Note: This page contains sample records for the topic cyanobacterium gloeobacter violaceus from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The phycocyanin-associated rod linker proteins of the phycobilisome of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 contain unusually located rod-capping domains.  

PubMed

Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 is a unique cyanobacterium that has no thylakoids and whose genome has been sequenced [Y. Nakamura, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, M. Mimuro, H. Miyashita, T. Tsuchiya, S. Sasamoto, A. Watanabe, K. Kawashima, Y. Kishida, C. Kiyokawa, M. Kohara, M. Matsumoto, A. Matsuno, N. Nakazaki, S. Shimpo, C. Takeuchi, M. Yamada, S. Tabata, Complete Genome Structure of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, a cyanobacterium that lacks thylakoids. DNA Research 10 (2003) 137-145]. Phycobilisomes of G. violaceus were isolated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE followed by N-terminal sequencing. Three rod-linker subunits (CpeC, CpeD and CpeE) were identified as predicted from the genome sequence. The cpcC1 and cpcC2 genes at order locus named (OLN) glr0950 and gll 3219 encoding phycocyanin-associated linker proteins from G. violaceus are 56 and 55 amino acids longer at the N-terminus than the open reading frame proposed in the genome. The two amino acid extensions showed a 66% identity to one another. Also, the N-terminal extensions of these sequences were similar to domains in both the rod-capping-linker protein CpcD2 and to the C-terminus domain of the phycoerythrin-associated linker protein CpeC. These domains are not only unusual in their N-terminal location, but are unusual in that they are more closely related in sequence similarity to the C-terminus domain of the phycoerythrin-associated linker, CpeC of G. violaceus, than to the C-terminus domain of phycocyanin-associated linker CpcC in other cyanobacteria. These linker proteins with unique special domains are indicators of the unusual structure of the phycobilisomes of G. violaceus. PMID:16617515

Gutiérrez-Cirlos, Emma Berta; Pérez-Gómez, Bertha; Krogmann, David W; Gómez-Lojero, Carlos

2006-02-01

2

The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an “evolutionary curiosity” with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide.

Mares, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Kana, Radek; Ventura, Stefano; Strunecky, Otakar; Komarek, Jiri

2013-01-01

3

Structural basis for allosteric coupling at the membrane-protein interface in Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC).  

PubMed

Ligand binding at the extracellular domain of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels initiates a relay of conformational changes that culminates at the gate within the transmembrane domain. The interface between the two domains is a key structural entity that governs gating. Molecular events in signal transduction at the interface are poorly defined because of its intrinsically dynamic nature combined with functional modulation by membrane lipid and water vestibules. Here we used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to delineate protein motions underlying Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel gating in a membrane environment and report the interface conformation in the closed and the desensitized states. Extensive intrasubunit interactions were observed in the closed state that are weakened upon desensitization and replaced by newer intersubunit contacts. Gating involves major rearrangements of the interfacial loops, accompanied by reorganization of the protein-lipid-water interface. These structural changes may serve as targets for modulation of gating by lipids, alcohols, and amphipathic drug molecules. PMID:24338475

Velisetty, Phanindra; Chalamalasetti, Sreevatsa V; Chakrapani, Sudha

2014-01-31

4

Gating of the proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus at pH 4 as revealed by X-ray crystallography.  

PubMed

Cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have recently been used to generate structural models that likely represent the unliganded closed-channel conformation and the fully liganded open-channel conformation of different members of the nicotinic-receptor superfamily. To characterize the structure of the closed-channel conformation in its liganded state, we identified a number of positions in the loop between transmembrane segments 2 (M2) and 3 (M3) of a proton-gated ortholog from the bacterium Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) where mutations to alanine reduce the liganded-gating equilibrium constant, and solved the crystal structures of two such mutants (T25'A and Y27'A) at pH ~4.0. At the level of backbone atoms, the liganded closed-channel model presented here differs from the liganded open-channel structure of GLIC in the pre-M1 linker, the M3-M4 loop, and much more prominently, in the extracellular half of the pore lining, where the more pronounced tilt of the closed-channel M2 ?-helices toward the pore's long axis narrows the permeation pathway. On the other hand, no differences between the liganded closed-channel and open-channel models could be detected at the level of the extracellular domain, where conformational changes are expected to underlie the low-to-high proton-affinity switch that drives gating of proton-bound channels. Thus, the liganded closed-channel model is nearly indistinguishable from the recently described "locally closed" structure. However, because cross-linking strategies (which could have stabilized unstable conformations) and mutations involving ionizable side chains (which could have affected proton-gated channel activation) were purposely avoided, we favor the notion that this structure represents one of the end states of liganded gating rather than an unstable intermediate. PMID:24167270

Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Giovanni; Cuello, Luis G; Nair, Satish K; Grosman, Claudio

2013-11-12

5

Gating of the proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus at pH 4 as revealed by X-ray crystallography  

PubMed Central

Cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have recently been used to generate structural models that likely represent the unliganded closed-channel conformation and the fully liganded open-channel conformation of different members of the nicotinic-receptor superfamily. To characterize the structure of the closed-channel conformation in its liganded state, we identified a number of positions in the loop between transmembrane segments 2 (M2) and 3 (M3) of a proton-gated ortholog from the bacterium Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) where mutations to alanine reduce the liganded-gating equilibrium constant, and solved the crystal structures of two such mutants (T25?A and Y27?A) at pH ?4.0. At the level of backbone atoms, the liganded closed-channel model presented here differs from the liganded open-channel structure of GLIC in the pre-M1 linker, the M3–M4 loop, and much more prominently, in the extracellular half of the pore lining, where the more pronounced tilt of the closed-channel M2 ?-helices toward the pore’s long axis narrows the permeation pathway. On the other hand, no differences between the liganded closed-channel and open-channel models could be detected at the level of the extracellular domain, where conformational changes are expected to underlie the low-to-high proton-affinity switch that drives gating of proton-bound channels. Thus, the liganded closed-channel model is nearly indistinguishable from the recently described “locally closed” structure. However, because cross-linking strategies (which could have stabilized unstable conformations) and mutations involving ionizable side chains (which could have affected proton-gated channel activation) were purposely avoided, we favor the notion that this structure represents one of the end states of liganded gating rather than an unstable intermediate.

Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Giovanni; Cuello, Luis G.; Nair, Satish K.; Grosman, Claudio

2013-01-01

6

Gloeobacter rhodopsin, limitation of proton pumping at high electrochemical load.  

PubMed

We studied the photocurrents of a cyanobacterial rhodopsin Gloeobacter violaceus (GR) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells. This protein is a light-driven proton pump with striking similarities to marine proteorhodopsins, including the D121-H87 cluster of the retinal Schiff base counterion and a glutamate at position 132 that acts as a proton donor for chromophore reprotonation during the photocycle. Interestingly, at low extracellular pH(o) and negative voltage, the proton flux inverted and directed inward. Using electrophysiological measurements of wild-type and mutant GR, we demonstrate that the electrochemical gradient limits outward-directed proton pumping and converts it into a purely passive proton influx. This conclusion contradicts the contemporary paradigm that at low pH, proteorhodopsins actively transport H(+) into cells. We identified E132 and S77 as key residues that allow inward directed diffusion. Substitution of E132 with aspartate or S77 with either alanine or cysteine abolished the inward-directed current almost completely. The proton influx is likely caused by the pK(a) of E132 in GR, which is lower than that of other microbial ion pumping rhodopsins. The advantage of such a low pK(a) is an acceleration of the photocycle and high pump turnover at high light intensities. PMID:24209850

Vogt, Arend; Wietek, Jonas; Hegemann, Peter

2013-11-01

7

Propofol binding to the resting state of the gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) induces structural changes in the inter- and intrasubunit transmembrane domain (TMD) cavities.  

PubMed

General anesthetics exert many of their CNS actions by binding to and modulating membrane-embedded pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). The structural mechanisms underlying how anesthetics modulate pLGIC function remain largely unknown. GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC homologue, is inhibited by general anesthetics, suggesting anesthetics stabilize a closed channel state, but in anesthetic-bound GLIC crystal structures the channel appears open. Here, using functional GLIC channels expressed in oocytes, we examined whether propofol induces structural rearrangements in the GLIC transmembrane domain (TMD). Residues in the GLIC TMD that frame intrasubunit and intersubunit water-accessible cavities were individually mutated to cysteine. We measured and compared the rates of modification of the introduced cysteines by sulfhydryl-reactive reagents in the absence and presence of propofol. Propofol slowed the rate of modification of L240C (intersubunit) and increased the rate of modification of T254C (intrasubunit), indicating that propofol binding induces structural rearrangements in these cavities that alter the local environment near these residues. Propofol acceleration of T254C modification suggests that in the resting state propofol does not bind in the TMD intrasubunit cavity as observed in the crystal structure of GLIC with bound propofol (Nury, H., Van Renterghem, C., Weng, Y., Tran, A., Baaden, M., Dufresne, V., Changeux, J. P., Sonner, J. M., Delarue, M., and Corringer, P. J. (2011) Nature 469, 428-431). In silico docking using a GLIC closed channel homology model suggests propofol binds to intersubunit sites in the TMD in the resting state. Propofol-induced motions in the intersubunit cavity were distinct from motions associated with channel activation, indicating propofol stabilizes a novel closed state. PMID:23640880

Ghosh, Borna; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Czajkowski, Cynthia

2013-06-14

8

Propofol Binding to the Resting State of the Gloeobacter violaceus Ligand-gated Ion Channel (GLIC) Induces Structural Changes in the Inter- and Intrasubunit Transmembrane Domain (TMD) Cavities*  

PubMed Central

General anesthetics exert many of their CNS actions by binding to and modulating membrane-embedded pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). The structural mechanisms underlying how anesthetics modulate pLGIC function remain largely unknown. GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC homologue, is inhibited by general anesthetics, suggesting anesthetics stabilize a closed channel state, but in anesthetic-bound GLIC crystal structures the channel appears open. Here, using functional GLIC channels expressed in oocytes, we examined whether propofol induces structural rearrangements in the GLIC transmembrane domain (TMD). Residues in the GLIC TMD that frame intrasubunit and intersubunit water-accessible cavities were individually mutated to cysteine. We measured and compared the rates of modification of the introduced cysteines by sulfhydryl-reactive reagents in the absence and presence of propofol. Propofol slowed the rate of modification of L240C (intersubunit) and increased the rate of modification of T254C (intrasubunit), indicating that propofol binding induces structural rearrangements in these cavities that alter the local environment near these residues. Propofol acceleration of T254C modification suggests that in the resting state propofol does not bind in the TMD intrasubunit cavity as observed in the crystal structure of GLIC with bound propofol (Nury, H., Van Renterghem, C., Weng, Y., Tran, A., Baaden, M., Dufresne, V., Changeux, J. P., Sonner, J. M., Delarue, M., and Corringer, P. J. (2011) Nature 469, 428–431). In silico docking using a GLIC closed channel homology model suggests propofol binds to intersubunit sites in the TMD in the resting state. Propofol-induced motions in the intersubunit cavity were distinct from motions associated with channel activation, indicating propofol stabilizes a novel closed state.

Ghosh, Borna; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Czajkowski, Cynthia

2013-01-01

9

Production and characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide from Streptomyces violaceus MM72.  

PubMed

The isolation, optimization, purification and characterization of an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from a marine actinobacterium, Streptomyces violaceus MM72 were investigated. Medium composition and culture conditions for the EPS production by S. violaceus MM72 were optimized using two statistical methods: Plackett-Burman design applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield of EPS production and central composite design used to optimize the concentration of the three significant variables: glucose, tryptone and NaCl. The preferable culture conditions for EPS production were pH 7.0, temperature 35°C and NaCl concentration 2.0% for 120h with fructose and yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The results showed that S. violaceus MM72 produced a kind of EPS having molecular weight of 8.96×10(5)Da. In addition, the EPS showed strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging and metal chelating activities while moderate inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing activities determined in this study. These results showed the great potential of EPS produced by S. violaceus MM72 could be used in industry in place of synthetic compounds. The EPS from S. violaceus MM72 may be a new source of natural antioxidants with potential value for health, food and therapeutics. PMID:23597709

Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Sivasankar, Palaniappan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Sivakumar, Kannan; Kim, Se-Kwon

2013-08-01

10

Isolation of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers in the satin bowerbird, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the satin bowerbird, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus from a genomic library enriched in (AAGG) n repetitive elements and characterized them in 20 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to 18 per locus with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.15 to 1.00. These markers will be useful for analysing questions concerning parentage, population genetic

CAROLYNE BARDELEBEN; RACHAEL L. MOORE; JAMES A. NICHOLLS; JEREMY J. AUSTIN

2005-01-01

11

Different timing and spatial separation of parental chromosomes in intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus.  

PubMed

Experimental and newly formed hybrids and polyploids generated by wide crosses usually show varying degrees of cytological instability. The spatial separation of parental genomes and uniparental chromosome elimination in hybrid cells has been reported in many hybrids from plants and animals. Herein, the behavior of parental genomes in intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus was analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). In mitotic and meiotic cells, the chromosomes from O. violaceus were distinguished from B. napus by their larger size and staining patterns. In interphase nuclei of the hybrid, O. violaceus-labeled chromatin appeared as large heterochromatic blocks that were nonrandomly distributed at prophase, typically distributed toward one side of the nucleus. In pollen mother cells at prophase I of meiosis, O. violaceus chromosomes appeared as one or two deeply stained chromatin blocks that resolved into bivalents at a late stage, after bivalents from B. napus were visible. Thereafter, bivalents of O. violaceus congressed to the equatorial plate and segregated at anaphase I after those from B. napus. The different behavior of O. violaceus chromosomes in the hybrids indicates that they have differential condensation states at interphase and progress later through the cell cycle and meiosis than B. napus chromosomes. This difference in behavior may restrict or prevent the formation of bivalents of mixed genome origin. Differential gene expression of parental alleles including rDNA loci may contribute to their distinct cytological behavior and to the phenotype of hybrids. PMID:24782049

Ding, L; Zhao, Z G; Ge, X H; Li, Z Y

2014-01-01

12

Male satin bowerbirds ( Ptilonorhynchus violaceus ) compensate for sexual signal loss by enhancing multiple display features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have focussed on the relationship between female choice and the multiple exaggerated sexual traits of males.\\u000a However, little is known about the ability of males to actively enhance specific components of their display in response to\\u000a the loss of one component. We investigated the capacity of male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) to respond to the loss of one

Benjamin D. Bravery; Anne W. Goldizen

2007-01-01

13

Myoglobin in a cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

Myoglobin was found in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. This cyanobacterial myoglobin, referred to as cyanoglobin, was shown to be a soluble hemoprotein of 12.5 kilodaltons with an amino acid sequence that is related to that of myoglobins from two lower eukaryotes, the ciliated protozoa Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cyanoglobin is encoded by the glbN gene, which is positioned between nifU and nifH-two genes essential for nitrogen fixation-in the genome of Nostoc. Cyanoglobin was detected in Nostoc cells only when they were starved for nitrogen and incubated microaerobically. PMID:1609281

Potts, M; Angeloni, S V; Ebel, R E; Bassam, D

1992-06-19

14

The first hydroxylated archazolid from the myxobacterium Cystobacter violaceus: isolation, structural elucidation and V-ATPase inhibition.  

PubMed

The novel macrocyclic polyketide, 10-hydroxymethyl-archazolid-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (archazolid D), was obtained from the myxobacterium Cystobacter violaceus. The structure of this first hydroxylated archazolid was determined by spectroscopic analysis, in particular by HMBC, HMQC, and ROESY NMR investigations, and by degradation. This novel metabolite was evaluated for growth inhibition of murine connective tissue cells and V-ATPase inhibition in comparison to other known archazolids. PMID:17551213

Menche, Dirk; Hassfeld, Jorma; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Huss, Markus; Wieczorek, Helmut; Sasse, Florenz

2007-05-01

15

Biogeochemical tracers of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the utility of several biogeochemical tracers for following the fate of the planktonic diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium in the sea. The presence of a (CIO) fatty acid previously reported was observed in a culture of Trichodesmium but was not found in natural samples. This cyanobacterium had high concentrations of C14 and C16 acids, with lesser amounts of several saturated

Edward J. Carpenter; H. Rodger Harvey; Brian Fry; Douglas G. Capone

1997-01-01

16

Assimilatory sulfur metabolism in marine microorganisms: characteristics and regulation of sulfate transport in Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteo-violaceus.  

PubMed Central

Sulfate transport capacity was not regulated by cysteine, methionine, or glutathione in Pseudomonas halodurans, but growth on sulfate or thiosulfate suppressed transport. Subsequent sulfur starvation of cultures grown on all sulfur sources except glutathione stimulated uptake. Only methionine failed to regulate sulfate transport in Alteromonas luteo-violaceus, and sulfur starvation of all cultures enhanced transport capacity. During sulfur starvation of sulfate-grown cultures of both bacteria, the increase in transport capacity was mirrored by a decrease in the low-molecular-weight organic sulfur pool. Little metabolism of endogenous inorganic sulfate occurred. Cysteine was probably the major regulatory compound in A. luteo-violaceus, but an intermediate in sulfate reduction, between sulfate and cysteine, controlled sulfate transport in P. halodurans. Kinetic characteristics of sulfate transport in the marine bacteria were similar to those of previously reported nonmarine systems in spite of significant regulatory differences. Sulfate and thiosulfate uptake in P. halodurans responded identically to inhibitors, were coordinately regulated by growth on various sulfur compounds and sulfur starvation, and were mutually competitive inhibitors of transport, suggesting that they were transported by the same mechanism. The affinity of P. halodurans for thiosulfate was much greater than for sulfate.

Cuhel, R L; Taylor, C D; Jannasch, H W

1981-01-01

17

How a cyanobacterium tells time  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus builds a circadian clock on an oscillator comprised of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which can recapitulate a circadian rhythm of KaiC phosphorylation in vitro. The molecular structures of all three proteins are known, and the phosphorylation steps of KaiC, the interaction dynamics among the three Kai proteins, and a weak ATPase activity of KaiC have all been characterized. An input pathway of redox-sensitive proteins uses photosynthetic function to relay light/dark information to the oscillator, and signal transduction proteins of well-known families broadcast temporal information to the genome, where global changes in transcription and a compaction of the chromosome are clock regulated.

Dong, Guogang; Golden, Susan S.

2009-01-01

18

The effect of temperature on the germination of Melocactus violaceus Pfeiff. (Cactaceae), a threatened species in restinga sandy coastal plain of Brazil.  

PubMed

Melocactus violaceus is an endangered species due to habitat destruction and the overcollection of this species for ornamental use. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different temperatures on the germination of M. violaceus. Three treatments were conducted: a constant temperature of 25şC, a 20-35şC alternating temperature, both inside germination chamber, and an alternating temperature under room temperature (mean temperature ranged from 25-37şC). The final seed germination rates at the alternating temperature treatments were not significantly different (65% in the seed germinator and 62.5% at room condition). However, both treatments with alternating temperatures had significantly higher germination rates compared to the treatment kept at the constant temperature (8%). Our study showed that alternating temperatures between 20 and 37şC provides satisfactory conditions to induce a high percentage of seed germination of M. violaceus, without the passage of seeds through the digestive tract of its natural disperser, the lizard Tropidurus torquatus. This condition contributes to efficiently producing seedlings that can be reintroduced into conservation areas or used as ornamentals that may help reduce the overcollection of the remaining native populations. PMID:23828368

Zamith, Luiz R; Cruz, Denise D; Richers, Bárbara T T

2013-01-01

19

Assimilatory Sulfur Metabolism in Marine Microorganisms: Sulfur Metabolism, Protein Synthesis, and Growth of Alteromonas luteo-violaceus and Pseudomonas halodurans During Perturbed Batch Growth †  

PubMed Central

The antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol specifically blocked the incorporation of [35S]sulfate into the residue protein of two marine bacteria, Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteo-violaceus. Simultaneous inhibition of total protein synthesis occurred, but incorporation of 35S into low-molecular-weight organic compounds continued. A. luteo-violaceus rapidly autolyzed, with similar reduction in cell counts, total culture protein and cellular sulfur, whereas P. halodurans remained viable. Treatment with chloramphenicol, growth during nitrogen and carbon limitation, and the carbon and energy sources used for growth did not alter the sulfur content of P. halodurans protein. The mean value (1.09%, by weight), representing a wide variety of environmentally relevant growth conditions, was in agreement with model protein composition. The variability of cellular composition of P. halodurans and A. luteo-violaceus is discussed with respect to the measurement of bacterial growth in natural environments. Total carbon and nitrogen per cell varied greatly (coefficient of variation, ca. 100%) depending on growth conditions. Variation in total sulfur and protein per cell was much less (coefficient of variation, <50%), but the least variation was found for sulfate incorporation into residue protein (coefficient of variation, ca. 15%). Thus, sulfate incorporation into residue protein can be used as an accurate measurement of de novo protein synthesis in these bacteria.

Cuhel, Russell L.; Taylor, Craig D.; Jannasch, Holger W.

1982-01-01

20

Cellular differentiation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nostoc punctiforme is a phenotypically complex, filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, whose vegetative cells can mature in four developmental directions. The particular developmental direction is determined by environmental signals. The vegetative cell cycle is maintained when nutrients are sufficient. Limitation for combined nitrogen induces the terminal differentiation of heterocysts, cells specialized for nitrogen fixation in an oxic environment. A number of unique

John C. Meeks; Elsie L. Campbell; Michael L. Summers; Francis C. Wong

2002-01-01

21

Anatomy and transcript profiling of gynoecium development in female sterile Brassica napus mediated by one alien chromosome from Orychophragmus violaceus  

PubMed Central

Background The gynoecium is one of the most complex organs of angiosperms specialized for seed production and dispersal, but only several genes important for ovule or embryo sac development were identified by using female sterile mutants. The female sterility in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) was before found to be related with one alien chromosome from another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus. Herein, the developmental anatomy and comparative transcript profiling (RNA-seq) for the female sterility were performed to reveal the genes and possible metabolic pathways behind the formation of the damaged gynoecium. Results The ovules in the female sterile Brassica napus with two copies of the alien chromosomes (S1) initiated only one short integument primordium which underwent no further development and the female gametophyte development was blocked after the tetrad stage but before megagametogenesis initiation. Using Brassica_ 95k_ unigene as the reference genome, a total of 28,065 and 27,653 unigenes were identified to be transcribed in S1 and donor B. napus (H3), respectively. Further comparison of the transcript abundance between S1 and H3 revealed that 4540 unigenes showed more than two fold expression differences. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis of the Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) showed that a number of important genes and metabolism pathways were involved in the development of gynoecium, embryo sac, ovule, integuments as well as the interactions between pollen and pistil. Conclusions DEGs for the ovule development were detected to function in the metabolism pathways regulating brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, adaxial/abaxial axis specification, auxin transport and signaling. A model was proposed to show the possible roles and interactions of these pathways for the sterile gynoecium development. The results provided new information for the molecular mechanisms behind the gynoecium development at early stage in B. napus.

2014-01-01

22

A primitive cyanobacterium as pioneer microorganism for terraforming Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primitive characteristics of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis suggest that it represents a very ancient type of this group. Its morphology is simple but shows a wide range of variability, and it resembles certain Proterozoic microfossils. Chroococcidiopsis is probably the most desiccation-resistant cyanobacterium, the sole photosynthetic organism in extreme arid habitats. It is also present in a wide range of other

E. Imre Friedmann; R. Ocampo-Friedmann

1995-01-01

23

Synergistic allelochemicals from a freshwater cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

The ability of cyanobacteria to produce complex secondary metabolites with potent biological activities has gathered considerable attention due to their potential therapeutic and agrochemical applications. However, the precise physiological or ecological roles played by a majority of these metabolites have remained elusive. Several studies have shown that cyanobacteria are able to interfere with other organisms in their communities through the release of compounds into the surrounding medium, a phenomenon usually referred to as allelopathy. Exudates from the freshwater cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. had previously been shown to inhibit the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris. In this study, we observed that maximal allelopathic activity is highest in early growth stages of the cyanobacterium, and this provided sufficient material for isolation and chemical characterization of active compounds that inhibited the growth of C. vulgaris. Using a bioassay-guided approach, we isolated and structurally characterized these metabolites as cyclic peptides containing several unusually modified amino acids that are found both in the cells and in the spent media of Oscillatoria sp. cultures. Strikingly, only the mixture of the two most abundant metabolites in the cells was active toward C. vulgaris. Synergism was also observed in a lung cancer cell cytotoxicity assay. The binary mixture inhibited other phytoplanktonic organisms, supporting a natural function of this synergistic mixture of metabolites as allelochemicals.

Leao, Pedro N.; Pereira, Alban R.; Liu, Wei-Ting; Ng, Julio; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Konig, Gabriele M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor M.; Gerwick, William H.

2010-01-01

24

Facultative anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.  

PubMed Central

An isolate from H2S-rich layers of the Solar Lake, the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica, exhibits both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. It can use Na2S as an electron donor for CO2 photoassimilation (photosystem I supplies the energy) in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea or 700-nm light. A stoichiometric ratio of approximately 2 is observed between the Na2S consumed and the photoassimilated CO2. The anoxygenic phototrophic capability of this cyanobacterium explains its growth in nature in high sulfide concentrations and indicates a selective advantage.

Cohen, Y; Padan, E; Shilo, M

1975-01-01

25

Fermentation metabolism of the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece PCC 7822  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production exhibited by the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece 7822 during anoxic incubation in the dark is a result of the fermentative degradation of carbon reserves. Simultaneously with hydrogen production, evolution of carbon dioxide was detected, and excretion of ethanol, lactate, formate and acetate was demonstrated. The fermentation balance indicates that carbohydrates are fermented via a branched pathway, in

J. van der Oost; B. A. Bulthuis; S. Feitz; K. Krab; R. Kraayenhof

1989-01-01

26

Biotreatment of fish farm effluents using the cyanobacterium Phormidium bohneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential environmental impact of effluent from fish farms is of increasing environmental concern. Although concentrations in total nitrogen and phosphorus are usually low, their impact on the environment cannot be ignored because of the high nutrient mass flows utilized during fish farming. In this paper we investigated the use of a non-toxic cyanobacterium, Phormidium bohneri, to remove dissolved inorganic

A. Dumas; G. Laliberté; P. Lessard; J. de la Noüe

1998-01-01

27

Fermentative metabolism to produce hydrogen gas and organic compounds in a cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non nitrogen-fixing and filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis NIES-46 produced hydrogen gas, ethanol, and low molecular organic acids auto-fermentatively under dark and anaerobic conditions. The fermentative productivity was enhanced by incubating the cyanobacterium under nitrogen-starved conditions. Cell-free extracts of the cyanobacterium catalyzed hydrogen production by the addition of acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate. Pyruvate-degrading and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were observed in

Katsuhiro Aoyama; Ieaki Uemura; Jun Miyake; Yasuo Asada

1997-01-01

28

A primitive cyanobacterium as pioneer microorganism for terraforming Mars.  

PubMed

The primitive characteristics of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis suggest that it represents a very ancient type of the group. Its morphology is simple but shows a wide range of variability, and it resembles certain Proterozoic microfossils. Chroococcidiopsis is probably the most desiccation-resistant cyanobacterium, the sole photosynthetic organism in extreme arid habitats. It is also present in a wide range of other extreme environments, from Antarctic rocks to thermal springs and hypersaline habitats, but it is unable to compete with more specialized organisms. Genetic evidence suggests that all forms belong to a single species. Its remarkable tolerance of environmental extremes makes Chroococcidiopsis a prime candidate for use as a pioneer photosynthetic microorganism for terraforming of Mars. The hypolithic microbial growth form (which lives under stones of a desert pavement) could be used as a model for development of technologies for large-scale Martian farming. PMID:11539232

Friedmann, E I; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

1995-03-01

29

Bromoanaindolone, a novel antimicrobial exometabolite from the cyanobacterium Anabaena constricta.  

PubMed

A new brominated indole alkaloid, designated as bromoanaindolone, was isolated from culture media of the cyanobacterium Anabaena constricta and was identified as 6-bromo-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-indol-2-one with a slight excess of the (3R) enantiomer. The molecular structure was elucidated on the basis of IR, MS and NMR data. This extracellular metabolite of A. constricta possessed antimicrobial (anticyanobacterial and antibacterial) activity in different test systems, such as suspension and porous matrix tests. PMID:19401913

Volk, R-B; Girreser, U; Al-Refai, M; Laatsch, H

2009-01-01

30

Methyl mercury uptake by free and immobilized cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl mercury uptake in free cells and different immobilizates of the cyanobacteriumNostoc calcicola has been examined. The general growth of the immobilized cyanobacterial cells could be negatively correlated with methyl mercury uptake. Alginate spheres proved most efficient in terms of uptake rate (0.48 nmol mg protein-1 min-1, 10 min) and total bioaccumulation (10.71 nmol mg protein-1, 1 h) with a

Anjana Pant; S. C. Srivastava; S. P. Singh

1992-01-01

31

Modelling of growth conditions for cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cultivation conditions on the growth of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was investigated by using two types of photobioreactors. In a rotative photobioreactor the doubling time (td) was 3.54 days. The better value found for td in an aerated photobioreactor by changing the initial nitrogen concentration (NaNO3) at 0.003, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.060?M was 2.5 days. A factorial

Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa; Giani Andrea Linde; Daniel Ibraim Pires Atala; Guilherme Martinez Mibielli; Roselini Trapp Krüger

2000-01-01

32

Sheep mortality associated with paralytic shellfish poisons from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first report of sheep mortalities associated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis Rabenhorst. Fourteen sheep died within 150 m of a farm dam containing a dense bloom of A. circinalis. Extracts from both the cyanobacterium and small intestine from a dead ewe were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain

Andrew P Negri; Gary J Jones; Michael Hindmarsh

1995-01-01

33

Lipopeptides from the tropical marine cyanobacterium Symploca sp.  

PubMed

A collection of the tropical marine cyanobacterium Symploca sp., collected near Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, previously yielded several new metabolites including kimbeamides A-C, kimbelactone A, and tasihalide C. Investigations into a more polar cytotoxic fraction yielded three new lipopeptides, tasiamides C-E (1-3). The planar structures were deduced by 2D NMR spectroscopy and tandem mass spectrometry, and their absolute configurations were determined by a combination of Marfey's and chiral-phase GC-MS analysis. These new metabolites are similar to several previously isolated compounds, including tasiamide (4), grassystatins (5, 6), and symplocin A, all of which were isolated from similar filamentous marine cyanobacteria. PMID:24588245

Mevers, Emily; Haeckl, F P Jake; Boudreau, Paul D; Byrum, Tara; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Valeriote, Frederick A; Gerwick, William H

2014-04-25

34

Total synthesis and assignment of stereochemistry of raocyclamide cyclopeptides from cyanobacterium Oscillatoria raoi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total synthesis demonstrates that the structures and stereochemistries of the cyclopeptides raocyclamide A and B isolated from a cyanobacterium should be altered to those shown in formulae 13 and 14 respectively.

David J Freeman; Gerald Pattenden

1998-01-01

35

Mössbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Mössbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with57Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) labeled with57Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with57Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein.

Ambe, Shizuko

1990-07-01

36

Nematicidal activity of the Cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima on the hatch of Meloidogyne triticoryzae and Meloidogyne incognita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agricultural crops especially paddy, wheat and vegetable crops are prone to attack by plant-parasitic nematodes. A study was conducted to observe nematicidal activity of the cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima on the hatching of second stage juveniles (J2) of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne triticoryzae and M. incognita. Culture filtrate and standard aqueous extracts of cyanobacterium. Aulosira fertilissima inhibited the hatch of

S. T. Chandel

2009-01-01

37

A new lyngbyatoxin from the Hawaiian cyanobacterium Moorea producens.  

PubMed

Lyngbyatoxin A from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) is known as the causative agent of "swimmer's itch" with its highly inflammatory effect. A new toxic compound was isolated along with lyngbyatoxin A from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies revealed the isolated compound had the same planar structure with that of lyngbyatoxin A. The results of optical rotation and CD spectra indicated that the compound was a new lyngbyatoxin A derivative, 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A (1). While 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A showed comparable toxicities with lyngbyatoxin A in cytotoxicity and crustacean lethality tests, it showed more than 100 times lower affinity for protein kinase C? (PKC?) using the PKC?-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. PMID:24824022

Jiang, Weina; Zhou, Wei; Uchida, Hajime; Kikumori, Masayuki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Bryan; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

38

Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium  

SciTech Connect

The present study supplies interaction data for combinations of mercuric ion (supplied as mercuric chloride), atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate) when tested towards growth of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena inaequalis. Mercury is one of the most important heavy metal pollutants and has been widely used in toxicology research. Atrazine is the most heavily used pesticide in the United States and its residues are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Permethrin is an important insecticide with expanding markets and is presently being evaluated for its environmental impact. A. inaequalis has been used extensively in this laboratory in previous interaction studies.

Stratton, G.W.

1985-05-01

39

Photoinhibition and reactivation of photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans  

SciTech Connect

The susceptibility of photosynthesis to photoinhibition and its recovery were studied on cultures of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. Oxygen evolution and low temperature fluorescence kinetics were measured. Upon exposure to high light A. nidulans showed a rapid decrease in oxygen evolution followed by a quasi steady state rate of photosynthesis. This quasi steady state rate decreased with increasing photon flux density of the photoinhibitory light. Reactivation of photosynthesis in dim light after the photoinhibitory treatment was rapid: 85 to 95% recovery occurred within 2 hours. In the presence of the translation inhibitor, streptomycin (250 micrograms per milliliter), no reactivation occurred. We also found that the damage increased dramatically if the high light treatment was done with streptomycin added. A transcription inhibitor, rifampicin, did not inhibit the reactivation process. Based on these data we conclude that the photoinhibitory damage observed is the net result of a balance between the photoinhibitory process and the operation of the repairing mechanism(s).

Samuelsson, G.; Loenneborg, A.; Rosenqvist, E.; Gustafsson, P.; Oequist, G.

1985-12-01

40

A New Lyngbyatoxin from the Hawaiian Cyanobacterium Moorea producens  

PubMed Central

Lyngbyatoxin A from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) is known as the causative agent of “swimmer’s itch” with its highly inflammatory effect. A new toxic compound was isolated along with lyngbyatoxin A from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies revealed the isolated compound had the same planar structure with that of lyngbyatoxin A. The results of optical rotation and CD spectra indicated that the compound was a new lyngbyatoxin A derivative, 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A (1). While 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A showed comparable toxicities with lyngbyatoxin A in cytotoxicity and crustacean lethality tests, it showed more than 100 times lower affinity for protein kinase C? (PKC?) using the PKC?-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A.

Jiang, Weina; Zhou, Wei; Uchida, Hajime; Kikumori, Masayuki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Bryan; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

41

Characterization of corrinoid compounds from edible cyanobacterium Nostochopsis sp.  

PubMed

Vitamin B?? content of an edible cyanobacterium, Nostochopsis sp. was determined to be 140.6±16.2 ?g/100 g dry weight by a microbiological method. To evaluate whether the Nostochopsis cells contain vitamin B?? or inactive corrinoid compounds, corrinoid compounds were purified from the cells and then identified as pseudovitamin B?? (97.4±11.8 ?g/100 g dry weight) and vitamin B?? (43.2±6.0 ?g/100 g dry weight) on the basis of silica gel 60 TLC bioautograms and LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. Vitamin B?? content was significantly increased in the Nostochopsis cells (254.8±17.6 ?g/100 g dry weight) grown in the vitamin B??-supplemented medium. PMID:23007067

Hashimoto, Eri; Yabuta, Yukinori; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Fumio

2012-01-01

42

Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae.

Oren, A; Padan, E

1978-01-01

43

Outdoor biophotolytic system using the cyanobacterium anabaena cylindrica B629  

SciTech Connect

The cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica B629 was suspended in small glass beads and incubated in a gas-tight glass vessel outdoors under a gas atmosphere comprising carbon monoxide (0.2%), acetylene (5%), oxygen (6.5%), and nitrogen. The solution phase initially contained sodium bicarbonate (10mM) at pH 7. Under these conditions the organism continuously produced hydrogen gas for over three weeks. The temperature of the culture was maintained below 30 /degree/C and the minimum night temperatures were recorded. The vessel was covered by a shadecloth, which reduced the natural illumination by approximately 70%. The system is an alternative to those requiring the strict absence of oxygen and little nitrogen, and requires virtually no attention during the incubation period. 18 refs.

Smith, G.D.; Lambert, G.R.

1981-01-01

44

Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis  

SciTech Connect

Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

Thiel, T.

1988-03-01

45

Comparative amperometric study of uptake hydrogenase and hydrogen photoproduction activities between heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica B629 and nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7  

SciTech Connect

Heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica B629 and nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7 were cultured in media with N/sub 2/ as the sole nitrogen source; and activities of oxygen-dependent hydrogen uptake, photohydrogen production photooxygen evolution, and respiration were compared amperometrically under the same or similar experimental conditions for both strains. Distinct differences in these activities were observed in both strains. The rates of hydrogen photoproduction and hydrogen accumulation were significantly higher in Oscillatoria sp. strain BG7 than in A. cylindrica B629 at every light intensity tested. The major reason for the difference was attributable to the fact that the heterocystous cyanobacterium had a high rate of oxygen-dependent hydrogen consumption activity and the nonheterocystous cyanobacterium did not. The activity of oxygen photoevolution and respiration also contributed to the difference. Oscillatoria sp. strain BG7 had lower O/sub 2/ evolution and higher respiration than did A. cylindrica B629. Thus, the effect of O/sub 2/ on hydrogen photoproduction was minimized in Oscillatoria sp. strain BG7. 32 references, 5 figures.

Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

1985-08-01

46

Mutations affecting chromatic adaptation in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon.  

PubMed Central

The chromatically adapting cyanobacterium, Fremyella diplosiphon, when grown in cool white fluorescent light, contains phycoerythrin as its predominant phycobiliprotein. When grown on agar plates with cool white illumination, mutant colonies deficient or devoid of phycoerythrin can be visibly distinguished from the wild type. A total of 25 anomalously pigmented strains were isolated and examined for their ability to chromatically adapt. Based on absorption spectra of cell extracts and on fluorescence emission spectra of intact filaments, we assigned each mutant to one of three classes. In green mutants (16 strains), the photoinduction of phycoerythrin synthesis by green light was lost or impaired, whereas the photorepression of phycocyanin synthesis by green light still functioned as in the wild type. In blue mutants (eight strains), both the ability to photoinduce phycoerythrin synthesis and the ability to photorepress phycocyanin synthesis were lost or impaired. Filaments of blue mutants exhibited a high fluorescence emission at 660 nm. A black mutant (one strain) exhibited partial induction of phycoerythrin and partial repression of phycocyanin in both red and cool white light. From the data, we suggest that in information transduction for chromatic adaptation, early events are common to both phycoerythrin and phycocyanin regulation and that blue mutants possess lesions in these early events. The lesions in green mutants occur in a subsequent branch of the information transduction pathway which is specific for phycoerythrin photoinduction.

Cobley, J G; Miranda, R D

1983-01-01

47

Characterization of aspartate aminotransferase from the cyanobacterium Phormidium lapideum.  

PubMed

Aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) was purified to homogeneity from cell extracts of the non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium lapideum. The NH2-terminal sequence of 25 amino acid residues was different from the sequences of the subfamily Ialpha of AspATs from eukaryotes and Escherichia coli, but it was similar to sequences of the subfamily Igamma of AspATs from archaebacteria and eubacteria. The enzyme was most active at 80 degrees C and was stable at up to 75 degrees C. Thermal inactivation (60-85 degrees C) of the enzyme followed first-order kinetics, with 2-oxoglutarate causing a shift of the thermal inactivation curves to higher temperatures. However, at 25 degrees C the kcat of P. lapideum AspAT was nearly equal to the values of AspATs from mesophilic organisms. The enzyme used L-aspartate and L-cysteine sulfinate as amino donors and 2-oxoglutarate as an amino acceptor. The Km values were 5.0 mM for L-aspartate, 5.7 mM for L-glutamate, 0.2 mM for 2-oxoglutarate, and 0.032 mM for oxaloacetate. PMID:12723595

Kim, Hyeung; Ikegami, Koji; Nakaoka, Masaki; Yagi, Mayumi; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro

2003-03-01

48

Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis  

SciTech Connect

The ribulose diphosphate (RDP) carboxylase activity of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is represented by two peaks when a cell homogenate is centrifuged in a sucrose density gradient. In the case of differential centrifugation (40,000 g, 1 h), the activity of the enzyme was distributed between the supernatant liquid (soluble form) and the precipitate (carboxysomal form). From the soluble fraction, in which 80-95% of the total activity of the enzyme is concentrated, electrophoretically homogeneous RDP carboxylase was isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient. The purified enzyme possessed greater electrophoretic mobility in comparison with the RDP carboxylase of beans Vicia faba. The molecular weight of the enzyme, determined by gel filtration, was 450,000. The enzyme consists of monotypic subunits with a molecular weight of 53,000. The small subunits were not detected in electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in the presence of SDS after fixation and staining of the gels by various methods.

Terekhova, I.V.; Chernyad'ev, I.I.; Doman, N.G.

1986-11-20

49

High light intensity augments mercury toxicity in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.  

PubMed

The present study is aimed at investigating the role of growth irradiance in determining the extent of mercury (Hg) toxicity on various physiological parameters viz. growth, pigment contents, photosynthesis, respiration, (14)CO(2) fixation, photosynthetic electron transport, photorespiration and enzyme activity of cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. A general decline was observed in all these parameters with increasing concentration of Hg except for carotenoids content and respiratory activity which exhibited significant enhancement. This effect was more pronounced in high light (130 ?mol photon m(-2) s(-1)) exposed cells as compared to normal (70 ?mol photon m(-2) s(-1)) and low (10 ?mol photon m(-2) s(-1)) light exposed cells. Among the photosynthetic electron transport activities, whole chain was found to be more sensitive than photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). (14)CO(2) fixation was more affected as compared to O(2) evolution when exposed to Hg and different light intensities. Photorespiratory activity, which is an index of protecting organisms from light-induced damage, also showed a similar declining trend. Enzyme assay revealed that among the carboxylating enzymes, activity of RUBISCO was more severely inhibited than PEPCase. Thus, these results suggest that Hg itself was toxic at all tested concentrations and high light intensity augmented its toxicity in N. muscorum inhibiting the growth, pigment contents and photosynthetic activity of the organism. PMID:22544768

Singh, Ranjana; Dubey, Gunjan; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Sushil; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

2012-11-01

50

Diazocyte development in the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

The establishment of non-diazotrophic cultures of the filamentous marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 enabled the first detailed investigation of the process leading to the development of its unique nitrogen-fixing cell type, the diazocyte. Trichome heterogeneity was apparent already within 3-8 h, while the differentiation of mature diazocytes, containing the nitrogenase enzyme, required 27 h after the removal of combined nitrogen. The distribution of 'pro-diazocytes' within the trichomes correlates with the localization of mature diazocytes, which suggests that pattern regulation is an early event during diazocyte development. The development was initially identified as changes in the subcellular ultrastructure, most notably the degradation of glycogen granules and gas vacuoles. These changes were preceded by the induced expression of the global nitrogen regulator ntcA at an early stage of combined nitrogen deprivation, followed by elevated expression of genes related to nitrogen metabolism and their corresponding proteins. The strongest induction (10-fold) was related to the transcription of the respiratory gene coxB2, apparent already at an early stage, which suggests an important role for respiration and the subsequent energy generation in the subcellular changes found, and in the creation of the reducing environment required for nitrogen fixation in diazocytes. PMID:22053003

Sandh, Gustaf; Xu, Linghua; Bergman, Birgitta

2012-02-01

51

Radiation characteristics and optical properties of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica.  

PubMed

This study presents experimental measurements of the absorption and scattering cross sections and the spectral complex index of refraction of filamentous cyanobacteria. Filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica was chosen as a model organism. Its filaments consisted of long chains of polydisperse cells. Their average mass scattering and absorption cross sections were measured from 400 to 750 nm at four different times during their batch growth in medium BG-11(-N) under 3000 lux of white fluorescent light. The effective real (or refraction index) and imaginary (or absorption index) parts of the complex index of refraction were retrieved using an inverse method based on a genetic algorithm. The microorganisms were modeled as infinitely long and randomly oriented volume-equivalent cylinders. The absorption index featured peaks corresponding to chlorophyll a (Chl a) at 436 and 676 nm and phycocyanin (PCCN) at 630 nm and a shoulder around 480 nm, corresponding to photoprotective carotenoids. The absorption peaks of Chl a and PCCN concentrations increased and the shoulder due to carotenoids decreased in response to photolimitation caused by biomass growth. Subsequent nitrogen limitation caused the PCCN absorption peak to decrease significantly due to degradation of PCCN as an endogenous source of nitrogen for nitrogenase maintenance and synthesis, as confirmed by increasing heterocyst differentiation. The results can be used for predicting and optimizing light transfer in photobioreactors for wastewater treatment and ammonia or biofuel production. PMID:24695147

Heng, Ri-Liang; Lee, Euntaek; Pilon, Laurent

2014-04-01

52

Export of Extracellular Polysaccharides Modulates Adherence of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis  

PubMed Central

The field of cyanobacterial biofuel production is advancing rapidly, yet we know little of the basic biology of these organisms outside of their photosynthetic pathways. We aimed to gain a greater understanding of how the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 (Synechocystis, hereafter) modulates its cell surface. Such understanding will allow for the creation of mutants that autoflocculate in a regulated way, thus avoiding energy intensive centrifugation in the creation of biofuels. We constructed mutant strains lacking genes predicted to function in carbohydrate transport or synthesis. Strains with gene deletions of slr0977 (predicted to encode a permease component of an ABC transporter), slr0982 (predicted to encode an ATP binding component of an ABC transporter) and slr1610 (predicted to encode a methyltransferase) demonstrated flocculent phenotypes and increased adherence to glass. Upon bioinformatic inspection, the gene products of slr0977, slr0982, and slr1610 appear to function in O-antigen (OAg) transport and synthesis. However, the analysis provided here demonstrated no differences between OAg purified from wild-type and mutants. However, exopolysaccharides (EPS) purified from mutants were altered in composition when compared to wild-type. Our data suggest that there are multiple means to modulate the cell surface of Synechocystis by disrupting different combinations of ABC transporters and/or glycosyl transferases. Further understanding of these mechanisms may allow for the development of industrially and ecologically useful strains of cyanobacteria. Additionally, these data imply that many cyanobacterial gene products may possess as-yet undiscovered functions, and are meritorious of further study.

Fisher, Michael L.; Allen, Rebecca; Luo, Yingqin; Curtiss, Roy

2013-01-01

53

A novel nitrite reductase gene from the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum.  

PubMed Central

The gene (nirA) for nitrite reductase was cloned from the nonheterocystous, filamentous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. The predicted protein consists of 654 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 72,135. The deduced amino acid sequence from positions 1 to 511 is strongly similar to the entire sequence of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductases from other phototrophs, while the remainder of the protein is unique to the Plectonema nitrite reductase. The C-terminal portion of the protein (amino acids 584 to 654) is 30 to 35% identical to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins from higher plants and cyanobacteria, with all of the four Cys residues involved in binding of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the ferredoxins being conserved. Immunoblotting analysis of the extracts of P. boryanum cells showed that the NirA polypeptide has an apparent molecular mass of 75 kDa. An insertional mutant of nirA lacked the 75-kDa polypeptide, had no nitrite reductase activity, and failed to grow on nitrate and nitrite, indicating that the novel nirA is the sole nitrite reductase gene in P. boryanum and that the NirA polypeptide with the ferredoxin-like domain is the apoprotein of the functional nitrite reductase. As in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942, nirA is the first gene of a large transcription unit (> 7 kb in size) and is repressed by ammonium and derepressed simply by deprivation of ammonium from the medium. The development of nitrite reductase activity was, however, found to require the presence of nitrate in the medium.

Suzuki, I; Kikuchi, H; Nakanishi, S; Fujita, Y; Sugiyama, T; Omata, T

1995-01-01

54

Oral toxicity of the microcystin-containing cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens in European whitefish ( Coregonus lavaretus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microcystin-producing cyanobacterium Planktothrix is one of the most widespread genera amongst toxin producing cyanobacteria in European lakes. In particular, the metalimnic blooms of Planktothrix rubescens have been associated with growing problems in the professional freshwater fishery as a decrease in yearly yields in the important coregonids fishery often coincides with the appearance of P. rubescens. P. rubescens is a

Bernhard Ernst; Stefan J. Hoeger; Evelyn O’Brien; Daniel R. Dietrich

2006-01-01

55

Accumulation of a peptide toxin from the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii in the freshwater mussel Anadonta cygnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swan mussels (Anodonta cygnea) were exposed to a toxic strain of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii. Mussels accumulated large amounts of the peptide Oscillatoria toxin which was present in low concentrations within the cyanobacterial cells in the test aquaria (40–60 µg Oscillatoria toxin\\/1). The toxin concentration in the mussels increased during the experiment and after 15 days of exposure the concentration

John E. Eriksson; Jussi A. O. Meriluoto; Tore Lindholm

1989-01-01

56

Draft Genome Sequence of the Brazilian Toxic Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Strain SPC777  

PubMed Central

Microcystis aeruginosa strain SPC777 is an important toxin-producing cyanobacterium, isolated from a water bloom of the Billings reservoir (Săo Paulo State, Brazil). Here, we report the draft genome sequence and initial findings from a preliminary analysis of strain SPC777, including several gene clusters involved in nonribosomal and ribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites.

Alvarenga, Danillo O.; Varani, Alessandro M.; Hoff-Risseti, Caroline; Crespim, Elaine; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Silva, Artur; Schaker, Patricia D. C.; Heck, Karina; Rigonato, Janaina; Schneider, Maria Paula C.

2013-01-01

57

Reduction of Photoautotrophic Productivity in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 by Phycobilisome Antenna Truncation  

PubMed Central

Truncation of the algal light-harvesting antenna is expected to enhance photosynthetic productivity. The wild type and three mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 with a progressively smaller phycobilisome antenna were examined under different light and CO2 conditions. Surprisingly, such antenna truncation resulted in decreased whole-culture productivity for this cyanobacterium.

Page, Lawrence E.; Liberton, Michelle

2012-01-01

58

Effect of phosphorus addition on nutrient removal from wastewater with the cyanobacterium Phormidium bohneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and inorganic nutrient removal capacity of the cyanobacterium Phormidium bohneri on domestic wastewater were investigated in outdoor 24-l triangular bioreactors with or without the presence of added inorganic phosphate. While the addition of monopotassium phosphate did result in up to 56% more biomass production and had an influence on the kinetics of the removal of inorganic nutrients, it

G. Laliberté; P. Lessard; J. de la Noüe; S. Sylvestre

1997-01-01

59

Benthic-pelagic coupling in the population dynamics of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. In eutrophic lakes, large amounts of the cyanobacterium Microcystis may overwinter in the sediment and re-inoculate the water column in spring. 2. We monitored changes in pelagic and benthic populations of Microcystis in Lake Volkerak, The Netherlands. In addition, sedimentation rates and the rate of recruitment from the sediment were measured using traps. These data were used to

JOLANDA M. H. V ERSPAGEN; KLAUS D. J OHNK; W. I BELINGS; LUUC R. M UR; J EF H UISMAN

60

Molecular Population Genetics and Phenotypic Diversification of Two Populations of the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distributions of genetic and phenotypic variation for two Yellowstone National Park populations of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Mastigocladus (Fischerella) laminosus that exhibit dra- matic phenotypic differences as a result of environmental differences in nitrogen availability. One population develops heterocysts and fixes nitrogen in situ in response to a deficiency of combined nitrogen in its environment, whereas the other

Scott R. Miller; Michael D. Purugganan; Stephanie E. Curtis

2006-01-01

61

The demise of the marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium spp., via an autocatalyzed cell death pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present experimental laboratory evidence and field observations of an autocatalyzed, programmed cell death (PCD) pathway in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteriumTrichodesmium spp., which forms massive blooms in the subtropical and tropical oceans. The PCD pathway was induced in response to phosphorus and iron starvation as well as high irradiance and oxidative stress. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morpho- logical degradation of internal

Ilana Berman-Frank; Kay D. Bidle; Liti Haramaty; Paul G. Falkowski

2004-01-01

62

Evidence for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prev- alent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville

W. W. CARMICHAEL; W. R. EVANS; Q. Q. YIN; P. BELL; E. MOCZYDLOWSKI

1997-01-01

63

Draft Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. Strain Heron Island J, Exhibiting Chromatic Acclimation.  

PubMed

Leptolyngbya sp. strain Heron Island is a cyanobacterium exhibiting chromatic acclimation. However, this strain has strong interactions with other bacteria, making it impossible to obtain axenic cultures for sequencing. A protocol involving an analysis of tetranucleotide frequencies, G+C content, and BLAST searches has been described for separating the cyanobacterial scaffolds from those of its cooccurring bacteria. PMID:24503993

Paul, Robin; Jinkerson, Robert E; Buss, Kristina; Steel, Jason; Mohr, Remus; Hess, Wolfgang R; Chen, Min; Fromme, Petra

2014-01-01

64

Respiratory activity in the marine cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa and its role in salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular ion concentration and respiratory activity in the marine cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa was analyzed during cell transition from saline to hypersaline medium. During salt upshock, an early phase of Na+ and Cl- influx was observed, followed by an adaptation phase where both Na+ and Cl- were excluded from the cell. Respiration in intact cells was enhanced during salt upshock. S.

