect means for following HCO3? transport and the dynamics of intracellular HCO3? accumulation and dissipation. PMID:16668677

Espie, George S.; Kandasamy, Ramani A.

1992-01-01

186

Na-Independent HCO(3) Transport and Accumulation in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed

The active transport and intracellular accumulation of HCO(3) (-) by air-grown cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 (PCC 6301) was strongly promoted by 25 millimolar Na(+).Na(+)-dependent HCO(3) (-) accumulation also resulted in a characteristic enhancement in the rate of photosynthetic O(2) evolution and CO(2) fixation. However, when Synechococcus was grown in standing culture, high rates of HCO(3) (-) transport and photosynthesis were observed in the absence of added Na(+). The internal HCO(3) (-) pool reached levels up to 50 millimolar, and an accumulation ratio as high as 970 was observed. Sodium enhanced HCO(3) (-) transport and accumulation in standing culture cells by about 25 to 30% compared with the five- to eightfold enhancement observed with air-grown cells. The ability of standing culture cells to utilize HCO(3) (-) from the medium in the absence of Na(+) was lost within 16 hours after transfer to air-grown culture and was reacquired during subsequent growth in standing culture. Studies using a mass spectrometer indicated that standing culture cells were also capable of active CO(2) transport involving a high-affinity transport system which was reversibly inhibited by H(2)S, as in the case for air-grown cells. The data are interpreted to indicate that Synechococcus possesses a constitutive CO(2) transport system, whereas Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent HCO(3) (-) transport are inducible, depending upon the conditions of growth. Intracellular accumulation of HCO(3) (-) was always accompanied by a quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence which was independent of CO(2) fixation. The extent of fluorescence quenching was highly dependent upon the size of the internal pool of HCO(3) (-) + CO(2). The pattern of fluorescence quenching observed in response to added HCO(3) (-) and Na(+) in air-grown and standing culture cells was highly characteristic for Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent HCO(3) (-) accumulation. It was concluded that measurements of fluorescence quenching provide an indirect means for following HCO(3) (-) transport and the dynamics of intracellular HCO(3) (-) accumulation and dissipation. PMID:16668677

Espie, G S; Kandasamy, R A

1992-02-01

187

Transcriptional organization of the phycocyanin subunit gene clusters of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans UTEX 625.  

PubMed Central

The phycocyanin subunit gene cluster is duplicated on the chromosome of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans UTEX 625. The two gene clusters cpcB1A1 (left) and cpcB2A2 (right) are separated by about 2,500 base pairs, and in each cluster the beta-subunit gene is located upstream from the alpha-subunit gene. Filter hybridizations with phycocyanin-specific probes to total RNA detected at least two major transcripts that were 1,300 to 1,400 nucleotides long. Besides these major mRNA species, two minor transcripts of 3,400 and 3,700 nucleotides covering one of the gene clusters and the region between the clusters were found. No additional minor transcripts were found in the intergenic region between the two phycocyanin gene clusters. The lengths of the major mRNAs indicated that the beta- and alpha-subunit genes were cotranscribed. No apparent homologies were found when the DNA sequences located upstream from the proposed ribosome-binding site of the two phycocyanin beta-subunit genes were compared. Northern hybridizations with gene cluster-specific probes from the regions 5' of the beta-subunit genes, as well as S1 nuclease mapping and mRNA primer extension experiments, showed that both gene clusters were transcribed. The minor transcripts were found to initiate upstream from the left gene cluster. Two mRNA 5' ends were mapped upstream from the cpcB1A1 gene cluster, while only one 5' end was mapped in front of the cpcB2A2 gene cluster. All transcripts were present in RNA preparations from cultures grown under high levels of white light as well as under low levels of red light. The level of phycocyanin-specific mRNA, measured as part of the total RNA, was lower under low levels of red light compared with that under high levels of white light. Conserved sequence motifs were found when the promoter region of the cpcB1A1 gene cluster and promoter regions from other cyanobacterial photosynthesis genes were compared. The DNA sequences covering the proposed transcriptional attenuators and transcriptional stop signals contained several potential hairpin structures. One potential hairpin structure was located immediately downstream of the left phycocyanin gene cluster and was concluded to limit the level of transcription for the minor transcripts initiating upstream of the cpcB1A1 gene cluster. Images PMID:2454910

Kalla, S R; Lind, L K; Lidholm, J; Gustafsson, P

1988-01-01

188

Growth inhibition of bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa by green route fabricated copper oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa can potentially proliferate in a wide range of freshwater bionetworks and create extensive secondary metabolites which are harmful to human and animal health. The M. aeruginosa release toxic microcystins that can create a wide range of health-related issues to aquatic animals and humans. It is essential to eliminate them from the ecosystem with convenient method. It has been reported that engineered metal nanoparticles are potentially toxic to pathogenic organisms. In the present study, we examined the growth inhibition effect of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles against M. aeruginosa. The green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles exhibit an excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 270 nm confirmed using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are colloidal in nature and having a particle size of 551 nm with high stability at -26.6 mV. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical, rod and irregular in shape, and consistently distributed throughout the solution. The elemental copper and oxide peak were confirmed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates the presence of functional groups which is mandatory for the reduction of copper ions. Besides, green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles shows growth inhibition against M. aeruginosa. The inhibition efficiency was 31.8 % at lower concentration and 89.7 % at higher concentration of copper oxide nanoparticles, respectively. The chlorophyll (a and b) and carotenoid content of M. aeruginosa declined in dose-dependent manner with respect to induction of copper oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, we analyzed the mechanism behind the cytotoxicity of M. aeruginosa induced by copper oxide nanoparticles through evaluating membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) level. The results expose that there is a loss in membrane integrity with ROS formation that leads to alteration in the ??m, which ends up with severe mitochondrial injury in copper oxide nanoparticles treated cells. Hence, green way synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles may be a useful selective biological agent for the control of M. aeruginosa. PMID:25074832

Sankar, Renu; Prasath, Barathan Balaji; Nandakumar, Ravichandran; Santhanam, Perumal; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

2014-12-01

189

Comparative genomic analyses of the cyanobacterium, Lyngbya aestuarii BL J, a powerful hydrogen producer  

PubMed Central

The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii is an important contributor to marine intertidal microbial mats system worldwide. The recent isolate L. aestuarii BL J, is an unusually powerful hydrogen producer. Here we report a morphological, ultrastructural, and genomic characterization of this strain to set the basis for future systems studies and applications of this organism. The filaments contain circa 17 ?m wide trichomes, composed of stacked disk-like short cells (2 ?m long), encased in a prominent, laminated exopolysaccharide sheath. Cellular division occurs by transversal centripetal growth of cross-walls, where several rounds of division proceed simultaneously. Filament division occurs by cell self-immolation of one or groups of cells (necridial cells) at the breakage point. Short, sheath-less, motile filaments (hormogonia) are also formed. Morphologically and phylogenetically L. aestuarii belongs to a clade of important cyanobacteria that include members of the marine Trichodesmiun and Hydrocoleum genera, as well as terrestrial Microcoleus vaginatus strains, and alkalyphilic strains of Arthrospira. A draft genome of strain BL J was compared to those of other cyanobacteria in order to ascertain some of its ecological constraints and biotechnological potential. The genome had an average GC content of 41.1%. Of the 6.87 Mb sequenced, 6.44 Mb was present as large contigs (>10,000 bp). It contained 6515 putative protein-encoding genes, of which, 43% encode proteins of known functional role, 26% corresponded to proteins with domain or family assignments, 19.6% encode conserved hypothetical proteins, and 11.3% encode apparently unique hypothetical proteins. The strain's genome reveals its adaptations to a life of exposure to intense solar radiation and desiccation. It likely employs the storage compounds, glycogen, and cyanophycin but no polyhydroxyalkanoates, and can produce the osmolytes, trehalose, and glycine betaine. According to its genome, BL J strain also has the potential to produce a plethora of products of biotechnological interest such as Curacin A, Barbamide, Hemolysin-type calcium-binding toxin, the suncreens scytonemin, and mycosporines, as well as heptadecane and pentadecane alkanes. With respect to hydrogen production, initial comparisons of the genetic architecture and sequence of relevant genes and loci, and a comparative model of protein structure of the NiFe bidirectional hydrogenase, did not reveal conspicuous differences that could explain its unusual hydrogen producing capacity. PMID:24376438

Kothari, Ankita; Vaughn, Michael; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

2013-01-01

190

Identification and characterization of a carboxysomal ?-carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Carboxysomes are proteinaceous microcompartments that encapsulate carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco); carboxysomes, therefore, catalyze reversible HCO3 (-) dehydration and the subsequent fixation of CO2. The N- and C-terminal domains of the ?-carboxysome scaffold protein CcmM participate in a network of protein-protein interactions that are essential for carboxysome biogenesis, organization, and function. The N-terminal domain of CcmM in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 is also a catalytically active, redox regulated ?-CA. To experimentally determine if CcmM from a mesophilic cyanobacterium is active, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant, full-length CcmM from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 as well as the N-terminal 209 amino acid ?-CA-like domain. Both recombinant proteins displayed ethoxyzolamide-sensitive CA activity in mass spectrometric assays, as did the carboxysome-enriched TP fraction. NstCcmM209 was characterized as a moderately active and efficient ?-CA with a k cat of 2.0 × 10(4) s(-1) and k cat/K m of 4.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 25 °C and pH 8, a pH optimum between 8 and 9.5 and a temperature optimum spanning 25-35 °C. NstCcmM209 also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the CO2 analog carbonyl sulfide. Circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis demonstrated that NstCcmM209 was progressively and irreversibly denatured above 50 °C. NstCcmM209 activity was inhibited by the reducing agent tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, an effect that was fully reversed by a molar excess of diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, consistent with oxidative activation being a universal regulatory mechanism of CcmM orthologs. Immunogold electron microscopy and Western blot analysis of TP pellets indicated that Rubisco and CcmM co-localize and are concentrated in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 carboxysomes. PMID:24907906

de Araujo, Charlotte; Arefeen, Dewan; Tadesse, Yohannes; Long, Benedict M; Price, G Dean; Rowlett, Roger S; Kimber, Matthew S; Espie, George S

2014-09-01

191

Photoautotrophic production of D-lactic acid in an engineered cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The world faces the challenge to develop sustainable technologies to replace thousands of products that have been generated from fossil fuels. Microbial cell factories serve as promising alternatives for the production of diverse commodity chemicals and biofuels from renewable resources. For example, polylactic acid (PLA) with its biodegradable properties is a sustainable, environmentally friendly alternative to polyethylene. At present, PLA microbial production is mainly dependent on food crops such as corn and sugarcane. Moreover, optically pure isomers of lactic acid are required for the production of PLA, where D-lactic acid controls the thermochemical and physical properties of PLA. Henceforth, production of D-lactic acid through a more sustainable source (CO2) is desirable. Results We have performed metabolic engineering on Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for the phototrophic synthesis of optically pure D-lactic acid from CO2. Synthesis of optically pure D-lactic acid was achieved by utilizing a recently discovered enzyme (i.e., a mutated glycerol dehydrogenase, GlyDH*). Significant improvements in D-lactic acid synthesis were achieved through codon optimization and by balancing the cofactor (NADH) availability through the heterologous expression of a soluble transhydrogenase. We have also discovered that addition of acetate to the cultures improved lactic acid production. More interestingly, 13C-pathway analysis revealed that acetate was not used for the synthesis of lactic acid, but was mainly used for synthesis of certain biomass building blocks (such as leucine and glutamate). Finally, the optimal strain was able to accumulate 1.14 g/L (photoautotrophic condition) and 2.17 g/L (phototrophic condition with acetate) of D-lactate in 24 days. Conclusions We have demonstrated the photoautotrophic production of D-lactic acid by engineering a cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803. The engineered strain shows an excellent D-lactic acid productivity from CO2. In the late growth phase, the lactate production rate by the engineered strain reached a maximum of ~0.19 g D-lactate/L/day (in the presence of acetate). This study serves as a good complement to the recent metabolic engineering work done on Synechocystis 6803 for L-lactate production. Thereby, our study may facilitate future developments in the use of cyanobacterial cell factories for the commercial production of high quality PLA. PMID:24274114

2013-01-01

192

Application of Real-Time PCR To Estimate Toxin Production by the Cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp.? †  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR methods are increasingly being applied for the enumeration of toxic cyanobacteria in the environment. However, to justify the use of real-time PCR quantification as a monitoring tool, significant correlations between genotype abundance and actual toxin concentrations are required. In the present study, we aimed to explain the concentrations of three structural variants of the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC) produced by the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp., [Asp, butyric acid (Dhb)]-microcystin-RR (where RR means two arginines), [Asp, methyl-dehydro-alanine (Mdha)]-microcystin-RR, and [Asp, Dhb]-microcystin-homotyrosine-arginine (HtyR), by the abundance of the microcystin genotypes encoding their synthesis. Three genotypes of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria (denoted the Dhb, Mdha, and Hty genotypes) in 12 lakes of the Alps in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland from 2005 to 2007 were quantified by means of real-time PCR. Their absolute and relative abundances were related to the concentration of the microcystin structural variants in aliquots determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total microcystin concentrations varied from 0 to 6.2 ?g liter?1 (mean ± standard error [SE] of 0.6 ± 0.1 ?g liter?1) among the samples, in turn resulting in an average microcystin content in Planktothrix of 3.1 ± 0.7 ?g mm?3 biovolume. Over a wide range of the population density (0.001 to 3.6 mm3 liter?1 Planktothrix biovolume), the Dhb genotype and [Asp, Dhb]-MC-RR were most abundant, while the Hty genotype and MC-HtyR were found to be in the lowest proportion only. In general, there was a significant linear relationship between the abundance/proportion of specific microcystin genotypes and the concentration/proportion of the respective microcystin structural variants on a logarithmic scale. We conclude that estimating the abundance of specific microcystin genotypes by quantitative real-time PCR is useful for predicting the concentration of microcystin variants in water. PMID:20363794

Ostermaier, Veronika; Kurmayer, Rainer

2010-01-01

193

A model of the circadian clock in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142  

PubMed Central

Background The over consumption of fossil fuels has led to growing concerns over climate change and global warming. Increasing research activities have been carried out towards alternative viable biofuel sources. Of several different biofuel platforms, cyanobacteria possess great potential, for their ability to accumulate biomass tens of times faster than traditional oilseed crops. The cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has recently attracted lots of research interest as a model organism for such research. Cyanothece can perform efficiently both photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation within the same cell, and has been recently shown to produce biohydrogen--a byproduct of nitrogen fixation--at very high rates of several folds higher than previously described hydrogen-producing photosynthetic microbes. Since the key enzyme for nitrogen fixation is very sensitive to oxygen produced by photosynthesis, Cyanothece employs a sophisticated temporal separation scheme, where nitrogen fixation occurs at night and photosynthesis at day. At the core of this temporal separation scheme is a robust clocking mechanism, which so far has not been thoroughly studied. Understanding how this circadian clock interacts with and harmonizes global transcription of key cellular processes is one of the keys to realize the inherent potential of this organism. Results In this paper, we employ several state of the art bioinformatics techniques for studying the core circadian clock in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, and its interactions with other key cellular processes. We employ comparative genomics techniques to map the circadian clock genes and genetic interactions from another cyanobacterial species, namely Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, of which the circadian clock has been much more thoroughly investigated. Using time series gene expression data for Cyanothece, we employ gene regulatory network reconstruction techniques to learn this network de novo, and compare the reconstructed network against the interactions currently reported in the literature. Next, we build a computational model of the interactions between the core clock and other cellular processes, and show how this model can predict the behaviour of the system under changing environmental conditions. The constructed models significantly advance our understanding of the Cyanothece circadian clock functional mechanisms. PMID:23368635

2013-01-01

194

Genome Informatics 15(1): 229–238 (2004) 229 Causes for the Large Genome Size in a Cyanobacterium  

E-print Network

Three possible causes responsible for the large genome size of a cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 are investigated: 1) sequential tandem duplications of gene segments, genes or genomic segments, 2) horizontal gene transfers from other organisms, and 3) whole-genome duplication. We evaluated the frequency distribution of angles between paralog locations for the possibility 1), the fraction of genes deviated in GC content, GC skew, AT skew and codon adaptation index for the 2) and the gene-configuration comparison of paralogs for the 3). As a result, the possibility 3), the whole-genome duplication, was more reasonable as a molecular cause than the other causes for the large genome size in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. In addition, the whole-genome duplication was supported by the analysis of distribution pattern of protein genes with respect to functional categories.

Anabaena Sp. Pcc

195

Protein synthesis and proteolysis in immobilized cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 exposed to matric water stress.  

PubMed Central

Cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 in exponential growth were subjected to acute water stress by immobilizing them on solid supports and drying them at a matric water potential (psi m) of -99.5 MPa. Cells which had been grown in the presence of Na235SO4 before immobilization and rapid drying continued to incorporate 35S into protein for 90 min. This incorporation was inhibited by chloramphenicol. No unique proteins appeared to be synthesized during this time. Upon further drying, the level of incorporation of 35S in protein began to decrease. In contrast, there was an apparent increase in the level of certain phycobiliprotein subunits in solubilized protein extracts of these cells. Extensive proteolysis was detected after prolonged desiccation (17 days) of the cells in the light, although they still remained intact. Phycobilisomes became dissociated in both light- and dark-stored desiccated material. Images PMID:3934134

Potts, M

1985-01-01

196

Structure of Trichamide, a Cyclic Peptide from the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, Predicted from the Genome Sequence†  

PubMed Central

A gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new small cyclic peptide, dubbed trichamide, was discovered in the genome of the global, bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ISM101 because of striking similarities to the previously characterized patellamide biosynthesis cluster. The tri cluster consists of a precursor peptide gene containing the amino acid sequence for mature trichamide, a putative heterocyclization gene, an oxidase, two proteases, and hypothetical genes. Based upon detailed sequence analysis, a structure was predicted for trichamide and confirmed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Trichamide consists of 11 amino acids, including two cysteine-derived thiazole groups, and is cyclized by an N—C terminal amide bond. As the first natural product reported from T. erythraeum, trichamide shows the power of genome mining in the prediction and discovery of new natural products. PMID:16751554

Sudek, Sebastian; Haygood, Margo G.; Youssef, Diaa T. A.; Schmidt, Eric W.

2006-01-01

197

Functional analysis of the phosphoprotein PII (glnB gene product) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.  

PubMed Central

The PII protein (glnB gene product) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 signals the cellular N status by being phosphorylated or dephosphorylated at a seryl residue. Here we show that the PII-modifying system responds to the activity of ammonium assimilation via the glutamine synthase-glutamate synthase pathway and to the state of CO2 fixation. To identify possible functions of PII in this microorganism, a PII-deficient mutant was created and its general phenotype was characterized. The analysis shows that the PII protein interferes with the regulation of enzymes required for nitrogen assimilation, although ammonium repression is still detectable in the PII-deficient mutant. We suggest that the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of PII are part of a complex signal transduction network involved in global nitrogen control in cyanobacteria. In this regulatory process, PII might be involved in mediating the tight coordination between carbon and nitrogen assimilation. PMID:7721695

Forchhammer, K; Tandeau de Marsac, N

1995-01-01

198

Global Transcriptional Responses of the Toxic Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to Nitrogen Stress, Phosphorus Stress, and Growth on Organic Matter  

PubMed Central

Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to assess the transcriptomic response of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa during growth with low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (low N), low levels of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (low P), and in the presence of high levels of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM). Under low N, one third of the genome was differentially expressed, with significant increases in transcripts observed among genes within the nir operon, urea transport genes (urtBCDE), and amino acid transporters while significant decreases in transcripts were observed in genes related to photosynthesis. There was also a significant decrease in the transcription of the microcystin synthetase gene set under low N and a significant decrease in microcystin content per Microcystis cell demonstrating that N supply influences cellular toxicity. Under low P, 27% of the genome was differentially expressed. The Pho regulon was induced leading to large increases in transcript levels of the alkaline phosphatase phoX, the Pst transport system (pstABC), and the sphX gene, and transcripts of multiple sulfate transporter were also significantly more abundant. While the transcriptional response to growth on HMWDOM was smaller (5–22% of genes differentially expressed), transcripts of multiple genes specifically associated with the transport and degradation of organic compounds were significantly more abundant within HMWDOM treatments and thus may be recruited by Microcystis to utilize these substrates. Collectively, these findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the nutritional physiology of this toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacterium and the role of N in controlling microcystin synthesis. PMID:23894552

Harke, Matthew J.; Gobler, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

199

Microenvironmental Ecology of the Chlorophyll b-Containing Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian Lissoclinum patella  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the cyanobacterium Prochloron was the first finding of a bacterial oxyphototroph with chlorophyll (Chl) b, in addition to Chl a. It was first described as Prochloron didemni but a number of clades have since been described. Prochloron is a conspicuously large (7–25??m) unicellular cyanobacterium living in a symbiotic relationship, primarily with (sub-) tropical didemnid ascidians; it has resisted numerous cultivation attempts and appears truly obligatory symbiotic. Recently, a Prochloron draft genome was published, revealing no lack of metabolic genes that could explain the apparent inability to reproduce and sustain photosynthesis in a free-living stage. Possibly, the unsuccessful cultivation is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the microenvironmental conditions and ecophysiology of Prochloron in its natural habitat. We used microsensors, variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and imaging of O2 and pH to obtain a detailed insight to the microenvironmental ecology and photobiology of Prochloron in hospite in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. The microenvironment within ascidians is characterized by steep gradients of light and chemical parameters that change rapidly with varying irradiances. The interior zone of the ascidians harboring Prochloron thus became anoxic and acidic within a few minutes of darkness, while the same zone exhibited O2 super-saturation and strongly alkaline pH after a few minutes of illumination. Photosynthesis showed lack of photoinhibition even at high irradiances equivalent to full sunlight, and photosynthesis recovered rapidly after periods of anoxia. We discuss these new insights on the ecological niche of Prochloron and possible interactions with its host and other microbes in light of its recently published genome and a recent study of the overall microbial diversity and metagenome of L. patella. PMID:23226144

Kuhl, Michael; Behrendt, Lars; Trampe, Erik; Qvortrup, Klaus; Schreiber, Ulrich; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

2012-01-01

200

The freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea produces compounds toxic to mice and to mammalian and fish cells.  

PubMed

Despite a growing awareness of the presence of cyanobacterial toxins, knowledge about the ability of specific species to produce toxic compounds is still rather limited. It was the overall goal of the current work to investigate if probes derived from the freshwater species Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea (Kutz.) Gomont, a cyanobacterium frequently found in southern Europe and not previously investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds, were capable of eliciting in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The cyanobacterial extract revealed signs of neuro- as well as hepatotoxicity in mice, although these signs could not be explained by the well-known respective cyanobacterial neuro- and hepatotoxins saxitoxin and microcystin. Cytotoxicity was elicited by the cyanobacterial extract in all mammalian cell lines tested. As well, the rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, was found to be susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of the extract, although the cytotoxicity was dependent on temperature. In contrast, the cyanobacterial growth medium elicited cytotoxicity independent of temperature, leading to morphological changes indicative of alterations to the cytoskeleton. Overall, the results suggest that Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea is an important cyanobacterium to be considered for its potential to cause health risks on environmental exposure of it to mammals and fish. Applying a combination of mammalian and piscine cell line bioassays is a unique approach that, combined with chemical analysis, could be used in the future to identify the structure and cellular mechanisms of the as-yet-unknown toxic Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea metabolites in particular and to screen cyanobacterial extracts for their toxicity in general. PMID:12539139

Teneva, Ivanka; Asparuhova, Dafinka; Dzhambazov, Balik; Mladenov, Rumen; Schirmer, Kristin

2003-02-01

201

Design and analysis of LacI-repressed promoters and DNA-looping in a cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria are solar-powered prokaryotes useful for sustainable production of valuable molecules, but orthogonal and regulated promoters are lacking. The Lac repressor (LacI) from Escherichia coli is a well-studied transcription factor that is orthogonal to cyanobacteria and represses transcription by binding a primary lac operator (lacO), blocking RNA-polymerase. Repression can be enhanced through DNA-looping, when a LacI-tetramer binds two spatially separated lacO and loops the DNA. Ptrc is a commonly used LacI-repressed promoter that is inefficiently repressed in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Ptrc2O, a version of Ptrc with two lacO, is more efficiently repressed, indicating DNA-looping. To investigate the inefficient repression of Ptrc and cyanobacterial DNA-looping, we designed a Ptrc-derived promoter library consisting of single lacO promoters, including a version of Ptrc with a stronger lacO (Ptrc1O-proximal), and dual lacO promoters with varying inter-lacO distances (the Ptrc2O-library). Results We first characterized artificial constitutive promoters and used one for engineering a LacI-expressing strain of Synechocystis. Using this strain, we observed that Ptrc1O-proximal is similar to Ptrc in being inefficiently repressed. Further, the Ptrc2O-library displays a periodic repression pattern that remains for both non- and induced conditions and decreases with longer inter-lacO distances, in both E. coli and Synechocystis. Repression of Ptrc2O-library promoters with operators out of phase is less efficient in Synechocystis than in E. coli, whereas repression of promoters with lacO in phase is efficient even under induced conditions in Synechocystis. Two well-repressed Ptrc2O promoters were highly active when tested in absence of LacI in Synechocystis. Conclusions The artificial constitutive promoters herein characterized can be utilized for expression in cyanobacteria, as demonstrated for LacI. The inefficient repression of Ptrc and Ptrc1O-proximal in Synechocystis, as compared to E. coli, may be due to insufficient LacI expression, or differences in RNAP subunits. DNA-looping works as a transcriptional regulation mechanism similarly as in E. coli. DNA-looping contributes strongly to Ptrc2O-library repression in Synechocystis, even though they contain the weakly-repressed primary lacO of Ptrc1O-proximal and relatively low levels of LacI/cell. Hence, Synechocystis RNAP may be more sensitive to DNA-looping than E. coli RNAP, and/or the chromatin torsion resistance could be lower. Two strong and highly repressed Ptrc2O promoters could be used without induction, or together with an unstable LacI. PMID:24467947

2014-01-01

202

Comparison of two different modes of UV-B irradiation on synthesis of some cellular substances in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different modes of UV-B irradiation of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are compared: turbidostatic control and additional physiostatic control. Under turbidostatic control, the cells\\u000a were exposed to different constant UV-B irradiances, whereas under physiostatic control, an electronic control loop modulated\\u000a UV-B irradiance in such a way that photosynthetic efficiency ?\\u000a PSII was kept constant at a fixed set

Kai Marxen; Klaus Heinrich Vanselow; Ralf Hintze; Sebastian Lippemeier; Andreas Ruser; Britta Egge; Franciscus Colijn; Ulf-Peter Hansen

2010-01-01

203

Two internal pools of soluble polyphosphate in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308: an in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two intracellular pools of soluble polyphosphate were identified by in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308. Polyphosphate was present in the cells after growth in sulfur-limited media containing excess phosphate.\\u000a The presence of polyphosphate was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and chemical analysis. 31P NMR spectroscopy of whole cells treated with EDTA revealed two

Barbara A. Lawrence; Cristina Suarez; Ana DePina; Eleanor Click; Nancy H. Kolodny; Mary M. Allen

1998-01-01

204

Ferredoxin-Dependent Iron–Sulfur Flavoprotein Glutamate Synthase (GlsF) from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: Expression and Assembly in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains two different glutamate synthases whose genes, gltB and glsF (previously known as gltS), have been cloned (F. Navarro et al., 1995, Plant Mol. Biol. 27, 753–767). The glsF gene has been expressed in the glutamate auxotrophic Escherichia coli strain CLR207 RecA, but the corresponding protein does not complement the auxotrophy. The transformed

Francisco Navarro; Eugenio Mart??n-Figueroa; Pedro Candau; Francisco J. Florencio

2000-01-01

205

Salt-Dependent Expression of Glucosylglycerol-Phosphate Synthase, Involved in Osmolyte Synthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 21 November 2001\\/Accepted 28 February 2002 The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is able to acclimate to levels of salinity ranging from freshwater to twice the seawater concentrations of salt by accumulating the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG). Expression of the ggpS gene coding for the key enzyme (glucosylglycerol-phosphate synthase) in GG synthesis was examined in detail. Under control

Kay Marin; Jana Huckauf; Sabine Fulda; Martin Hagemann

2002-01-01

206

Sequencing and modification of psbB, the gene encoding the CP47 protein of Photosystem II, in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photosystem II protein CP-47 has been hypothesized to be involved in binding the reaction center chlorophyll. The psbB gene, encoding this protein, was cloned from the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, and sequenced. The DNA sequence is 68% homologous with that of the psbB gene from spinach, whereas the predicted amino acid sequence is 76% homologous. The hydropathy

Wim F. J. Vermaas; John G. K. Williams; Charles J. Arntzen

1987-01-01

207

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the gene coding for heterocyst ferredoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heterocysts of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 a specific [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin is synthesized, serving as immediate electron donor to nitrogenase. The structural gene for this heterocyst ferredoxin, fdxH, was isolated from a recombinant lambda library, using an oligonucleotide probe derived from a unique segment of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein. The sequence of the entire

H. Böhme; R. Haselkorn

1988-01-01

208

Effects of heavy metals (Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ ) on the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a model organism known for its unique combination of highly desirable molecular genetic, physiological and\\u000a morphological characteristics, was employed in the present study. The species was cultured in BG11 liquid medium contained\\u000a various initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg\\/L). The experiment was conducted for

K. K. I. U. Arunakumara; Xuecheng Zhang

2009-01-01

209

Zooplankton community structure, micro-zooplankton grazing impact, and seston energy content in the St. Johns river system, Florida as influenced by the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton can influence the phytoplankton community through preferential grazing. In turn, nuisance cyanobacteria may affect zooplankton community structure by allowing certain species to out-compete others. We examined zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions, micro-zooplankton (m) grazing, and biochemical components of the seston in the St. Johns River System (SJR), Florida in the presence and absence of the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. We tested whether

Jeremy A. Leonard; Hans W. Paerl

2005-01-01

210

Theophylline-dependent riboswitch as a novel genetic tool for strict regulation of protein expression in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a major model species for studies of photosynthesis. It is are also a potential cell factory for the production of renewable biofuels and valuable chemicals. We employed engineered riboswitches to control translational initiation of target genes in this cyanobacterium. A firefly luciferase reporter assay revealed that three theophylline riboswitches performed as expected in the cyanobacterium. Riboswitch-E* exhibited very low leaky expression of luciferase and superior and dose-dependent on/off regulation of protein expression by theophylline. The maximum magnitude of the induction vs. basal level was ?190-fold. Furthermore, the induction level was responsive to a wide range of theophylline concentrations in the medium, from 0 to 2 mM, facilitating the fine-tuning of luciferase expression. We adapted this riboswitch to another gene regulation system, in which expression of the circadian clock kaiC gene product is controlled by the theophylline concentration in the culture medium. The results demonstrated that the adequately adjusted expression level of KaiC restored complete circadian rhythm in the kaiC-deficient arrhythmic mutant. This theophylline-dependent riboswitch system has potential for various applications as a useful genetic tool in cyanobacteria. PMID:23969558

Nakahira, Yoichi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

2013-10-01

211

Different phycobilin antenna organisations affect the balance between light use and growth rate in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and in the cryptophyte Cryptomonas ovata.  