Rachel Gabbay-Azaria; Mordechay Schonfeld; Shoshana Tel-Or; Rachel Messinger; Elisha Tel-Or

1992-01-01

65

Sustained ammonia production by immobilized filaments of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena 27893  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole filaments of the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena ATCC 27893 have been immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel beads. In a continuous flow fluidized bed reactor sustained photosynthesis, N2-fixation, and ammonia production have been achieved over a 130 hour period, the longest tested.

Stephan C. Musgrave; Nigel W. Kerby; Geoffrey A. Codd; William D. P. Stewart

1982-01-01

66

Novel surface associated polyphosphate bodies sequester uranium in the filamentous, marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa.  

PubMed

A filamentous, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena torulosa, has been shown to harbour surface associated, acid soluble polyphosphate bodies. Uranium immobilization by such polyphosphate bodies, reported in cyanobacteria for the first time, demonstrates a novel uranium sequestration phenomenon. PMID:23912813

Acharya, Celin; Apte, Shree Kumar

2013-12-01

67

Gene Expression in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 under Desiccation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The N 2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 showed an inherent capacity for desiccation tolerance. A DNA microarray covering almost the entire genome of Anabaena was used to determine the genome-wide gene expression under desiccation. RNA was extracted from cells at intervals starting from early to late desiccation. The pattern of gene expression in DNA fragments was categorized into seven types,

H. Katoh; R. K. Asthana; M. Ohmori

2004-01-01

68

Effect of sulfur starvation on the morphology and ultrastructure of the cyanobacterium Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909 is a unicellular, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium that accumulates sulfate in its sheath. An ultrastructural study of sulfate-deficient and normal Gloeothece sp. PCC 6909 cells was carried out. The physiological alterations, caused by sulfur starvation, were related to important morphological alterations in the cell: a structureless sheath, accumulation of cyanophycin, polyhydroxybutyrate and glycogen granules, and disintegration of thylakoidal

Xavier Arifio; Jose-Julio Ortega-Calvo; Mariona Hernandez-Marine; Cesareo Saiz-Jimenez

1995-01-01

69

The effect of light on the release of organic compounds by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria rubescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of light intensity on the release of dissolved organic carbon during photosynthesis on NaH14CO3 was investigated using the phytoplanktonic CyanobacteriumOscillatoria rubescens. The released products were fractionated by molecular size and chemical identifications attempted using combined thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography, and high pressure liquid chromatography.

M. Feuillade; J. Feuillade; V. Fiala

1990-01-01

70

Major Role of the Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium in Nutrient Cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is a large (about 0.5 by 3 millimeters) phytoplankter that is common in tropical open-ocean waters. Measurements of abundance, plus a review of earlier observations, indicate that it, rather than the picophytoplankton, is the most important primary producer (about 165 milligrams of carbon per square meter per day) in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, nitrogen

Edward J. Carpenter; Kristen Romans

1991-01-01

71

Diversity of the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium: Characterization of the Woods Hole Culture Collection and Quantification of Field Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trichodesmium is a colonial, N2-fixing cyanobacterium found in tropical oceans. Species of Trichodesmium are genetically similar, but several species coexist. In order to coexist, species may occupy different niche spaces through differential utilization ...

A. M. Hynes

2009-01-01

72

TEM Study of Manganese Biosorption by Cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803  

SciTech Connect

The capture of solar energy and its conversion into chemical energy in photosynthetic organisms involves a series of charge reactions across photosynthetic membranes. Oxygen is generated by a proton-electron coupling in photosystem II (PSII) during a water oxidation process where hydrogen is extracted from water terminally bound to a Mn4Ca1Clx inorganic cluster [1]. Manganese is, therefore, an essential catalytic element for photosynthetic growth in cyanobacteria and plants. Since bioavailability of this micronutrient largely depends on the Mn concentration in natural environments, cells have to manage its uptake in order to endure Mn fluctuations. Previous studies have shown that metal biosorption in cyanobacteria can occur by passive adsorption to their outer membrane (pool A), and by metabolically mediated internal uptake [2]. The fresh water cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 has been widely used as a model organism for studying photosynthetic processes. This Gram-negative organism has an intricate architecture of internal thylakoid membranes where photosynthetic electron transfer takes place. Here we report on the spatial distribution of Mn biosorbed by cells in both external pool A and intracellular pool B, as observed and analyzed by methods of TEM. The Synechocystis 6803 cells were cultured in BG11 medium at 30 C with continuous irradiance and constant air bubbling. To determine the influence of solid or liquid Mn substrate and its oxidation state on the cell biosorption ability, cells were exposed to two Mn substrates: 1mM solution of MnCl2, and 0.5mM suspension of nanocrystalline MnO2. Cells were incubated with the respective Mn solutions for 48 hours, harvested, and processed using a modified protocol for plastic embedding of bacterial samples containing minerals that was developed in our laboratory [3]. In order to preserve the fragile redox conditions within the cells, all the common heavy metal-based fixatives and stains were omitted, resulting in cells with very low contrast produced principally by electron-dense manganese precipitates. Thin sections were imaged and analyzed using JEOL 2010 HRTEM coupled with EDS (Oxford) and EELS (Gatan) systems. Manganese uptake was measured using a colorimetric method. Cells incubated with Mn solutions were able to take up about 150uM of Mn(II) or Mn(IV) in 48 hours. The predominant accumulation of Mn was associated with the outer membrane for both Mn substrates. Massive deposits seemed to be related in a large extent to the external polymeric substances (EPS) as shown in Fig. 1A-C. Elemental analyses of these precipitates revealed a signal consistent with manganese phosphate. The potential of EPS such as polysaccharides for biosorption or reduction of metals has been described [4], however, the fact that Mn bound to the EPS withstood multiple washes during TEM sample processing is remarkable. From our work with Gram-negative soil bacteria, we hypothesized that the periplasm, an area between the outer and plasma membrane, might be the storage space for internal Mn in pool B. This phenomenon was not observed at any time point for either culture exposed to the Mn. Instead, thin layers of Mn deposits were often found lining the outer and plasma membrane (F). In the MnCl2 solution only, we also observed fine deposits of Mn precipitates along the thylakoid membranes deep inside the cells (Fig. E). Localization of Mn precipitation sites in Synechocystis has important implications for better understanding of the Mn transport and storage processes within cyanobacterial cells, as well as of metal precipitation, solubilization and cycling in the environment.

Dohnalkova, Alice; Bilskis, Christina L.; Kennedy, David W.

2006-09-01

73

Directed biosynthesis of phytotoxic alkaloids in the cyanobacterium Nostoc 78-12A.  

PubMed

Nostocarboline, a chlorinated and N-methylated carbolinium alkaloid, displays potent and selective inhibition of photoautotrophic organisms as well as the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, while showing very low toxicity to bacterial and fungal pathogens, rat myoblasts and crustaceans. New derivatives of nostocarboline incorporating Br, F or methyl substituents have been obtained through precursor-directed biosynthesis in Nostoc 78-12A (identical to Nostoc sp. ATCC 43238) by feeding this cyanobacterium with differently substituted tryptophan derivatives or 6-Br-norharmane (eudistomin N). These experiments substantiate the biosynthetic hypothesis and validate the inherent flexibility of the corresponding enzymes for metabolic engineering. The new derivatives inhibit the growth of the toxic-bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 above 1 microM. The mode of action of nostocarboline was investigated by using chlorophyll-a fluorescence imaging, and it was demonstrated that a decrease in photosynthesis precedes cell death, thus establishing the phytotoxic properties of this alkaloid. PMID:19263450

Portmann, Cyril; Prestinari, Cora; Myers, Theresa; Scharte, Judith; Gademann, Karl

2009-03-23

74

Bouillonamide: A Mixed Polyketide-Peptide Cytotoxin from the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii  

PubMed Central

The tropical marine cyanobacterium, Moorea bouillonii, has gained recent attention as a rich source of bioactive natural products. Continued chemical investigation of this cyanobacterium, collected from New Britain, Papua New Guinea, yielded a novel cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptide, bouillonamide (1), along with previously reported molecules, ulongamide A and apratoxin A. Planar structure of bouillonamide was established by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including multi-edited HSQC, TOCSY, HBMC, and ROESY experiments. In addition to the presence of ?-amino acid residues, compound 1 contained two unique polyketide-derived moieties, namely a 2-methyl-6-methylamino-hex-5-enoic acid (Mmaha) residue and a unit of 3-methyl-5-hydroxy-heptanoic acid (Mhha). Absolute stereochemistry of the ?-amino acid units in bouillonamide was determined mainly by Marfey’s analysis. Compound 1 exhibited mild toxicity with IC50’s of 6.0 µM against the neuron 2a mouse neuroblastoma cells.

Tan, Lik Tong; Okino, Tatsufumi; Gerwick, William H.

2013-01-01

75

Aeruginazole A, a novel thiazole-containing cyclopeptide from the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp.  

PubMed

A novel thiazole-containing cyclic peptide, aeruginazole A (1), was isolated from the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. strain (IL-323), which was collected from a water reservoir near Kfar-Yehoshua, Valley of Armageddon, Israel. The planar structure of aeruginazole A was established using homonuclear and inverse-heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the asymmetric centers was determined using Marfey's method. Aeruginazole A potently inhibited Bacillus subtilis. PMID:20614868

Raveh, Avi; Carmeli, Shmuel

2010-08-01

76

Phenotype and temperature affect the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon in a cyanobacterium Microcystis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Microcystis is the most common bloom-forming species in eutrophicated water bodies. Known eco-physiological advantages of this organism\\u000a help it to compete effectively with other algae and cyanobacteria; however, little is known about the physiological characteristics\\u000a competence of colonial Microcystis. In the present study, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, the affinity for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and the transcription\\u000a of

Xinghua Wu; Zhongxing Wu; Lirong Song

77

Purification and characterization of phycocyanin from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. IO9201  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a suitable method for the optimum extraction and isolation of phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. IO9201 isolated from Caribbean waters. Phycocyanin from this microorganism was purified to homogeneity and some of its properties were investigated. The purification steps consisted of extraction, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Freezing at ?21°C-thawing at 4°C, using an alkaline

Julio Abalde; Liliana Betancourt; Enrique Torres; Angeles Cid; Clive Barwell

1998-01-01

78

Optimization of Cd 2+ removal by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis pevalekii using the response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to optimize the critical parameters responsible for higher Cd2+ removal by a unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis pevalekii. A three-level Box–Behnken factorial design was used to optimize pH, biomass and metal concentration for Cd2+ removal. A coefficient of determination (R2) value (0.99), model F-value (86.40) and its low p-value (F<0.0001) along with lower value of

J. I. S. Khattar; Shailza

2009-01-01

79

Salinity Tolerance of the Chlorophyll b -synthesizing Cyanobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica Strain SAG 10.89  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecophysiological investigations on the salinity acclimation of the cyanobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica SAG 10.89 led to significantly revised salinity tolerance limits. Besides potential effects of cultivation techniques, clear\\u000a ion composition effects mainly explain formerly described hypersensitivity to NaCl-mediated salinity and lack of osmolyte\\u000a detection. An extraordinarily broad plasticity of cellular chlorophyll a\\/b ratios occurred with variations of NaCl-induced salinity. Photosynthesis characteristics,

Ingo Bergmann; Ulrike Geiß-Brunschweiger; Martin Hagemann; Arne Schoor

2008-01-01

80

Chemical Deterrence of a Marine Cyanobacterium against Sympatric and Non-sympatric Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influence of mesograzer prior exposure to toxic metabolites on palatability of the marine cyanobacterium,\\u000a Lyngbya majuscula. We examined the palatability of L. majuscula crude extract obtained from a bloom in Moreton Bay, South East Queensland, Australia, containing lyngbyatoxin-a (LTA) and\\u000a debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT), to two groups: (1) mesograzers of L. majuscula from Guam where LTA and DAT

Angela Capper; Edwin Cruz-Rivera; Valerie J. Paul; Ian R. Tibbetts

2006-01-01

81

Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spec- trometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification us- ing peptide mass fingerprinting (matrix-assisted laser desorption

Martin Ekman; Petter Tollback; Birgitta Bergman

2008-01-01

82

INORGANIC CARBON REPLETION CONSTRAINS STEADY-STATE LIGHT ACCLIMATION IN THE CYANOBACTERIUM SYNECHOCOCCUS ELONGATUS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria show high metabolic plasticity by re-allocating macromolecular resources in response to variations in both environmental inorganic car- bon (Ci) and light. We grew cultures of the pico- planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Nageli across a 50-fold range of growth irradiance at either a dissolved (Ci) o0.1 mM, sufficient to in- duce strongly the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) or a dissolved (Ci)

Robert A. Burns; Tyler D. B. Mac Kenzie; Douglas A. Campbell

2006-01-01

83

Fossilization of the cells of natronophilic endoevaporite cyanobacterium ‘ Euhalothece natronophila ’ in a modelling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory simulation of fossilization of cyanobacterial cells in the high-carbonate medium in the presence of calcium was\\u000a carried out for the haloalkaliphilic natronophilic cyanobacterium ‘Euhalothece natronophila’ Z-M001. This organism was isolated from the Magadi soda lake, where the bioherms consisting of mineralized coccoid cyanobacteria\\u000a were found in the Quaternary sediments. The structural and chemical heterogeneity of the minerals produced during

O. S. Samylina; L. M. Gerasimenko

2011-01-01

84

An overview of the genome of Nostoc punctiforme , a multicellular, symbiotic cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium with extensive phenotypic characteristics and a relatively large genome, approaching 10 Mb.\\u000a The phenotypic characteristics include a photoautotrophic, diazotrophic mode of growth, but N. punctiforme is also facultatively heterotrophic; its vegetative cells have multiple developmental alternatives, including terminal differentiation\\u000a into nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and transient differentiation into spore-like akinetes or motile filaments called hormogonia;\\u000a and

John C. Meeks; Jeff Elhai; Teresa Thiel; Malcolm Potts; Frank Larimer; Jane Lamerdin; Paul Predki; Ronald Atlas

2001-01-01

85

Isolation and characterization of a dnaK genomic locus in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cloned and characterized a genomic locus encoding a distinct member of the DnaK\\/Hsp70 family of molecular chaperones, dnaK1, from the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica. Co-expression of dnaK1 with a plant plastocyanin precursor in Escherichia coli resulted in a dramatic increase in the solubility of the plant protein. This indicates that A. halophytica dnaK1 encodes a functional protein possessing functions

Byung Hyun Lee; Takashi Hibino; Jinki Jo; Alejandro M. Viale; Teruhiro Takabe

1997-01-01

86

Climate change affects timing and size of populations of an invasive cyanobacterium in temperate regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, an invasive freshwater cyanobacterium, originated from the tropics but has spread to temperate zones over the last few decades.\\u000a Its northernmost populations in Europe occur in North German lakes. How such dramatic changes in its biogeography are possible\\u000a and how its population dynamics in the newly invaded habitats are regulated are still unexplained. We therefore conducted\\u000a a long-term

Claudia Wiedner; Jacqueline Rücker; Rainer Brüggemann; Brigitte Nixdorf

2007-01-01

87

Genetic analysis of natural populations of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of Trichodesmium, a marine nitrogen-fixing non-heterocystous cyanobacterium of great ecological importance, was examined using the partial gene sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rDNA) gene and the regulatory gene hetR. Different species and morphotypes (fusiform and spherical colonies) of Trichodesmium were collected in the northern Caribbean Sea, the central Atlantic Ocean and southern Pacific Ocean.

Sven Janson; Birgitta Bergman; Edward J. Carpenter; Stephen J. Giovannoni; Kevin Vergin

1999-01-01

88

Effects of a Simulated Martian UV Flux on the Cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried monolayers of Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029, a desiccation-tolerant, endolithic cyanobacterium, were exposed to a simulated martian-surface UV and visible light flux, which may also approximate to the worst-case scenario for the Archean Earth. After 5 min, there was a 99% loss of cell viability, and there were no survivors after 30 min. However, this survival was approximately 10 times higher

Charles S. Cockell; Andrew C. Schuerger; Daniela Billi; E. Imre Friedmann; Corinna Panitz

2005-01-01

89

The response of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis to salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis to increased NaCl concentrations (0.25–1.0 M) in addition to the concentration of sodium in the growth medium were studied. A two stage response to the salt stress was observed. This consisted of a relatively short shock stage, followed by adaptation process. It was shown that upon exposure to high salt concentrations of

Avigad Vonshak; Rachel Guy; Micha Guy

1988-01-01

90

Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m² basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input

Yoshitomo Watanabe; D. O. Hall; J. De La Nouee

1995-01-01

91

A New UV-A/B Protecting Pigment in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

A new ultraviolet (UV)-A/B absorbing pigment with maxima at 312 and 330 nanometers from the cosmopolitan terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is described. The pigment is found in high amounts (up to 10% of dry weight) in colonies grown under solar UV radiation but only in low concentrations in laboratory cultures illuminated by artificial light without UV. Its experimental induction by UV as well as its capacity to efficiently protect Nostoc against UV radiation is reported. PMID:16666420

Scherer, S; Chen, T W; Böger, P

1988-12-01

92

New antibacterial metabolites from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune(EAWAG 122b).  

PubMed

Two new compounds, a diterpenoid and an anthraquinone, as well as an indane derivative, which is reported as a natural product for the first time, have been isolated from the cells of the cultured cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (EAWAG 122b) by means of bioguided isolation. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR, infrared spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All isolates exhibit antibacterial activity. PMID:11000038

Jaki, B; Heilmann, J; Sticher, O

2000-09-01

93

A New UV-A/B Protecting Pigment in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune1  

PubMed Central

A new ultraviolet (UV)-A/B absorbing pigment with maxima at 312 and 330 nanometers from the cosmopolitan terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is described. The pigment is found in high amounts (up to 10% of dry weight) in colonies grown under solar UV radiation but only in low concentrations in laboratory cultures illuminated by artificial light without UV. Its experimental induction by UV as well as its capacity to efficiently protect Nostoc against UV radiation is reported.

Scherer, S.; Chen, T.W.; Boger, P.

1988-01-01

94

The extracellular-matrix-retaining cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum accumulates trehalose, but is sensitive to desiccation.  

PubMed

The aquatic cyanobacterium Nostoc verrucosum forms macroscopic colonies, which consist of both cellular filaments and massive extracellular matrix material. In this study, the physiological features of N. verrucosum were investigated and compared with those of the anhydrobiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Nostoc verrucosum cells were sensitive to desiccation, but tolerant of freeze-thawing treatment in terms of both cell viability and photosynthetic O(2) evolution. Natural colonies of these cyanobacteria contained similar levels of chlorophyll a, carotenoids, the UV-absorbing pigments scytonemin and mycosporine-like amino acids, and uronic acid [a component of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS)]. EPS from both N. verrucosum and N. commune indicated low acidity and a high affinity for divalent cations, although their sugar compositions differed. The WspA protein, known to be a major component of the extracellular matrix of N. commune, was detected in N. verrucosum. Desiccation caused similarly high levels of trehalose accumulation in both cyanobacteria. Although previously considered relevant to anhydrobiosis in the terrestrial cyanobacterium N. commune, the data presented here suggest that extracellular matrix production and trehalose accumulation are not enough for standing extreme desiccation in N. verrucosum. PMID:21507024

Sakamoto, Toshio; Kumihashi, Keisuke; Kunita, Shinpei; Masaura, Takuya; Inoue-Sakamoto, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Masaaki

2011-08-01

95

A new chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacterium: evidence for niche adaptation in the genus Acaryochloris.  

PubMed

Chlorophyll d is a photosynthetic pigment that, based on chemical analyses, has only recently been recognized to be widespread in oceanic and lacustrine environments. However, the diversity of organisms harbouring this pigment is not known. Until now, the unicellular cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only characterized organism that uses chlorophyll d as a major photopigment. In this study we describe a new cyanobacterium possessing a high amount of chlorophyll d, which was isolated from waters around Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef (23° 26' 31.2? S, 151° 54' 50.4? E). The 16S ribosomal RNA is 2% divergent from the two previously described isolates of A. marina, which were isolated from waters around the Palau islands (Pacific Ocean) and the Salton Sea lake (California), suggesting that it belongs to a different clade within the genus Acaryochloris. An overview sequence analysis of its genome based on Illumina technology yielded 871 contigs with an accumulated length of 8?371?965?nt. Their analysis revealed typical features associated with Acaryochloris, such as an extended gene family for chlorophyll-binding proteins. However, compared with A. marina MBIC11017, distinct genetic, morphological and physiological differences were observed. Light saturation is reached at lower light intensities, Chl d/a ratios are less variable with light intensity and the phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is lacking, suggesting that cyanobacteria of the genus Acaryochloris occur in distinct ecotypes. These data characterize Acaryochloris as a niche-adapted cyanobacterium and show that more rigorous attempts are worthwhile to isolate, cultivate and analyse chlorophyll d-containing cyanobacteria for understanding the ecophysiology of these organisms. PMID:20505751

Mohr, Remus; Voss, Björn; Schliep, Martin; Kurz, Thorsten; Maldener, Iris; Adams, David G; Larkum, Anthony D W; Chen, Min; Hess, Wolfgang R

2010-11-01

96

In vitro activation of dinitrogenase reductase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis (ATCC 29413).  

PubMed Central

Nitrogenase of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis was inactivated in vivo (S. Reich, H. Almon, and P. Böger, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 34:53-56, 1986). Partially purified and modified (inactivated) dinitrogenase reductase (Fe-protein) of such cells was reactivated by isolated membrane fractions of A. variabilis or of Rhodospirillum rubrum, and acetylene reduction was measured. Reactivation requires ATP, Mg2+, and Mn2+. The activating principle is localized in the heterocyst and was found effective only when prepared from cells exhibiting active nitrogenase. It also restores the activity of modified Fe-protein from R. rubrum.

Bohm, I; Halbherr, A; Smaglinski, S; Ernst, A; Boger, P

1992-01-01

97

Intramolecular Modulation of Serine Protease Inhibitor Activity in a Marine Cyanobacterium with Antifeedant Properties  

PubMed Central

Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many serine protease inhibitors. Further chemical and NMR spectroscopic investigation led us to isolate and structurally characterize a new serine protease inhibitor 1 that is formally derived from an intramolecular condensation of largamide D (2). The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested. This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors.

Matthew, Susan; Ratnayake, Ranjala; Becerro, Mikel A.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2010-01-01

98

Photosynthetic production of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a cone-shaped helical tubular photobioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosynthetic productivity of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was investigated in a cone-shaped helical tubular photobioreactor. A laboratory-scale photobioreactor was constructed with a 0.255-m2 basal area and a conical shape (0.64rm highǴ.57rm top diameter). The photostage comprised transparent reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing with spirally wound, metal-wire reinforcing in the tubing wall (31rm in length and 1.6rcm internal diameter

Y. Watanabe; D. O. Hall

1996-01-01

99

Aerobic hydrogen accumulation by a nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen evolution by a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain N-7363, was tested in order to develop a water biophotolysis system under aerobic conditions. A culture of the strain supplemented with carbon dioxide under an air atmosphere evolved hydrogen and oxygen gas, which reached final concentrations of 9.7 and 69.8%, respectively, after 12 days of incubation. Hydrogen uptake activity was not observed during incubation, and nitrogenase was thought to be the sole enzyme responsible for the hydrogen evolution.

Asada, Y.; Kawamura, S.

1986-05-01

100

Inhibitory effect of petroleum oil on photosynthetic electron transport system in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum  

SciTech Connect

Virtually nothing is known about the site of action of oil and the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport, a process responsible for the generation of ATP and NADPH, which are essential for carbon fixation. The present study was an attempt to learn something about these aspects. The influence of diesel on photosynthetic O{sub 2}-evolution, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation, and electron transport system has been examined in Anabaena doliolum, a heterocystous cyanobacterium. A. doliolum and other heterocystous cyanobacteria are widely distributed in soil and aquatic ecosystems, and represent an important group of free-living nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

Singh, A.K.; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

1991-12-01

101

Complete Genomic Sequence of the Filamentous Nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of a filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, was determined. The genome of Anabaena consisted of a single chromosome (6,413,771 bp) and six plasmids, designated pCC7120? (408,101 bp), pCC7120? (186,614 bp), pCC7120? (101,965 bp), pCC7120? (55,414 bp), pCC7120? (40,340 bp), and pCC7120? (5,584 bp). The chromosome bears 5368 po- tential protein-encoding genes,

Takakazu Kaneko; Yasukazu Nakamura; C. Peter Wolk; Tanya Kuritz; Shigemi Sasamoto; Akiko Watanabe; Mayumi Iriguchi; Atsuko Ishikawa; Kumiko Kawashima; Takaharu Kimura; Yoshie Kishida; Mitsuyo Kohara; Midori Matsumoto; Ai Matsuno; Akiko Muraki; Naomi Nakazaki; Sayaka Shimpo; Masako Sugimoto; Masaki Takazawa; Manabu Yamada; Miho Yasuda; Satoshi Tabata

2001-01-01

102

Mechanisms to avoid photoinhibition in a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

A desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, shows unique responses to dehydration. These responses are: (i) loss of PSII activity in parallel with the loss of photosynthesis; (ii) loss of PSI activity; and (iii) dissipation of light energy absorbed by pigment-protein complexes. In this study, the deactivation of PSII is shown to be important in avoiding photoinhibition when the Calvin-Benson cycle is repressed by dehydration. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that dissipation of light energy absorbed by PSII blocks photoinhibition under strong light in dehydrated states. PMID:18252733

Fukuda, Shin-ya; Yamakawa, Ruriko; Hirai, Manabu; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

2008-03-01

103

A novel extracellular diterpenoid with antibacterial activity from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

A novel extracellular metabolite with an unprecedented diterpenoid skeleton, 8-[(5-carboxy-2-hydroxy)benzyl]-2-hydroxy-1,1,4a,7, 8-pentamethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-dodecahydrophenanthrene , has been isolated from the culture medium of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune Vaucher (EAWAG 122b) by means of bioguided isolation. The molecule was designated as noscomin. The structure was determined by spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR and mass spectrometry. Noscomin exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:10096870

Jaki, B; Orjala, J; Sticher, O

1999-03-01

104

Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in Geosiphon pyriforme (Kützing) F. v. Wettstein, an endosymbiotic association of fungus and cyanobacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geosiphon pyriforme, an endosymbiotic association between a fungus and the cyanobacterium Nostoc, was shown by tracer studies to acquire carbon photosynthetically from CO2 or bicarbonate. The organism also fixes inorganic carbon in darkness, at lower rates than in the light. The patterns of label distribution are indicative of the operation of the reductive pentose-phosphate pathway in the light and of

Manfred Kluge; Dieter Mollenhauer; Resi Mollenhauer

1991-01-01

105

Transcriptional analysis of the jamaicamide gene cluster from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula and identification of possible regulatory proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula is a prolific producer of bioactive secondary metabolites. Although biosynthetic gene clusters encoding several of these compounds have been identified, little is known about how these clusters of genes are transcribed or regulated, and techniques targeting genetic manipulation in Lyngbya strains have not yet been developed. We conducted transcriptional analyses of the jamaicamide gene

Adam C Jones; Lena Gerwick; David Gonzalez; Pieter C Dorrestein; William H Gerwick

2009-01-01

106

The Biology of a New Gas-Vacuolate Cyanobacterium, Dactylococcopsis salina sp.nov., in Solar Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gas-vacuolate microorganisms have been found in Solar Lake, a stratified heliothermal saline pool in Sinai. The most abundant of these organisms is a new cyanobacterium Dactylococcopsis salina. It has been isolated and grown in a defined culture medium, and its biology has been studied in the lake throughout two annual periods of stratification. The Dactylococcopsis dominated the lake plankton

A. E. Walsby; J. van Rijn; Y. Cohen

1983-01-01

107

An empirically derived protocol for the detection of blooms of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium using CZCS imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protocol was developed for use with Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery to detect blooms of the N2 fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. The protocol takes into account two optical characteristics of Trichodesmium blooms–a high reflectivity due to the presence of gas vacuoles and an absorption feature at 550nm due to the accessory pigment phycoerythrin. It is suggested that the combination

A. Subramaniam; E. J. Carpenter

1994-01-01

108

Structure of Trichamide, a Cyclic Peptide from the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, Predicted from the Genome Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new small cyclic peptide, dubbed trichamide, was discovered in the genome of the global, bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ISM101 because of striking similarities to the previously characterized patellamide biosynthesis cluster. The tri cluster consists of a precursor peptide gene containing the amino acid sequence for mature trichamide, a putative heterocycliza- tion

Sebastian Sudek; Margo G. Haygood; Diaa T. A. Youssef; Eric W. Schmidt

2006-01-01

109

Aerobic nitrogenase activity measured as acetylene reduction in the marine non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. grown under artificial conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic nitrogenase activity in the marine non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. NIBB 1067, isolated off the Izu Peninsula, Japan in 1983 and grown under artificial conditions, was assayed by the acetylene reduction method. This strain exhibited acetylene reduction activity under aerobic conditions when cells had been grown in the medium free of combined nitrogen. Activity was markedly enhanced by light, and

K. Ohki; Y. Fujita

1988-01-01

110

Circadian Rhythm of Nitrogenase Gene Expression in the Diazotrophic Filamentous Nonheterocystous Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. Strain IMS 101  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggested that the daily cycle of nitrogen fixation activity in the marine filamentous nonhet- erocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. is controlled by a circadian rhythm. In this study, we evaluated the rhythm of nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium sp. strain IMS 101 by using the three criteria for an endogenous rhythm. Nitrogenase transcript abundance oscillated with a period of approximately

YI-BU CHEN; BENNY DOMINIC; MARK T. MELLON; JONATHAN P. ZEHR

1998-01-01

111

Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad.  

PubMed

Natural substances offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development with regard to broad spectrum antiviral properties and novel modes of action. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital herpetic infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug-resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. A nontoxic cyanobacterium Arthrospira strain from Chad has been characterized by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the phycocyanin gene. This cyanobacterium was identified as Arthrospira fusiformis by phylogenetic tree analysis. The antiherpetic activity of crude aqueous extracts from the Chad A. fusiformis isolate was determined. Antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex virus of cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract was assessed in plaque reduction assays and their mode of antiherpetic action was analysed. In virus suspension assays, cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract inhibited virus infectivity by 54.9%, 64.6%, and 99.8%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of cyanobacterial extracts separately at different time periods during the viral infection cycle. Extracts of A. fusiformis strain clearly inhibited herpesvirus multiplication before and during virus infection of host cells. The phosphate buffer extract of the A. fusiformis strain affected free herpes simplex virus prior to infection of host cells and inhibited intracellular viral replication. It is concluded, that Arthrospira compounds warrant further investigation to examine their potential role in the treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:23802437

Sharaf, M; Amara, A; Aboul-Enein, A; Helmi, S; Ballot, A; Schnitzler, P

2013-05-01

112

Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms  

PubMed Central

Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program.

Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

2014-01-01

113

Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142  

SciTech Connect

Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ,30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for,5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

Stockel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2011-02-22

114

Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of a Unicellular N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Revealed by Electron Tomography  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

Liberton, Michelle L.; Austin, Jotham R.; Berg, R. H.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2011-04-01

115

Discovery of an Endosymbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium UCYN-A in Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae)  

PubMed Central

Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae) is a coastal coccolithophore with a long fossil record, extending back to the late Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma). A recent study revealed close phylogenetic relationships between B. bigelowii, Chrysochromulina parkeae (Prymnesiophyceae), and a prymnesiophyte that forms a symbiotic association with the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A. In order to further examine these relationships, we conducted transmission electron microscopic and molecular phylogenetic studies of B. bigelowii. TEM studies showed that, in addition to organelles, such as the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria, B. bigelowii contains one or two spheroid bodies with internal lamellae. In the 18S rDNA tree of the Prymnesiophyceae, C. parkeae fell within the B. bigelowii clade, and was close to B. bigelowii Genotype III (99.89% similarity). Plastid 16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were close to the unidentified sequences from the oligotrophic SE Pacific Ocean (e.g. HM133411) (99.86% similarity). Bacterial16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were identical to the UCYN-A sequence AY621693 from Arabian Sea, and fell in the UCYN-A clade. From these results, we suggest that; 1) C. parkeae is the alternate life cycle stage of B. bigelowii sensu stricto or that of a sibling species of B. bigelowii, and 2) the spheroid body of B. bigelowii originated from endosymbiosis of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A.

Hagino, Kyoko; Onuma, Ryo; Kawachi, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Takeo

2013-01-01

116

Viridamides A and B, lipodepsipeptides with antiprotozoal activity from the marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria nigro-viridis.  

PubMed

Parallel chemical and phylogenetic investigation of a marine cyanobacterium from Panama led to the isolation of two new PKS-NRPS-derived compounds, viridamides A and B. Their structures were determined by NMR and mass spectroscopic methods, and the absolute configurations assigned by Marfey's method and chiral HPLC analysis. In addition to six standard, N-methylated amino and hydroxy acids, these metabolites contained the structurally novel 5-methoxydec-9-ynoic acid moiety and an unusual proline methyl ester terminus. Morphologically, this cyanobacterium was identified as Oscillatoria nigro-viridis, and its 16S rDNA sequence is reported here for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequence data has identified O. nigro-viridis strain OSC3L to be closely related to two other marine cyanobacterial genera, Trichodesmium and Blennothrix. Viridamide A showed antitrypanosomal activity with an IC50 of 1.1 microM and antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 1.5 microM. PMID:18715036

Simmons, T Luke; Engene, Niclas; Ureńa, Luis David; Romero, Luz I; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H

2008-09-01

117

Quantum yields for oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica  

PubMed Central

A comparison of the quantum yield spectra of the oxygenic (H2O as the electron donor) with the anoxygenic (H2S as the electron donor) photosynthesis of the cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria limnetica reveals that anoxygenic photosynthesis is driven by photosystem I only. The highest quantum yields of the latter (maximum; 0.059 CO2 molecules/quantum of absorbed light) were obtained with wavelengths which preferentially excite photosystem I (<550, >650) in which chlorophyll a and carotenoids are the major pigments. The addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea had no effect on anoxygenic photosynthesis, and no enhancement in quantum efficiency was observed by a superimposition of light preferentially exciting photosystem II. Oxygenic photosynthesis efficiently utilizes only a narrow range of the absorption spectrum (550-650 nm) where light is provided in excess to photosystem II via phycocyanin. The quantum yield (0.033 CO2 molecules/quantum of absorbed light) is lower than the theoretical yield by a factor of 3, possibly due to inefficient light transfer from photosystem II to I. Thus, 3-fold enhancement of oxygenic photosynthesis by superimposition of photosystem I light, and low quantum yields for anoxygenic photosynthesis, were obtained in this region. These results are consonant with the suggestion that such a cyanobacterium represents an intermediate stage in phototrophic evolution.

Oren, A.; Padan, E.; Avron, M.

1977-01-01

118

New Structural Variants of Aeruginosin Produced by the Toxic Bloom Forming Cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena  

PubMed Central

Nodularia spumigena is a filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium that forms blooms in brackish water bodies. This cyanobacterium produces linear and cyclic peptide protease inhibitors which are thought to be part of a chemical defense against grazers. Here we show that N. spumigena produces structurally novel members of the aeruginosin family of serine protease inhibitors. Extensive chemical analyses including NMR demonstrated that the aeruginosins are comprised of an N-terminal short fatty acid chain, L-Tyr, L-Choi and L-argininal and in some cases pentose sugar. The genome of N. spumigena CCY9414 contains a compact 18-kb aeruginosin gene cluster encoding a peptide synthetase with a reductive release mechanism which offloads the aeruginosins as reactive peptide aldehydes. Analysis of the aeruginosin and spumigin gene clusters revealed two different strategies for the incorporation of N-terminal protecting carboxylic acids. These results demonstrate that strains of N. spumigena produce aeruginosins and spumigins, two families of structurally similar linear peptide aldehydes using separate peptide synthetases. The aeruginosins were chemically diverse and we found 11 structural variants in 16 strains from the Baltic Sea and Australia. Our findings broaden the known structural diversity of the aeruginosin peptide family to include peptides with rare N-terminal short chain (C2–C10) fatty acid moieties.

Paukku, Eeva; Osterholm, Julia; Wahlsten, Matti; Permi, Perttu; Aitio, Olli; Rouhiainen, Leo; Gomez-Saez, Gonzalo V.; Sivonen, Kaarina

2013-01-01

119

Aluminum effects on uptake and metabolism of phosphorus by the Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum severely affects the growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica and induces symptoms indicating phosphorus starvation. Pre- or post-treating the cells with high (90 micromolar) phosphorus reduces the toxicity of aluminum compared to cells receiving a lower orthophosphate concentration. In this study aluminum (ranging from 9 to 36 micromolar) and phosphorus concentrations were chosen so that the precipitation of insoluble AlPO/sub 4/ never exceeded 10% of the total phosphate concentration. The uptake of /sup 32/P-phosphorus is not disturbed by aluminium either at high (100 micromolar) or low (10 micromolar) concentrations of phosphate. Also, the rapid accumulation of polyphosphate granules in cells exposed to aluminum indicates that the incorporation of phosphate is not disturbed. However, a significant decrease in the mobilization of the polyphosphates is observed, as is a lowered activity of the enzyme acid phosphatase, in aluminum treated cells. We conclude that aluminum acts on the intracellular metabolism of phosphate, which eventually leads to phosphorus starvation rather than on its uptake in the cyanobacterium A. cylindrica.

Pettersson, A.; Haellbom, L. Bergman, B.

1988-01-01

120

Crucial Role of Extracellular Polysaccharides in Desiccation and Freezing Tolerance in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to evolve O2 rapidly recovered after rehydration. The air-dried colonies contained approximately 10% (wt/wt) water, and field-isolated, natural colonies with EPS were highly water absorbent and were rapidly hydrated by atmospheric moisture. The cells embedded in EPS in Nostoc colonies were highly desiccation tolerant, and O2 evolution was not damaged by air drying. Although N. commune was determined to be a mesophilic cyanobacterium, the cells with EPS were heat tolerant in a desiccated state. EPS could be removed from cells by homogenizing colonies with a blender and filtering with coarse filter paper. This treatment to remove EPS did not damage Nostoc cells or their ability to evolve O2, but O2 evolution was significantly damaged by desiccation treatment of the EPS-depleted cells. Similar to the EPS-depleted cells, the laboratory culture strain KU002 had only small amount of EPS and was highly sensitive to desiccation. In the EPS-depleted cells, O2 evolution was also sensitive to freeze-thaw treatment. These results strongly suggest that EPS of N. commune is crucial for the stress tolerance of photosynthesis during desiccation and during freezing and thawing.

Tamaru, Yoshiyuki; Takani, Yayoi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Toshio

2005-01-01

121

Crucial role of extracellular polysaccharides in desiccation and freezing tolerance in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and has a cosmopolitan distribution. In this study, the role of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in the desiccation tolerance of photosynthesis in N. commune was examined. Although photosynthetic O2 evolution was not detected in desiccated colonies, the ability of the cells to evolve O2 rapidly recovered after rehydration. The air-dried colonies contained approximately 10% (wt/wt) water, and field-isolated, natural colonies with EPS were highly water absorbent and were rapidly hydrated by atmospheric moisture. The cells embedded in EPS in Nostoc colonies were highly desiccation tolerant, and O2 evolution was not damaged by air drying. Although N. commune was determined to be a mesophilic cyanobacterium, the cells with EPS were heat tolerant in a desiccated state. EPS could be removed from cells by homogenizing colonies with a blender and filtering with coarse filter paper. This treatment to remove EPS did not damage Nostoc cells or their ability to evolve O2, but O2 evolution was significantly damaged by desiccation treatment of the EPS-depleted cells. Similar to the EPS-depleted cells, the laboratory culture strain KU002 had only small amount of EPS and was highly sensitive to desiccation. In the EPS-depleted cells, O2 evolution was also sensitive to freeze-thaw treatment. These results strongly suggest that EPS of N. commune is crucial for the stress tolerance of photosynthesis during desiccation and during freezing and thawing. PMID:16269775

Tamaru, Yoshiyuki; Takani, Yayoi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Toshio

2005-11-01

122

Novel thermostable glycosidases in the extracellular matrix of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Nostoc commune is adapted to the terrestrial environment and forms a visible colony in which the cells are embedded in extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which play a crucial role in the extreme desiccation tolerance of this organism. When natural colonies were immersed in water, degradation of the colonies occurred within 2 days and N. commune cells were released into the water. The activities that hydrolyze glycoside bonds in various N. commune fractions were examined using artificial nitrophenyl-linked sugars as substrates. A beta-D-glucosidase purified from the water-soluble fraction was resistant to 20 min of boiling. The beta-D-glucosidase, with a molecular mass of 20 kDa, was identified as a cyanobacterial fasciclin protein based on its N-terminal amino-acid sequence. The 36-kDa major protein in the water-soluble fraction was purified, and the N-terminal amino-acid sequence of the protein was found to be identical to that of the water-stress protein (WspA) of N. commune. This WspA protein also showed heat-resistant beta-D-galactosidase activity. The fasciclin protein and WspA in the extracellular matrix may play a role in the hydrolysis of the EPSs surrounding the cells, possibly as an aid in the dispersal of cells, thus expanding the colonies of this cyanobacterium. PMID:19029765

Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed; Kuzuha, Satomi; Takani, Yayoi; Sakamoto, Toshio

2008-10-01

123

Halotolerant Cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica Contains NapA-Type Na+\\/H+ Antiporters with Novel Ion Specificity That Are Involved in Salt Tolerance at Alkaline pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphanothece halophytica is a halotolerant alkaliphilic cyanobacterium which can grow at NaCl concentrations up to 3.0 M and at pH values up to 11. The genome sequence revealed that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 contains five putative Na\\/H antiporters, two of which are homologous to NhaP of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and three of which are homologous to NapA of

Nuchanat Wutipraditkul; Rungaroon Waditee; Aran Incharoensakdi; Takashi Hibino; Yoshito Tanaka; Tatsunosuke Nakamura; Masamitsu Shikata; Tetsuko Takabe; Teruhiro Takabe

2005-01-01

124

Metabolism of phenanthrene by the marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6.  

PubMed Central

Under photoautotrophic growth conditions, the marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 metabolized phenanthrene to form trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) and 1-methoxyphenanthrene as the major ethyl acetate-extractable metabolites. Small amounts of phenanthrols were also formed. The metabolites were purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified from their UV, infrared, mass, and proton magnetic resonance spectral properties. A. quadruplicatum PR-6 formed phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol with a 22% enantiomeric excess of the (-)-9S,10S-enantiomer. Incorporation experiments with 18O2 showed that one atom of oxygen from O2 was incorporated into the dihydrodiol. Toxicity studies, using an algal lawn bioassay, indicated that 9-phenanthrol and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone inhibit the growth of A. quadruplicatum PR-6.

Narro, M L; Cerniglia, C E; Van Baalen, C; Gibson, D T

1992-01-01

125

[Photocontrol of the synthesis of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin in the cyanobacterium Calothrix crustacea Schousboe].  

PubMed

Chlorophyll a and phycocyanin synthesis in the cyanobacterium Calothrix crustacea Schousboe (ecophene Rivularia bullata) have been studied in white light after the application of red and green light pulses. The light quality produces a complementary pattern in the pigment synthesis. Chlorophyll synthesis is stimulated by red light pulses whereas phycocyanin synthesis is by green light pulses. Because the effect of red light on chlorophyll synthesis shows some far-red photoreversibility, the action of phytochrome is proposed. The green light effect on phycocyanin synthesis is only partially reversed by far-red light. This reversion is lost after incubation in white light for two hours. The effect of green light on phycocyanin synthesis could not only be due to phytochrome since theoretically in green light the level of the active form of phytochrome is lower than in red light. Thus, the action of a specific green light photoreceptor is proposed. PMID:1798852

Luzardo, A D; Niell, F X; López-Figueroa, F

1991-09-01

126

Growth and biopigment accumulation of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis at different light intensities and temperature  

PubMed Central

In order to find out optimum culture condition for algal growth, the effect of light irradiance and temperature on growth rate, biomass composition and pigment production of Spirulina platensis were studied in axenic batch cultures. Growth kinetics of cultures showed a wide range of temperature tolerance from 20 °C to 40 °C. Maximum growth rate, cell production with maximum accumulation of chlorophyll and phycobilliproteins were found at temperature 35 °C and 2,000 lux light intensity. But with further increase in temperature and light intensity, reduction in growth rate was observed. Carotenoid content was found maximum at 3,500 lux. Improvement in the carotenoid content with increase in light intensity is an adaptive mechanism of cyanobacterium S.platensis for photoprotection, could be a good basis for the exploitation of microalgae as a source of biopigments.

Kumar, Manoj; Kulshreshtha, Jyoti; Singh, Gajendra Pal

2011-01-01

127

Live Cell Chemical Profiling of Temporal Redox Dynamics in a Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium  

SciTech Connect

Protein reduction-oxidation (redox) modification is an important mechanism that allows microorganisms to sense environmental changes and initiate cellular responses. We have developed a quantitative chemical probe approach for live cell labeling of proteins that are sensitive to redox modifications. We utilize this in vivo strategy to identify 176 proteins undergoing ~5-10 fold dynamic redox change in response to nutrient limitation and subsequent replenishment in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We detect redox changes in as little as 30 seconds after nutrient perturbation, and oscillations in reduction and oxidation for 60 minutes following the perturbation. Many of the proteins undergoing dynamic redox transformations participate in the major components for the production (photosystems and electron transport chains) or consumption (Calvin-Benson cycle and protein synthesis) of reductant and/or energy in photosynthetic organisms. Thus, our in vivo approach reveals new redox-susceptible proteins, in addition to validating those previously identified in vitro.

Sadler, Natalie C.; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Serres, Margrethe H.; Merkley, Eric D.; Chrisler, William B.; Hill, Eric A.; Romine, Margaret F.; Kim, Sangtae; Zink, Erika M.; Datta, Suchitra; Smith, Richard D.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Wright, Aaron T.

2014-01-01

128

Metabolism of phenanthrene by the marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6  

SciTech Connect

Under photoautotrophic growth conditions, the marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 metabolized phenanthrene to form trans-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol) and 1-methoxyphenanthrene as the major ethyl acetate-extractable metabolites. Small amounts of phenanthrols were also formed. The metabolites were purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and identified from their UV, infrared, mass and proton magnetic resonance spectral properties. A. quadruplicatum PR-6 formed phenanthrene trans-9,10-dihydrodiol with a 22% enantiomeric excess of the ({minus})-9S,10S-enantiomer. Incorporation experiments with {sup 18}O{sub 2} showed that one atom of oxygen from O{sub 2} was incorporated into the dihydrodiol. Toxicity studies, using an algal lawn bioassay, indicated that 9-phenanthrol and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone inhibit the growth of A. quadruplicatum PR-6.

Narro, M.L.; Baalen, C. van (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Inst., Port Aransas (United States)); Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States)); Gibson, D.T. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States))

1992-04-01

129

The hmp chemotaxis cluster regulates gliding in the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.  

PubMed

Many bacteria are capable of movement over surfaces without flagella or pili; they glide. Nostoc punctiforme is a cyanobacterium that differentiates specialized gliding filaments called hormogonia, but the mechanism underlying their movement is currently unknown. Risser et al. characterize the hormogonia motility and polysaccharide (hmp) locus that encodes proteins homologous to well-studied chemotaxis systems. All but one of the genes in the locus were required for gliding motility and each protein localized as a ring near the cell junction. One protein, the CheA homologue HmpE, was capable of autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to the CheY homologue HmpB. This study reveals the hmp locus as an important regulator of gliding and highlights N.?punctiforme as a model for understanding gliding motility in a complex multicellular bacterium. PMID:24589302

Cozy, Loralyn M; Callahan, Sean M

2014-04-01

130

Physical genome map of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002.  

PubMed Central

A physical restriction map of the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 was assembled from AscI, NotI, SalI, and SfiI digests of intact genomic DNA separated on a contour-clamped homogeneous electric field pulsed-field gel electrophoresis system. An average genome size of 2.7 x 10(6) bp was calculated from 21 NotI, 37 SalI, or 27 SfiI fragments obtained by the digestions. The genomic map was assembled by using three different strategies: linking clone analysis, pulsed-field fragment hybridization, and individual clone hybridization to singly and doubly restriction-digested large DNA fragments. The relative positions of 21 genes or operons were determined, and these data suggest that the gene order is not highly conserved between Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 and Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Images

Chen, X; Widger, W R

1993-01-01

131

Live cell chemical profiling of temporal redox dynamics in a photoautotrophic cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

Protein reduction-oxidation (redox) modification is an important mechanism that allows microorganisms to sense environmental changes and initiate cellular responses. We have developed a quantitative chemical probe approach for live cell labeling and imaging of proteins that are sensitive to redox modifications. We utilize this in vivo strategy to identify 176 proteins undergoing ?5-10-fold dynamic redox change in response to nutrient limitation and subsequent replenishment in the photoautotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We detect redox changes in as little as 30 s after nutrient perturbation and oscillations in reduction and oxidation for 60 min following the perturbation. Many of the proteins undergoing dynamic redox transformations participate in the major components for the production (photosystems and electron transport chains) or consumption (Calvin-Benson cycle and protein synthesis) of reductant and/or energy in photosynthetic organisms. Thus, our in vivo approach reveals new redox-susceptible proteins and validates those previously identified in vitro. PMID:24168666

Sadler, Natalie C; Melnicki, Matthew R; Serres, Margrethe H; Merkley, Eric D; Chrisler, William B; Hill, Eric A; Romine, Margaret F; Kim, Sangtae; Zink, Erika M; Datta, Suchitra; Smith, Richard D; Beliaev, Alexander S; Konopka, Allan; Wright, Aaron T

2014-01-17

132

Phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses show Microcoleus chthonoplastes to be a cosmopolitan cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

We used micromanipulation to isolate from their environment representative samples of seven geographically distant field populations fitting the description of Microcoleus chthonoplastes (a cyanobacterium) and obtained seven corresponding cultured strains. Samples of both field populations and cultures were phenotypically characterized by microscale techniques, and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and in some cases by sequencing. All field populations and strains were phenotypically extremely coherent, and their 16S rRNA sequences were indistinguishable by DGGE. The sequences determined were identical or virtually identical. Thus, M. chthonoplastes represents a single, well-delimited taxon with a truly cosmopolitan distribution. Comparison with three culture collection strains originally assigned to M. chthonoplastes revealed that strain PCC 7420 belongs to the same tightly delimited group, both phenotypically and in 16S rRNA gene sequence, but that strains SAG 3192 and 10mfx do not.

Garcia-Pichel, F; Prufert-Bebout, L; Muyzer, G

1996-01-01

133

A second nitrogenase in vegetative cells of a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.  

PubMed Central

In many filamentous cyanobacteria nitrogen fixation occurs in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Filamentous strains that do not form heterocysts may fix nitrogen in vegetative cells, primarily under anaerobic conditions. We describe here two functional Mo-dependent nitrogenases in a single organism, the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis. Using a lacZ reporter with a fluorescent beta-galactoside substrate for in situ localization of gene expression, we have shown that the two clusters of nif genes are expressed independently. One nitrogenase functions only in heterocysts under either aerobic or anaerobic growth conditions, whereas the second nitrogenase functions only under anaerobic conditions in vegetative cells and heterocysts. Differences between the two nif clusters suggest that the nitrogenase that is expressed in heterocysts is developmentally regulated while the other is regulated by environmental factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5

Thiel, T; Lyons, E M; Erker, J C; Ernst, A

1995-01-01

134

Characterization of genes for a second Mo-dependent nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium that fixes nitrogen under a variety of environmental conditions. Under aerobic growth conditions, nitrogen fixation depends upon differentiation of heterocysts and expression of either a Mo-dependent nitrogenase or a V-dependent nitrogenase in those specialized cells. Under anaerobic conditions, a second Mo-dependent nitrogenase gene cluster, nifII, was expressed in vegetative cells long before heterocysts formed. A strain carrying a mutant gene in the nifII cluster did not fix nitrogen under anaerobic conditions until after heterocysts differentiated. The nifII cluster was similar in organization to the nifI cluster that is expressed in heterocysts and that includes nifBSUHDKENXW as well as three open reading frames that are conserved in both cyanobacterial nif clusters.

Thiel, T; Lyons, E M; Erker, J C

1997-01-01

135

Effect of nitrogen starvation on the morphology and ultrastructure of the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.  

PubMed Central

The effects of nitrogen starvation on the morphology and ultrastructure of the branching, filamentous cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus were examined with light and electron microscopy. The internal ultrastructural characteristics of vegetative cells changed markedly during nitrogen starvation. Carboxysomes were degraded, while polyphosphate bodies and lipid bodies accumulated. The ultrastructure of mature heterocysts was also affected by nitrogen starvation; their intracytoplasmic membranes vesiculated to form vacuolelike structures and, eventually, large empty regions in the cytoplasm. Nitrogen starvation stimulated extensive heterocyst differentiation in M. laminosus, producing heterocyst frequencies of 17.5% in narrow filaments and 28.3% in wide filaments within 44 h after transfer to N-free conditions. Cells in wide filaments differentiated so extensively that only 16.8% of them failed to initiate the differentiation process within 44 h. Images

Stevens, S E; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Balkwill, D L

1985-01-01

136

Unique modification of adenine in genomic DNA of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067.  

PubMed Central

The genomic DNA of the marine nonheterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067 was found to be highly resistant to DNA restriction endonucleases. The DNA was digested extensively by the restriction enzyme DpnI, which requires adenine methylation for activity. The DNA composition, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found to be 69% AT. Surprisingly, it was found that a modified adenine which was not methylated at the usual N6 position was present and made up 4.7 mol% of the nucleosides in Trichodesmium DNA (15 mol% of deoxyadenosine). In order for adenine residues to be modified at this many positions, there must be many modifying enzymes or at least one of the modifying enzymes must have a degenerate recognition site. The reason(s) for this extensive methylation has not yet been determined but may have implications for the ecological success of this microorganism in nature. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2

Zehr, J P; Ohki, K; Fujita, Y; Landry, D

1991-01-01

137

Expression Analysis of Multiple dnaK Genes in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942? †  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the stress responses of three dnaK homologues (dnaK1, dnaK2, and dnaK3) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. A reporter assay showed that under stress conditions the expression of only the dnaK2 gene was induced, suggesting a functional assignment of these homologues. RNA blot hybridization indicated a typical stress response of dnaK2 to heat and high-light stress. Primer extension mapping showed that dnaK2 was transcribed from similar sites under various stress conditions. Although no known sequence motif was detected in the upstream region, a 20-bp sequence element was highly conserved in dnaK2; it was essential not only for the stress induction but also for the basal expression of dnaK2. The ubiquitous upstream localization of this element in each heat shock gene suggests its important role in the cyanobacterial stress response.

Sato, Masumi; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Watanabe, Satoru; Chibazakura, Taku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

2007-01-01

138

Physiological effects of nickel chloride on the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. IU 625  

PubMed Central

Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious environmental problem globally. The ability of cyanobacteria, one of the major causative agents of HABs, to grow in heavy metal polluted areas is proving a challenge to environmental restoration initiatives. Some cyanobacteria secrete toxins, such as microcystin, that are potentially dangerous to animals and humans. In this study, the physiology of a cyanobacterium was assessed to nickel chloride exposure. Cell growths were monitored throughout the study with various nickel chloride concentrations (0, 10, 25 or 50 mg/L). Morphological abnormalities were observed with microscopic image analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was carried out to trace the distribution of nickel during the growth period. This study provides insight on potential nickel response mechanisms in freshwater cyanobacteria, which may lead to effective HAB prevention strategy development.

Nohomovich, Brian; Nguyen, Bao T.; Quintanilla, Michael; Lee, Lee H.; Murray, Sean R.; Chu, Tin-Chun

2013-01-01

139

Coibamide A, a Potent Antiproliferative Cyclic Depsipeptide from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp.  

PubMed Central

Coibamide A (1) is a new, potent antiproliferative depsipeptide which was isolated from a marine Leptolyngbya cyanobacterium collected from the Coiba National Park, Panama. The planar structure of 1 was elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Exhaustive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy included natural abundance 15N and variable temperature experiments; mass spectrometry included TOF-ESI-MSn and FT-MSn experiments. Chemical degradation followed by chiral HPLC- and GC-MS analyses was used to assign the absolute configuration of 1. This highly methylated cyclized depsipeptide exhibited an unprecedented selectivity profile in the NCI 60 cancer cell line panel and appears to act via a novel mechanism.

Medina, Rebecca A.; Goeger, Douglas E.; Hills, Patrice; Mooberry, Susan L.; Huang, Nelson; Romero, Luz I.; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Gerwick, William H.; McPhail, Kerry L.

2008-01-01

140

Salinity induced synthesis of UV-screening compound scytonemin in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii.  

PubMed

Lyngbya aestuarii is the dominant cyanobacterium in Chilika lagoon occurring in all the seasons irrespective of variation in the salinity regime ranging from 3 to 28 ppt. The organism possess the UV screening scytonemin pigment, which was maximum when grown at 56 ppt salinity. Three different forms of scytonemin were detected in L. aestuarii with retention time (RT) 1.76, 2.42 and 2.94 min, however, occurrence of these forms was influenced by the salinity. Scytonemin with RT 2.42 was sensitive to higher salinity and its maximum concentration was obtained at 28 ppt salinity correlated with the highest salinity level of Chilika. Formation of multilayer colored sheath around the trichome was prominently observed at the salinity of the culture from 28 to 56 ppt. But at salinity below 7 ppt and also at more than 56 ppt salinity degradation of sheath with corresponding decrease in scytonemin was observed. PMID:22819261

Rath, Jnanendra; Mandal, Sikha; Adhikary, Siba Prasad

2012-10-01

141

Glycinebetaine as an osmoregulant and compatible solute in the marine cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa.  

PubMed

Glycinebetaine was found to be the major organic substrate accumulating under hypersaline growth conditions in the halotolerant cyanobacterium Spirulina subsalsa. In addition to its proposed role as osmolite, glycinebetaine is shown to specifically protect enzymatic activity. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from S. subsalsa retained full activity in the presence of NaCl at concentrations as high as 1.5 M, provided that comparable concentrations of glycinebetaine were also present in the reaction mixture. A kinetic analysis indicated that glycinebetaine protected the enzyme against both NaCl-induced decrease in Vmax and reduction in affinity to glucose 6-phosphate. The alternative osmolites, glycerol and proline, protected the enzyme against the reduction in Vmax but not against the reduction in affinity to glucose 6-phosphate. PMID:3134857

Gabbay-Azaria, R; Tel-Or, E; Schönfeld, M

1988-07-01

142

nifH,D,K gene organization in the cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes with some species capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Detailed studies dealing with the organization of nitrogen fixation genes have been limited to Anabaena, a filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. The authors have determined the organization of nifH,D,K in Plectonema boryanum, a filamentous, nonheterocystous species that fixes nitrogen microaerophilically. It has been demonstrated that nifH,D,K genes are contiguous in cells grown under non-nitrogen fixing conditions using Anabaena nif genes as probes in Southern observed for all three nif genes as probes in southern hybridizations. A change in the pattern of hybridization was observed for all three nif genes isolated from cells grown under nitrogen fixing conditions. Restriction enzyme digestion experiments and analysis of cloned Plectonema nif genes are being used to determine the type of DNA modification and the location.

Barnum, S.R.; Gendel, S.M.

1986-04-01

143

Molecular cloning of a recA-like gene from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis  

SciTech Connect

A recA-like gene isolated from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis was cloned and partially characterized. When introduced into Escherichia coli recA mutants, the 7.5-kilobase-pair plasmid-borne DNA insert restored resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and UV irradiation, as well as recombination proficiency when measured by Hfr-mediated conjugation. The cyanobacterial recA gene restored spontaneous but not mitomycin C-induced prophage production. Restriction analysis and subcloning yielded a 1.5-kilobase-pair Sau3A fragment which also restored methylmethane sulfonate resistance and coded for a 38- to 40-kilodalton polypeptide when expressed in an in vitro transcription-translation system.

Owttrim, G.W.; Coleman, J.R.

1987-05-01

144

Purification and properties of glutathione reductase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119  

SciTech Connect

An NADPH-glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) has been purified 6000-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119. The purified enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 249 U/mg and is characterized by being a dimeric flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing protein with a ratio of absorbance at 280 nm to absorbance at 462 nm of 5.8, a native molecular weight of 104,000, a Stokes radius of 4.13 nm, and a pI of 4.02. The enzyme activity is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and heavy-metal ions, especially in the presence of NADPH, with oxidized glutathione behaving as a protective agent. As is the case with the same enzyme from other sources, the kinetic data are consistent with a branched mechanism. Nevertheless, the cyanobacterial enzyme presents three distinctive

Serrano, A.; Rivas, J.; Losada, M.

1984-04-01

145

Cell Surface-Associated Proteins in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

The cell surface senses environmental changes first and transfers signals into the cell. To understand the response to environmental changes, it is necessary to analyze cell surface components, particularly cell surface-associated proteins. We therefore investigated cell surface-associated proteins from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The cell surface-associated proteins extracted by an acidic buffer were resolved by SDS-PAGE. Eighteen proteins were identified from resolved bands by amino-terminal sequencing. Analysis of cell surface-associated proteins indicated that several proteins among them were involved in nucleic acid binding, protein synthesis, proteolytic activity and electron transfer, and other proteins were involved in the stress response.

Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ohomori, Masayuki

2012-01-01

146

Structural characterisation of a complex heteroglycan from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

An alkali-extractable O-methylated ribofuranose-containing heteroglycan, Nc-5-s, was isolated from wild-growing field colonies of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune collected in Iceland, using ethanol fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The average molecular weight was estimated to be 1500 kDa. Structural characterisation of the heteroglycan was performed by high-field NMR spectroscopy (1D proton, 2D-COSY, 2D-NOESY, 2D-TOCSY, (1)H (13)C-HSQC, HMBC, H2BC and HSQC-NOESY) as well as monosaccharide analysis after methanolysis by GC and supported by linkage analysis by GC-MS. According to the data obtained, the structure of Nc-5-s is composed of repeating units of 1, 1a, 1b and 2 and 2a in approximate molar ratio of (10:25:50:5:10). PMID:23044145

Jensen, S; Petersen, B O; Omarsdottir, S; Paulsen, B S; Duus, J Ř; Olafsdottir, E S

2013-01-01

147

Novel glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids with radical scavenging activity from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV absorbing pigments, and structurally distinct MAAs have been identified in taxonomically diverse organisms. Two novel MAAs were purified from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, and their chemical structures were characterized. An MAA with an absorption maximum at 335 nm was identified as a pentose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 478 Da. Another identified MAA had double absorption maxima at 312 and 340 nm and a molecular mass of 1,050 Da. Its unique structure consisted of two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen and two pentose and hexose sugars. These MAAs had radical scavenging activity in vitro; the 1050-Da MAA contributed approximately 27% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract of N. commune. These results suggest that these glycosylated MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. PMID:21813286

Matsui, Kei; Nazifi, Ehsan; Kunita, Shinpei; Wada, Naoki; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

2011-10-01

148

BMAA inhibits nitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce a range of secondary metabolites, one being the neurotoxic non-protein amino acid ?-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), proposed to be a causative agent of human neurodegeneration. As for most cyanotoxins, the function of BMAA in cyanobacteria is unknown. Here, we examined the effects of BMAA on the physiology of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Our data show that exogenously applied BMAA rapidly inhibits nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), even at micromolar concentrations, and that the inhibition was considerably more severe than that induced by combined nitrogen sources and most other amino acids. BMAA also caused growth arrest and massive cellular glycogen accumulation, as observed by electron microscopy. With nitrogen fixation being a process highly sensitive to oxygen species we propose that the BMAA effects found here may be related to the production of reactive oxygen species, as reported for other organisms. PMID:23966039

Berntzon, Lotta; Erasmie, Sven; Celepli, Narin; Eriksson, Johan; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

2013-01-01

149

Genome Evolution of the Cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia under Sharp Microclimatic Divergence at "Evolution Canyon," Israel.  

PubMed

We describe the genomic DNA diversity and divergence of the cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia from "Evolution Canyon," a microsite consisting of ecologically contrasting slopes, south-facing slope (SFS) and north-facing slope (NFS), at lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel. The opposing slopes share their limestone lithology but vary greatly in their ecology, primarily because of different levels of solar radiation (which is six times higher on the SFS than on the NFS). The warm and xeric SFS displays a tropical African savanna, whereas the cool and mesic NFS displays a temperate South European Mediterranean live-oak maquis shrub forest. The cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia tested here is a sessile microorganism, growing as a carpet on rock surfaces and constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations of solar radiation, temperature, and desiccation. We demonstrate remarkable interslope and intraslope genetic divergence of the genome (including both coding and noncoding regions) of Nostoc linckia, by using 211 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) DNA molecular marker loci. Genetic polymorphism of N. linckia subpopulations on the ecologically harsher SFS was significantly (p <0.05) higher (p = 99.53%) than was that of the subpopulations on the climatically milder nfs (p = 85.78%). genetic polymorphism (p) and gene diversity (he) were significantly correlated with variables influencing aridity stress: solar radiation (sr) (rp = 0.956; p = 0.046), temperature (tm) (rp = 0.993; p = 0.0068), and day-night temperature difference (tdd) (rp = 0.975; p = 0.025). as in other tested organisms from "evolution canyon", but even more exceptionally because of its completely sedentary nature, we suggest that the climatically stressed sfs environment is responsible for this marked increase of genetic polymorphism, which is maintained by the combined evolutionary forces of diversifying and balancing selection. This could highlight the importance of ecological stress and selection in evolution and its remarkable effect on the genetic system across the prokaryotic genome. PMID:12024256

Satish, N.; Krugman, T.; Vinogradova, O.N.; Nevo, E.; Kashi, Y.

2001-10-01

150

Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Components of a protein tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation network were identified in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Three phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) proteins of 27, 36, and 52 kDa were identified through their conspicuous immunoreactions with RC20H monoclonal antibodies specific for P-Tyr. These immunoreactions were outcompeted completely by free P-Tyr (5 mM) but not by phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. The P-Tyr content of the three major P-Tyr proteins and several minor proteins increased with their time of incubation in the presence of Mg-ATP and the protein phosphatase inhibitors sodium orthovanadate and sodium fluoride. Incubation of the same extracts with [gamma-32P]ATP but not [alpha-32P]ATP led to the phosphorylation of five polypeptides with molecular masses of 20, 27, 52, 85, and 100 kDa. Human placental protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, with absolute specificity for P-Tyr, liberated significant quantities of 32Pi from four of the polypeptides, confirming that a portion of the protein-bound phosphate was present as 32P-Tyr. Alkaline phosphatase and the dual-specificity protein phosphatase IphP from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 also dephosphorylated these proteins and did so with greater apparent efficiency. Two of the polypeptides were partially purified, and phosphoamino analysis identified 32P-Tyr, [32P]phosphoserine, and [32P]phosphothreonine. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 cell extracts contained a protein tyrosine phosphatase activity that was abolished in the presence of sodium orthovanadate and inhibited significantly by the sulfhydryl-modifying agents p-hydroxymercuriphenylsulfonic acid and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate as well as by heparin. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 the presence and/or phosphorylation status of P-Tyr proteins was influenced by incident photon flux density. PMID:9079918

McCartney, B; Howell, L D; Kennelly, P J; Potts, M

1997-04-01

151

Protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed Central

Components of a protein tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation network were identified in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Three phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) proteins of 27, 36, and 52 kDa were identified through their conspicuous immunoreactions with RC20H monoclonal antibodies specific for P-Tyr. These immunoreactions were outcompeted completely by free P-Tyr (5 mM) but not by phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. The P-Tyr content of the three major P-Tyr proteins and several minor proteins increased with their time of incubation in the presence of Mg-ATP and the protein phosphatase inhibitors sodium orthovanadate and sodium fluoride. Incubation of the same extracts with [gamma-32P]ATP but not [alpha-32P]ATP led to the phosphorylation of five polypeptides with molecular masses of 20, 27, 52, 85, and 100 kDa. Human placental protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, with absolute specificity for P-Tyr, liberated significant quantities of 32Pi from four of the polypeptides, confirming that a portion of the protein-bound phosphate was present as 32P-Tyr. Alkaline phosphatase and the dual-specificity protein phosphatase IphP from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 also dephosphorylated these proteins and did so with greater apparent efficiency. Two of the polypeptides were partially purified, and phosphoamino analysis identified 32P-Tyr, [32P]phosphoserine, and [32P]phosphothreonine. Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 cell extracts contained a protein tyrosine phosphatase activity that was abolished in the presence of sodium orthovanadate and inhibited significantly by the sulfhydryl-modifying agents p-hydroxymercuriphenylsulfonic acid and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate as well as by heparin. In Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 the presence and/or phosphorylation status of P-Tyr proteins was influenced by incident photon flux density.

McCartney, B; Howell, L D; Kennelly, P J; Potts, M

1997-01-01

152

Comparative toxicity of bentazon and molinate on growth, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis, and respiration of the Portuguese ricefield cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.  

PubMed

Bentazon and molinate are selective herbicides recommended for integrated weed management in rice. Their toxicity on growth and some biochemical and physiological parameters of Nostoc muscorum, an abundant cyanobacterium in Portuguese rice fields, was evaluated under laboratory conditions during time- and concentration-dependent exposure for 72 h. Results showed that toxic concentrations (0.75-2 mM) of both herbicides have pleiotropic effects on the cyanobacterium. Molinate was more toxic than bentazon to growth, respiration, chlorophyll-a, carotenoids, and phycobiliproteins contents. Protein content was increased by both herbicides although the effect was particularly evident with higher concentrations of molinate (1.5-2 mM). The herbicides had contrasting effects on carbohydrates content: molinate increased this organic fraction whereas bentazon decreased it. Photosynthesis and respiration were inhibited by both herbicides. PMID:19319991

Galhano, Victor; Peixoto, Francisco; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Fernández-Valiente, Eduardo

2010-04-01

153

Lyngbyaureidamides A and B, Two Anabaenopeptins from the Cultured Freshwater Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. (SAG 36.91)  

PubMed Central

Two anabaenopeptin-type peptides, lyngbyaureidamides A and B, together with two previously reported peptides lyngbyazothrins C and D, were isolated from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. (SAG 36.91). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Lyngbyazothrins C and D were also able to inhibit the 20S proteasome with IC50 values of 7.1 ?M and 19.2 ?M, respectively, while lyngbyaureidamides A and B were not active at 50 ?M.

Zi, Jiachen; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Orjala, Jimmy

2011-01-01

154

Largamides A-C, Tiglic Acid-Containing Cyclodepsipeptides with Elastase-Inhibitory Activity from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya confervoides  

PubMed Central

Three unusual tiglic acid-containing cyclodepsipeptides, possessing the revised regioisomeric structures for largamides A–C (1–3),have been isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya confervoides collected from southeastern Florida. The two-dimensional structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configurations by chiral HPLC analysis of degradation products. Compounds 1–3 are moderate inhibitors of mammalian elastase activity in vitro with IC50 values ranging from 0.53 to 1.41 ?M.

Matthew, Susan; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2009-01-01

155

Differential Effects of Bentazon and Molinate on Anabaena cylindrica , an Autochthonous Cyanobacterium of Portuguese Rice Field Agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bentazon and molinate, two selective herbicides recommended for integrated weed management in rice, were studied\\u000a in Anabaena cylindrica, an abundant cyanobacterium isolated from a Portuguese rice field agro-ecosystem. Comparative effects of both herbicides\\u000a on A. cylindrica were estimated under laboratory conditions by measuring its dry weight yield, photopigments, and carbohydrate and protein\\u000a contents in a time- and

V. Galhano; F. Peixoto; J. Gomes-Laranjo; E. Fernández-Valiente

2009-01-01

156

Synergistic Effect of Deoxyanthocyanins from Symbiotic Fern Azolla spp. on hrmA Gene Induction in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hrmA gene of the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme functions in repressing the formation of transi- tory motile filaments, termed hormogonia, by plant-associ- ated vegetative filaments. Here, we report that antho- cyanins can contribute to induction of hrmA expression. Aqueous extract from fronds of the fern Azolla pinnata, a host of symbiotic Nostoc spp., was found to be a potent

Michael F. Cohen; Yasuko Sakihama; Yojiro C. Takagi; Toshio Ichiba; Hideo Yamasaki

2002-01-01

157

Somatic and population growth in selected cladoceran and rotifer species offered the cyanobacterium it Microcystis aeruginosa as food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of cladocerans and rotifers to utilise the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was tested by comparing the somatic\\u000a and population growth in cultures using Chlorella and Microcystis as food types. Five species of cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia\\u000a cornuta, Scapholeberis kingi, Moina macrocopa, Daphnia carinata, Simocephalus vetulus) and two species of rotifers (Brachionus\\u000a calyciflorus, Hexarthra mira) were used in this study. In order

S. Nandini; T. R. Rao

1997-01-01

158

Enzymes of the Calvin Cycle and Intermediary Metabolism in the Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans Grown in Chemostat Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans grown in light-limited and C0,-limited chemostat cultures showed varying rates of CO, fixation with peaks at dilution rates of 0.10 to 0.12 h-l. The specific activities of a number of enzymes of the reductive and oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways and the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles varied significantly as a function of the growth

AMALIA D. KARAGOUNI; J. HOWARD SLATER

1979-01-01

159

Diurnal expression of hetR and diazocyte development in the filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium fixes atmospheric N2 aerobically in light. In situ immunolocalization\\/light microscopy of NifH revealed that lighter, non-granulated cell regions observed correspond to the nitrogenase-containing diazocyte clusters in Trichodesmium IMS101. The number of diazocyte clusters per trichome varied from 0 to 4 depending on trichome length. The constant percentage of diazocytes (approx. 15 %) in cultured strains

R. El-Shehawy; C. Lugomela; A. Ernst; B. Bergman

2003-01-01

160

Regulation of nitrogen-fixation by different nitrogen sources in the marine non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. NIBB1067  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various nitrogen sources on the synthesis and activity of nitrogenase was studied in the marine, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. NIBB1067 grown under defined culture conditions. Cells grown with N2 as the sole inorganic nitrogen source showed light-dependent nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction). Nitrogenase activity in cells grown on N2 was not suppressed after 7 h incubation with 2

Kaori Ohki; Jonathan P. Zehr; Paul G. Falkowski; Yoshihiko Fujita

1991-01-01

161

Identification of an antimicrobial entity from the cyanobacterium Fischerella sp. isolated from bark of Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active principle in a methanolic extract of the laboratory-grown cyanobacterium, Fischerella sp. isolated from Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree bark was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli as well as three multi-drug resistant E. coli strains in in vitro assays. Based on MS, UV, IR 1H NMR analyses the active principle is

Ravi K. Asthana; Arunima Srivastava; Akhilesh P. Singh; Deepali; Sureshwar P. Singh; Gopal Nath; Ranjana Srivastava; Brahm S. Srivastava

2006-01-01

162

Bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis by the freshwater mussel Alathyria condola  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian fresh-water mussel Alathyria condola accumulated high levels of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins when fed the neurotoxic cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis, shown recently to contain high concentrations of C-toxins and gonyautoxins. Significant accumulation (>; 80 ?g\\/100 g of mussel flesh) was detected following 2–3 days exposure to water containing 2 × 105 cells\\/mlA. circinalis. Only trace accumulation of PSP

Andrew P. Negri; Gary J. Jones

1995-01-01

163

Biosorption of toxic metal ions by alkali-extracted biomass of a marine cyanobacterium, Phormidium valderianum BDU 30501  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali-extracted biomass of Phormidium valderianum BDU 30501, a marine filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium adsorbed more than 90% of cadmium ions from solutions containing 0.1–40?mM. Cadmium binding accounted up to 18% of biomass weight (w\\/w). The algal biosorbent was also efficient is sequestering metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Ni2+) from a mixture. Biosorbent placed in dialysis tubing could concentrate Cd2+ (50–65%) from

RamaRao Karna; L. Uma; G. Subramanian; P. Maruthi Mohan

1999-01-01

164

Photo-dynamic biocidal action of methylene blue and hydrogen peroxide on the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis under visible light irradiation.  

PubMed

Biofilm growth on stone surfaces is a significant contributing factor to stone biodeterioration. Current market based biocides are hazardous to the environment and to public health. We have investigated the photo-dynamic effect of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the destruction of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (S. leopoliensis) under irradiation with visible light. Data presented in this paper illustrate that illumination of S. leopoliensis in the presence of a photosensitiser (MB) and H2O2 results in the decomposition of both the cyanobacterium and the photosensitiser. The presence of MB and H2O2 affects the viability of the photosensitiser and the cyanobacterium with the fluorescence of both decreasing by 80% over the irradiation time investigated. The photo-dynamic effect was observed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions indicating that oxygen was not necessary for the process. This novel combination could be effective for the remediation of biofilm colonised stone surfaces. PMID:16442809

McCullagh, Cathy; Robertson, Peter K J

2006-04-01

165

Low cellular P-quota and poor metabolic adaptations of the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena fertilissima Rao during Pi-limitation.  

PubMed

Anabaena fertilissima is a filamentous freshwater N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium, isolated from a paddy field. Growth of the cyanobacterium was limited by the non-availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the growth medium and was found to be directly related to the cellular P quota, which declined rapidly in Pi-deficient cells. To overcome Pi-deficiency, cells induced both cell-bound and cell-free alkaline phosphatase activities (APase). The activity of cell-bound APase was rapid and 5-6 times higher than that of the cell-free APase activity. Native gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of two APase activity bands for both the cell bound and cell-free APase (Mr ?42 and 34 kDa). For Pi-deficient cells, APase activity was inversely related to cellular P-quota. In A. fertilissima phosphate uptake was facilitated by single high-affinity phosphate transporter (K ( s ), 4.54 ?M; V(max), 4.84 ?mol mg protein(-1) min(-1)). Pi-deficiency severely reduced the photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and nitrate uptake, as well as the activities of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and nitrogenase enzymes. In photosynthesis, PSII activity was maximally inhibited, followed by PSI and whole chain activities. Transcript levels of five key glycolytic enzymes showed the poor adaptability of the cyanobacterium to switch its metabolic activity to PPi-dependent enzyme variants, which has rather constant cellular concentrations. PMID:22968428

Tripathi, Keshawanand; Sharma, Naveen K; Rai, Vandna; Rai, Ashwani K

2013-02-01

166

Unique carotenoids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune NIES-24: 2-hydroxymyxol 2'-fucoside, nostoxanthin and canthaxanthin.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce some carotenoids. We identified the molecular structures, including the stereochemistry, of all the carotenoids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune NIES-24 (IAM M-13). The major carotenoid was beta-carotene. Its hydroxyl derivatives were (3R)-beta-cryptoxanthin, (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin, (2R,3R,3'R)-caloxanthin, and (2R,3R,2'R,3'R)-nostoxanthin, and its keto derivatives were echinenone and canthaxanthin. The unique myxol glycosides were (3R,2'S)-myxol 2'-fucoside and (2R,3R,2'S)-2-hydroxymyxol 2'-fucoside. This is only the second species found to contain 2-hydroxymyxol. We propose possible carotenogenesis pathways based on our identification of the carotenoids: the hydroxyl pathway produced nostoxanthin via zeaxanthin from beta-carotene, the keto pathway produced canthaxanthin from beta-carotene, and the myxol pathway produced 2-hydroxymyxol 2'-fucoside via myxol 2'-fucoside. This cyanobacterium was found to contain many kinds of carotenoids and also displayed many carotenogenesis pathways, while other cyanobacteria lack some carotenoids and a part of carotenogenesis pathways compared with this cyanobacterium. PMID:19669835

Takaichi, Shinichi; Maoka, Takashi; Mochimaru, Mari

2009-10-01

167

Lab-Scale Study of the Calcium Carbonate Dissolution and Deposition by Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium subcapitatum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suggestions that calcification in marine organisms changes in response to global variations in seawater chemistry continue to be advanced (Wilkinson, 1979; Degens et al. 1985; Kazmierczak et al. 1986; R. Riding 1992). However, the effect of [Na+] on calcification in marine cyanobacteria has not been discussed in detail although [Na+] fluctuations reflect both temperature and sea-level fluctuations. The goal of these lab-scale studies therefore was to study the effect of environmental pH and [Na+] on CaCO3 deposition and dissolution by marine cyanobacterium Phormidium subcapitatum. Marine cyanobacterium P. subcapitatum has been cultivated in ASN-III medium. [Ca2+] fluctuations were monitored with Ca(2+) probe. Na(+) concentrations were determined by the initial solution chemistry. It was found that the balance between CaCO3 dissolution and precipitation induced by P. subcapitatum grown in neutral ASN III medium is very close to zero. No CaCO3 precipitation induced by cyanobacterial growth occurred. Growth of P. subcapitatum in alkaline ASN III medium, however, was accompanied by significant oscillations in free Ca(2+) concentration within a Na(+) concentration range of 50-400 mM. Calcium carbonate precipitation occurred during the log phase of P. subcapitatum growth while carbonate dissolution was typical for the stationary phase of P. subcapitatum growth. The highest CaCO3 deposition was observed in the range of Na(+) concentrations between 200-400 mM. Alkaline pH also induced the clamping of P. subcapitatum filaments, which appeared to have a strong affinity to envelop particles of chemically deposited CaCO3 followed by enlargement of those particles size. EDS analysis revealed the presence of Mg-rich carbonate (or magnesium calcite) in the solution containing 10-100 mM Na(+); calcite in the solution containing 200 mM Na(+); and aragonite in the solution containing with 400 mM Na(+). Typical present-day seawater contains xxmM Na(+). Early (Archean) seawater was likely less saline. The division of marine cyanobacterium P. subcapitatum is associated with periodic deposition and dissolution of CaCO3, the rhythms and intensity of which are dependent on concentrations of both OH(-) and Na(+). Thus, the role of present-day marine cyanobacteria in the global carbonate cycle might be reduced to aggregation and recrystallization of available CaCO3 particles in marine water rather than long-term precipitation and accumulation of CaCO3 deposits. For lower Na(+) concentrations, precipitation of carbonates by cyanobacteria would be even less significant. These results suggest that the lack of calcified cyanobacteria in stromatalite-bearing Precambrian sequences can be explained not only by high dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations but also by lower salinity, as well as possible lower pH compared to present-day oceans.

Karakis, S. G.; Dragoeva, E. G.; Lavrenyuk, T. I.; Rogochiy, A.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; McKay, D. S.; Brown, I. I.

2006-01-01

168

Microcystin production by a freshwater spring cyanobacterium of the genus Fischerella.  

PubMed

We investigated the production of a hepatotoxic, cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin, by a filamentous branched cyanobacterium belonging to the order Stigonematales, genus Fischerella. The freshwater Fischerella sp. strain CENA161 was isolated from spring water in a small concrete dam in Piracicaba, Săo Paulo State, Brazil, and identified by combining a morphological description with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Microcystin (MCYST) analysis performed using an ELISA assay on cultured cells gave positive results. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis detected 33.6microg MCYST-LR per gram dry weight of cyanobacterial cells. Microcystin profile revealed by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis confirmed the production of MCYST-LR. Furthermore, genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR for sequences similar to the ketosynthase (KS) domain of the type I polyketide synthase gene, which is involved in microcystin biosynthesis. This revealed the presence of a KS nucleotide fragment similar to the mcyD and ndaD genes of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase complexes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the Fischerella KS sequence together with mcyD sequences of the three known microcystin synthetase operon (Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena) and ndaD of the nodularin synthetase operon, with 100% bootstrap support. Our findings demonstrate that Fischerella sp. CENA161 produces MYCST-LR and for the first time identify a nucleotide sequence putatively involved in microcystin synthesis in this genus. PMID:19233225

Fiore, Marli Fátima; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; da Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Shishido, Tânia Keiko; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cantúsio Neto, Romeu; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela

2009-06-01

169

Niche adaptation and genome expansion in the chlorophyll d-producing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.  

PubMed

Acaryochloris marina is a unique cyanobacterium that is able to produce chlorophyll d as its primary photosynthetic pigment and thus efficiently use far-red light for photosynthesis. Acaryochloris species have been isolated from marine environments in association with other oxygenic phototrophs, which may have driven the niche-filling introduction of chlorophyll d. To investigate these unique adaptations, we have sequenced the complete genome of A. marina. The DNA content of A. marina is composed of 8.3 million base pairs, which is among the largest bacterial genomes sequenced thus far. This large array of genomic data is distributed into nine single-copy plasmids that code for >25% of the putative ORFs. Heavy duplication of genes related to DNA repair and recombination (primarily recA) and transposable elements could account for genetic mobility and genome expansion. We discuss points of interest for the biosynthesis of the unusual pigments chlorophyll d and alpha-carotene and genes responsible for previously studied phycobilin aggregates. Our analysis also reveals that A. marina carries a unique complement of genes for these phycobiliproteins in relation to those coding for antenna proteins related to those in Prochlorococcus species. The global replacement of major photosynthetic pigments appears to have incurred only minimal specializations in reaction center proteins to accommodate these alternate pigments. These features clearly show that the genus Acaryochloris is a fitting candidate for understanding genome expansion, gene acquisition, ecological adaptation, and photosystem modification in the cyanobacteria. PMID:18252824

Swingley, Wesley D; Chen, Min; Cheung, Patricia C; Conrad, Amber L; Dejesa, Liza C; Hao, Jicheng; Honchak, Barbara M; Karbach, Lauren E; Kurdoglu, Ahmet; Lahiri, Surobhi; Mastrian, Stephen D; Miyashita, Hideaki; Page, Lawrence; Ramakrishna, Pushpa; Satoh, Soichirou; Sattley, W Matthew; Shimada, Yuichiro; Taylor, Heather L; Tomo, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Wang, Zi T; Raymond, Jason; Mimuro, Mamoru; Blankenship, Robert E; Touchman, Jeffrey W

2008-02-12

170

The three-dimensional structure of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

To advance our knowledge of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 we investigated the three-dimensional organization of the cytoplasm using standard transmission electron microscopy and electron tomography. Electron tomography allows a resolution of ~5 nm in all three dimensions, superior to the resolution of most traditional electron microscopy, which is often limited in part by the thickness of the section (70 nm). The thylakoid membrane pairs formed layered sheets that followed the periphery of the cell and converged at various sites near the cytoplasmic membrane. At some of these sites, the margins of thylakoid membranes associated closely along the external surface of rod-like structures termed thylakoid centers, which sometimes traversed nearly the entire periphery of the cell. The thylakoid membranes surrounded the central cytoplasm that contained inclusions such as ribosomes and carboxysomes. Lipid bodies were dispersed throughout the peripheral cytoplasm and often juxtaposed with cytoplasmic and thylakoid membranes suggesting involvement in thylakoid maintenance or biogenesis. Ribosomes were numerous and mainly located throughout the central cytoplasm with some associated with thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes. Some ribosomes were attached along internal unit-membrane-like sheets located in the central cytoplasm and appeared to be continuous with existing thylakoid membranes. These results present a detailed analysis of the structure of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using high-resolution bioimaging techniques and will allow future evaluation and comparison with gene-deletion mutants. PMID:16320037

van de Meene, Allison M L; Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F; Vermaas, Wim F J; Roberson, Robert W

2006-01-01

171

Photosynthesis and photorespiration in a mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 lacking carboxysomes.  

PubMed

A mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 was obtained by replacing the gene of the carboxylation enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) with that of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. This mutant consequently lacks carboxysomes - the protein complexes in which the original enzyme is packed. It is incapable of growing at atmospheric CO2 levels and has an apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon (Ci) which is 1000 times lower than that of the wild type, yet it accumulates more Ci than the wild type. The mutant appears to be defective in its ability to utilize the intracellular Ci pool for photosynthesis. Unlike the carboxysomal carboxylase activity of Rubisco, which is almost insensitive to inhibition by O2 in vitro, the soluble enzyme is competitively inhibited by O2. The photosynthetic rate and Ci compensation point of the wild type were hardly affected by low O2 levels. Above 100 ?M O2, however, both parameters became inhibited. The CO2 compensation point of the mutant was linearly dependent on O2 concentration. The higher sensitivity of the mutant to O2 inhibition than that expected from in-vitro kinetics parameters of Rubisco, indicates a low capacity to recycle photorespiratory metabolites to Calvin-cycle intermediates. PMID:24178146

Marcus, Y; Berry, J A; Pierce, J

1992-07-01

172

Functions of a hemolysin-like protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

A glucose-tolerant strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, generally referred to as wild type, produces a hemolysin-like protein (HLP) located on the cell surface. To analyze the function of HLP, we constructed a mutant in which the hlp gene was disrupted. The growth rate of the mutant was reduced when the cells were stressed by treatment with CuSO(4), CdCl(2), ZnCl(2), ampicillin, kanamycin, or sorbitol in liquid medium, suggesting that HLP may increase cellular resistance to the inhibitory effects of these compounds. Uptake assays with (109)Cd(2+) using the silicone-oil layer centrifugation technique revealed that both wild type and mutant cells were labeled with (109)Cd(2+) within 1 min. Although the total radioactivity was much higher in the wild-type cells, (109)Cd(2+) incorporation was clearly much higher in the mutant cells after adsorbed (109)Cd(2+) was removed from the cell surface by washing with EDTA. These findings suggest that HLP functions as a barrier against the adsorption of toxic compounds. PMID:21475984

Sakiyama, Tetsushi; Araie, Hiroya; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

2011-08-01

173

Ultradian metabolic rhythm in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142  

PubMed Central

The unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51142 is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis during the day and microoxic nitrogen fixation at night. These mutually exclusive processes are possible only by temporal separation by circadian clock or another cellular program. We report identification of a temperature-dependent ultradian metabolic rhythm that controls the alternating oxygenic and microoxic processes of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under continuous high irradiance and in high CO2 concentration. During the oxygenic photosynthesis phase, nitrate deficiency limited protein synthesis and CO2 assimilation was directed toward glycogen synthesis. The carbohydrate accumulation reduced overexcitation of the photosynthetic reactions until a respiration burst initiated a transition to microoxic N2 fixation. In contrast to the circadian clock, this ultradian period is strongly temperature-dependent: 17 h at 27 °C, which continuously decreased to 10 h at 39 °C. The cycle was expressed by an oscillatory modulation of net O2 evolution, CO2 uptake, pH, fluorescence emission, glycogen content, cell division, and culture optical density. The corresponding ultradian modulation was also observed in the transcription of nitrogenase-related nifB and nifH genes and in nitrogenase activities. We propose that the control by the newly identified metabolic cycle adds another rhythmic component to the circadian clock that reflects the true metabolic state depending on the actual temperature, irradiance, and CO2 availability.

Cerveny, Jan; Sinetova, Maria A.; Valledor, Luis; Sherman, Louis A.; Nedbal, Ladislav

2013-01-01

174

On the dynamics and constraints of batch culture growth of the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142.  

PubMed

The unicellular, nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is of a remarkable potential for production of third-generation biofuels. As the biotechnological potential of Cyanothece 51142 varies with the time of the day, we argue that it will, similarly, depend on the phase of the culture growth. Here, we study the batch culture dynamics to discover the dominant constraints in the individual growth phases and identify potential for inducing or delaying transitions between culture growth phases in Cyanothece 51142. We found that specific growth rate in the exponential phase of the culture is much less dependent on incident irradiance than the photosynthetic activity. We propose that surplus electrons that are released by water splitting are used in futile processes providing photoprotection additional to non-photochemical quenching. We confirm that the transition from exponential to linear phase is caused by a light limitation and the transition from linear to stationary phase by nitrogen limitation. We observe spontaneous diurnal metabolic oscillations in stationary phase culture that are synchronized over the entire culture without an external clue. We tentatively propose that the self-synchronization of the metabolic oscillations is due to a cell-to-cell communication of the cyanobacteria that is necessary for nitrogenase activity in nitrate depleted medium. PMID:22575787

Sinetova, Maria A; Cervený, Jan; Zav?el, Tomáš; Nedbal, Ladislav

2012-11-30

175

An experimentally anchored map of transcriptional start sites in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

PubMed Central

There has been an increasing interest in cyanobacteria because these photosynthetic organisms convert solar energy into biomass and because of their potential for the production of biofuels. However, the exploitation of cyanobacteria for bioengineering requires knowledge of their transcriptional organization. Using differential RNA sequencing, we have established a genome-wide map of 3,527 transcriptional start sites (TSS) of the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. One-third of all TSS were located upstream of an annotated gene; another third were on the reverse complementary strand of 866 genes, suggesting massive antisense transcription. Orphan TSS located in intergenic regions led us to predict 314 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Complementary microarray-based RNA profiling verified a high number of noncoding transcripts and identified strong ncRNA regulations. Thus, ?64% of all TSS give rise to antisense or ncRNAs in a genome that is to 87% protein coding. Our data enhance the information on promoters by a factor of 40, suggest the existence of additional small peptide-encoding mRNAs, and provide corrected 5? annotations for many genes of this cyanobacterium. The global TSS map will facilitate the use of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 as a model organism for further research on photosynthesis and energy research.

Mitschke, Jan; Georg, Jens; Scholz, Ingeborg; Sharma, Cynthia M.; Dienst, Dennis; Bantscheff, Jens; Voss, Bjorn; Steglich, Claudia; Wilde, Annegret; Vogel, Jorg; Hess, Wolfgang R.

2011-01-01

176

Identification and characterization of coagulation inhibitor proteins derived from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The excess growth of cyanobacteria in semi enclosed water areas caused by eutrophication brings about coagulation inhibition in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, coagulation inhibitor proteins produced by Microcystis aeruginosa, a major cyanobacterium in algal bloom, were acquired by a phage display technique, an aluminum-immobilized affinity chromatography and a protein expression technique using Escherichia coli cells. Two cyanobacterial peptides with a high ratio of metallophilic amino acids were recovered, which were a part of homologues of a thiol oxidase enzyme Ero1p and a trans-acting repressor ArsR. It was also shown that the homologue of ArsR exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on the coagulation of kaolin suspension with polyaluminum chloride than the control proteins. This is the first report to identify a cyanobacterial cell component to inhibit coagulation. The compositions of polar amino acids were critical to explain the strength of coagulation inhibition potential. Polar proteins from cyanobacteria could collectively consume coagulants or stabilize clay particles, which would be plausible explanations for causing coagulation inhibition. Meanwhile, results from the kaolin coagulation tests using the control proteins implied that the neutralization of positive charges of coagulant constituents by simple electrostatic interactions might not be the key mechanism on the protein-induced coagulation inhibition. PMID:21211815

Sano, Daisuke; Ishifuji, Shingo; Sato, Yuichi; Imae, Yasutaka; Takaara, Tomoko; Masago, Yoshifumi; Omura, Tatsuo

2011-02-01

177

Novel toxic effects associated with a tropical Limnothrix/Geitlerinema-like cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

The presence of a toxic strain of a fine filamentous cyanobacterium belonging to the Oscillatorialean family Pseudanabaenacea was detected during a survey of cyanobacterial taxa associated with the presence of cylindrospermopsin in dams in Central Queensland (Australia). The strain, AC0243, was isolated and cultured, its genomic DNA extracted and 16S RNA gene sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis placed AC0243 with Limnothrix species, although this genus appears polyphyletic. Moreover, not all morphological characters are consistent with this genus but more closely fit the description of Geitlerinema unigranulatum (R.N. Singh) Komárek and Azevedo. The potential toxic effects of AC0243 extract were assessed chemically and biologically. Cell free protein synthesis was inhibited by the extract. Exposure of Vero cells to the extract resulted in a significant reduction in cellular ATP levels following 24-72 h incubation. The presence of cylindrospermopsin was excluded based on the nature of responses obtained in cell and cell-free assays; in addition, (i) it could not be detected by HPLC, LC-MS, or immunological assay, and (ii) no genes currently associated with the production of cylindrospermopsin were found in the genome. Other known cyanobacterial toxins were not detected. The apparent novelty of this toxin is discussed. PMID:19950362

Bernard, Catherine; Froscio, Suzanne; Campbell, Rebecca; Monis, Paul; Humpage, Andrew; Fabbro, Larelle

2011-06-01

178

Ultrafast primary processes in photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed Central

Ultrafast primary processes in the trimeric photosystem I core antenna-reaction center complex of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have been examined in pump-probe experiments with approximately 100 fs resolution. A global analysis of two-color profiles, excited at 660 nm and probed at 5 nm intervals from 650 to 730 nm, reveals 430 fs kinetics for spectral equilibration among bulk antenna chlorophylls. At least two lifetime components (2.0 and 6.5 ps in our analysis) are required to describe equilibration of bulk chlorophylls with far red-absorbing chlorophylls (>700 nm). Trapping at P700 occurs with 24-ps kinetics. The multiphasic bulk left arrow over right arrow red equilibration kinetics are intriguing, because prior steady-state spectral studies have suggested that the core antenna in Synechocystis sp. contains only one red-absorbing chlorophyll species (C708). The disperse kinetics may arise from inhomogeneous broadening in C708. The one-color optical anisotropy at 680 nm (near the red edge of the bulk antenna) decays with 590 fs kinetics; the corresponding anisotropy at 710 nm shows approximately 3.1 ps kinetics. The latter may signal equilibration among symmetry-equivalent red chlorophylls, bound to different monomers within trimeric photosystem I.

Savikhin, S; Xu, W; Soukoulis, V; Chitnis, P R; Struve, W S

1999-01-01

179

Nitrogen availability increases the toxin quota of a harmful cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

An important objective in understanding harmful phytoplankton blooms is determining how environmental factors influence the toxicity of bloom-forming species. We examined how nutrients and grazers (dreissenid mussels) affect the production of microcystin (a liver toxin) by the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, via a combination of field and laboratory experiments, and field observations in Lake Erie. The field experiment revealed no effect of mussel density on microcystin quota (particulate microcystin per unit Microcystis biomass). In contrast, in both field and laboratory experiments, nitrogen-limited conditions led to substantially reduced microcystin quota relative to phosphorus-limited or nutrient-saturated conditions. In the field experiment, microcystin per unit of mcyB gene was strongly reduced under nitrogen-limited conditions, indicating a phenotypic response. Results from a seasonal survey in the western basin of Lake Erie revealed a similar negative influence of nitrogen limitation (as indexed by nitrate concentration) on microcystin quota. Our results are consistent with stoichiometric considerations in that the cell quota of a nitrogen-rich secondary metabolite, microcystin, was reduced disproportionately under nitrogen limitation. PMID:24568788

Horst, Geoffrey P; Sarnelle, Orlando; White, Jeffrey D; Hamilton, Stephen K; Kaul, Rajreni B; Bressie, Julianne D

2014-05-01

180

Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005  

PubMed Central

The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation.

Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jeremy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hanene; Deschoenmaeker, Frederic; Wattiez, Ruddy

2014-01-01

181

Anatoxin-a toxin in the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens from a fishing pond in northern Italy.  

PubMed

A heavy algal bloom occurring in a fishing pond in northern Italy full of Salmo trutta was examined for algae taxonomy and toxic production. The dominant algal species (98%) was identified as the cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens (D.C. ex GOMONT) Komarek Anagnostidis, based on morphological examination, and it was revealed to be toxic in mouse and Vibrio fischeri bioassays. The toxin was identified as anatoxin-a using high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The mouse bioassay gave signs of poisoning, as previously reported for anatoxin-a. The LC-MS confirmed the presence of an anatoxin-a peak at m/z 166 (M+H+). The content of toxin in the field population was estimated at 12.13 microg/g of fresh cells. The bloom was sustained by the very high N/P ratio in the water. This is the first report in Italy of an anatoxin-a-producing Planktothrix rubescens population. PMID:15101034

Viaggiu, Emanuela; Melchiorre, Serena; Volpi, Fabrizio; Di Corcia, Antonio; Mancini, Roberta; Garibaldi, Letizia; Crichigno, Giuseppe; Bruno, Milena

2004-06-01

182

Optimization, characterization, and flow properties of exopolysaccharides produced by the cyanobacterium Lyngbya stagnina.  

PubMed

The exopolysaccharides produced by the cyanobacterium Lyngbya stagnina have been characterized. Maximum amounts of EPS (142.4 µg EPS ml(-1) culture) were obtained during the stationary phase of growth and rate of EPS production was maximum during late phase of growth. When medium was supplemented with 85 mM NaCl, the organism produced three times more EPS compared to EPS produced by control cultures. TLC and HPLC analysis of the EPS hydrolysate revealed heteropolysaccharide nature with presence of four neutral sugars and galacturonic acid. Presence of high amounts of galacturonic acid in EPS indicated its polyanionic character. Aqueous dispersions of EPS showed non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behavior and its viscosity was found to be quite stable with time. The viscosity data of aqueous dispersions of EPS at different temperatures (20-50 °C) were fitted into rheological models. The viscosity of EPS varied with pH, being highest at pH 10 and lowest at pH 6. Both divalent and monovalent cations caused increase in viscosity of EPS solution. The results suggest that EPS of this organism may find application in food industry. PMID:23775639

Jindal, Namita; Pal Singh, Davinder; Singh Khattar, Jasvirinder

2013-11-01

183

Solution structure of cytochrome c6 from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome c6 is a small, soluble electron carrier between the two membrane-bound complexes cytochrome b6f and photosystem I (PSI) in oxygenic photosynthesis. We determined the solution structure of cytochrome c6 from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics calculations based on 1586 interresidual distance and 28 dihedral angle restraints. The overall fold exhibits four alpha-helices and a small antiparallel beta-sheet in the vicinity of Met58, one of the axial heme ligands. The flat hydrophobic area in this cytochrome c6 is conserved in other c6 cytochromes and even in plastocyanin of higher plants. This docking region includes the site of electron transfer to PSI and possibly to the cytochrome b6f complex. The binding of cytochrome c6 to PSI in green algae involves interaction of a negative patch with a positive domain of PSI. This positive domain has not been inserted at the evolutionary level of cyanobacteria, but the negatively charged surface region is already present in S. elongatus cytochrome c6 and may thus have been optimized during evolution to improve the interaction with the positively charged cytochrome f. As the structure of PSI is known in S.elongatus, the reported cytochrome c6 structure can provide a basis for mutagenesis studies to delineate the mechanism of electron transfer between both.

Beissinger, M; Sticht, H; Sutter, M; Ejchart, A; Haehnel, W; Rosch, P

1998-01-01

184

Isolation and characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by the cyanobacterium Limnothrix redekei PUPCCC 116.  

PubMed

Limnothrix redekei PUPCCC 116, a filamentous cyanobacterium, has been identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) of this organism have been isolated and characterized chemically, and its rheological properties were compared with commercial xanthan. The organism produced 304 microg EPS/ml culture in 21 days. The rate of EPS production was maximum (313 microg EPS/mg protein/day) during the initial days of growth, and it decreased to 140 microg EPS/mg protein/day during 18-21 days of growth. Chemical analysis of EPS revealed the presence of glucose/mannose, ribose, rhamnose, and uronic acid. Fourier transformed infrared spectrum of EPS further revealed the presence of methyl and carboxyl groups besides C-N groups indicating the presence of peptidyl moieties. Elemental analysis of EPS showed the presence of 4.97% N. The organism under continuous light produced 102% more EPS compared to when grown under a light/dark cycle of 14/10 h. The rheological properties of EPS were comparable with commercial xanthan gum. PMID:20174886

Khattar, J I S; Singh, D P; Jindal, Namita; Kaur, N; Singh, Y; Rahi, P; Gulati, A

2010-11-01

185

Effect of natural organic matter on iron uptake by the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The mode of Fe uptake by the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa cultured in Fraquil* (pH 8) containing Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) was examined using short-term radiolabeled (55)Fe uptake assays and a kinetic model that describes extracellular Fe transformations. Both Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake rates decreased substantially with increasing SRFA concentration as the availability of unchelated Fe decreased due to complexation by SRFA. Fe uptake rates under illuminated conditions were comparable to or slightly higher than those observed in the dark at the same Fe:SRFA concentration ratio, in contrast to results for systems containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid where Fe uptake rates were much greater under illumination than in the dark. The limited effect of light principally resulted from the relatively high rates of thermal dissociation and dark reduction of Fe(III) bound to SRFA and complexation of photogenerated Fe(II) by SRFA. Our findings imply that Fe uptake by M. aeruginosa at a fixed total Fe concentration of 200 nM is close to saturation when fulvic acid is present at concentrations near those typically found in natural waters (< ?5 mg·L(-1)), with cellular growth likely to be limited by Fe availability only when natural organic matter is present at very high concentrations (>25 mg·L(-1)). PMID:24261844

Fujii, M; Dang, T C; Bligh, M W; Rose, A L; Waite, T D

2014-01-01

186

Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting [matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS)], tandem MS analyses, and sequence homology searches resulted in an identification success rate of 79% of proteins analysed in the unsequenced cyanobiont. Compared with a free-living strain, processes related to energy production, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and stress-related functions were up-regulated in the cyanobiont while photosynthesis and metabolic turnover rates were down-regulated, stressing a slow heterotrophic mode of growth, as well as high heterocyst frequencies and nitrogen-fixing capacities. The first molecular data set on the nature of the NifH post-translational modification in cyanobacteria was also obtained: peptide mass spectra of the protein demonstrated the presence of a 300-400 Da protein modification localized to a specific 13 amino acid sequence, within the part of the protein that is ADP-ribosylated in other bacteria and close to the active site of nitrogenase. Furthermore, the distribution of the highest scoring database hits for the identified proteins points to the possibility of using proteomic data in taxonomy. PMID:18065763

Ekman, Martin; Tollbäck, Petter; Bergman, Birgitta

2008-01-01

187

Circadian expression of the dnaK gene in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed Central

The expression of the dnaK gene in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was continuously monitored as bioluminescence by an automated monitoring system, using the bacterial luciferase genes (luxAB) of Vibrio harveyi as a reporter of promoter activity. A dnaK-reporting bioluminescent Synechocystis strain was constructed by fusing a promoterless segment of the luxAB gene set downstream of the promoter region of the Synechocystis dnaK gene and introduction of this gene fusion into a BglII site downstream of the ndhB gene in the Synechocystis chromosome. Bioluminescence from this strain was continuously monitored and oscillated with a period of about 22 h for at least 5 days in continuous light. The phase of the rhythm was reset by the timing of the 12-h dark period administered prior to the continuous light. The period of the rhythm was temperature compensated between 25 and 35 degrees C. Thus, the bioluminescence rhythm satisfied the three criteria of circadian rhythms. Furthermore, the abundance of dnaK mRNA also oscillated with a period of about 1 day for at least 2 days in continuous light conditions, indicating circadian control of dnaK gene expression in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

Aoki, S; Kondo, T; Ishiura, M

1995-01-01

188

Sublethal detergent concentrations increase metabolization of recalcitrant polyphosphonates by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

As a consequence of increasing industrial applications, thousand tons of polyphosphonates are introduced every year into the environment. The inherent stability of the C-P bond results in a prolonged half-life. Moreover, low uptake rates limit further their microbial metabolization. To assess whether low detergent concentrations were able to increase polyphosphonate utilization by the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, tolerance limits to the exposure to various detergents were determined by measuring the growth rate in the presence of graded levels below the critical micellar concentration. Then, the amount of hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(methylphosphonic acid) that is metabolized in the absence or in the presence of sublethal detergent concentrations was quantified by (31)P NMR analysis on either P-starved or P-fed cyanobacterial cultures. The strain tolerated the presence of detergents in the order: nonionic > anionic > cationic. When added to the culture medium at the highest concentrations showing no detrimental effects upon cell viability, detergents either improved or decreased polyphosphonate utilization, the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate being the most beneficial. Metabolization was not lower in P-fed cells--a result that strengthens the possibility of using, in the future, this strain for bioremediation purposes. PMID:23089958

Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Giberti, Samuele; Wieczorek, Dorota; Kafarski, Pawe?; Lipok, Jacek

2013-05-01

189

Anaerobic biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in the cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria limnetica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanism for synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was studied in the facultative anaerobic cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria limnetica. The hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) of aerobically grown O. limnetica was shown to contain both the delta 7 (79%) and delta 9 (21%) isomers, while the octadecenoic (C18:1) acid was entirely the delta 9 acid. Incorporation of [2-14C] acetate into the fatty acids under aerobic conditions resulted in synthesis of the delta 7 and delta 9 C16:1 and the delta 9 C18:1. Synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of DCMU required sulfide. Anaerobic incubations in the presence of DCMU and sulfide (less than 0.003% atmospheric oxygen) resulted in a two-fold increase in monounsaturated fatty acids of both delta 7 and delta 9 C16:1 and delta 9 and delta 11 C18:1. The synthesis of these is characteristic of a bacterial-type, anaerobic pathway.