PubMed

During the recent years, wide varieties of methodologies have been developed up to the level of commercial use to measure photosynthetic electron transport by modulated chlorophyll a-in vivo fluorescence. It is now widely accepted that the ratio between electron transport rates and new biomass (P (Fl)/B (C)) is not fixed and depends on many factors that are also taxonomically variable. In this study, the balance between photon absorption and biomass production has been measured in two phycobilin-containing phototrophs, namely, a cyanobacterium and a cryptophyte, which differ in their antenna organization. It is demonstrated that the different antenna organization exerts influence on the regulation of the primary photosynthetic reaction and the dissipation of excessively absorbed radiation. Although, growth rates and the quantum efficiency of biomass production of both phototrophs were comparable, the ratio P (Fl)/B (C) was twice as high in the cryptophyte in comparison to the cyanobacterium. It is assumed that this discrepancy is because of differences in the metabolic regulation of cell growth. In the cryptophyte, absorbed photosynthetic energy is used to convert assimilated carbon directly into proteins and lipids, whereas in the cyanobacterium, the photosynthetic energy is preferentially stored as carbohydrates. PMID:22183802

Kunath, Christfried; Jakob, Torsten; Wilhelm, Christian

2012-03-01

212

Cloning of a higher-plant plastid omega-6 fatty acid desaturase cDNA and its expression in a cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

Oligomers based on amino acids conserved between known plant omega-3 and cyanobacterium omega-6 fatty acid desaturases were used to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library for related sequences. An identified clone encoding a novel desaturase-like polypeptide was used to isolate its homologs from Glycine max and Brassica napus. The plant deduced amino acid sequences showed less than 27% similarity to known plant omega-6 and omega-3 desaturases but more than 48% similarity to cyanobacterial omega-6 desaturase, and they contained putative plastid transit sequences. Thus, we deduce that the plant cDNAs encode the plastid omega-6 desaturase. The identity was supported by expression of the B. napus cDNA in cyanobacterium. Synechococcus transformed with a chimeric gene that contains a prokaryotic promoter fused to the rapeseed cDNA encoding all but the first 73 amino acids partially converted its oleic acid fatty acid to linoleic acid, and the 16:1(9c) fatty acid was converted primarily to 16:2(9c, 12) in vivo. Thus, the plant omega-6 desaturase, which utilizes 16:1(7c) in plants, can utilize 16:1(9c) in the cyanobacterium. The plastid and cytosolic homologs of plant omega-6 desaturases are much more distantly related than those of omega-3 desaturases. PMID:8066133

Hitz, W D; Carlson, T J; Booth, J R; Kinney, A J; Stecca, K L; Yadav, N S

1994-01-01

213

Inhibition of hydrogen uptake in Escherichia coli by expressing the hydrogenase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular hydrogen is an environmentally-clean fuel and the reversible (bi-directional) hydrogenase of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as well as the native Escherichia coli hydrogenase 3 hold great promise for hydrogen generation. These enzymes perform the simple reaction 2H+ + 2e- ? H2 (g). Results Hydrogen yields were enhanced up to 41-fold by cloning the bidirectional hydrogenase (encoded by hoxEFUYH) from the cyanobacterium into E. coli. Using an optimized medium, E. coli cells expressing hoxEFUYH also produced twice as much hydrogen as the well-studied Enterobacter aerogenes HU-101, and hydrogen gas bubbles are clearly visible from the cultures. Overexpression of HoxU alone (small diaphorase subunit) accounts for 43% of the additional hydrogen produced by HoxEFUYH. In addition, hydrogen production in E. coli mutants with defects in the native formate hydrogenlyase system show that the cyanobacterial hydrogenase depends on both the native E. coli hydrogenase 3 as well as on its maturation proteins. Hydrogen absorption by cells expressing hoxEFUYH was up to 10 times lower than cells which lack the cloned cyanobacterial hydrogenase; hence, the enhanced hydrogen production in the presence of hoxEFUYH is due to inhibition of hydrogen uptake activity in E. coli. Hydrogen uptake by cells expressing hoxEFUYH was suppressed in three wild-type strains and in two hycE mutants but not in a double mutant defective in hydrogenase 1 and hydrogenase 2; hence, the active cyanobacterial locus suppresses hydrogen uptake by hydrogenase 1 and hydrogenase 2 but not by hydrogenase 3. Differential gene expression indicated that overexpression of HoxEFUYH does not alter expression of the native E. coli hydrogenase system; instead, biofilm-related genes are differentially regulated by expression of the cyanobacterial enzymes which resulted in 2-fold elevated biofilm formation. This appears to be the first enhanced hydrogen production by cloning a cyanobacterial enzyme into a heterologous host. Conclusion Enhanced hydrogen production in E. coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial HoxEFUYH is by inhibiting hydrogen uptake of both hydrogenase 1 and hydrogenase 2. PMID:17521447

Maeda, Toshinari; Vardar, Gonul; Self, William T; Wood, Thomas K

2007-01-01

214

Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the ?flv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in ?flv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts. PMID:25002499

Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

2014-07-29

215

Oscillating behavior of carbohydrate granule formation and dinitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that some aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacteria temporally separate photosynthetic O2 evolution and oxygen-sensitive N2 fixation. Cyanothece sp. ATCC strain 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that fixes N2 during discrete periods of its cell cycle. When the bacteria are maintained under diurnal light-dark cycles, N2 fixation occurs in the dark. Similar cycling is observed in continuous light, implicating a circadian rhythm. Under N2-fixing conditions, large inclusion granules form between the thylakoid membranes. Maximum granulation, as observed by electron microscopy, occurs before the onset of N2 fixation, and the granules decrease in number during the period of N2 fixation. The granules can be purified from cell homogenates by differential centrifugation. Biochemical analyses of the granules indicate that these structures are primarily carbohydrate, with some protein. Further analyses of the carbohydrate have shown that it is a glucose polymer with some characteristics of glycogen. It is proposed that N2 fixation is driven by energy and reducing power stored in these inclusion granules. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 represents an excellent experimental organism for the study of the protective mechanisms of nitrogenase, metabolic events in cyanobacteria under normal and stress conditions, the partitioning of resources between growth and storage, and biological rhythms.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Nayar, S.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

216

Synergistic effect of deoxyanthocyanins from symbiotic fern Azolla spp. on hrmA gene induction in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.  

PubMed

The hrmA gene of the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme functions in repressing the formation of transitory motile filaments, termed hormogonia, by plant-associated vegetative filaments. Here, we report that anthocyanins can contribute to induction of hrmA expression. Aqueous extract from fronds of the fern Azolla pinnata, a host of symbiotic Nostoc spp., was found to be a potent inducer of hrmA-luxAB in N. punctiforme strain UCD 328. The hrmA-luxAB inducing activities of A. pinnata, as well as Azolla filiculoides, were positively correlated with levels of frond deoxyanthocyanins. Analyses of the deoxyanthocyanins in frond extracts revealed, in order of predominance, an acetylated glycoside derivative of luteolinidin (m/z 475) and of apigeninidin (m/z 459) and minor amounts of a second luteolinidin derivative. At up to 150 microM, a purified preparation of deoxyanthocyanins only weakly induced hrmA-luxAB on its own, but mixtures with hrmA-luxAB inducers (A. filiculoides extract or the flavonoid naringin) synergistically doubled to tripled their inducing activities. These results suggest that appropriately localized deoxyanthocyanins could function in plant-mediated mechanisms for repressing Nostoc spp. hormogonium formation. PMID:12236594

Cohen, Michael F; Sakihama, Yasuko; Takagi, Yojiro C; Ichiba, Toshio; Yamasaki, Hideo

2002-09-01

217

Acrolein, an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl, inhibits both growth and PSII activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to determine whether and how an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl, acrolein, can inhibit the growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (S. 6803). Treatment of S. 6803 with 200 µM acrolein for 3 d significantly and irreversibly inhibited its growth. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism, we examined the effects of acrolein on photosynthesis. In contrast to dark conditions, the addition of acrolein to S. 6803 under conditions of illumination lowered the CO?-dependent O? evolution rate (photosynthetic activity). Furthermore, treatment with acrolein lowered the activity reducing dimethyl benzoquinone in photosystem II (PSII). Acrolein also suppressed the reduction rate for the oxidized form of the reaction center chlorophyll of photosystem I (PSI), P700. These results indicate that acrolein inhibited PSII activity in thylakoid membranes. The addition of 200 µM acrolein to the illuminated S. 6803 cells gradually increased the steady-state level (Fs) of Chl fluorescence and decreased the quantum yield of PSII. These results suggested that acrolein damaged the acceptor side of PSII. On the other hand, acrolein did not inhibit respiration. From the above results, we gained insight into the metabolism of acrolein and its physiological effects in S. 6803. PMID:23924728

Shimakawa, Ginga; Iwamoto, Tatsuya; Mabuchi, Tomohito; Saito, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Amako, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Toshio; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

2013-01-01

218

Computational inference and experimental validation of the nitrogen assimilation regulatory network in cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH 8102.  

PubMed

Deciphering the regulatory networks encoded in the genome of an organism represents one of the most interesting and challenging tasks in the post-genome sequencing era. As an example of this problem, we have predicted a detailed model for the nitrogen assimilation network in cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 (WH8102) using a computational protocol based on comparative genomics analysis and mining experimental data from related organisms that are relatively well studied. This computational model is in excellent agreement with the microarray gene expression data collected under ammonium-rich versus nitrate-rich growth conditions, suggesting that our computational protocol is capable of predicting biological pathways/networks with high accuracy. We then refined the computational model using the microarray data, and proposed a new model for the nitrogen assimilation network in WH8102. An intriguing discovery from this study is that nitrogen assimilation affects the expression of many genes involved in photosynthesis, suggesting a tight coordination between nitrogen assimilation and photosynthesis processes. Moreover, for some of these genes, this coordination is probably mediated by NtcA through the canonical NtcA promoters in their regulatory regions. PMID:16473855

Su, Zhengchang; Mao, Fenglou; Dam, Phuongan; Wu, Hongwei; Olman, Victor; Paulsen, Ian T; Palenik, Brian; Xu, Ying

2006-01-01

219

Growth inhibition of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and degradation of its microcystin toxins by the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride.  

PubMed

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are recognized as a rapidly expanding global problem that threatens human and ecosystem health. Many bacterial strains have been reported as possible agents for inhibiting and controlling these blooms. However, such algicidal activity is largely unexplored for fungi. In this study, a fungal strain kkuf-0955, isolated from decayed cyanobacterial bloom was tested for its capability to inhibit phytoplankton species in batch cultures. The strain was identified as Trichoderma citrinoviride Based on its morphological characteristics and DNA sequence. Microcystis aeruginosa co-cultivated with living fungal mycelia rapidly decreased after one day of incubation, and all cells completely died and lysed after 2 days. The fungal filtrate of 5-day culture also exhibited an inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa, and this inhibition increased with the amount of filtrate and incubation time. Conversely, green algae and diatoms have not been influenced by either living fungal mycelia or culture filtrate. Interestingly, the fungus was not only able to inhibit Microcystis growth but also degraded microcystin produced by this cyanobacterium. The toxins were completely degraded within 5 days of incubation with living fungal mycelia, but not significantly changed with fungal filtrate. This fungus could be a potential bioagent to selectively control Microcystis blooms and degrade microcystin toxins. PMID:24874888

Mohamed, Zakaria A; Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad A

2014-08-01

220

Effect of Nitrogen on Cellular Production and Release of the Neurotoxin Anatoxin-A in a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Anatoxin-a (ANTX) is a neurotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria and implicated in lethal poisonings of domesticated animals and wildlife. The factors leading to its production in nature and in culture are not well understood. Resource availability may influence its cellular production as suggested by the carbon-nutrient hypothesis, which links the amount of secondary metabolites produced by plants or microbes to the relative abundance of nutrients. We tested the effects of nitrogen supply (as 1, 5, and 100% N of standard cyanobacterial medium corresponding to 15, 75, and 1500?mg?L?1 of NaNO3 respectively) on ANTX production and release in a toxic strain of the planktonic cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (Nostocales). We hypothesized that nitrogen deficiency might constrain the production of ANTX. However, the total concentration and more significantly the cellular content of anatoxin-a peaked (max. 146??g/L and 1683??g?g?1 dry weight) at intermediate levels of nitrogen supply when N-deficiency was evident based on phycocyanin to chlorophyll a and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that the cellular production of anatoxin-a may be stimulated by moderate nitrogen stress. Maximal cellular contents of other cyanotoxins have recently been reported under severe stress conditions in another Nostocales species. PMID:22701451

Gagnon, Alexis; Pick, Frances R.

2012-01-01

221

Acclimation of the Global Transcriptome of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 to Nutrient Limitations and Different Nitrogen Sources  

PubMed Central

The unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and is a potential platform for biotechnological applications. Two of its most notable properties are its exceptional tolerance of high-light intensity and very rapid growth under optimal conditions. In this study, transcription profiling by RNAseq has been used to perform an integrated study of global changes in transcript levels in cells subjected to limitation for the major nutrients CO2, nitrogen, sulfate, phosphate, and iron. Transcriptional patterns for cells grown on nitrate, ammonia, and urea were also studied. Nutrient limitation caused strong decreases of transcript levels of the genes encoding major metabolic pathways, especially for components of the photosynthetic apparatus, CO2 fixation, and protein biosynthesis. Uptake mechanisms for the respective nutrients were strongly up-regulated. The transcription data further suggest that major changes in the composition of the NADH dehydrogenase complex occur upon nutrient limitation. Transcripts for flavoproteins increased strongly when CO2 was limiting. Genes involved in protection from oxidative stress generally showed high, constitutive transcript levels, which possibly explains the high-light tolerance of this organism. The transcriptomes of cells grown with ammonia or urea as nitrogen source showed increased transcript levels for components of the CO2 fixation machinery compared to cells grown with nitrate, but in general transcription differences in cells grown on different N-sources exhibited surprisingly minor differences. PMID:22514553

Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

222

Characterization and Evolution of Tetrameric Photosystem I from the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp TS-821[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Photosystem I (PSI) is a reaction center associated with oxygenic photosynthesis. Unlike the monomeric reaction centers in green and purple bacteria, PSI forms trimeric complexes in most cyanobacteria with a 3-fold rotational symmetry that is primarily stabilized via adjacent PsaL subunits; however, in plants/algae, PSI is monomeric. In this study, we discovered a tetrameric form of PSI in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp TS-821 (TS-821). In TS-821, PSI forms tetrameric and dimeric species. We investigated these species by Blue Native PAGE, Suc density gradient centrifugation, 77K fluorescence, circular dichroism, and single-particle analysis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of native membranes confirms the presence of the tetrameric PSI structure prior to detergent solubilization. To investigate why TS-821 forms tetramers instead of trimers, we cloned and analyzed its psaL gene. Interestingly, this gene product contains a short insert between the second and third predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic analysis based on PsaL protein sequences shows that TS-821 is closely related to heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, some of which also have a tetrameric form of PSI. These results are discussed in light of chloroplast evolution, and we propose that PSI evolved stepwise from a trimeric form to tetrameric oligomer en route to becoming monomeric in plants/algae. PMID:24681621

Li, Meng; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Bruce, Barry D.

2014-01-01

223

Ecological Physiology of Synechococcus sp. Strain SH-94-5, a Naturally Occurring Cyanobacterium Deficient in Nitrate Assimilation  

PubMed Central

Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world. PMID:11425713

Miller, Scott R.; Castenholz, Richard W.

2001-01-01

224

Santacruzamate A, a potent and selective histone deacetylase inhibitor from the Panamanian marine cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.  

PubMed

A dark brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity. PMID:24164245

Pavlik, Christopher M; Wong, Christina Y B; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L; Gerwick, William H; Balunas, Marcy J

2013-11-22

225

Photoacclimation of cultured strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to high-light and low-light conditions.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa forms blooms that can consist of colonies. We have investigated how M. aeruginosa acclimatizes to changing light conditions such as can occur during blooms. Three different strains were exposed to two irradiance levels: lower (LL) and higher (HL) than the irradiance-onset saturation parameter. We measured the photosynthetic pigment concentrations, PSII photochemical efficiency, electron transport rate (ETR), irradiance-saturated ETR and ETR efficiency. The relationship between ETR and photosynthetic oxygen production and the excess in PSII capacity were also studied for one strain. Higher values of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin and lower values of total carotenoids were found under LL conditions in the three strains. The strains showed clear differences in the irradiance-saturated ETR and in ETR efficiency under both LL and HL treatments. No differences were found in the linear relationship between ETR and photosynthetic oxygen production under both irradiance treatments. LL-acclimated cells showed higher PSII excess capacity than HL ones, possibly because their higher pigment content could result in a higher light stress than HL cells when forming surface blooms. The fact that the genetically different strains show different photosynthetic physiologies suggests that the very dynamic light climate observed in lakes may allow their coexistence. PMID:23057858

Bańares-Espańa, Elena; Kromkamp, Jacco C; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio

2013-03-01

226

In-Situ Optical and Acoustical Measurements of the Buoyant Cyanobacterium P. Rubescens: Spatial and Temporal Distribution Patterns  

PubMed Central

Optical (fluorescence) and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP) and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF). In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS) were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV). The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes) and spatial (decimeters) resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal) and spatial (basin scale) scales. PMID:24303028

Hofmann, Hilmar; Peeters, Frank

2013-01-01

227

Hydrogen Generation through Indirect Biophotolysis in Batch Cultures of the Non-Heterocystous Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum  

SciTech Connect

The nitrogen-fixing non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum was used as a model organism to study hydrogen generation by indirect biophotolysis in nitrogen-limited batch cultures that were continuously illuminated and sparged with argon/CO2 to maintain anaerobiosis. The highest hydrogen production rate (i.e., 0.18 mL/mg?day or 7.3 ?mol/mg?day) ) was observed in cultures with an initial medium nitrate concentration of 1 mM at a light intensity of 100 ?mol/m2?sec. The addition of photosystem II inhibitor DCMU did not reduce hydrogen production rates relative to unchallenged controls for 50 to 150 hours, and intracellular glycogen concentrations decreased significantly during the hydrogen generation period. The insensitivity of the hydrogen production process to DCMU is indicative of the fact that hydrogen was not derived from water splitting at photosystem II (i.e., direct biophotolysis) but rather from electrons provided by intracellular glycogen reserves (i.e., indirect biophotolysis). It was shown that hydrogen generation could be sustained for long time periods by subjecting the cultures to alternating cycles of aerobic, nitrogen-limited growth and anaerobic hydrogen production.

Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Carter, Blaine M.; Gerschler, Jared J.; Benemann, John R.

2010-09-01

228

Selection of proper reference genes for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 using real-time quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is known to be tolerant to most of the environmental factors in natural habitats of Cyanobacteria. Gene expression can be easily studied in this cyanobacterium, as its complete genome sequence is available. These properties make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 an appropriate model organism for biotechnological applications. To study the gene expression in Cyanobacteria, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used, but as this is a highly sensitive method, data standardization is indicated between samples. The most commonly used strategy is normalization against internal reference genes. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has not yet been evaluated for the best reference genes. In this work, six candidate genes were analyzed for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures were exposed to several stress conditions, and three different algorithms were used for ranking the reference genes: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Moreover, gene expression stability value M and single-control normalization error E were calculated. Our data provided a list of reference genes that can be used in qPCR experiments in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. PMID:25115691

Szekeres, Edina; Sicora, Cosmin; Drago?, Nicolae; Drug?, Bogdan

2014-10-01

229

Acclimation of the Global Transcriptome of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 to Nutrient Limitations and Different Nitrogen Sources.  

PubMed

The unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and is a potential platform for biotechnological applications. Two of its most notable properties are its exceptional tolerance of high-light intensity and very rapid growth under optimal conditions. In this study, transcription profiling by RNAseq has been used to perform an integrated study of global changes in transcript levels in cells subjected to limitation for the major nutrients CO(2), nitrogen, sulfate, phosphate, and iron. Transcriptional patterns for cells grown on nitrate, ammonia, and urea were also studied. Nutrient limitation caused strong decreases of transcript levels of the genes encoding major metabolic pathways, especially for components of the photosynthetic apparatus, CO(2) fixation, and protein biosynthesis. Uptake mechanisms for the respective nutrients were strongly up-regulated. The transcription data further suggest that major changes in the composition of the NADH dehydrogenase complex occur upon nutrient limitation. Transcripts for flavoproteins increased strongly when CO(2) was limiting. Genes involved in protection from oxidative stress generally showed high, constitutive transcript levels, which possibly explains the high-light tolerance of this organism. The transcriptomes of cells grown with ammonia or urea as nitrogen source showed increased transcript levels for components of the CO(2) fixation machinery compared to cells grown with nitrate, but in general transcription differences in cells grown on different N-sources exhibited surprisingly minor differences. PMID:22514553

Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A

2012-01-01

230

Immunolocalization of the uptake hydrogenase in the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4 and two Nostoc strains.  

PubMed

In N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria, the reduction of N(2) to NH(3) is coupled with the production of molecular hydrogen, which is rapidly consumed by an uptake hydrogenase, an enzyme that is present in almost all diazotrophic cyanobacteria. The cellular and subcellular localization of the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenase remains uncertain, and it is definitely strain dependent. Previous studies focused mainly on heterocystous cyanobacteria and used heterologous antisera. The present work represents the first effort to establish the subcellular localization of the uptake hydrogenase in a N(2)-fixing filamentous nonheterocystous cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula CCAP 1446/4, using the first antiserum produced against a cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenase. The data obtained revealed higher specific labelling associated with the thylakoid membranes of L. majuscula, reinforcing the idea that the cyanobacterial uptake hydrogenase is indeed a membrane-bound protein. For comparative purposes, the localization of the uptake hydrogenase was also investigated in two distinct heterocystous cyanobacterial strains, and while in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 the labelling was only observed in the heterocysts, in Nostoc punctiforme, the presence of uptake hydrogenase antigens was detected in both the vegetative cells and heterocysts, corresponding most probably to an inactive and an active form of the enzyme. PMID:19222582

Seabra, Rui; Santos, Arlete; Pereira, Sara; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Tamagnini, Paula

2009-03-01

231

Evidence Regarding the UV Sunscreen Role of a Mycosporine-Like Compound in the Cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp  

PubMed Central

The UV sunscreen role commonly ascribed to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) was investigated with an isolate of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. strain C-90-Cal-G.(2), which accumulates intracellularly an MAA with absorbance maximum at 326 nm but produces no extracellular sunscreen compound (i.e., scytonemin). The intracellular concentrations of MAA achieved were directly related to the intensity of the UV radiation (maximum at 320 nm) received by the cells. However, the presence of high concentrations of MAA was not necessary for the physiological acclimation of the cultures to UV radiation. The measured sunscreen factor due to MAA in single cells was 0.3 (the MAA prevented 3 out of 10 photons from hitting potential cytoplasmic targets). High contents of MAA in the cells correlated with increased resistance to UV radiation. However, when resistance was gauged under conditions of desiccation, with inoperative physiological photoprotective and repair mechanisms, cells with high MAA specific contents were only 20 to 25% more resistant. Although UV radiation centered around both 320 and 365 nm resulted in chlorophyll a photobleaching and photoinhibition of photosynthesis, the difference in sensitivity correlated with MAA accumulation occurred only at 320 nm (absorbed by MAA) and not at 365 nm (not absorbed by MAA). This difference represents the maximal protection ascribable to the presence of MAA for single cells, i.e., if one does not consider the enhancing effects of colony formation on protection by sunscreens. PMID:16348840

Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Wingard, Christopher E.; Castenholz, Richard W.

1993-01-01

232

Sulfate-driven elemental sparing is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in a filamentous cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

Sulfur is an essential nutrient that can exist at growth-limiting concentrations in freshwater environments. The freshwater cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon (also known as Tolypothrix sp. PCC 7601) is capable of remodeling the composition of its light-harvesting antennae, or phycobilisomes, in response to changes in the sulfur levels in its environment. Depletion of sulfur causes these cells to cease the accumulation of two forms of a major phycobilisome protein called phycocyanin and initiate the production of a third form of phycocyanin, which possesses a minimal number of sulfur-containing amino acids. Since phycobilisomes make up approximately 50% of the total protein in these cells, this elemental sparing response has the potential to significantly influence the fitness of this species under low-sulfur conditions. This response is specific for sulfate and occurs over the physiological range of sulfate concentrations likely to be encountered by this organism in its natural environment. F. diplosiphon has two separate sulfur deprivation responses, with low sulfate levels activating the phycobilisome remodeling response and low sulfur levels activating the chlorosis or bleaching response. The phycobilisome remodeling response results from changes in RNA abundance that are regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The potential of this response, and the more general bleaching response of cyanobacteria, to provide sulfur-containing amino acids during periods of sulfur deprivation is examined. PMID:21239582

Gutu, Andrian; Alvey, Richard M; Bashour, Sami; Zingg, Daniel; Kehoe, David M

2011-03-01

233

Sulfate-Driven Elemental Sparing Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Levels in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium? †  

PubMed Central

Sulfur is an essential nutrient that can exist at growth-limiting concentrations in freshwater environments. The freshwater cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon (also known as Tolypothrix sp. PCC 7601) is capable of remodeling the composition of its light-harvesting antennae, or phycobilisomes, in response to changes in the sulfur levels in its environment. Depletion of sulfur causes these cells to cease the accumulation of two forms of a major phycobilisome protein called phycocyanin and initiate the production of a third form of phycocyanin, which possesses a minimal number of sulfur-containing amino acids. Since phycobilisomes make up approximately 50% of the total protein in these cells, this elemental sparing response has the potential to significantly influence the fitness of this species under low-sulfur conditions. This response is specific for sulfate and occurs over the physiological range of sulfate concentrations likely to be encountered by this organism in its natural environment. F. diplosiphon has two separate sulfur deprivation responses, with low sulfate levels activating the phycobilisome remodeling response and low sulfur levels activating the chlorosis or bleaching response. The phycobilisome remodeling response results from changes in RNA abundance that are regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The potential of this response, and the more general bleaching response of cyanobacteria, to provide sulfur-containing amino acids during periods of sulfur deprivation is examined. PMID:21239582

Gutu, Andrian; Alvey, Richard M.; Bashour, Sami; Zingg, Daniel; Kehoe, David M.

2011-01-01

234

Genomic DNA Microarray Analysis: Identification of New Genes Regulated by Light Color in the Cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon  

PubMed Central

Many cyanobacteria use complementary chromatic adaptation to efficiently utilize energy from both green and red regions of the light spectrum during photosynthesis. Although previous studies have shown that acclimation to changing light wavelengths involves many physiological responses, research to date has focused primarily on the expression and regulation of genes that encode proteins of the major photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae, the phycobilisomes. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and genomic DNA microarrays to expand our understanding of the physiology of acclimation to light color in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon. We found that the levels of nearly 80 proteins are altered in cells growing in green versus red light and have cloned and positively identified 17 genes not previously known to be regulated by light color in any species. Among these are homologs of genes present in many bacteria that encode well-studied proteins lacking clearly defined functions, such as tspO, which encodes a tryptophan-rich sensory protein, and homologs of genes encoding proteins of clearly defined function in many species, such as nblA and chlL, encoding phycobilisome degradation and chlorophyll biosynthesis proteins, respectively. Our results suggest novel roles for several of these gene products and highly specialized, unique uses for others. PMID:15205436

Stowe-Evans, Emily L.; Ford, James; Kehoe, David M.

2004-01-01

235

Identification of a benthic microcystin-producing filamentous cyanobacterium (Oscillatoriales) associated with a dog poisoning in New Zealand.  

PubMed

In November 2008 a dog died soon after ingesting benthic "algal" mat material from the Waitaki River, New Zealand. Based on a morphological examination of environmental material, the causative organism was putatively identified as the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. Two strains (VUW25 and CYN61) were isolated and cultured to enable further taxonomic and cyanotoxin characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses based on a region of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, intergenic spacer (ITS) region and the mcyE gene demonstrated that the species was likely to be a new Planktothrix species that is either benthic or has a biphasic life cycle. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), microcystin-LR, [D-Asp(3), Dha(7)] microcystin-LR, [D-Asp(3)] microcystin-LR, and minor proportions of [D-Asp(3), ADMAdda(5)] microcystin-LhR were identified. This is the first report of [D-Asp(3)] microcystin-LR, [D-Asp(3), Dha(7)] microcystin-LR and an ADMAadda variant in New Zealand. No cylindrospermopsins, saxitoxins or anatoxins were detected. Dog deaths caused by the consumption of cyanobacterial mats containing anatoxins have previously been reported in New Zealand. To our knowledge, however, this is the first instance of a benthic microcystin-producing species causing an animal death in New Zealand. PMID:20043936

Wood, Susanna A; Heath, Mark W; Holland, Patrick T; Munday, Rex; McGregor, Glenn B; Ryan, Ken G

2010-04-01

236

Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

2001-01-01

237

Cytotoxic Halogenated Macrolides and Modified Peptides from the Apratoxin-Producing Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya bouillonii from Guam  

PubMed Central

Collections of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya bouillonii from shallow patch reefs in Apra Harbor, Guam, afforded three hitherto undescribed analogues of the glycosidic macrolide lyngbyaloside, namely 2-epi-lyngbyaloside (1) and the regioisomeric 18E- and 18Z–lyngbyalosides C (2 and 3). Concurrently we discovered two new analogues of the cytoskeletal actin-disrupting lyngbyabellins, 27-deoxylyngbyabellin A (4) and lyngbyabellin J (5), a novel macrolide of the laingolide family, laingolide B (6), and a linear modified peptide, lyngbyapeptin D (7), along with known lyngbyabellins A and B, lyngbyapeptin A, and lyngbyaloside. The structures of 1–7 were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. Compounds 1–6 were either brominated (1–3) or chlorinated (4–6), consistent with halogenation being a hallmark of many marine natural products. All extracts derived from these L. bouillonii collections were highly cytotoxic due to the presence of apratoxin A or also apratoxin C. Compounds 1–5 showed weak to moderate cytotoxicity to HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:20704304

Matthew, Susan; Salvador, Lilibeth A.; Schupp, Peter J.; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2010-01-01

238

Soft x-ray imaging of intracellular granules of filamentous cyanobacterium generating musty smell in Lake Biwa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A planktonic blue-green algae, which are currently identified as Phormidium tenue, was observed by a soft x-ray microscopy (XM) for comparing a musty smell generating green strain (PTG) and a non-smell brown strain (PTB). By XM, cells were clearly imaged, and several intracellular granules which could not be observed under a light microscope were visualized. The diameter of granules was about 0.5-1 ?m, and one or a few granules were seen in a cell. XM analyses showed that width of cells and sizes of intracellular granules were quite different between PTG and PTB strains. To study the granules observed by XM, transmission in more detail, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and indirect fluorescent-antibody technique (IFA) were applied. By TEM, carboxysomes, thylakoids and polyphosphate granules were observed. IFA showed the presence of carboxysomes. Results lead to the conclusion that intracellular granules observed under XM are carboxysomes or polyphosphate granules. These results demonstrate that soft XM is effective for analyzing fine structures of small organisms such as cyanobacterium, and for discriminating the strains which generates musty smells from others.