Jahnke, L. L.; Lee, B.; Sweeney, M. J.; Klein, H. P.

1989-01-01

190

Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005.  

PubMed

The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hančne; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

2014-01-01

191

Nutrient-related changes in the toxicity of field blooms of the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.  

PubMed

Nutrients have the capacity to change cyanobacterial toxin loads via growth-related toxin production, or shifts in the dominance of toxic and nontoxic strains. This study examined the effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus on cell division and strain-related changes in production of the toxins, cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) by the cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Two short-term experiments were conducted with mixed phytoplankton populations dominated by C. raciborskii in a subtropical reservoir where treatments had nitrate (NO3 ), urea (U) and inorganic phosphorus (P) added alone or in combination. Cell division rates of C. raciborskii were only statistically higher than the control on day 5 when U and P were co-supplied. In contrast, cell quotas of CYNs (QCYNS ) increased significantly in treatments where P was supplied, irrespective of whether N was supplied, and this increase was not necessarily related to cell division rates. Increased QCYNS did correlate with an increase in the proportion of the cyrA toxin gene to 16S genes in the C. raciborskii-dominated cyanobacterial population. Therefore, changes in strain dominance are the most likely factor driving differences in toxin production between treatments. Our study has demonstrated differential effects of nutrients on cell division and strain dominance reflecting a C. raciborskii population with a range of strategies in response to environmental conditions. PMID:24735048

Burford, Michele A; Davis, Timothy W; Orr, Philip T; Sinha, Rati; Willis, Anusuya; Neilan, Brett A

2014-07-01

192

Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis  

SciTech Connect

The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m{sup 2} basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input of photosynthetically active radiation into the photobioreactor was 2,920 kJ per day. An air-lift system incorporating 4% CO{sub 2} was used to circulate the growth medium in the tubing. The maximum productivity achieved in batch culture was 7.18 g dry biomass per day which corresponded to a photosynthetic (PAR) efficiency of 5.45%. The CO{sub 2} was efficiently removed from the gaseous stream; monitoring the CO{sub 2} in the outlet and inlet gas streams showed a 70% removal of CO{sub 2} from the inlet gas over an 8-h period with almost maximum growth rate.

Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Hall, D.O. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Nouee, J. De La [Univ. Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology

1995-07-20

193

Ecological specialization in a spatially structured population of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.  

PubMed

Laboratory evolution experiments suggest the potential for microbial populations to contribute significant ecological variation to ecosystems, yet the functional importance of genetic diversity within natural populations of microorganisms is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic and phenotypic variation for a population of the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus distributed along the temperature gradient of White Creek, Yellowstone NP. A total of 153 laboratory strains were directly isolated from five sites with mean annual temperatures ranging between 39 and 54 degrees C. Genetic characterization at four nitrogen metabolism genes identified 15 closely related lineages in the population sample. These lineages were distributed nonrandomly along White Creek, but the observed geographic structure could not be explained by limited dispersal capabilities. Temperature performance experiments with six M. laminosus lineages that maximized their respective relative abundances at different positions along the gradient provided evidence for niche differentiation within the population. Niche differentiation included a tradeoff in performance at high and low temperatures, respectively. The physiological variation of these lineages in laboratory culture was generally well matched to the prevailing temperature conditions experienced by these organisms in situ. These results suggest that sympatric diversification along an ecological selection gradient can be a potent source of evolutionary innovation in microbial populations. PMID:19047382

Miller, Scott R; Williams, Carin; Strong, Aaron L; Carvey, Darla

2009-02-01

194

Molecular population genetics and phenotypic diversification of two populations of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.  

PubMed

We investigated the distributions of genetic and phenotypic variation for two Yellowstone National Park populations of the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Mastigocladus (Fischerella) laminosus that exhibit dramatic phenotypic differences as a result of environmental differences in nitrogen availability. One population develops heterocysts and fixes nitrogen in situ in response to a deficiency of combined nitrogen in its environment, whereas the other population does neither due to the availability of a preferred nitrogen source. Slowly evolving molecular markers, including the 16S rRNA gene and the downstream internal transcribed spacer, are identical among all laboratory isolates from both populations but belie considerable genetic and phenotypic diversity. The total nucleotide diversity at six nitrogen metabolism loci was roughly three times greater than that observed for the human global population. The two populations are genetically differentiated, although variation in performance on different nitrogen sources among genotypes could not be explained by local adaptation to available nitrogen in the respective environments. Population genetic models suggest that local adaptation is mutation limited but also that the populations are expected to continue to diverge due to low migratory gene flow. PMID:16597984

Miller, Scott R; Purugganan, Michael D; Curtis, Stephanie E

2006-04-01

195

Differential Expression of Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Fixation Genes in the Cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum  

PubMed Central

The filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum fixes dinitrogen at a high rate during microaerobic growth in continuous illumination by temporal separation of oxygen-evolving photosynthesis and oxygen-sensitive dinitrogen fixation. The onset of nitrogen fixation is preceded by a depression in photosynthesis that establishes a sufficiently low level of dissolved oxygen in the growth medium. A several-fold reduction in the level of transcripts coding for phycocyanin (cpcBA) and the chlorophyll a binding protein of photosystem II (psbC) and psbA accompanied the depression in photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Unlike most of the other organisms examined to date, in P. boryanum, psbC and psbD do not appear to be co-transcribed. The psbC transcripts were down-regulated several fold, while the psbD transcript declined marginally during the nitrogen fixation phase. A decrease in dissolved oxygen and a dramatic increase in the level of nifH transcripts and the enzyme activity of nitrogenase were characteristic of the nitrogen fixation phase. The level of transcript for glnA, which encodes glutamine synthetase, was not altered. Reciprocal regulation of gene expression was well orchestrated with the alternating cycles of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in P. boryanum.

Misra, Hari S.; Tuli, Rakesh

2000-01-01

196

The wewakpeptins, cyclic depsipeptides from a Papua New Guinea collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena.  

PubMed

Four new depsipeptides have been isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena collected from Papua New Guinea. The amino and hydroxy acid partial structures of wewakpeptins A-D (1-4) were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic techniques, including HR-FABMS, 1D (1)H and (13)C NMR, as well as 2D COSY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC spectra. The sequence of the residues was determined through a combination of multifaceted approaches including ESI-MS/MS, HMBC, ROESY, and a modified 1D HMBC experiment. The absolute stereochemistry of each residue was determined by chiral HPLC and chiral GC-MS methods. The wewakpeptins represent an unusual arrangement of amino and hydroxy acid subunits relative to known cyanobacterial peptides and possess a bis-ester, a 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-7-octynoic acid (Dhoya) or 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (Dhoaa) residue, and a diprolyl group reminiscent of dolastatin 15. Wewakpeptin A and B were the most cytotoxic among these four depsipeptides with an LC(50) of approximately 0.4 muM to both the NCI-H460 human lung tumor and the neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma cell lines. PMID:15822975

Han, Bingnan; Goeger, Doug; Maier, Claudia S; Gerwick, William H

2005-04-15

197

Biochemical effect of carbaryl on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes of cyanobacterium Calothrix brevissima.  

PubMed

Carbaryl is used in Indian agriculture for control of rice field pests and it is next to Benzene hexachloride in pesticide consumption. In present study, carbaryl (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) induced toxic effects were observed after 21 days exposure on a non target rice field biofertilizer Calothrix brevissima with special reference to oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes. At 40 mg/L carbaryl the decrease in carotenoid, chlorophyll, phycobilin and protein were 63%, 43%, 40% and 40% respectively in comparison to control. Total carbohydrate, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and osmolytes showed enhancement at all the treated concentration. Increased amount of MDA (46% at 40 mg/L) indicated free radical mediated deleterious effect of carbaryl. Enhancement of SOD, APX, CAT and osmolytes in presence of carbaryl indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging. SOD, CAT and APX showed maximum activities (79%, 64% and 39% respectively) at 40 mg/L carbaryl. The order of enhancement in osmolytes was glycine-betaine (66%) > proline (54%) > sucrose (50%) at 40 mg/L which might be another adaptive defense strategy of the cyanobacterium against the pesticide. PMID:21979138

Habib, Khalid; Kumar, Satyendra; Manikar, Ningthoujam; Zutshi, Sunaina; Fatma, Tasneem

2011-12-01

198

[Comparison of daily alkaline phosphatase activity of a cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) and a diatom (Synedra capitata)].  

PubMed

Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) (EC: 3.1.3.1) presents a nycthemeral variation in both Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanobacterium) and Synedra capitata (diatom) species. Nevertheless, a comparative study reveals differences between the enzymatic behaviour of these two species. ALP is 33 times higher in cyanobacteria than in diatoms under similar experimental conditions. Microcystis aeruginosa presents therefore a larger capacity for mineralizing organic phosphorus per unit of biomass. Under LD (16:8) conditions, diatoms show a higher enzymatic activity during the day time (around 0.12 mumol pNPP/mn/mg); on the contrary, cyanobacterial enzymatic activity is rather low during the day time and rises at the beginning of night time (around 3.5 mumol pNPP/mn/mg). Finally, the mean of ALP of Synedra capitata is maximal (around 0.12 mumol pNPP/mn/mg) under total darkness (DD) while the mean of enzymatic activity is maximal (around 3.58 mumol pNPP/mn/mg) under permanent light (LL) for the cyanobacteria. These observed differences in the alkaline phosphatase activity between Microcystis aeruginosa and Synedra capitata might, to some extent, explain the observed alternances within the planktonic settlements between algae and cyanobacteria in hypereutrophic lakes such as the Grangent reservoir (Loire). PMID:9247024

Giraudet, H; Berthon, J L; Buisson, B

1997-06-01

199

Near-UV cyanobacteriochrome signaling system elicits negative phototaxis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

Positive phototaxis systems have been well studied in bacteria; however, the photoreceptor(s) and their downstream signaling components that are responsible for negative phototaxis are poorly understood. Negative phototaxis sensory systems are important for cyanobacteria, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms that must contend with reactive oxygen species generated by an abundance of pigment photosensitizers. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 exhibits type IV pilus-dependent negative phototaxis in response to unidirectional UV-A illumination. Using a reverse genetic approach, together with biochemical, molecular genetic, and RNA expression profiling analyses, we show that the cyanobacteriochrome locus (slr1212/uirS) of Synechocystis and two adjacent response regulator loci (slr1213/uirR and the PatA-type regulator slr1214/lsiR) encode a UV-A–activated signaling system that is required for negative phototaxis. We propose that UirS, which is membrane-associated via its ETR1 domain, functions as a UV-A photosensor directing expression of lsiR via release of bound UirR, which targets the lsiR promoter. Constitutive expression of LsiR induces negative phototaxis under conditions that normally promote positive phototaxis. Also induced by other stresses, LsiR thus integrates light inputs from multiple photosensors to determine the direction of movement.

Song, Ji-Young; Cho, Hye Sun; Cho, Jung-Il; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Lagarias, J. Clark; Park, Youn-Il

2011-01-01

200

Characterization and evolution of tetrameric photosystem I from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp TS-821.  

PubMed

Photosystem I (PSI) is a reaction center associated with oxygenic photosynthesis. Unlike the monomeric reaction centers in green and purple bacteria, PSI forms trimeric complexes in most cyanobacteria with a 3-fold rotational symmetry that is primarily stabilized via adjacent PsaL subunits; however, in plants/algae, PSI is monomeric. In this study, we discovered a tetrameric form of PSI in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp TS-821 (TS-821). In TS-821, PSI forms tetrameric and dimeric species. We investigated these species by Blue Native PAGE, Suc density gradient centrifugation, 77K fluorescence, circular dichroism, and single-particle analysis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of native membranes confirms the presence of the tetrameric PSI structure prior to detergent solubilization. To investigate why TS-821 forms tetramers instead of trimers, we cloned and analyzed its psaL gene. Interestingly, this gene product contains a short insert between the second and third predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic analysis based on PsaL protein sequences shows that TS-821 is closely related to heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, some of which also have a tetrameric form of PSI. These results are discussed in light of chloroplast evolution, and we propose that PSI evolved stepwise from a trimeric form to tetrameric oligomer en route to becoming monomeric in plants/algae. PMID:24681621

Li, Meng; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Boekema, Egbert J; Bruce, Barry D

2014-03-01

201

Ultradian metabolic rhythm in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142.  

PubMed

The unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51142 is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis during the day and microoxic nitrogen fixation at night. These mutually exclusive processes are possible only by temporal separation by circadian clock or another cellular program. We report identification of a temperature-dependent ultradian metabolic rhythm that controls the alternating oxygenic and microoxic processes of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under continuous high irradiance and in high CO2 concentration. During the oxygenic photosynthesis phase, nitrate deficiency limited protein synthesis and CO2 assimilation was directed toward glycogen synthesis. The carbohydrate accumulation reduced overexcitation of the photosynthetic reactions until a respiration burst initiated a transition to microoxic N2 fixation. In contrast to the circadian clock, this ultradian period is strongly temperature-dependent: 17 h at 27 °C, which continuously decreased to 10 h at 39 °C. The cycle was expressed by an oscillatory modulation of net O2 evolution, CO2 uptake, pH, fluorescence emission, glycogen content, cell division, and culture optical density. The corresponding ultradian modulation was also observed in the transcription of nitrogenase-related nifB and nifH genes and in nitrogenase activities. We propose that the control by the newly identified metabolic cycle adds another rhythmic component to the circadian clock that reflects the true metabolic state depending on the actual temperature, irradiance, and CO2 availability. PMID:23878254

?ervený, Jan; Sinetova, Maria A; Valledor, Luis; Sherman, Louis A; Nedbal, Ladislav

2013-08-01

202

A Gene Cluster Involved in Metal Homeostasis in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803  

PubMed Central

A gene cluster composed of nine open reading frames (ORFs) involved in Ni2+, Co2+, and Zn2+ sensing and tolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has been identified. The cluster includes an Ni2+ response operon and a Co2+ response system, as well as a Zn2+ response system previously described. Expression of the Ni2+ response operon (nrs) was induced in the presence of Ni2+ and Co2+. Reduced Ni2+ tolerance was observed following disruption of two ORFs of the operon (nrsA and nrsD). We also show that the nrsD gene encodes a putative Ni2+ permease whose carboxy-terminal region is a metal binding domain. The Co2+ response system is composed of two divergently transcribed genes, corR and corT, mutants of which showed decreased Co2+ tolerance. Additionally, corR mutants showed an absence of Co2+-dependent induction of corT, indicating that CorR is a transcriptional activator of corT. To our knowledge, CorR is the first Co2+-sensing transcription factor described. Our data suggest that this region of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genome is involved in sensing and homeostasis of Ni2+, Co2+, and Zn2+.

Garcia-Dominguez, Mario; Lopez-Maury, Luis; Florencio, Francisco J.; Reyes, Jose C.

2000-01-01

203

Temporal separation of cell division and diazotrophy in the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101.  

PubMed

Examination of the diurnal patterns of basic cellular processes in the marine nonheterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium revealed that the division of cells occurred throughout the diurnal cycle, but that it oscillated and peaked at an early stage in the dark period. Transcription of the early cell division gene ftsZ and the occurrence of the FtsZ protein showed a similar diurnal rhythmicity that preceded the division of cells. DNA replication (dnaA gene transcription) occurred before the transcription of ftsZ and hetR, the latter encoding the key heterocyst differentiation protein. Transcription of ftsZ and hetR in turn preceded the development of the nitrogen-fixing diazocytes and nifH transcription, and were at the minimum when diazotrophy was at the maximum. The nifH gene transcription showed a negative correlation to the circadian clock gene kaiC. Together, the data show a temporal separation between cell division and diazotrophy on a diurnal basis. PMID:19456868

Sandh, Gustaf; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Díez, Beatriz; Bergman, Birgitta

2009-06-01

204

On the role of oxygen for nitrogen fixation in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp.  

PubMed

The marine, non-heterocystous, filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium shows a distinct diurnal pattern of nitrogenase activity. In an attempt to reveal the factors that control this pattern, a series of measurements were carried out using online acetylene reduction assay. Light response curves of nitrogenase were recorded applying various concentrations of oxygen. The effect of oxygen depended on the irradiance applied. Above a photon irradiance of 16 mumol m(-2) s(-1) nitrogenase activity was highest under anoxic conditions. Below this irradiance the presence of oxygen was required to achieve highest nitrogenase activity and in the dark 5% oxygen was optimal. At any oxygen concentration a photon irradiance of 100 mumol m(-2) s(-1) was saturating. When Trichodesmium was incubated in the dark, nitrogenase activity gradually decreased and this decline was higher at higher levels of oxygen. The activity recovered when the cells were subsequently incubated in the light. This recovery depended on oxygenic photosynthesis because it did not occur in the presence of DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea]. Recovery of nitrogenase activity in the light was faster at low oxygen concentrations. The results showed that under aerobic conditions nitrogenase activity was limited by the availability of reducing equivalents suggesting a competition for electrons between nitrogenase and respiration. PMID:17298372

Staal, Marc; Rabouille, Sophie; Stal, Lucas J

2007-03-01

205

Modeling the dynamic regulation of nitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp.  

PubMed

A physiological, unbalanced model is presented that explicitly describes growth of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. at the expense of N(2) (diazotrophy). The model involves the dynamics of intracellular reserves of carbon and nitrogen and allows the uncoupling of the metabolism of these elements. The results show the transient dynamics of N(2) fixation when combined nitrogen (NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+)) is available and the increased rate of N(2) fixation when combined nitrogen is insufficient to cover the demand. The daily N(2) fixation pattern that emerges from the model agrees with measurements of rates of nitrogenase activity in laboratory cultures of Trichodesmium sp. Model simulations explored the influence of irradiance levels and the length of the light period on fixation activity and cellular carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry. Changes in the cellular C/N ratio resulted from allocations of carbon to different cell compartments as demanded by the growth of the organism. The model shows that carbon availability is a simple and efficient mechanism to regulate the balance of carbon and nitrogen fixed (C/N ratio) in filaments of cells. The lowest C/N ratios were obtained when the light regime closely matched nitrogenase dynamics. PMID:16672460

Rabouille, Sophie; Staal, Marc; Stal, Lucas J; Soetaert, Karline

2006-05-01

206

Comparative proteomic profiles of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 under different nitrogen regimes.  

PubMed

Trichodesmium is a marine filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium and an important contributor of "new" nitrogen in the oligotrophic surface waters of the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. It is unique in that it exclusively fixes N(2) at daytime, although it belongs to the non-heterocystous filamentous segment of the cyanobacterial radiation. Here we present the first quantitative proteomic analysis of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 when grown under different nitrogen regimes using 2-DE/MALDI-TOF-MS. Addition of combined nitrogen (NO3-) prevented development of the morphological characteristics of the N(2)-fixing cell type (diazocytes), inhibited expression of the nitrogenase enzyme subunits and consequently N(2) fixation activity. The diazotrophic regime (N(2) versus NO3- cultures) elicited the differential expression of more than 100 proteins, which represented 13.5% of the separated proteins. Besides proteins directly related to N(2) fixation, proteins involved in the synthesis of reducing equivalents and the generation of a micro-oxic environment were strongly up-regulated, as was in particular Dps, a protein related to iron acquisition and potentially other vital cellular processes. In contrast, proteins involved in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) cycle, synthesis of amino acids and production of carbon skeletons for storage and synthesis of amino acids were suppressed. The data are discussed in the context of Trichodesmium's unusual N(2)-fixing physiology. PMID:21268270

Sandh, Gustaf; Ran, Liang; Xu, Linghua; Sundqvist, Gustav; Bulone, Vincent; Bergman, Birgitta

2011-02-01

207

Coupling between autocatalytic cell death and transparent exopolymeric particle production in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium.  

PubMed

Extracellular polysaccharide aggregates, operationally defined as transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), are recognized as an important conduit for carbon recycling and export in aquatic systems. Yet, the factors controlling the build-up of the TEP pool are not well characterized. Here we show that increased TEP production by Trichodesmium, an oceanic bloom-forming nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacterium, is coupled with autocatalytic programmed cell death (PCD) process. We demonstrate that PCD induction, in both laboratory cultures and natural populations, is characterized by high caspase-like activity, correlates with enhanced TEP production, and occurs under iron and phosphorus starvation, as well as under high irradiance and oxidative stress. Enhanced TEP production was not observed in actively growing populations. We provide further evidence that iron is a key trigger for the induction of PCD. We demonstrate, for the first time, the concomitant enhanced build-up of the TEP pool when Trichodesmium is Fe-stressed. These results suggest a functional linkage between activation of caspases and PCD in Trichodesmium and regulation of vertical carbon and nitrogen fluxes. We hypothesize that modulation of TEP formation and its qualities by different mortality pathways could regulate the fate of phytoplankton blooms and particulate organic matter in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:17504479

Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rosenberg, Gad; Levitan, Orly; Haramaty, Liti; Mari, Xavier

2007-06-01

208

Composition of the carbohydrate granules of the cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that temporally separates O2-sensitive N2 fixation from oxygenic photosynthesis. The energy and reducing power needed for N2 fixation appears to be generated by an active respiratory apparatus that utilizes the contents of large interthylakoidal carbohydrate granules. We report here on the carbohydrate and protein composition of the granules of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142. The carbohydrate component is a glucose homopolymer with branches every nine residues and is chemically identical to glycogen. Granule-associated protein fractions showed temporal changes in the number of proteins and their abundance during the metabolic oscillations observed under diazotrophic conditions. There also were temporal changes in the protein pattern of the granule-depleted supernatant fractions from diazotrophic cultures. None of the granule-associated proteins crossreacted with antisera directed against several glycogen-metabolizing enzymes or nitrogenase, although these proteins were tentatively identified in supernatant fractions. It is suggested that the granule-associated proteins are structural proteins required to maintain a complex granule architecture.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

209

Carbon dioxide regulation of autotrophy and diazotrophy in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.  

PubMed

To understand how carbon and nitrogen metabolism are regulated in diazotrophically and non-diazotrophically grown cultures of the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum, we investigated the role of bicarbonate (HCO??) in regulating diazotrophy and autotrophy. Results showed that HCO?? concentration up to 12 mol m?ł enhanced growth, specific growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic O? evolution and nitrogenase activity under diazotrophic growth conditions. The co-existence of different nitrogen sources in the growth medium further accelerate the examined parameters in the order of NO??

Bhargava, Santosh; Chouhan, Shweta; Kaithwas, Vipin; Maithil, Rakesh

2013-12-01

210

Emulsifying, flocculating, and physicochemical properties of exopolysaccharide produced by cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.  

PubMed

The emulsifying, flocculating, and physicochemical properties of purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) of terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme cultured in liquid media were investigated. The EPS was defined as heteropolysaccharide composed by 41.2 % glucose, 21.1 % galactose, 21.0 % mannose, 2.5 % fructose, 3.6 % ribose, 1.7 % xylose, 0.6 % arabinose, 3.0 % rhamnose, 0.9 % fucose, and 4.3 % glucuronic acid. The EPS possessed higher intrinsic viscosity than other cyanobacterial strains as reported and displayed pseudoplastic behavior in aqueous solution. The EPS produced more stable emulsions with tested hydrocarbons and oils than xanthan gum, and the emulsification indexes with n-hexadecane, liquid paraffin, and peanut oil were higher than 50 %, indicating the strong emulsion-stabilizing capacity. The EPS showed peak flocculating rates of 93.5 and 86.1 % in kaolin and MgO suspension, respectively, and exhibited a better flocculation performance than Al2(SO4)3 and xanthan gum. These results demonstrated that the EPS of N. flagelliforme was a very promising candidate for numerous industrial applications, as it had higher intrinsic viscosity, good emulsification activity, and excellent flocculation capability. PMID:24043454

Han, Pei-pei; Sun, Ying; Wu, Xiao-ying; Yuan, Ying-jin; Dai, Yu-jie; Jia, Shi-ru

2014-01-01

211

Response of multiple herbicide resistant strain of diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Anabaena variabilis, exposed to atrazine and DCMU.  

PubMed

Effect of two photosynthetic inhibitor herbicides, atrazine (both purified and formulated) and [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea] (DCMU), on the growth, macromolecular contents, heterocyst frequency, photosynthetic O2 evolution and dark O2 uptake of wild type and multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) strain of diazotrophic cyanobacterium A. variabilis was studied. Cyanobacterial strains showed gradual inhibition in growth with increasing dosage of herbicides. Both wild type and MHR strain tolerated < 6.0 mg L(-1) of atrazine (purified), < 2.0 mg L(-1) of atrazine (formulated) and < 0.4 mg L(-1) of DCMU indicating similar level of herbicide tolerance. Atrazine (pure) (8.0 mg L(-1)) and 4.0 mg L(-1) of atrazine (formulated) were growth inhibitory concentrations (lethal) for both wild type and MHR strain indicating formulated atrazine was more toxic than the purified form. Comparatively lower concentrations of DCMU were found to be lethal for wild type and MHR strain, respectively. Thus, between the two herbicides tested DCMU was more growth toxic than atrazine. At sublethal dosages of herbicides, photosynthetic O2 evolution showed highest inhibition followed by chlorophyll a, phycobhiliproteins and heterocyst differentiation as compared to carotenoid, protein and respiratory O2 uptake. PMID:21614895

Singh, Surendra; Datta, Pallavi; Tirkey, Archna

2011-04-01

212

Fluorapatite as Inorganic Phosphate Source for the Cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the hypothesis that the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 is able to use fluorapatite (FAP) as sole phosphate source for growth. In the experimental setup the dissolution of FAP was tested in a phosphate free growth medium in the presence and absence of the Anabaena, as well as the cell free supernatant of an Anabaena culture. The results were compared with that of an Anabaena culture grown without fluorapatite. Parameters measured were pH, dissolved P and Ca, as well as cell density. The FAP grains were analyzed using SEM and XPS. Additionally, the differential expression of secreted proteins in cultures with and without dissolved phosphate was examined. P-limited Anabaena cultures tend to aggregate and in the presence of FAP the cells attached themselves to the mineral grains. The cultures benefit from the presence of FAP. The cells have a very effective P-uptake system that is able to take up dissolved phosphate very efficiently and draw the concentrations down to very low levels. Furthermore, the SEM analysis of FAP showed an etching of the mineral grains in the samples from the Anabaena cultures. The mechanism of apatite dissolution with and without Anabaena will be discussed in terms of these experimental observations.

Schaperdoth, I.; Brantley, S.

2003-12-01

213

Anti-Chikungunya Viral Activities of Aplysiatoxin-Related Compounds from the Marine Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum  

PubMed Central

Tropical filamentous marine cyanobacteria have emerged as a viable source of novel bioactive natural products for drug discovery and development. In the present study, aplysiatoxin (1), debromoaplysiatoxin (2) and anhydrodebromoaplysiatoxin (3), as well as two new analogues, 3-methoxyaplysiatoxin (4) and 3-methoxydebromoaplysiatoxin (5), are reported for the first time from the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum. The identification of the bloom-forming cyanobacterial strain was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequences. Structural determination of the new analogues was achieved by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with NMR spectral data of known compounds. In addition, the antiviral activities of these marine toxins were assessed using Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-infected cells. Post-treatment experiments using the debrominated analogues, namely compounds 2, 3 and 5, displayed dose-dependent inhibition of CHIKV when tested at concentrations ranging from 0.1 µM to 10.0 µM. Furthermore, debromoaplysiatoxin (2) and 3-methoxydebromoaplysiatoxin (5) exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activities with EC50 values of 1.3 ?M and 2.7 ?M, respectively, and selectivity indices of 10.9 and 9.2, respectively.

Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Kaur, Parveen; Leong, See Ting; Tan, Lik Tong; Prinsep, Michele R.; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

2014-01-01

214

Scavenging systems for reactive carbonyls in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

To elucidate the scavenging systems of sugar- and lipid-derived reactive carbonyls (RCs) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (S. 6803), we selected proteins from S. 6803 based on amino-acid (AA) sequence similarities with proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, and characterized the properties of the GST-fusion proteins expressed. Slr0942 catalyzed the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) reaction scavenging mainly sugar-derived RCs, methylglyoxal (MG). Slr1192 is the medium-chain dehydrogenase/redutase (MDR). It catalyzed the AKR reaction scavenging several lipid-derived RCs, acrolein, propionaldehyde, and crotonaldehyde. Slr0315 is a short-chain dehydrogenase/redutase (SDR), and it catalyzed only the reduction of MG in the AKR reaction. Slr0381 catalyzed the conversion of hemithioacetal to S-lactoylglutahione (SLG) in the glyoxalase (GLX) 1 reaction. Sll1019 catalyzed the conversion of SLG to glutathione and lactate in the GLX2 reaction. GLX1 and GLX2 compose the glyoxalase system, which scavenges MG. These enzymes contribute to scavenging sugar- and lipid-derived RCs as scavenging systems. PMID:24317062

Shimakawa, Ginga; Suzuki, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Eriko; Nishi, Akiko; Saito, Ryota; Sakamoto, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

2013-01-01

215

Recovery of photosynthetic systems during rewetting is quite rapid in a terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

Recovery processes of photosynthetic systems during rewetting were studied in detail in a terrestrial, highly drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune. With absorption of water, the weight of N. commune colony increased in three phases with half-increase times of about 1 min, 2 h and 9 h. Fluorescence intensities of phycobiliproteins and photosystem (PS) I complexes were recovered almost completely within 1 min, suggesting that their functional forms were restored very quickly. Energy transfer from allophycocyanin to the core-membrane linker peptide (L(CM)) was recovered within 1 min, but not that from L(CM) to PSII. PSI activity and cyclic electron flow around PSI recovered within 2 min, while the PSII activity recovered in two phases after a time lag of about 5 min, with half times of about 20 min and 2 h. Photosynthetic CO(2) fixation was restored almost in parallel with the first recovery phase of the PSII reaction center activity. Although the amount of absorbed water became more than 20 times the initial dry weight of the N. commune colony in the presence of sufficient water, about twice the initial dry weight was enough for recovery and maintenance of the PSII activity. PMID:11867696

Satoh, Kazuhiko; Hirai, Manabu; Nishio, Junko; Yamaji, Takaharu; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki

2002-02-01

216

Glycosylated porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine from the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally different MAAs have been identified in eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. In this study novel glycosylated MAAs were found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (N. commune). An MAA with an absorption maximum at 334 nm was identified as a hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 508 Da. Another MAA with an absorption maximum at 322 nm was identified as a two hexose-bound palythine-threonine derivative with a molecular mass of 612 Da. These purified MAAs have radical scavenging activities in vitro, which suggests multifunctional roles as sunscreens and antioxidants. The 612-Da MAA accounted for approximately 60% of the total MAAs and contributed approximately 20% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract, indicating that it is the major water-soluble UV-protectant and radical scavenger component. The hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative and the glycosylated palythine-threonine derivatives were found in a specific genotype of N. commune, suggesting that glycosylated MAA patterns could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the characterization of the morphologically indistinguishable N. commune. The glycosylation of porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine in N. commune suggests a unique adaptation for terrestrial environments that are drastically fluctuating in comparison to stable aquatic environments. PMID:24065157

Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Yamaba, Minami; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

2013-01-01

217

Molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic characterization of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring species.  

PubMed

The phylogeny of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring Nostoc species was studied using molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic approaches. At least eight genotypes of N. commune were characterized by the differences among 16S rRNA gene sequences and the petH gene encoding ferredoxin-NADP? oxidoreductase and by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genotypes of N. commune were distributed in Japan without regional specificity. The nrtP gene encoding NrtP-type nitrate/nitrite permease was widely distributed in the genus Nostoc, suggesting that the occurrence of the nrtP gene can be one of the characteristic features that separate cyanobacteria into two groups. The wspA gene encoding a 36-kDa water stress protein was only found in N. commune and Nostoc verrucosum, suggesting that these Nostoc species that form massive colonies with extracellular polysaccharides can be exclusively characterized by the occurrence of the wspA gene. Fifteen species of Nostoc and Anabaena were investigated by comparing their carotenoid composition. Three groups with distinct patterns of carotenoids were related to the phylogenic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences. Nostoc commune and Nostoc punctiforme were clustered in one monophyletic group and characterized by the occurrence of nostoxanthin, canthaxanthin, and myxol glycosides. PMID:22066798

Arima, Hiromi; Horiguchi, Noriomi; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kofuji, Rumiko; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Wada, Keishiro; Sakamoto, Toshio

2012-01-01

219

Novel water stress protein from a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium. Purification and partial characterization.  

PubMed

A desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc commune accumulates a novel group of acidic proteins when colonies are subjected to repeated cycles of drying and rehydration. The proteins occur in high concentrations; they have isoelectric points between 4.3 and 4.8 and apparent molecular masses between 30 and 39 kDa. The purification of three of these proteins with molecular masses of 33, 37, and 39 kDa is described. The amino-terminal sequence of the 39-kDa protein is Ala-Leu-Tyr-Gly-Tyr-Thr-Ile-Gly-Glu. Peptide mapping of the 39- and the 33-kDa proteins, using different protease, gave similar patterns of digestion fragments. The amino acid compositions of the proteins isolated were similar, and each cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the largest (39-kDa) protein. The results indicate that the microheterogeneity observed was generated by in vivo proteolysis of the 39-kDa protein. It is suggested that this protein is a water stress protein with a protective function on a structural level. PMID:2501307

Scherer, S; Potts, M

1989-07-25

220

Paenibacillus glycanilyticus sp. nov., a novel species that degrades heteropolysaccharide produced by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain, DS-1T, was isolated that degrades heteropolysaccharide produced by the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The isolate was identified by a combination of phenotypic characterization, cellular fatty acid analysis, DNA base composition, DNA-DNA hybridization and 165 rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis placed strain DS-1T within the Paenibacillus cluster on a phylogenetic tree and the phenotypic characteristics of this strain appear to be similar to those of Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus IFO 15724T and Paenibacillus kobensis IFO 15729T. The strain was distinguished from P. curdlanolyticus IFO 15724T and P. kobensis IFO 15729T by its ability to degrade the polysaccharide of Nostoc commune, by assimilation of rhamnose, inositol and L-fucose and by its wide range of optimal growth temperature (28-37 degrees C). Like other Paenibacillus species, this strain contains anteiso-C15:0 as a major cellular fatty acid, and it has a DNA G+C content of 50.5 mol %. Based on these results, it is concluded that this isolate should be placed within a novel species of Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus sp. nov., with the type strain DS-1T (= IFO 16618T = JCM 11221T = NRRL B-23455T). PMID:12361272

Dasman; Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Yagi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsuji; Fukusaki, Ei-ichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

2002-09-01

221

An integrative approach to energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

SciTech Connect

The broader goal of this project was to merge knowledge from genomic, metabolic, ultrastructural and other perspectives to understand how cyanobacteria live, adapt and are regulated. This understanding aids in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology efforts using this group of organisms that contribute greatly to global photosynthetic CO2 fixation and that are closely related to the ancestors of chloroplasts. This project focused on photosynthesis and respiration in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which is spontaneously transformable and has a known genome sequence. Modification of these fundamental processes in this organism can lead to improved carbon sequestration and hydrogen production, as well as to generation of high-quality biomass. In our GTL-supported studies at Arizona State University we focus on cell structure and cell physiology in Synechocystis, with particular emphasis on thylakoid membrane formation and on metabolism related to photosynthesis and respiration. Results on (a) thylakoid membrane biogenesis, (b) fluxes through central carbon utilization pathways, and (c) distribution mechanisms between carbon storage compounds are presented. Together, these results help pave the way for metabolic engineering efforts that are likely to result in improved solar-powered carbon sequestration and bioenergy conversion. Fueled by the very encouraging results obtained in this project, we already have attracted interest from major companies in the use of cyanobacteria for biofuel production.

Vermaas, Willem F.J.

2006-03-14

222

Inhibitory effects of sanguinarine against the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843 and possible mechanisms of action.  

PubMed

Sanguinarine showed strong inhibitory effect against Microcystis aeruginosa, a typical water bloom-forming and microcystins-producing cyanobacterium. The EC50 of sanguinarine against the growth of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 was 34.54±1.17 ?g/L. Results of chlorophyll fluorescence transient analysis indicated that all the electron donating side, accepting side, and the reaction center of the Photosystem II (PS II) were the targets of sanguinarine against M. aeruginosa NIES-843. The elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the cells of M. aeruginosa NIES-843 upon exposure indicated that sanguinarine induced oxidative stress in the active growing cells of M. aeruginosa NIES-843. Further results of gene expression analysis indicated that DNA damage and cell division inhibition were also involved in the inhibitory action mechanism of sanguinarine against M. aeruginosa NIES-843. The inhibitory characteristics of sanguinarine against M. aeruginosa suggest that the ecological- and public health-risks need to be evaluated before its application in cyanobacterial bloom control to avoid devastating events irreversibly. PMID:24060579

Shao, Jihai; Liu, Deming; Gong, Daoxin; Zeng, Qingru; Yan, Zhiyong; Gu, Ji-Dong

2013-10-15

223

Draft genome sequence of Rubidibacter lacunae strain KORDI 51-2T, a cyanobacterium isolated from seawater of Chuuk lagoon  

PubMed Central

A photoautotrophic cyanobacterium, Rubidibacter lacunae was reported in 2008 for the first time. The type strain, KORDI 51-2T, was isolated from seawater of Chuuk lagoon located in a tropical area. Although it belonged to a clade exclusively comprised of extremely halotolerant strains by phylogenetic analyses, R. lacunae is known to be incapable of growth at high salt concentration over 10%. Here we report the main features of the genome of R. lacunae strain KORDI 51-2T. The genome of R. lacunae contains a gene cluster for phosphonate utilization encoding three transporters, one regulator and eight C-P lyase subunits.

Choi, Dong Han; Ryu, Jee-Youn; Kwon, Kae-Kyoung; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Changhoon; Lee, Charity M.

2013-01-01

224

Lyngbyastatins 8-10, Elastase Inhibitors with Cyclic Depsipeptide Scaffolds Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena  

PubMed Central

Investigation of an extract from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena, collected in Tumon Bay, Guam, led to the identification of three new cyclodepsipeptides, lyngbyastatins 8–10 (1–3). The structures of 1–3 were determined by NMR, MS, ESIMS fragmentation and chemical degradation. Compounds 1–3 are closely related to lyngbyastatins 4–7. Like the latter compounds, we found 1–3 to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, with IC50 values of 123 nM, 210 nM and 120 nM, respectively.

Kwan, Jason C.; Taori, Kanchan; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

2009-01-01

225

Lyngbyastatins 8-10, elastase inhibitors with cyclic depsipeptide scaffolds isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena.  

PubMed

Investigation of an extract from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena, collected in Tumon Bay, Guam, led to the identification of three new cyclodepsipeptides, lyngbyastatins 8-10 (1-3). The structures of 1-3 were determined by NMR, MS, ESIMS fragmentation and chemical degradation. Compounds 1-3 are closely related to lyngbyastatins 4-7. Like the latter compounds, we found 1-3 to inhibit porcine pancreatic elastase, with IC(50) values of 123 nM, 210 nM and 120 nM, respectively. PMID:20098596

Kwan, Jason C; Taori, Kanchan; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

2009-01-01

226

Selective and Reversible Inhibition of Active CO2 Transport by Hydrogen Sulfide in a Cyanobacterium 1  

PubMed Central

The active transport of CO2 in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625 was inhibited by H2S. Treatment of the cells with up to 150 micromolar H2S + HS? at pH 8.0 had little effect on Na+-dependent HCO3? transport or photosynthetic O2 evolution, but CO2 transport was inhibited by more than 90%. CO2 transport was restored when H2S was removed by flushing with N2. At constant total H2S + HS? concentrations, inhibition of CO2 transport increased as the ratio of H2S to HS? increased, suggesting a direct role for H2S in the inhibitory process. Hydrogen sulfide does not appear to serve as a substrate for transport. In the presence of H2S and Na+ -dependent HCO3? transport, the extracellular CO2 concentration rose considerably above its equilibrium level, but was maintained far below its equilibrium level in the absence of H2S. The inhibition of CO2 transport, therefore, revealed an ongoing leakage from the cells of CO2 which was derived from the intracellular dehydration of HCO3? which itself had been recently transported into the cells. Normally, leaked CO2 is efficiently transported back into the cell by the CO2 transport system, thus maintaining the extracellular CO2 concentration near zero. It is suggested that CO2 transport not only serves as a primary means of inorganic carbon acquisition for photosynthesis but also serves as a means of recovering CO2 lost from the cell. A schematic model describing the relationship between the CO2 and HCO3? transport systems is presented. Images Figure 7

Espie, George S.; Miller, Anthony G.; Canvin, David T.

1989-01-01

227

Association of Carbonic Anhydrase Activity with Carboxysomes Isolated from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942.  

PubMed

The development of a simple method for the isolation of purified carboxysomes from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 has made it possible to identify a specific and inducible, intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity that is strongly associated with carboxysomes. This was shown, in part, through enzyme recovery experiments that indicated that a clear majority of a CA activity that is sensitive to the CA inhibitor ethoxyzolamide (I(50) = 4 mum) copurifies with a majority of the cell's ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity in a highly purified pelletable fraction. Electron microscopy of this pelletable fraction revealed the presence of carboxysomes that were physically intact. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of carboxysome proteins showed that the large and small subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carbosylase/oxygenase were clearly prominent and that several other minor proteins could be distinguished. The specific location of this carboxysomal CA activity is further reinforced by the finding that a previously isolated high CO(2)-requiring mutant, Type II/No. 68 (G.D. Price, M.R. Badger [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 514-525), displayed a 30-fold reduction in carboxysome-associated CA activity when tested under optimal conditions. Carboxysomal CA has the unusual property of being inactivated by dithiothreitol. The enzyme also requires 20 mm Mg(2+) (as MgSO(4)) for near maximum activity; other divalent cations, such as Ca(2+) and Mn(2+), also stimulate carboxysomal CA activity, but to a lesser extent than Mg(2+). Results are discussed in relation to the role of carboxysomes in the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria and the role that carboxysomal CA activity appears to play in this process. PMID:16653059

Price, G D; Coleman, J R; Badger, M R

1992-10-01

228

The genome of Cyanothece 51142, a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium important in the marine nitrogen cycle  

SciTech Connect

Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that have significant roles in global biological carbon sequestration and oxygen production. They occupy a diverse range of habitats, from open ocean, to hot springs, deserts, and arctic waters. Cyanobacteria are known as the progenitors of the chloroplasts of plants and algae, and are the simplest known organisms to exhibit circadian behavior4. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a unicellular marine cyanobacterium capable of N2-fixation, a process that is biochemically incompatible with oxygenic photosynthesis. To resolve this problem, Cyanothece performs photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night, thus temporally separating these processes in the same cell. The genome of Cyanothece 51142 was completely sequenced and found to contain a unique arrangement of one large circular chromosome, four small plasmids, and one linear chromosome, the first report of such a linear element in a photosynthetic bacterium. Annotation of the Cyanothece genome was aided by the use of highthroughput proteomics data, enabling the reclassification of 25% of the proteins with no informative sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that nitrogen fixation is an ancient process that arose early in evolution and has subsequently been lost in many cyanobacterial strains. In cyanobacterial cells, the circadian clock influences numerous processes, including carbohydrate synthesis, nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis, respiration, and the cell division cycle. During a diurnal period, Cyanothece cells actively accumulate and degrade different storage inclusion bodies for the products of photosynthesis and N2-fixation. This ability to utilize metabolic compartmentalization and energy storage makes Cyanothece an ideal system for bioenergy research, as well as studies of how a unicellular organism balances multiple, often incompatible, processes in the same cell.

Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Stockel, Jana; Loh, Thomas; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Wang, Chunyan; Wollam, Aye; Fulton, Robert S.; Clifton, Sandra W.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Sherman, Louis A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilson, Richard K.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2008-09-30

229

Lack of Phylogeographic Structure in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Suggests Global Dispersal  

PubMed Central

Background Free-living microorganisms have long been assumed to have ubiquitous distributions with little biogeographic signature because they typically exhibit high dispersal potential and large population sizes. However, molecular data provide contrasting results and it is far from clear to what extent dispersal limitation determines geographic structuring of microbial populations. We aimed to determine biogeographical patterns of the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Being widely distributed on a global scale but patchily on a regional scale, this prokaryote is an ideal model organism to study microbial dispersal and biogeography. Methodology/Principal Findings The phylogeography of M. aeruginosa was studied based on a dataset of 311 rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences sampled from six continents. Richness of ITS sequences was high (239 ITS types were detected). Genetic divergence among ITS types averaged 4% (maximum pairwise divergence was 13%). Preliminary analyses revealed nearly completely unresolved phylogenetic relationships and a lack of genetic structure among all sequences due to extensive homoplasy at multiple hypervariable sites. After correcting for this, still no clear phylogeographic structure was detected, and no pattern of isolation by distance was found on a global scale. Concomitantly, genetic differentiation among continents was marginal, whereas variation within continents was high and was mostly shared with all other continents. Similarly, no genetic structure across climate zones was detected. Conclusions/Significance The high overall diversity and wide global distribution of common ITS types in combination with the lack of phylogeographic structure suggest that intercontinental dispersal of M. aeruginosa ITS types is not rare, and that this species might have a truly cosmopolitan distribution.

van Gremberghe, Ineke; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Van der Gucht, Katleen; Debeer, Ann-Eline; Lacerot, Gissell; De Meester, Luc; Vyverman, Wim

2011-01-01

230

Dependence of the Cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Microbes for Growth at the Ocean's Surface  

PubMed Central

The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect) biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co-existing species.

Morris, J. Jeffrey; Johnson, Zackary I.; Szul, Martin J.; Keller, Martin; Zinser, Erik R.

2011-01-01

231

Characterization of genes for an alternative nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium that has been reported to fix nitrogen and reduce acetylene to ethane in the absence of molybdenum. DNA from this strain hybridized well at low stringency to the nitrogenase 2 (vnfDGK) genes of Azotobacter vinelandii. The hybridizing region was cloned from a lambda EMBL3 genomic library of A. variabilis, mapped, and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of the vnfD and vnfK genes of A. variabilis showed only about 56% similarity to the nifDK genes of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 but were 76 to 86% similar to the anfDK or vnfDK genes of A. vinelandii. The organization of the vnf gene cluster in A. variabilis was similar to that of A. vinelandii. However, in A. variabilis, the vnfG gene was fused to vnfD; hence, this gene is designated vnfDG. A vnfH gene was not contiguous with the vnfDG gene and has not yet been identified. A mutant strain, in which a neomycin resistance cassette was inserted into the vnf cluster, grew well in a medium lacking a source of fixed nitrogen in the presence of molybdenum but grew poorly when vanadium replaced molybdenum. In contrast, the parent strain grew equally well in media containing either molybdenum or vanadium. The vnf genes were transcribed in the absence of molybdenum, with or without vanadium. The vnf gene cluster did not hybridize to chromosomal DNA from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 or from the heterotrophic strains, Nostoc sp. strain Mac and Nostoc sp. strain ATCC 29150. A hybridizing ClaI fragment very similar in size to the A. variabilis ClaI fragment was present in DNA isolated from several independent, cultured isolates of Anabaena sp. from the Azolla symbiosis. Images

Thiel, T

1993-01-01

232

Characterization of genes for an alternative nitrogenase in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed

Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 is a heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium that has been reported to fix nitrogen and reduce acetylene to ethane in the absence of molybdenum. DNA from this strain hybridized well at low stringency to the nitrogenase 2 (vnfDGK) genes of Azotobacter vinelandii. The hybridizing region was cloned from a lambda EMBL3 genomic library of A. variabilis, mapped, and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequences of the vnfD and vnfK genes of A. variabilis showed only about 56% similarity to the nifDK genes of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 but were 76 to 86% similar to the anfDK or vnfDK genes of A. vinelandii. The organization of the vnf gene cluster in A. variabilis was similar to that of A. vinelandii. However, in A. variabilis, the vnfG gene was fused to vnfD; hence, this gene is designated vnfDG. A vnfH gene was not contiguous with the vnfDG gene and has not yet been identified. A mutant strain, in which a neomycin resistance cassette was inserted into the vnf cluster, grew well in a medium lacking a source of fixed nitrogen in the presence of molybdenum but grew poorly when vanadium replaced molybdenum. In contrast, the parent strain grew equally well in media containing either molybdenum or vanadium. The vnf genes were transcribed in the absence of molybdenum, with or without vanadium. The vnf gene cluster did not hybridize to chromosomal DNA from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 or from the heterotrophic strains, Nostoc sp. strain Mac and Nostoc sp. strain ATCC 29150. A hybridizing ClaI fragment very similar in size to the A. variabilis ClaI fragment was present in DNA isolated from several independent, cultured isolates of Anabaena sp. from the Azolla symbiosis. PMID:8407800

Thiel, T

1993-10-01

233

Isolation and characterization of the VnfEN genes of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis.  

PubMed Central

The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis fixes nitrogen in the presence of vanadium (V) and in the absence of molybdenum (Mo), using a V-dependent nitrogenase (V-nitrogenase) encoded by the vnfDGK genes. Downstream from these genes are two genes that are similar to the vnfEN genes of Azotobacter vinelandii. Like the vnfDGK genes, the vnfEN genes were transcribed in the absence of Mo, whether or not V was present. A mutant with an insertion in the vnfN gene lacked V-nitrogenase activity; thus, the vnfEN genes were essential for the V-nitrogenase system in A. variabilis. Growth and acetylene reduction assays with wild-type and mutant strains suggested that the V-nitrogenase reduced dinitrogen better than acetylene. The similarity of the vnfEN genes of A. variabilis and A. vinelandii was not strong. The vnfEN genes of A. variabilis showed greater similarity to the vnfDK genes just upstream than to the A. vinelandii vnfEN genes. Sequence comparisons provide support for the idea that if the vnf genes were transferred laterally among bacterial strains, the vnf cluster was not transferred intact. It appears likely that the structural genes were transferred before a duplication event led to the evolution of the vnfEN genes independently in the two strains. The divergence of the vnfEN genes from the vnfDK genes suggests that this duplication, and hence the transfer of vnf genes, was an ancient event.

Thiel, T

1996-01-01

234

Bioactivities of nostocine a produced by a freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc spongiaeforme TISTR 8169.  

PubMed

A freshwater cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme TISTR 8169, synthesizes and releases a violet pigment, nostocine A, into medium. We examined the bioactivity of nostocine A to several model organisms breeding with N. spongiaeforme in the natural environment. To microalgae, nostocine A exhibited growth inhibitory activity comparable to paraquat, and the activity tended to be stronger to green algae than to cyanobacteria. Nostocine A also exhibited strong inhibitory activity to the root elongation of barnyard grass, strong antifeedant activity to cotton ballworm, and acute toxicity to mice resulting in its classification as a dangerous poison. The results suggest that nostocine A may act as a toxin or an allelochemical to breeding organisms in nature. In a laboratory culture of N. spongiaeforme, the production of nostocine A was enhanced at higher temperature, 30 degrees C, and more intense light, 30 W/m2, than the basal conditions, 25 degrees C and 10 W/m2. Cultivation of cells with H2O2 at 1 or 2 mM also enhanced the production of nostocine A, indicating that nostocine A may be synthesized and released when the cells are exposed to oxidative stress, possibly occurring at higher temperature and more intense light. LC-MS and electron spin resonance analyses revealed that nostocine A, reduced previously by NaBH4, immediately recovered to its original form upon exposure to air and the generation of superoxide radical anions occurred at this re-oxidation step. These results suggest that the adverse effects of nostocine A on various organisms may be related to the function of nostocine A in generating toxic reactive oxygen species, which occurs in the cells of target organisms. PMID:16233448

Hirata, Kazumasa; Yoshitomi, Sayaka; Dwi, Susilangsih; Iwabe, Osamu; Mahakhant, Aparat; Polchai, Jirapatch; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

2003-01-01

235

Isolation and Characterization of the Small Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme*  

PubMed Central

In nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, hydrogen evolution is associated with hydrogenases and nitrogenase, making these enzymes interesting targets for genetic engineering aimed at increased hydrogen production. Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that expresses the uptake hydrogenase HupSL in heterocysts under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Little is known about the structural and biophysical properties of HupSL. The small subunit, HupS, has been postulated to contain three iron-sulfur clusters, but the details regarding their nature have been unclear due to unusual cluster binding motifs in the amino acid sequence. We now report the cloning and heterologous expression of Nostoc punctiforme HupS as a fusion protein, f-HupS. We have characterized the anaerobically purified protein by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Our results show that f-HupS contains three iron-sulfur clusters. UV-visible absorption of f-HupS has bands ?340 and 420 nm, typical for iron-sulfur clusters. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized f-HupS shows a narrow g = 2.023 resonance, characteristic of a low-spin (S = ˝) [3Fe-4S] cluster. The reduced f-HupS presents complex EPR spectra with overlapping resonances centered on g = 1.94, g = 1.91, and g = 1.88, typical of low-spin (S = ˝) [4Fe-4S] clusters. Analysis of the spectroscopic data allowed us to distinguish between two species attributable to two distinct [4Fe-4S] clusters, in addition to the [3Fe-4S] cluster. This indicates that f-HupS binds [4Fe-4S] clusters despite the presence of unusual coordinating amino acids. Furthermore, our expression and purification of what seems to be an intact HupS protein allows future studies on the significance of ligand nature on redox properties of the iron-sulfur clusters of HupS.

Raleiras, Patricia; Kellers, Petra; Lindblad, Peter; Styring, Stenbjorn; Magnuson, Ann

2013-01-01

236

Sustained H2 Production Driven by Photosynthetic Water Splitting in a Unicellular Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The relationship between dinitrogenase-driven H2 production and oxygenic photosynthesis was investigated in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, using a novel custom-built photobioreactor equipped with advanced process control. Continuously illuminated nitrogen-deprived cells evolved H2 at rates up to 400 µmol ? mg Chl?1 ? h?1 in parallel with uninterrupted photosynthetic O2 production. Notably, sustained coproduction of H2 and O2 occurred over 100 h in the presence of CO2, with both gases displaying inverse oscillations which eventually dampened toward stable rates of 125 and 90 µmol ? mg Chl?1 ? h?1, respectively. Oscillations were not observed when CO2 was omitted, and instead H2 and O2 evolution rates were positively correlated. The sustainability of the process was further supported by stable chlorophyll content, maintenance of baseline protein and carbohydrate levels, and an enhanced capacity for linear electron transport as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence throughout the experiment. In situ light saturation analyses of H2 production displayed a strong dose dependence and lack of O2 inhibition. Inactivation of photosystem II had substantial long-term effects but did not affect short-term H2 production, indicating that the process is also supported by photosystem I activity and oxidation of endogenous glycogen. However, mass balance calculations suggest that carbohydrate consumption in the light may, at best, account for no more than 50% of the reductant required for the corresponding H2 production over that period. Collectively, our results demonstrate that uninterrupted H2 production in unicellular cyanobacteria can be fueled by water photolysis without the detrimental effects of O2 and have important implications for sustainable production of biofuels.

Melnicki, Matthew R.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alexander S.

2012-01-01

237

Oxidative stress and photoinhibition can be separated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Roles of oxidative stress and photoinhibition in high light acclimation were studied using a regulatory mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The mutant strain ?sigCDE contains the stress responsive SigB as the only functional group 2 ? factor. The ?sigCDE strain grew more slowly than the control strain in methyl-viologen-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, a fluorescence dye detecting H2O2, hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, produced a stronger signal in ?sigCDE than in the control strain, and immunological detection of carbonylated residues showed more protein oxidation in ?sigCDE than in the control strain. These results indicate that ?sigCDE suffers from oxidative stress in standard conditions. The oxidative stress may be explained by the findings that ?sigCDE had a low content of glutathione and low amount of Flv3 protein functioning in the Mehler-like reaction. Although ?sigCDE suffers from oxidative stress, up-regulation of photoprotective carotenoids and Flv4, Sll2018, Flv2 proteins protected PSII against light induced damage by quenching singlet oxygen more efficiently in ?sigCDE than in the control strain in visible and in UV-A/B light. However, in UV-C light singlet oxygen is not produced and PSII damage occurred similarly in the ?sigCDE and control strains. According to our results, resistance against the light-induced damage of PSII alone does not lead to high light tolerance of the cells, but in addition efficient protection against oxidative stress would be required. PMID:24275086

Hakkila, Kaisa; Antal, Taras; Rehman, Ateeq Ur; Kurkela, Juha; Wada, Hajime; Vass, Imre; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Tyystjärvi, Taina

2014-02-01

238

Effects of a Simulated Martian UV Flux on the Cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dried monolayers of Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029, a desiccation-tolerant, endolithic cyanobacterium, were exposed to a simulated martian-surface UV and visible light flux, which may also approximate to the worst-case scenario for the Archean Earth. After 5 min, there was a 99% loss of cell viability, and there were no survivors after 30 min. However, this survival was approximately 10 times higher than that previously reported for Bacillus subtilis. We show that under 1 mm of rock, Chroococcidiopsis sp. could survive (and potentially grow) under the high martian UV flux if water and nutrient requirements for growth were met. In isolated cells, phycobilisomes and esterases remained intact hours after viability was lost. Esterase activity was reduced by 99% after a 1-h exposure, while 99% loss of autofluorescence required a 4-h exposure. However, cell morphology was not changed, and DNA was still detectable by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining after an 8-h exposure (equivalent to approximately 1 day on Mars at the equator). Under 1 mm of simulant martian soil or gneiss, the effect of UV radiation could not be detected on esterase activity or autofluorescence after 4 h. These results show that under the intense martian UV flux the morphological signatures of life can persist even after viability, enzymatic activity, and pigmentation have been destroyed. Finally, the global dispersal of viable, isolated cells of even this desiccation-tolerant, ionizing-radiation-resistant microorganism on Mars is unlikely as they are killed quickly by unattenuated UV radiation when in a desiccated state. These findings have implications for the survival of diverse microbial contaminants dispersed during the course of human exploratory class missions on the surface of Mars.

Cockell, Charles S.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Billi, Daniela; Imre Friedmann, E.; Panitz, Corinna

2005-06-01

239

Molecular structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942.  

PubMed Central

A gene encoding the enzyme lycopene cyclase in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942 was mapped by genetic complementation, cloned, and sequenced. This gene, which we have named crtL, was expressed in strains of Escherichia coli that were genetically engineered to accumulate the carotenoid precursors lycopene, neurosporene, and zeta-carotene. The crtL gene product converts the acyclic hydrocarbon lycopene into the bicyclic beta-carotene, an essential component of the photosynthetic apparatus in oxygen-evolving organisms and a source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. The enzyme also converts neurosporene to the monocyclic beta-zeacarotene but does not cyclize zeta-carotene, indicating that desaturation of the 7-8 or 7'-8' carbon-carbon bond is required for cyclization. The bleaching herbicide 2-(4-methylphenoxy)triethylamine hydrochloride (MPTA) effectively inhibits both cyclization reactions. A mutation that confers resistance to MPTA in Synechococcus sp PCC7942 was identified as a point mutation in the promoter region of crtL. The deduced amino acid sequence of lycopene cyclase specifies a polypeptide of 411 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46,125 and a pI of 6.0. An amino acid sequence motif indicative of FAD utilization is located at the N terminus of the polypeptide. DNA gel blot hybridization analysis indicated a single copy of crtL in Synechococcus sp PCC7942. Other than the FAD binding motif, the predicted amino acid sequence of the cyanobacterial lycopene cyclase bears little resemblance to the two known lycopene cyclase enzymes from nonphotosynthetic bacteria. Preliminary results from DNA gel blot hybridization experiments suggest that, like two earlier genes in the pathway, the Synechococcus gene encoding lycopene cyclase is homologous to plant and algal genes encoding this enzyme.

Cunningham, F X; Sun, Z; Chamovitz, D; Hirschberg, J; Gantt, E

1994-01-01

240

DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F  

SciTech Connect

An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-(/sup 14/C)glutamate from 2-keto-(1-/sup 14/C)glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with (/sup 14/C)bicarbonate and L-(1-/sup 14/C)ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

Chen, C.H.; Van Baalen, C.; Tabita, F.R.

1987-03-01

241

Isolation, sequence and expression of two members of the 32 kd thylakoid membrane protein gene family from the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyanobacterium Anabaena contains at least three copies of DNA sequences related to the unique gene encoding the 32 kd thylakoid membrane protein in spinach chloroplast DNA, based on hybridization with the cloned spinach probe. Two of the identified Anabaena DNA fragments were isolated from a recombinant lambda library and the complete nucleotide sequences of the coding regions were determined.

Stephanie E. Curtis; Robert Haselkorn

1984-01-01

242

Chemoheterotrophic Growth of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Dependent on a Functional Cytochrome c Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium commonly used as a model organism for studying cyanobacterial cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. For many decades, this cyanobacterium was considered an obligate photo-lithoautotroph. We now discovered that this strain is also capable of mixotrophic, photo-organoheterotrophic, and chemo-organoheterotrophic growth if high concentrations of fructose (at least 50 mM and up to 200 mM) are supplied. Glucose, a substrate used by some facultatively organoheterotrophic cyanobacteria, is not effective in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. The gtr gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding a glucose carrier was introduced into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Surprisingly, the new strain containing the gtr gene did not grow on glucose but was very sensitive to glucose, with a 5 mM concentration being lethal, whereas the wild-type strain tolerated 200 mM glucose. The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain containing gtr can grow mixotrophically and photo-organoheterotrophically, but not chemo-organoheterotrophically with fructose. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five respiratory chains ending in five different respiratory terminal oxidases. One of these enzymes is a mitochondrial-type cytochrome c oxidase. As in almost all cyanobacteria, this enzyme is encoded by three adjacent genes called coxBAC1. When this locus was disrupted, the cells lost the capability for chemo-organoheterotrophic growth.

Stebegg, Ronald; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mikulic, Markus

2012-01-01

243

Characterization of the cytochrome c oxidase in isolated and purified plasma membranes from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans  

SciTech Connect

Functionally intact plasma membranes were isolated from the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anacystis nidulans through French pressure cell extrusion of lysozyme/EDTA-treated cells, separated from thylakoid membranes by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and purified by repeated recentrifugation. Origin and identity of the chlorophyll-free plasma membrane fraction were confirmed by labeling of intact cells with impermeant protein markers, ({sup 35}S)diazobenzenesulfonate and fluorescamine, prior to membrane isolation. Rates of oxidation of reduced horse heart cytochrome c by purified plasma and thylakoid membranes were 90 and 2 nmol min{sup {minus}1} (mg of protein){sup {minus}1}, respectively. The cytochrome oxidase in isolated plasma membranes was identified as a copper-containing aa{sub 3}-type enzyme from the properties of its redox-active and EDTA-resistant Cu{sup 2+} ESR signal, the characteristic inhibition profile, reduced minus oxidized difference spectra, carbon monoxide difference spectra, photoaction and photodissociation spectra of the CO-inhibited enzyme, and immunological cross-reaction of two subunits of the enzyme with antibodies against subunits I and II, and the holoenzyme, of Paracoccus denitrificans aa{sub 3}-type cytochrome oxidase. The data presented are the first comprehensive evidence for the occurrence of aa{sub 3}-type cytochrome oxidase in the plasma membrane of a cyanobacterium similar to the corresponding mitochondrial enzyme.

Peschek, G.A.; Wastyn, M.; Trnka, M.; Molitor, V.; Fry, I.V.; Packer, L. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

1989-04-04

244

Role of the GlgX protein in glycogen metabolism of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.  

PubMed

The putative glgX gene encoding isoamylase-type debranching enzyme was isolated from the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the residues essential to the catalytic activity and substrate binding in bacterial and plant isoamylases and GlgX proteins were all conserved in the GlgX protein of S. elongatus PCC 7942. The role of GlgX in the cyanobacterium was examined by insertional inactivation of the gene. Disruption of the glgX gene resulted in the enhanced fluctuation of glycogen content in the cells during light-dark cycles of the culture, although the effect was marginal. The glycogen of the glgX mutant was enriched with very short chains with degree of polymerization 2 to 4. When the mutant was transformed with putative glgX genes of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the short chains were decreased as compared to the parental mutant strain. The result indicated that GlgX protein contributes to form the branching pattern of polysaccharide in S. elongatus PCC 7942. PMID:17321685

Suzuki, Eiji; Umeda, Kazuhiro; Nihei, Satoko; Moriya, Katsuya; Ohkawa, Hajime; Fujiwara, Shoko; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Nakamura, Yasunori

2007-05-01

245

Characterization of UV-screening compounds, mycosporine-like amino acids, and scytonemin in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. CU2555.  

PubMed

Ultraviolet-screening compounds from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. CU2555 were partially characterized and investigated for their induction by UV radiation, stability under different abiotic factors, and free radical scavenging activity. Based on the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and ion trap liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the compounds were identified as palythine (UV? max: 319 nm; m/z: 245), asterina (UV? max: 330 nm; m/z: 289), scytonemin (UV? max: 384 nm; mw: 544), and reduced scytonemin (UV? max: 384 nm; m/z: 547). This is the first report for the occurrence of palythine, asterina, and an unknown mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA), M-312 (UV? max: 312 ± 1 nm), in addition to scytonemin and reduced scytonemin in Lyngbya strains studied so far. Induction of MAAs and scytonemin was significantly more prominent upon exposure to UV-A + UV-B radiation. Both MAAs and scytonemin were highly resistant to some physicochemical factors such as UV-B, heat, and a strong oxidizing agent and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. These results indicate that the studied cyanobacterium may protect itself from deleterious short-wavelength radiation by synthesizing photoprotective compounds in response to harmful UV radiation. PMID:24111939

Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran

2014-01-01

246

Cultivation and characterization of the MaMV-DC cyanophage that infects bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The MaMV-DC cyanophage, which infects the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, was isolated from Lake Dianchi, Kunming, China. Twenty-one cyanobacterial strains were used to detect the host range of MaMV-DC. Microcystic aeruginosa FACHB-524 and plaque purification were used to isolate individual cyanophages, and culturing MaMV-DC with cyanobacteria allowed us to prepare purified cyanophages for further analysis. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the negatively stained viral particles are tadpole-shaped with an icosahedral head approximately 70 nm in diameter and a contractile tail approximately 160 nm in length. Using one-step growth experiments, the latent period and burst size of MaMV-DC were estimated to be 24-48 hours and approximately 80 infectious units per cell, respectively. Restriction endonuclease digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed using purified MaMV-DC genomic DNA, and the genome size was estimated to be approximately 160 kb. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed four major structural proteins. These results support the growing interest in using freshwater cyanophages to control bloom-forming cyanobacterium. PMID:23990146

Ou, Tong; Li, Sanhua; Liao, Xiangyong; Zhang, Qiya

2013-10-01

247

A Nostoc punctiforme Sugar Transporter Necessary to Establish a Cyanobacterium-Plant Symbiosis1[C][W  

PubMed Central

In cyanobacteria-plant symbioses, the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium has low photosynthetic activity and is supplemented by sugars provided by the plant partner. Which sugars and cyanobacterial sugar uptake mechanism(s) are involved in the symbiosis, however, is unknown. Mutants of the symbiotically competent, facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme were constructed bearing a neomycin resistance gene cassette replacing genes in a putative sugar transport gene cluster. Results of transport activity assays using 14C-labeled fructose and glucose and tests of heterotrophic growth with these sugars enabled the identification of an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter for fructose (Frt), a major facilitator permease for glucose (GlcP), and a porin needed for the optimal uptake of both fructose and glucose. Analysis of green fluorescent protein fluorescence in strains of N. punctiforme bearing frt::gfp fusions showed high expression in vegetative cells and akinetes, variable expression in hormogonia, and no expression in heterocysts. The symbiotic efficiency of N. punctiforme sugar transport mutants was investigated by testing their ability to infect a nonvascular plant partner, the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus. Strains that were specifically unable to transport glucose did not infect the plant. These results imply a role for GlcP in establishing symbiosis under the conditions used in this work.

Ekman, Martin; Picossi, Silvia; Campbell, Elsie L.; Meeks, John C.; Flores, Enrique

2013-01-01

248

Analysis of UV-absorbing photoprotectant mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. CU2556.  

PubMed

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are ecologically important biomolecules with great photoprotective potential. The present study aimed to investigate the biosynthesis of MAAs in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. CU2556. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode-array detection studies revealed the presence of a UV-absorbing compound with an absorption maximum at 310 nm. Based on its UV absorption spectrum and ion trap liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis, the compound was identified as a primary MAA mycosporine-glycine (m/z: 246). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence of MAA mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly) in Arthrospira strains studied so far. In contrast to photosynthetic activity under UV-A radiation, the induction of the biosynthesis of M-Gly was significantly more prominent under UV-B radiation. The content of M-Gly was found to increase with the increase in exposure time under UV-B radiation. The MAA M-Gly was highly stable under UV radiation, heat, strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. It also exhibited good antioxidant activity and photoprotective ability by detoxifying the in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by UV radiation. Our results indicate that the studied cyanobacterium may protect itself by synthesizing the UV-absorbing/screening compounds as important defense mechanisms, in their natural brightly-lit habitat with high solar UV-B fluxes. PMID:24769912

Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran

2014-07-18

249

Comparative analysis to identify determinants of changing life style in Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, a thermophilic cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

A comparative genomics analysis among all forty whole genome sequences available for cyanobacteria (3 thermophiles- Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, Synechococcus sp. JA-2-3B'a (2-13), Synechococcus sp. JA-3-3Ab and 37 mesophiles) was performed to identify genomic and proteomic factors responsible for the behaviour of T. elongatus BP-1, a thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium with optimum growth temperature [OGT] of 55°C. Majority of genomic and proteomic characteristics for this cyanobacterium indicated contrasting features indicating its mesophilic behaviour while the role of mutational biasness and selection pressure is thought to be responsible for high OGT. Contradictory results were obtained for T. elongatus for synonymous codon usage, CvP-bias and amino acid composition with respect to thermophilic behaviour. Calculated J2 index is lowest among all cyanobacterial genomes. Except for proline and termination codons, T. elongatus showed synonymous codon usage pattern which is expected for mesophiles. Results indicated that among cyanobacterial genomes, majority of genomic and proteomic determinants put T. elongatus very close to mesophiles and the whole genome of this organism represents continuous gain of mesophilic rather than thermophilic behavior. PMID:23559749

Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Gupta, Shailendra K; de Farias, Sávio Torres; Rai, Anil

2013-01-01

250

Optimization and effects of different culture conditions on growth of Halomicronema hongdechloris - a filamentous cyanobacterium containing chlorophyll f.  

PubMed

A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris) was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. The extremely slow growth rate of H. hongdechloris has hindered research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for future research. This work investigated the effects of various culture conditions, essential nutrients and light environments to determine the optimal growth conditions for H. hongdechloris and the biosynthetic rate of chlorophyll f. Based on the total chlorophyll concentration, an optimal growth rate of 0.22 ± 0.02 day(-1)(doubling time: 3.1 ± 0.3 days) was observed when cells were grown under continuous illumination with far-red light with an intensity of 20 ?E at 32°C in modified K + ES seawater (pH 8.0) with additional nitrogen and phosphor supplements. High performance liquid chromatography on H. hongdechloris pigments confirmed that chlorophyll a is the major chlorophyll and chlorophyll f constitutes ~10% of the total chlorophyll from cells grown under far-red light. Fluorescence confocal image analysis demonstrated changes of photosynthetic membranes and the distribution of photopigments in response to different light conditions. The total photosynthetic oxygen evolution yield per cell showed no changes under different light conditions, which confirms the involvement of chlorophyll f in oxygenic photosynthesis. The implications of the presence of chlorophyll f in H. hongdechloris and its relationship with the ambient light environment are discussed. PMID:24616731

Li, Yaqiong; Lin, Yuankui; Loughlin, Patrick C; Chen, Min

2014-01-01

251

Application of real-time PCR to estimate toxin production by the cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time PCR methods are increasingly being applied for the enumeration of toxic cyanobacteria in the environment. However, to justify the use of real-time PCR quantification as a monitoring tool, significant correlations between genotype abundance and actual toxin concentrations are required. In the present study, we aimed to explain the concentrations of three structural variants of the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC) produced by the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp., [Asp, butyric acid (Dhb)]-microcystin-RR (where RR means two arginines), [Asp, methyl-dehydro-alanine (Mdha)]-microcystin-RR, and [Asp, Dhb]-microcystin-homotyrosine-arginine (HtyR), by the abundance of the microcystin genotypes encoding their synthesis. Three genotypes of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria (denoted the Dhb, Mdha, and Hty genotypes) in 12 lakes of the Alps in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland from 2005 to 2007 were quantified by means of real-time PCR. Their absolute and relative abundances were related to the concentration of the microcystin structural variants in aliquots determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total microcystin concentrations varied from 0 to 6.2 microg liter(-1) (mean +/- standard error [SE] of 0.6 +/- 0.1 microg liter(-1)) among the samples, in turn resulting in an average microcystin content in Planktothrix of 3.1 +/- 0.7 microg mm(-3) biovolume. Over a wide range of the population density (0.001 to 3.6 mm(3) liter(-1) Planktothrix biovolume), the Dhb genotype and [Asp, Dhb]-MC-RR were most abundant, while the Hty genotype and MC-HtyR were found to be in the lowest proportion only. In general, there was a significant linear relationship between the abundance/proportion of specific microcystin genotypes and the concentration/proportion of the respective microcystin structural variants on a logarithmic scale. We conclude that estimating the abundance of specific microcystin genotypes by quantitative real-time PCR is useful for predicting the concentration of microcystin variants in water. PMID:20363794

Ostermaier, Veronika; Kurmayer, Rainer

2010-06-01

252

Isolation of a Putative Carboxysomal Carbonic Anhydrase Gene from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942.  

PubMed

The Type II mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 (G.D. Price, M.R. Badger [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 514-525) are able to accumulate a large pool of inorganic carbon inside the cell, but are unable to utilize it for CO(2) fixation, resulting in a high CO(2)-requiring phenotype. We have isolated a 3.5-kb BamHI clone (pT2) that complements the Type II mutants, and complementation analysis with DNA subclones indicated that the complementing region was located in the 0.75-kb XhoI-Bg/II fragment. This same region hybridized to the chloroplastic carbonic anhydrase (CA) gene from spinach on Southern blots and to a mRNA of approximate 1 kb on northern blots. Restriction mapping and sequence analysis revealed that pT2 is the same as a genomic clone (pBM3.8) that complements another high CO(2)-requiring (temperature sensitive) mutant, C3P-O (E. Suzuki, H. Fukuzawa, S. Miyachi [1991] Mol Gen Genet 226: 401-408). Recently, a 272-amino acid open reading frame showing 22% homology with pea and spinach chloroplast CA genes was identified in clone pBM3.8 (H. Fukuzawa, E. Suzuki, Y. Komukal, S. Miyachi [1992] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 4437-4441). CA activity was detected in Escherichia coli cells transformed with subclones of pT2 (pT2-A and pT2-A1) containing the HindIII-Bg/II fragment, and the expressed CA has properties similar to those of the CA activity associated with carboxysomes purified from Synechococcus PCC7942 (G.D. Price, J.R. Coleman, M.R. Badger [1992] Plant Physiol 100: 784-793). Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the HindIII-Bg/II fragment codes for the carboxysomal CA gene product. The result is discussed in the context of the role that carboxysomal CA plays in the operation of the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. PMID:16653060

Yu, J W; Price, G D; Song, L; Badger, M R

1992-10-01

253

Characterization of a mutant lacking carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803.  

PubMed

A fully-segregated mutant (ccaA::kanR) defective in the ccaA gene, encoding a carboxysome-associated beta-carbonic anhydrase (CA), was generated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 by insertional mutagenesis. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the CcaA polypeptide was absent from the carboxysome-enriched fraction obtained from ccaA::kanR, but was present in wild-type (WT) cells. The carboxysome-enriched fraction isolated from WT cells catalyzed 18O exchange between 13C18O2 and H2O, indicative of CA activity, while ccaA::kanR carboxysomes did not. Transmission and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that carboxysomes of WT and ccaA::kanR were of similar size, shape and cellular distribution, and contained most of the cellular complement of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The ccaA::kanR cells were substantially smaller than WT and were unable to grow autotrophically at air levels of CO2. However, cell division occurred at near-WT rates when ccaA::kanR was supplied with 5% CO2 (v/v) in air. The apparent photosynthetic affinity of the mutant for inorganic carbon (Ci) was 500-fold lower than that of WT cells although intracellular Ci accumulation was comparable to WT measurements. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the CA-like activity associated with the active CO2 transport system was retained by ccaA::kanR cells and was inhibited by H2S, indicating that CO2 transport was distinct from the CcaA-mediated dehydration of intracellular HCO3-. The data suggest that the ccaA mutant was unable to efficiently utilize the internal Ci pool for carbon fixation and that the high-CO2-requiring phenotype of ccaA::kanR was due primarily to an inability to generate enough CO2 in the carboxysomes to sustain normal rates of photosynthesis. PMID:11859847

So, Anthony K C; John-McKay, Meryl; Espie, George S

2002-01-01

254

Identification and characterization of a carboxysomal ?-carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Carboxysomes are proteinaceous microcompartments that encapsulate carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco); carboxysomes, therefore, catalyze reversible HCO3 (-) dehydration and the subsequent fixation of CO2. The N- and C-terminal domains of the ?-carboxysome scaffold protein CcmM participate in a network of protein-protein interactions that are essential for carboxysome biogenesis, organization, and function. The N-terminal domain of CcmM in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 is also a catalytically active, redox regulated ?-CA. To experimentally determine if CcmM from a mesophilic cyanobacterium is active, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant, full-length CcmM from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 as well as the N-terminal 209 amino acid ?-CA-like domain. Both recombinant proteins displayed ethoxyzolamide-sensitive CA activity in mass spectrometric assays, as did the carboxysome-enriched TP fraction. NstCcmM209 was characterized as a moderately active and efficient ?-CA with a k cat of 2.0 × 10(4) s(-1) and k cat/K m of 4.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 25 °C and pH 8, a pH optimum between 8 and 9.5 and a temperature optimum spanning 25-35 °C. NstCcmM209 also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the CO2 analog carbonyl sulfide. Circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis demonstrated that NstCcmM209 was progressively and irreversibly denatured above 50 °C. NstCcmM209 activity was inhibited by the reducing agent tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, an effect that was fully reversed by a molar excess of diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, consistent with oxidative activation being a universal regulatory mechanism of CcmM orthologs. Immunogold electron microscopy and Western blot analysis of TP pellets indicated that Rubisco and CcmM co-localize and are concentrated in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 carboxysomes. PMID:24907906

de Araujo, Charlotte; Arefeen, Dewan; Tadesse, Yohannes; Long, Benedict M; Price, G Dean; Rowlett, Roger S; Kimber, Matthew S; Espie, George S

2014-09-01

255

Carbon isotopic fractionation associated with lipid biosynthesis by a cyanobacterium: Relevance for interpretation of biomarker records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the cyanobacterium Synechocystis UTEX 2470, grown photoautotrophically to a logarithmic stage of growth, the total lipid extract is depleted in 13C by 4.8%. relative to average biomass. Depletions observed for acetogenic (straight-chain) lipids range from 7.6 (hexadecanoic acid) to 9.9%. (a C 16n-alkyl chain bound in a polar-lipid fraction), with a mass-weighted average of 9.1%.. Polyisopreoid lipids fall into two isotopic groups, with phytol, diplopterol, and diploptene depleted by 6.4-6.9%. and bishomohopanol (produced from the extracts by the preparative degradation of bacteriohopanepolyol) depleted by 8.4%.. Analysis of the pattern of depletions indicates that two carbon positions in each C 5 biomonomer leading to polyisoprenoid products are probably depleted in 13C relative to average biomass. The depletion of bacteriohopanepolyol relative to other polyisoprenoids can be ascribed to changes that occur over the life of each cell: (1) the 13C content of carbon flowing to lipid biosynthesis decreases as the cell size increases and (2) a greater proportion of the bacteriohopanepolyol which, unlike other polyisoprenoids, is present mainly in the cytoplasm rather than in membranes and is synthesized when cells are larger. Chlorophyll a is depleted relative to average biomass by 0.7%.. Given the observed depletion of 13C in phytol, the heteroaromatic, chlorophyllide portion of chlorophyll must be enriched in 13C by 2.7%.. This enrichment is large relative to that in chlorophyllides produced by eukaryotes and may be related to a parallel enrichment of 13C in cyanobacterial glutamic acid. As in many previous investigations of cyanobacterial lipids, long-chain n-alkanes (C 22-C 29) are found in the extracts. They are, however, enriched in 13C relative to biomass and have isotopic compositions suggesting that they are contaminants of petrochemical origin. Available results indicate that cyanobacterial lipids will be depleted relative to dissolved CO 2 that has served as a carbon source by 22-30%. and that a wider range of depletions will be characteristic of eukaryotic products. The absence of long-chain n-alkanes in cyanobacteria reduces the possibility that petroleum ever formed from pre-eukaryotic sedimentary debris.

Sakata, Susumu; Hayes, John M.; McTaggart, Andrew R.; Evans, Ronald A.; Leckrone, Kristen J.; Togasaki, Robert K.

1997-12-01

256

Species-specific real-time PCR cell number quantification of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii.  

PubMed

A species-specific method to detect and quantify Planktothrix agardhii was developed by combining the SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction technique with a simplified DNA extraction procedure for standard curve preparation. Newly designed PCR primers were used to amplify a specific fragment within the rpoC1 gene. Since this gene exists in single copy in the genome, it allows the direct achievement of cell concentrations. The cell concentration determined by real-time PCR showed a linear correlation with the cell concentration determined from direct microscopic counts. The detection limit for cell quantification of the method was 8 cells ?L(-1), corresponding to 32 cells per reaction. Furthermore, the real-time qPCR method described in this study allowed a successful quantification of P. agardhii from environmental water samples, showing that this protocol is an accurate and economic tool for a rapid absolute quantification of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium P. agardhii. PMID:22484452

Churro, Catarina; Pereira, Paulo; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Valério, Elisabete

2012-09-01

257

Mutations that affect structure and assembly of light-harvesting proteins in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6701  

SciTech Connect

The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6701 was mutagenized with UV irradiation and screened for pigment changes that indicated genetic lesions involving the light-harvesting proteins of the phycobilisome. A previous examination of the pigment mutant UV16 showed an assembly defect in the phycocyanin component of the phycobilisome. Mutagenesis of UV16 produced an additional double mutant, UV16-40, with decreased phycoerythrin content. Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin were isolated from UV16-40 and compared with normal biliproteins. The results suggested that the UV16 mutation affected the alpha subunit of phycocyanin, while the phycoerythrin beta subunit from UV16-40 had lost one of its three chromophores. Characterization of the unassembled phycobilisome components in these mutants suggests that these strains will be useful for probing in vivo the regulated expression and assembly of phycobilisomes.

Anderson, L.K.; Rayner, M.C.; Eiserling, F.A.

1987-01-01

258

Structure of Trichamide, a Cyclic Peptide from the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, Predicted from the Genome Sequence†  

PubMed Central

A gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new small cyclic peptide, dubbed trichamide, was discovered in the genome of the global, bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ISM101 because of striking similarities to the previously characterized patellamide biosynthesis cluster. The tri cluster consists of a precursor peptide gene containing the amino acid sequence for mature trichamide, a putative heterocyclization gene, an oxidase, two proteases, and hypothetical genes. Based upon detailed sequence analysis, a structure was predicted for trichamide and confirmed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Trichamide consists of 11 amino acids, including two cysteine-derived thiazole groups, and is cyclized by an N—C terminal amide bond. As the first natural product reported from T. erythraeum, trichamide shows the power of genome mining in the prediction and discovery of new natural products.

Sudek, Sebastian; Haygood, Margo G.; Youssef, Diaa T. A.; Schmidt, Eric W.

2006-01-01

259

Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain NKBG042902, Which Harbors a Homogeneous Plasmid Available for Metabolic Engineering  

PubMed Central

The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain NKBG042902 was isolated from coastal areas in Japan. Strain NKBG042902 has four plasmids: pSY8, pSY9, pSY10, and pSY11. Moreover, the hybrid plasmid pUSY02 containing pSY11 and Escherichia coli plasmid pUC18 was constructed for this strain. The genetic manipulation technique using pUSY02 was established for this strain and used in metabolic engineering. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which has 77 contigs comprising a total length of 3,319,479 bp, with a G+C content of 49.4%.

Honda, Toru; Liang, Yue; Arai, Daichi; Ito, Yasuhito; Yoshino, Tomoko

2014-01-01

260

Semiplenamides A-G, fatty acid amides from a Papua New Guinea collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena.  

PubMed

Semiplenamides A (1) to G (7), a series of new anandamide-like fatty acid amides, were isolated from a 1997 Papua New Guinea collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya semiplena. The planar structures of these lipids were determined using standard 1D and 2D NMR methods. The relative stereochemistry of the aliphatic portion of the new metabolites was deduced from 1D NOE data and (1)H-decoupling experiments, while the absolute stereochemistry of the amino alcohol moieties was assigned by chemical derivatization and chiral GC-MS methods. All of these new metabolites displayed toxicity in the brine shrimp model system, while semiplenamides A, B, and G showed weak affinity for the rat cannabinoid CB(1) receptor and semiplenamide A was a moderate inhibitor (IC(50) = 18.1 muM) of the anandamide membrane transporter (AMT). PMID:14575438

Han, Bingnan; McPhail, Kerry L; Ligresti, Alessia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Gerwick, William H

2003-10-01

261

High-titer heterologous production in E. coli of lyngbyatoxin, a protein kinase C activator from an uncultured marine cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

Many chemically complex cyanobacterial polyketides and nonribosomal peptides are of great pharmaceutical interest, but the levels required for exploitation are difficult to achieve from native sources. Here we develop a framework for the expression of these multifunctional cyanobacterial assembly lines in Escherichia coli using the lyngbyatoxin biosynthetic pathway, derived from a marine microbial assemblage dominated by the cyanobacterium Moorea producens. Heterologous expression of this pathway afforded high titers of both lyngbyatoxin A (25.6 mg L(-1)) and its precursor indolactam-V (150 mg L(-1)). Production, isolation, and identification of all expected chemical intermediates of lyngbyatoxin biosynthesis in E. coli also confirmed the previously proposed biosynthetic route, setting a solid chemical foundation for future pathway engineering. The successful production of the nonribosomal peptide lyngbyatoxin A in E. coli also opens the possibility for future heterologous expression, characterization, and exploitation of other cyanobacterial natural product pathways. PMID:23751865

Ongley, Sarah E; Bian, Xiaoying; Zhang, Youming; Chau, Rocky; Gerwick, William H; Müller, Rolf; Neilan, Brett A

2013-09-20

262

Purification and characterization of corrinoid-compounds from the dried powder of an edible cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune (Ishikurage).  

PubMed

Vitamin B12 content (98.8 +/- 5.6 microg/100 g dry weight) of an edible cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune (Ishikurage) was determined by the Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830 microbiological method. Bioautography with vitamin B12-dependent Escherichia coli 215 indicated that N. commune contained two (main and minor) corrinoid-compounds. These corrinoid-compounds were purified to homogeneity from the dried algal cells and characterized. The main and minor purified corrinoid-compounds were identified as pseudovitamin B12 and vitamin B12, respectively, on the basis of silica gel 60 TLC, C18 reversed-phase HPLC, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. These results suggest that the bacterial cells are not suitable for use as a vitamin B12 source, especially in vegetarians. PMID:17616007

Watanabe, Fumio; Tanioka, Yuri; Miyamoto, Emi; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Yoshihisa

2007-04-01

263

Structure of trichamide, a cyclic peptide from the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, predicted from the genome sequence.  

PubMed

A gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new small cyclic peptide, dubbed trichamide, was discovered in the genome of the global, bloom-forming marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum ISM101 because of striking similarities to the previously characterized patellamide biosynthesis cluster. The tri cluster consists of a precursor peptide gene containing the amino acid sequence for mature trichamide, a putative heterocyclization gene, an oxidase, two proteases, and hypothetical genes. Based upon detailed sequence analysis, a structure was predicted for trichamide and confirmed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry. Trichamide consists of 11 amino acids, including two cysteine-derived thiazole groups, and is cyclized by an N C terminal amide bond. As the first natural product reported from T. erythraeum, trichamide shows the power of genome mining in the prediction and discovery of new natural products. PMID:16751554

Sudek, Sebastian; Haygood, Margo G; Youssef, Diaa T A; Schmidt, Eric W

2006-06-01

264

Influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the allelopathic activity of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strain LEGE 99043.  

PubMed

Allelopathy is considered to be one of the factors underlying the global expansion of the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. Although the production and release of allelopathic compounds by cyanobacteria is acknowledged to be influenced by environmental parameters, the response of C. raciborskii remains generally unrecognized. Here, the growth and allelopathic potential of C. raciborskii strain LEGE 99043 towards the ubiquitous microalga Ankistrodesmus falcatus were analyzed under different biotic and abiotic conditions. Filtrates from C. raciborskii cultures growing at different cell densities displayed broad inhibitory activity. Moreover, higher temperature, higher light intensity as well phosphate limitation further enhanced this activity. The distinct and comprehensive patterns of inhibition verified during the growth phase, and under the tested parameters, suggest the action of several, still unidentified allelopathic compounds. It is expectable that the observed increase in allelopathic activity can result in distinct ecological advantages to C. raciborskii. PMID:22562107

Antunes, Jorge T; Leăo, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, Vítor M

2012-10-01

265

Use of a transposon with luciferase as a reporter to identify environmentally responsive genes in a cyanobacterium  

SciTech Connect

Anabaena, a filamentous cyanobacterium, is of developmental interest because, when deprived of fixed nitrogen, it shows patterned differentiation of N{sub 2}-fixing cells called heterocysts. To help elucidate its early responses to a decrease in nitrogen, the authors used a derivative of transposon Tn5 to generate transcriptional fusions of promoterless bacterial luciferase genes, luxAB, to the Anabaena genome. Genes that responded to removal of fixed nitrogen or to other environmental shifts by increased or decreased transcription were identified by monitoring the luminescence of colonies from transposon-generated libraries. The Tn5 derivative transposed in Anabaena at ca. 1-4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per cell and permitted high-resolution mapping of its position and orientation in the genome and facile cloning of contiguous genomic DNA.

Wolk, C.P.; Yuping Cai; Panoff, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

1991-06-15

266

Direct measurement of excitation transfer dynamics between two trimers in C-phycocyanin hexamer from cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide the first experimental evidence for the excitation transfers between two trimers of an isolated C-phycocyanin hexamer (??) 6PCL RC27, at the end of the rod proximal to the core of PBS in cyanobacterium of Anabaena variabilis, with picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our results strongly suggest that the observed fluorescence decay constants around 20 and 10 ps time scales, shown in anisotropy decay, not in isotropic decay experiments arose from the excitation transfers between two trimers via two types of transfer pathways such as 1? 155?6? 155 (2? 155?5? 155 and 3? 155?4? 155) and 2? 84?5? 84 (3? 84?6? 84 and 1? 84?4? 84) channels and these could be described by Föster dipole-dipole resonance mechanism.

Zhang, Jingmin; Zhao, Fuli; Zheng, Xiguang; Wang, Hezhou

1999-05-01

267

Characterization of the IS895 family of insertion sequences from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120  

SciTech Connect

A family of repetitive elements from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was identified through the proximity of one element to the psbAI gene. Four members of this seven-member family were isolated and shown to have structures characteristic of bacterial insertion sequences. Each element is approximately 1,200 bp in length, is delimited by a 30-bp inverted repeat, and contains two open reading frames in tandem on the same DNA strand. The four copies differ from each other by small insertions or deletions, some of which alter the open reading frames. By using a system designed to trap insertion elements, one of the elements, denoted IS895, was shown to be mobile. The target site was not duplicated upon insertion of the element. Two other filamentous cyanobacterial strains were also found to contain sequences homologous to IS895.

Alam, J.; Vrba, J.M.; Martin, J.A.; Weislo, L.J.; Curtis, S.E. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Yuping Cai (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

1991-09-01

268

Protein synthesis and proteolysis in immobilized cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 exposed to matric water stress.  

PubMed

Cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 in exponential growth were subjected to acute water stress by immobilizing them on solid supports and drying them at a matric water potential (psi m) of -99.5 MPa. Cells which had been grown in the presence of Na235SO4 before immobilization and rapid drying continued to incorporate 35S into protein for 90 min. This incorporation was inhibited by chloramphenicol. No unique proteins appeared to be synthesized during this time. Upon further drying, the level of incorporation of 35S in protein began to decrease. In contrast, there was an apparent increase in the level of certain phycobiliprotein subunits in solubilized protein extracts of these cells. Extensive proteolysis was detected after prolonged desiccation (17 days) of the cells in the light, although they still remained intact. Phycobilisomes became dissociated in both light- and dark-stored desiccated material. PMID:3934134

Potts, M

1985-12-01

269

Protein synthesis and proteolysis in immobilized cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 exposed to matric water stress.  

PubMed Central

Cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 in exponential growth were subjected to acute water stress by immobilizing them on solid supports and drying them at a matric water potential (psi m) of -99.5 MPa. Cells which had been grown in the presence of Na235SO4 before immobilization and rapid drying continued to incorporate 35S into protein for 90 min. This incorporation was inhibited by chloramphenicol. No unique proteins appeared to be synthesized during this time. Upon further drying, the level of incorporation of 35S in protein began to decrease. In contrast, there was an apparent increase in the level of certain phycobiliprotein subunits in solubilized protein extracts of these cells. Extensive proteolysis was detected after prolonged desiccation (17 days) of the cells in the light, although they still remained intact. Phycobilisomes became dissociated in both light- and dark-stored desiccated material. Images

Potts, M

1985-01-01

270

Microenvironmental Ecology of the Chlorophyll b-Containing Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian Lissoclinum patella  

PubMed Central

The discovery of the cyanobacterium Prochloron was the first finding of a bacterial oxyphototroph with chlorophyll (Chl) b, in addition to Chl a. It was first described as Prochloron didemni but a number of clades have since been described. Prochloron is a conspicuously large (7–25??m) unicellular cyanobacterium living in a symbiotic relationship, primarily with (sub-) tropical didemnid ascidians; it has resisted numerous cultivation attempts and appears truly obligatory symbiotic. Recently, a Prochloron draft genome was published, revealing no lack of metabolic genes that could explain the apparent inability to reproduce and sustain photosynthesis in a free-living stage. Possibly, the unsuccessful cultivation is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the microenvironmental conditions and ecophysiology of Prochloron in its natural habitat. We used microsensors, variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and imaging of O2 and pH to obtain a detailed insight to the microenvironmental ecology and photobiology of Prochloron in hospite in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. The microenvironment within ascidians is characterized by steep gradients of light and chemical parameters that change rapidly with varying irradiances. The interior zone of the ascidians harboring Prochloron thus became anoxic and acidic within a few minutes of darkness, while the same zone exhibited O2 super-saturation and strongly alkaline pH after a few minutes of illumination. Photosynthesis showed lack of photoinhibition even at high irradiances equivalent to full sunlight, and photosynthesis recovered rapidly after periods of anoxia. We discuss these new insights on the ecological niche of Prochloron and possible interactions with its host and other microbes in light of its recently published genome and a recent study of the overall microbial diversity and metagenome of L. patella.

Kuhl, Michael; Behrendt, Lars; Trampe, Erik; Qvortrup, Klaus; Schreiber, Ulrich; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

2012-01-01

271

Proteomic strategy for the analysis of the polychlorobiphenyl-degrading cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 exposed to Aroclor 1254.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). These proteins were involved in (i) PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase); (ii) transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii) energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase ? subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase ? subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase); (iv) electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein); (v) general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable); (vi) carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta); and (vii) nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase). The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the complexity of PCB catabolism by Anabaena PD-1. PMID:24618583

Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Wenfeng; Lu, Liping

2014-01-01

272

Structural investigations of the hemoglobin of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 reveal a unique distal heme pocket.  

PubMed

A putative hemoglobin (Hb) gene, related to those previously characterized in the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos, the ciliated protozoan Paramecium caudatum, the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was recently discovered in the complete genome sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. In this paper, we report the purification of Synechocystis Hb and describe some of its salient biochemical and spectroscopic properties. We show that the recombinant protein contains Fe-protoporphyrin IX and forms a very stable complex with oxygen. The oxygen dissociation rate measured, 0.011 s(-1), is among the smallest known and is four orders of magnitude smaller than the rate measured for N. commune Hb, which suggests functional differences between these Hbs. Optical and resonance Raman spectroscopic study of the structure of the heme pocket of Synechocystis Hb reveals that the heme is 6-coordinate and low-spin in both ferric and ferrous forms in the pH range 5.5-10.5. We present evidence that His46, predicted to occupy the helical position E10 based on amino-acid sequence comparison, is involved in the formation of the ferric and ferrous 6-coordinate low-spin structures. The analysis of the His46Ala mutant shows that the ferrous form is 5-coordinate and high-spin and the ferric form contains a 6-coordinate high-spin component in which the sixth ligand is most probably a water molecule. We conclude that the heme pocket of the wild type Synechocystis Hb has a unique structure that requires a histidine residue at the E10 position for the formation of its native structure. PMID:10903511

Couture, M; Das, T K; Savard, P Y; Ouellet, Y; Wittenberg, J B; Wittenberg, B A; Rousseau, D L; Guertin, M

2000-08-01

273

A protein-tyrosine/serine phosphatase encoded by the genome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584.  

PubMed

Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation has long been regarded as an exclusively eukaryotic phenomenon. Although some non-eukaryotes, mainly viruses, possess genes encoding protein-tyrosine kinases or protein-tyrosine phosphatases, these were probably appropriated from the eukaryotic hosts that constitute the sites of action of these enzymes. Herein we identify a gene, iphP, from the chromosome of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 that contains the His-Cys-Xaa-Ala-Gly-Xaa-Xaa-Arg sequence characteristic of known protein-tyrosine phosphatases. The expressed gene product, IphP, displayed protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity toward phosphotyrosine residues on reduced, carboxyamidomethylated, and maleylated lysozyme with optimum activity at pH 5.0. In addition, IphP dephosphorylated the phosphoseryl groups on casein that had been phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Cell lysates of N. commune probed with antibodies to phosphotyrosine indicated the presence of a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of M(r) approximately 85 kDa. This tyrosine-phosphorylated protein was detected in cells grown in the presence of combined nitrogen but not in nitrogen-deficient media that induces the formation of differentiated N2-fixing cells (heterocysts). Together, these data suggest a role for protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating cellular functions in this cyanobacterium. IphP is the first protein-tyrosine phosphatase to be discovered that is encoded by the chromosomal DNA of any prokaryote. Given the free-living nature of N. commune and the phylogenetic antiquity of the cyanobacteria, these findings suggest for the first time the existence of a protein-tyrosine phosphatase of genuine, unambiguous prokaryotic ancestry, thus raising fundamental questions as to the origin and role of tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:7681825

Potts, M; Sun, H; Mockaitis, K; Kennelly, P J; Reed, D; Tonks, N K

1993-04-15

274

An Alkaline Phosphatase/Phosphodiesterase, PhoD, Induced by Salt Stress and Secreted Out of the Cells of Aphanothece halophytica, a Halotolerant Cyanobacterium ? †  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatases (APases) are important enzymes in organophosphate utilization. Three prokaryotic APase gene families, PhoA, PhoX, and PhoD, are known; however, their functional characterization in cyanobacteria largely remains to be clarified. In this study, we cloned the phoD gene from a halotolerant cyanobacterium, Aphanothece halophytica (phoDAp). The deduced protein, PhoDAp, contains Tat consensus motifs and a peptidase cleavage site at the N terminus. The PhoDAp enzyme was activated by Ca2+ and exhibited APase and phosphodiesterase (APDase) activities. Subcellular localization experiments revealed the secretion and processing of PhoDAp in a transformed cyanobacterium. Expression of the phoDAp gene in A. halophytica cells was upregulated not only by phosphorus (P) starvation but also under salt stress conditions. Our results suggest that A. halophytica cells possess a PhoD that participates in the assimilation of P under salinity stress.

Kageyama, Hakuto; Tripathi, Keshawanand; Rai, Ashwani K.; Cha-um, Suriyan; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Takabe, Teruhiro

2011-01-01

275

Phosphorylation of the PII protein (glnB gene product) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942: analysis of in vitro kinase activity.  

PubMed Central

The PII protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 signals the cellular state of nitrogen assimilation relative to CO2 fixation by being phosphorylated at a seryl residue. In this study, we first determined the location of the phosphorylated seryl residue within the PII amino acid sequence. The phosphorylation site exhibits an RXS motif, a recognition sequence characteristic for cyclic AMP-dependent protein serine kinases from eukaryotes. We established an in vitro PII phosphorylation assay to further analyze the PII kinase activity in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. ATP was used specifically as a phosphoryl donor, and the PII kinase activity was shown to be stimulated by alpha-ketoglutarate. Unlike the PII-modifying uridylyltransferase- and uridylyl-removing enzyme characterized in proteobacteria, the activity of the PII kinase from the cyanobacterium did not respond to glutamine.

Forchhammer, K; Tandeau de Marsac, N

1995-01-01

276

D1 protein turnover is involved in protection of Photosystem II against UV-B induced damage in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira ( Spirulina) platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using two strains of Arthrospira (Spirulina)platensis, an economically important filamentous cyanobacterium, we compared the impairment of PSII activity and loss of D1 protein content under UV-B radiation. Our study showed that UV-B radiation induced a gradual loss of the oxygen-evolving activity to about 56% after 180min UV-B irradiation both in strains 439 and D-0083, which have been kept under

Hongyan Wu; Leyla Abasova; Otilia Cheregi; Zsuzsanna Deák; Kunshan Gao; Imre Vass

2011-01-01

277

Evolutionary Changes in Growth Rate and Toxin Production in the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Under a Scenario of Eutrophication and Temperature Increase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic blooms of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa affect humans and animals in inland water systems worldwide, and it has been hypothesized that the development of these blooms\\u000a will increase under the future scenario of global change, considering eutrophication and temperature increase as two important\\u000a consequences. The importance of genetic adaptation, chance and history on evolution of growth rate, and toxin

Mónica Rouco; Victoria López-Rodas; Antonio Flores-Moya; Eduardo Costas

278

Effect of dissolved inorganic carbon on the expression of carboxysomes, localization of Rubisco and the mode of inorganic carbon transport in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cyanobacterium Synechococcus UTEX 625, the extent of expression of carboxysomes appeared dependent on the level of inorganic carbon (CO2+HCOinf3sup-) in the growth medium. In cells grown under 5% CO2 and in those bubbled with air, carboxysomes were present in low numbers (-1) and were distributed in an apparently random manner throughout the centroplasm. In contrast, cells grown in

R. Michael L. McKay; Sarah P. Gibbs; George S. Espie

1993-01-01

279

The reaction mechanism of Photosystem I reduction by plastocyanin and cytochrome c 6 follows two different kinetic models in the cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena sp. PCC 6903  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastocyanin (Pc) and cytochrome c6 (Cyt) have been purified to homogeneity from the cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena sp. PCC 6903, which occupies a unique divergent branch in the evolutionary tree of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. The two metalloproteins have similar molecular masses (9–10 kDa), as well as almost identical isoelectric points (ca. 8) and midpoint redox potentials (ca. 350 mV, at pH 7).