Takemoto, K.; Mizuta, G.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, M.; Ichise, S.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

2013-10-01

239

Discovery of Rare and Highly Toxic Microcystins from Lichen-Associated Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. Strain IO-102-I  

PubMed Central

The production of hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides, microcystins, is almost exclusively reported from planktonic cyanobacteria. Here we show that a terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I isolated from a lichen association produces six different microcystins. Microcystins were identified with liquid chromatography-UV mass spectrometry by their retention times, UV spectra, mass fragmentation, and comparison to microcystins from the aquatic Nostoc sp. strain 152. The dominant microcystin produced by Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I was the highly toxic [ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR, which accounted for ca. 80% of the total microcystins. We assigned a structure of [DMAdda5]microcystin-LR and [d-Asp3,ADMAdda5]microcystin-LR and a partial structure of three new [ADMAdda5]-XR type of microcystin variants. Interestingly, Nostoc spp. strains IO-102-I and 152 synthesized only the rare ADMAdda and DMAdda subfamilies of microcystin variants. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated congruence between genes involved directly in microcystin biosynthesis and the 16S rRNA and rpoC1 genes of Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I. Nostoc sp. strain 152 and the Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I are distantly related, revealing a sporadic distribution of toxin production in the genus Nostoc. Nostoc sp. strain IO-102-I is closely related to Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and other symbiotic Nostoc strains and most likely belongs to this species. Together, this suggests that other terrestrial and aquatic strains of the genus Nostoc may have retained the genes necessary for microcystin biosynthesis. PMID:15466511

Oksanen, Ilona; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P.; Wahlsten, Matti; Rikkinen, Jouko; Sivonen, Kaarina

2004-01-01

240

Short-term light adaptation of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In photosynthetic organisms, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes change in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the transfer of excitation energy from the phycobilisome (PBS) and photosystem (PS) II to PSI in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. After 20 min of dark adaptation, Synechocystis cells were illuminated for 5 min with strong light with different spectral profiles, blue, green, two kinds of red, and white light. After illumination, the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state fluorescence and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra, followed by spectral component analysis. Under illumination with strong light, the contribution of the energy transfer from the PSII to PSI (spillover) became greater, and that of the energy transfer from the PBS to PSI decreased; the former change was larger than the latter. The energy transfer pathway to PSI was sensitive to red light. We discuss the short-term adaptation of energy-transfer processes in Synechocystis under strong-light conditions. PMID:24495908

Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Yokono, Erina; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

2014-08-01

241

Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Yield as a Monitor of Both Active CO2 and HCO3? Transport by the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 1  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous measurements have been made of inorganic carbon accumulation (by mass spectrometry) and chlorophyll a fluorescence yield of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625. The accumulation of inorganic carbon by the cells was accompanied by a substantial quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. The quenching occurred even when CO2 fixation was inhibited by iodoacetamide and whether the accumulation of inorganic carbon resulted from either active CO2 or HCO3? transport. Measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence yield of cyanobacteria may prove to be a rapid and convenient means of screening for mutants of inorganic carbon accumulation. PMID:16665965

Miller, Anthony G.; Espie, George S.; Canvin, David T.

1988-01-01

242

[D-Leu1]Microcystin-LR, from the cyanobacterium Microcystis RST 9501 and from a Microcystis bloom in the Patos Lagoon estuary, Brazil.  

PubMed

[D-Leu1]Microcystin-LR was identified as the most abundant microcystin from a laboratory strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. isolated from a hepatotoxic Microcystis bloom from brackish waters in the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. Toxicity of [D-Leu1]microcystin-LR, according to bioassay and protein phosphatase inhibition assay, was similar to that of the commonly-occurring microcystin-LR, which was not detectable in the Patos Lagoon laboratory isolate. This is the first report of a microcystin containing [D-Leu1] in the cyclic heptapeptide structure of these potent cyanobacterial toxins. PMID:11140597

Matthiensen, A; Beattie, K A; Yunes, J S; Kaya, K; Codd, G A

2000-11-01

243

Chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d are produced in the cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii when cultured under natural light and near-infrared radiation.  

PubMed

We report production of chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d in the cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii cultured under near-infrared and natural light conditions. C. fritschii produced chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d when cultured under natural light to a high culture density in a 20L bubble column photobioreactor. In the laboratory, the ratio of chlorophyll f to chlorophyll a changed from 1:15 under near-infrared, to an undetectable level of chlorophyll f under artificial white light. The results provide support that chlorophylls f and d are both red-light inducible chlorophylls in C. fritschii. PMID:25176411

Airs, R L; Temperton, B; Sambles, C; Farnham, G; Skill, S C; Llewellyn, C A

2014-10-16

244

Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen Assimilation by a Cyanobacterium Under Diverse Environmental Perturbations  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, are present in diverse ecological niches and play crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. To proliferate in nature, cyanobacteria utilize a host of stress responses to accommodate periodic changes in environmental conditions. A detailed knowledge of the composition of, as well as the dynamic changes in, the proteome is necessary to gain fundamental insights into such stress responses. Toward this goal, we have performed a largescale proteomic analysis of the widely studied model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under 33 different environmental conditions. The resulting high-quality dataset consists of 22,318 unique peptides corresponding to 1,955 proteins, a coverage of 53% of the predicted proteome. Quantitative determination of protein abundances has led to the identification of 1,198 differentially regulated proteins. Notably, our analysis revealed that a common stress response under various environmental perturbations, irrespective of amplitude and duration, is the activation of atypical pathways for the acquisition of carbon and nitrogen from urea and arginine. In particular, arginine is catabolized via putrescine to produce succinate and glutamate, sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. This study provides the most comprehensive functional and quantitative analysis of the Synechocystis proteome to date, and shows that a significant stress response of cyanobacteria involves an uncommon mode of acquisition of carbon and nitrogen. Oxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes, the progenitors of the chloroplast, are crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has historically been a model cyanobacterium for photosynthetic research and is emerging as a promising biofuel platform. Cellular responses are severely modified by environmental conditions, such as temperature and nutrient availability. However the global protein responses of Synechocystis 6803 under physiological relevant environmental stresses have not been characterized. Here we present the first global proteome analysis of a photoautotrophic bacteria and the most complete coverage to date of a photosynthetic prokaryotic proteome. To obtain a more complete description of the protein components of Synechocystis 6803, we have performed an in-depth proteome analysis of this organism utilizing the Accurate Mass and Time (AMT) tag approach1 utilizing 33 growth conditions and timepoints. The resulting proteome consists of 22,318 unique peptides, corresponding to 2,369 unique proteins, covering 65% of the predicted proteins. Quantitative analysis of protein abundance ratios under nutrient stress revealed that Synechocystis 6803 resorts to a universal mechanism for nitrogen utilization under phosphate, sulfate, iron, and nitrogen depletion. Comparison of this proteomic data with previously published microarray studies under similar environmental conditions showed that the general response predicted by both types of analyses are common but that the actual levels of protein expression can not be inferred from gene expression data. Our results demonstrate a global nitrogen response to multiple stressors that may be similar to that used by other cyanobacteria under various stress conditions. We anticipate that this protein expression data will be a foundation for the photosynthetic and biofuel communities to better understand metabolic changes under physiological conditions relevant to global productivity. Further more, this comparison of correlation between gene and protein expression data provides deeper insight into the ongoing debate as to whether gene expression can be used to infer cellular response.

Wegener, Kimberly M.; Singh, Abhay K.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Welsh, Eric A.; Keren, Nir S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2010-12-01

245

Genetic Variation of the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa within and among Lakes: Implications for Harmful Algal Blooms  

PubMed Central

To measure genetic variation within and among populations of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we surveyed a suite of lakes in the southern peninsula of Michigan that vary in productivity (total phosphorus concentrations of ?10 to 100 ?g liter?1). Survival of M. aeruginosa isolates from lakes was relatively low (i.e., mean of 7% and maximum of 30%) and positively related to lake total phosphorus concentration (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.407, n = 14). In another study (D. F. Raikow, O. Sarnelle, A. E. Wilson, and S. K. Hamilton, Limnol. Oceanogr. 49:482-487, 2004), survival rates of M. aeruginosa isolates collected from an oligotrophic lake (total phosphorus of ?10 ?g liter?1 and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:total phosphorus ratio of 12.75) differed among five different medium types (G test, P of <0.001), with higher survival (P = 0.003) in low-nutrient media (28 to 37% survival) than in high-nutrient media. Even with the relatively low isolate survivorship that could select against detecting the full range of genetic variation, populations of M. aeruginosa were genetically diverse within and among lakes (by analysis of molecular variance, ?sc = 0.412 [?sc is an F-statistic derivative which evaluates the correlation of haplotypic diversity within populations relative to the haplotypic diversity among all sampled populations], P = 0.001), with most clones being distantly related to clones collected from lakes directly attached to Lake Michigan (a Laurentian Great Lake) and culture collection strains collected from Canada, Scotland, and South Africa. Ninety-one percent of the 53 genetically unique M. aeruginosa clones contained the microcystin toxin gene (mcyA). Genotypes with the toxin gene were found in all lakes, while four lakes harbored both genotypes possessing and genotypes lacking the toxin gene. PMID:16204530

Wilson, Alan E.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Neilan, Brett A.; Salmon, Tim P.; Gehringer, Michelle M.; Hay, Mark E.

2005-01-01

246

Ammonium Excretion by an l-Methionine-dl-Sulfoximine-Resistant Mutant of the Rice Field Cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis  

PubMed Central

An ammonium-excreting mutant (SS1) of the rice field nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis was isolated after ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis by selection on 500 ?M l-methionine-dl-sulfoximine. SS1 grew in the presence and absence of l-methionine-dl-sulfoximine at a rate comparable to that of the wild-type strain, with a doubling time of 5.6 h. The rate of ammonium release by SS1 depended on cell density; it peaked at the 12th hour of growth with 8.7 ?mol mg of chlorophyll?1 h?1 (at a chlorophyll concentration of 5 ?g ml?1) and slowed down to almost nil at the fourth day of growth. A similar pattern of release by immobilized SS1 was observed between 12 to 20 h after loading alginate beads in packed-bed reactors at the rate of 11.6 ?mol mg of chlorophyll?1 h?1. The rate was later reduced significantly due to the fast growth of SS1 on the substrate. Prolonged release of ammonium at the peak level was achieved only by maintaining SS1 under continuous cultivation at low chlorophyll levels (5 to 7 ?g ml?1). Under these conditions, nitrogen fixation in the mutant was 30% higher than that in its parent and glutamine synthetase activity was less by 50%. Immunoblot analysis revealed that SS1 and its parent have similar quantities of glutamine synthetase protein under ammonium excretion conditions. In addition, a protein with a molecular weight of about 30,000 seems to have been lost, as seen by electrophoretic separation of total proteins from SS1. Images PMID:16348353

Thomas, Selwin P.; Zaritsky, Arieh; Boussiba, Sammy

1990-01-01

247

Cell Envelope Components Influencing Filament Length in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells (known as trichomes or filaments) that can be hundreds of cells long. The filament consists of individual cells surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layers. The cells, however, share a continuous outer membrane, and septal proteins, such as SepJ, are important for cell-cell contact and filament formation. Here, we addressed a possible role of cell envelope components in filamentation, the process of producing and maintaining filaments, in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We studied filament length and the response of the filaments to mechanical fragmentation in a number of strains with mutations in genes encoding cell envelope components. Previously published peptidoglycan- and outer membrane-related gene mutants and strains with mutations in two genes (all5045 and alr0718) encoding class B penicillin-binding proteins isolated in this work were used. Our results show that filament length is affected in most cell envelope mutants, but the filaments of alr5045 and alr2270 gene mutants were particularly fragmented. All5045 is a dd-transpeptidase involved in peptidoglycan elongation during cell growth, and Alr2270 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a key component of lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that both components of the cell envelope, the murein sacculus and the outer membrane, influence filamentation. As deduced from the filament fragmentation phenotypes of their mutants, however, none of these elements is as important for filamentation as the septal protein SepJ. PMID:25201945

Burnat, Mireia; Schleiff, Enrico; Flores, Enrique

2014-12-01

248

Anion inhibition study of the ?-carbonic anhydrase (CahB1) from the cyanobacterium Coleofasciculus chthonoplastes (ex-Microcoleus chthonoplastes).  

PubMed

We investigated the catalytic activity and inhibition of the ?-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) CahB1, from the relict cyanobacterium Coleofasciculus chthonoplastes (previously denominated Microcoleus chthonoplastes). The enzyme showed good activity as a catalyst for the CO2 hydration, with a kcat of 2.4 × 10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/Km of 6.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1). A range of inorganic anions and small molecules were investigated as inhibitors of CahB1. Perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate did not inhibit the enzyme (KIs >200 mM) whereas selenate and selenocyanide were ineffective inhibitors too, with KIs of 29.9-48.61 mM. The halides, pseudohalides, carbonate, bicarbonate, trithiocarbonate and a range of heavy metal ions-containing anions were submillimolar-millimolar inhibitors (KIs in the range of 0.15-0.90 mM). The best CahB1 inhibitors were N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, with KIs in the range of 8-75 ?M, whereas acetazolamide inhibited the enzyme with a KI of 76 nM. This is the first kinetic and inhibition study of a cyanobacterial CA. As these enzymes are widespread in many cyanobacteria, being crucial for the carbon concentrating mechanism which assures substrate to RubisCO for the CO2 fixation by these organisms, a detailed kinetic/inhibition study may be essential for a better understanding of this superfamily of metalloenzymes and for potential biotechnological applications in biomimetic CO2 capture processes. PMID:24529310

Vullo, Daniela; Kupriyanova, Elena V; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

2014-03-01

249

Hydrogen production by the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 under conditions of continuous light.  

PubMed

We report on the hydrogen production properties of the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142. This organism has a versatile metabolism and can grow in the presence or absence of combined nitrogen and can grow photosynthetically or mixotrophically and heterotrophically in the presence of glycerol. The strain produces a bidirectional hydrogenase (encoded by the hox genes), an uptake hydrogenase (hupLS), and nitrogenase (nifHDK). We demonstrated hydrogen production by both the hydrogenase and the nitrogenase under appropriate metabolic conditions. The highest rates of hydrogen production were produced under nitrogen-fixing conditions when cells were grown and incubated under continuous light conditions, in either the presence or absence of glycerol. Under such nitrogen-fixing conditions, we have achieved rates of 300 micromol H(2)/mg chloramphenicol (Chl)/hr during the first 24 h of incubation. The levels of H(2) measured were dependent upon the incubation conditions, such as sparging with argon, which generated anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that the same conditions led to high levels of H(2) production and N(2) fixation, indicating that low-oxygen conditions favor nitrogenase activity for both processes. The levels of hydrogen produced by the hydrogenase are much lower, typically 5 to 10 micromol H(2)/mg Chl/hr. Hydrogenase activity was dependent upon electron transport through photosystem II (PS II), whereas nitrogenase activity was more dependent on PS I, as well as on respiration. Although cells do not double under the incubation conditions when sparged with argon to provide a low-oxygen environment, the cells are metabolically active, and hydrogen production can be inhibited by the addition of chloramphenicol to inhibit protein synthesis. PMID:20453150

Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A

2010-07-01

250

Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibits O(2) photoreduction which protects nitrogenase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. RF-1.  

PubMed

Synechococcus sp. RF-1, a unicellular N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium, can grow photosynthetically and diazotrophically in continuous light. How the organism protects its nitrogenase from damage by oxygen is unclear. In cyanobacerial cells, electron transport carriers associated with photosynthesis and respiration are all on the thylakoid membranes and share some common components, including plastoquinone pool and cytochrome b (6) f complex, and the pathways are interacting with each other. In this work, a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer (PAM-101) and an O(2) electrode are used simultaneously to study the chlorophyll a fluorescence and to monitor O(2) exchanges in Synechococcus sp. RF-1 cells. At the CO(2) compensation point, the photochemical quenching activity remained high unless the O(2) was exhausted by the glucose oxidase system (GOS). It indicates that in addition to CO(2), O(2) can also act as electron acceptor to receive electrons derived from Q(A). Studies with various inhibitors of the electron transport chain demonstrated that 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibited the photoreduction of O(2), while glycolaldehyde, disalicylidenepropanediamine (DSPD), methyl viologen (MV) and KCN did not. These results imply that a KCN-resistant and SHAM-sensitive oxidase transfers electrons generated from Photosystem II to O(2) between cytochrome b (6) f complex and ferredoxin. When SHAM blocked this alternative electron transport pathway, the dinitrogen-fixing activity decreased significantly. The results indicate that a novel oxidase may function as an intracellular O(2)-scavenger in Synechococcus sp. RF-1 cells. PMID:16151871

Weng, Jui-Hsi; Shieh, Yuh-Jang

2004-01-01

251

Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica  

PubMed Central

Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

2013-01-01

252

Light-activated heterotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803: a blue-light-requiring process.  

PubMed Central

A glucose-tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 will not grow on glucose under complete darkness unless given a daily pulse of white light, typically 5 min of 40 mumol m-2 s-1 (light-pulsed conditions). The light pulse is insufficient for photoautotrophy, as glucose is required and growth yield is dependent on glucose concentration. Growth rate is independent of fluence, but growth yield is dependent on fluence, saturating at 40 to 75 mumol m-2 s-1. A Synechocystis strain 6803 psbA mutant strain grows under light-pulsed conditions at rates similar to those for the glucose-tolerant strain, indicating that photosystem II is not required for growth. The relative spectral sensitivity of the growth of light-pulsed cultures (growth only in blue light, 400 to 500 nm, maximum at 450 nm) precludes energetic contribution from cyclic electron transport around photosystem I. Pulses of long-wavelength light (i.e., 550 and 650 nm) did not support the growth of Synechocystis strain 6803 and, when supplied before or after a blue-light pulse, did not inhibit blue-light-stimulated growth of Synechocystis strain 6803. We conclude that the required blue-light pulse does not support growth via photosynthetic electron transport but appears instead to function as an environmental signal regulating heterotrophic metabolism, cell division, or other photomorphogenic processes. We have termed the growth of Synechocystis strain 6803 pulsed with light and kept otherwise in complete darkness light-activated heterotrophic growth. This observation of a blue-light requirement for the growth of Synechocystis strain 6803 represents a novel blue light effect on the growth of a cyanobacterium. PMID:1902208

Anderson, S L; McIntosh, L

1991-01-01

253

The ? Subunit of RNA Polymerase Is Essential for Thermal Acclimation of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

The rpoZ gene encodes the small ? subunit of RNA polymerase. A ?rpoZ strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 grew well in standard conditions (constant illumination at 40 µmol photons m?2 s?1; 32°C; ambient CO2) but was heat sensitive and died at 40°C. In the control strain, 71 genes were at least two-fold up-regulated and 91 genes down-regulated after a 24-h treatment at 40°C, while in ?rpoZ 394 genes responded to heat. Only 62 of these heat-responsive genes were similarly regulated in both strains, and 80% of heat-responsive genes were unique for ?rpoZ. The RNA polymerase core and the primary ? factor SigA were down-regulated in the control strain at 40°C but not in ?rpoZ. In accordance with reduced RNA polymerase content, the total RNA content of mild-heat-stress-treated cells was lower in the control strain than in ?rpoZ. Light-saturated photosynthetic activity decreased more in ?rpoZ than in the control strain upon mild heat stress. The amounts of photosystem II and rubisco decreased at 40°C in both strains while PSI and the phycobilisome antenna protein allophycocyanin remained at the same level as in standard conditions. The phycobilisome rod proteins, phycocyanins, diminished during the heat treatment in ?rpoZ but not in the control strain, and the nblA1 and nblA2 genes (encode NblA proteins required for phycobilisome degradation) were up-regulated only in ?rpoZ. Our results show that the ? subunit of RNAP is essential in heat stress because it is required for heat acclimation of diverse cellular processes. PMID:25386944

Gunnelius, Liisa; Kurkela, Juha; Hakkila, Kaisa; Koskinen, Satu; Parikainen, Marjaana; Tyystjärvi, Taina

2014-01-01

254

Reversal in competitive dominance of a toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterium in response to rising CO2  

PubMed Central

Climate change scenarios predict a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration by the end of this century. Yet, how rising CO2 will affect the species composition of aquatic microbial communities is still largely an open question. In this study, we develop a resource competition model to investigate competition for dissolved inorganic carbon in dense algal blooms. The model predicts how dynamic changes in carbon chemistry, pH and light conditions during bloom development feed back on competing phytoplankton species. We test the model predictions in chemostat experiments with monocultures and mixtures of a toxic and non-toxic strain of the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The toxic strain was able to reduce dissolved CO2 to lower concentrations than the non-toxic strain, and became dominant in competition at low CO2 levels. Conversely, the non-toxic strain could grow at lower light levels, and became dominant in competition at high CO2 levels but low light availability. The model captured the observed reversal in competitive dominance, and was quantitatively in good agreement with the results of the competition experiments. To assess whether microcystins might have a role in this reversal of competitive dominance, we performed further competition experiments with the wild-type strain M. aeruginosa PCC 7806 and its mcyB mutant impaired in microcystin production. The microcystin-producing wild type had a strong selective advantage at low CO2 levels but not at high CO2 levels. Our results thus demonstrate both in theory and experiment that rising CO2 levels can alter the community composition and toxicity of harmful algal blooms. PMID:21390081

Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Verspagen, Jolanda MH; Finke, Jan F; Vournazou, Vasiliki; Immers, Anne K; Kardinaal, W Edwin A; Tonk, Linda; Becker, Sven; Van Donk, Ellen; Visser, Petra M; Huisman, Jef

2011-01-01

255

Heterocyst development and diazotrophic metabolism in terminal respiratory oxidase mutants of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Heterocyst development was analyzed in mutants of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 bearing inactivated cox2 and/or cox3 genes, encoding heterocyst-specific terminal respiratory oxidases. At the morphological level, the cox2 cox3 double mutant (strain CSAV141) was impaired in membrane reorganization involving the so-called honeycomb system that in the wild-type strain is largely or exclusively devoted to respiration, accumulated glycogen granules at conspicuously higher levels than the wild type (in both vegetative cells and heterocysts), and showed a delay in carboxysome degradation upon combined nitrogen deprivation. Consistently, chemical analysis confirmed higher accumulation of glycogen in strain CSAV141 than in the wild type. No impairment was observed in the formation of the glycolipid or polysaccharide layers of the heterocyst envelope, consistent with the chemical detection of heterocyst-specific glycolipids, or in the expression of the heterocyst-specific genes nifHDK and fdxH. However, nitrogenase activity under oxic conditions was impaired in strain CSAV135 (cox3) and undetectable in strain CSAV141 (cox2 cox3). These results show that these dedicated oxidases are required for normal development and performance of the heterocysts and indicate a central role of Cox2 and, especially, of Cox3 in the respiratory activity of the heterocysts, decisively contributing to protection of the N(2) fixation machinery against oxygen. However, in contrast to the case for other diazotrophic bacteria, expression of nif genes in Anabaena seems not to be affected by oxygen. PMID:17416650

Valladares, Ana; Maldener, Iris; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia

2007-06-01

256

The uptake hydrogenase in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822 protects nitrogenase from oxygen toxicity.  

PubMed

Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822 is a unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that can produce large quantities of H2 when grown diazotrophically. This strain is also capable of genetic manipulations and can represent a good model for improving H2 production from cyanobacteria. To this end, a knockout mutation was made in the hupL gene (?hupL), and we determined how this would affect the amount of H2 produced. The ?hupL mutant demonstrated virtually no nitrogenase activity or H2 production when grown under N2-fixing conditions. To ensure that this mutation only affected the hupL gene, a complementation strain was constructed readily with wild-type properties; this indicated that the original insertion was only in hupL. The mutant had no uptake hydrogenase activity but had increased bidirectional hydrogenase (Hox) activity. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry under the electron microscope indicated that the mutant had neither HupL nor NifHDK, although the nif genes were transcribed. Interestingly, biochemical analysis demonstrated that both HupL and NifH could be membrane associated. The results indicated that the nif genes were transcribed but that NifHDK was either not translated or was translated but rapidly degraded. We hypothesized that the Nif proteins were made but were unusually susceptible to O2 damage. Thus, we grew the mutant cells under anaerobic conditions and found that they grew well under N2-fixing conditions. We conclude that in unicellular diazotrophs, like Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822, the HupLS complex helps remove oxygen from the nitrogenase, and that this is a more important function than merely oxidizing the H2 produced by the nitrogenase. PMID:24317398

Zhang, Xiaohui; Sherman, Debra M; Sherman, Louis A

2014-02-01

257

Biofilm Growth and Near-Infrared Radiation-Driven Photosynthesis of the Chlorophyll d-Containing Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only known phototroph harboring chlorophyll (Chl) d. It is easy to cultivate it in a planktonic growth mode, and A. marina cultures have been subject to detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization. In natural situations, A. marina is mainly found associated with surfaces, but this growth mode has not been studied yet. Here, we show that the A. marina type strain MBIC11017 inoculated into alginate beads forms dense biofilm-like cell clusters, as in natural A. marina biofilms, characterized by strong O2 concentration gradients that change with irradiance. Biofilm growth under both visible radiation (VIS, 400 to 700 nm) and near-infrared radiation (NIR, ?700 to 730 nm) yielded maximal cell-specific growth rates of 0.38 per day and 0.64 per day, respectively. The population doubling times were 1.09 and 1.82 days for NIR and visible light, respectively. The photosynthesis versus irradiance curves showed saturation at a photon irradiance of Ek (saturating irradiance) >250 ?mol photons m?2 s?1 for blue light but no clear saturation at 365 ?mol photons m?2 s?1 for NIR. The maximal gross photosynthesis rates in the aggregates were ?1,272 ?mol O2 mg Chl d?1 h?1 (NIR) and ?1,128 ?mol O2 mg Chl d?1 h?1 (VIS). The photosynthetic efficiency (?) values were higher in NIR-irradiated cells [(268 ± 0.29) × 10?6 m2 mg Chl d?1 (mean ± standard deviation)] than under blue light [(231 ± 0.22) × 10?6 m2 mg Chl d?1]. A. marina is well adapted to a biofilm growth mode under both visible and NIR irradiance and under O2 conditions ranging from anoxia to hyperoxia, explaining its presence in natural niches with similar environmental conditions. PMID:22467501

Behrendt, Lars; Schrameyer, Verena; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lundin, Luisa; S?rensen, S?ren J.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

2012-01-01

258

Differential Transcriptional Analysis of the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. Strain ATCC 51142 during Light-Dark and Continuous-Light Growth  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed the metabolic rhythms and differential gene transcription in the unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 under N?-fixing conditions with 12h light-12h dark cycles followed by 36 h continuous light. Cultures were grown in a 6-L bioreactor that was specially designed for photosynthetic microorganisms and that permitted continuous monitoring of parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen. Our main objective was to determine the strategies used by these cells to perform N? fixation under normal day-night conditions, as well as under greater stress caused by continuous light. Our results strongly suggested that the level of N? fixation is dependent upon respiration for energy production and for removal of intracellular O?. We determined that N? fixation cycled in continuous light, but that the N? fixation peak was lower and that glycogen degradation and respiration were also lower under these conditions. We also demonstrated that nifH (the gene encoding the Fe protein) and nifB and nifX were strongly induced in the continuous light; this is consistent with the mode of operation of these proteins relative to the MoFe protein and suggested that any regulation of N? fixation was at a posttranscriptional level. Also, many soluble electron carriers (e.g., ferredoxins), as well as redox carriers (e.g., thioredoxin and glutathione) were strongly induced during N? fixation in continuous light. We suggest that these carriers were required to generate enhanced cyclic electron transport and phosphorylation for energy production and to maintain appropriate redox levels in the presence of enhanced O?, respectively.

Toepel, Jorg; Welsh, Eric A.; Summerfield, Tina; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Sherman, Louis A.

2008-06-01

259

Terminal oxidase mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 show increased electrogenic activity in biological photo-voltaic systems.  