Manuel Hervás; José A. Navarro; Fernando P. Molina-Heredia; Miguel A. De la Rosa

1998-01-01

280

Comparison of two different modes of UV-B irradiation on synthesis of some cellular substances in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different modes of UV-B irradiation of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 are compared: turbidostatic control and additional physiostatic control. Under turbidostatic control, the cells\\u000a were exposed to different constant UV-B irradiances, whereas under physiostatic control, an electronic control loop modulated\\u000a UV-B irradiance in such a way that photosynthetic efficiency ?\\u000a PSII was kept constant at a fixed set

Kai Marxen; Klaus Heinrich Vanselow; Ralf Hintze; Sebastian Lippemeier; Andreas Ruser; Britta Egge; Franciscus Colijn; Ulf-Peter Hansen

2010-01-01

281

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the psaA and psaB genes of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psaA and psaB genes, which encode the P700 chlorophyll a apoproteins of the Photosystem I complex, have been cloned from the unicellular, transformable cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. The nucleotide sequence of these genes and of their flanking sequences have been determined by the chain termination method. As found in the chloroplast genomes of higher plants, the psaA gene

Amanda Cantrell; Donald A. Bryant

1987-01-01

282

Regulation of nitrogenase activity in relation to the light-dark regime in the filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. NIBB 1067  

Microsoft Academic Search

A periodicity in nitrogen fixation potential with respect to the light-dark regime was studied in the filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. NIBB 1067. During a 12 h light\\/l2 h dark cycle, potential nitrogenase activity measured by acetylene reduction in the light was insignificant in the dark period, but developed after illumination for 1 to 3 h. Maximum nitrogenase activity was

K. Ohki; JONATHAN P. zEHR; YOSHIHIKO FUJITA

1992-01-01

283

Genetic and biochemical evidence for distinct key functions of two highly divergent GAPDH genes in catabolic and anabolic carbon flow of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacterial genomes harbour two separate highly divergent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes, gap1 and gap2, which are closely related at the sequence level to the nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and chloroplast GAPDH of higher plants, respectively. Genes gap1 and gap2 of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were cloned and sequenced and subsequently inactivated by insertional mutagenesis to understand their

Olga Koksharova; Milada Schubert; Sergey Shestakov; Rüdiger Cerff

1998-01-01

284

Engineering a cyanobacterium as the catalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to 1,2-propanediol  

PubMed Central

Background The modern society primarily relies on petroleum and natural gas for the production of fuels and chemicals. One of the major commodity chemicals 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO), which has an annual production of more than 0.5 million tons in the United States, is currently produced by chemical processes from petroleum derived propylene oxide, which is energy intensive and not sustainable. In this study, we sought to achieve photosynthetic production of 1,2-PDO from CO2 using a genetically engineered cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Compared to the previously reported biological 1,2-PDO production processes which used sugar or glycerol as the substrates, direct chemical production from CO2 in photosynthetic organisms recycles the atmospheric CO2 and will not compete with food crops for arable land. Results In this study, we reported photosynthetic production of 1,2-PDO from CO2 using a genetically engineered cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Introduction of the genes encoding methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA), glycerol dehydrogenase (gldA), and aldehyde reductase (yqhD) resulted in the production of ~22mg/L 1,2-PDO from CO2. However, a comparable amount of the pathway intermediate acetol was also produced, especially during the stationary phase. The production of 1,2-PDO requires a robust input of reducing equivalents from cellular metabolism. To take advantage of cyanobacteria’s NADPH pool, the synthetic pathway of 1,2-PDO was engineered to be NADPH-dependent by exploiting the NADPH-specific secondary alcohol dehydrogenases which have not been reported for 1,2-PDO production previously. This optimization strategy resulted in the production of ~150mg/L 1,2-PDO and minimized the accumulation of the incomplete reduction product, acetol. Conclusion This work demonstrated that cyanobacteria can be engineered as a catalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to 1,2-PDO. This work also characterized two NADPH-dependent sADHs for their catalytic capacity in 1,2-PDO formation, and suggested that they may be useful tools for renewable production of reduced chemicals in photosynthetic organisms.

2013-01-01

285

Viequeamide A, a Cytotoxic Member of the Kulolide Superfamily of Cyclic Depsipeptides from a Marine Button Cyanobacterium  

PubMed Central

The viequeamides, a family of 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-7-octynoic acid (Dhoya) containing cyclic depsipeptides, were isolated from a shallow subtidal collection of a ‘button’ cyanobacterium (Rivularia sp.) from near the island of Vieques, Puerto Rico. Planar structures of the two major compounds, viequeamide A (1) and viequeamide B (2), were elucidated by 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, whereas absolute configurations were determined by traditional hydrolysis, derivative formation, and chromatography in comparison with standards. In addition, a series of related minor metabolites, viequeamide C–F (3–6), were characterized by high resolution mass spectroscopic (HRMS) fragmentation methods. Viequeamide A was found to be highly toxic to H460 human lung cancer cells (IC50 = 60 ± 10 nM), whereas the mixture of B–F was inactive. From a broader perspective, the viequeamides help to define a “superfamily” of related cyanobacterial natural products, the first of which to be discovered was ‘kulolide’. Within the kulolide superfamily, a wide variation in biological properties is observed, and the reported producing strains are also highly divergent, giving rise to several intriguing questions about structure-activity relationships and the evolutionary origins of this metabolite class.

Boudreau, Paul D.; Byrum, Tara; Liu, Wei-Ting; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gerwick, William H.

2012-01-01

286

Acrolein, an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl, inhibits both growth and PSII activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

In this study, we sought to determine whether and how an ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl, acrolein, can inhibit the growth of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 (S. 6803). Treatment of S. 6803 with 200 µM acrolein for 3 d significantly and irreversibly inhibited its growth. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism, we examined the effects of acrolein on photosynthesis. In contrast to dark conditions, the addition of acrolein to S. 6803 under conditions of illumination lowered the CO?-dependent O? evolution rate (photosynthetic activity). Furthermore, treatment with acrolein lowered the activity reducing dimethyl benzoquinone in photosystem II (PSII). Acrolein also suppressed the reduction rate for the oxidized form of the reaction center chlorophyll of photosystem I (PSI), P700. These results indicate that acrolein inhibited PSII activity in thylakoid membranes. The addition of 200 µM acrolein to the illuminated S. 6803 cells gradually increased the steady-state level (Fs) of Chl fluorescence and decreased the quantum yield of PSII. These results suggested that acrolein damaged the acceptor side of PSII. On the other hand, acrolein did not inhibit respiration. From the above results, we gained insight into the metabolism of acrolein and its physiological effects in S. 6803. PMID:23924728

Shimakawa, Ginga; Iwamoto, Tatsuya; Mabuchi, Tomohito; Saito, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Amako, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Toshio; Makino, Amane; Miyake, Chikahiro

2013-01-01

287

Constant phycobilisome size in chromatically adapted cells of the cyanobacterium Tolypothrix tenuis, and variation in Nostoc sp  

SciTech Connect

Phycobilisomes of Tolypothrix tenuis, a cyanobacterium capable of complete chromatic adaptation, were studied from cells grown in red and green light, and in darkness. The phycobilisome size remained constant irrespective of the light quality. The hemidiscoidal phycobilisomes had an average diameter of about 52 nanometers and height of about 33 nanometers, by negative staining. The thickness was equivalent to a physocyanin molecule (about 10 nanometers). The molar ratio of allophycocyanin, relative to other phycobiliproteins always remained at about 1:3. Phycobilisomes from red light grown cells and cells grown heterotrophically in darkness were indistinguishable in their pigment composition, polypeptide pattern, and size. Eight polypeptides were resolved in the phycobilin region (17.5 to 23.5 kilodaltons) by isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Half of these were invariable, while others were variable in green and red light. It is inferred that phycoerythrin synthesis in green light resulted in a one for one substitution of phycocyanin, thus retaining a constant phycobilisome size. Tolypothrix appears to be one of the best examples of phycobiliprotein regulation with wavelength. By contrast, in Nostoc sp., the decrease in phycoerythrin in red light cells was accompanied by a decrease in phycobilisome size but not a regulated substitution.

Ohki, K.; Gantt, E.; Lipschultz, C.A.; Ernst, M.C.

1985-12-01

288

Photoacclimation of cultured strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to high-light and low-light conditions.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa forms blooms that can consist of colonies. We have investigated how M. aeruginosa acclimatizes to changing light conditions such as can occur during blooms. Three different strains were exposed to two irradiance levels: lower (LL) and higher (HL) than the irradiance-onset saturation parameter. We measured the photosynthetic pigment concentrations, PSII photochemical efficiency, electron transport rate (ETR), irradiance-saturated ETR and ETR efficiency. The relationship between ETR and photosynthetic oxygen production and the excess in PSII capacity were also studied for one strain. Higher values of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin and lower values of total carotenoids were found under LL conditions in the three strains. The strains showed clear differences in the irradiance-saturated ETR and in ETR efficiency under both LL and HL treatments. No differences were found in the linear relationship between ETR and photosynthetic oxygen production under both irradiance treatments. LL-acclimated cells showed higher PSII excess capacity than HL ones, possibly because their higher pigment content could result in a higher light stress than HL cells when forming surface blooms. The fact that the genetically different strains show different photosynthetic physiologies suggests that the very dynamic light climate observed in lakes may allow their coexistence. PMID:23057858

Bańares-Espańa, Elena; Kromkamp, Jacco C; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio

2013-03-01

289

Integration of carbon and nitrogen metabolism with energy production is crucial to light acclimation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis.  

PubMed

Light drives the production of chemical energy and reducing equivalents in photosynthetic organisms required for the assimilation of essential nutrients. This process also generates strong oxidants and reductants that can be damaging to the cellular processes, especially during absorption of excess excitation energy. Cyanobacteria, like other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, respond to increases in the excitation energy, such as during exposure of cells to high light (HL) by the reduction of antenna size and photosystem content. However, the mechanism of how Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a cyanobacterium, maintains redox homeostasis and coordinates various metabolic processes under HL stress remains poorly understood. In this study, we have utilized time series transcriptome data to elucidate the global responses of Synechocystis to HL. Identification of differentially regulated genes involved in the regulation, protection, and maintenance of redox homeostasis has offered important insights into the optimized response of Synechocystis to HL. Our results indicate a comprehensive integrated homeostatic interaction between energy production (photosynthesis) and energy consumption (assimilation of carbon and nitrogen). In addition, measurements of physiological parameters under different growth conditions showed that integration between the two processes is not a consequence of limitations in the external carbon and nitrogen levels available to the cells. We have also discovered the existence of a novel glycosylation pathway, to date known as an important nutrient sensor only in eukaryotes. Up-regulation of a gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine pathway suggests a regulatory role for protein glycosylation in Synechocystis under HL. PMID:18599646

Singh, Abhay K; Elvitigala, Thanura; Bhattacharyya-Pakrasi, Maitrayee; Aurora, Rajeev; Ghosh, Bijoy; Pakrasi, Himadri B

2008-09-01

290

Chemical Characterization of Polysaccharide from the Slime Layer of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40  

PubMed Central

Macromolecular material from the slime layer of the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40 was defined as material that adhered to cells during centrifugation in growth medium but was dislodged by washing with deionized water and retained within dialysis tubing with a molecular-weight cutoff of 3,500. At each step of this isolation procedure, the slime was observed microscopically. Cells in the centrifugal pellet were surrounded by large amounts of slime that excluded negative stain, whereas cells that had been washed with water lacked visible slime. Two independently isolated lots of slime contained no detectable protein (<1%, wt/wt) and consisted predominantly of anthrone-reacting polysaccharide. Sugars in a hydrolysate of slime polysaccharide were derivatized with trimethylsilylimidazole and examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The composition of the slime polysaccharide was 1.5% (wt/wt) galactose, 2.0% glucose, 3.0% xylose, 5.0% mannose, 5.5% rhamnose, and 83% galacturonic acid. This composition resembles that of the plant polysaccharide pectin, which was treated in parallel as a control. Consistent with earlier indications that M. flos-aquae slime preferentially binds certain cations, the ratio of Fe to Na in the dialyzed slime was 104 times that in the growth medium. The composition of the slime is discussed with respect to possible mechanisms of cation binding in comparison with other cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides and pectin. Images

Plude, John L.; Parker, Dorothy L.; Schommer, Olivia J.; Timmerman, Robert J.; Hagstrom, Stephanie A.; Joers, James M.; Hnasko, Robert

1991-01-01

291

Global Proteomics Reveal an Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen Assimilation by a Cyanobacterium Under Diverse Environmental Perturbations*  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, are present in diverse ecological niches and play crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. To proliferate in nature, cyanobacteria utilize a host of stress responses to accommodate periodic changes in environmental conditions. A detailed knowledge of the composition of, as well as the dynamic changes in, the proteome is necessary to gain fundamental insights into such stress responses. Toward this goal, we have performed a large-scale proteomic analysis of the widely studied model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under 33 different environmental conditions. The resulting high-quality dataset consists of 22,318 unique peptides corresponding to 1955 proteins, a coverage of 53% of the predicted proteome. Quantitative determination of protein abundances has led to the identification of 1198 differentially regulated proteins. Notably, our analysis revealed that a common stress response under various environmental perturbations, irrespective of amplitude and duration, is the activation of atypical pathways for the acquisition of carbon and nitrogen from urea and arginine. In particular, arginine is catabolized via putrescine to produce succinate and glutamate, sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. This study provides the most comprehensive functional and quantitative analysis of the Synechocystis proteome to date, and shows that a significant stress response of cyanobacteria involves an uncommon mode of acquisition of carbon and nitrogen.

Wegener, Kimberly M.; Singh, Abhay K.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric A.; Keren, Nir; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2010-01-01

292

Acclimation of the Global Transcriptome of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 to Nutrient Limitations and Different Nitrogen Sources  

PubMed Central

The unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and is a potential platform for biotechnological applications. Two of its most notable properties are its exceptional tolerance of high-light intensity and very rapid growth under optimal conditions. In this study, transcription profiling by RNAseq has been used to perform an integrated study of global changes in transcript levels in cells subjected to limitation for the major nutrients CO2, nitrogen, sulfate, phosphate, and iron. Transcriptional patterns for cells grown on nitrate, ammonia, and urea were also studied. Nutrient limitation caused strong decreases of transcript levels of the genes encoding major metabolic pathways, especially for components of the photosynthetic apparatus, CO2 fixation, and protein biosynthesis. Uptake mechanisms for the respective nutrients were strongly up-regulated. The transcription data further suggest that major changes in the composition of the NADH dehydrogenase complex occur upon nutrient limitation. Transcripts for flavoproteins increased strongly when CO2 was limiting. Genes involved in protection from oxidative stress generally showed high, constitutive transcript levels, which possibly explains the high-light tolerance of this organism. The transcriptomes of cells grown with ammonia or urea as nitrogen source showed increased transcript levels for components of the CO2 fixation machinery compared to cells grown with nitrate, but in general transcription differences in cells grown on different N-sources exhibited surprisingly minor differences.

Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

2012-01-01

293

Omp85 from the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus Differs from Proteobacterial Omp85 in Structure and Domain Composition*  

PubMed Central

Omp85 proteins are essential proteins located in the bacterial outer membrane. They are involved in outer membrane biogenesis and assist outer membrane protein insertion and folding by an unknown mechanism. Homologous proteins exist in eukaryotes, where they mediate outer membrane assembly in organelles of endosymbiotic origin, the mitochondria and chloroplasts. We set out to explore the homologous relationship between cyanobacteria and chloroplasts, studying the Omp85 protein from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Using state-of-the art sequence analysis and clustering methods, we show how this protein is more closely related to its chloroplast homologue Toc75 than to proteobacterial Omp85, a finding supported by single channel conductance measurements. We have solved the structure of the periplasmic part of the protein to 1.97 Ĺ resolution, and we demonstrate that in contrast to Omp85 from Escherichia coli the protein has only three, not five, polypeptide transport-associated (POTRA) domains, which recognize substrates and generally interact with other proteins in bigger complexes. We model how these POTRA domains are attached to the outer membrane, based on the relationship of Omp85 to two-partner secretion system proteins, which we show and analyze. Finally, we discuss how Omp85 proteins with different numbers of POTRA domains evolved, and evolve to this day, to accomplish an increasing number of interactions with substrates and helper proteins.

Arnold, Thomas; Zeth, Kornelius; Linke, Dirk

2010-01-01

294

Synergistic effect of deoxyanthocyanins from symbiotic fern Azolla spp. on hrmA gene induction in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.  

PubMed

The hrmA gene of the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme functions in repressing the formation of transitory motile filaments, termed hormogonia, by plant-associated vegetative filaments. Here, we report that anthocyanins can contribute to induction of hrmA expression. Aqueous extract from fronds of the fern Azolla pinnata, a host of symbiotic Nostoc spp., was found to be a potent inducer of hrmA-luxAB in N. punctiforme strain UCD 328. The hrmA-luxAB inducing activities of A. pinnata, as well as Azolla filiculoides, were positively correlated with levels of frond deoxyanthocyanins. Analyses of the deoxyanthocyanins in frond extracts revealed, in order of predominance, an acetylated glycoside derivative of luteolinidin (m/z 475) and of apigeninidin (m/z 459) and minor amounts of a second luteolinidin derivative. At up to 150 microM, a purified preparation of deoxyanthocyanins only weakly induced hrmA-luxAB on its own, but mixtures with hrmA-luxAB inducers (A. filiculoides extract or the flavonoid naringin) synergistically doubled to tripled their inducing activities. These results suggest that appropriately localized deoxyanthocyanins could function in plant-mediated mechanisms for repressing Nostoc spp. hormogonium formation. PMID:12236594

Cohen, Michael F; Sakihama, Yasuko; Takagi, Yojiro C; Ichiba, Toshio; Yamasaki, Hideo

2002-09-01

295

Identification of a benthic microcystin-producing filamentous cyanobacterium (Oscillatoriales) associated with a dog poisoning in New Zealand.  

PubMed

In November 2008 a dog died soon after ingesting benthic "algal" mat material from the Waitaki River, New Zealand. Based on a morphological examination of environmental material, the causative organism was putatively identified as the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. Two strains (VUW25 and CYN61) were isolated and cultured to enable further taxonomic and cyanotoxin characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses based on a region of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, intergenic spacer (ITS) region and the mcyE gene demonstrated that the species was likely to be a new Planktothrix species that is either benthic or has a biphasic life cycle. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), microcystin-LR, [D-Asp(3), Dha(7)] microcystin-LR, [D-Asp(3)] microcystin-LR, and minor proportions of [D-Asp(3), ADMAdda(5)] microcystin-LhR were identified. This is the first report of [D-Asp(3)] microcystin-LR, [D-Asp(3), Dha(7)] microcystin-LR and an ADMAadda variant in New Zealand. No cylindrospermopsins, saxitoxins or anatoxins were detected. Dog deaths caused by the consumption of cyanobacterial mats containing anatoxins have previously been reported in New Zealand. To our knowledge, however, this is the first instance of a benthic microcystin-producing species causing an animal death in New Zealand. PMID:20043936

Wood, Susanna A; Heath, Mark W; Holland, Patrick T; Munday, Rex; McGregor, Glenn B; Ryan, Ken G

2010-04-01

296

A 2D gel electrophoresis-based snapshot of the phosphoproteome in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic prokaryotes that occur in highly variable environments. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most widespread means to adjust cell metabolism and gene expression to the demands of changing growth conditions. Using a 2D gel electrophoresis-based approach and a phosphoprotein-specific dye, we investigated the protein phosphorylation pattern in cells of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The comparison of gels stained for total and phosphorylated proteins revealed that approximately 5?% of the protein spots seemed to be phosphoproteins, from which 32 were identified using MALDI-TOF MS. For eight of them the phosphorylated amino acid residues were mapped by subsequent mass spectrometric investigations of isolated phosphopeptides. Among the phosphoproteins, we found regulatory proteins, mostly putative anti-sigma factor antagonists, and proteins involved in translation. Moreover, a number of enzymes catalysing steps in glycolysis or the Calvin-Benson cycle were found to be phosphorylated, implying that protein phosphorylation might represent an important mechanism for the regulation of the primary carbon metabolism in cyanobacterial cells. PMID:24275102

Mikkat, Stefan; Fulda, Sabine; Hagemann, Martin

2014-02-01

297

Reduction of exogenous ketones depends upon NADPH generated photosynthetically in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942.  

PubMed

Effective utilization of photosynthetic microorganisms as potential biocatalysts is favorable for the production of useful biomaterials and the reduction of atmospheric CO2. For example, biocatalytic transformations are used in the synthesis of optically active alcohols. We previously found that ketone reduction in cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942 is highly enantioselective and remarkably enhanced under light illumination. In this study, the mechanism of light-enhanced ketone reduction was investigated in detail using several inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport and of enzymes of the Calvin cycle. It is demonstrated that light intensity and photosynthesis inhibitors significantly affect the ketone reduction activity in Synechococcus. This indicates that the reduction correlates well with photosynthetic activity. Moreover, ketone reduction in Synechococcus specifically depends upon NADPH and not NADH. These results also suggest that cyanobacteria have the potential to be utilized as biocatalytic systems for direct usage of light energy in various applications such as syntheses of useful compounds and remediation of environmental pollutants. PMID:21906270

Yamanaka, Rio; Nakamura, Kaoru; Murakami, Akio

2011-01-01

298

A comparison of the character of algal extracellular versus cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacterium, diatom and green alga.  

PubMed

This study investigated characteristics of algal organic matter (AOM) derived from three species (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, diatom Fragilaria crotonensis and green alga Chlamydomonas geitleri) which dominate phytoplanktonic populations in reservoirs supplying drinking water treatment plants. Algal growth was monitored by cell counting, optical density and dissolved organic carbon concentration measurements. Extracellular organic matter (EOM) released at exponential and stationary growth phases and cellular organic matter (COM) were characterised in terms of specific UV absorbance (SUVA), peptide/protein and non-peptide content, hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW). It was found that both EOM and COM were predominantly hydrophilic with low SUVA. COM was richer in peptides/proteins, more hydrophilic (with about 89% of hydrophilic fraction for all three species) and had lower SUVA than EOM. MW fractionation showed that both EOM and COM of all three species contain large portions of low-MW (<1 kDa) compounds and high-MW (>100 kDa) polysaccharides. Peptides/proteins exhibited narrower MW distribution than non-peptide fraction and it widened as the cultures grew. The highest amount of peptides/proteins with a significant portion of high-MW ones (22%) was observed in COM of M. aeruginosa. The results imply that the knowledge of AOM composition and characteristics predetermine which processes would be effective in the treatment of AOM laden water. PMID:24388829

Pivokonsky, Martin; Safarikova, Jana; Baresova, Magdalena; Pivokonska, Lenka; Kopecka, Ivana

2014-03-15

299

Characterization of the norB Gene, Encoding Nitric Oxide Reductase, in the Nondenitrifying Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803  

PubMed Central

A norB gene encoding a putative nitric oxide reductase is present in the genome of the nondenitrifying cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. The gene product belongs to the quinol-oxidizing single-subunit class of nitric oxide reductases, discovered recently in the denitrifier Ralstonia eutropha. Heterologous complementation of a nitric oxide reductase-negative mutant of R. eutropha with norB from Synechocystis restored nitric oxide reductase activity. With reduced menadione as the electron donor, an enzymatic activity of 101 nmol of NO per min per mg of protein was obtained with membrane fractions of Synechocystis wild-type cells. Virtually no nitric oxide reductase activity was present in a norB-negative mutant of Synechocystis. Growing cells of this mutant are more sensitive toward NO than wild-type cells, indicating that the presence of a nitric oxide reductase is beneficial for Synechocystis when the cells are exposed to NO. Transcriptional fusions with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene were constructed to monitor norB expression in Synechocystis. Transcription of norB was not enhanced by the addition of the NO-generating agent sodium nitroprusside.

Busch, Andrea; Friedrich, Barbel; Cramm, Rainer

2002-01-01

300

Characterization of the norB gene, encoding nitric oxide reductase, in the nondenitrifying cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803.  

PubMed

A norB gene encoding a putative nitric oxide reductase is present in the genome of the nondenitrifying cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803. The gene product belongs to the quinol-oxidizing single-subunit class of nitric oxide reductases, discovered recently in the denitrifier Ralstonia eutropha. Heterologous complementation of a nitric oxide reductase-negative mutant of R. eutropha with norB from Synechocystis restored nitric oxide reductase activity. With reduced menadione as the electron donor, an enzymatic activity of 101 nmol of NO per min per mg of protein was obtained with membrane fractions of Synechocystis wild-type cells. Virtually no nitric oxide reductase activity was present in a norB-negative mutant of Synechocystis. Growing cells of this mutant are more sensitive toward NO than wild-type cells, indicating that the presence of a nitric oxide reductase is beneficial for Synechocystis when the cells are exposed to NO. Transcriptional fusions with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene were constructed to monitor norB expression in Synechocystis. Transcription of norB was not enhanced by the addition of the NO-generating agent sodium nitroprusside. PMID:11823206

Büsch, Andrea; Friedrich, Bärbel; Cramm, Rainer

2002-02-01

301

Growth inhibition of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and degradation of its microcystin toxins by the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride.  

PubMed

Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are recognized as a rapidly expanding global problem that threatens human and ecosystem health. Many bacterial strains have been reported as possible agents for inhibiting and controlling these blooms. However, such algicidal activity is largely unexplored for fungi. In this study, a fungal strain kkuf-0955, isolated from decayed cyanobacterial bloom was tested for its capability to inhibit phytoplankton species in batch cultures. The strain was identified as Trichoderma citrinoviride Based on its morphological characteristics and DNA sequence. Microcystis aeruginosa co-cultivated with living fungal mycelia rapidly decreased after one day of incubation, and all cells completely died and lysed after 2 days. The fungal filtrate of 5-day culture also exhibited an inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa, and this inhibition increased with the amount of filtrate and incubation time. Conversely, green algae and diatoms have not been influenced by either living fungal mycelia or culture filtrate. Interestingly, the fungus was not only able to inhibit Microcystis growth but also degraded microcystin produced by this cyanobacterium. The toxins were completely degraded within 5 days of incubation with living fungal mycelia, but not significantly changed with fungal filtrate. This fungus could be a potential bioagent to selectively control Microcystis blooms and degrade microcystin toxins. PMID:24874888

Mohamed, Zakaria A; Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad A

2014-08-01

302

The role of an alternative sigma factor in motility and pilus formation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803  

PubMed Central

Disruption of a gene for an alternative sigma factor, designated sigF, in the freshwater, unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 resulted in a pleiotropic phenotype. Most notably, this mutant lost phototactic movement with a concomitant loss of pili, which are abundant on the surface of wild-type cells. The sigF mutant also secreted both high levels of yellow–brown and UV-absorbing pigments and a polypeptide that is similar to a large family of extracellular proteins that includes the hemolysins. Furthermore, the sigF mutant had a dramatically reduced level of the transcript from two tandemly arranged pilA genes (sll1694 and sll1695), which encode major structural components of type IV pili. Inactivation of these pilA genes eliminated phototactic movement, though some pili were still present in this strain. Together, these results demonstrate that SigF plays a critical role in motility via the control of pili formation and is also likely to regulate other features of the cell surface. Furthermore, the data provide evidence that type IV pili are required for phototactic movement in certain cyanobacteria and suggest that different populations of pili present on the Synechocystis cell surface may perform different functions.

Bhaya, Devaki; Watanabe, Natsu; Ogawa, Teruo; Grossman, Arthur R.

1999-01-01

303

UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed Central

Liquid cultures of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune derived from field material were treated with artificial UV-B and UV-A irradiation. We studied the induction of various pigments which are though to provide protection against damaging UV-B irradiation. First, UV-B irradiation induced an increase in carotenoids, especially echinenone and myxoxanthophyll, but did not influence production of chlorophyll a. Second, an increase of an extracellular, water-soluble UV-A/B-absorbing mycosporine occurred, which was associated with extracellular glycan synthesis. Finally, synthesis of scytonemin, a lipid-soluble, extracellular pigment known to function as a UV-A sunscreen, was observed. After long-time exposure, the UV-B effect on carotenoid and scytonemin synthesis ceased whereas the mycosporine content remained constantly high. The UV-B sunscreen mycosporine is exclusively induced by UV-B (< 315 nm). The UV-A sunscreen scytonemin is induced only slightly by UV-B (< 315 nm), very strongly by near UV-A (350 to 400 nm), and not at all by far UV-A (320 to 350 nm). These results may indicate that the syntheses of these UV sunscreens are triggered by different UV photoreceptors.

Ehling-Schulz, M; Bilger, W; Scherer, S

1997-01-01

304

Acute toxicity of excess mercury on the photosynthetic performance of cyanobacterium, S. platensis--assessment by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis.  

PubMed

Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been shown to be a rapid, non-invasive, and reliable method to assess photosynthetic performance in a changing environment. In this study, acute toxicity of excess Hg on the photosynthetic performance of the cyanobacterium S. platensis, was investigated by use of chlorophyll fluorescence analysis after cells were exposed to excess Hg (up to 20 microM) for 2 h. The results determined from the fast fluorescence kinetics showed that Hg induced a significant increase in the proportion of the Q(B)-non-reducing PSII reaction centers. The fluorescence parameters measured under the steady state of photosynthesis demonstrated that the increase of Hg concentration led to a decrease in the maximal efficiency of PSII photochemistry, the efficiency of excitation energy capture by the open PSII reaction centers, and the quantum yield of PSII electron transport. Mercury also resulted in a decrease in the coefficients of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. Mercury may have an acute toxicity on cyanobacteria by inhibiting the quantum yield of photosynthesis sensitively and rapidly. Such changes occurred before any other visible damages that may be evaluated by other conventional measurements. Our results also demonstrated that chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can be used as a useful physiological tool to assess early stages of change in photosynthetic performance of algae in response to heavy metal pollution. PMID:10819201

Lu, C M; Chau, C W; Zhang, J H

2000-07-01

305

Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

2001-01-01

306

The blooms of a cyanobacterium, Microcystis cf. aeruginosa in a severely polluted estuary, the Golden Horn, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis cf. aeruginosa in the severely polluted Golden Horn Estuary was studied from 1998 to 2000. Microcystis persisted at the upper estuary where the water circulation was poor and values ranged between 2.9 × 10 4 and 2.7 × 10 6 cells ml -1 throughout the study. Simultaneously measured physical (salinity, temperature, rainfall and secchi disc) and chemical parameters (nutrients and dissolved oxygen) were evaluated together with Microcystis data. Although the Microcystis blooms generally occur in summer due to the increase in temperature, the blooms were recorded in winter in the present study. The abundance of Microcystis depended on the variations in salinity and both blooms were recorded below S = 2. A moderate partial correlation between Microcystis abundance and salinity was detected in the presence of temperature, dissolved oxygen and precipitation data ( r = -0.561, p = 0.002). The M. cf. aeruginosa abundance was low in the summer when the salinity was higher than winter. A remarkable increase in the eukaryotic phytoplankton abundance following the improvements in the water quality of the estuary occurred, whilst the Microcystis abundance remained below bloom level.

Ta?, Seyfettin; Oku?, Erdo?an; Aslan-Y?lmaz, Asl?

2006-07-01

307

Sulfate-Driven Elemental Sparing Is Regulated at the Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Levels in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium? †  

PubMed Central

Sulfur is an essential nutrient that can exist at growth-limiting concentrations in freshwater environments. The freshwater cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon (also known as Tolypothrix sp. PCC 7601) is capable of remodeling the composition of its light-harvesting antennae, or phycobilisomes, in response to changes in the sulfur levels in its environment. Depletion of sulfur causes these cells to cease the accumulation of two forms of a major phycobilisome protein called phycocyanin and initiate the production of a third form of phycocyanin, which possesses a minimal number of sulfur-containing amino acids. Since phycobilisomes make up approximately 50% of the total protein in these cells, this elemental sparing response has the potential to significantly influence the fitness of this species under low-sulfur conditions. This response is specific for sulfate and occurs over the physiological range of sulfate concentrations likely to be encountered by this organism in its natural environment. F. diplosiphon has two separate sulfur deprivation responses, with low sulfate levels activating the phycobilisome remodeling response and low sulfur levels activating the chlorosis or bleaching response. The phycobilisome remodeling response results from changes in RNA abundance that are regulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The potential of this response, and the more general bleaching response of cyanobacteria, to provide sulfur-containing amino acids during periods of sulfur deprivation is examined.

Gutu, Andrian; Alvey, Richard M.; Bashour, Sami; Zingg, Daniel; Kehoe, David M.

2011-01-01

308

Heterocyst-specific flavodiiron protein Flv3B enables oxic diazotrophic growth of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.  

PubMed

Flavodiiron proteins are known to have crucial and specific roles in photoprotection of photosystems I and II in cyanobacteria. The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 contains, besides the four flavodiiron proteins Flv1A, Flv2, Flv3A, and Flv4 present in vegetative cells, two heterocyst-specific flavodiiron proteins, Flv1B and Flv3B. Here, we demonstrate that Flv3B is responsible for light-induced O2 uptake in heterocysts, and that the absence of the Flv3B protein severely compromises the growth of filaments in oxic, but not in microoxic, conditions. It is further demonstrated that Flv3B-mediated photosynthetic O2 uptake has a distinct role in heterocysts which cannot be substituted by respiratory O2 uptake in the protection of nitrogenase from oxidative damage and, thus, in an efficient provision of nitrogen to filaments. In line with this conclusion, the ?flv3B strain has reduced amounts of nitrogenase NifHDK subunits and shows multiple symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in the filaments. The apparent imbalance of cytosolic redox state in ?flv3B heterocysts also has a pronounced influence on the amounts of different transcripts and proteins. Therefore, an O2-related mechanism for control of gene expression is suggested to take place in heterocysts. PMID:25002499

Ermakova, Maria; Battchikova, Natalia; Richaud, Pierre; Leino, Hannu; Kosourov, Sergey; Isojärvi, Janne; Peltier, Gilles; Flores, Enrique; Cournac, Laurent; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

2014-07-29

309

Iron limitation in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium reveals new insights into regulation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation.  

PubMed

* As iron (Fe) deficiency is a main limiting factor of ocean productivity, its effects were investigated on interactions between photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in the marine nonheterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101. * Biophysical methods such as fluorescence kinetic microscopy, fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorimetry, and in vivo and in vitro spectroscopy of pigment composition were used, and nitrogenase activity and the abundance of key proteins were measured. * Fe limitation caused a fast down-regulation of nitrogenase activity and protein levels. By contrast, the abundance of Fe-requiring photosystem I (PSI) components remained constant. Total levels of phycobiliproteins remained unchanged according to single-cell in vivo spectra. However, the regular 16-kDa phycoerythrin band decreased and finally disappeared 16-20 d after initiation of Fe limitation, concomitant with the accumulation of a 20-kDa protein cross-reacting with the phycoerythrin antibody. Concurrently, nitrogenase expression and activity increased. Fe limitation dampened the daily cycle of photosystem II (PSII) activity characteristic of diazotrophic Trichodesmium cells. Further, it increased the number and prolonged the time period of occurrence of cells with elevated basic fluorescence (F(0)). Additionally, it increased the effective cross-section of PSII, probably as a result of enhanced coupling of phycobilisomes to PSII, and led to up-regulation of the Fe stress protein IsiA. * Trichodesmium survives short-term Fe limitation by selectively down-regulating nitrogen fixation while maintaining but re-arranging the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:18513224

Küpper, Hendrik; Setlík, Ivan; Seibert, Sven; Prásil, Ondrej; Setlikova, Eva; Strittmatter, Martina; Levitan, Orly; Lohscheider, Jens; Adamska, Iwona; Berman-Frank, Ilana

2008-01-01

310

Decoupling of ammonium regulation and ntcA transcription in the diazotrophic marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. IMS101.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) physiology in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101 was studied along with transcript accumulation of the N-regulatory gene ntcA and of two of its target genes: napA (nitrate assimilation) and nifH (N(2) fixation). N(2) fixation was impaired in the presence of nitrite, nitrate and urea. Strain IMS101 was capable of growth on these combined N sources at <2 ?M but growth rates declined at elevated concentrations. Assimilation of nitrate and urea was impaired in the presence of ammonium. Whereas ecologically relevant N concentrations (2-20 ?M) suppressed growth and assimilation, much higher concentrations were required to affect transcript levels. Transcripts of nifH accumulated under nitrogen-fixing conditions; these transcript levels were maintained in the presence of nitrate (100 ?M) and ammonium (20 ?M). However, nifH transcript levels were below detection at ammonium concentrations >20 ?M. napA mRNA was found at low levels in both N(2)-fixing and ammonium-utilizing filaments, and it accumulated in filaments grown with nitrate. The positive effect of nitrate on napA transcription was abolished by ammonium additions of >200 ?M. This effect was restored upon addition of the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionin-DL-sulfoximine. Surprisingly, ntcA transcript levels remained high in the presence of ammonium, even at elevated concentrations. These findings indicate that ammonium repression is decoupled from transcriptional activation of ntcA in Trichodesmium IMS101. PMID:21938021

Post, Anton F; Rihtman, Branko; Wang, Qingfeng

2012-03-01

311

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of multiple strains of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Crocosphaera watsonii, isolated from the open ocean.  

PubMed

Diazotrophic cyanobacteria have long been recognized as important sources of reduced nitrogen (N) and therefore are important ecosystem components. Until recently, species of the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium were thought to be the primary sources of fixed N to the open ocean euphotic zone. It is now recognized that unicellular cyanobacteria are also important contributors, with members of the oligotrophic genus Crocosphaera being the only cultured examples. Herein we genetically and phenotypically characterize 10 strains isolated from the tropical Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans, and show that although all of the strains are highly similar at the genetic level, with the internal transcribed sequence (ITS) region sequence varying by approximately 2 bp on average, there are many unexpected phenotypic differences between the isolates (e.g. cell size, temperature optima and range, extracellular material excretion and variability in rates of nitrogen fixation). However based on the observed sequence similarity, we propose that all of these isolates are members of the genus Crocosphaera (type strain Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501), and that the phenotypic diversity we see may reflect ecologically important variation relevant for modelling N(2) fixation in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:19196268

Webb, Eric A; Ehrenreich, Ian M; Brown, Susan L; Valois, Frederica W; Waterbury, John B

2009-02-01

312

Isolation and characterization of the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Group C TW3 from the tropical western Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

A unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium strain of Group C, designated TW3, was isolated from the oligotrophic Kuroshio Current of the western Pacific Ocean. To our knowledge, this represents the first successful laboratory culture of a Group C unicellular diazotroph from oceanic water. TW3 cells are green rods, 2.5-3.0 µm in width and 4.0-6.0 µm in length. Phylogenetic analyses of both 16S rRNA and nifH gene fragments indicated that the TW3 sequences were over 98% identical to those of the previously isolated Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 and Gloeocapsa sp., suggesting that TW3 is a member of the Group C unicellular diazotrophs. In addition, both TW3 and Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 share morphological characteristics; both strains are sheathless and rod-shaped, display binary fission in a single plane, and possess dispersed thylakoids. TW3 grows aerobically in nitrogen-deficient artificial seawater, and exhibited the highest observed growth rate of 0.035 h(-1) when cultured at 30°C and 140 µmol m(-2) s(-1) of light intensity. The nitrogen fixation rate, when grown optimally using a 12 h/12 h light-dark cycle, was 7.31 × 10(-15) mol N cell(-1) day(-1) . Immunocytochemical staining using Trichodesmium sp. NIBB1067 nitrogenase antiserum revealed the existence of diazotrophic cells sharing morphological characteristics of TW3 in the Kuroshio water from which TW3 was isolated. PMID:21981769

Taniuchi, Yukiko; Chen, Yuh-ling Lee; Chen, Houng-Yung; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ohki, Kaori

2012-03-01

313

Structure of the RuBisCO chaperone RbcX from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of TeRbcX, a RuBisCO assembly chaperone from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a thermophilic organism, has been determined at 1.7?Ĺ resolution. TeRbcX has an unusual cysteine residue at position 103 that is not found in RbcX proteins from mesophilic organisms. Unlike wild-type TeRbcX, a mutant protein with Cys103 replaced by Ala (TeRbcX-C103A) could be readily crystallized. The structure revealed that the overall fold of the TeRbcX homodimer is similar to those of previously crystallized RbcX proteins. Normal-mode analysis suggested that TeRbcX might adopt an open or closed conformation through a hinge movement pivoted on a kink in two long ?4 helices. This type of conformational transition is presumably connected to RbcL (the large RuBisCO subunit) binding during the chaperone function of the RuBisCO assembly.

Tarnawski, Miroslaw; Krzywda, Szymon; Bialek, Wojciech; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

2011-01-01

314

Acclimation of the Global Transcriptome of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 to Nutrient Limitations and Different Nitrogen Sources.  

PubMed

The unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and is a potential platform for biotechnological applications. Two of its most notable properties are its exceptional tolerance of high-light intensity and very rapid growth under optimal conditions. In this study, transcription profiling by RNAseq has been used to perform an integrated study of global changes in transcript levels in cells subjected to limitation for the major nutrients CO(2), nitrogen, sulfate, phosphate, and iron. Transcriptional patterns for cells grown on nitrate, ammonia, and urea were also studied. Nutrient limitation caused strong decreases of transcript levels of the genes encoding major metabolic pathways, especially for components of the photosynthetic apparatus, CO(2) fixation, and protein biosynthesis. Uptake mechanisms for the respective nutrients were strongly up-regulated. The transcription data further suggest that major changes in the composition of the NADH dehydrogenase complex occur upon nutrient limitation. Transcripts for flavoproteins increased strongly when CO(2) was limiting. Genes involved in protection from oxidative stress generally showed high, constitutive transcript levels, which possibly explains the high-light tolerance of this organism. The transcriptomes of cells grown with ammonia or urea as nitrogen source showed increased transcript levels for components of the CO(2) fixation machinery compared to cells grown with nitrate, but in general transcription differences in cells grown on different N-sources exhibited surprisingly minor differences. PMID:22514553

Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A

2012-01-01

315

Short-term light adaptation of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In photosynthetic organisms, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes change in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the transfer of excitation energy from the phycobilisome (PBS) and photosystem (PS) II to PSI in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. After 20 min of dark adaptation, Synechocystis cells were illuminated for 5 min with strong light with different spectral profiles, blue, green, two kinds of red, and white light. After illumination, the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state fluorescence and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra, followed by spectral component analysis. Under illumination with strong light, the contribution of the energy transfer from the PSII to PSI (spillover) became greater, and that of the energy transfer from the PBS to PSI decreased; the former change was larger than the latter. The energy transfer pathway to PSI was sensitive to red light. We discuss the short-term adaptation of energy-transfer processes in Synechocystis under strong-light conditions. PMID:24495908

Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Yokono, Erina; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

2014-08-01

316

Characterization and Evolution of Tetrameric Photosystem I from the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp TS-821[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Photosystem I (PSI) is a reaction center associated with oxygenic photosynthesis. Unlike the monomeric reaction centers in green and purple bacteria, PSI forms trimeric complexes in most cyanobacteria with a 3-fold rotational symmetry that is primarily stabilized via adjacent PsaL subunits; however, in plants/algae, PSI is monomeric. In this study, we discovered a tetrameric form of PSI in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp TS-821 (TS-821). In TS-821, PSI forms tetrameric and dimeric species. We investigated these species by Blue Native PAGE, Suc density gradient centrifugation, 77K fluorescence, circular dichroism, and single-particle analysis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of native membranes confirms the presence of the tetrameric PSI structure prior to detergent solubilization. To investigate why TS-821 forms tetramers instead of trimers, we cloned and analyzed its psaL gene. Interestingly, this gene product contains a short insert between the second and third predicted transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic analysis based on PsaL protein sequences shows that TS-821 is closely related to heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, some of which also have a tetrameric form of PSI. These results are discussed in light of chloroplast evolution, and we propose that PSI evolved stepwise from a trimeric form to tetrameric oligomer en route to becoming monomeric in plants/algae.

Li, Meng; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Bruce, Barry D.

2014-01-01

317

Oscillating behavior of carbohydrate granule formation and dinitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that some aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacteria temporally separate photosynthetic O2 evolution and oxygen-sensitive N2 fixation. Cyanothece sp. ATCC strain 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that fixes N2 during discrete periods of its cell cycle. When the bacteria are maintained under diurnal light-dark cycles, N2 fixation occurs in the dark. Similar cycling is observed in continuous light, implicating a circadian rhythm. Under N2-fixing conditions, large inclusion granules form between the thylakoid membranes. Maximum granulation, as observed by electron microscopy, occurs before the onset of N2 fixation, and the granules decrease in number during the period of N2 fixation. The granules can be purified from cell homogenates by differential centrifugation. Biochemical analyses of the granules indicate that these structures are primarily carbohydrate, with some protein. Further analyses of the carbohydrate have shown that it is a glucose polymer with some characteristics of glycogen. It is proposed that N2 fixation is driven by energy and reducing power stored in these inclusion granules. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 represents an excellent experimental organism for the study of the protective mechanisms of nitrogenase, metabolic events in cyanobacteria under normal and stress conditions, the partitioning of resources between growth and storage, and biological rhythms.

Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Nayar, S.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

318

Molecular cloning and functional analysis of serotonin N-acetyltransferase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) catalyzes conversion of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, which is a direct precursor for melatonin biosynthesis in all organisms. Molecular cloning of plant SNAT from rice led to a screening for SNAT homolog genes in other species. We identified a cyanobacterium SNAT-like gene (cSNAT) that showed 56% amino acid homology with the rice SNAT. To confirm whether cSNAT encoded SNAT enzyme activity, we expressed cSNAT DNA in Escherichia coli and purified the cSNAT protein as a C-terminal His-tagged form. The purified cSNAT protein exhibited SNAT enzyme activities, transferring the acetyl group into either serotonin or tryptamine substrates. The optimum temperature was 55°C, but it was still highly active at 70°C, suggesting that cSNAT is a thermotolerant enzyme. The Km and Vmax were 823 ?m and 1.6 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The cSNAT gene is highly conserved in all cyanobacterial taxa and seems to be an origin of SNAT in higher plants. The thermotolerance of cSNAT suggests that melatonin plays a role in the response to high-temperature stress. Further analysis of this role of melatonin in higher plants is needed. PMID:23952748

Byeon, Yeong; Lee, Kyungjin; Park, Youn-Il; Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

2013-11-01

319

Culture temperature affects gene expression and metabolic pathways in the 2-methylisoborneol-producing cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata.  

PubMed

A volatile metabolite, 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), causes an unpleasant taste and odor in tap water. Some filamentous cyanobacteria produce 2-MIB via a two-step biosynthetic pathway: methylation of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) by methyl transferase (GPPMT), followed by the cyclization of methyl-GPP by monoterpene cyclase (MIBS). We isolated the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS from Pseudanabaena galeata, a filamentous cyanobacterium known to be a major causal organism of 2-MIB production in Japanese lakes. The predicted amino acid sequence showed high similarity with that of Pseudanabaena limnetica (96% identity in GPPMT and 97% identity in MIBS). P. galeata was cultured at different temperatures to examine the effect of growth conditions on the production of 2-MIB and major metabolites. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements showed higher accumulation of 2-MIB at 30 °C than at 4 °C or 20 °C after 24 h of culture. Real-time-RT PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the genes encoding GPPMT and MIBS decreased at 4 °C and increased at 30 °C, compared with at 20 °C. Furthermore, metabolite analysis showed dramatic changes in primary metabolite concentrations in cyanobacteria grown at different temperatures. The data indicate that changes in carbon flow in the TCA cycle affect 2-MIB biosynthesis at higher temperatures. PMID:24140001

Kakimoto, Masayuki; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Miyagi, Atsuko; Saito, Kazuaki; Miyazaki, Motonobu; Asaeda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Uchimiya, Hirofumi; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

2014-02-15

320

Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters  

PubMed Central

Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100??g/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100??g/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms.

Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, Joao Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo Jose Gil; Yunes, Joao Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Mauricio Reis

2011-01-01

321

Sustained photoproduction of ammonia from dinitrogen and water by the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain ATCC33047  

SciTech Connect

Conditions have been developed that lengthen the time during which photosynthetic dinitrogen fixation by filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 33047 proceeds freely, whereas the subsequent conversion of ammonia into organic nitrogen remains blocked, with the resulting ammonia released to the outer medium. When L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine was added every 20 h, maximal rates of ammonia production (25 to 30 ..mu..mol/mg of chlorophyll per h) were maintained for about 50 h. After this time, ammonia production ceased due to a deficiency of glutamine and other nitrogenous compounds in the filaments, conditions which finally led to cell lysis. The effective ammonia production period could be further extended to about 7 days by adding a small amount of glutamine at the end of a 40-h production period or by allowing the cells to recover for 8 h in the absence of L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine after every 40-h period in the presence of the inhibitor. A more prolonged steady production of ammonia, lasting for longer than 2 weeks, was achieved by alternating treatments with the glutamine synthetase inhibitors L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine and phosphinothricin, provided that 8-h recovery periods in the absence of either compound were also alternated throughout. The biochemically manipulated cyanobacterial filaments thus represent a system that is relatively stable with time for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, with the net generation of a valuable fuel and fertilizer through the photoreduction of dinitrogen to ammonia.

Ramos, J.L.; Guerrero, M.G.; Losada, M.

1984-07-01

322

Characterization of the light-regulated operon encoding the phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins from the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon.  

PubMed Central

Many biological processes in photosynthetic organisms can be regulated by light quantity or light quality or both. A unique example of the effect of specific wavelengths of light on the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus occurs in cyanobacteria that undergo complementary chromatic adaptation. These organisms alter the composition of their light-harvesting organelle, the phycobilisome, and exhibit distinct morphological features as a function of the wavelength of incident light. Fremyella diplosiphon, a filamentous cyanobacterium, responds to green light by activating transcription of the cpeBA operon, which encodes the pigmented light-harvesting component phycoerythrin. We have isolated and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of another operon, cpeCD, that encodes the linker proteins associated with phycoerythrin hexamers in the phycobilisome. The cpeCD operon is activated in green light and expressed as two major transcripts with the same 5' start site but differing 3' ends. Analysis of the kinetics of transcript accumulation in cultures of F. diplosiphon shifted from red light to green light and vice versa shows that the cpeBA and cpeCD operons are regulated coordinately. A common 17-base-pair sequence is found upstream of the transcription start sites of both operons. A comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of the phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins CpeC and CpeD with sequences of other previously characterized rod linker proteins shows 49 invariant residues, most of which are in the amino-terminal half of the proteins. Images

Federspiel, N A; Grossman, A R

1990-01-01

323

Purification and Biochemical Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Membrane from the Desiccation-Tolerant Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584  

PubMed Central

The cytoplasmic membrane of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 was isolated free of thylakoids and phycobiliprotein-membrane complexes by flotation centrifugation. Purified membranes had a buoyant density of 1.07 g cm?3 and were bright orange. Twelve major proteins were detected in the membrane, and of these, the most abundant had molecular masses of 83, 71, 68, 51, and 46 kilodaltons. The ester-linked fatty acids of the methanol fraction contained 16:0, 18:0, 18:1?9c, 20:0, and 20:3?3 with no traces of hydroxy fatty acids. Compound 20:3?3 represented 56.8% of the total fatty acid methyl esters, a feature which distinguishes the cell membrane of N. commune UTEX 584 from those of all other cyanobacteria which have been characterized to date. Fatty acid 18:3 was not detected. Carotenoids were analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The cytoplasmic membrane contained ?-carotene and echinenone as the dominant carotenoids and lacked chlorophyll a and pheophytin a. Whole cells contained ?-carotene and echinenone, and lesser amounts of zeaxanthin and (3R)-cryptoxanthin. Images

Olie, Jaap J.; Potts, Malcolm

1986-01-01

324

Purification and Biochemical Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Membrane from the Desiccation-Tolerant Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic membrane of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 was isolated free of thylakoids and phycobiliprotein-membrane complexes by flotation centrifugation. Purified membranes had a buoyant density of 1.07 g cm and were bright orange. Twelve major proteins were detected in the membrane, and of these, the most abundant had molecular masses of 83, 71, 68, 51, and 46 kilodaltons. The ester-linked fatty acids of the methanol fraction contained 16:0, 18:0, 18:1omega9c, 20:0, and 20:3omega3 with no traces of hydroxy fatty acids. Compound 20:3omega3 represented 56.8% of the total fatty acid methyl esters, a feature which distinguishes the cell membrane of N. commune UTEX 584 from those of all other cyanobacteria which have been characterized to date. Fatty acid 18:3 was not detected. Carotenoids were analyzed by highperformance liquid chromatography. The cytoplasmic membrane contained beta-carotene and echinenone as the dominant carotenoids and lacked chlorophyll a and pheophytin a. Whole cells contained beta-carotene and echinenone, and lesser amounts of zeaxanthin and (3R)-cryptoxanthin. PMID:16347165

Olie, J J; Potts, M

1986-10-01

325

Evidence Regarding the UV Sunscreen Role of a Mycosporine-Like Compound in the Cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp  

PubMed Central

The UV sunscreen role commonly ascribed to mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) was investigated with an isolate of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. strain C-90-Cal-G.(2), which accumulates intracellularly an MAA with absorbance maximum at 326 nm but produces no extracellular sunscreen compound (i.e., scytonemin). The intracellular concentrations of MAA achieved were directly related to the intensity of the UV radiation (maximum at 320 nm) received by the cells. However, the presence of high concentrations of MAA was not necessary for the physiological acclimation of the cultures to UV radiation. The measured sunscreen factor due to MAA in single cells was 0.3 (the MAA prevented 3 out of 10 photons from hitting potential cytoplasmic targets). High contents of MAA in the cells correlated with increased resistance to UV radiation. However, when resistance was gauged under conditions of desiccation, with inoperative physiological photoprotective and repair mechanisms, cells with high MAA specific contents were only 20 to 25% more resistant. Although UV radiation centered around both 320 and 365 nm resulted in chlorophyll a photobleaching and photoinhibition of photosynthesis, the difference in sensitivity correlated with MAA accumulation occurred only at 320 nm (absorbed by MAA) and not at 365 nm (not absorbed by MAA). This difference represents the maximal protection ascribable to the presence of MAA for single cells, i.e., if one does not consider the enhancing effects of colony formation on protection by sunscreens.

Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Wingard, Christopher E.; Castenholz, Richard W.

1993-01-01

326

Identification of a nuclease and host restriction-modification in the unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp.  

PubMed Central

In the process of developing a gene transfer system for the marine, unicellular, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain BH68K, two major restriction barriers have been identified. A cell wall-associated nuclease exhibited non-site-specific degradation of covalently closed circular and linear double-stranded DNA molecules, including Cyanothece sp. strain BH68K chromosomal DNA. The nuclease is easily released from intact cells by using water or buffer containing Triton X-100. Nuclease activity was undetectable in cell extracts prepared from water-washed cells. Comparison of the restriction endonuclease susceptibility of Cyanothece sp. strain BH68K DNA to that of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 revealed that these organisms have a nearly identical pattern of restriction and therefore may contain similar systems for DNA methylation. Restriction by DpnI, MboI, and Sau3AI indicated the presence of adenine methylation. Cyanothece sp. strain BH68K cell extracts contain a type II restriction endonuclease, Csp68KI. The activity of Csp68KI was easily detected in cell extracts without extensive purification. Csp68KI is an isoschizomer of AvaII and recognizes the nucleotide sequence 5'-GG(A/T)CC-3'. Cleavage occurs between the guanosine nucleotides producing 3-bp 5' overhang ends. Images

Soper, B W; Reddy, K J

1994-01-01

327

UV-B-induced synthesis of photoprotective pigments and extracellular polysaccharides in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

Liquid cultures of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune derived from field material were treated with artificial UV-B and UV-A irradiation. We studied the induction of various pigments which are though to provide protection against damaging UV-B irradiation. First, UV-B irradiation induced an increase in carotenoids, especially echinenone and myxoxanthophyll, but did not influence production of chlorophyll a. Second, an increase of an extracellular, water-soluble UV-A/B-absorbing mycosporine occurred, which was associated with extracellular glycan synthesis. Finally, synthesis of scytonemin, a lipid-soluble, extracellular pigment known to function as a UV-A sunscreen, was observed. After long-time exposure, the UV-B effect on carotenoid and scytonemin synthesis ceased whereas the mycosporine content remained constantly high. The UV-B sunscreen mycosporine is exclusively induced by UV-B (< 315 nm). The UV-A sunscreen scytonemin is induced only slightly by UV-B (< 315 nm), very strongly by near UV-A (350 to 400 nm), and not at all by far UV-A (320 to 350 nm). These results may indicate that the syntheses of these UV sunscreens are triggered by different UV photoreceptors. PMID:9068639

Ehling-Schulz, M; Bilger, W; Scherer, S

1997-03-01

328

Oxidative stress response and fatty acid changes associated with bioaccumulation of chromium [Cr(VI)] by a fresh water cyanobacterium Chroococcus sp.  

PubMed

Cr(VI) at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/l was removed over 1-5 days by a freshwater cyanobacterium, Chroococcus sp. 2.5 mg Cr(VI)/l gave the optimum rate. With 5 mg Cr(VI)/l, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased. Amounts of palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0) and oleic acid (18:1) in the cell also increased after exposure to Cr(VI). PMID:22002251

Kumar, Muthukannan Satheesh; Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Ilavarasi, Asokraja; Rajeshwari, Kamaraj; Thajuddin, Nooruddin

2012-02-01

329

The purine degradation pathway: possible role in paralytic shellfish toxin metabolism in the cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp. FP1.  

PubMed

The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are potent neurotoxic alkaloids and their major biological effect is due to the blockage of voltage-gated sodium channels in excitable cells. They have been recognised as an important health risk for humans, animals, and ecosystems worldwide. The metabolic pathways that lead to the production and the degradation of these toxic metabolites are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the possible link between PST accumulation and the activation of the metabolism that leads to purine degradation in the filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium Planktothrix sp. FP1. The purine catabolic pathway is related to the nitrogen microcycle in water environments, in which cyanobacteria use traces of purines and ureides as a nitrogen source for growth. Thus, the activity of allantoicase, a key inducible enzyme of this metabolism, was used as tool for assaying the activation of the purine degradation pathway. The enzyme and the pathway were induced by allantoic acid, the direct substrate of allantoicase, as well as by adenine and, to a lower degree, by urea, one of the main products of purine catabolism. Crude cell extract of Escherichia coli was also employed and showed the best induction of allantoicase activity. In culture, Planktothrix sp. FP1 showed a differential accumulation of PST in consequence of the induction with different substrates. The cyanobacterial culture induced with allantoic acid accumulated 61.7% more toxins in comparison with the control. On the other hand, the cultures induced with adenine, urea, and the E. coli extract showed low PST accumulation, respectively, 1%, 38%, and 5% of the total toxins content detected in the noninduced culture. A degradation pathway for the PSTs can be hypothesised: as suggested for purine alkaloids in higher plants, saxitoxin (STX) and derivatives may also be converted into xanthine, urea, and further to CO2 and NH4+ or recycled in the primary metabolism through the purine degradation pathway. PMID:11800428

Pomati, F; Manarolla, G; Rossi, O; Vigetti, D; Rossetti, C

2001-12-01

330

Morphological and Genetic Evidence that the Cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Speziale and Dyck Encompasses at Least Two Species? †  

PubMed Central

Dense blooms of the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei are increasingly responsible for declining water quality and habitat degradation in numerous springs, rivers, and reservoirs. This research represents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of L. wollei in comparison with the traditional morphological characterization of this species. Specimens were collected from several springs in Florida and a reservoir in North Carolina. Segments of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA and nifH genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene revealed sequences that fell into three distinct subclusters, each with >97% sequence similarity. These were designated operational taxonomic unit 1 (OTU1), OTU2, and OTU3. Similarly, the nifH sequences fell into three distinct subclusters named S1, S2, and S3. When either bulk samples or individual filaments were analyzed, we recovered OTU1 with S1, OTU2 with S2, and OTU3 with S3. The coherence between the three SSU rRNA gene and nifH subclusters was consistent with genetically distinct strains or species. Cells associated with subclusters OTU3 and S3 were significantly wider and longer than those associated with other subclusters. The combined molecular and morphological data indicate that the species commonly identified as L. wollei in the literature represents two or possibly more species. Springs containing OTU3 and S3 demonstrated lower ion concentrations than other collection sites. Geographical locations of Lyngbya subclusters did not correlate with residual dissolved inorganic nitrogen or phosphorus concentrations. This study emphasizes the need to complement traditional identification with molecular characterization to more definitively detect and characterize harmful cyanobacterial species or strains.

Joyner, Jennifer J.; Litaker, R. Wayne; Paerl, Hans W.

2008-01-01

331

Cryo-electron tomography reveals the comparative three-dimensional architecture of Prochlorococcus, a globally important marine cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

In an age of comparative microbial genomics, knowledge of the near-native architecture of microorganisms is essential for achieving an integrative understanding of physiology and function. We characterized and compared the three-dimensional architecture of the ecologically important cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in a near-native state using cryo-electron tomography and found that closely related strains have diverged substantially in cellular organization and structure. By visualizing native, hydrated structures within cells, we discovered that the MED4 strain, which possesses one of the smallest genomes (1.66 Mbp) of any known photosynthetic organism, has evolved a comparatively streamlined cellular architecture. This strain possesses a smaller cell volume, an attenuated cell wall, and less extensive intracytoplasmic (photosynthetic) membrane system compared to the more deeply branched MIT9313 strain. Comparative genomic analyses indicate that differences have evolved in key structural genes, including those encoding enzymes involved in cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Although both strains possess carboxysomes that are polygonal and cluster in the central cytoplasm, the carboxysomes of MED4 are smaller. A streamlined cellular structure could be advantageous to microorganisms thriving in the low-nutrient conditions characteristic of large regions of the open ocean and thus have consequences for ecological niche differentiation. Through cryo-electron tomography we visualized, for the first time, the three-dimensional structure of the extensive network of photosynthetic lamellae within Prochlorococcus and the potential pathways for intracellular and intermembrane movement of molecules. Comparative information on the near-native structure of microorganisms is an important and necessary component of exploring microbial diversity and understanding its consequences for function and ecology. PMID:17449628

Ting, Claire S; Hsieh, Chyongere; Sundararaman, Sesh; Mannella, Carmen; Marko, Michael

2007-06-01

332

Genetic Variation of the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa within and among Lakes: Implications for Harmful Algal Blooms  

PubMed Central

To measure genetic variation within and among populations of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we surveyed a suite of lakes in the southern peninsula of Michigan that vary in productivity (total phosphorus concentrations of ?10 to 100 ?g liter?1). Survival of M. aeruginosa isolates from lakes was relatively low (i.e., mean of 7% and maximum of 30%) and positively related to lake total phosphorus concentration (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.407, n = 14). In another study (D. F. Raikow, O. Sarnelle, A. E. Wilson, and S. K. Hamilton, Limnol. Oceanogr. 49:482-487, 2004), survival rates of M. aeruginosa isolates collected from an oligotrophic lake (total phosphorus of ?10 ?g liter?1 and dissolved inorganic nitrogen:total phosphorus ratio of 12.75) differed among five different medium types (G test, P of <0.001), with higher survival (P = 0.003) in low-nutrient media (28 to 37% survival) than in high-nutrient media. Even with the relatively low isolate survivorship that could select against detecting the full range of genetic variation, populations of M. aeruginosa were genetically diverse within and among lakes (by analysis of molecular variance, ?sc = 0.412 [?sc is an F-statistic derivative which evaluates the correlation of haplotypic diversity within populations relative to the haplotypic diversity among all sampled populations], P = 0.001), with most clones being distantly related to clones collected from lakes directly attached to Lake Michigan (a Laurentian Great Lake) and culture collection strains collected from Canada, Scotland, and South Africa. Ninety-one percent of the 53 genetically unique M. aeruginosa clones contained the microcystin toxin gene (mcyA). Genotypes with the toxin gene were found in all lakes, while four lakes harbored both genotypes possessing and genotypes lacking the toxin gene.

Wilson, Alan E.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Neilan, Brett A.; Salmon, Tim P.; Gehringer, Michelle M.; Hay, Mark E.

2005-01-01

333

Fixation and fate of C and N in the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical seas and is an important contributor to global N and C cycling. We sought to characterize metabolic uptake patterns in individual Trichodesmium IMS-101 cells by quantitatively imaging 13C and 15N uptake with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Trichodesmium fix both CO2 and N2 concurrently during the day and are, thus, faced with a balancing act: the O2 evolved during photosynthesis inhibits nitrogenase, the key enzyme in N2 fixation. After performing correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and NanoSIMS analysis on trichome thin-sections, we observed transient inclusion of 15N and 13C into discrete subcellular bodies identified as cyanophycin granules. We speculate that Trichodesmium uses these dynamic storage bodies to uncouple CO2 and N2 fixation from overall growth dynamics. We also directly quantified both CO2 and N2 fixation at the single cell level using NanoSIMS imaging of whole cells in multiple trichomes. Our results indicate maximal CO2 fixation rates in the morning, compared with maximal N2 fixation rates in the afternoon, bolstering the argument that segregation of CO2 and N2 fixation in Trichodesmium is regulated in part by temporal factors. Spatial separation of N2 and CO2 fixation may also have a role in metabolic segregation in Trichodesmium. Our approach in combining stable isotope labeling with NanoSIMS and TEM imaging can be extended to other physiologically relevant elements and processes in other important microbial systems.

Finzi-Hart, Juliette A.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K.; Popa, Radu; Fallon, Stewart J.; Gunderson, Troy; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Capone, Douglas G.

2009-01-01

334

Rubidibacter lacunae gen. nov., sp. nov., a unicellular, phycoerythrin-containing cyanobacterium isolated from seawater of Chuuk lagoon, Micronesia.  

PubMed

A unicellular cyanobacterium, designated KORDI 51-2(T), was isolated from surface seawater of Chuuk lagoon, Micronesia. The cells were wine-coloured rods and emitted red fluorescence under green excitation of an epifluorescence microscope. Thus, morphologically, the strain resembled Synechococcus species. However, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain KORDI 51-2(T) and related strains belonging to cyanobacteria, the novel strain was distantly related to members of the 'Halothece' cluster. However, sequence similarities between strain KORDI 51-2(T) and members of the 'Halothece' cluster were very low, ranging from 90.7 to 92.1 %, and phylogenetic analyses showed that the strain formed a distinct branch. Therefore, a polyphasic characterization including morphology, physiology and pigment composition was conducted to elucidate the taxonomic position of strain KORDI 51-2(T). The strain grew within a temperature range of 25-35 degrees C and a salinity range of 2-7 %. The optimal temperature and salinity were about 30 degrees C and 5 %, respectively. Strain KORDI 51-2(T) contained phycoerythrin, and the dominant carotenoid pigments were zeaxanthin, beta-carotene and echinenone. The DNA G+C content was 60.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, and the physiological data and pigment compositions, strain KORDI 51-2(T) is considered to represent a new genus and novel species of cyanobacteria for which the name Rubidibacter lacunae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KORDI 51-2(T) (=KCTC 40015(T)=UTEX L2944(T)). PMID:19060063

Choi, Dong Han; Noh, Jae Hoon; Lee, Charity M; Rho, Seungmok

2008-12-01

335

Bentazon triggers the promotion of oxidative damage in the Portuguese ricefield cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica: response of the antioxidant system.  

PubMed

Rice fields are frequently exposed to environmental contamination by herbicides and cyanobacteria, as primary producers of these aquatic ecosystems, are adversely affected. Anabaena cylindrica is a cyanobacterium with a significantly widespread occurrence in Portuguese rice fields. This strain was studied throughout 72 h in laboratory conditions for its stress responses to sublethal concentrations (0.75-2 mM) of bentazon, a selective postemergence herbicide recommended for integrated weed management in rice, with special reference to oxidative stress, role of proline and intracellular antioxidant enzymes in herbicide-induced free radicals detoxification. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) increased in a time- and herbicide dose-response manner and were higher than those in the control samples after 72 h. A time- and concentration-dependent increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and the enhanced cell membrane leakage following bentazon exposure are indicative of lipid peroxidation, free radicals formation, and oxidative damage, while increased amounts of SOD, CAT, APX, GST, and proline indicated their involvement in free radical scavenging mechanisms. The appreciable decline in the reduced glutathione (GSH) pool after 72 h at higher bentazon concentrations could be explained by the reduction of the NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase (GR) activity. The obtained results suggested that the alterations of antioxidant systems in A. cylindrica might be useful biomarkers of bentazon exposure. As the toxic mechanism of bentazon is a complex phenomenon, this study also adds relevant findings to explain the oxidative stress pathways of bentazon promoting oxidative stress in cyanobacteria. PMID:20549627

Galhano, Victor; Peixoto, Francisco; Gomes-Laranjo, José

2010-10-01

336

Biofilm Growth and Near-Infrared Radiation-Driven Photosynthesis of the Chlorophyll d-Containing Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina  

PubMed Central

The cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina is the only known phototroph harboring chlorophyll (Chl) d. It is easy to cultivate it in a planktonic growth mode, and A. marina cultures have been subject to detailed biochemical and biophysical characterization. In natural situations, A. marina is mainly found associated with surfaces, but this growth mode has not been studied yet. Here, we show that the A. marina type strain MBIC11017 inoculated into alginate beads forms dense biofilm-like cell clusters, as in natural A. marina biofilms, characterized by strong O2 concentration gradients that change with irradiance. Biofilm growth under both visible radiation (VIS, 400 to 700 nm) and near-infrared radiation (NIR, ?700 to 730 nm) yielded maximal cell-specific growth rates of 0.38 per day and 0.64 per day, respectively. The population doubling times were 1.09 and 1.82 days for NIR and visible light, respectively. The photosynthesis versus irradiance curves showed saturation at a photon irradiance of Ek (saturating irradiance) >250 ?mol photons m?2 s?1 for blue light but no clear saturation at 365 ?mol photons m?2 s?1 for NIR. The maximal gross photosynthesis rates in the aggregates were ?1,272 ?mol O2 mg Chl d?1 h?1 (NIR) and ?1,128 ?mol O2 mg Chl d?1 h?1 (VIS). The photosynthetic efficiency (?) values were higher in NIR-irradiated cells [(268 ± 0.29) × 10?6 m2 mg Chl d?1 (mean ± standard deviation)] than under blue light [(231 ± 0.22) × 10?6 m2 mg Chl d?1]. A. marina is well adapted to a biofilm growth mode under both visible and NIR irradiance and under O2 conditions ranging from anoxia to hyperoxia, explaining its presence in natural niches with similar environmental conditions.

Behrendt, Lars; Schrameyer, Verena; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lundin, Luisa; S?rensen, S?ren J.; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

2012-01-01

337

Enzymatic synthesis of a bicyclobutane fatty acid by a hemoprotein-lipoxygenase fusion protein from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

Biological transformations of polyunsaturated fatty acids often lead to chemically unstable products, such as the prostaglandin endoperoxides and leukotriene A4 epoxide of mammalian biology and the allene epoxides of plants. Here, we report on the enzymatic production of a fatty acid containing a highly strained bicyclic four-carbon ring, a moiety known previously only as a model compound for mechanistic studies in chemistry. Starting from linolenic acid (C18.3?3), a dual function protein from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 forms 9R-hydroperoxy-C18.3?3 in a lipoxygenase domain, then a catalase-related domain converts the 9R-hydroperoxide to two unstable allylic epoxides. We isolated and identified the major product as 9R,10R-epoxy-11trans-C18.1 containing a bicyclo[1.1.0]butyl ring on carbons 13–16, and the minor product as 9R,10R-epoxy-11trans,13trans,15cis-C18.?3, an epoxide of the leukotriene A type. Synthesis of both epoxides can be understood by initial transformation of the hydroperoxide to an epoxy allylic carbocation. Rearrangement to an intermediate bicyclobutonium ion followed by deprotonation gives the bicyclobutane fatty acid. This enzymatic reaction has no parallel in aqueous or organic solvent, where ring-opened cyclopropanes, cyclobutanes, and homoallyl products are formed. Given the capability shown here for enzymatic formation of the highly strained and unstable bicyclobutane, our findings suggest that other transformations involving carbocation rearrangement, in both chemistry and biology, should be examined for the production of the high energy bicyclobutanes.

Schneider, Claus; Niisuke, Katrin; Boeglin, William E.; Voehler, Markus; Stec, Donald F.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

2007-01-01

338

Optimization of Metabolic Capacity and Flux through Environmental Cues To Maximize Hydrogen Production by the Cyanobacterium "Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima"? †  

PubMed Central

Environmental and nutritional conditions that optimize the yield of hydrogen (H2) from water using a two-step photosynthesis/fermentation (P/F) process are reported for the hypercarbonate-requiring cyanobacterium “Arthrospira maxima.” Our observations lead to four main conclusions broadly applicable to fermentative H2 production by bacteria: (i) anaerobic H2 production in the dark from whole cells catalyzed by a bidirectional [NiFe] hydrogenase is demonstrated to occur in two temporal phases involving two distinct metabolic processes that are linked to prior light-dependent production of NADPH (photosynthetic) and dark/anaerobic production of NADH (fermentative), respectively; (ii) H2 evolution from these reductants represents a major pathway for energy production (ATP) during fermentation by regenerating NAD+ essential for glycolysis of glycogen and catabolism of other substrates; (iii) nitrate removal during fermentative H2 evolution is shown to produce an immediate and large stimulation of H2, as nitrate is a competing substrate for consumption of NAD(P)H, which is distinct from its slower effect of stimulating glycogen accumulation; (iv) environmental and nutritional conditions that increase anaerobic ATP production, prior glycogen accumulation (in the light), and the intracellular reduction potential (NADH/NAD+ ratio) are shown to be the key variables for elevating H2 evolution. Optimization of these conditions and culture age increases the H2 yield from a single P/F cycle using concentrated cells to 36 ml of H2/g (dry weight) and a maximum 18% H2 in the headspace. H2 yield was found to be limited by the hydrogenase-mediated H2 uptake reaction.

Ananyev, Gennady; Carrieri, Damian; Dismukes, G. Charles

2008-01-01

339

Cluster of genes that encode positive and negative elements influencing filament length in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium.  

PubMed

The filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria perform oxygenic photosynthesis in vegetative cells and nitrogen fixation in heterocysts, and their filaments can be hundreds of cells long. In the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the genes in the fraC-fraD-fraE operon are required for filament integrity mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. The fraC operon transcript partially overlaps gene all2395, which lies in the opposite DNA strand and ends 1 bp beyond fraE. Gene all2395 produces transcripts of 1.35 kb (major transcript) and 2.2 kb (minor transcript) that overlap fraE and whose expression is dependent on the N-control transcription factor NtcA. Insertion of a gene cassette containing transcriptional terminators between fraE and all2395 prevented production of the antisense RNAs and resulted in an increased length of the cyanobacterial filaments. Deletion of all2395 resulted in a larger increase of filament length and in impaired growth, mainly under N2-fixing conditions and specifically on solid medium. We denote all2395 the fraF gene, which encodes a protein restricting filament length. A FraF-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein accumulated significantly in heterocysts. Similar to some heterocyst differentiation-related proteins such as HglK, HetL, and PatL, FraF is a pentapeptide repeat protein. We conclude that the fraC-fraD-fraE?fraF gene cluster (where the arrow indicates a change in orientation), in which cis antisense RNAs are produced, regulates morphology by encoding proteins that influence positively (FraC, FraD, FraE) or negatively (FraF) the length of the filament mainly under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. This gene cluster is often conserved in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. PMID:23813733

Merino-Puerto, Victoria; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique

2013-09-01

340

The uptake hydrogenase in the unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822 protects nitrogenase from oxygen toxicity.  

PubMed

Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822 is a unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that can produce large quantities of H2 when grown diazotrophically. This strain is also capable of genetic manipulations and can represent a good model for improving H2 production from cyanobacteria. To this end, a knockout mutation was made in the hupL gene (?hupL), and we determined how this would affect the amount of H2 produced. The ?hupL mutant demonstrated virtually no nitrogenase activity or H2 production when grown under N2-fixing conditions. To ensure that this mutation only affected the hupL gene, a complementation strain was constructed readily with wild-type properties; this indicated that the original insertion was only in hupL. The mutant had no uptake hydrogenase activity but had increased bidirectional hydrogenase (Hox) activity. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry under the electron microscope indicated that the mutant had neither HupL nor NifHDK, although the nif genes were transcribed. Interestingly, biochemical analysis demonstrated that both HupL and NifH could be membrane associated. The results indicated that the nif genes were transcribed but that NifHDK was either not translated or was translated but rapidly degraded. We hypothesized that the Nif proteins were made but were unusually susceptible to O2 damage. Thus, we grew the mutant cells under anaerobic conditions and found that they grew well under N2-fixing conditions. We conclude that in unicellular diazotrophs, like Cyanothece sp. strain PCC 7822, the HupLS complex helps remove oxygen from the nitrogenase, and that this is a more important function than merely oxidizing the H2 produced by the nitrogenase. PMID:24317398

Zhang, Xiaohui; Sherman, Debra M; Sherman, Louis A

2014-02-01

341

Wastewater utilization for poly-?-hydroxybutyrate production by the cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima in a recirculatory aquaculture system.  

PubMed

Intensive aquaculture releases large quantities of nutrients into aquatic bodies, which can lead to eutrophication. The objective of this study was the development of a biological recirculatory wastewater treatment system with a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima, and simultaneous production of valuable product in the form of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). To investigate this possible synergy, batch scale tests were conducted under a recirculatory aquaculture system in fiber-reinforced plastic tanks enhanced by several manageable parameters (e.g., sedimentation, inoculum size, depth, turbulence, and light intensity), an adequate combination of which showed better productivity. The dissolved-oxygen level increased in the range of 3.2 to 6.9 mg liter?ą during the culture period. Nutrients such as ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate decreased to as low as zero within 15 days of incubation, indicating the system's bioremediation capability while yielding valuable cyanobacterial biomass for PHB production. Maximum PHB accumulation in A. fertilissima was found in sedimented fish pond discharge at 20-cm culture depth with stirring and an initial inoculum size of 80 mg dry cell weight (dcw) liter?ą. Under optimized conditions, the PHB yield was boosted to 92, 89, and 80 g m?˛, respectively for the summer, rainy, and winter seasons. Extrapolation of the result showed that a hectare of A. fertilissima cultivation in fish pond discharge would give an annual harvest of ?17 tons dry biomass, consisting of 14 tons of PHB with material properties comparable to those of the bacterial polymer, with simultaneous treatment of 32,640 mł water discharge. PMID:21984242

Samantaray, Shilalipi; Nayak, Jitendra Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

2011-12-01

342

Site of non-photochemical quenching of the phycobilisome by orange carotenoid protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.  

PubMed

In cyanobacteria, the thermal dissipation of excess absorbed energy at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS)-antenna is triggered by absorption of strong blue-green light by the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP). This process known as non-photochemical quenching, whose molecular mechanism remains in many respects unclear, is revealed in vivo as a decrease in phycobilisome fluorescence. In vitro reconstituted system on the interaction of the OCP and the PBS isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 presents evidence that the OCP is not only a photosensor, but also an effecter that makes direct contacts with the PBS and causes dissipation of absorbed energy. To localize the site(s) of quenching, we have analyzed the role of chromophorylated polypeptides of the PBS using PBS-deficient mutants in conjunction with in vitro systems of assembled PBS and of isolated components of the PBS core. The results demonstrated that L(CM), the core-membrane linker protein and terminal emitter of the PBS, could act as the docking site for OCP in vitro. The ApcD and ApcF terminal emitters of the PBS core are not directly subjected to quenching. The data suggests that there could be close contact between the phycocyanobilin chromophore of L(CM) and the 3'-hydroxyechinenone chromophore present in OCP and that L(CM) could be involved in OCP-induced quenching. According to the reduced average life-time of the PBS-fluorescence and linear dependence of fluorescence intensity of the PBS on OCP concentration, the quenching has mostly dynamic character. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22483736

Stadnichuk, Igor N; Yanyushin, Mikhail F; Maksimov, Evgeni G; Lukashev, Evgeni P; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Elanskaya, Irina V; Paschenko, Vladimir Z

2012-08-01

343

Primary irritant and delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions to the freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and its associated toxin cylindrospermopsin  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwater cyanobacteria are common inhabitants of recreational waterbodies throughout the world; some cyanobacteria can dominate the phytoplankton and form blooms, many of which are toxic. Numerous reports in the literature describe pruritic skin rashes after recreational or occupational exposure to cyanobacteria, but there has been little research conducted on the cutaneous effects of cyanobacteria. Using the mouse ear swelling test (MEST), we sought to determine whether three toxin-producing cyanobacteria isolates and the purified cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin produced delayed-contact hypersensitivity reactions. Methods Between 8 and 10 female Balb/c mice in each experiment had test material applied to depilated abdominal skin during the induction phase and 10 or 11 control mice had vehicle only applied to abdominal skin. For challenge (day 10) and rechallenge (day 17), test material was applied to a randomly-allocated test ear; vehicle was applied to the other ear as a control. Ear thickness in anaesthetised mice was measured with a micrometer gauge at 24 and 48 hours after challenge and rechallenge. Ear swelling greater than 20% in one or more test mice is considered a positive response. Histopathology examination of ear tissues was conducted by independent examiners. Results Purified cylindrospermopsin (2 of 9 test mice vs. 0 of 5 control mice; p = 0.51) and the cylindrospermopsin-producing cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (8 of 10 test mice vs. 0 of 10 control mice; p = 0.001) were both shown to produce hypersensitivity reactions. Irritant reactions were seen on abdominal skin at induction. Two other toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena circinalis) did not generate any responses using this model. Histopathology examinations to determine positive and negative reactions in ear tissues showed excellent agreement beyond chance between both examiners (? = 0.83). Conclusion The irritant properties and cutaneous sensitising potential of cylindrospermopsin indicate that these toxicological endpoints should be considered by public health advisors and reservoir managers when setting guidelines for recreational exposure to cyanobacteria.

Stewart, Ian; Seawright, Alan A; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

2006-01-01

344

Physiological characterization and light response of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in the filamentous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. CPCC 696.  

PubMed

We studied the interactions of the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism and variable light in the filamentous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. CPCC 696 acclimated to low light (15 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) PPFD) and low inorganic carbon (50 ?M Ci). Mass spectrometric and polarographic analysis revealed that mediated CO(2) uptake along with both active Na(+)-independent and Na(+)-dependent HCO(3)(-) transport, likely through Na(+)/HCO(3)(-) symport, were employed to concentrate Ci internally. Combined transport of CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) required about 30 kJ mol(-1) of energy from photosynthetic electron transport to support an intracellular Ci accumulation 550-fold greater than the external Ci. Initially, Leptolyngbya rapidly induced oxygen evolution and Ci transport to reach 40-50% of maximum values by 50 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) PPFD. Thereafter, photosynthesis and Ci transport increased gradually to saturation around 1,800 ?mol m(-2) s(-1) PPFD. Leptolyngbya showed a low intrinsic susceptibility to photoinhibition of oxygen evolution up to PPFD of 3,000 ?mol m(-2) s(-1). Intracellular Ci accumulation showed a lag under low light but then peaked at about 500 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1) and remained high thereafter. Ci influx was accompanied by a simultaneous, light-dependent, outward flux of CO(2) and by internal CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) cycling. The high-affinity and high-capacity CCM of Leptolyngbya responded dynamically to fluctuating PPFD and used excitation energy in excess of the needs of CO(2) fixation by increasing Ci transport, accumulation and Ci cycling. This capacity may allow Leptolyngbya to tolerate periodic exposure to excess high light by consuming electron equivalents and keeping PSII open. PMID:21678048

de Araujo, Elvin D; Patel, Jason; de Araujo, Charlotte; Rogers, Susan P; Short, Steven M; Campbell, Douglas A; Espie, George S

2011-09-01

345

Wastewater Utilization for Poly-?-Hydroxybutyrate Production by the Cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System?  

PubMed Central

Intensive aquaculture releases large quantities of nutrients into aquatic bodies, which can lead to eutrophication. The objective of this study was the development of a biological recirculatory wastewater treatment system with a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima, and simultaneous production of valuable product in the form of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). To investigate this possible synergy, batch scale tests were conducted under a recirculatory aquaculture system in fiber-reinforced plastic tanks enhanced by several manageable parameters (e.g., sedimentation, inoculum size, depth, turbulence, and light intensity), an adequate combination of which showed better productivity. The dissolved-oxygen level increased in the range of 3.2 to 6.9 mg liter?1 during the culture period. Nutrients such as ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate decreased to as low as zero within 15 days of incubation, indicating the system's bioremediation capability while yielding valuable cyanobacterial biomass for PHB production. Maximum PHB accumulation in A. fertilissima was found in sedimented fish pond discharge at 20-cm culture depth with stirring and an initial inoculum size of 80 mg dry cell weight (dcw) liter?1. Under optimized conditions, the PHB yield was boosted to 92, 89, and 80 g m?2, respectively for the summer, rainy, and winter seasons. Extrapolation of the result showed that a hectare of A. fertilissima cultivation in fish pond discharge would give an annual harvest of ?17 tons dry biomass, consisting of 14 tons of PHB with material properties comparable to those of the bacterial polymer, with simultaneous treatment of 32,640 m3 water discharge.

Samantaray, Shilalipi; Nayak, Jitendra Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

2011-01-01

346

The influence of iron limitation on the growth and activity of Crocosphaera watsonii, an unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diazotrophic cyanobacteria are able to use atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) dissolved in seawater as source of nitrogen for primary production. This metabolic function confers an ecological advantage for such organisms in N-limited environments, such as tropical oligotrophic regions. There, N2 fixation represents a significant source of new nitrogen in the euphotic zone which is available for the non diazotrophic phytoplankton community. Thus, diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute significantly to new production and play a key role in the global cycling of carbon and nitrogen. The filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is the best known and most studied marine diazotroph. However, recent research has highlighted the biogeochemical importance of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN), such as Crocosphaera watsonii. The factors that control N2 fixation have been intensively studied. Due to the high iron content of the nitrogenase enzyme complex, N2 fixation and growth of diazotrophic cyanobacteria can be controlled by iron bioavailability. Many studies have been conducted on the impact of iron limitation on Trichodesmium, but less is known for UCYN. Here, for the first time, we address the issue of iron limitation on the N2 fixation and growth of UCYN, namely Crocosphaera watsonii. We have designed a study on cultures of Crocosphaera watsonii strain WH8501 grown under a range of dissolved iron, from 2 nM to 400 nM, with a constant EDTA concentration of 2 µM. Our experiment encompasses low iron concentrations (2 nM), representative of those measured in the field. Preliminary findings demonstrate a major control of iron availability on the biomass and growth of Crocosphaera watsonii. These results, complemented with data on photosynthetic and diazotrophic activities, significantly contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of N2 fixation by unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria and of the role of iron in controlling this process. Keywords: N2 fixation, unicellular cyanobacteria, iron limitation.

Jacq, V.; Ridame, C.

2012-04-01

347

Fixation and fate of C and N in the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical seas and is an important contributor to global N and C cycling. We sought to characterize metabolic uptake patterns in individual Trichodesmium IMS-101 cells by quantitatively imaging (13)C and (15)N uptake with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Trichodesmium fix both CO(2) and N(2) concurrently during the day and are, thus, faced with a balancing act: the O(2) evolved during photosynthesis inhibits nitrogenase, the key enzyme in N(2) fixation. After performing correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and NanoSIMS analysis on trichome thin-sections, we observed transient inclusion of (15)N and (13)C into discrete subcellular bodies identified as cyanophycin granules. We speculate that Trichodesmium uses these dynamic storage bodies to uncouple CO(2) and N(2) fixation from overall growth dynamics. We also directly quantified both CO(2) and N(2) fixation at the single cell level using NanoSIMS imaging of whole cells in multiple trichomes. Our results indicate maximal CO(2) fixation rates in the morning, compared with maximal N(2) fixation rates in the afternoon, bolstering the argument that segregation of CO(2) and N(2) fixation in Trichodesmium is regulated in part by temporal factors. Spatial separation of N(2) and CO(2) fixation may also have a role in metabolic segregation in Trichodesmium. Our approach in combining stable isotope labeling with NanoSIMS and TEM imaging can be extended to other physiologically relevant elements and processes in other important microbial systems. PMID:19332780

Finzi-Hart, Juliette A; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K; Popa, Radu; Fallon, Stewart J; Gunderson, Troy; Hutcheon, Ian D; Nealson, Kenneth H; Capone, Douglas G

2009-04-14

348

The role of cyanopterin in UV/blue light signal transduction of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 phototaxis.  

PubMed

We analyzed the effects of inactivating the pteridine glycosyltransferase gene (pgtA) on the photomovement of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under different light conditions. The pgtA mutant displayed abnormal photomovement under UV-A/blue light. In particular, the pgtA mutant showed a negative phototactic response under UV-A (315-400 nm), whereas the wild-type did not show any photomovement. Inhibition of pterin biosynthesis by N-acetylserotonin (NAS), an inhibitor of sepiapterin reductase, also inhibited a positive phototactic response of the wild-type under white and blue light. In addition, negative phototaxis of the pgtA mutant was observed under UV-A/blue light in the presence of NAS. These results indicated that the product of the PgtA enzyme, cyanopterin, is involved in the inhibition of the negative phototaxis of the wild-type by sensing the UV-A. However, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine-mediated inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I, the rate-limiting enzyme for pterin biosynthesis, significantly increased the positive phototaxis toward UV-A in the wild-type and the pgtA mutant. Furthermore, we measured the action spectrum of phototaxis in vivo for the wild-type and pgtA mutant. Maximal activity of the wild-type was at 300, 380 and 440 nm, indicating absorption by pterins and flavin. In particular, the UV-A/ blue peak at 380 and 440 nm obtained from the action spectrum of phototaxis was found to be closely correlated with the in vitro absorption spectrum previously reported for the cyanobacterial cryptochrome DASH. By investigating the photomovement of the wild-type and pgtA mutant to UV and blue light, we suggest that pterin can function as the chromophore of putative UV/blue photoreceptor(s) in cyanobacterial phototaxis. PMID:20418333

Moon, Yoon-Jung; Lee, Eun-Mi; Park, Young Mok; Park, Young Shik; Chung, Won-Il; Chung, Young-Ho

2010-06-01

349

Balticidins A-D, Antifungal Hassallidin-Like Lipopeptides from the Baltic Sea Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica Bio33.  

PubMed

Balticidins A-D (1-4), four new antifungal lipopeptides, were isolated from the laboratory-cultivated cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica strain Bio33 isolated from a water sample collected from the Baltic Sea, Rügen Island, Germany. Fractionation of the 50% aqueous MeOH extract was performed by bioassay-guided silica gel column chromatography followed by SPE and repeated reversed-phase HPLC. The main fraction containing the compounds exhibited a strong and specific antifungal activity with inhibition zones in an agar-diffusion assay from 21 to 32 mm against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida maltosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Mucor sp., and Microsporum canis. The structures were elucidated by multidimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, HRESIMS, amino acid analysis, and sugar analysis. Spectroscopic data analysis afforded an unambiguous sequence of R.CHO(S1).CHOH.CONH-Thr(1)-Thr(2)-Thr(3)-HOTyr(4)-Dhb(5)-d-Gln(6)-Gly(7)-NMeThr(8)(S2)-l-Gln COOH(9), in which Dhb is dehydroaminobutyric acid, S1 is d(-)-arabinose-(3-1)-d-(+)-galacturonic acid, S2 is d-(+)-mannose, and R is the aliphatic residue -C13H26Cl or -C13H27. Besides NMeThr, d-allo-Thr, d-Thr, and l-Thr were identified, but the position of the enantiomers in the sequence is not clear. The four balticidins differ in their cyclic (2, 4)/linear (1, 3) core and the presence (1, 2)/absence (3, 4) of chlorine in the aliphatic unit. PMID:24937366

Bui, Thanh-Huong; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Fossen, Torgils; Preisitsch, Michael; Schröder, Gudrun; Wende, Kristian; Heiden, Stefan E; Mundt, Sabine

2014-06-27

350

Characterization of two naturally truncated, Ssb-like proteins from the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC7120.  

PubMed

Single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding (Ssb) proteins are vital for all DNA metabolic processes and are characterized by an N-terminal OB-fold followed by P/G-rich spacer region and a C-terminal tail. In the genome of the heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, two genes alr0088 and alr7579 are annotated as ssb, but the corresponding proteins have only the N-terminal OB-fold and no P/G-rich region or acidic tail, thereby rendering them unable to interact with genome maintenance proteins. Both the proteins were expressed under normal growth conditions in Anabaena PCC7120 and regulated differentially under abiotic stresses which induce DNA damage, indicating that these are functional genes. Constitutive overexpression of Alr0088 in Anabaena enhanced the tolerance to DNA-damaging stresses which caused formation of DNA adducts such as UV and MitomycinC, but significantly decreased the tolerance to ?-irradiation, which causes single- and double-stranded DNA breaks. On the other hand, overexpression of Alr7579 had no significant effect on normal growth or stress tolerance of Anabaena. Thus, of the two truncated Ssb-like proteins, Alr0088 may be involved in protection of ssDNA from damage, but due to the absence of acidic tail, it may not aid in repair of damaged DNA. These two proteins are present across cyanobacterial genera and unique to them. These initial studies pave the way to the understanding of DNA repair in cyanobacteria, which is not very well documented. PMID:23928723

Kirti, Anurag; Rajaram, Hema; Apte, Shree Kumar

2013-11-01

351

Combined Effects of CO2 and Light on the N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: A Mechanistic View1  

PubMed Central

The marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium responds to elevated atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) with higher N2 fixation and growth rates. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, we examined the combined influence of pCO2 (150 and 900 ?atm) and light (50 and 200 ?mol photons m?2 s?1) on Trichodesmium IMS101. We expand on a complementary study that demonstrated that while elevated pCO2 enhanced N2 fixation and growth, oxygen evolution and carbon fixation increased mainly as a response to high light. Here, we investigated changes in the photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, in ratios of the photosynthetic units (photosystem I:photosystem II), and in the pool sizes of key proteins involved in the fixation of carbon and nitrogen as well as their subsequent assimilation. We show that the combined elevation in pCO2 and light controlled the operation of the CO2-concentrating mechanism and enhanced protein activity without increasing their pool size. Moreover, elevated pCO2 and high light decreased the amounts of several key proteins (NifH, PsbA, and PsaC), while amounts of AtpB and RbcL did not significantly change. Reduced investment in protein biosynthesis, without notably changing photosynthetic fluxes, could free up energy that can be reallocated to increase N2 fixation and growth at elevated pCO2 and light. We suggest that changes in the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and posttranslational regulation of key proteins mediate the high flexibility in resources and energy allocation in Trichodesmium. This strategy should enable Trichodesmium to flourish in future surface oceans characterized by elevated pCO2, higher temperatures, and high light.

Levitan, Orly; Kranz, Sven A.; Spungin, Dina; Prasil, Ondrej; Rost, Bjorn; Berman-Frank, Ilana

2010-01-01

352

Novel Derivatives of 9,10-Anthraquinone Are Selective Algicides against the Musty-Odor Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata  

PubMed Central

Musty “off-flavor” in pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) costs the catfish production industry in the United States at least $30 million annually. The cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata (Skuja) is credited with being the major cause of musty off-flavor in farm-raised catfish in Mississippi. The herbicides diuron and copper sulfate, currently used by catfish producers as algicides to help mitigate musty off-flavor problems, have several drawbacks, including broad-spectrum toxicity towards the entire phytoplankton community that can lead to water quality deterioration and subsequent fish death. By use of microtiter plate bioassays, a novel group of compounds derived from the natural compound 9,10-anthraquinone have been found to be much more selectively toxic towards O. perornata than diuron and copper sulfate. In efficacy studies using limnocorrals placed in catfish production ponds, application rates of 0.3 ?M (125 ?g/liter) of the most promising anthraquinone derivative, 2-[methylamino-N-(1?-methylethyl)]-9,10-anthraquinone monophosphate (anthraquinone-59), dramatically reduced the abundance of O. perornata and levels of 2-methylisoborneol, the musty compound produced by O. perornata. The abundance of green algae and diatoms increased dramatically 2 days after application of a 0.3 ?M concentration of anthraquinone-59 to pond water within the limnocorrals. The half-life of anthraquinone-59 in pond water was determined to be 19 h, making it much less persistent than diuron. Anthraquinone-59 appears to be promising for use as a selective algicide in catfish aquaculture.

Schrader, Kevin K.; Dhammika Nanayakkara, N. P.; Tucker, Craig S.; Rimando, Agnes M.; Ganzera, Markus; Schaneberg, Brian T.

2003-01-01

353

ppGpp metabolism is involved in heterocyst development in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.  

PubMed

When deprived of a combined-nitrogen source in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena) can form heterocysts capable of nitrogen fixation. The process of heterocyst differentiation takes about 20 to 24 h, during which extensive metabolic and morphological changes take place. Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is the signal of the stringent response that ensures cell survival by adjusting major cellular activities in response to nutrient starvation in bacteria, and ppGpp accumulates at the early stage of heterocyst differentiation (J. Akinyanju, R. J. Smith, FEBS Lett. 107:173-176, 1979; J Akinyanju, R. J. Smith, New Phytol. 105:117-122, 1987). Here we show that all1549 (here designated relana) in Anabaena, homologous to relA/spoT, is upregulated in response to nitrogen deprivation and predominantly localized in vegetative cells. The disruption of relana strongly affects the synthesis of ppGpp, and the resulting mutant, all1549?sp/sm, fails to form heterocysts and to grow in the absence of a combined-nitrogen source. This phenotype can be complemented by a wild-type copy of relana. Although the upregulation of hetR is affected in the mutant, ectopic overexpression of hetR cannot rescue the phenotype. However, we found that the mutant rapidly loses its viability, within a time window of 3 to 6 h, following the deprivation of combined nitrogen. We propose that ppGpp plays a major role in rebalancing the metabolic activities of the cells in the absence of the nitrogen source supply and that this regulation is necessary for filament survival and consequently for the success of heterocyst differentiation. PMID:23935047

Zhang, Shao-Ran; Lin, Gui-Ming; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

2013-10-01

354

ppGpp Metabolism Is Involved in Heterocyst Development in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120  

PubMed Central

When deprived of a combined-nitrogen source in the growth medium, the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Anabaena) can form heterocysts capable of nitrogen fixation. The process of heterocyst differentiation takes about 20 to 24 h, during which extensive metabolic and morphological changes take place. Guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp) is the signal of the stringent response that ensures cell survival by adjusting major cellular activities in response to nutrient starvation in bacteria, and ppGpp accumulates at the early stage of heterocyst differentiation (J. Akinyanju, R. J. Smith, FEBS Lett. 107:173–176, 1979; J Akinyanju, R. J. Smith, New Phytol. 105:117–122, 1987). Here we show that all1549 (here designated relana) in Anabaena, homologous to relA/spoT, is upregulated in response to nitrogen deprivation and predominantly localized in vegetative cells. The disruption of relana strongly affects the synthesis of ppGpp, and the resulting mutant, all1549?sp/sm, fails to form heterocysts and to grow in the absence of a combined-nitrogen source. This phenotype can be complemented by a wild-type copy of relana. Although the upregulation of hetR is affected in the mutant, ectopic overexpression of hetR cannot rescue the phenotype. However, we found that the mutant rapidly loses its viability, within a time window of 3 to 6 h, following the deprivation of combined nitrogen. We propose that ppGpp plays a major role in rebalancing the metabolic activities of the cells in the absence of the nitrogen source supply and that this regulation is necessary for filament survival and consequently for the success of heterocyst differentiation.

Zhang, Shao-Ran; Lin, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

2013-01-01

355

Effects of UV-B Radiation and Periodic Desiccation on the Morphogenesis of the Edible Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme  

PubMed Central

The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Berk. et M. A. Curtis has been a popular food and herbal ingredient for hundreds of years. To meet great market demand and protect the local ecosystem, for decades researchers have tried to cultivate N. flagelliforme but have failed to get macroscopic filamentous thalli. In this study, single trichomes with 50 to 200 vegetative cells were induced from free-living cells by low light and used to investigate the morphogenesis of N. flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation. Low-fluence-rate UV-B (0.1 W m?2) did not inhibit trichome growth; however, it significantly increased the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and mycosporine-like amino acids and promoted sheath formation outside the trichomes. Under low UV-B radiation, single trichomes developed into filamentous thalli more than 1 cm long after 28 days of cultivation, most of which grew separately in liquid BG11 medium. With periodic desiccation treatment, the single trichomes formed flat or banded thalli that grew up to 2 cm long after 3 months on solid BG11 medium. When trichomes were cultivated on solid BG11 medium with alternate treatments of low UV-B and periodic desiccation, dark and scraggly filamentous thalli that grew up to about 3 cm in length after 40 days were obtained. In addition, the cultivation of trichomes on nitrogen-deficient solid BG11 medium (BG110) suggested that nitrogen availability could affect the color and lubricity of newly developed thalli. This study provides promising techniques for artificial cultivation of N. flagelliforme in the future.

Feng, Yan-Na; Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Feng, Jun-Li

2012-01-01

356

The UV-B stimulon of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune comprises early shock proteins and late acclimation proteins.  

PubMed

The UV-B and desiccation-tolerant terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune was grown under defined UV irradiation. Proteome changes were monitored in the membrane and the cytosolic and the extracellular fractions. Tools were developed to separate stress-triggered from growth stage-dependent changes. UV-B changed the relative cellular concentration of 493 out of 1,350 protein spots at least by a factor of three, rendering the UV-B stimulon of N. commune the most complex one described so far. It comprises two different parts: an early shock response influencing 214 proteins and a late acclimation response involving 279 proteins. The shock response comprised many membrane or membrane-associated proteins, whereas the acclimation response mainly changed cytosolic proteins. Most of the shock-induced changes were transient and did not overlap with the acclimation response. In the extracellular fraction, UV irradiation induced superoxide dismutase and the water stress protein. In total, 27 intracellular, UV-B-induced proteins were partially sequenced by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Three functional classes were identified: proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in carbohydrate metabolism and in regulatory pathways. About 50% of the sequenced proteins were homologous to cyanobacterial database entries with un-known function. Interestingly, all of these proteins belong to the UV-B acclimation response. We conclude that the UV-B shock response and the UV-B acclimation response represent two completely different and remarkably complex strategies of N. commune to protect itself against UV-B radiation in its natural environment. PMID:12410839

Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Schulz, Stefan; Wait, Robin; Görg, Angelika; Scherer, Siegfried

2002-11-01

357

Gene Transfer in Leptolyngbya sp. Strain BL0902, a Cyanobacterium Suitable for Production of Biomass and Bioproducts  

PubMed Central

Current cyanobacterial model organisms were not selected for their growth traits or potential for the production of renewable biomass, biofuels, or other products. The cyanobacterium strain BL0902 emerged from a search for strains with superior growth traits. Morphology and 16S rRNA sequence placed strain BL0902 in the genus Leptolyngbya. Leptolyngbya sp. strain BL0902 (hereafter Leptolyngbya BL0902) showed robust growth at temperatures from 22°C to 40°C and tolerated up to 0.5 M NaCl, 32 mM urea, high pH, and high solar irradiance. Its growth rate under outdoor conditions rivaled Arthrospira (“pirulina” strains. Leptolyngbya BL0902 accumulated higher lipid content and a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids than Arthrospira strains. In addition to these desirable qualities, Leptolyngbya BL0902 is amenable to genetic engineering that is reliable, efficient, and stable. We demonstrated conjugal transfer from Escherichia coli of a plasmid based on RSF1010 and expression of spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance and yemGFP reporter transgenes. Conjugation efficiency was investigated in biparental and triparental matings with and without a “elper”plasmid that carries DNA methyltransferase genes, and with two different conjugal plasmids. We also showed that Leptolyngbya BL0902 is amenable to transposon mutagenesis with a Tn5 derivative. To facilitate genetic manipulation of Leptolyngbya BL0902, a conjugal plasmid vector was engineered to carry a trc promoter upstream of a Gateway recombination cassette. These growth properties and genetic tools position Leptolyngbya BL0902 as a model cyanobacterial production strain.

Taton, Arnaud; Lis, Ewa; Adin, Dawn M.; Dong, Guogang; Cookson, Scott; Kay, Steve A.; Golden, Susan S.; Golden, James W.

2012-01-01

358

Reversal in competitive dominance of a toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterium in response to rising CO2  

PubMed Central

Climate change scenarios predict a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration by the end of this century. Yet, how rising CO2 will affect the species composition of aquatic microbial communities is still largely an open question. In this study, we develop a resource competition model to investigate competition for dissolved inorganic carbon in dense algal blooms. The model predicts how dynamic changes in carbon chemistry, pH and light conditions during bloom development feed back on competing phytoplankton species. We test the model predictions in chemostat experiments with monocultures and mixtures of a toxic and non-toxic strain of the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The toxic strain was able to reduce dissolved CO2 to lower concentrations than the non-toxic strain, and became dominant in competition at low CO2 levels. Conversely, the non-toxic strain could grow at lower light levels, and became dominant in competition at high CO2 levels but low light availability. The model captured the observed reversal in competitive dominance, and was quantitatively in good agreement with the results of the competition experiments. To assess whether microcystins might have a role in this reversal of competitive dominance, we performed further competition experiments with the wild-type strain M. aeruginosa PCC 7806 and its mcyB mutant impaired in microcystin production. The microcystin-producing wild type had a strong selective advantage at low CO2 levels but not at high CO2 levels. Our results thus demonstrate both in theory and experiment that rising CO2 levels can alter the community composition and toxicity of harmful algal blooms.

Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Verspagen, Jolanda MH; Finke, Jan F; Vournazou, Vasiliki; Immers, Anne K; Kardinaal, W Edwin A; Tonk, Linda; Becker, Sven; Van Donk, Ellen; Visser, Petra M; Huisman, Jef

2011-01-01

359

Reversal in competitive dominance of a toxic versus non-toxic cyanobacterium in response to rising CO2.  

PubMed

Climate change scenarios predict a doubling of the atmospheric CO(2) concentration by the end of this century. Yet, how rising CO(2) will affect the species composition of aquatic microbial communities is still largely an open question. In this study, we develop a resource competition model to investigate competition for dissolved inorganic carbon in dense algal blooms. The model predicts how dynamic changes in carbon chemistry, pH and light conditions during bloom development feed back on competing phytoplankton species. We test the model predictions in chemostat experiments with monocultures and mixtures of a toxic and non-toxic strain of the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The toxic strain was able to reduce dissolved CO(2) to lower concentrations than the non-toxic strain, and became dominant in competition at low CO(2) levels. Conversely, the non-toxic strain could grow at lower light levels, and became dominant in competition at high CO(2) levels but low light availability. The model captured the observed reversal in competitive dominance, and was quantitatively in good agreement with the results of the competition experiments. To assess whether microcystins might have a role in this reversal of competitive dominance, we performed further competition experiments with the wild-type strain M. aeruginosa PCC 7806 and its mcyB mutant impaired in microcystin production. The microcystin-producing wild type had a strong selective advantage at low CO(2) levels but not at high CO(2) levels. Our results thus demonstrate both in theory and experiment that rising CO(2) levels can alter the community composition and toxicity of harmful algal blooms. PMID:21390081

Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Verspagen, Jolanda M H; Finke, Jan F; Vournazou, Vasiliki; Immers, Anne K; Kardinaal, W Edwin A; Tonk, Linda; Becker, Sven; Van Donk, Ellen; Visser, Petra M; Huisman, Jef

2011-09-01

360

Ciliate Nassula sp. grazing on a microcystin-producing cyanobacterium (Planktothrix agardhii): impact on cell growth and in the microcystin fractions.  