PubMed

Biological photo-voltaic systems are a type of microbial fuel cell employing photosynthetic microbes at the anode, enabling the direct transduction of light energy to electrical power. Unlike the anaerobic bacteria found in conventional microbial fuel cells that use metals in the environment as terminal electron acceptors, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are poorly adapted for electron transfer out of the cell. Mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were created in which all combinations of the three respiratory terminal oxidase complexes had been inactivated. These strains were screened for the ability to reduce the membrane-impermeable soluble electron acceptor ferricyanide, and the results were compared to the performance of the mutants in a biological photo-voltaic system. Deletion of the two thylakoid-localised terminal oxidases, the bd-quinol oxidase and cytochrome c oxidase resulted in a 16-fold increase in ferricyanide reduction rate in the dark compared to the wild-type. A further improvement to a 24-fold increase was seen upon deletion of the remaining "alternative respiratory terminal oxidase". These increases were reflected in the peak power generated in the biological photo-voltaic systems. Inactivation of all three terminal oxidase complexes resulted in a substantial redirection of reducing power; in the dark the equivalent of 10% of the respiratory electron flux was channelled to ferricyanide, compared to less than 0.2% in the wild-type. Only minor improvements in ferricyanide reduction rates over the wild-type were seen in illuminated conditions, where carbon dioxide is preferentially used as an electron sink. This study demonstrates the potential for optimising photosynthetic microbes for direct electrical current production. PMID:23836107

Bradley, Robert W; Bombelli, Paolo; Lea-Smith, David J; Howe, Christopher J

2013-08-28

260

Net light-induced oxygen evolution in photosystem I deletion mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants requires photosystem II (PSII) to extract electrons from H(2)O and depends on photosystem I (PSI) to reduce NADP(+). Here we demonstrate that mixotrophically-grown mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that lack PSI (?PSI) are capable of net light-induced O(2) evolution in vivo. The net light-induced O(2) evolution requires glucose and can be sustained for more than 30 min. Utilizing electron transport inhibitors and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, we show that in these mutants PSII is the source of the light-induced O(2) evolution, and that the plastoquinone pool is reduced by PSII and subsequently oxidized by an unidentified electron acceptor that does not involve the plastoquinol oxidase site of the cytochrome b(6)f complex. Moreover, both O(2) evolution and chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics of the ?PSI mutants are highly sensitive to KCN, indicating the involvement of a KCN-sensitive enzyme(s). Experiments using (14)C-labeled bicarbonate show that the ?PSI mutants assimilate more CO(2) in the light compared to the dark. However, the rate of the light-minus-dark CO(2) assimilation accounts for just over half of the net light-induced O(2) evolution rate, indicating the involvement of unidentified terminal electron acceptors. Based on these results we suggest that O(2) evolution in ?PSI cells can be sustained by an alternative electron transport pathway that results in CO(2) assimilation and that includes PSII, the platoquinone pool, and a KCN-sensitive enzyme. PMID:22266340

Wang, Qing Jun; Singh, Abhay; Li, Hong; Nedbal, Ladislav; Sherman, Louis A; Govindjee; Whitmarsh, John

2012-05-01

261

Integrative analysis of large scale expression profiles reveals core transcriptional response and coordination between multiple cellular processes in a cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Background Cyanobacteria are the only known prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. They play significant roles in global biogeochemical cycles and carbon sequestration, and have recently been recognized as potential vehicles for production of renewable biofuels. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been extensively used as a model organism for cyanobacterial studies. DNA microarray studies in Synechocystis have shown varying degrees of transcriptome reprogramming under altered environmental conditions. However, it is not clear from published work how transcriptome reprogramming affects pre-existing networks of fine-tuned cellular processes. Results We have integrated 163 transcriptome data sets generated in response to numerous environmental and genetic perturbations in Synechocystis. Our analyses show that a large number of genes, defined as the core transcriptional response (CTR), are commonly regulated under most perturbations. The CTR contains nearly 12% of Synechocystis genes found on its chromosome. The majority of genes in the CTR are involved in photosynthesis, translation, energy metabolism and stress protection. Our results indicate that a large number of differentially regulated genes identified in most reported studies in Synechocystis under different perturbations are associated with the general stress response. We also find that a majority of genes in the CTR are coregulated with 25 regulatory genes. Some of these regulatory genes have been implicated in cellular responses to oxidative stress, suggesting that reactive oxygen species are involved in the regulation of the CTR. A Bayesian network, based on the regulation of various KEGG pathways determined from the expression patterns of their associated genes, has revealed new insights into the coordination between different cellular processes. Conclusion We provide here the first integrative analysis of transcriptome data sets generated in a cyanobacterium. This compilation of data sets is a valuable resource to researchers for all cyanobacterial gene expression related queries. Importantly, our analysis provides a global description of transcriptional reprogramming under different perturbations and a basic framework to understand the strategies of cellular adaptations in Synechocystis. PMID:20678200

2010-01-01

262

Monensin lnhibition of Na+Dependent HC03- Transport Distinguishes It from Na+-lndependent HC03- Transport and Provides Evidence for Na+\\/HC03- Symport in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of monensin, an ionophore that mediates Na+\\/H+ exchange, on the activity of the inorganic carbon transport systems of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 was investigated using transport assays based on the measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission or 14C uptake. In Synechococcus cells grown in standing culture at about 20 ~LM CO, + HC03-, 50 p~ monensin transiently

Ceorge S. Espie; Ramani A. Kandasamy

263

Inactivation of agmatinase expressed in vegetative cells alters arginine catabolism and prevents diazotrophic growth in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena.  

PubMed

Arginine decarboxylase produces agmatine, and arginase and agmatinase are ureohydrolases that catalyze the production of ornithine and putrescine from arginine and agmatine, respectively, releasing urea. In the genome of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, ORF alr2310 putatively encodes an ureohydrolase. Cells of Anabaena supplemented with [(14) C]arginine took up and catabolized this amino acid generating a set of labeled amino acids that included ornithine, proline, and glutamate. In an alr2310 deletion mutant, an agmatine spot appeared and labeled glutamate increased with respect to the wild type, suggesting that Alr2310 is an agmatinase rather than an arginase. As determined in cell-free extracts, agmatinase activity could be detected in the wild type but not in the mutant. Thus, alr2310 is the Anabaena speB gene encoding agmatinase. The ?alr2310 mutant accumulated large amounts of cyanophycin granule polypeptide, lacked nitrogenase activity, and did not grow diazotrophically. Growth tests in solid media showed that agmatine is inhibitory for Anabaena, especially under diazotrophic conditions, suggesting that growth of the mutant is inhibited by non-metabolized agmatine. Measurements of incorporation of radioactivity from [(14) C]leucine into macromolecules showed, however, a limited inhibition of protein synthesis in the ?alr2310 mutant. Analysis of an Anabaena strain producing an Alr2310-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion showed expression in vegetative cells but much less in heterocysts, implying compartmentalization of the arginine decarboxylation pathway in the diazotrophic filaments of this heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium. PMID:25209059

Burnat, Mireia; Flores, Enrique

2014-10-01

264

[Expression of drgA gene encoding NAD(P)H:quinone-oxidoreductase in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803].  

PubMed

The gene drgA of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding soluble NAD(P)H:quinone-oxidoreductase is involved in NADPH oxidation and controls cell sensitivity to nitroaromatic inhibitors as well as resistance to the oxidative stress inducer menadione. The expression of drgA was analyzed by means of Northern blot hybridization and RT-PCR technique. Two transcripts, which gave a positive hybridization signal with a drgA probe were observed in photoautotrophycally grown cells. One of them (0.6 kb) corresponds in size to mRNA read from the drgA gene; another transcript (1.3 kb), to mRNA transcribed from two genes: drgA and slr1718 located upstream of drgA and having homology with genes of the family comB. The expression of genes drgA and slr1718 was repressed during cell incubation in the dark, but the addition of glucose led to a drastically enhanced expression both in the dark and after illumination of cells. Menadione or nitrophenolic herbicide dinoseb did not induce drgA or slr1718 expression. The results obtained suggest that the expression of these genes in the cytoplasm of cyanobacterium cells is regulated by the NADPH content. PMID:17025155

Karandashova, I V; Semina, M E; Muronets, E M; Elanskaia, I V

2006-08-01

265

Persistent Phytoplankton Bloom in Lake St. Lucia (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa) Caused by a Cyanobacterium Closely Associated with the Genus Cyanothece (Synechococcaceae, Chroococcales) ?  

PubMed Central

Lake St. Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, is the largest estuarine lake in Africa. Extensive use and manipulation of the rivers flowing into it have reduced freshwater inflow, and the lake has also been subject to a drought of 10 years. For much of this time, the estuary has been closed to the Indian Ocean, and salinities have progressively risen throughout the system, impacting the biotic components of the ecosystem, reducing zooplankton and macrobenthic biomass and diversity in particular. In June 2009, a bloom of a red/orange planktonic microorganism was noted throughout the upper reaches of Lake St. Lucia. The bloom persisted for at least 18 months, making it the longest such bloom on record. The causative organism was characterized by light and electron microscopy and by 16S rRNA sequencing and was shown to be a large, unicellular cyanobacterium most strongly associated with the genus Cyanothece. The extent and persistence of the bloom appears to be unique to Lake St. Lucia, and it is suggested that the organism's resistance to high temperatures, to intense insolation, and to hypersalinity as well as the absence of grazing pressure by salinity-sensitive zooplankton all contributed to its persistence as a bloom organism until a freshwater influx, due to exceptionally heavy summer rains in 2011, reduced the salinity for a sufficient length of time to produce a crash in the cyanobacterium population as a complex, low-salinity biota redeveloped. PMID:21742912

Muir, David G.; Perissinotto, Renzo

2011-01-01

266

Identification of the oriC region and its influence on heterocyst development in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 (Anabaena PCC 7120) is a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium. Upon deprivation of combined nitrogen, about 5-10?% of the cells become heterocysts, i.e. cells devoted to N(2) fixation. Heterocysts are intercalated among vegetative cells and distributed in a semi-regular pattern, and adjacent heterocysts are rarely observed. Previously, we showed that the cell cycle could play a regulatory function during heterocyst development, although the mechanism involved remains unknown. As a further step to understand this phenomenon, we identified the oriC region for chromosomal DNA replication, located between dnaA and dnaN. The oriC region of Anabaena PCC 7120 was able to support the self-replication of a plasmid in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Surprisingly, integration of the oriC region into the chromosome of Anabaena PCC 7120 through homologous recombination led to much slower cell growth in the absence of a combined-nitrogen source and to multiple contiguous proheterocysts after prolonged incubation. Real-time RT-PCR showed that expression of two heterocyst-related genes, hetR and hetN, was altered in these strains: hetR expression remained high 48 h after induction, and hetN increased to high levels after induction for 12 h. These results suggest that the balance between oriC and DnaA could be important for heterocyst development. PMID:21493684

Zhou, Yin; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

2011-07-01

267

The heat shock protein ClpB mediates the development of thermotolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.  

PubMed

The heat shock protein CIpB (HSP100) is a member of the diverse group of Clp polypeptides that function as molecular chaperones and/or regulators of energy-dependent proteolysis. A single-copy gene coding for a ClpB homolog was cloned and sequenced from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. The predicted polypeptide sequence was most similar to sequences of cytosolic ClpB from bacteria and higher plants (i.e., 70 to 75%). Inactivation of clpB in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 resulted in no significant differences from the wild-type phenotype under optimal growth conditions. In the wild type, two forms of ClpB were induced during temperature shifts from 37 to 47.5 or 50 degrees C, one of 92 kDa, which matched the predicted size, and another smaller protein of 78 kDa. Both proteins were absent in the delta clpB strain. The level of induction of the two ClpB forms in the wild type increased with increasingly higher temperatures, while the level of the constitutive ClpC protein remained unchanged. In the delta clpB strain, however, the ClpC content almost doubled during the heating period, presumably to compensate for the loss of ClpB activity. Photosynthetic measurements at 47.5 and 50 degrees C showed that the null mutant was no more susceptible to thermal inactivation than the wild type. Using photosynthesis as a metabolic indicator, an assay was developed for Synechococcus spp. to determine the importance of ClpB for acquired thermotolerance. Complete inactivation of photosynthetic oxygen evolution occurred in both the wild type and the delta clpB strain when they were shifted from 37 directly to 55 degrees C for 10 min. By preexposing the cells at 50 degrees C for 1.5 h, however, a significant level of photosynthesis was retained in the wild type but not in the mutant after the treatment at 55 degrees C for 10 min. Cell survival determinations confirmed that the loss of ClpB synthesis caused a fivefold reduction in the ability of Synechococcus cells to develop thermotolerance. These results clearly show that induction of ClpB at high temperatures is vital for sustained thermotolerance in Synechococcus spp., the first such example for either a photosynthetic or a prokaryotic organism. PMID:8759846

Eriksson, M J; Clarke, A K

1996-08-01

268

Proteomic Analysis of the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 and Implications for Estimates of the Cellular Iron Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proteome of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8102 was analyzed by nanospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nLC-MS) with two major goals: to provide a first examination of the relative abundance of the most abundant proteins in this important microbe and to provide the necessary mass spectra for future quantification of biogeochemically significant proteins. Analyses of 37 nLC-MS runs of whole cell tryptic digestions and SDS-PAGE gel separated tryptic digestions resulted in a total of 636 proteins identified, 376 identified with two or more tryptic peptides. The identifications used the Sequest algorithm with stringent data filters on 54003 observed peptides, 3066 of which were unique, with a false positive rate of 2.2%. These measured proteins represent ~ 25.2% (14.8% with >= 2 peptides) of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, similar to or higher than the percentage found in other cyanobacterial proteome studies thus far. The relative abundance of the more abundant proteins in the proteome was examined using the exponentially modified protein abundance index from a single nLC-MS run that identified 372 proteins (14.7% of the ORFs) from 7743 observed peptides (1224 unique peptides). Estimates of the relative abundance showed the photosynthesis and respiration category contributing approximately 32% of the total detected protein, hypothetical proteins contributing about 16%, and translation about 12%. Of biogeochemical interest, multiple types of nitrogen assimilation systems were observed to be simultaneously expressed as proteins, only 5 of the 21 B12 biosynthesis proteins were identified likely due to low abundance, and the metalloproteins metallothionein and nickel superoxide dismutase were relatively abundant. In contrast to previous predictions of a high photosystem I: photosystem II ratio of approximately 3 in the cyanobacteria and a resultant high cellular iron content, the ratio of the average relative abundances of all detected proteins in each photosystem was only 1.2, and the median was only 0.72 based on the median. These results contradict the earlier predication of a biochemical basis for a high cellular iron in Synechococcus and may extend to the marine cyanobacteria in general.

Saito, M. A.; Bertrand, E. M.; Bulygin, V.; Moran, D.; Waterbury, J. B.

2008-12-01

269

Ultraviolet stress delays chromosome replication in light/dark synchronized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC9511  

PubMed Central

Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb) seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about how such minimalist microorganisms manage to sustain high growth rates and avoid potentially detrimental, UV-induced mutations to their DNA. To address this question, we studied the cell cycle dynamics of P. marinus PCC9511 cells grown under high fluxes of visible light in the presence or absence of UV radiation. Near natural light-dark cycles of both light sources were obtained using a custom-designed illumination system (cyclostat). Expression patterns of key DNA synthesis and repair, cell division, and clock genes were analyzed in order to decipher molecular mechanisms of adaptation to UV radiation. Results The cell cycle of P. marinus PCC9511 was strongly synchronized by the day-night cycle. The most conspicuous response of cells to UV radiation was a delay in chromosome replication, with a peak of DNA synthesis shifted about 2 h into the dark period. This delay was seemingly linked to a strong downregulation of genes governing DNA replication (dnaA) and cell division (ftsZ, sepF), whereas most genes involved in DNA repair (such as recA, phrA, uvrA, ruvC, umuC) were already activated under high visible light and their expression levels were only slightly affected by additional UV exposure. Conclusions Prochlorococcus cells modified the timing of the S phase in response to UV exposure, therefore reducing the risk that mutations would occur during this particularly sensitive stage of the cell cycle. We identified several possible explanations for the observed timeshift. Among these, the sharp decrease in transcript levels of the dnaA gene, encoding the DNA replication initiator protein, is sufficient by itself to explain this response, since DNA synthesis starts only when the cellular concentration of DnaA reaches a critical threshold. However, the observed response likely results from a more complex combination of UV-altered biological processes. PMID:20670397

2010-01-01

270

Kinetic Modeling of Arsenic Cycling by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium as Influenced by N:P Ratios: A Potential Biologic Control in an Iron-Limited Drainage Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated As levels are common in South Texas surface waters, where As is derived from the natural weathering of geogenic sources and a byproduct of historical uranium mining. The impacted surface waters of the Nueces River drainage basin supply Lake Corpus Christi (LCC), a major drinking water reservoir for the Corpus Christi area. The soils and sediments of the Nueces River drainage basin generally have low levels of reactive iron (average concentration of 2780 mg/kg), limiting the control of iron oxyhydroxides on As geochemistry and bioavailability. Given these conditions, biologic cycling of As may have a large influence on As fate and transport in LCC. Sediment cores from LCC show evidence for cyanobacterial blooms after reservoir formation based upon stable isotopes, total organic matter and specific elemental correlations. While algae have been shown to accumulate and reduce inorganic As(V), few studies have reported biologic cycling of As by cyanobacteria. Therefore, As(V) uptake, accumulation, reduction, and excretion in a 1.0 ? M As(V) solution by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120, was measured over time as a function of low, middle and high N:P ratios (1.2, 12, 120) to determine nutrient effects on As cycling by the cyanobacterium. Total As(V) reduction was observed in all three conditions upon completion of the ten-day experiment. Maximum As(V) reduction rates ranged from (0.013 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the low N:P solution to (0.398 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the high N:P solution. Increased cell biomass in the low N:P ratio solution compensated for the low maximum reduction rate to allow total As(V) reduction. Kinetic equations commonly used to model algal-nutrient interactions were utilized in modeling the current data. The Michaelis-Menten enzyme saturation equation modified with a competitive inhibition term adequately modeled As(III) excretion in the high and middle N:P ratio test conditions. The low N:P test condition further required a growth term to adequately model As(III) excretion by the cyanobacterium. The impact of N:P ratios on As reduction rates implies that N:P cycling can be coupled to As biogeochemistry in surface waters through the action of phytoplankton.

Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.

2004-12-01

271

Efficiency of Photosynthesis in a Chl d-Utilizing Cyanobacterium is Comparable to or Higher than that in Chl a-Utilizing Oxygenic Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina uses chlorophyll d to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis in environments depleted in visible and enhanced in lower-energy, far-red light. However, the extent to which low photon energies limit the efficiency of oxygenic photochemistry in A. marina is not known. Here, we report the first direct measurements of the energy-storage efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions in A. marina whole cells,and find it is comparable to or higher than that in typical, chlorophyll a-utilizing oxygenic species. This finding indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis is not fundamentally limited at the photon energies employed by A. marina, and therefore is potentially viable in even longer-wavelength light environments.

Mielke, S. P.; Kiang, N. Y.; Blankenship, R. E.; Gunner, M. R.; Mauzerall, D.

2011-01-01

272

Investigation and modeling of biomass decay rate in the dark and its potential influence on net productivity of solar photobioreactors for microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.  

PubMed

Biomass decay rate (BDR) in the dark was investigated for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (microalga) and Arthrospira platensis (cyanobacterium). A specific setup based on a torus photobioreactor with online gas analysis was validated, enabling us to follow the time course of the specific BDR using oxygen monitoring and mass balance. Various operating parameters that could limit respiration rates, such as culture temperature and oxygen deprivation, were then investigated. C. reinhardtii was found to present a higher BDR in the dark than A. platensis, illustrating here the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In both cases, temperature proved an influential parameter, and the Arrhenius law was found to efficiently relate specific BDR to culture temperature. The utility of decreasing temperature at night to increase biomass productivity in a solar photobioreactor is also illustrated. PMID:23619140

Le Borgne, François; Pruvost, Jérémy

2013-06-01

273

The tolerance of cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii to low-temperature photo-inhibition affected by the induction of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis.  

PubMed

Acyl-lipid desaturation introduces double bonds (unsaturated bonds) at specifically defined positions of fatty acids that are esterified to the glycerol backbone of membrane glycerolipids. Desaturation patterns of the glycerolipids of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, a filamentous cyanobacterium, were determined in cells grown at 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The lowering of the growth temperature from 35 degrees C to 25 degrees C resulted in a considerable accumulation of polyunsaturated octadecanoic fatty acids in all lipid classes. The tolerance to low-temperature photo-inhibition of the C. raciborskii cells grown at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C was also compared. The lower growth temperature increased the tolerance of C. raciborskii cells. These results strengthen the importance of polyunsaturated glycerolipids in the tolerance to environmental stresses and may give a physiological explanation for the determinative role of C. raciborskii in algal blooming in Lake Balaton (Hungary). PMID:11171248

Várkonyi, Z; Zsiros, O; Farkas, T; Garab, G; Gombos, Z

2000-12-01

274

Expression of a family of psbA genes encoding a photosystem II polypeptide in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2.  

PubMed Central

The genome of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 contains three genes (psbA) for the QB protein of photosystem II. This protein is essential for oxygenic photosynthetic electron tansport, and is the target for several herbicides which act by binding directly to the photosynthetic apparatus. Transcripts from the three Anacystis psbA genes are present in wild-type cells at different steady-state levels. The nucleotide sequences of two of the genes, psbAII and psbAIII, predict a protein having the same amino acid sequence which differs from that of the psbAI gene by 25 (out of 360) residues. Inactivation of each of the psbA genes in the Anacystis chromosome, singly or in pairs, shows that each of the genes is capable of producing sufficient functional QB protein to support normal photoautotrophic growth. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3098559

Golden, S S; Brusslan, J; Haselkorn, R

1986-01-01

275

Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ?-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ?-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

2014-01-01

276

Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the oxidant-sensing probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937  

SciTech Connect

The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under simulated solar radiation (UV-B: 0.30 Wm{sup -2}, UV-A: 25.70 Wm{sup -2} and PAR: 118.06 Wm{sup -2}) was studied in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 using the oxidant-sensing fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DCFH-DA is a nonpolar dye, converted into the polar derivative DCFH by cellular esterases that are nonfluorescent but switched to highly fluorescent DCF when oxidized by intracellular ROS and other peroxides. The images obtained from the fluorescence microscope after 12 h of irradiation showed green fluorescence from cells covered with 295, 320 or 395 nm cut-off filters, indicating the generation of ROS in all treatments. However, the green/red fluorescence ratio obtained from fluorescence microscopic analysis showed the highest generation of ROS after UV-B radiation in comparison to PAR or UV-A radiation. Production of ROS was also measured by a spectrofluorophotometer and results obtained supported the results of fluorescence microscopy. Low levels of ROS were detected at the start (0 h) of the experiment showing that they are generated even during normal metabolism. This study also showed that UV-B radiation causes the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments which could be due to the observed oxidative stress. This is the first report for the detection of intracellular ROS in a cyanobacterium by fluorescence microscopy using DCFH-DA and thereby suggesting the applicability of this method in the study of in vivo generation of ROS.

Rastogi, Rajesh P. [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Shailendra P.; Haeder, Donat-P. [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Sinha, Rajeshwar P., E-mail: r.p.sinha@gmx.net [Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

2010-07-02

277

Resistance to nitrophenolic herbicides and metronidazole in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a result of the inactivation of a nitroreductase-like protein encoded by drgA gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dinoseb is a herbicide known to inhibit photosystem II electron transfer like DCMU, triazine and phenolic-type herbicides. The mutant Din7 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, selected for resistance to dinoseb, and the mutant Ins2, constructed by the insertion of the kanamycin resistance cassette into the drgA gene, were cross-resistant to other nitrophenolic herbicides (DNOC, 2,4-dinitrophenol) and to the

Irina V Elanskaya; Egle A Chesnavichene; Claudie Vernotte; Chantal Astier

1998-01-01

278

Effects of Visible Light and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis in a Population of a Hot Spring Cyanobacterium, a Synechococcus sp., Subjected to High-Temperature Stress  

PubMed Central

Assays of photosynthesis were conducted with a biofilm population of a cyanobacterium, a Synechococcus sp., growing at ?70°C in a Yellowstone National Park hot spring to test whether cells growing near the upper temperature limit of photosynthetic life are optimally adapted to their mean environmental temperature. Cell suspensions were assayed at 70, 65, and 55°C while being simultaneously exposed to modified solar environments, including reduction of total irradiance and exclusion of UV radiation. Carbon fixation was greatest at 65°C, while 70 and 55°C were always supraoptimal and suboptimal for photosynthesis, respectively. The degree of temperature stress was dependent upon light intensity, and this light-dependent temperature effect may involve both reduced quantum efficiency at subsaturating irradiances and a lower saturating irradiance at both supraoptimal and suboptimal temperatures. The Synechococcus sp. was also more susceptible to UV inhibition of photosynthesis at nonoptimal temperatures. These results suggest that this population is persisting at a nearly lethal temperature and is consequently subject to greater damage by both visible and UV radiation, but it is speculated that these cells may be avoiding competition with other photoautotrophs under these nonoptimal conditions. In separate experiments monitoring diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, cells exhibited peak productivity during the morning, followed by an afternoon decline. No recovery of photosynthesis was observed during the remaining daytime, and carbon fixation was always UV inhibited under conditions of photosynthetically saturating light. PMID:9758816

Miller, Scott R.; Wingard, Christopher E.; Castenholz, Richard W.

1998-01-01

279

Exploring the size limit of protein diffusion through the periplasm in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using the 13 kDa iLOV fluorescent protein.  

PubMed

In the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120, vegetative cells and heterocysts are interdependent on each other and engaged in exchanges of metabolites for survival when grown under diazotrophic conditions. In this organism, the periplasm appears to be continuous along each filament, with a shared outer membrane; however, barriers exist preventing free diffusion of the fluorescent protein GFP (27 kDa) targeted into the periplasmic space. Here we expressed a smaller fluorescent protein iLOV (? 13 kDa) fused to the All3333 (a putative homologue of NrtA) signal sequence corresponding to those recognized by the TAT protein translocation system, which exports iLOV to the periplasm of either heterocysts or vegetative cells. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis indicated that the iLOV protein is translocated into the periplasm of the producing cell and properly processed, but does not diffuse to neighboring cells via the periplasm. Thus, periplasmic barriers appear to block diffusion of molecules with a size of 13 kDa, the minimum size tested thus far. Assuming that the physical barrier is the peptidoglycan sacculus, its pores might allow diffusion of molecules within the size range between the PatS pentapeptide and iLOV, thus between 0.53 kDa and 13 kDa. PMID:23748014

Zhang, Li-Chen; Risoul, Véronique; Latifi, Amel; Christie, John M; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

2013-09-01

280

Characterization of two cytochrome oxidase operons in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002: inactivation of ctaDI affects the PS I:PS II ratio.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria have versatile electron transfer pathways and many of the proteins involved are functional in both respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport. Examples of such proteins include the cytochrome b (6) f complex, NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase complexes. In this study we have cloned and sequenced two gene clusters from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 that potentially encode heme-copper cytochrome oxidases. The ctaCIDIEI and ctaCIIDIIEII gene clusters are most similar to two related gene clusters found in the freshwater cyanobacterial strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Unlike Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 does not have a cydAB-like gene cluster which encodes a quinol oxidase. The ctaCIDIEI and ctaCIIDIIEII gene clusters were transcribed polycistronically, although the levels of transcripts for the ctaCIIDIIEII gene cluster were lower than those of the ctaCIDIEI gene cluster. The ctaDI and ctaDII coding sequences were interrupted by interposon mutagenesis and full segregants were isolated and characterized for both single and double mutants. Growth rates, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, oxygen consumption and oxygen evolution were examined in the wild type and mutant strains. Differences between the wild type and mutant strains observed in 77 K fluorescence spectra and in pulse-amplified modulated (PAM) fluorescence studies suggest that the cyanobacterial oxidases play a role in photoinhibition and high light tolerance in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. PMID:16437183

Nomura, Christopher T; Persson, Sřren; Shen, Gaozhong; Inoue-Sakamoto, Kaori; Bryant, Donald A

2006-02-01

281

Role of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase encoded by drgA gene in reduction of exogenous quinones in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells.  

PubMed

Insertion mutant Ins2 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, lacking NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) encoded by drgA gene, was characterized by higher sensitivity to quinone-type inhibitors (menadione and plumbagin) than wild type (WT) cells. In photoautotrophically grown cyanobacterial cells more than 60% of NADPH:quinone-reductase activity, as well as all NADPH:dinoseb-reductase activity, was associated with the function of NQR. NQR activity was observed only in soluble fraction of cyanobacterial cells, but not in membrane fraction. The effects of menadione and menadiol on the reduction of Photosystem I reaction center (P700(+)) after its photooxidation in the presence of DCMU were studied using the EPR spectroscopy. The addition of menadione increased the rate of P700(+) reduction in WT cells, whereas in Ins2 mutant the reduction of P700(+) was strongly inhibited. In the presence of menadiol the reduction of P700(+) was accelerated both in WT and Ins2 mutant cells. These data suggest that NQR protects the cyanobacterial cells from the toxic effect of exogenous quinones by their reduction to hydroquinones. These data may also indicate the probable functional homology of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 NQR with mammalian and plant NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases (DT-diaphorases). PMID:15000679

Elanskaya, I V; Grivennikova, V G; Groshev, V V; Kuznetsova, G V; Semina, M E; Timofeev, K N

2004-02-01

282

In vitro random mutagenesis of the D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center confers phototolerance on the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

The D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center is thought to be the most light-sensitive component of the photosynthetic machinery. To understand the mechanisms underlying the light sensitivity of D1, we performed in vitro random mutagenesis of the psbA gene that codes for D1, transformed the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with mutated psbA, and selected phototolerant transformants that did not bleach in high intensity light. A region of psbA2 coding for 178 amino acids of the carboxyl-terminal portion of the peptide was subjected to random mutagenesis by low fidelity polymerase chain reaction amplification or by hydroxylamine treatment. This region contains the binding sites for Q(B), D2 (through Fe), and P680. Eighteen phototolerant mutants with single and multiple amino acid substitutions were selected from a half million transformants exposed to white light at 320 micromol m(-2) s(-1). A strain transformed with non-mutagenized psbA2 became bleached under the same conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis has confirmed that one or more substitutions of amino acids at residues 234, 254, 260, 267, 322, 326, and 328 confers phototolerance. The rate of degradation of D1 protein was not appreciably affected by the mutations. Reduced bleaching of mutant cyanobacterial cells may result from continued buildup of photosynthetic pigment systems caused by changes in redox signals originating from D1. PMID:10438502

Narusaka, Y; Narusaka, M; Satoh, K; Kobayashi, H

1999-08-13

283

The Carboxyl-Terminal Extension of the Precursor D1 Protein of Photosystem II Is Required for Optimal Photosynthetic Performance of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 68031  

PubMed Central

The D1 protein is an integral component of the photosystem II reaction center complex. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, D1 is synthesized with a short 16-amino acids-long carboxyl-terminal extension. Removal of this extension is necessary to form active oxygen-evolving photosystem II centers. Our earlier studies have shown that this extension is cleaved by CtpA, a specific carboxyl-terminal processing protease. The amino acid sequence of the carboxyl-terminal extension is conserved among D1 proteins from different organisms, although at a level lower than that of the mature protein. In the present study we have analyzed a mutant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with a duplicated extension, and a second mutant that lacks the extension, to investigate the effects of these alterations on the function of the D1 protein in vivo. No significant difference in the growth rates, photosynthetic pigment composition, fluorescence induction, and oxygen evolution rates was observed between the mutants and the control strain. However, using long-term mixed culture growth analysis, we detected significant decreases in the fitness of these mutant strains. The presented data demonstrate that the carboxyl-terminal extension of the precursor D1 protein is required for optimal photosynthetic performance. PMID:11080315

Ivleva, Natalia B.; Shestakov, Sergey V.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2000-01-01

284

Distribution of a consortium between unicellular algae and the N2 fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A in the North Atlantic Ocean.  

PubMed

The globally abundant, uncultured unicellular cyanobacterium UCYN-A was recently discovered living in association with a eukaryotic cell closely related to a prymnesiophyte. Here, we established a double CAtalysed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) approach to identify both partners and provided quantitative information on their distribution and abundance across distinct water masses along a transect in the North Atlantic Ocean. The N2 fixation activity coincided with the detection of UCYN-A cells and was only observed in oligotrophic (?18°C) surface waters. Parallel 16S ribosomal RNA gene analyses among unicellular diazotrophs indicated that only UCYN-A cells were present. UCYN-A cells were associated with an algal partner or non-associated using the double CARD-FISH approach. We demonstrated that UCYN-A cells living in association with Haptophyta were the dominant form (87.0?±?6.1%), whereas non-associated UCYN-A cells represented only a minor fraction (5.2?±?3.9%). Interestingly, UCYN-A cells were also detected living in association with unknown single-celled eukaryotes in small amounts (7.8?±?5.2%), presumably Alveolata. The proposed ecological niche of UCYN-A as an oligotrophic, mesophilic and obligate symbiotic nitrogen-fixing microorganism is evident for the North Atlantic Ocean. PMID:24612325

Krupke, Andreas; Lavik, Gaute; Halm, Hannah; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2014-10-01

285

The AplI restriction-modification system in an edible cyanobacterium, Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis NIES-39, recognizes the nucleotide sequence 5'-CTGCAG-3'.  

PubMed

The degradation of foreign DNAs by restriction enzymes in an edible cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis, is a potential barrier for gene-transfer experiments in this economically valuable organism. We overproduced in Escherichia coli the proteins involved in a putative restriction-modification system of A. platensis NIES-39. The protein produced from the putative type II restriction enzyme gene NIES39_K04640 exhibited an endonuclease activity that cleaved DNA within the sequence 5'-CTGCAG-3' between the A at the fifth position and the G at the sixth position. We designated this enzyme AplI. The protein from the adjacent gene NIES39_K04650, which encodes a putative DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase, rendered DNA molecules resistant to AplI by modifying the C at the fourth position (but not the C at the first position) in the recognition sequence. This modification enzyme, M.AplI, should be useful for converting DNA molecules into AplI-resistant forms for use in gene-transfer experiments. A summary of restriction enzymes in various Arthrospira strains is also presented in this paper. PMID:23563565

Shiraishi, Hideaki; Tabuse, Yosuke

2013-01-01

286

In vitro and in vivo analyses of the role of the carboxysomal ?-type carbonic anhydrase of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus in carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.  

PubMed

The carboxylase activities of crude carboxysome preparations obtained from the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 strain and the mutant defective in the carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase (CA) were compared. The carboxylation reaction required high concentrations of bicarbonate and was not even saturated at 50 mM bicarbonate. With the initial concentrations of 50 mM and 25 mM for bicarbonate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), respectively, the initial rate of RuBP carboxylation by the mutant carboxysome (0.22 ?mol mg(-1) protein min(-1)) was only 30 % of that observed for the wild-type carboxysomes (0.71 ?mol mg(-1) protein min(-1)), indicating the importance of the presence of CA in efficient catalysis by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). While the mutant defective in the ccmLMNO genes, which lacks the carboxysome structure, could grow under aeration with 2 % (v/v) CO2 in air, the mutant defective in ccaA as well as ccmLMNO required 5 % (v/v) CO2 for growth, indicating that the cytoplasmically localized CcaA helped utilization of CO2 by the cytoplasmically localized Rubisco by counteracting the action of the CO2 hydration mechanism. The results predict that overexpression of Rubisco would hardly enhance CO2 fixation by the cyanobacterium at CO2 levels lower than 5 %, unless Rubisco is properly organized into carboxysomes. PMID:24585024

Nishimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Omata, Tatsuo

2014-09-01

287

Modification of energy-transfer processes in the cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis, to adapt to light conditions, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In cyanobacteria, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes are modified in response to changes in light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed excitation energy transfer from the phycobilisome and photosystem II to photosystem I in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. The cells were grown under lights with different spectral profiles and under different light intensities, and the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra. The direct energy transfer from the phycobilisome to photosystem I and energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I were modified depending on the light quality, light quantity, and cultivation period. However, the total amount of energy transferred to photosystem I remained constant under the different growth conditions. We discuss the differences in energy-transfer processes under different cultivation and light conditions. PMID:23605291

Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

2013-11-01

288

Occurrence of pseudovitamin B12 and its possible function as the cofactor of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase in a cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.  

PubMed

To clarify the physiological function of pseudovitamin B(12) in cyanobacteria, we determined pseudovitamin B(12) contents and cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase activity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 grown under CoSO(4)-sufficient and -limited conditions. Pseudovitamin B(12) and cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase activity (0.8 nmol/min/mg protein) were found in a homogenate of the Synechocystis cells grown for 10 d in the CoSO(4)-sufficient medium. The cellular pseudovitamin B(12 )contents increased significantly at the early logarithmic growth phase and thereafter decreased rapidly at the stationary phase; a similar fluctuation pattern was shown in the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase activity. Although the CoSO(4)-limited conditions did not reduce the cell growth, pseudovitamin B(12) contents and methionine synthase activity decreased significantly in the limited cells relative to the sufficient cells. These results indicate that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can synthesize pseudovitamin B(12) de novo and utilize it as the cofactor for cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. PMID:20086323

Tanioka, Yuri; Yabuta, Yukinori; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Watanabe, Fumio; Inui, Hiroshi

2009-12-01

289

Genome-Scale Modeling of Light-Driven Reductant Partitioning and Carbon Fluxes in Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142  

SciTech Connect

Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC) share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a genome-scale model for the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. The resulting metabolic reconstruction, iCce806, consists of 806 genes associated with 667 metabolic reactions and includes a detailed representation of the ETC and a biomass equation based on experimental measurements. Both computational and experimental approaches were used to investigate light-driven metabolism in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, with a particular focus on reductant production and partitioning within the ETC. The simulation results suggest that growth and metabolic flux distributions are substantially impacted by the relative amounts of light going into the individual photosystems. When photosystem II flux is high, terminal oxidases of respiratory electron transport are predicted to be an important mechanism for removing excess electrons. When photosystem I flux is high cyclic electron transport becomes important. Model predictions of growth rates were in good quantitative agreement with measured growth rates, and predictions of reaction usage were ualitatively consistent with protein and mRNA expression data, when these latter datasets were used to constrain the model.

Vu, Trang; Stolyar, Sergey; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Reed, Jennifer L.

2012-04-05

290

Genome-scale modeling of light-driven reductant partitioning and carbon fluxes in diazotrophic unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142  

SciTech Connect

Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC) share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a genome-scale model for the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. The resulting metabolic reconstruction, iCce806, consists of 806 genes associated with 667 metabolic reactions and includes a detailed representation of the ETC and a biomass equation based on experimental measurements. Both computational and experimental approaches were used to investigate light-driven metabolism in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, with a particular focus on reductant production and partitioning within the ETC. The simulation results suggest that growth and metabolic flux distributions are substantially impacted by the relative amounts of light going into the individual photosystems. When photosystem II flux is high, terminal oxidases of respiratory electron transport are predicted to be an important mechanism for removing excess electrons. When photosystem I flux is high cyclic electron transport becomes important. Model predictions of growth rates were in good quantitative agreement with measured growth rates, and predictions of reaction usage were qualitatively consistent with protein and mRNA expression data, when these latter datasets were used to constrain the model.

Vu, Trang; Stolyar, Sergey; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Reed, Jennifer L.

2012-04-05

291

Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using the cell extract of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena strain L31 and its conjugation with UV-B absorbing compound shinorine.  

PubMed

In the present work, we describe a cheap, unexplored and simple procedure for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using the cell extract of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena strain L31. An attempt was also made to conjugate synthesized ZnONPs with a UV-absorbing water soluble compound shinorine. UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses were made to elucidate the formation and characterization of ZnONPs and ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate. The synthesized ZnONPs were characterized by a sharp peak at 370 nm in UV-vis spectrum. TEM images showed the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with an average size of 80 nm. Results of selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern showed a set of rings which suggested uniform shape with hexagonal structure of ZnONPs. XRD spectra confirmed the crystalline structure of particles. Conjugation of ZnONPs with shinorine was successfully achieved at pH 7.0 and 10mM concentration of shinorine. The conjugate showed a zeta potential value of -3.75 mV as compared to +30.25 mV of ZnONPs. The change in zeta potential value of ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate was attributed to the changes in the surface functionalities after conjugation. The generation of in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Anabaena strain L31 with treatment of ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate showed approximately 75% less ROS generation as compared to ZnONPs. Properties exhibited by the ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate suggest that it may be used as a potential agent in developing environmental-friendly sunscreen filters of biological origin. PMID:24911272

Singh, Garvita; Babele, Piyoosh K; Kumar, Ashok; Srivastava, Anup; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Tyagi, Madhu B

2014-09-01

292

Ethoxyzolamide Differentially Inhibits CO2 Uptake and Na+-Independent and Na+-Dependent HCO3- Uptake in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. UTEX 625.  

PubMed Central

The effects of ethoxyzolamide (EZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, on the active CO2 and Na+-independent and Na+-dependent HCO3- transport systems of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. UTEX 625 were examined. Measurements of transport and accumulation using radiochemical, fluorometric, and mass spectrometric assays indicated that active CO2 transport and active Na+-independent HCO3- transport were inhibited by EZ. However, Na+-independent HCO3- transport was about 1 order of magnitude more sensitive to EZ inhibition than was CO2 transport (50% inhibition = 12 [mu]M versus 80 [mu]M). The data suggest that both the active CO2 (G.D. Price, M.R. Badger [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 37-43) and the Na+ -independent HCO3 - transport systems possessed carbonic anhydrase-like activity as part of their mechanism of action. In contrast, Na+-dependent HCO3- transport was only partially (50% inhibition = 230 [mu]M) and noncompetitively inhibited by EZ. The collective evidence suggested that EZ inhibition of Na+ -dependent HCO3- transport was an indirect consequence of the action of EZ on the CO2 transport system, rather than a direct effect on HCO3- transport. A model is presented in which the core of the inorganic carbon translocating system is formed by Na+-dependent HCO3- transport and the CO2 transport system. It is argued that the Na+-independent HCO3 - utilizing system was not directly involved in translocation, but converted HCO3- to CO2 for use in CO2 transport. PMID:12226376

Tyrrell, P. N.; Kandasamy, R. A.; Crotty, C. M.; Espie, G. S.

1996-01-01

293

Inorganic Carbon Accumulation Stimulates Linear Electron Flow to Artificial Electron Acceptors of Photosystem I in Air-Grown Cells of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed Central

The effect of inorganic carbon (Ci) transport and accumulation on photosynthetic electron transport was studied in air-grown cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625. When the cells were depleted of Ci, linear photosynthetic electron flow was almost completely inhibited in the presence of the photosystem I (PSI) acceptor N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (PNDA). The addition of Ci to these cells, in which CO2 fixation was inhibited with glycolaldehyde, greatly stimulated linear electron flow and resulted in increased levels of photochemical quenching and O2 evolution. In aerobic conditions substantial quenching resulted from methyl viologen (MV) addition and further quenching was not observed upon the addition of Ci. In anaerobic conditions MV addition did not result in quenching until Ci was added. Intracellular Ci pools were formed when MV was present in aerobic or anaerobic conditions or PNDA was present in aerobic conditions. There was no inhibitory effect of Ci depletion on electron flow to 2,6-dimethylbenzoquinone and oxidized diaminodurene, which accept electrons from photosystem II. The degree of stimulation of PNDA-dependent O2 evolution varied with the Ci concentration. The extracellular Ci, concentration required for a half-maximum rate (K1/2) was 3.8 [mu]M and the intracellular K1/2 was 1.4 mM for the stimulation of PNDA reduction. These values agreed closely with the K1/2 values of extracellular and intracellular Ci for O2 photoreduction. Linear electron flow to artificial electron acceptors of PSI was enhanced by intracellular Ci, which appeared to exert an effect on PSI or on the intersystem electron transport chain. PMID:12223770

Li, Q.; Canvin, D. T.

1997-01-01

294

Quenching of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Response to Na+-Dependent HCO3- Transport-Mediated Accumulation of Inorganic Carbon in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed

In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625, the yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence decreased in response to the transport-mediated accumulation of intracellular inorganic carbon (CO2 + HCO3- + CO32- = dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC]) and subsequently increased to a near-maximum level following photosynthetic depletion of the DIC pool. When DIC accumulation was mediated by the active Na+-dependent HCO3- transport system, the initial rate of fluorescence quenching was found to be highly correlated with the initial rate of H14CO3- transport (r = 0.96), and the extent of fluorescence quenching was correlated with the size of the internal DIC pool (r = 0.99). Na+-dependent HCO3- transport-mediated accumulation of DIC caused fluorescence quenching in either the presence or absence of the CO2 fixation inhibitor glycolaldehyde, indicating that quenching was not due simply to NADP+ reduction. The concentration of Na+ required to attain one-half the maximum rate of H14CO3- transport, at 20 [mu]M external HCO3-, declined from 9 to 1 mM as the external pH increased from 8 to 9.6. A similar pH dependency was observed when fluorescence quenching was used to determine the kinetic constants for HCO3- transport. In cells capable of Na+-dependent HCO3- transport, both the initial rate and extent of fluorescence quenching increased with increasing external HCO3-, saturating at about 150 [mu]M. In contrast Na+-independent HCO3- transport-mediated fluorescence quenching saturated at an HCO3- concentration of about 10 [mu]M. It was concluded that measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission provided a convenient, but indirect, means of following Na+-dependent HCO3- transport and accumulation in Synechococcus. PMID:12232126

Crotty, C. M.; Tyrrell, P. N.; Espie, G. S.

1994-02-01

295

Ethoxyzolamide Differentially Inhibits CO2 Uptake and Na+-Independent and Na+-Dependent HCO3- Uptake in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. UTEX 625.  

PubMed

The effects of ethoxyzolamide (EZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, on the active CO2 and Na+-independent and Na+-dependent HCO3- transport systems of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. UTEX 625 were examined. Measurements of transport and accumulation using radiochemical, fluorometric, and mass spectrometric assays indicated that active CO2 transport and active Na+-independent HCO3- transport were inhibited by EZ. However, Na+-independent HCO3- transport was about 1 order of magnitude more sensitive to EZ inhibition than was CO2 transport (50% inhibition = 12 [mu]M versus 80 [mu]M). The data suggest that both the active CO2 (G.D. Price, M.R. Badger [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 37-43) and the Na+ -independent HCO3 - transport systems possessed carbonic anhydrase-like activity as part of their mechanism of action. In contrast, Na+-dependent HCO3- transport was only partially (50% inhibition = 230 [mu]M) and noncompetitively inhibited by EZ. The collective evidence suggested that EZ inhibition of Na+ -dependent HCO3- transport was an indirect consequence of the action of EZ on the CO2 transport system, rather than a direct effect on HCO3- transport. A model is presented in which the core of the inorganic carbon translocating system is formed by Na+-dependent HCO3- transport and the CO2 transport system. It is argued that the Na+-independent HCO3 - utilizing system was not directly involved in translocation, but converted HCO3- to CO2 for use in CO2 transport. PMID:12226376

Tyrrell, P. N.; Kandasamy, R. A.; Crotty, C. M.; Espie, G. S.

1996-09-01

296

Quenching of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Response to Na+-Dependent HCO3- Transport-Mediated Accumulation of Inorganic Carbon in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed Central

In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625, the yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence decreased in response to the transport-mediated accumulation of intracellular inorganic carbon (CO2 + HCO3- + CO32- = dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC]) and subsequently increased to a near-maximum level following photosynthetic depletion of the DIC pool. When DIC accumulation was mediated by the active Na+-dependent HCO3- transport system, the initial rate of fluorescence quenching was found to be highly correlated with the initial rate of H14CO3- transport (r = 0.96), and the extent of fluorescence quenching was correlated with the size of the internal DIC pool (r = 0.99). Na+-dependent HCO3- transport-mediated accumulation of DIC caused fluorescence quenching in either the presence or absence of the CO2 fixation inhibitor glycolaldehyde, indicating that quenching was not due simply to NADP+ reduction. The concentration of Na+ required to attain one-half the maximum rate of H14CO3- transport, at 20 [mu]M external HCO3-, declined from 9 to 1 mM as the external pH increased from 8 to 9.6. A similar pH dependency was observed when fluorescence quenching was used to determine the kinetic constants for HCO3- transport. In cells capable of Na+-dependent HCO3- transport, both the initial rate and extent of fluorescence quenching increased with increasing external HCO3-, saturating at about 150 [mu]M. In contrast Na+-independent HCO3- transport-mediated fluorescence quenching saturated at an HCO3- concentration of about 10 [mu]M. It was concluded that measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission provided a convenient, but indirect, means of following Na+-dependent HCO3- transport and accumulation in Synechococcus. PMID:12232126

Crotty, C. M.; Tyrrell, P. N.; Espie, G. S.

1994-01-01

297

Inorganic Carbon Accumulation Stimulates Linear Electron Flow to Artificial Electron Acceptors of Photosystem I in Air-Grown Cells of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed

The effect of inorganic carbon (Ci) transport and accumulation on photosynthetic electron transport was studied in air-grown cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625. When the cells were depleted of Ci, linear photosynthetic electron flow was almost completely inhibited in the presence of the photosystem I (PSI) acceptor N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (PNDA). The addition of Ci to these cells, in which CO2 fixation was inhibited with glycolaldehyde, greatly stimulated linear electron flow and resulted in increased levels of photochemical quenching and O2 evolution. In aerobic conditions substantial quenching resulted from methyl viologen (MV) addition and further quenching was not observed upon the addition of Ci. In anaerobic conditions MV addition did not result in quenching until Ci was added. Intracellular Ci pools were formed when MV was present in aerobic or anaerobic conditions or PNDA was present in aerobic conditions. There was no inhibitory effect of Ci depletion on electron flow to 2,6-dimethylbenzoquinone and oxidized diaminodurene, which accept electrons from photosystem II. The degree of stimulation of PNDA-dependent O2 evolution varied with the Ci concentration. The extracellular Ci, concentration required for a half-maximum rate (K1/2) was 3.8 [mu]M and the intracellular K1/2 was 1.4 mM for the stimulation of PNDA reduction. These values agreed closely with the K1/2 values of extracellular and intracellular Ci for O2 photoreduction. Linear electron flow to artificial electron acceptors of PSI was enhanced by intracellular Ci, which appeared to exert an effect on PSI or on the intersystem electron transport chain. PMID:12223770

Li, Q.; Canvin, D. T.

1997-08-01

298

Excitation energy transfer and electron-vibrational coupling in phycobiliproteins of the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina investigated by site-selective spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In adaption to its specific environmental conditions, the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina developed two different types of light-harvesting complexes: chlorophyll-d-containing membrane-intrinsic complexes and phycocyanobilin (PCB) - containing phycobiliprotein (PBP) complexes. The latter complexes are believed to form a rod-shaped structure comprising three homo-hexamers of phycocyanin (PC), one hetero-hexamer of phycocyanin and allophycocyanin (APC) and probably a linker protein connecting the PBPs to the reaction centre. Excitation energy transfer and electron-vibrational coupling in PBPs have been investigated by selectively excited fluorescence spectra. The data reveal a rich spectral substructure with a total of five low-energy electronic states with fluorescence bands at 635nm, 645nm, 654nm, 659nm and a terminal emitter at about 673 nm. The electronic states at ~635 and 645 nm are tentatively attributed to PC and APC, respectively, while an apparent heterogeneity among PC subunits may also play a role. The other fluorescence bands may be associated with three different isoforms of the linker protein. Furthermore, a large number of vibrational features can be identified for each electronic state with intense phonon sidebands peaking at about 31 to 37cm?ą, which are among the highest phonon frequencies observed for photosynthetic antenna complexes. The corresponding Huang-Rhys factors S fall in the range between 0.98 (terminal emitter), 1.15 (APC), and 1.42 (PC). Two characteristic vibronic lines at about 1580 and 1634cm?ą appear to reflect CNH? and CC stretching modes of the PCB chromophore, respectively. The exact phonon and vibrational frequencies vary with electronic state implying that the respective PCB chromophores are bound to different protein environments. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy. PMID:24560813

Gryliuk, G; Rätsep, M; Hildebrandt, S; Irrgang, K-D; Eckert, H-J; Pieper, J

2014-09-01

299

Salt-dependent expression of glucosylglycerol-phosphate synthase, involved in osmolyte synthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is able to acclimate to levels of salinity ranging from freshwater to twice the seawater concentrations of salt by accumulating the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG). Expression of the ggpS gene coding for the key enzyme (glucosylglycerol-phosphate synthase) in GG synthesis was examined in detail. Under control conditions, the GgpS protein is stable, so that weak constitutive transcription of the ggpS gene resulted in a significant protein content. However, the enzyme activity was biochemically switched off, and no GG was detectable. After a salt shock, an immediate increase in mRNA content proportional to the salt content occurred, while the GgpS protein and GG contents rose in a linear manner. Furthermore, the stability of the ggpS mRNA increased transiently. In salt-acclimated cells expression of the ggpS gene, the GgpS protein content, and the amount of accumulated GG depended linearly on the external salt concentration. Mapping of the 5' end of the ggpS transcript revealed a long nontranslated 5' sequence and a putative typical cyanobacterial promoter, which did not show any obvious salt-regulatory element. The alternative sigma factor sigma(F) was found to be involved in salt-dependent regulation of ggpS, since in a sigma(F) mutant induction of this gene was strongly reduced. The present study demonstrated that in addition to biochemical regulation of GgpS activity, alterations of ggpS expression are involved in regulation of GG synthesis in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. A model showing the interaction of the two regulatory levels is presented. PMID:12003926

Marin, Kay; Huckauf, Jana; Fulda, Sabine; Hagemann, Martin

2002-06-01

300

Salt-Dependent Expression of Glucosylglycerol-Phosphate Synthase, Involved in Osmolyte Synthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803†  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is able to acclimate to levels of salinity ranging from freshwater to twice the seawater concentrations of salt by accumulating the compatible solute glucosylglycerol (GG). Expression of the ggpS gene coding for the key enzyme (glucosylglycerol-phosphate synthase) in GG synthesis was examined in detail. Under control conditions, the GgpS protein is stable, so that weak constitutive transcription of the ggpS gene resulted in a significant protein content. However, the enzyme activity was biochemically switched off, and no GG was detectable. After a salt shock, an immediate increase in mRNA content proportional to the salt content occurred, while the GgpS protein and GG contents rose in a linear manner. Furthermore, the stability of the ggpS mRNA increased transiently. In salt-acclimated cells expression of the ggpS gene, the GgpS protein content, and the amount of accumulated GG depended linearly on the external salt concentration. Mapping of the 5? end of the ggpS transcript revealed a long nontranslated 5? sequence and a putative typical cyanobacterial promoter, which did not show any obvious salt-regulatory element. The alternative ? factor ?F was found to be involved in salt-dependent regulation of ggpS, since in a ?F mutant induction of this gene was strongly reduced. The present study demonstrated that in addition to biochemical regulation of GgpS activity, alterations of ggpS expression are involved in regulation of GG synthesis in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. A model showing the interaction of the two regulatory levels is presented. PMID:12003926

Marin, Kay; Huckauf, Jana; Fulda, Sabine; Hagemann, Martin

2002-01-01

301

Microarray Analysis of the Genome-Wide Response to Iron Deficiency and Iron Reconstitution in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 68031[w  

PubMed Central

A full-genome microarray of the (oxy)photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was used to identify genes that were transcriptionally regulated by growth in iron (Fe)-deficient versus Fe-sufficient media. Transcript accumulation for 3,165 genes in the genome was analyzed using an analysis of variance model that accounted for slide and replicate (random) effects and dye (a fixed) effect in testing for differences in the four time periods. We determined that 85 genes showed statistically significant changes in the level of transcription (P ? 0.05/3,165 = 0.0000158) across the four time points examined, whereas 781 genes were characterized as interesting (P ? 0.05 but greater than 0.0000158; 731 of these had a fold change >1.25×). The genes identified included those known previously to be Fe regulated, such as isiA that encodes a novel chlorophyll-binding protein responsible for the pigment characteristics of low-Fe (LoFe) cells. ATP synthetase and phycobilisome genes were down-regulated in LoFe, and there were interesting changes in the transcription of genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, in photosystem I and II assembly, and in energy metabolism. Hierarchical clustering demonstrated that photosynthesis genes, as a class, were repressed in LoFe and induced upon the re-addition of Fe. Specific regulatory genes were transcriptionally active in LoFe, including two genes that show homology to plant phytochromes (cph1 and cph2). These observations established the existence of a complex network of regulatory interactions and coordination in response to Fe availability. PMID:12913140

Singh, Abhay K.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Sherman, Louis A.

2003-01-01

302

Manganese Limitation Induces Changes in the Activity and in the Organization of Photosynthetic Complexes in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 68031[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) ions are essential for oxygen evolution activity in photoautotrophs. In this paper, we demonstrate the dynamic response of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in Mn bioavailability in cyanobacteria. Cultures of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 could grow on Mn concentrations as low as 100 nm without any observable effect on their physiology. Below this threshold, a decline in the photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) occurred, as evident by lower oxygen evolution rates, lower maximal photosynthetic yield of PSII values, and faster QA reoxidation rates. In 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy, a peak at 682 nm was observed. After ruling out the contribution of phycobilisome and iron stress-induced IsiA proteins, this band was attributed to the accumulation of partially assembled PSII. Surprisingly, the increase in the 682-nm peak was paralleled by a decrease in the 720-nm peak, dominated by PSI fluorescence. The effect on PSI was confirmed by measurements of the P700 photochemical activity. The loss of activity was the result of two processes: loss of PSI core proteins and changes in the organization of PSI complexes. Blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a Mn limitation-dependent dissociation of PSI trimers into monomers. The sensitive range for changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus overlaps with the range of Mn concentrations measured in natural environments. We suggest that the ability to manipulate PSI content and organization allows cyanobacteria to balance electron transport rates between the photosystems. At naturally occurring Mn concentrations, such a mechanism will provide important protection against light-induced damage. PMID:21088228

Salomon, Eitan; Keren, Nir

2011-01-01

303

The [NiFe]-hydrogenase of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 works bidirectionally with a bias to H2 production.  

PubMed

Protein film electrochemistry (PFE) was utilized to characterize the catalytic activity and oxidative inactivation of a bidirectional [NiFe]-hydrogenase (HoxEFUYH) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PFE provides precise control of the redox potential of the adsorbed enzyme so that its activity can be monitored under changing experimental conditions as current. The properties of HoxEFUYH are different from those of both the standard uptake and the "oxygen-tolerant" [NiFe]-hydrogenases. First, HoxEFUYH is biased toward proton reduction as opposed to hydrogen oxidation. Second, despite being expressed under aerobic conditions in vivo, HoxEFUYH is clearly not oxygen-tolerant. Aerobic inactivation of catalytic hydrogen oxidation by HoxEFUYH is total and nearly instantaneous, producing two inactive states. However, unlike the Ni-A and Ni-B inactive states of standard [NiFe]-hydrogenases, both of these states are quickly (<90 s) reactivated by removal of oxygen and exposure to reducing conditions. Third, proton reduction continues at 25-50% of the maximal rate in the presence of 1% oxygen. Whereas most previously characterized [NiFe]-hydrogenases seem to be preferential hydrogen oxidizing catalysts, the cyanobacterial enzyme works effectively in both directions. This unusual catalytic bias as well as the ability to be quickly reactivated may be essential to fulfilling the physiological role in cyanobacteria, organisms expected to experience swings in cellular reduction potential as they switch between aerobic conditions in the light and dark anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that the uptake [NiFe]-hydrogenases alone are not representative of the catalytic diversity of [NiFe]-hydrogenases, and the bidirectional heteromultimeric enzymes may serve as valuable models to understand the diverse mechanisms of tuning the reactivity of the hydrogen activating site. PMID:21675712

McIntosh, Chelsea L; Germer, Frauke; Schulz, Rüdiger; Appel, Jens; Jones, Anne K

2011-07-27

304

Regulation of the carbon-concentrating mechanism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 in response to changing light intensity and inorganic carbon availability.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic organisms possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the various inputs of photosynthesis in a manner that minimizes over-excitation of the light-driven electron transfer apparatus, while maximizing the reductive assimilation of inorganic nutrients, most importantly inorganic carbon (Ci). Accordingly, the regulatory interactions coordinating responses to fluctuating light and responses to Ci availability are of fundamental significance. The inducible high affinity carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 has been studied in order to understand how it is integrated with the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. To probe genetic regulatory mechanisms, genomic DNA microarrays were used to survey for differences in the expression of genes in response to a shift to high light conditions under conditions of either high or low Ci availability. Discrepancies in published experiments exist regarding the extent to which genes for the CCM are upregulated in response to high light treatment. These discrepancies may be due to critical differences in Ci availability existing during the different high light experiments. The present microarray experiments reexamine this by comparing high light treatment under two different Ci regimes: bubbling with air and bubbling with air enriched with CO2. While some transcriptional responses such as the downregulation of antenna proteins are quite similar, pronounced differences exist with respect to the differential expression of CCM and affiliated genes. The results are discussed in the context of a recent analysis revealing that small molecules that are intermediates of the light and dark reaction photosynthetic metabolism act as allosteric effectors of the DNA-binding proteins which modulate the expression of the CCM genes. PMID:23990371

Burnap, Robert L; Nambudiri, Rehka; Holland, Steven

2013-11-01

305

Directed mutagenesis of an iron-sulfur protein of the photosystem I complex in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.  

PubMed

In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms the PSI-C polypeptide, encoded by the psaC gene, provides the ligands for two [4Fe-4S] centers, FA and FB, the terminal electron acceptors in the photosystem I (PSI) complex. An insertion mutation introduced in the psaC locus of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 resulted in the creation of a mutant strain, T398-1, that lacks the PSI-C polypeptide. In medium supplemented with 5 mM fructose, the mutant cells grew well in the dark. However, when grown in the same medium under light, the doubling rate of T398-1 cells was significantly decreased. In intact cells of T398-1, bicarbonate-dependent whole-chain electron transport (PSII and PSI) could not be detected, although partial electron transport reactions involving either one of the two photosystems could be measured at significant rates. The low-temperature EPR signals attributed to the [4Fe-4S] centers FA and FB were absent in the mutant cells. Chemical titration measurements indicated that the ratios of chlorophyll to the primary donor P700 were virtually identical in membranes from the wild-type and mutant cells. Moreover, room-temperature optical spectroscopic analysis of the thylakoid membranes isolated from T398-1 showed flash-induced P700 oxidation followed by dark rereduction, indicating primary photochemistry in PSI. Thus stable assembly of the reaction center of PSI can occur in the absence of the Fe-S cluster cofactors FA and FB. These studies demonstrate that Anabaena 29413 offers a useful genetic system for targeted mutagenesis of the PSI complex. PMID:1658798

Mannan, R M; Whitmarsh, J; Nyman, P; Pakrasi, H B

1991-11-15

306

Molecular characterization of DnaK from the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica for ATPase, protein folding, and copper binding under various salinity conditions.  