PubMed

The proliferation of microcystins (MCs)-producing cyanobacteria (MCs) can have detrimental effects on the food chain in aquatic environments. Until recently, few studies had focused on the fate of MCs in exposed organisms, such as primary consumers of cyanobacteria. In this study, we investigate the impact of an MC-producing strain of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii on the growth and physiology of a Nassula sp. ciliate isolated from a non-toxic cyanobacterial bloom. We show that this Nassula sp. strain was able to consume and grow while feeding exclusively on an MC-producing cyanobacterium over a prolonged period of time (8 months). In short-term exposure experiments (8 days), ciliates consuming an MC-producing cyanobacterial strain displayed slower growth rate and higher levels of antioxidant enzymes than ciliates feeding on two non-MC-producing strains. Three high-performance methods (LC/MS, LC/MS-MS and ELISA) were used to quantify the free and bound MCs in the culture medium and in the cells. We show that ciliate grazing led to a marked decrease in free MCs (methanol extractable) in cells, the MCs were therefore no longer found in the surrounding culture medium. These findings suggest that MCs may have undergone redistribution (free vs bound MCs) or chemical degradation within the ciliates. PMID:23010390

Combes, Audrey; Dellinger, Marc; Cadel-six, Sabrina; Amand, Severine; Comte, Katia

2013-01-15

361

A high constitutive catalase activity confers resistance to methyl viologen-promoted oxidative stress in a mutant of the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133.  

PubMed

A spontaneous methyl viologen (MV)-resistant mutant of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 was isolated and the major enzymatic antioxidants involved in combating MV-induced oxidative stress were evaluated. The mutant displayed a high constitutive catalase activity as a consequence of which, the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species in the mutant was lower than the wild type (N. punctiforme) in the presence of MV. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity that consisted of a SodA (manganese-SOD) and a SodB (iron-SOD) was not suppressed in the mutant following MV treatment. The mutant was, however, characterised by a lower peroxidase activity compared with its wild type, and its improved tolerance to externally added H?O? could only be attributed to enhanced catalase activity. Furthermore, MV-induced toxic effects on the wild type such as (1) loss of photosynthetic performance assessed as maximal quantum yield of photosystem II, (2) nitrogenase inactivation, and (3) filament fragmentation and cell lysis were not observed in the mutant. These findings highlight the importance of catalase in preventing MV-promoted oxidative damage and cell death in the cyanobacterium N. punctiforme. Such oxidative stress resistant mutants of cyanobacteria are likely to be a better source of biofertilisers, as they can grow and fix nitrogen in an unhindered manner in agricultural fields that are often contaminated with the herbicide MV, also commonly known as paraquat. PMID:24384747

Moirangthem, Lakshmipyari Devi; Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Stensjö, Karin; Lindblad, Peter; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy

2014-04-01

362

Persistent Phytoplankton Bloom in Lake St. Lucia (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa) Caused by a Cyanobacterium Closely Associated with the Genus Cyanothece (Synechococcaceae, Chroococcales) ?  

PubMed Central

Lake St. Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, is the largest estuarine lake in Africa. Extensive use and manipulation of the rivers flowing into it have reduced freshwater inflow, and the lake has also been subject to a drought of 10 years. For much of this time, the estuary has been closed to the Indian Ocean, and salinities have progressively risen throughout the system, impacting the biotic components of the ecosystem, reducing zooplankton and macrobenthic biomass and diversity in particular. In June 2009, a bloom of a red/orange planktonic microorganism was noted throughout the upper reaches of Lake St. Lucia. The bloom persisted for at least 18 months, making it the longest such bloom on record. The causative organism was characterized by light and electron microscopy and by 16S rRNA sequencing and was shown to be a large, unicellular cyanobacterium most strongly associated with the genus Cyanothece. The extent and persistence of the bloom appears to be unique to Lake St. Lucia, and it is suggested that the organism's resistance to high temperatures, to intense insolation, and to hypersalinity as well as the absence of grazing pressure by salinity-sensitive zooplankton all contributed to its persistence as a bloom organism until a freshwater influx, due to exceptionally heavy summer rains in 2011, reduced the salinity for a sufficient length of time to produce a crash in the cyanobacterium population as a complex, low-salinity biota redeveloped.

Muir, David G.; Perissinotto, Renzo

2011-01-01

363

NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120: purification and characterization of the enzyme and cloning, sequencing, and disruption of the icd gene.  

PubMed Central

NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-IDH) from the dinitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was purified to homogeneity. The native enzyme is composed of two identical subunits (M(r), 57,000) and cross-reacts with antibodies obtained against the previously purified NADP(+)-IDH from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH resembles in its physicochemical and kinetic parameters the typical dimeric IDHs from prokaryotes. The gene encoding Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH was cloned by complementation of an Escherichia coli icd mutant with an Anabaena genomic library. The complementing DNA was located on a 6-kb fragment. It encodes an NADP(+)-IDH that has the same mobility as that of Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. The icd gene was subcloned and sequenced. Translation of the nucleotide sequence gave a polypeptide of 473 amino acids that showed high sequence similarity to the E. coli enzyme (59% identity) and with IDH1 and IDH2, the two subunits of the heteromultimeric NAD(+)-IDH from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (30 to 35% identity); however, a low level of similarity to NADP(+)-IDHs of eukaryotic origin was found (23% identity). Furthermore, Anabaena NADP(+)-IDH contains a 44-residue amino acid sequence in its central region that is absent in the other IDHs so far sequenced. Attempts to generate icd mutants by insertional mutagenesis were unsuccessful, suggesting an essential role of IDH in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. Images

Muro-Pastor, M I; Florencio, F J

1994-01-01

364

Analysis of a genomic DNA region from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942 involved in carboxysome assembly and function.  

PubMed

We report on the sequencing and analysis of a 3,557-bp genomic DNA clone that is located between 4.8 and 1.2 kilobase pairs (kb) upstream of the rbcL gene and is capable of complementing a class of cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942 mutants requiring a high level of CO2. The upstream 2,704 bp of this sequence is novel, the remaining 852 bp having been reported by other workers. Four new open reading frames (ORFs) have been identified along with putative promoter elements. These ORFs, which could code for proteins of 7, 10.9, 11, and 58 kDa in size, have been named ORF 64, ccmK, ccmL, and ccmM, respectively. The last three have been named ccm genes on the basis that insertional mutagenesis of each produces a phenotype requiring a high level of CO2 (i.e., each produces a lesion in the CO2 concentrating mechanism). The putative gene product for the large ccmM ORF has three internally repeated regions and also has two possible DNA binding motifs. Two defined mutants in the 3,557-bp region, mutants PVU and P-N, have been more fully characterized. The PVU mutant has a drug marker inserted into the ccmL gene, and it possesses abnormal rod-shaped carboxysomes. The P-N mutant is a 2.64-kb deletion of DNA from the same position in ccmL to a region closer to rbcL. This mutant, which has previously been shown to lack carboxysomes and have soluble ribulosebiphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, has now been shown to have a predominantly soluble carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase activity. Both mutants were found to possess carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase activities which are below wild-type levels, and in the P-N mutant this activity appears to be unstable. The results are discussed in terms of the possible interactions of putative ccm gene products in the process of carboxysome assembly and function. PMID:8491708

Price, G D; Howitt, S M; Harrison, K; Badger, M R

1993-05-01

365

The heat shock protein ClpB mediates the development of thermotolerance in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.  

PubMed Central

The heat shock protein CIpB (HSP100) is a member of the diverse group of Clp polypeptides that function as molecular chaperones and/or regulators of energy-dependent proteolysis. A single-copy gene coding for a ClpB homolog was cloned and sequenced from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. The predicted polypeptide sequence was most similar to sequences of cytosolic ClpB from bacteria and higher plants (i.e., 70 to 75%). Inactivation of clpB in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 resulted in no significant differences from the wild-type phenotype under optimal growth conditions. In the wild type, two forms of ClpB were induced during temperature shifts from 37 to 47.5 or 50 degrees C, one of 92 kDa, which matched the predicted size, and another smaller protein of 78 kDa. Both proteins were absent in the delta clpB strain. The level of induction of the two ClpB forms in the wild type increased with increasingly higher temperatures, while the level of the constitutive ClpC protein remained unchanged. In the delta clpB strain, however, the ClpC content almost doubled during the heating period, presumably to compensate for the loss of ClpB activity. Photosynthetic measurements at 47.5 and 50 degrees C showed that the null mutant was no more susceptible to thermal inactivation than the wild type. Using photosynthesis as a metabolic indicator, an assay was developed for Synechococcus spp. to determine the importance of ClpB for acquired thermotolerance. Complete inactivation of photosynthetic oxygen evolution occurred in both the wild type and the delta clpB strain when they were shifted from 37 directly to 55 degrees C for 10 min. By preexposing the cells at 50 degrees C for 1.5 h, however, a significant level of photosynthesis was retained in the wild type but not in the mutant after the treatment at 55 degrees C for 10 min. Cell survival determinations confirmed that the loss of ClpB synthesis caused a fivefold reduction in the ability of Synechococcus cells to develop thermotolerance. These results clearly show that induction of ClpB at high temperatures is vital for sustained thermotolerance in Synechococcus spp., the first such example for either a photosynthetic or a prokaryotic organism.

Eriksson, M J; Clarke, A K

1996-01-01

366

Combined Effects of CO2 and Light on the N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: Physiological Responses1[OA  

PubMed Central

Recent studies on the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum (IMS101) showed that increasing CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) enhances N2 fixation and growth. Significant uncertainties remain as to the degree of the sensitivity to pCO2, its modification by other environmental factors, and underlying processes causing these responses. To address these questions, we examined the responses of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under a matrix of low and high levels of pCO2 (150 and 900 ?atm) and irradiance (50 and 200 ?mol photons m?2 s?1). Growth rates as well as cellular carbon and nitrogen contents increased with increasing pCO2 and light levels in the cultures. The pCO2-dependent stimulation in organic carbon and nitrogen production was highest under low light. High pCO2 stimulated rates of N2 fixation and prolonged the duration, while high light affected maximum rates only. Gross photosynthesis increased with light but did not change with pCO2. HCO3? was identified as the predominant carbon source taken up in all treatments. Inorganic carbon uptake increased with light, but only gross CO2 uptake was enhanced under high pCO2. A comparison between carbon fluxes in vivo and those derived from 13C fractionation indicates high internal carbon cycling, especially in the low-pCO2 treatment under high light. Light-dependent oxygen uptake was only detected under low pCO2 combined with high light or when low-light-acclimated cells were exposed to high light, indicating that the Mehler reaction functions also as a photoprotective mechanism in Trichodesmium. Our data confirm the pronounced pCO2 effect on N2 fixation and growth in Trichodesmium and further show a strong modulation of these effects by light intensity. We attribute these responses to changes in the allocation of photosynthetic energy between carbon acquisition and the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen under elevated pCO2. These findings are supported by a complementary study looking at photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, photosynthetic unit stoichiometry (photosystem I:photosystem II), and pool sizes of key proteins in carbon and nitrogen acquisition.

Kranz, Sven A.; Levitan, Orly; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Prasil, Ondrej; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rost, Bjorn

2010-01-01

367

Elucidation of insertion elements carried on plasmids and in vitro construction of shuttle vectors from the toxic cyanobacterium planktothrix.  

PubMed

Several gene clusters that are responsible for toxin synthesis in bloom-forming cyanobacteria have been found to be associated with transposable elements (TEs). In particular, insertion sequence (IS) elements were shown to play a role in the inactivation or recombination of the genes responsible for cyanotoxin synthesis. Plasmids have been considered important vectors of IS element distribution to the host. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the IS elements propagated on the plasmids and the chromosome of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA126/8 by means of high-throughput sequencing. In total, five plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA14, pPA50, pPA79, and pPA115, of 5, 6, 50, 79, and 120 kbp, respectively) were elucidated, and two plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA115) were found to propagate full IS element copies. Large stretches of shared DNA information between plasmids were constituted of TEs. Two plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA14) were used as candidates to engineer shuttle vectors (named pPA5.5SV and pPA14SV, respectively) in vitro by PCR amplification and the subsequent transposition of the Tn5 cat transposon containing the R6K? origin of replication of Escherichia coli. While pPA5.5SV was found to be fully segregated, pPA14SV consistently co-occurred with its wild-type plasmid even under the highest selective pressure. Interestingly, the Tn5 cat transposon became transferred by homologous recombination into another plasmid, pPA50. The availability of shuttle vectors is considered to be of relevance in investigating genome plasticity as a consequence of homologous recombination events. Combining the potential of high-throughput sequencing and in vitro production of shuttle vectors makes it simple to produce species-specific shuttle vectors for many cultivable prokaryotes. PMID:24907328

Christiansen, Guntram; Goesmann, Alexander; Kurmayer, Rainer

2014-08-15

368

PSP toxin release from the cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis brookii D9 (Nostocales) can be induced by sodium and potassium ions.  

PubMed

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are a group of naturally occurring neurotoxic alkaloids produced among several genera of primarily freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. Although saxitoxin (STX) and analogs are all potent Na(+) channel blockers in vertebrate cells, the functional role of these compounds for the toxigenic microorganisms is unknown. Based upon the known importance of monovalent cations (such as sodium) in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and ion channel function, we examined the effect of high extracellular concentrations of these ions on growth, cellular integrity, toxin production and release to the external medium in the filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium, Raphidiopsis brookii D9; a gonyautoxins (GTX2/3) and STX producing toxigenic strain. We observed a toxin export in response to high (17 mM) NaCl and KCl concentrations in the growth medium that was not primarily related to osmotic stress effects, compared to the osmolyte mannitol. Addition of exogenous PSP toxins with the same compositional profile as the one produced by R. brookii D9 was able to partially mitigate this effect of high Na? (17 mM). The PSP toxin biosynthetic gene cluster (sxt) in D9 has two genes (sxtF and sxtM) that encode for a MATE (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) transporter. This protein family, represented by NorM in the bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, confers resistance to multiple cationic toxic agents through Na?/drug antiporters. Conserved domains for Na? and drug recognition have been described in NorM. For the D9 sxt cluster, the Na? recognition domain is conserved in both SxtF and SxtM, but the drug recognition domain differs between them. These results suggest that PSP toxins are exported directly in response to the presence of monovalent cations (Na?, K?) at least at elevated concentrations. Thus, the presence of both genes in the sxt cluster from strain D9 can be explained as a selective recognition mechanism by the SxtF/M transporters for GTX2/3 and STX. We propose that these toxins in cyanobacteria could act extracellularly as a protective mechanism to ensure homeostasis against extreme salt variation in the environment. PMID:22983012

Soto-Liebe, Katia; Méndez, Marco A; Fuenzalida, Loreto; Krock, Bernd; Cembella, Allan; Vásquez, Mónica

2012-12-01

369

Combined effects of CO2 and light on the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: physiological responses.  

PubMed

Recent studies on the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum (IMS101) showed that increasing CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) enhances N(2) fixation and growth. Significant uncertainties remain as to the degree of the sensitivity to pCO(2), its modification by other environmental factors, and underlying processes causing these responses. To address these questions, we examined the responses of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under a matrix of low and high levels of pCO(2) (150 and 900 microatm) and irradiance (50 and 200 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Growth rates as well as cellular carbon and nitrogen contents increased with increasing pCO(2) and light levels in the cultures. The pCO(2)-dependent stimulation in organic carbon and nitrogen production was highest under low light. High pCO(2) stimulated rates of N(2) fixation and prolonged the duration, while high light affected maximum rates only. Gross photosynthesis increased with light but did not change with pCO(2). HCO(3)(-) was identified as the predominant carbon source taken up in all treatments. Inorganic carbon uptake increased with light, but only gross CO(2) uptake was enhanced under high pCO(2). A comparison between carbon fluxes in vivo and those derived from (13)C fractionation indicates high internal carbon cycling, especially in the low-pCO(2) treatment under high light. Light-dependent oxygen uptake was only detected under low pCO(2) combined with high light or when low-light-acclimated cells were exposed to high light, indicating that the Mehler reaction functions also as a photoprotective mechanism in Trichodesmium. Our data confirm the pronounced pCO(2) effect on N(2) fixation and growth in Trichodesmium and further show a strong modulation of these effects by light intensity. We attribute these responses to changes in the allocation of photosynthetic energy between carbon acquisition and the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen under elevated pCO(2). These findings are supported by a complementary study looking at photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, photosynthetic unit stoichiometry (photosystem I:photosystem II), and pool sizes of key proteins in carbon and nitrogen acquisition. PMID:20625004

Kranz, Sven A; Levitan, Orly; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Prásil, Ondrej; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rost, Björn

2010-09-01

370

Ultraviolet stress delays chromosome replication in light/dark synchronized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC9511  

PubMed Central

Background The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb) seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about how such minimalist microorganisms manage to sustain high growth rates and avoid potentially detrimental, UV-induced mutations to their DNA. To address this question, we studied the cell cycle dynamics of P. marinus PCC9511 cells grown under high fluxes of visible light in the presence or absence of UV radiation. Near natural light-dark cycles of both light sources were obtained using a custom-designed illumination system (cyclostat). Expression patterns of key DNA synthesis and repair, cell division, and clock genes were analyzed in order to decipher molecular mechanisms of adaptation to UV radiation. Results The cell cycle of P. marinus PCC9511 was strongly synchronized by the day-night cycle. The most conspicuous response of cells to UV radiation was a delay in chromosome replication, with a peak of DNA synthesis shifted about 2 h into the dark period. This delay was seemingly linked to a strong downregulation of genes governing DNA replication (dnaA) and cell division (ftsZ, sepF), whereas most genes involved in DNA repair (such as recA, phrA, uvrA, ruvC, umuC) were already activated under high visible light and their expression levels were only slightly affected by additional UV exposure. Conclusions Prochlorococcus cells modified the timing of the S phase in response to UV exposure, therefore reducing the risk that mutations would occur during this particularly sensitive stage of the cell cycle. We identified several possible explanations for the observed timeshift. Among these, the sharp decrease in transcript levels of the dnaA gene, encoding the DNA replication initiator protein, is sufficient by itself to explain this response, since DNA synthesis starts only when the cellular concentration of DnaA reaches a critical threshold. However, the observed response likely results from a more complex combination of UV-altered biological processes.

2010-01-01

371

Looking at the stability of life-support microorganisms in space : the MELGEN activity highlights the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC8005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MELGEN activity (MELiSSA Genetic Stability Study) mainly covers the molecular aspects of the regenerative life-support system MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The general objective of MELGEN is to establish and validate methods and the related hardware in order to detect genetic instability and microbial contaminants in the MELISSA compartments. This includes (1) a genetic description of the MELISSA strains, (2) studies of microbial behavior and genetic stability in bioreactors and (3) the detection of chemical, genetical and biological contamination and their effect on microbial metabolism. Selected as oxygen producer and complementary food source, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. PCC8005 plays a major role within the MELiSSA loop. As the genomic information on this organism was insufficient, sequencing of its genome was proposed at the French National Sequencing Center, Genoscope, as a joint effort between ESA and different laboratories. So far, a preliminary assembly of 16 contigs representing circa 6.3 million basepairs was obtained. Even though the finishing of the genome is on its way, automatic annotation of the contigs has already been performed on the MaGe annotation platform, and curation of the sequence is currently being carried out, with a special focus on biosynthesis pathways, photosynthesis, and maintenance processes of the cell. According to the index of repetitiveness described by Haubold and Wiehe (2006), we discovered that the genome of Arthrospira sp. is among the 50 most repeated bacterial genomes sequenced to date. Thanks to the sequencing project, we have identified and catalogued mobile genetics elements (MGEs) dispersed throughout the unique chromosome of this cyanobacterium. They represent a quite large proportion of the genome, as genes identified as putative transposases are indeed found in circa 5 Results : We currently have a first draft of the complete genome of Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005, fully annotated. This genomic information opens the gates to a better understanding of the biology of this cyanobacterium and will be a key to the development of appropriate derivatives that provide enhanced performances (e.g. radiation resistance, genetic stability, photosynthesis and nutritive properties).

Morin, Nicolas

372

Kinetic Modeling of Arsenic Cycling by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium as Influenced by N:P Ratios: A Potential Biologic Control in an Iron-Limited Drainage Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elevated As levels are common in South Texas surface waters, where As is derived from the natural weathering of geogenic sources and a byproduct of historical uranium mining. The impacted surface waters of the Nueces River drainage basin supply Lake Corpus Christi (LCC), a major drinking water reservoir for the Corpus Christi area. The soils and sediments of the Nueces River drainage basin generally have low levels of reactive iron (average concentration of 2780 mg/kg), limiting the control of iron oxyhydroxides on As geochemistry and bioavailability. Given these conditions, biologic cycling of As may have a large influence on As fate and transport in LCC. Sediment cores from LCC show evidence for cyanobacterial blooms after reservoir formation based upon stable isotopes, total organic matter and specific elemental correlations. While algae have been shown to accumulate and reduce inorganic As(V), few studies have reported biologic cycling of As by cyanobacteria. Therefore, As(V) uptake, accumulation, reduction, and excretion in a 1.0 ? M As(V) solution by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120, was measured over time as a function of low, middle and high N:P ratios (1.2, 12, 120) to determine nutrient effects on As cycling by the cyanobacterium. Total As(V) reduction was observed in all three conditions upon completion of the ten-day experiment. Maximum As(V) reduction rates ranged from (0.013 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the low N:P solution to (0.398 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the high N:P solution. Increased cell biomass in the low N:P ratio solution compensated for the low maximum reduction rate to allow total As(V) reduction. Kinetic equations commonly used to model algal-nutrient interactions were utilized in modeling the current data. The Michaelis-Menten enzyme saturation equation modified with a competitive inhibition term adequately modeled As(III) excretion in the high and middle N:P ratio test conditions. The low N:P test condition further required a growth term to adequately model As(III) excretion by the cyanobacterium. The impact of N:P ratios on As reduction rates implies that N:P cycling can be coupled to As biogeochemistry in surface waters through the action of phytoplankton.

Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.

2004-12-01

373

Investigation and modeling of biomass decay rate in the dark and its potential influence on net productivity of solar photobioreactors for microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.  

PubMed

Biomass decay rate (BDR) in the dark was investigated for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (microalga) and Arthrospira platensis (cyanobacterium). A specific setup based on a torus photobioreactor with online gas analysis was validated, enabling us to follow the time course of the specific BDR using oxygen monitoring and mass balance. Various operating parameters that could limit respiration rates, such as culture temperature and oxygen deprivation, were then investigated. C. reinhardtii was found to present a higher BDR in the dark than A. platensis, illustrating here the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In both cases, temperature proved an influential parameter, and the Arrhenius law was found to efficiently relate specific BDR to culture temperature. The utility of decreasing temperature at night to increase biomass productivity in a solar photobioreactor is also illustrated. PMID:23619140

Le Borgne, François; Pruvost, Jérémy

2013-06-01

374

Rubisco but not Rubisco activase is clustered in the carboxysomes of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942: Mud-induced carboxysomeless mutants.  

PubMed

The Mud technology of Groisman and Casadaban was adapted to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. A new high-CO2-requiring (hcr) mutant, hcr Mu28 was isolated following the integration of the Mud element 89 bp upstream of ORFI, at the 5'-flanking region of the rbc operon, which encodes RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The integration involved a 7 bp duplication that formed a direct repeat at the integration site, as previously shown in Escherichia coli. The mutant was devoid of apparent carboxysome bodies, which are considered to be important for the availability of CO2 for Rubisco. Immunolabelling studies demonstrated that Rubisco was distributed throughout hcr Mu28 cells, while in the wild type (WT) and in the carboxysome aberrant mutant hcr O221, Rubisco was markedly associated with the carboxysomes. Rubisco activase, however, was evenly distributed throughout the cytosol of the hcr and WT cells, without any preferential association with the apparent carboxysomes. PMID:7934932

Friedberg, D; Jager, K M; Kessel, M; Silman, N J; Bergman, B

1993-09-01

375

Symplocin A, a Linear Peptide from the Bahamian Cyanobacterium Symploca sp. Configurational Analysis of N,N-Dimethylamino Acids by Chiral-Phase HPLC of Naphthacyl Esters†  

PubMed Central

The absolute stereostructures of the components of symplocin A (3), a new N,N-dimethyl-terminated peptide from the Bahamian cyanobacterium, Symploca sp., were assigned from spectroscopic analysis, including MS and 2D NMR and Marfey’s analysis. The complete absolute configuration of symplocin A, including the unexpected D-configurations of the terminal N,N-dimethylisoleucine and valic acid residues, were assigned by chiral-phase HPLC of the corresponding 2-naphthacyl esters, a highly sensitive, complementary strategy for assignment of N-blocked peptide residues where Marfey’s method is ineffectual, or other methods fall short. Symplocin A exhibited potent activity as an inhibitor of cathepsin E (IC50 300 pM).

Molinski, Tadeusz F.; Reynolds, Kirk A.; Morinaka, Brandon I.

2012-01-01

376

Two Cytotoxic Stereoisomers of Malyngamide C, 8-Epi-Malyngamide C and 8-O-Acetyl-8-epi-Malyngamide C, from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula  

PubMed Central

Two new epimers of malyngamide C, 8-O-acetyl-8-epi-malyngamide C (1) and 8-epi-malyngamide C (3) have been isolated along with known compounds 6-O-acetylmalyngamide F (5), H (6), J (7) K (8), and characterized from a Grenada field collection of the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. The planar structures of these compounds were deduced by 1D- and 2D-NMR and mass spectral data interpretation. The absolute configurations were determined by a combination of CD-spectroscopy, chemical degradation and the variable temperature Mosher’s method. Compounds 1–5, 7 and 8 displayed moderate cytotoxicity to NCI-H460 human lung tumor and neuro-2a cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging between 0.5 and 20 ?g/mL.

Gross, Harald; McPhail, Kerry L.; Goeger, Douglas E.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Gerwick, William H.

2010-01-01

377

?pH-dependent non-photochemical quenching (qE) of excited chlorophylls in the photosystem II core complex of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp PCC 7942.  

PubMed

Light-induced and lumen acidity-dependent quenching (qE) of excited chlorophylls (Chl) in vivo has been amply documented in plants and algae, but not in cyanobacteria, using primarily the saturation pulse method of quenching analysis which is applied to continuously illuminated samples. This method is unsuitable for cyanobacteria because the background illumination elicits in them a very large Chl a fluorescence signal, due to a state 2 to state 1 transition, which masks fluorescence changes due to other causes. We investigated the qE problem in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 using a kinetic method (Chl a fluorescence induction) with which qE can be examined before the onset of the state 2 to state 1 transition and the attendant rise of Chl a fluorescence. Our results confirm the existence of a qE mechanism that operates on excited Chls a in Photosystem II core complexes of cyanobacteria. PMID:24793104

Stamatakis, Kostas; Papageorgiou, George C

2014-08-01

378

An Rrf2-Type Transcriptional Regulator Is Required for Expression of psaAB Genes in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 68031[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic organisms must regulate photosystem stoichiometry (photosystem I-to-photosystem II ratio) under various light conditions. Transcriptional regulation of the psaAB genes is a critical process for this photoacclimation in cyanobacteria. In the course of our screening of transcriptional regulators in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we found that chlorophyll accumulation was impaired in an Rrf2-type regulator Slr0846 mutant. DNA microarray and primer extension analyses showed that the expression of psaAB genes was markedly decreased in the mutant. Consistently, the mutant exhibited lower photosystem I-to-photosystem II ratio under normal light conditions, suggestive of decreased accumulation of the photosystem I reaction center. Gel-shift assay confirmed that the Slr0846 protein bound to a far upstream promoter region of psaAB. These phenotypes of the mutant varied substantially with light conditions. These results suggest that Slr0846 is a novel transcriptional regulator for optimal expression of psaAB.

Midorikawa, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Koji; Narikawa, Rei; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

2009-01-01

379

Isolation and purification of an axenic diazotrophic drought-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, from natural cyanobacterial crusts and its utilization for field research on soils polluted with radioisotopes.  

PubMed

Nitrogen fixation and drought tolerance confer the ability to grow on dry land, and some terrestrial cyanobacteria exhibit these properties. These cyanobacteria were isolated in an axenic form from Nostoc commune clusters and other sources by modifying the method used to isolate the nitrogen-fixing and drought-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HK-01. Of these cyanobacteria, N. commune, which is difficult to isolate and purify, uses polysaccharides to maintain water, nitrogen fertilizers for nitrogen fixation, and can live in extreme environments because of desiccation tolerance. In this study, we examined the use of N. commune as biosoil for space agriculture and possible absorption of radioisotopes ((134)Cs, (137)Cs). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22417797

Katoh, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Jun; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nishi, Yasuaki

2012-08-01

380

Structure of a novel oligosaccharide-mycosporine-amino acid ultraviolet A/B sunscreen pigment from the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

Water-soluble UV-A/B-absorbing pigments are secreted by cells of the cosmopolitan terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. The pigments constitute a complex mixture of monomers with molecular masses of up to 1801 Da. Two different chromophores with absorption maxima at 312 and 335 nm are linked to different amino acids and to oligosaccharides consisting of galactose, glucose, xylose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine. The 335 nm chromophore is a 1,3-diaminocyclohexen derivative, while the chromophore with an absorption maximum at 312 nm is most likely a 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one derivative. These UV-inducible substances are the first mycosporines to be described covalently linked to oligosaccharides. The pigments are located in the extracellular glycan sheath of Nostoc colonies, where they form complexes of extremely high molecular mass that are attached noncovalently to the glycan sheath. Pigments occur in concentrations that permit the cells to attenuate a significant part of incident UV-B radiation. PMID:7721752

Böhm, G A; Pfleiderer, W; Böger, P; Scherer, S

1995-04-14

381

Influence of extractive solvents on lipid and fatty acids content of edible freshwater algal and seaweed products, the green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C), red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D), and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H) commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S) products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK) and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I) and n-hexane (solvent II). Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II) to 18.02% (I) by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs). Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I) were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%-65.49%), monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9); 2.79%-26.45%), polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6); 0.71%-36.38%), ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3); 0.00%-21.29%), ?-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6); 1.94%-17.36%), and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6); 0.00%-15.37%). The highest content of ?-3 fatty acids (21.29%) was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ?-6 fatty acids (41.42%) was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent. PMID:24566307

Ambrozova, Jarmila Vavra; Misurcova, Ladislava; Vicha, Robert; Machu, Ludmila; Samek, Dusan; Baron, Mojmir; Mlcek, Jiri; Sochor, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde

2014-01-01

382

Adaptation of a Cyanobacterium to a Biochemically Rich Environment in Experimental Evolution as an Initial Step toward a Chloroplast-Like State.  

PubMed

Chloroplasts originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. The original cyanobacterial endosymbiont evolved to adapt to the biochemically rich intracellular environment of the host cell while maintaining its photosynthetic function; however, no such process has been experimentally demonstrated. Here, we show the adaptation of a model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, to a biochemically rich environment by experimental evolution. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 does not grow in a biochemically rich, chemically defined medium because several amino acids are toxic to the cells at approximately 1 mM. We cultured the cyanobacteria in media with the toxic amino acids at 0.1 mM, then serially transferred the culture, gradually increasing the concentration of the toxic amino acids. The cells evolved to show approximately the same specific growth rate in media with 0 and 1 mM of the toxic amino acid in approximately 84 generations and evolved to grow faster in the media with 1 mM than in the media with 0 mM in approximately 181 generations. We did not detect a statistically significant decrease in the autotrophic growth of the evolved strain in an inorganic medium, indicating the maintenance of the photosynthetic function. Whole-genome resequencing revealed changes in the genes related to the cell membrane and the carboxysome. Moreover, we quantitatively analyzed the evolutionary changes by using simple mathematical models, which evaluated the evolution as an increase in the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and estimated quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary process. Our results clearly demonstrate not only the potential of a model cyanobacterium to adapt to a biochemically rich environment without a significant decrease in photosynthetic function but also the properties of its evolutionary process, which sheds light of the evolution of chloroplasts at the initial stage. PMID:24874568

Hosoda, Kazufumi; Habuchi, Masumi; Suzuki, Shingo; Miyazaki, Mikako; Takikawa, Go; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Sueyoshi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Kiuchi, Ayako; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

383

Adaptation of a Cyanobacterium to a Biochemically Rich Environment in Experimental Evolution as an Initial Step toward a Chloroplast-Like State  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. The original cyanobacterial endosymbiont evolved to adapt to the biochemically rich intracellular environment of the host cell while maintaining its photosynthetic function; however, no such process has been experimentally demonstrated. Here, we show the adaptation of a model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, to a biochemically rich environment by experimental evolution. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 does not grow in a biochemically rich, chemically defined medium because several amino acids are toxic to the cells at approximately 1 mM. We cultured the cyanobacteria in media with the toxic amino acids at 0.1 mM, then serially transferred the culture, gradually increasing the concentration of the toxic amino acids. The cells evolved to show approximately the same specific growth rate in media with 0 and 1 mM of the toxic amino acid in approximately 84 generations and evolved to grow faster in the media with 1 mM than in the media with 0 mM in approximately 181 generations. We did not detect a statistically significant decrease in the autotrophic growth of the evolved strain in an inorganic medium, indicating the maintenance of the photosynthetic function. Whole-genome resequencing revealed changes in the genes related to the cell membrane and the carboxysome. Moreover, we quantitatively analyzed the evolutionary changes by using simple mathematical models, which evaluated the evolution as an increase in the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and estimated quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary process. Our results clearly demonstrate not only the potential of a model cyanobacterium to adapt to a biochemically rich environment without a significant decrease in photosynthetic function but also the properties of its evolutionary process, which sheds light of the evolution of chloroplasts at the initial stage.

Suzuki, Shingo; Miyazaki, Mikako; Takikawa, Go; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Sueyoshi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Kiuchi, Ayako; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

2014-01-01

384

Lipids, proteins, and their interplay in the dynamics of temperature-stressed membranes of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC 6803.  

PubMed

Proper responses to low- and high-temperature stresses are essential for the survival of many organisms. It has been established that at low-temperature stress the sufficient microviscosity of the lipids is decisive in this respect. In many organisms, adapting the level of lipid unsaturation to the low growth temperature regulates this feature. At high-temperature stresses, however, there are no unequivocal results concerning the role of the lipids. In these temperature ranges, the lipids are all disordered and fluid and their physical parameters change slowly with increasing temperatures, while biological organisms give characteristic stress responses in rather narrow temperature ranges. Therefore, one may speculate that other membrane parameters/components, which change sharply in the range of the high-temperature stress, may give a signal to initiate the general response of the cells. For such a role, proteins are the trivial candidates. To reveal the role of the lipids and the proteins in these processes, we used a genetically engineered system, based on a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC 6803. In the wild-type cells of this bacterium, by altering the growth temperature, the polyunsaturated lipid content of the cell membranes can be varied considerably (as required by the homeoviscous adaptation principle). In the case of desA(-)/desD(-) mutant cells, which can contain only monounsaturated fatty acyl chains in their lipids, homeoviscous adaptation of the lipids is not possible. Since desA(-)/desD(-) mutation affects only the lipids, additional perturbations (e.g., altered protein content) should minimally disturb the comparison of the lipid behaviors in wild-type and mutant cells. Infrared spectra of thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes isolated from wild-type and mutant cells were recorded in 3 degrees C steps between 8 and 92 degrees C. By analyzing the rates of protein structural changes, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, in-membrane lipid disorder, and water-membrane interfacial order/hydration as functions of the temperature, we conclude that (i) the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of the lipids correlates with the growth temperature in the wild-type cells but not in the desA(-)/desD(-) mutants, (ii) over the physiological temperature range, both protein and lipid dynamics are regulating/regulated, providing remarkably constant dynamics for both the thylakoid and cytoplasmic membrane, (iii) in the high-temperature stress region, protein structure and dynamics are changing sharply without any correlation with growth temperature and/or mutation, i.e., membrane protein stability does not seem to depend on the lipid composition of the membrane (this finding points to the possible primacy of proteins as initiators/targets of heat-shock alarms), and (iv) there are substantial differences between the dynamics of the proteins of the thylakoid and cytoplasmic membranes, reflecting their different protein complexes and lipid-to-protein ratios. PMID:19788309

Laczkó-Dobos, Hajnalka; Szalontai, Balázs

2009-10-27

385

Structure and expression of the gene encoding ribosomal protein S1 from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 6301: striking sequence similarity to the chloroplast ribosomal protein CS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated a 38 kDa ssDNA-binding protein from the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 6301 and determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence. A genomic clone encoding the 38 kDa protein was isolated by using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on the amino acid sequence. The nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence revealed that the 38 kDa protein is

Mamoru Sugita; Chieko Sugita; Masahiro Sugiura

1995-01-01

386

Nucleotide sequence and expression of the two genes encoding D2 protein and the single gene encoding the CP43 protein of Photosystem II in the cyanobacterium synechococcus sp. PCC 7002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unicellular photoheterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was shown to encode two genes for the Photosystem II reaction center core protein D2 and one gene for the reaction center chlorophyhll-binding protein CP43. These three genes were cloned and their DNA sequences determined along with their flanking DNA sequences. Northern hybridization experiments show that both genes which encode D2, psbD1

Jeffrey C. Gingrich; Gail E. Gasparich; Kenneth Sauer; Donald A. Bryant

1990-01-01

387

Spectroscopic and Functional Characterizations of Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 Mutants on and near the Heme Axial Ligand of Cytochrome b559 in Photosystem II*  

PubMed Central

The functional role of cytochrome (cyt) b559 in photosystem II (PSII) was investigated in H22K? and Y18S? cyt b559 mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. H22K? and Y18S? cyt b559 mutant carries one amino acid substitution on and near one of heme axial ligands of cyt b559 in PSII, respectively. Both mutants grew photoautotrophically, assembled stable PSII, and exhibited the normal period-four oscillation in oxygen yield. However, both mutants showed several distinct chlorophyll a fluorescence properties and were more susceptible to photoinhibition than wild type. EPR results indicated the displacement of one of the two axial ligands to the heme of cyt b559 in H22K? mutant reaction centers, at least in isolated reaction centers. The maximum absorption of cyt b559 in Y18S? mutant PSII core complexes was shifted to 561 nm. Y18S? and H22K? mutant PSII core complexes contained predominately the low potential form of cyt b559. The findings lend support to the concept that the redox properties of cyt b559 are strongly influenced by the hydrophobicity and ligation environment of the heme. When the cyt b559 mutations placed in a D1-D170A genetic background that prevents assembly of the manganese cluster, accumulation of PSII is almost completely abolished. Overall, our data support a functional role of cyt b559 in protection of PSII under photoinhibition conditions in vivo.

Hung, Chung-Hsien; Hwang, Hong Jin; Chen, Yung-Han; Chiu, Yi-Fang; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Burnap, Robert L.; Chu, Hsiu-An

2010-01-01

388

Plasmid stability in dried cells of the desert cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis and its potential for GFP imaging of survivors on Earth and in space.  

PubMed

Two GFP-based plasmids, namely pTTQ18-GFP-pDU1(mini) and pDUCA7-GFP, of about 7 kbp and 15 kbp respectively, able to replicate in Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029 and CCMEE 123, were developed. Both plasmids were maintained in Chroococcidiopsis cells after 18 months of dry storage as demonstrated by colony PCR, plasmid restriction analysis, GFP imaging and colony-forming ability under selection of dried transformants; thus suggesting that strategies employed by this cyanobacterium to stabilize dried chromosomal DNA, must have protected plasmid DNA. The suitability of pDU1(mini)-plasmid for GFP tagging in Chroococcidiopsis was investigated by using the RecA homolog of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. After 2 months of dry storage, the presence of dried cells with a GFP-RecA(Syn) distribution resembling that of hydrated cells, supported its capability of preventing desiccation-induced genome damage, whereas the rewetted cells with filamentous GFP-RecA(Syn) structures revealed sub-lethal DNA damage. The long-term stability of plasmid DNA in dried Chroococcidiopsis has implication for space research, for example when investigating the recovery of dried cells after Martian and space simulations or when developing life support systems based on phototrophs with genetically enhanced stress tolerance and stored in the dry state for prolonged periods. PMID:22638838

Billi, Daniela

2012-06-01

389

Regulation of the expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) in a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942.  

PubMed

When cyanobacterium cells are grown under extremely low CO(2) concentration, the number of carboxysomes, structures containing ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39), is known to increase. This suggests that Rubisco helps to regulate photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. However, no studies have been done on the changes of Rubisco content and activity in response to the extracellular CO(2) concentration, and no information is available on its effect on photosynthesis. To elucidate the relationship between the expression responses of Rubisco and extracellular CO(2), wild-type cells (Synechococcus PCC7942) and carboxysome-lacking cells were grown under various CO(2) concentrations, and Rubisco activity was determined. In both strains, Rubisco activity increased when the cells were grown under a CO(2) concentration around, or less than, K (1/2)(CO(2)) of photosynthesis. In carboxysome-lacking cells, Rubisco activity increased five to six times at most, and a simultaneous increase in the rate of photosynthesis was observed. These results suggest that stimulation of expression of Rubisco occurs to compensate for the decrease in the rate of photosynthesis under CO(2)-limited conditions. PMID:16245064

Harano, Kiwamu; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kittaka, Ryuichi; Kojima, Kayo; Inoue, Noriko; Tsukamoto, Manabu; Satoh, Ryohei; Himeno, Michio; Iwaki, Toshio; Wadano, Akira

2003-01-01

390

Comparative proteomics study of salt tolerance between a nonsequenced extremely halotolerant cyanobacterium and its mildly halotolerant relative using in vivo metabolic labeling and in vitro isobaric labeling.  

PubMed

Euhalothece sp. BAA001 is an extremely halotolerant cyanobacterium, and recent proteomic investigations have revealed many shared survival strategies with its well-studied and moderately halotolerant relative Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We exploit the shared tryptic peptides between these organisms and directly compare the relative protein abundance in cells grown in the exact same salt conditions. This comparison is made with added salt (NaCl) concentrations of 0, 3, and 6% (w/v), where significant abundance differences are explained in terms of prioritization of essential cellular processes in relation to salinity tolerance. Implementation of (15)N in vivo metabolic labeling in conjunction with conventional search software, Mascot, and quantification software MSQUANT allowed 243 unique proteins to be quantified. The characteristic "stress" response that Euhalothece displays in 0% salt is observed through higher abundance of stress associated proteins, including a putative DNA binding stress protein and antioxidative enzymes. In contrast, Synechocystis expresses a greater number of "stress" proteins in 3% and 6% salt. In addition to in vivo metabolic labeling, an experiment using in vitro isobaric labeling (iTRAQ) was also carried out, which successfully demonstrated its applicability in cross-species proteomics. PMID:19090654

Pandhal, Jagroop; Ow, Saw Yen; Wright, Phillip C; Biggs, Catherine A

2009-02-01

391

Intricate Interactions between the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and Foreign Genetic Elements, Revealed by Diversified Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) Signatures  

PubMed Central

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer sequence-dependent, adaptive resistance in prokaryotes against viruses and plasmids via incorporation of short sequences, called spacers, derived from foreign genetic elements. CRISPR loci are thus considered to provide records of past infections. To describe the host-parasite (i.e., cyanophages and plasmids) interactions involving the bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated CRISPR in four M. aeruginosa strains and in two previously sequenced genomes. The number of spacers in each locus was larger than the average among prokaryotes. All spacers were strain specific, except for a string of 11 spacers shared in two closely related strains, suggesting diversification of the loci. Using CRISPR repeat-based PCR, 24 CRISPR genotypes were identified in a natural cyanobacterial community. Among 995 unique spacers obtained, only 10 sequences showed similarity to M. aeruginosa phage Ma-LMM01. Of these, six spacers showed only silent or conservative nucleotide mutations compared to Ma-LMM01 sequences, suggesting a strategy by the cyanophage to avert CRISPR immunity dependent on nucleotide identity. These results imply that host-phage interactions can be divided into M. aeruginosa-cyanophage combinations rather than pandemics of population-wide infectious cyanophages. Spacer similarity also showed frequent exposure of M. aeruginosa to small cryptic plasmids that were observed only in a few strains. Thus, the diversification of CRISPR implies that M. aeruginosa has been challenged by diverse communities (almost entirely uncharacterized) of cyanophages and plasmids.

Kuno, Sotaro; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sako, Yoshihiko

2012-01-01

392

In vitro and in vivo analyses of the role of the carboxysomal ?-type carbonic anhydrase of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus in carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate.  

PubMed

The carboxylase activities of crude carboxysome preparations obtained from the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 strain and the mutant defective in the carboxysomal carbonic anhydrase (CA) were compared. The carboxylation reaction required high concentrations of bicarbonate and was not even saturated at 50 mM bicarbonate. With the initial concentrations of 50 mM and 25 mM for bicarbonate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP), respectively, the initial rate of RuBP carboxylation by the mutant carboxysome (0.22 ?mol mg(-1) protein min(-1)) was only 30 % of that observed for the wild-type carboxysomes (0.71 ?mol mg(-1) protein min(-1)), indicating the importance of the presence of CA in efficient catalysis by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). While the mutant defective in the ccmLMNO genes, which lacks the carboxysome structure, could grow under aeration with 2 % (v/v) CO2 in air, the mutant defective in ccaA as well as ccmLMNO required 5 % (v/v) CO2 for growth, indicating that the cytoplasmically localized CcaA helped utilization of CO2 by the cytoplasmically localized Rubisco by counteracting the action of the CO2 hydration mechanism. The results predict that overexpression of Rubisco would hardly enhance CO2 fixation by the cyanobacterium at CO2 levels lower than 5 %, unless Rubisco is properly organized into carboxysomes. PMID:24585024

Nishimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Takatani, Nobuyuki; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Omata, Tatsuo

2014-09-01

393

ldpA Encodes an Iron-Sulfur Protein Involved in Light-Dependent Modulation of the Circadian Period in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942  

PubMed Central

We generated random transposon insertion mutants to identify genes involved in light input pathways to the circadian clock of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Two mutants, AMC408-M1 and AMC408-M2, were isolated that responded to a 5-h dark pulse differently from the wild-type strain. The two mutants carried independent transposon insertions in an open reading frame here named ldpA (for light-dependent period). Although the mutants were isolated by a phase shift screening protocol, the actual defect is a conditional alteration in the circadian period. The mutants retain the wild-type ability to phase shift the circadian gene expression (bioluminescent reporter) rhythm if the timing of administration of the dark pulse is corrected for a 1-h shortening of the circadian period in the mutant. Further analysis indicated that the conditional short-period mutant phenotype results from insensitivity to light gradients that normally modulate the circadian period in S. elongatus, lengthening the period at low light intensities. The ldpA gene encodes a polypeptide that predicts a 7Fe-8S cluster-binding motif expected to be involved in redox reactions. We suggest that the LdpA protein modulates the circadian clock as an indirect function of light intensity by sensing changes in cellular physiology.

Katayama, Mitsunori; Kondo, Takao; Xiong, Jin; Golden, Susan S.

2003-01-01

394

Modification of energy-transfer processes in the cyanobacterium, Arthrospira platensis, to adapt to light conditions, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In cyanobacteria, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes are modified in response to changes in light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed excitation energy transfer from the phycobilisome and photosystem II to photosystem I in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. The cells were grown under lights with different spectral profiles and under different light intensities, and the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra. The direct energy transfer from the phycobilisome to photosystem I and energy transfer from photosystem II to photosystem I were modified depending on the light quality, light quantity, and cultivation period. However, the total amount of energy transferred to photosystem I remained constant under the different growth conditions. We discuss the differences in energy-transfer processes under different cultivation and light conditions. PMID:23605291

Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

2013-11-01

395

NADPH fluorescence in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: a versatile probe for in vivo measurements of rates, yields and pools.  

PubMed

We measured the kinetics of light-induced NADPH formation and subsequent dark consumption by monitoring in vivo its fluorescence in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Spectral data allowed the signal changes to be attributed to NAD(P)H and signal linearity vs the chlorophyll concentration was shown to be recoverable after appropriate correction. Parameters associated to reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH by ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase were determined: After single excitation of photosystem I, half of the signal rise is observed in 8ms; Evidence for a kinetic limitation which is attributed to an enzyme bottleneck is provided; After two closely separated saturating flashes eliciting two photosystem I turnovers in less than 2ms, more than 50% of the cytoplasmic photoreductants (reduced ferredoxin and photosystem I acceptors) are diverted from NADPH formation by competing processes. Signal quantitation in absolute NADPH concentrations was performed by adding exogenous NADPH to the cell suspensions and by estimating the enhancement factor of in vivo fluorescence (between 2 and 4). The size of the visible (light-dependent) NADP (NADP(+)+NADPH) pool was measured to be between 1.4 and 4 times the photosystem I concentration. A quantitative discrepancy is found between net oxygen evolution and NADPH consumption by the light-activated Calvin-Benson cycle. The present study shows that NADPH fluorescence is an efficient probe for studying in vivo the energetic metabolism of cyanobacteria which can be used for assessing multiple phenomena occurring over different time scales. PMID:24463053

Kauny, Jocelyn; Sétif, Pierre

2014-06-01

396

Generation of reactive oxygen species undergoing redox cycle of nostocine A: a cytotoxic violet pigment produced by freshwater cyanobacterium Nostoc spongiaeforme.  

PubMed

Nostocine A (1) is an extracellular cytotoxic violet pigment produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme TISTR 8169. Treatment with 1 was found to accelerate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the light. In vitro analysis revealed that 1 specifically eliminated superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)) among several ROS tested. During the course of the reaction, oxygen (O(2)) was simultaneously synthesized and the O(2) synthesizing rate increased with the amount of 1 added. In contrast, O(2)(-) generation occurred when NADPH or NADH was added to a solution of 1 under aerobic condition. The reduction potential of 1 is very similar to that of O(2) indicating that 1 and O(2) can easily exchange electrons depending on the mass balance between their oxidized and reduced forms. Based on these results, the following hypothesis is formulated for the mechanism of intracellular ROS generation by treatment with 1: 1 taken into the target cells is reduced specifically by intracellular reductants such as NAD(P)H. When the O(2) level is sufficiently higher than that of 1, the reduced product of 1 is immediately oxidized by O(2). This is accompanied by the synthesis of O(2)(-) from O(2). The generation of O(2)(-) successively occurs, undergoing repeated redox cycles of 1, when the levels of the reductant and O(2) are still dominant to promote these reactions. This similar intracellular ROS generation mechanism to that of paraquat may cause the cytotoxicity. PMID:15099903

Hirata, Kazumasa; Yoshitomi, Sayaka; Dwi, Susilaningsih; Iwabe, Osamu; Mahakant, Aparat; Polchai, Jirapatch; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

2004-05-13

397

Plasmid Stability in Dried Cells of the Desert Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis and its Potential for GFP Imaging of Survivors on Earth and in Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two GFP-based plasmids, namely pTTQ18-GFP-pDU1mini and pDUCA7-GFP, of about 7 kbp and 15 kbp respectively, able to replicate in Chroococcidiopsis sp. CCMEE 029 and CCMEE 123, were developed. Both plasmids were maintained in Chroococcidiopsis cells after 18 months of dry storage as demonstrated by colony PCR, plasmid restriction analysis, GFP imaging and colony-forming ability under selection of dried transformants; thus suggesting that strategies employed by this cyanobacterium to stabilize dried chromosomal DNA, must have protected plasmid DNA. The suitability of pDU1mini-plasmid for GFP tagging in Chroococcidiopsis was investigated by using the RecA homolog of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. After 2 months of dry storage, the presence of dried cells with a GFP-RecASyn distribution resembling that of hydrated cells, supported its capability of preventing desiccation-induced genome damage, whereas the rewetted cells with filamentous GFP-RecASyn structures revealed sub-lethal DNA damage. The long-term stability of plasmid DNA in dried Chroococcidiopsis has implication for space research, for example when investigating the recovery of dried cells after Martian and space simulations or when developing life support systems based on phototrophs with genetically enhanced stress tolerance and stored in the dry state for prolonged periods.

Billi, Daniela

2012-06-01

398

Fra proteins influencing filament integrity, diazotrophy and localization of septal protein SepJ in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp.  

PubMed

Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can fix N(2) in differentiated cells called heterocysts, which exchange nutritional and regulatory compounds with the neighbouring photosynthetic vegetative cells. The cells in the filament appear to be joined by some protein structures, of which SepJ (FraG) that is located at the cell poles in the intercellular septa and is needed for filament integrity seems to be a component. Other known proteins required for filament integrity include FraC and FraH. Whereas fraC (alr2392) was constitutively expressed as an operon together with two downstream genes, alr2393 (fraD) and alr2394 (fraE), fraH (alr1603) was induced under nitrogen deprivation. Single mutants of these genes showed filament fragmentation under nitrogen deprivation and did not grow diazotrophically, although they formed heterocysts. The fraC and fraD mutants showed an impaired localization of SepJ at the intercellular septa and were hampered in the intercellular transfer of the fluorescent probe calcein. As shown with GFP fusions, FraC and FraD are also located at the intercellular septa. Therefore, at least three different proteins, SepJ, FraC and FraD, influence the architecture and function of the intercellular septa in the Anabaena filaments. PMID:20487302