PubMed

Previously, it was found that the dnaK1 gene of the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica encodes a polypeptide of 721 amino acids which has a long C-terminal region rich in acidic amino acid residues. To understand whether the A. halophytica DnaK1 possesses chaperone activity at high salinity and to clarify the role of the extra C-terminal amino acids, a comparative study examined three kinds of DnaK molecules for ATPase activity as well as the refolding activity of other urea-denatured proteins under various salinity conditions. DnaK1s from A. halophytica and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 and the C-terminal deleted A. halophytica DnaK1 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The ATPase activity of A. halophytica DnaK1 was very high even at high salinity ( 1.0 M NaCl or KCl), whereas this activity in Synechococcus PCC 7942 DnaK1 decreased with increasing concentrations of NaCl or KCl. The salt dependence on the refolding activity of urea-denatured lactate dehydrogenase by DnaK1s was similar to that of ATPase activity of the respective DnaK1s. The deletion of the C-terminal amino acids of A. halophytica DnaK had no effect on the ATPase activity, but caused a significant decrease in the refolding activity of other denatured proteins. These facts indicate that the extra C-terminal region of A. halophytica DnaK1 plays an important role in the refolding of other urea-denatured proteins at high salinity. Furthermore, it was shown that DnaK1 could assist the copper binding of precursor apo-plastocyanin as well as that of mature apo-plastocyanin during the folding of these copper proteins. PMID:10437825

Hibino, T; Kaku, N; Yoshikawa, H; Takabe, T; Takabe, T

1999-06-01

307

The bacterial-type [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin 7 has a regulatory function under photooxidative stress conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Ferredoxins function as electron carrier in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory reactions. It is not clear yet, whether the multiplicity of ferredoxin proteins is also reflected in functional multiplicity in photosynthetic organisms. We addressed the biological function of the bacterial-type ferredoxin, Fed7 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The expression of fed7 is induced under low CO? conditions and further enhanced by additional high light treatment. These conditions are considered as promoting photooxidative stress, and prompted us to investigate the biological function of Fed7 under these conditions. Loss of Fed7 did not inhibit growth of the mutant strain ?fed7 but significantly modulated photosynthesis parameters when the mutant was grown under low CO? and high light conditions. Characteristics of the ?fed7 mutant included elevated chlorophyll and photosystem I levels as well as reduced abundance and activity of photosystem II. Transcriptional profiling of the mutant under low CO? conditions demonstrated changes in gene regulation of the carbon concentrating mechanism and photoprotective mechanisms such as the Flv2/4 electron valve, the PSII dimer stabilizing protein Sll0218, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. We conclude that the function of Fed7 is connected to coping with photooxidative stress, possibly by constituting a redox-responsive regulatory element in photoprotection. In photosynthetic eukaryotes domains homologous to Fed7 are exclusively found in chloroplast DnaJ-like proteins that are likely involved in remodeling of regulator protein complexes. It is conceivable that the regulatory function of Fed7 evolved in cyanobacteria and was recruited by Viridiplantae as the controller for the chloroplast DnaJ-like proteins. PMID:24780314

Mustila, H; Allahverdiyeva, Y; Isojärvi, J; Aro, E M; Eisenhut, M

2014-08-01

308

Glutamate production from CO{sub 2} by marine cyanobacterium synechococcus sp. using a novel biosolar reactor employing light-diffusing optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

A photobioreactor was constructed in the form of a Perspex column 900 mm tall with an internal diameter of 70 mm. The reactor volume was 1.8 L and the light source consisted of a metal-halide lamp to reproduce sunlight. Light was distributed through the culture using a new type of optical fiber that diffuses light out through its surface, perpendicular to the fiber axis. A cluster of 661 light-diffusing optical fibers (LDOFs) pass from the light source through the reactor column (60-cm culture depth) and are connected to a mirror at the top of the reactor. This biosolar reactor has been used for the production of glutamate from CO{sub 2} by the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG040607. We present here details of the construction of the biosolar reactor and characterization of its properties. The effect of light intensity on glutamate production was measured. Carbon dioxide-to-glutarnate conversion ratios were determined at different cell densities: the maximum conversion ratio (28%) was achieved at a cell density of 3{times}10{sup 8} cells/mL. A comparison of glutamate production using the LDOF biosolar reactor described here with production by batch culture using free or immobilized cells showed that use of an optical-fiber biosolar reactor increased glutamate-production efficiency 6.75-fold. We conclude that as a result of its high surface-to-volume ratio (692/m) increased photoproduction of useful compounds may be achieved. Such a system is generally applicable to all aspects of photobiotechnology.

Matsunaga, Tadashi; Takeyama, Haruko; Sudo, Hiroaki [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan)] [and others

1991-12-31

309

Effect of Metal Cations on the Viscosity of a Pectin-Like Capsular Polysaccharide from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40  

PubMed Central

The properties of purified capsular polysaccharide from the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40 were examined by capillary viscometry. Capsule suspensions exhibited similar viscosities between pH 6 and 10 but were more viscous at pH <=4 than at pH 6 to 11. At pH 7, a biphasic effect of metal ion concentration on capsule viscosity was observed: (i) capsule viscosity increased with increasing metal ion concentration until a maximal viscosity occurred at a specific concentration that was a reproducible characteristic of each metal ion, and (ii) the viscosity decreased with further addition of that ion. Because the latter part of the biphasic curve was complicated by additional factors (especially the precipitation or gelation of capsule by divalent metal ions), the effects of various metal chlorides were compared for the former phase in which capsule viscosity increased in the presence of metal ions. Equivalent increases in capsule viscosity were observed with micromolar concentrations of divalent metal ions but only with 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of Na(sup+). The relative abilities of various metal salts to increase capsule viscosity were as follows: CdCl(inf2), Pb(NO(inf3))(inf2), FeCl(inf2) > MnCl(inf2) > CuCl(inf2), CaCl(inf2) >> NaCl. This pattern of metal efficacy resembles known cation influences on the structural integrity of capsule in naturally occurring and cultured M. flos-aquae colonies. The data are the first direct demonstration of an interaction between metal ions and purified M. flos-aquae capsule, which has previously been proposed to play a role in the environmental cycling of certain multivalent metals, especially manganese. The M. flos-aquae capsule and the plant polysaccharide pectin have similar sugar compositions but differ in their relative responses to various metals, suggesting that capsular polysaccharide could be a preferable alternative to pectin for certain biotechnological applications. PMID:16535287

Parker, D. L.; Schram, B. R.; Plude, J. L.; Moore, R. E.

1996-01-01

310

Two essential FtsH proteases control the level of the Fur repressor during iron deficiency in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 expresses four different FtsH protease subunits (FtsH1-4) that assemble into specific homo- and heterocomplexes. The FtsH2/FtsH3 complex is involved in photoprotection but the physiological roles of the other complexes, notably the essential FtsH1/FtsH3 complex, remain unclear. Here we show that the FtsH1 and FtsH3 proteases are involved in the acclimation of cells to iron deficiency. A mutant conditionally depleted in FtsH3 was unable to induce normal expression of the IsiA chlorophyll-protein and FutA1 iron transporter upon iron deficiency due to a block in transcription, which is regulated by the Fur transcriptional repressor. Levels of Fur declined in the WT and the FtsH2 null mutant upon iron depletion but not in the FtsH3 downregulated strain. A similar stabilizing effect on Fur was also observed in a mutant conditionally depleted in the FtsH1 subunit. Moreover, a mutant overexpressing FtsH1 showed reduced levels of Fur and enhanced accumulation of both IsiA and FutA1 even under iron sufficiency. Analysis of GFP-tagged derivatives and biochemical fractionation supported a common location for FtsH1 and FtsH3 in the cytoplasmic membrane. Overall we propose that degradation of the Fur repressor mediated by the FtsH1/FtsH3 heterocomplex is critical for acclimation to iron depletion. PMID:25238320

Krynická, Vendula; Tichý, Martin; Krafl, Jaroslav; Yu, Jianfeng; Ka?a, Radek; Boehm, Marko; Nixon, Peter J; Komenda, Josef

2014-11-01

311

Transcription Profiling of the Model Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 by Next-Gen (SOLiD™) Sequencing of cDNA  

PubMed Central

The genome of the unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 encodes about 3200 proteins. Transcripts were detected for nearly all annotated open reading frames by a global transcriptomic analysis by Next-Generation (SOLiD™) sequencing of cDNA. In the cDNA samples sequenced, ?90% of the mapped sequences were derived from the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs and ?10% of the sequences were derived from mRNAs. In cells grown photoautotrophically under standard conditions [38°C, 1% (v/v) CO2 in air, 250??mol photons m?2?s?1], the highest transcript levels (up to 2% of the total mRNA for the most abundantly transcribed genes; e.g., cpcAB, psbA, psaA) were generally derived from genes encoding structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. High-light exposure for 1?h caused changes in transcript levels for genes encoding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus, Type-1 NADH dehydrogenase complex and ATP synthase, whereas dark incubation for 1?h resulted in a global decrease in transcript levels for photosynthesis-related genes and an increase in transcript levels for genes involved in carbohydrate degradation. Transcript levels for pyruvate kinase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decreased sharply in cells incubated in the dark. Under dark anoxic (fermentative) conditions, transcript changes indicated a global decrease in transcripts for respiratory proteins and suggested that cells employ an alternative phosphoenolpyruvate degradation pathway via phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (ppsA) and the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (nifJ). Finally, the data suggested that an apparent operon involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and fatty acid desaturation, acsF2–ho2–hemN2–desF, may be regulated by oxygen concentration. PMID:21779275

Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

2011-01-01

312

Genetic Analysis of the Hox Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Reveals Subunit Roles in Association, Assembly, Maturation, and Function*  

PubMed Central

Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that catalyze 2H+ + 2e? ? H2. A multisubunit, bidirectional [NiFe]-hydrogenase has been identified and characterized in a number of bacteria, including cyanobacteria, where it is hypothesized to function as an electron valve, balancing reductant in the cell. In cyanobacteria, this Hox hydrogenase consists of five proteins in two functional moieties: a hydrogenase moiety (HoxYH) with homology to heterodimeric [NiFe]-hydrogenases and a diaphorase moiety (HoxEFU) with homology to NuoEFG of respiratory Complex I, linking NAD(P)H ? NAD(P)+ as a source/sink for electrons. Here, we present an extensive study of Hox hydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We identify the presence of HoxEFUYH, HoxFUYH, HoxEFU, HoxFU, and HoxYH subcomplexes as well as association of the immature, unprocessed large subunit (HoxH) with other Hox subunits and unidentified factors, providing a basis for understanding Hox maturation and assembly. The analysis of mutants containing individual and combined hox gene deletions in a common parental strain reveals apparent alterations in subunit abundance and highlights an essential role for HoxF and HoxU in complex/subcomplex association. In addition, analysis of individual and combined hox mutant phenotypes in a single strain background provides a clear view of the function of each subunit in hydrogenase activity and presents evidence that its physiological function is more complicated than previously reported, with no outward defects apparent in growth or photosynthesis under various growth conditions. PMID:23139416

Eckert, Carrie; Boehm, Marko; Carrieri, Damian; Yu, Jianping; Dubini, Alexandra; Nixon, Peter J.; Maness, Pin-Ching

2012-01-01

313

Desensitization Mechanism in Prokaryotic Ligand-gated Ion Channel  

PubMed Central

Crystal structures of Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), a proton-gated prokaryotic homologue of pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (LGIC) from G. violaceus, have provided high-resolution models of the channel architecture and its role in selective ion conduction and drug binding. However, it is still unclear which functional states of the LGIC gating scheme these crystal structures represent. Much of this uncertainty arises from a lack of thorough understanding of the functional properties of these prokaryotic channels. To elucidate the molecular events that constitute gating, we have carried out an extensive characterization of GLIC function and dynamics in reconstituted proteoliposomes by patch clamp measurements and EPR spectroscopy. We find that GLIC channels show rapid activation upon jumps to acidic pH followed by a time-dependent loss of conductance because of desensitization. GLIC desensitization is strongly coupled to activation and is modulated by voltage, permeant ions, pore-blocking drugs, and membrane cholesterol. Many of these properties are parallel to functions observed in members of eukaryotic LGIC. Conformational changes in loop C, measured by site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy, reveal immobilization during desensitization analogous to changes in LGIC and acetylcholine binding protein. Together, our studies suggest conservation of mechanistic aspects of desensitization among LGICs of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin. PMID:22474322

Velisetty, Phanindra; Chakrapani, Sudha

2012-01-01

314

Identification of Cyanophage Ma-LBP and Infection of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa from an Australian Subtropical Lake by the Virus  

PubMed Central

Viruses can control the structure of bacterial communities in aquatic environments. The aim of this project was to determine if cyanophages (viruses specific to cyanobacteria) could exert a controlling influence on the abundance of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (host). M. aeruginosa was isolated, cultured, and characterized from a subtropical monomictic lake—Lake Baroon, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. The viral communities in the lake were separated from cyanobacterial grazers by filtration and chloroform washing. The natural lake viral cocktail was incubated with the M. aeruginosa host growing under optimal light and nutrient conditions. The specific growth rate of the host was 0.023 h?1; generation time, 30.2 h. Within 6 days, the host abundance decreased by 95%. The density of the cyanophage was positively correlated with the rate of M. aeruginosa cell lysis (r2 = 0.95). The cyanophage replication time was 11.2 h, with an average burst size of 28 viral particles per host cell. However, in 3 weeks, the cultured host community recovered, possibly because the host developed resistance (immunity) to the cyanophage. The multiplicity of infection was determined to be 2,890 virus-like particles/cultured host cell, using an undiluted lake viral population. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two types of virus were likely controlling the host cyanobacterial abundance. Both viruses displayed T7-like morphology and belonged to the Podoviridiae group (short tails) of viruses that we called cyanophage Ma-LBP. In Lake Baroon, the number of the cyanophage Ma-LBP was 5.6 × 104 cyanophage?·?ml?1, representing 0.23% of the natural viral population of 2.46 × 107?·?ml?1. Our results showed that this cyanophage could be a major natural control mechanism of M. aeruginosa abundance in aquatic ecosystems like Lake Baroon. Future studies of potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms need to consider factors that influence cyanophage attachment, infectivity, and lysis of their host alongside the physical and chemical parameters that drive cyanobacterial growth and production. PMID:15691911

Tucker, Stephen; Pollard, Peter

2005-01-01

315

Differences in the Interactions between the Subunits of Photosystem II Dependent on D1 Protein Variants in the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus*  

PubMed Central

The main cofactors involved in the oxygen evolution activity of Photosystem II (PSII) are located in two proteins, D1 (PsbA) and D2 (PsbD). In Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, the D1 protein is encoded by either the psbA1 or the psbA3 gene, the expression of which is dependent on environmental conditions. It has been shown that the energetic properties of the PsbA1-PSII and those of the PsbA3-PSII differ significantly (Sugiura, M., Kato, Y., Takahashi, R., Suzuki, H., Watanabe, T., Noguchi, T., Rappaport, F., and Boussac, A. (2010) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1797, 1491–1499). In this work the structural stability of PSII upon a PsbA1/PsbA3 exchange was investigated. Two deletion mutants lacking another PSII subunit, PsbJ, were constructed in strains expressing either PsbA1 or PsbA3. The PsbJ subunit is a 4-kDa transmembrane polypeptide that is surrounded by D1 (i.e. PsbA1), PsbK, and cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559) in existing three-dimensional models. It is shown that the structural properties of the PsbA3/?PsbJ-PSII are not significantly affected. The polypeptide contents, the Cyt b559 properties, and the proportion of PSII dimer were similar to those found for PsbA3-PSII. In contrast, in PsbA1/?PsbJ-PSII the stability of the dimer is greatly diminished, the EPR properties of the Cyt b559 likely indicates a decrease in its redox potential, and many other PSII subunits are lacking. These results shows that the 21-amino acid substitutions between PsbA1 and PsbA3, which appear to be mainly conservative, must include side chains that are involved in a network of interactions between PsbA and the other PSII subunits. PMID:20630865

Sugiura, Miwa; Iwai, Eri; Hayashi, Hidenori; Boussac, Alain

2010-01-01

316

Stability of toxin gene proportion in red-pigmented populations of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix during 29 years of re-oligotrophication of Lake Z?rich  

PubMed Central

Background Harmful algal blooms deteriorate the services of aquatic ecosystems. They are often formed by cyanobacteria composed of genotypes able to produce a certain toxin, for example, the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC), but also of nontoxic genotypes that either carry mutations in the genes encoding toxin synthesis or that lost those genes during evolution. In general, cyanobacterial blooms are favored by eutrophication. Very little is known about the stability of the toxic/nontoxic genotype composition during trophic change. Results Archived samples of preserved phytoplankton on filters from aquatic ecosystems that underwent changes in the trophic state provide a so far unrealized possibility to analyze the response of toxic/nontoxic genotype composition to the environment. During a period of 29 years of re-oligotrophication of the deep, physically stratified Lake Zürich (1980 to 2008), the population of the stratifying cyanobacterium Planktothrix was at a minimum during the most eutrophic years (1980 to 1984), but increased and dominated the phytoplankton during the past two decades. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that during the whole observation period the proportion of the toxic genotype was strikingly stable, that is, close to 100%. Inactive MC genotypes carrying mutations within the MC synthesis genes never became abundant. Unexpectedly, a nontoxic genotype, which lost its MC genes during evolution, and which could be shown to be dominant under eutrophic conditions in shallow polymictic lakes, also co-occurred in Lake Zürich but was never abundant. As it is most likely that this nontoxic genotype contains relatively weak gas vesicles unable to withstand the high water pressure in deep lakes, it is concluded that regular deep mixing selectively reduced its abundance through the destruction of gas vesicles. Conclusions The stability in toxic genotype dominance gives evidence for the adaptation to deep mixing of a genotype that retained the MC gene cluster during evolution. Such a long-term dominance of a toxic genotype draws attention to the need to integrate phylogenetics into ecological research as well as ecosystem management. PMID:23216925

2012-01-01

317

Transcript Profiling Reveals New Insights into the Acclimation of the Mesophilic Fresh-Water Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to Iron Starvation1[W  

PubMed Central

The regulatory network for acclimation of the obligate photoautotrophic fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to iron (Fe) limitation was studied by transcript profiling with an oligonucleotide whole genome DNA microarray. Six regions on the chromosome with several Fe-regulated genes each were identified. The irpAB and fut region encode putative Fe uptake systems, the suf region participates in [Fe-sulfur] cluster assembly under oxidative stress and Fe limitation, the isiAB region encodes CP43? and flavodoxin, the idiCB region encodes the NuoE-like electron transport associated protein IdiC and the transcriptional activator IdiB, and the ackA/pgam region encodes an acetate kinase and a phosphoglycerate mutase. We also investigated the response of two S. elongatus PCC 7942 mutants to Fe starvation. These were mutant K10, lacking IdiB but containing IdiC, and mutant MuD, representing a idiC-merodiploid mutant with a strongly reduced amount of IdiC as well as IdiB. The absence of IdiB in mutant K10 or the strongly reduced amount of IdiB in mutant MuD allowed for the identification of additional members of the Fe-responsive IdiB regulon. Besides idiA and the irpAB operon somB(1), somA(2), ftr1, ackA, pgam, and nat also seem to be regulated by IdiB. In addition to the reduced amount of IdiB in MuD, the low concentration of IdiC may be responsible for a number of additional changes in the abundance of mainly photosynthesis-related transcripts as compared to the wild type and mutant K10. This fact may explain why it has been impossible to obtain a fully segregated IdiC-free mutant, whereas it was possible to obtain a fully segregated IdiB-free mutant. PMID:18424627

Nodop, Anke; Pietsch, Daniel; Hocker, Ralf; Becker, Anke; Pistorius, Elfriede K.; Forchhammer, Karl; Michel, Klaus-Peter

2008-01-01

318

Cloning and correct expression in Escherichia coli of the petE and petJ genes respectively encoding plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7119.  

PubMed

The genes coding for plastocyanin (petE) and cytochrome c6 (petJ) from Anabaena sp. PCC 7119 have been cloned and properly expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins are identical to those purified from the cyanobacterial cells. The products of both the petE and petJ genes are correctly processed in E. coli, as deduced from their identical N-terminal amino acid sequences as compared with those of the metalloproteins isolated from the cyanobacterium. Physicochemical and functional properties of the native and recombinant protein preparations are also identical, thereby confirming that expression of petE and petJ genes in E. coli is an adequate tool to address the study of the structure/function relationships in plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 from Anabaena by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:9473522

Molina-Heredia, F P; Hervás, M; Navarro, J A; De la Rosa, M A

1998-02-01

319

Simultaneous production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in closed vessels by marine cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. TU37-1 under high-cell-density conditions  

SciTech Connect

A marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. TU37-1, exhibited stable production of hydrogen and oxygen in closed vessels. About 8.4 and 4.3 mL (at atmospheric pressure) of hydrogen and oxygen accumulated, respectively, in flasks with 20 mL gas phase during 48 h incubation. Thus, concentration of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} became 26 and 13% of the gas phase, respectively. Duration of hydrogen production was prolonged by the periodic gas replacement in the reaction vessel. The conversion efficiencies of photosynthetically active radiation (fluorescent light, 22 W/m{sup 2}) to hydrogen were 2.4 and 2.2% during the initial 12- and 24-h incubation periods respectively.

Kumazawa, Shuzo; Asakawa, Hidenori [Tokai Univ., Shizuoka (Japan)

1995-05-20

320

The BOSS and BIOMEX space experiments on the EXPOSE-R2 mission: Endurance of the desert cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis under simulated space vacuum, Martian atmosphere, UVC radiation and temperature extremes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed space experiments BOSS (Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space) and BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars experiment) will take place on the space exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS), which is set to be launched in 2014. In BOSS the hypothesis to be tested is that microorganisms grown as biofilms, hence embedded in self-produced extracellular polymeric substances, are more tolerant to space and Martian conditions compared to their planktonic counterparts. Various microbial biofilms have been developed including those obtained from the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis isolated from hot and cold deserts. The prime objective of BIOMEX is to evaluate to what extent biomolecules are resistant to, and can maintain their stability under, space and Mars-like conditions; therefore a variety of pigments and cell components are under investigation to establish a biosignature data base; e.g. a Raman spectral library to be used for extraterrestrial life biosignatures. The secondary objective of BIOMEX is to investigate the endurance of extremophiles, focusing on their interactions with Lunar and Martian mineral analogues. Ground-based studies are currently being carried out in the framework of EVTs (Experiment Verification Tests) by exposing selected organisms to space and Martian simulations. Results on a desert strain of Chroococcidiopsis obtained from the first set of EVT, e.g. space vacuum, Mars atmosphere, UVC radiation, temperature cycles and extremes, suggested that dried biofilms exhibited an enhanced survival compared to planktonic lifestyle. Moreover the protection provided by a Martian mineral analogue (S-MRS) to the sub-cellular integrities of Chroococcidiopsis against UVC radiation supports the endurance of this cyanobacterium under extraterrestrial conditions and its relevance in the development of life detection strategies.

Baqué, Mickael; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Rettberg, Petra; Billi, Daniela

2013-10-01

321

2-epi-5-epi-Valiolone synthase activity is essential for maintaining phycobilisome composition in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 when grown in the presence of a carbon source.  

PubMed

The cyclase 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone synthase (EVS) is reported to be a key enzyme for biosynthesis of the mycosporine-like amino acid shinorine in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. Subsequently, we demonstrated that an in-frame complete deletion of the EVS gene had little effect on in vivo production of shinorine. Complete segregation of the EVS gene deletion mutant proved difficult and was achieved only when the mutant was grown in the dark and in a medium supplemented with fructose. The segregated mutant showed a striking colour change from native blue-green to pale yellow-green, corresponding to substantial loss of the photosynthetic pigment phycocyanin, as evinced by combinations of absorbance and emission spectra. Transcriptional analysis of the mutant grown in the presence of fructose under dark or light conditions revealed downregulation of the cpcA gene that encodes the alpha subunit of phycocyanin, whereas the gene encoding nblA, a protease chaperone essential for phycobilisome degradation, was not expressed. We propose that the substrate of EVS (sedoheptulose 7-phosphate) or possibly lack of its EVS-downstream products, represses transcription of cpcA to exert a hitherto unknown control over photosynthesis in this cyanobacterium. The significance of this finding is enhanced by phylogenetic analyses revealing horizontal gene transfer of the EVS gene of cyanobacteria to fungi and dinoflagellates. It is also conceivable that the EVS gene has been transferred from dinoflagellates, as evident in the host genome of symbiotic corals. A role of EVS in regulating sedoheptulose 7-phosphate concentrations in the photophysiology of coral symbiosis is yet to be determined. PMID:23857509

Spence, Edward; Bryan, Samantha J; Lisfi, Mohamed; Cullum, John; Dunlap, Walter C; Shick, J Malcolm; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Long, Paul F

2013-09-01

322

Dynamic mate-searching tactic allows female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus to reduce searching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females can maximize the bene˘ts of mate choice by ˘nding high-quality mates while using search tactics that limit the costs of searching for mates. Mate-searching models indicate that speci˘c search tactics would best optimize this trade-oˇ under diˇerent conditions. These models do not, however, consider that females may use information from previous years to improve mate searching and reduce search

J. A. C. Uy; G. L. Patricelli; G. Borgia

2000-01-01

323

Concerted Changes in Gene Expression and Cell Physiology of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 during Transitions between Nitrogen and Light-Limited Growth1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Physiological adaptation and genome-wide expression profiles of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in response to gradual transitions between nitrogen-limited and light-limited growth conditions were measured in continuous cultures. Transitions induced changes in pigment composition, light absorption coefficient, photosynthetic electron transport, and specific growth rate. Physiological changes were accompanied by reproducible changes in the expression of several hundred open reading frames, genes with functions in photosynthesis and respiration, carbon and nitrogen assimilation, protein synthesis, phosphorus metabolism, and overall regulation of cell function and proliferation. Cluster analysis of the nearly 1,600 regulated open reading frames identified eight clusters, each showing a different temporal response during the transitions. Two large clusters mirrored each other. One cluster included genes involved in photosynthesis, which were up-regulated during light-limited growth but down-regulated during nitrogen-limited growth. Conversely, genes in the other cluster were down-regulated during light-limited growth but up-regulated during nitrogen-limited growth; this cluster included several genes involved in nitrogen uptake and assimilation. These results demonstrate complementary regulation of gene expression for two major metabolic activities of cyanobacteria. Comparison with batch-culture experiments revealed interesting differences in gene expression between batch and continuous culture and illustrates that continuous-culture experiments can pick up subtle changes in cell physiology and gene expression. PMID:21205618

Aguirre von Wobeser, Eneas; Ibelings, Bas W.; Bok, Jasper; Krasikov, Vladimir; Huisman, Jef; Matthijs, Hans C.P.

2011-01-01

324

Identification of Low-temperature-regulated ORFs in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120: distinguishing the effects of low temperature from the effects of photosystem II excitation pressure.  

PubMed

Most organisms have developed various strategies to react rapidly to temperature down-shift and regulate expression of various genes to acclimate to low temperature. In photosynthetic organisms, temperature down-shift in the light results in not only a decrease in growth temperature but also an increase in PSII excitation pressure. Distinguishing the effects of low temperature from the effects of excitation pressure is necessary to understand the mechanism of low-temperature signal transduction. In this report, we analyzed changes in gene expression after three different environmental changes, i.e. temperature down-shift in the light, temperature down-shift in the dark and transfer to the dark, using DNA microarray in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. By comparing the expression patterns under the three experimental conditions, we identified 15 open reading frames (ORFs) that were up-regulated by temperature down-shift both in the light and in the dark. These ORFs are considered to be regulated by low temperature, but not by excitation pressure. Six of them have a consensus sequence within the upstream region of their coding region and were indicated also to be up-regulated by tetracycline. Functional or structural changes in the ribosome could affect transcript levels of the low-temperature-regulated ORFs. PMID:15919672

Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki; Sato, Naoki

2005-08-01

325

NrrA directly regulates expression of the fraF gene and antisense RNAs for fraE in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

The heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 grows as linear multicellular filaments that can contain hundreds of cells. Heterocysts, which are specialized cells for nitrogen fixation, are regularly intercalated among photosynthetic vegetative cells, and these cells are metabolically dependent on each other. Thus, multicellularity is essential for diazotrophic growth of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the fraF gene, which is required to limit filament length, is induced by nitrogen deprivation. The fraF transcripts extend to the fraE gene, which lies on the opposite DNA strand and could possess dual functionality, mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE. In the present study, we found that NrrA, a nitrogen-regulated response regulator, directly regulated expression of fraF. Induction of fraF by nitrogen deprivation was abolished by the nrrA disruption. NrrA specifically bound to the promoter region of fraF, and recognized an inverted repeat sequence. Thus, it is concluded that NrrA controls expression of mRNAs for fraF and antisense RNAs for fraE in response to nitrogen deprivation. PMID:24554757

Ehira, Shigeki; Ohmori, Masayuki

2014-05-01

326

The Outer Membrane TolC-like Channel HgdD Is Part of Tripartite Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) Efflux Systems Conferring Multiple-drug Resistance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120*  

PubMed Central

The TolC-like protein HgdD of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is part of multiple three-component “AB-D” systems spanning the inner and outer membranes and is involved in secretion of various compounds, including lipids, metabolites, antibiotics, and proteins. Several components of HgdD-dependent tripartite transport systems have been identified, but the diversity of inner membrane energizing systems is still unknown. Here we identified six putative resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) type factors. Four of them are expressed during late exponential and stationary growth phase under normal growth conditions, whereas the other two are induced upon incubation with erythromycin or ethidium bromide. The constitutively expressed RND component Alr4267 has an atypical predicted topology, and a mutant strain (I-alr4267) shows a reduction in the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as well as an altered filament shape. An insertion mutant of the ethidium bromide-induced all7631 did not show any significant phenotypic alteration under the conditions tested. Mutants of the constitutively expressed all3143 and alr1656 exhibited a Fox? phenotype. The phenotype of the insertion mutant I-all3143 parallels that of the I-hgdD mutant with respect to antibiotic sensitivity, lipid profile, and ethidium efflux. In addition, expression of the RND genes all3143 and all3144 partially complements the capability of Escherichia coli ?acrAB to transport ethidium. We postulate that the RND transporter All3143 and the predicted membrane fusion protein All3144, as homologs of E. coli AcrB and AcrA, respectively, are major players for antibiotic resistance in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:24014018

Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Mirus, Oliver; Lytvynenko, Iryna; Pos, Klaas Martinus; Schleiff, Enrico

2013-01-01

327

Resistance to nitrophenolic herbicides and metronidazole in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a result of the inactivation of a nitroreductase-like protein encoded by drgA gene.  

PubMed

Dinoseb is a herbicide known to inhibit photosystem II electron transfer like DCMU, triazine and phenolic-type herbicides. The mutant Din7 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, selected for resistance to dinoseb, and the mutant Ins2, constructed by the insertion of the kanamycin resistance cassette into the drgA gene, were cross-resistant to other nitrophenolic herbicides (DNOC, 2,4-dinitrophenol) and to the cell inhibitor metronidazole but not to the photosystem II inhibitors DCMU or ioxynil. The Din7 mutant had the same characteristics of photosystem II inhibition by dinoseb as the wild type. This result suggested the existence of another site for dinoseb inhibition. The wild type cells modified dinoseb to a non-toxic product that gave an absorption spectrum similar to that of dithionite treated dinoseb containing reduced nitro groups. In contrast, the Din7 mutant did not modify dinoseb. These phenomena were controlled by the drgA gene encoding a protein which showed similarity to several enzymes having nitroreductase activity. The addition of superoxide dismutase to the medium relieved the toxic effect of dinoseb in wild type cells but not in Din7. It is proposed that in wild type cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 the DrgA protein is involved in detoxification of dinoseb via the reduction of the nitro group(s) and this process is accompanied by the formation of toxic superoxide anions. Mutations blocking the activity of the DrgA protein lead to the development of resistance to nitrophenolic herbicides and metronidazole. PMID:9654132

Elanskaya, I V; Chesnavichene, E A; Vernotte, C; Astier, C

1998-05-29

328

The outer membrane TolC-like channel HgdD is part of tripartite resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux systems conferring multiple-drug resistance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120.  

PubMed

The TolC-like protein HgdD of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is part of multiple three-component "AB-D" systems spanning the inner and outer membranes and is involved in secretion of various compounds, including lipids, metabolites, antibiotics, and proteins. Several components of HgdD-dependent tripartite transport systems have been identified, but the diversity of inner membrane energizing systems is still unknown. Here we identified six putative resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) type factors. Four of them are expressed during late exponential and stationary growth phase under normal growth conditions, whereas the other two are induced upon incubation with erythromycin or ethidium bromide. The constitutively expressed RND component Alr4267 has an atypical predicted topology, and a mutant strain (I-alr4267) shows a reduction in the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as well as an altered filament shape. An insertion mutant of the ethidium bromide-induced all7631 did not show any significant phenotypic alteration under the conditions tested. Mutants of the constitutively expressed all3143 and alr1656 exhibited a Fox(-) phenotype. The phenotype of the insertion mutant I-all3143 parallels that of the I-hgdD mutant with respect to antibiotic sensitivity, lipid profile, and ethidium efflux. In addition, expression of the RND genes all3143 and all3144 partially complements the capability of Escherichia coli ?acrAB to transport ethidium. We postulate that the RND transporter All3143 and the predicted membrane fusion protein All3144, as homologs of E. coli AcrB and AcrA, respectively, are major players for antibiotic resistance in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:24014018

Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Mirus, Oliver; Lytvynenko, Iryna; Pos, Klaas Martinus; Schleiff, Enrico

2013-10-25

329

The Hypothetical Protein 'All4779', and Not the Annotated 'Alr0088' and 'Alr7579' Proteins, Is the Major Typical Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein of the Cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC7120  

PubMed Central

Single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins are essential for all DNA-dependent cellular processes. Typical SSB proteins have an N-terminal Oligonucleotide-Binding (OB) fold, a Proline/Glycine rich region, followed by a C-terminal acidic tail. In the genome of the heterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120, alr0088 and alr7579 are annotated as coding for SSB, but are truncated and have only the OB-fold. In silico analysis of whole genome of Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 revealed the presence of another ORF ‘all4779’, annotated as a hypothetical protein, but having an N-terminal OB-fold, a P/G-rich region and a C-terminal acidic tail. Biochemical characterisation of all three purified recombinant proteins revealed that they exist either as monomer or dimer and bind ssDNA, but differently. The All4779 bound ssDNA in two binding modes i.e. (All4779)35 and (All4779)66 depending on salt concentration and with a binding affinity similar to that of Escherichia coli SSB. On the other hand, Alr0088 bound in a single binding mode of 50-mer and Alr7579 only to large stretches of ssDNA, suggesting that All4779, in all likelihood, is the major typical bacterial SSB in Anabaena. Overexpression of All4779 in Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 led to enhancement of tolerance to DNA-damaging stresses, such as ?-rays, UV-irradiation, desiccation and mitomycinC exposure. The tolerance appears to be a consequence of reduced DNA damage or efficient DNA repair due to increased availability of All4779. The ORF all4779 is proposed to be re-annotated as Anabaena ssb gene. PMID:24705540

Kirti, Anurag; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar

2014-01-01

330

Monensin Inhibition of Na+-Dependent HCO3- Transport Distinguishes It from Na+-Independent HCO3- Transport and Provides Evidence for Na+/HCO3- Symport in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed Central

The effect of monensin, an ionophore that mediates Na+/H+ exchange, on the activity of the inorganic carbon transport systems of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 was investigated using transport assays based on the measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission or 14C uptake. In Synechococcus cells grown in standing culture at about 20 [mu]M CO2 + HCO3-, 50 [mu]M monensin transiently inhibited active CO2 and Na+-independent HCO3- transport, intracellular CO2 and HCO3- accumulation, and photosynthesis in the presence but not in the absence of 25 mM Na+. These activities returned to near-normal levels within 15 min. Transient inhibition was attributed to monensin-mediated intracellular alkalinization, whereas recovery may have been facilitated by cellular mechanisms involved in pH homeostasis or by monensin-mediated H+ uptake with concomitant K+ efflux. In air-grown cells grown at 200 [mu]M CO2 + HCO3- and standing culture cells, Na+-dependent HCO3- transport, intracellular HCO3- accumulation, and photosynthesis were also inhibited by monensin, but there was little recovery in activity over time. However, normal photosynthetic activity could be restored to air-grown cells by the addition of carbonic anhydrase, which increased the rate of CO2 supply to the cells. This observation indicated that of all the processes required to support photosynthesis only Na+-dependent HCO3- transport was significantly inhibited by monensin. Monensin-mediated dissipation of the Na+ chemical gradient between the medium and the cells largely accounted for the decline in the HCO3- accumulation ratio from 751 to 55. The two HCO3- transport systems were further distinguished in that Na+-dependent HCO3- transport was inhibited by Li+, whereas Na+-independent HCO3- transport was not. It is suggested that Na+-dependent HCO3- transport involves an Na+/HCO3- symport mechanism that is energized by the Na+ electrochemical potential. PMID:12232177

Espie, G. S.; Kandasamy, R. A.

1994-01-01

331

Monensin Inhibition of Na+-Dependent HCO3- Transport Distinguishes It from Na+-Independent HCO3- Transport and Provides Evidence for Na+/HCO3- Symport in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed

The effect of monensin, an ionophore that mediates Na+/H+ exchange, on the activity of the inorganic carbon transport systems of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 was investigated using transport assays based on the measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission or 14C uptake. In Synechococcus cells grown in standing culture at about 20 [mu]M CO2 + HCO3-, 50 [mu]M monensin transiently inhibited active CO2 and Na+-independent HCO3- transport, intracellular CO2 and HCO3- accumulation, and photosynthesis in the presence but not in the absence of 25 mM Na+. These activities returned to near-normal levels within 15 min. Transient inhibition was attributed to monensin-mediated intracellular alkalinization, whereas recovery may have been facilitated by cellular mechanisms involved in pH homeostasis or by monensin-mediated H+ uptake with concomitant K+ efflux. In air-grown cells grown at 200 [mu]M CO2 + HCO3- and standing culture cells, Na+-dependent HCO3- transport, intracellular HCO3- accumulation, and photosynthesis were also inhibited by monensin, but there was little recovery in activity over time. However, normal photosynthetic activity could be restored to air-grown cells by the addition of carbonic anhydrase, which increased the rate of CO2 supply to the cells. This observation indicated that of all the processes required to support photosynthesis only Na+-dependent HCO3- transport was significantly inhibited by monensin. Monensin-mediated dissipation of the Na+ chemical gradient between the medium and the cells largely accounted for the decline in the HCO3- accumulation ratio from 751 to 55. The two HCO3- transport systems were further distinguished in that Na+-dependent HCO3- transport was inhibited by Li+, whereas Na+-independent HCO3- transport was not. It is suggested that Na+-dependent HCO3- transport involves an Na+/HCO3- symport mechanism that is energized by the Na+ electrochemical potential. PMID:12232177

Espie, G. S.; Kandasamy, R. A.

1994-04-01

332

Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i) an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii) an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii) an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s) of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24 cyanobacterial genomes revealed that five different L-arginine-degrading pathways are present in the investigated cyanobacterial species. In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 an L-arginine deiminase pathway and an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway represent the major pathways, while the L-arginine decarboxylase pathway most likely only functions in polyamine biosynthesis. The transcripts encoding the enzymes of the two major pathways were constitutively expressed with the exception of the transcript for the carbamate kinase, which was substantially up-regulated in cells grown with L-arginine. PMID:18045455

Schriek, Sarah; Ruckert, Christian; Staiger, Dorothee; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Michel, Klaus-Peter

2007-01-01

333

One-microsecond molecular dynamics simulation of channel gating in a nicotinic receptor homologue  

PubMed Central

Recently discovered bacterial homologues of eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, such as the Gloeobacter violaceus receptor (GLIC), are increasingly used as structural and functional models of signal transduction in the nervous system. Here we present a one-microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulation of the GLIC channel pH stimulated gating mechanism. The crystal structure of GLIC obtained at acidic pH in an open-channel form is equilibrated in a membrane environment and then instantly set to neutral pH. The simulation shows a channel closure that rapidly takes place at the level of the hydrophobic furrow and a progressively increasing quaternary twist. Two major events are captured during the simulation. They are initiated by local but large fluctuations in the pore, taking place at the top of the M2 helix, followed by a global tertiary relaxation. The two-step transition of the first subunit starts within the first 50 ns of the simulation and is followed at 450 ns by its immediate neighbor in the pentamer, which proceeds with a similar scenario. This observation suggests a possible two-step domino-like tertiary mechanism that takes place between adjacent subunits. In addition, the dynamical properties of GLIC described here offer an interpretation of the paradoxical properties of a permeable A13?F mutant whose crystal structure determined at 3.15 ? shows a pore too narrow to conduct ions. PMID:20308576

Nury, Hugues; Poitevin, Frédéric; Van Renterghem, Catherine; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Delarue, Marc; Baaden, Marc

2010-01-01

334

Poles Apart: Arctic and Antarctic Octadecabacter strains Share High Genome Plasticity and a New Type of Xanthorhodopsin  

PubMed Central

The genus Octadecabacter is a member of the ubiquitous marine Roseobacter clade. The two described species of this genus, Octadecabacter arcticus and Octadecabacter antarcticus, are psychrophilic and display a bipolar distribution. Here we provide the manually annotated and finished genome sequences of the type strains O. arcticus 238 and O. antarcticus 307, isolated from sea ice of the Arctic and Antarctic, respectively. Both genomes exhibit a high genome plasticity caused by an unusually high density and diversity of transposable elements. This could explain the discrepancy between the low genome synteny and high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between both strains. Numerous characteristic features were identified in the Octadecabacter genomes, which show indications of horizontal gene transfer and may represent specific adaptations to the habitats of the strains. These include a gene cluster encoding the synthesis and degradation of cyanophycin in O. arcticus 238, which is absent in O. antarcticus 307 and unique among the Roseobacter clade. Furthermore, genes representing a new subgroup of xanthorhodopsins as an adaptation to icy environments are present in both Octadecabacter strains. This new xanthorhodopsin subgroup differs from the previously characterized xanthorhodopsins of Salinibacter ruber and Gloeobacter violaceus in phylogeny, biogeography and the potential to bind 4-keto-carotenoids. Biochemical characterization of the Octadecabacter xanthorhodopsins revealed that they function as light-driven proton pumps. PMID:23671678

Vollmers, John; Voget, Sonja; Dietrich, Sascha; Gollnow, Kathleen; Smits, Maike; Meyer, Katja; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Daniel, Rolf

2013-01-01

335

Structural basis for potentiation by alcohols and anaesthetics in a ligand-gated ion channel  

PubMed Central

Ethanol alters nerve signalling by interacting with proteins in the central nervous system, particularly pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. A recent series of mutagenesis experiments on Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel, a prokaryotic member of this family, identified a single-site variant that is potentiated by pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Here we determine crystal structures of the ethanol-sensitized variant in the absence and presence of ethanol and related modulators, which bind in a transmembrane cavity between channel subunits and may stabilize the open form of the channel. Structural and mutagenesis studies defined overlapping mechanisms of potentiation by alcohols and anaesthetics via the inter-subunit cavity. Furthermore, homology modelling show this cavity to be conserved in human ethanol-sensitive glycine and GABA(A) receptors, and to involve residues previously shown to influence alcohol and anaesthetic action on these proteins. These results suggest a common structural basis for ethanol potentiation of an important class of targets for neurological actions of ethanol. PMID:23591864

Sauguet, Ludovic; Howard, Rebecca J.; Malherbe, Laurie; Lee, Ui S.; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Harris, R. Adron; Delarue, Marc

2014-01-01

336

Experimental determination of the vertical alignment between the second and third transmembrane segments of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

PubMed Central

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are members of the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Muscle nAChR are heteropentamers that assemble from two ?, and one each of ?, ?, and ? subunits. Each subunit is composed of three domains, extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular. The transmembrane domain consists of four ?-helical segments (M1–M4). Pioneering structural information was obtained using electronmicroscopy of Torpedo nAChR. The recently-solved X-ray structure of the first eukaryotic Cys-loop receptor, a truncated (intracellular domain missing) glutamate-gated chloride channel ? (GluCl?)showed the same overall architecture . However, a significant difference with regard to the vertical alignment between the channel-lining segment M2 and segment M3 was observed. Here we used functional studies utilizing disulfide trapping experiments in muscle nAChR to determine the spatial orientation between M2 and M3. Our results are in agreement with the vertical alignment as obtained when using the GluCl? structure as a template to homology model muscle nAChR, however, they cannot be reconciled with the current Torpedo nAChR model. The vertical M2–M3 alignments as observed in X-ray structures of prokaryotic Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) and GluCl? are in agreement. Our results further confirm that this alignment in Cys-loop receptors is conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:23565737

Mnatsakanyan, Nelli; Jansen, Michaela

2013-01-01

337

Male satin bowerbirds, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, adjust their display intensity in response to female startling: an experiment with robotic females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females of many species preferentially mate with males that produce courtship displays at a high intensity or rate; however, males do not always display at their maximum intensity during courtship. Evidence sug- gests that this behaviour may be adaptive in satin bowerbirds, because overly intense displays can disrupt courtship by startling females. Females signal the display intensity that they will

Gail L. Patricelli; Seth W. Coleman; Gerald Borgia

2006-01-01

338

Phosphorus physiology of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium  

E-print Network

Primary producers play a critical role in the oceanic food chain and the global cycling of carbon. The marine diazotroph Trichodesmium is a major contributor to both primary production and nitrogen fixation in the tropical ...

Orchard, Elizabeth Duncan

2010-01-01

339

Cytosolic Ni(II) Sensor in Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Efflux of surplus Ni(II) across the outer and inner membranes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 is mediated by the Nrs system under the control of a sensor of periplasmic Ni(II), NrsS. Here, we show that the product of ORF sll0176, which encodes a CsoR/RcnR-like protein now designated InrS (for internal nickel-responsive sensor), represses nrsD (NrsD is deduced to efflux Ni(II) across the inner membrane) from a cryptic promoter between the final two ORFs in the nrs operon. Transcripts initiated from the newly identified nrsD promoter accumulate in response to nickel or cobalt but not copper, and recombinant InrS forms specific, Ni(II)-inhibited complexes with the nrsD promoter region. Metal-dependent difference spectra of Ni(II)- and Cu(I)-InrS are similar to Cu(I)-sensing CsoR and dissimilar to Ni(II)/Co(II)-sensing RcnR, consistent with factors beyond the primary coordination sphere switching metal selectivity. Competition with chelators mag-fura-2, nitrilotriacetic acid, EDTA, and EGTA estimate KD Ni(II) for the tightest site of InrS as 2.05 (±1.5) × 10?14 m, and weaker KD Ni(II) for the cells' metal sensors of other types: Zn(II) co-repressor Zur, Co(II) activator CoaR, and Zn(II) derepressor ZiaR. Ni(II) transfer to InrS occurs upon addition to Ni(II) forms of each other sensor. InrS binds Ni(II) sufficiently tightly to derepress Ni(II) export at concentrations below KD Ni(II) of the other sensors. PMID:22356910

Foster, Andrew W.; Patterson, Carl J.; Pernil, Rafael; Hess, Corinna R.; Robinson, Nigel J.

2012-01-01

340

Structural Characteristics of the Cyanobacterium– Azolla Symbioses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure is a fundamental base for all life forms, whether plants or microbes. The development\\u000a of special structures results in unique functions. Though structures of the mutualistic Azolla–cyanobacterial\\u000a symbiosis are still largely un-explored, they have attracted attention of researchers in the past two decades.\\u000a The occurrence of the leaf cavity and trichomes within the water-fern Azolla\\u000a are hallmarks for the two

Weiwen Zheng; Liang Rang; Birgitta Bergman

341

Phylogeography of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have taken a phylogeographic approach to investigate the demographic and evolutionary processes that have shaped the geographic patterns of genetic diversity for a sample of isolates of the cosmopolitan thermo- philic cyanobacterial Mastigocladus laminosus morphotype collected from throughout most of its range. Al- though M. laminosus is found in thermal areas throughout the world, our observation that populations are

Scott R. Miller; Richard W. Castenholz; Deana Pedersen

2007-01-01

342

Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel  

SciTech Connect

The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a ~10 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion, which arises primarily from the unfavorable interactions with a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2 ) at the intracellular end and a ring of hydrophobic residues (I9 ) in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Our collective findings further suggest that the charge selection mechanism can, to a large extent, be attributed to the narrow intracellular end and a ring of glutamate residues in this position their strong negative electrostatics and ability to bind cations. By contrast, E19 at the extracellular entrance only plays a minor role in ion selectivity of GLIC. In addition to electrostatics, both ion hydration and protein dynamics are found to be crucial for ion conduction as well, which explains why a chloride ion experiences a much greater barrier than a sodium ion in the hydrophobic region of the pore.

Fritsch, Sebastian M [ORNL; Ivanov, Ivaylo N [ORNL; Wang, Hailong [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL

2011-01-01

343

Ion Selectivity Mechanism in a Bacterial Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel  

SciTech Connect

The proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) is a prokaryotic homolog of the eukaryotic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that responds to the binding of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and mediates fast signal transmission. Recent emergence of a high-resolution crystal structure of GLIC captured in a potentially open state allowed detailed, atomic-level insight into ion conduction and selectivity mechanisms in these channels. Herein, we have examined the barriers to ion conduction and origins of ion selectivity in the GLIC channel by the construction of potential-of-mean-force profiles for sodium and chloride ions inside the transmembrane region. Our calculations reveal that the GLIC channel is open for a sodium ion to transport, but presents a 11 kcal/mol free energy barrier for a chloride ion. Our collective findings identify three distinct contributions to the observed preference for the permeant ions. First, there is a substantial contribution due to a ring of negatively charged glutamate residues (E-2 ) at the narrow intracellular end of the channel. The negative electrostatics of this region and the ability of the glutamate side chains to directly bind cations would strongly favor the passage of sodium ions while hindering translocation of chloride ions. Second, our results imply a significant hydrophobic contribution to selectivity linked to differences in the desolvation penalty for the sodium versus chloride ions in the central hydrophobic region of the pore. This hydrophobic contribution is evidenced by the large free energy barriers experienced by Cl in the middle of the pore for both GLIC and the E-2 A mutant. Finally, there is a distinct contribution arising from the overall negative electrostatics of the channel.

Fritsch, Sebastian [University of Heidelberg; Ivanov, Ivaylo [Georgia State University, Atlanta; Wang, Hailong [Mayo Clinic College of Medicine; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL

2010-01-01

344

Signal Transduction Pathways in the Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of allosteric action within pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) remain to be determined. Using crystallography, site-directed mutagenesis, and two-electrode voltage clamp measurements, we identified two functionally relevant sites in the extracellular (EC) domain of the bacterial pLGIC from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC). One site is at the C-loop region, where the NQN mutation (D91N, E177Q, and D178N) eliminated inter-subunit salt bridges in the open-channel GLIC structure and thereby shifted the channel activation to a higher agonist concentration. The other site is below the C-loop, where binding of the anesthetic ketamine inhibited GLIC currents in a concentration dependent manner. To understand how a perturbation signal in the EC domain, either resulting from the NQN mutation or ketamine binding, is transduced to the channel gate, we have used the Perturbation-based Markovian Transmission (PMT) model to determine dynamic responses of the GLIC channel and signaling pathways upon initial perturbations in the EC domain of GLIC. Despite the existence of many possible routes for the initial perturbation signal to reach the channel gate, the PMT model in combination with Yen's algorithm revealed that perturbation signals with the highest probability flow travel either via the ?1–?2 loop or through pre-TM1. The ?1–?2 loop occurs in either intra- or inter-subunit pathways, while pre-TM1 occurs exclusively in inter-subunit pathways. Residues involved in both types of pathways are well supported by previous experimental data on nAChR. The direct coupling between pre-TM1 and TM2 of the adjacent subunit adds new insight into the allosteric signaling mechanism in pLGICs. PMID:23667707

Mowrey, David; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Yuhe; Liang, Jie; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

2013-01-01

345

A gating mechanism of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels  

PubMed Central

Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) play a central role in intercellular communication in the nervous system and are involved in fundamental processes such as attention, learning, and memory. They are oligomeric protein assemblies that convert a chemical signal into an ion flux through the postsynaptic membrane, but the molecular mechanism of gating ions has remained elusive. Here, we present atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the prokaryotic channels from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC), whose crystal structures are thought to represent the active and the resting states of pLGICs, respectively, and of the eukaryotic glutamate-gated chloride channel from Caenorhabditis elegans (GluCl), whose open-channel structure was determined complexed with the positive allosteric modulator ivermectin. Structural observables extracted from the trajectories of GLIC and ELIC are used as progress variables to analyze the time evolution of GluCl, which was simulated in the absence of ivermectin starting from the structure with bound ivermectin. The trajectory of GluCl with ivermectin removed shows a sequence of structural events that couple agonist unbinding from the extracellular domain to ion-pore closing in the transmembrane domain. Based on these results, we propose a structural mechanism for the allosteric communication leading to deactivation/activation of the GluCl channel. This model of gating emphasizes the coupling between the quaternary twisting and the opening/closing of the ion pore and is likely to apply to other members of the pLGIC family. PMID:24043807

Calimet, Nicolas; Simoes, Manuel; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Karplus, Martin; Taly, Antoine; Cecchini, Marco

2013-01-01

346

Gene copy number variation and its significance in cyanobacterial phylogeny  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, variation in gene copy numbers is often associated with deleterious effects, but may also have positive effects. For prokaryotes, studies on gene copy number variation are rare. Previous studies have suggested that high numbers of rRNA gene copies can be advantageous in environments with changing resource availability, but further association of gene copies and phenotypic traits are not documented. We used one of the morphologically most diverse prokaryotic phyla to test whether numbers of gene copies are associated with levels of cell differentiation. Results We implemented a search algorithm that identified 44 genes with highly conserved copies across 22 fully sequenced cyanobacterial taxa. For two very basal cyanobacterial species, Gloeobacter violaceus and a thermophilic Synechococcus species, distinct phylogenetic positions previously found were supported by identical protein coding gene copy numbers. Furthermore, we found that increased ribosomal gene copy numbers showed a strong correlation to cyanobacteria capable of terminal cell differentiation. Additionally, we detected extremely low variation of 16S rRNA sequence copies within the cyanobacteria. We compared our results for 16S rRNA to three other eubacterial phyla (Chroroflexi, Spirochaetes and Bacteroidetes). Based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and the comparisons of genetic distances, we could confirm that cyanobacterial 16S rRNA paralogs and orthologs show significantly stronger conservation than found in other eubacterial phyla. Conclusions A higher number of ribosomal operons could potentially provide an advantage to terminally differentiated cyanobacteria. Furthermore, we suggest that 16S rRNA gene copies in cyanobacteria are homogenized by both concerted evolution and purifying selection. In addition, the small ribosomal subunit in cyanobacteria appears to evolve at extraordinary slow evolutionary rates, an observation that has been made previously for morphological characteristics of cyanobacteria. PMID:22894826

2012-01-01

347

Response of the Unicellular Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii to Iron  

E-print Network

importance in the carbon and nitrogen cycles. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted culture experiments bioavailability can control the activity of UCYN and explain the biogeography of diverse N2 fixers in ocean.jacq@locean-ipsl.upmc.fr Introduction In oligotrophic oceanic regions, bioavailable nitrogen (N) concentrations are sufficiently low

Brest, Université de

348

TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of solar energy and its conversion into chemical energy in photosynthetic organisms involves a series of charge reactions across photosynthetic membranes. Oxygen is generated by a proton-electron coupling in photosystem II (PSII) during a water oxidation process where hydrogen is extracted from water terminally bound to a Mn4Ca1Clx inorganic cluster [1]. Manganese is, therefore, an essential catalytic element

Alice Dohnalkova; Christina L. Bilskis; David W. Kennedy

2006-01-01

349

Radiation characteristics and optical properties of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica  

E-print Network

change and rising sea levels [1]. Petroleum has been used to produce (i) gasoline for transportation, (ii convert solar energy, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen, carbohydrates, and lipids. Most- ities has resulted in an accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leading to global climate

Pilon, Laurent

350

Host/virus interactions in the marine cyanobacterium prochlorococcus  

E-print Network

Bacterial viruses shape the diversity, metabolic function, and community dynamics of their microbial hosts. As microbes drive many major biogeochemical cycles, viral infection is therefore a phenomenon of global significance. ...

Frois-Moniz, Katya

2014-01-01

351

Active transport and accumulation of bicarbonate by a unicellular cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

The rates of inorganic carbon accumulation and carbon fixation in light by the unicellular cyanobacterim Coccohloris peniocystis have been determined. Cells incubated in the light in medium containing H14CO3- were rapidly separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into a strongly basic terminating solution. Samples of these inactivated cells were assayed to determine total 14C accumulation, and acid-treated samples were assayed to determine 14C fixation. The rate of transport of inorganic into illuminated cells was faster than the rate of CO2 production in the medium from HCO3- dehydration. This evidence for HCO3- transport in these cells is in agreement with our previous results based upon measurements of photosynthetic O2 evolution. A substantial pool of inorganic carbon was bulit up within the cells presumably as HCO3- before the onset of the maximum rate of photosynthesis. Large accumulation ratios were observed, greater than 1,000 times the external HCO3- concentration. Accumulation did not occur in the dark and was greatly suppressed by the photosynthesis inhibitors 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea and 3-chloro-carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone. These results indicate that the accumulation of inorganic carbon in these cells involves a light-dependent active transport process. PMID:6773925

Miller, A G; Colman, B

1980-01-01

352

Hapalindoles from the cyanobacterium fischerella: potential sodium channel modulators.  

PubMed

Hapalindoles make up a large group of bioactive metabolites of the cyanobacterial order Stigonematales. 12-epi-Hapalindole E isonitrile, 12-epi-hapalindole C isonitrile, 12-epi-hapalindole J isonitrile, and hapalindole L from Fischerella are acutely toxic for insect larvae; however, the biochemical targets responsible for the biological activities of hapalindoles are not understood. We describe here the electron impact mass spectra of these four hapalindole congeners; their structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In combination with the presented mass spectra of (15)N-labeled species and their retention times on a gas chromatography capillary column, a rapid and reliable determination should be possible in future research. The bioactivity of these hapalindoles was tested on mammalian cells focusing on their effects in the BE(2)-M17 excitable human neuroblastoma cell line. The fluorescent dye Alamar Blue was applied to monitor cytotoxicity, fura-2 to evaluate changes in the cytosolic calcium concentrations, and bis-oxonol to detect effects on membrane potential. Data showed that the hapalindoles did not affect cell viability of the neuroblastoma cells, even when they were incubated for 72 h. Neither depolarization nor initiation of calcium influx was observed in the cells upon hapalindole treatment. However, the data provide evidence that hapalindoles are sodium channel-modulating neurotoxins. They inhibited veratridine-induced depolarization in a manner similar to that of neosaxitoxin. Our data suggest hapalindoles should be added to the growing number of neurotoxic secondary metabolites, such as saxitoxins and anatoxins, already known in freshwater cyanobacteria. As stable congeners, hapalindoles may be a risk in freshwater ecosystems or agricultural water usage and should therefore be considered in water quality assessment. PMID:25285689

Cagide, Eva; Becher, Paul G; Louzao, M Carmen; Espińa, Begońa; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Jüttner, Friedrich; Botana, Luis M

2014-10-20

353

Functional genomics of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942  

E-print Network

adopted to disrupt essentially every locus in the genome so as to identify all of the loci that are involved in clock function. The complete genome sequence has been determined by a combination of shotgun sequences and transposon-mediated sequences. The S...

Chen, You

2009-05-15

354

Adaptation of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to light intensity  

SciTech Connect

Light intensity adaptation (20 to 565 microeinsteins per square meter per second) of Microcystis aeruginosa (UV-027) was examined in turbidostat culture. Chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentrations decreased with increasing light intensity while carotenoid, cellular carbon, and nitrogen contents did not vary. Variation in the number but not the size of photosynthetic units per cell, based on chlorophyll a/P/sub 700/ ratios, occurred on light intensity adaptation. Changes in the numbers of photosynthetic units partially dampened the effects of changes in light intensity on growth rates.

Raps, S.; Wyman, K.; Siegelman, H.W.; Falkowski, P.G.

1983-01-01

355

Analysis of photoregulation in a cyanobacterium through reverse genetics  

E-print Network

to rescue a red-light indifferent mutant expressing only PE by screening for a phenotypic color change. The identified gene, called rcaC, encodes a protein with high similarity to PhoP ol' Bacillus sub(i lis (24, 25). These genes are also in two... to rescue a red-light indifferent mutant expressing only PE by screening for a phenotypic color change. The identified gene, called rcaC, encodes a protein with high similarity to PhoP ol' Bacillus sub(i lis (24, 25). These genes are also in two...

Cogdell, David Earl

2012-06-07

356

Plectolyngbya hodgsonii : a novel filamentous cyanobacterium from Antarctic lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special cluster of filamentous, false-branched cyanobacteria, isolated from littoral mat samples in coastal lakes of the\\u000a Larsemann Hills region (coll. by D. Hodgson) was studied by a polyphasic approach. This morphotype has several characters\\u000a corresponding to the traditional genera Leptolyngbya (morphology of trichomes), Pseudophormidium (type of false branching) or Schizothrix (occasional multiple arrangement of trichomes in the sheaths). However,

A. Taton; A. Wilmotte; J. Šmarda; J. Elster; J. Komárek

2011-01-01

357

Hormogonium Differentiation in the Cyanobacterium Calothrix: A Photoregulated Developmental Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormogonium differentiation is part of the developmental cycle in many heterocystous cyanobacteria. Hormogonia are involved in the dispersa1 and survival of the species in its natural habitat. The formation of these differentiated filaments has been shown to depend on severa1 environmental conditions, including spectral light quality. We report here morphological and ultrastructural changes associated with the formation of hormogonia, as

Thierry Damerval; Gérard Guglielmi; Jean Houmard; Nicole Tandeau de Marsac

1991-01-01

358

Transport of molybdate in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterocyst-forming filamentous cyanobacteria, such asAnahaena variabilis ATCC 29413, require molybdenum as a component of two essential cofactors for the enzymes nitrate reductase and nitrogenase.A. variabilis efficiently transported99Mo (molybdate) at concentrations less than 10?9 M. Competition experiments with other oxyanions suggested that the molybdate-transport system ofA. variabilis also transported tungstate but not vanadate or sulfate. Although tungstate was probably transported, tungsten

Teresa Thiel; Brenda Pratte; Marta Zahalak

2002-01-01

359

Dinitrogen fixation in a unicellular chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Acaryochloris are the only known organisms that use chlorophyll d as a photosynthetic pigment. However, based on chemical sediment analyses, chlorophyll d has been recognized to be widespread in oceanic and lacustrine environments. Therefore it is highly relevant to understand the genetic basis for different physiologies and possible niche adaptation in this genus. Here we show that unlike all other known isolates of Acaryochloris, the strain HICR111A, isolated from waters around Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, possesses a unique genomic region containing all the genes for the structural and enzymatically active proteins of nitrogen fixation and cofactor biosynthesis. Their phylogenetic analysis suggests a close relation to nitrogen fixation genes from certain other marine cyanobacteria. We show that nitrogen fixation in Acaryochloris sp. HICR111A is regulated in a light–dark-dependent fashion. We conclude that nitrogen fixation, one of the most complex physiological traits known in bacteria, might be transferred among oceanic microbes by horizontal gene transfer more often than anticipated so far. Our data show that the two powerful processes of oxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation co-occur in one and the same cell also in this branch of marine microbes and characterize Acaryochloris as a physiologically versatile inhabitant of an ecological niche, which is primarily driven by the absorption of far-red light. PMID:22237545

Pfreundt, Ulrike; Stal, Lucas J; Voss, Bjorn; Hess, Wolfgang R

2012-01-01

360

RNA processing of nitrogenase transcripts in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed

Little is known about the regulation of nitrogenase genes in cyanobacteria. Transcription of the nifH1 and vnfH genes, encoding dinitrogenase reductases for the heterocyst-specific Mo-nitrogenase and the alternative V-nitrogenase, respectively, was studied by using a lacZ reporter. Despite evidence for a transcription start site just upstream of nifH1 and vnfH, promoter fragments that included these start sites did not drive the transcription of lacZ and, for nifH1, did not drive the expression of nifHDK1. Further analysis using larger regions upstream of nifH1 indicated that a promoter within nifU1 and a promoter upstream of nifB1 both contributed to expression of nifHDK1, with the nifB1 promoter contributing to most of the expression. Similarly, while the region upstream of vnfH, containing the putative transcription start site, did not drive expression of lacZ, the region that included the promoter for the upstream gene, ava4055, did. Characterization of the previously reported nifH1 and vnfH transcriptional start sites by 5'RACE (5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends) revealed that these 5' ends resulted from processing of larger transcripts rather than by de novo transcription initiation. The 5' positions of both the vnfH and nifH1 transcripts lie at the base of a stem-loop structure that may serve to stabilize the nifHDK1 and vnfH specific transcripts compared to the transcripts for other genes in the operons providing the proper stoichiometry for the Nif proteins for nitrogenase synthesis. PMID:20435734

Ungerer, Justin L; Pratte, Brenda S; Thiel, Teresa

2010-07-01

361

Bioproduction of antimicrobial compounds by using marine filamentous cyanobacterium cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity, excreted by marine cyanobacteria, strongly depends on their\\u000a growth conditions. Due to the wide variety of biomolecules which could show properties as growth inhibitors and their low\\u000a concentrations within the culture medium, the activity of their crude extracts also seems to be related to the extraction\\u000a method used. Using the marine filamentous

Nelson H. Caicedo; Birgit Heyduck-Söller; Ulrich Fischer; Jorg Thöming

362

Inflammatory effects of the toxic cyanobacterium Geitlerinema amphibium.  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacteria in public water reservoirs may cause severe health issues for livestock and human beings. Geitlerinema amphibium, which is frequently found in Săo Paulo City's drinking water supplies, showed toxicity in the standard mouse bioassay, while displaying signs of intoxication and post-mortem findings different from those showed by animals intoxicated by known cyanotoxins. We report here the alterations caused by G. amphibium methanolic extract on mouse microcirculatory network, as seen by in vivo intravital microscopy, besides observations on leukocyte migration, cytokine quantitation, and results of toxicological essays. Our data showed that G. amphibium methanolic extract displayed time- and dose-dependent pro-inflammatory activity, and that at lower doses [125 and 250 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)] increased the leukocyte rolling, caused partial venular stasis, as well as induced an increase in leukocyte counts in the peripheral blood and peritoneal washings. At higher doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w.), the extract caused ischemic injury leading to animal death. As confirmed by mass spectrometric studies and polymyxin B test, the G. amphibium methanolic extract did not contain lipopolysaccharides. PMID:21867725

Dogo, Camila Ranzatto; Bruni, Fernanda Miriane; Elias, Fabiana; Rangel, Marisa; Pantoja, Patricia Araujo; Sant'anna, Célia Leite; Lima, Carla; Lopes-Ferreira, Monica; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz

2011-11-01

363

Response of the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii to iron limitation.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe) is widely suspected as a key controlling factor of N2 fixation due to the high Fe content of nitrogenase and photosynthetic enzymes complex, and to its low concentrations in oceanic surface seawaters. The influence of Fe limitation on the recently discovered unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) is poorly understood despite their biogeochemical importance in the carbon and nitrogen cycles. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted culture experiments on Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 growing under a range of dissolved Fe concentrations (from 3.3 to 403 nM). Overall, severe Fe limitation led to significant decreases in growth rate (2.6-fold), C, N and chlorophyll a contents per cell (up to 4.1-fold), N2 and CO2 fixation rates per cell (17- and 7-fold) as well as biovolume (2.2-fold). We highlighted a two phased response depending on the degree of limitation: (i) under a moderate Fe limitation, the biovolume of C. watsonii was strongly reduced, allowing the cells to keep sufficient energy to maintain an optimal growth, volume-normalized contents and N2 and CO2 fixation rates; (ii) with increasing Fe deprivation, biovolume remained unchanged but the entire cell metabolism was affected, as shown by a strong decrease in the growth rate, volume-normalized contents and N2 and CO2 fixation rates. The half-saturation constant for growth of C. watsonii with respect to Fe is twice as low as that of the filamentous Trichodesmium indicating a better adaptation of C. watsonii to poor Fe environments than filamentous diazotrophs. The physiological response of C. watsonii to Fe limitation was different from that previously shown on the UCYN Cyanothece sp, suggesting potential differences in Fe requirements and/or Fe acquisition within the UCYN community. These results contribute to a better understanding of how Fe bioavailability can control the activity of UCYN and explain the biogeography of diverse N2 fixers in ocean. PMID:24466221

Jacq, Violaine; Ridame, Céline; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Kaczmar, Fanny; Saliot, Alain

2014-01-01

364

Intraspecific Variation in Growth and Morphology of the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa?  

PubMed Central

In the laboratory, we documented large variation in the morphology, toxicity, and maximum population growth rates for 32 Microcystis aeruginosa strains isolated from 12 lakes. Growth rates and mean colony sizes varied significantly across strains and were positively correlated. However, growth rates were unrelated to toxin production. PMID:16963555

Wilson, Alan E.; Wilson, Whitney A.; Hay, Mark E.

2006-01-01

365

Analysis of carbohydrate storage granules in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822  

SciTech Connect

The unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria of the genus Cyanothece demonstrate oscillations in nitrogenase activity and H2 production when grown under 12h light-12h dark cycles. We established that Cyanothece sp. PCC 7822 allows for the construction of knock-out mutants and our objective was to improve the growth characteristics of this strain and to identify the nature of the intracellular storage granules. We report the physiological and morphological effects of reduction in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BG-11 media on this strain. We developed a series of BG-11-derived growth media and monitored batch culture growth, nitrogenase activity and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production, culture synchronicity, and intracellular storage content. Reduction in NaNO3 and K2HPO4 concentrations from 17.6 and 0.23 mM to 4.41 and 0.06 mM, respectively, improved growth characteristics such as cell size and uniformity, and enhanced the rate of cell division. Cells grown in this low NP BG-11 were less complex, a parameter that related to the composition of the intracellular storage granules. Cells grown in low NP BG-11 had less polyphosphate, fewer polyhydroxybutyrate granules and many smaller granules became evident. Biochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy using the histocytochemical PATO technique demonstrated that these small granules contained glycogen. The glycogen levels and the number of granules per cell correlated nicely with a 2.3 to 3.3-fold change from the minimum at L0 to the maximum at D0. The differences in granule morphology and enzymes between Cyanothece ATCC 51142 and Cyanothece PCC 7822 provide insights into the formation of large starch-like granules in some cyanobacteria.

Welkie, David G.; Sherman, Debra M.; Chrisler, William B.; Orr, Galya; Sherman, Louis A.

2013-11-01

366

Abstract The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechoc-cocus leopoliensis is used in a micro-electrochemical  

E-print Network

. Introduction Water pollution constitutes an important environmental problem. There is a growing need for rapid and easy- to-operate bioassays to evaluate the sublethal toxicity of polluted water effluents (Blaise et al photosynthesis constitutes a vital process for plant species. These inhibitors directly affect the growth

Carpentier, Robert

367

Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of X-ray irradiation on cell survival, induction, and repair of DNA damage was studied by using 10 Chroococcidiopsis strains isolated from desert and hypersaline environments. After exposure to 2.5 kGy, the percentages of survival for the strains ranged from 80 to 35%. In the four most resistant strains, the levels of survival were reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude after irradiation with 5 kGy; viable cells were recovered after exposure to 15 kGy but not after exposure to 20 kGy. The severe DNA damage evident after exposure to 2.5 kGy was repaired within 3 h, and the severe DNA damage evident after exposure to 5 kGy was repaired within 24 h. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity in the culture supernatant after irradiation with 2.5 kGy might have been due to cell lysis and/or an excision process involved in DNA repair. The radiation resistance of Chroococcidiopsis strains may reflect the ability of these cyanobacteria to survive prolonged desiccation through efficient repair of the DNA damage that accumulates during dehydration.

Billi, D.; Friedmann, E. I.; Hofer, K. G.; Caiola, M. G.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

2000-01-01

368

Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the UV-B damage to the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved the damage of living organisms under environmental stress including UV radiation. Cyanobacteria, photoautotrophic prokaryotic organisms, also suffer from increasing UV-B due to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. The increased UV-B induces the production of ROS in vivo detected by using the ROS-sensitive probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Ascorbic acid and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) scavenged ROS effectively, while alpha-tocopherol acetate or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) did not. The presence of rose bengal and hypocrellin A increased the ROS level by photodynamic action in the visible light. The presence of the herbicide, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU), increased ROS production slightly, and ROS formation was greatly enhanced by the addition of methyl viologen due to the fact that this redox system diverts electrons from PSI to oxygen and thus forms ROS. UV-B induces ROS generation by photodynamic action and inhibition of the electron transport by damaging the electron receptors or enzymes associated with the electron transport chain during photosynthesis. PMID:11849986

He, Yu Ying; Häder, Donat P

2002-02-01

369

Growth, N 2 fixation and photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., under Fe stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichodesmium sp., isolated from the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, was cultured in artificial seawater media containing a range of Fe concentration. Fe additions stimulated growth, N2 fixation, cellular chlorophyll a content, light-saturated chlorophyll a-specific gross photosynthetic capacity (Pmchl?a) and the dark respiration rate (Rdchl?a). Cell yields only doubled for 9 nM Fe relative to zero added Fe, whereas N2 fixation increased

Fei-xue Fu; P. R. F. Bell

2003-01-01

370

Fluorescence microscopy reveals variations in cellular composition during formation of akinetes in the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Akinetes are differentiated, thick-walled, resting cells produced by many species of the filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria belonging to the Nostocales and Stigonematales. They are commonly developed after the end of exponential growth and are normally resistant to low temperatures and to desiccation for extended periods. Akinetes maintain a low level of metabolic activities such as photosynthesis, respiration and de novo synthesis

Assaf Sukenik; Ora Hadas; Slobodanka Stojkovic; Nehama Malinsky-Rushansky; Yehudit Viner-Motzini; John Beardall

2009-01-01

371

Genetic studies on a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium. [Anabaena; Escherichi coli  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Anabaena PCC7120 capable of aerobic growth with NO/sub 3//sup -/ but not N/sub 2/, and capable of microaerobic reduction of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, were isolated by penicillin enrichment after UV irradiation. Heterocysts of two mutants lack the principal envelope glycolipid, those of EF116 have a non-cohesive envelope polysaccharide, and those of other strains have other defects. A Nm/sup r/ cosmid library of DNA from wild type Anabaena PCC7120 was established in Escherichia coli bearing the Ap helper plasmid pDS4101. A conjugative plasmid was introduced, and the bacteria replicated to lawns of individual mutant strains of Anabaena. After one day of non-selective growth, selection was applied for Nm/sup r/ and nitrogen fixation. Overlapping cosmids complementing EF116 and one complementing another mutant have been mapped. The complementing genes are thought to act early in differentiation. Inclusion, in an E. coli donor of an appropriate methylase gene enhanced, by a factor of 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 3/, transfer to Anabaena PCC7120 of a plasmid containing numerous sites for the Anabaena restriction endonuclease, AvaII.

Wolk, C.P.; Cardemil, L.; Elhai, J.; Flores, E.; Murry, M.; Schmetterer, G.; Schrautemeier, B.

1987-04-01

372

Regulation of the Nitrogen Fixation Genes in the Heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

E-print Network

vegetative cells is maintained along filaments. Heterocyst structure and metabolic activity function together to accommodate oxygensensitive nitrogen fixation, catalyzed by nitrogenase. In this work, we show that the promoter of the nifHDK genes...

Kumar, Krithika

2012-02-14

373

Compositional and toxicological evaluation of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositional analyses of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 showed high protein (50-60%) and low fat (0.4-1%) content, and the ability to synthesize vitamin B12. The amino acid profile indicated that Cyanothece sp. was a balanced protein source. Fatty acids of the 18:3n-3 type were also present. Mineral analyses indicated that the cellular biomass may be a good source of Fe, Zn and Na. Caloric content was 4.5 to 5.1 kcal g dry weight-1 and the carbon content was approximately 40% on a dry weight basis. Nitrogen content was 8 to 9% on a dry weight basis and total nucleic acids were 1.3% on a dry weight basis. Short-term feeding studies in rats followed by histopathology found no toxicity or dietary incompatibility problems. The level of uric acid and allantoin in urine and tissues was low, suggesting no excess of nucleic acids, as sometimes reported in the past for a cyanobacteria-containing diet. The current work discusses the potential implications of these results for human nutrition applications.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Arieli, B.; McKeehen, J. D.; Stephens, S. D.; Nielsen, S. S.; Saha, P. R.; Trumbo, P. R.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

374

Carbon Status Constrains Light Acclimation in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus1  

PubMed Central

Acclimation to one environmental factor may constrain acclimation to another. Synechococcus elongatus (sp. PCC7942), growing under continuous light in high inorganic carbon (Ci; approximately 4 mm) and low-Ci (approximately 0.02 mm) media, achieve similar photosynthetic and growth rates under continuous low or high light. During acclimation from low to high light, however, high-Ci cells exploit the light increase by accelerating their growth rate, while low-Ci cells maintain the prelight shift growth rate for many hours, despite increased photosynthesis under the higher light. Under increased light, high-Ci cells reorganize their photosynthetic apparatus by shrinking the PSII pool and increasing Rubisco pool size, thus decreasing the photosynthetic source-to-sink ratio. Low-Ci cells also decrease their reductant source-to-sink ratio to a similar level as the high-Ci cells, but do so only by increasing their Rubisco pool. Low-Ci cells thus invest more photosynthetic reductant into maintaining their larger photosystem pool and increasing their Rubisco pool at the expense of population growth than do high-Ci cells. In nature, light varies widely over minutes to hours and is ultimately limited by daylength. Photosynthetic acclimation in S. elongatus occurs in both high and low Ci, but low-Ci cells require more time to achieve acclimation. Cells that can tolerate low Ci do so at the expense of slower photosynthetic acclimation. Such differences in rates of acclimation relative to rates of change in environmental parameters are important for predicting community productivity under variable environments. PMID:15466225

MacKenzie, Tyler D.B.; Burns, Robert A.; Campbell, Douglas A.

2004-01-01

375

Microarray analysis of phosphate regulation in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102.  

PubMed

Primary productivity of open ocean environments, such as those inhabited by marine picocyanobacteria, is often limited by low inorganic phosphate (P). To observe how these organisms cope with P starvation, we constructed a full genome microarray for Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and compared differences in gene expression under P-replete and P-limited growth conditions, including both early P stress, during extracellular alkaline phosphatase induction, and late P stress. A total of 36 genes showed significant upregulation (>log(2) fold) whereas 23 genes were highly downregulated at the early time point; however, these changes in expression were maintained during late P stress for only 5 of the upregulated genes. Knockout mutants were constructed for genes SYNW0947 and SYNW0948, comprising a two-component regulator hypothesized to have a key function in regulating P metabolism. A high degree of overlap in the sets of genes affected by P stress conditions and in the knockout mutants supports this hypothesis; however, there is some indication that other regulators may be involved in this response in Synechococcus sp. WH8102. Consistent with what has been observed in many other cyanobacteria, the Pho regulon of this strain is comprised largely of genes for alkaline phosphatases, P transport or P metabolism. Interestingly, however, the exact composition and arrangement of the Pho regulon appears highly variable in marine cyanobacteria. PMID:19340084

Tetu, Sasha G; Brahamsha, Bianca; Johnson, Daniel A; Tai, Vera; Phillippy, Katherine; Palenik, Brian; Paulsen, Ian T

2009-07-01

376

Microarray analysis of phosphate regulation in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8102  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary productivity of open ocean environments, such as those inhabited by marine picocyanobacteria, is often limited by low inorganic phosphate (P). To observe how these organisms cope with P starvation, we constructed a full genome microarray for Synechococcus sp. WH8102 and compared differences in gene expression under P-replete and P-limited growth conditions, including both early P stress, during extracellular alkaline

Sasha G Tetu; Bianca Brahamsha; Daniel A Johnson; Vera Tai; Katherine Phillippy; Brian Palenik; Ian T Paulsen

2009-01-01

377

Glutaredoxins are essential for stress adaptation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Glutaredoxins are small redox proteins able to reduce disulfides and mixed disulfides between GSH and proteins. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains three genes coding for glutaredoxins: ssr2061 (grxA) and slr1562 (grxB) code for dithiolic glutaredoxins while slr1846 (grxC) codes for a monothiolic glutaredoxin. We have analyzed the expression of these glutaredoxins in response to different stresses, such as high light, H2O2 and heat shock. Analysis of the mRNA levels showed that grxA is only induced by heat while grxC is repressed by heat shock and is induced by high light and H2O2. In contrast, grxB expression was maintained almost constant under all conditions. Analysis of GrxA and GrxC protein levels by western blot showed that GrxA increases in response to high light, heat or H2O2 while GrxC is only induced by high light and H2O2, in accordance with its mRNA levels. In addition, we have also generated mutants that have interrupted one, two, or three glutaredoxin genes. These mutants were viable and did not show any different phenotype from the WT under standard growth conditions. Nevertheless, analysis of these mutants under several stress conditions revealed that single grxA mutants grow slower after H2O2, heat and high light treatments, while mutants in grxB are indistinguishable from WT. grxC mutants were hypersensitive to treatments with H2O2, heat, high light and metals. A double grxAgrxC mutant was found to be even more sensitive to H2O2 than each corresponding single mutants. Surprisingly a mutation in grxB suppressed totally or partially the phenotypes of grxA and grxC mutants except the H2O2 sensitivity of the grxC mutant. This suggests that grxA and grxC participate in independent pathways while grxA and grxB participate in a common pathway for H2O2 resistance. The data presented here show that glutaredoxins are essential for stress adaptation in cyanobacteria, although their targets and mechanism of action remain unidentified. PMID:24204369

Sánchez-Riego, Ana M.; López-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J.

2013-01-01

378

Thermodynamics of copper and zinc distribution in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Copper is supplied to plastocyanin for photosynthesis and cytochrome c oxidase for respiration in the thylakoids of Synechocystis PCC 6803 by the membrane-bound P-type ATPases CtaA and PacS, and the metallochaperone Atx1. We have determined the Cu(I) affinities of all of the soluble proteins and domains in this pathway. The Cu(I) affinities of the trafficking proteins range from 5 × 10(16) to 5 × 10(17) M(-1) at pH 7.0, consistent with values for homologues. Unusually, Atx1 binds Cu(I) significantly tighter than the metal-binding domains (MBDs) of CtaA and PacS (CtaA(N) and PacS(N)), and equilibrium copper exchange constants of approximately 0.2 are obtained for transfer to the MBDs. Dimerization of Atx1 increases the affinity for Cu(I), but the loop 5 His61 residue has little influence. The MBD of the zinc exporter ZiaA (ZiaA(N)) exhibits an almost identical Cu(I) affinity, and Cu(I) exchange with Atx1, as CtaA(N) and PacS(N), and the relative stabilities of the complexes must enable the metallochaperone to distinguish between the MBDs. The binding of potentially competing zinc to the trafficking proteins has been studied. ZiaA(N) has the highest Zn(II) affinity and thermodynamics could be important for zinc removal from the cell. Plastocyanin has a Cu(I) affinity of 2.6 × 10(17) M(-1), 15-fold tighter than that of the Cu(A) site of cytochrome c oxidase, highlighting the need for specific mechanisms to ensure copper delivery to both of these targets. The narrow range of Cu(I) affinities for the cytoplasmic copper proteins in Synechocystis will facilitate relocation when copper is limiting. PMID:21778408

Badarau, Adriana; Dennison, Christopher

2011-08-01

379

A Tribute to Disorder in the Genome of the Bloom-Forming Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis  

E-print Network

aeruginosa is one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. This species produces numerous secondary metabolites, including microcystins, which are harmful to human health are characterized by having a large open pangenome, and that each genome contains similar proportions of core

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

A tribute to disorder in the genome of the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. This species produces numerous secondary metabolites, including microcystins, which are harmful to human health. We sequenced the genomes of ten strains of M. aeruginosa in order to explore the genomic basis of their ability to occupy varied environments and proliferate. Our findings show that M. aeruginosa genomes are characterized by having a large open pangenome, and that each genome contains similar proportions of core and flexible genes. By comparing the GC content of each gene to the mean value of the whole genome, we estimated that in each genome, around 11% of the genes seem to result from recent horizontal gene transfer events. Moreover, several large gene clusters resulting from HGT (up to 19 kb) have been found, illustrating the ability of this species to integrate such large DNA molecules. It appeared also that all M. aeruginosa displays a large genomic plasticity, which is characterized by a high proportion of repeat sequences and by low synteny values between the strains. Finally, we identified 13 secondary metabolite gene clusters, including three new putative clusters. When comparing the genomes of Microcystis and Prochlorococcus, one of the dominant picocyanobacteria living in marine ecosystems, our findings show that they are characterized by having almost opposite evolutionary strategies, both of which have led to ecological success in their respective environments. PMID:23950996

Humbert, Jean-François; Barbe, Valérie; Latifi, Amel; Gugger, Muriel; Calteau, Alexandra; Coursin, Therese; Lajus, Aurélie; Castelli, Vanina; Oztas, Sophie; Samson, Gaëlle; Longin, Cyrille; Medigue, Claudine; de Marsac, Nicole Tandeau

2013-01-01

381

Electron Transport Controls Glutamine Synthetase Activity in the Facultative Heterotrophic Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed Central

Glutamine synthetase (GS) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was inactivated in vivo by transferring cells from light to darkness or by incubation with the photosynthetic inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea but not with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone. Addition of glucose prevented both dark and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea GS inactivation. In a Synechocystis psbE-psbF mutant (T1297) lacking photosystem II, glucose was required to maintain active GS, even in the light. However, in nitrogen-starved T1297 cells the removal of glucose did not affect GS activity. The fact that dark-inactivated GS was reactivated in vitro by the same treatments that reactivate the ammonium-inactivated GS points out that both nitrogen metabolism and redox state of the cells lead to the same molecular regulatory mechanism in the control of GS activity. Using GS antibodies we detected that dark-inactivated GS displayed a different electrophoretic migration with respect to the active form in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but not in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The possible pathway to modulate GS activity by the electron transport flow in Synechocystis cells is discussed. PMID:12228640

Reyes, J. C.; Crespo, J. L.; Garcia-Dominguez, M.; Florencio, F. J.

1995-01-01

382

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in Northeast Germany? †  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, anatoxin-a (ATX), and hepatotoxic cylindrospermopsin (CYN) have been detected in several lakes in northeast Germany during the last 2 decades. They are produced worldwide by members of the nostocalean genera Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Aphanizomenon. Although no additional sources of PSP toxins and ATX have been identified in German water bodies to date, the observed CYN concentrations cannot be produced solely by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, the only known CYN producer in Germany. Therefore, we attempted to identify PSP toxin, ATX, and CYN producers by isolating and characterizing 92 Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Anabaenopsis strains from five lakes in northeast Germany. In a polyphasic approach, all strains were morphologically and phylogenetically classified and then tested for PSP toxins, ATX, and CYN by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and screened for the presence of PSP toxin- and CYN-encoding gene fragments. As demonstrated by ELISA and LC-MS, 14 Aphanizomenon gracile strains from Lakes Melang and Scharmützel produced four PSP toxin variants (gonyautoxin 5 [GTX5], decarbamoylsaxitoxin [dcSTX], saxitoxin [STX], and neosaxitoxin [NEO]). GTX5 was the most prevalent PSP toxin variant among the seven strains from Lake Scharmützel, and NEO was the most prevalent among the seven strains from Lake Melang. The sxtA gene, which is part of the saxitoxin gene cluster, was found in the 14 PSP toxin-producing A. gracile strains and in 11 non-PSP toxin-producing Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi, A. flos-aquae, Anabaena planktonica, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii strains. ATX and CYN were not detected in any of the isolated strains. This study is the first confirming the role of A. gracile as a PSP toxin producer in German water bodies. PMID:20048055

Ballot, Andreas; Fastner, Jutta; Wiedner, Claudia

2010-01-01

383

High Affinity Transport of CO2 in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 1  

PubMed Central

The active transport of CO2 in Synechococcus UTEX 625 was measured by mass spectrometry under conditions that preclude HCO3? transport. The substrate concentration required to give one half the maximum rate for whole cell CO2 transport was determined to be 0.4 ± 0.2 micromolar (mean ± standard deviation; n = 7) with a range between 0.2 and 0.66 micromolar. The maximum rates of CO2 transport ranged between 400 and 735 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour with an average rate of 522 for seven experiments. This rate of transport was about three times greater than the dissolved inorganic carbon saturated rate of photosynthetic O2 evolution observed under these conditions. The initial rate of chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching was highly correlated with the initial rate of CO2 transport (correlation coefficient = 0.98) and could be used as an indirect method to detect CO2 transport and calculate the substrate concentration required to give one half the maximum rate of transport. Little, if any, inhibition of CO2 transport was caused by HCO3? or by Na+-dependent HCO3? transport. However, 12CO2 readily interfered with 13CO2 transport. CO2 transport and Na+-dependent HCO3? transport are separate, independent processes and the high affinity CO2 transporter is not only responsible for the initial transport of CO2 into the cell but also for scavenging any CO2 that may leak from the cell during ongoing photosynthesis. PMID:16668535

Espie, George S.; Miller, Anthony G.; Canvin, David T.

1991-01-01

384

Active Transport of CO2 by the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 1  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry has been used to confirm the presence of an active transport system for CO2 in Synechococcus UTEX 625. Cells were incubated at pH 8.0 in 100 micromolar KHCO3 in the absence of Na+ (to prevent HCO3? transport). Upon illumination the cells rapidly removed almost all the free CO2 from the medium. Addition of carbonic anhydrase revealed that the CO2 depletion resulted from a selective uptake of CO2, rather than a total uptake of all inorganic carbon species. CO2 transport stopped rapidly (<3 seconds) when the light was turned off. Iodoacetamide (3.3 millimolar) completely inhibited CO2 fixation but had little effect on CO2 transport. In iodoacetamide poisoned cells, transport of CO2 occurred against a concentration gradient of about 18,000 to 1. Transport of CO2 was completely inhibited by 10 micromolar diethylstilbestrol, a membrane-bound ATPase inhibitor. Studies with DCMU and PSI light indicated that CO2 transport was driven by ATP produced by cyclic or pseudocyclic photophosphorylation. Low concentrations of Na+ (<100 microequivalents per liter), but not of K+, stimulated CO2 transport as much as 2.4-fold. Unlike Na+-dependent HCO3? transport, the transport of CO2 was not inhibited by high concentrations (30 milliequivalents per liter) of Li+. During illumination, the CO2 concentration in the medium remained far below its equilibrium value for periods up to 15 minutes. This could only happen if CO2 transport was continuously occurring at a rapid rate, since the continuing dehydration of HCO3? to CO2 would rapidly raise the CO2 concentration to its equilibrium value if transport ceased. Measurement of the rate of dissolved inorganic carbon accumulation under these conditions indicated that at least part of the continuing CO2 transport was balanced by HCO3? efflux. PMID:16665969

Miller, Anthony G.; Espie, George S.; Canvin, David T.

1988-01-01

385

High Affinity Transport of CO(2) in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625.  

PubMed

The active transport of CO(2) in Synechococcus UTEX 625 was measured by mass spectrometry under conditions that preclude HCO(3) (-) transport. The substrate concentration required to give one half the maximum rate for whole cell CO(2) transport was determined to be 0.4 +/- 0.2 micromolar (mean +/- standard deviation; n = 7) with a range between 0.2 and 0.66 micromolar. The maximum rates of CO(2) transport ranged between 400 and 735 micromoles per milligram of chlorophyll per hour with an average rate of 522 for seven experiments. This rate of transport was about three times greater than the dissolved inorganic carbon saturated rate of photosynthetic O(2) evolution observed under these conditions. The initial rate of chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching was highly correlated with the initial rate of CO(2) transport (correlation coefficient = 0.98) and could be used as an indirect method to detect CO(2) transport and calculate the substrate concentration required to give one half the maximum rate of transport. Little, if any, inhibition of CO(2) transport was caused by HCO(3) (-) or by Na(+)-dependent HCO(3) (-) transport. However, (12)CO(2) readily interfered with (13)CO(2) transport. CO(2) transport and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3) (-) transport are separate, independent processes and the high affinity CO(2) transporter is not only responsible for the initial transport of CO(2) into the cell but also for scavenging any CO(2) that may leak from the cell during ongoing photosynthesis. PMID:16668535

Espie, G S; Miller, A G; Canvin, D T

1991-11-01

386

A Tribute to Disorder in the Genome of the Bloom-Forming Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems worldwide. This species produces numerous secondary metabolites, including microcystins, which are harmful to human health. We sequenced the genomes of ten strains of M. aeruginosa in order to explore the genomic basis of their ability to occupy varied environments and proliferate. Our findings show that