Sample records for cyanobacterium gloeobacter violaceus

  1. Establishment of the reporter system for a thylakoid-lacking cyanobacterium, Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Mie; Shimada, Yuichiro; Mimuro, Mamoru; Tsuchiya, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 is considered, by molecular phylogenetic analyses, to be an early-branching cyanobacterium within the cyanobacterial clade. G. violaceus is the only known oxygenic photosynthetic organism that lacks thylakoid membranes. There is only one report on the development of a transformation system for G. violaceus [H. Guo, X. Xu, Prog. Nat. Sci. 14 (2004) 31–35] and further studies using the system have not been reported. In the present study, we succeeded in introducing an expression vector (pKUT1121) derived from a broad-host-range plasmid, RSF1010, into G. violaceus by conjugation. The frequency of transformation of our system is significantly higher than that described in the previous report. In addition, luciferase heterologously expressed in G. violaceus functioned as a reporter. The established system will promote the molecular genetic studies on G. violaceus. PMID:23847755

  2. The structure of Gloeobacter violaceus and its phycobilisomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Guglielmi; Germaine Cohen-Bazire; Donald A. Bryant

    1981-01-01

    The fine structure of the atypical cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus has been studied on frozen-etched replicas and compared to that of a typical unicellular strain: Synechocystis 6701. The complementary fracture faces of G. violaceus cytoplasmic membrane contain particles less numerous and more heterogenous in size than either the cytoplasmic membrane or the thylakoid membranes of Synechocystis. The most frequently observed particles

  3. Unique properties vs. common themes: the atypical cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 is capable of state transitions and blue-light-induced fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Bernát, Gábor; Schreiber, Ulrich; Sendtko, Esther; Stadnichuk, Igor N; Rexroth, Sascha; Rögner, Matthias; Koenig, Friederike

    2012-03-01

    The atypical unicellular cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421, which diverged very early during the evolution of cyanobacteria, can be regarded as a key organism for understanding many structural, functional, regulatory and evolutionary aspects of oxygenic photosynthesis. In the present work, the performance of two basic photosynthetic adaptation/protection mechanisms, common to all other oxygenic photoautrophs, had been challenged in this ancient cyanobacterium which lacks thylakoid membranes: state transitions and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching. Both low temperature fluorescence spectra and room temperature fluorescence transients show that G. violaceus is capable of performing state transitions similar to evolutionarily more recent cyanobacteria, being in state 2 in darkness and in state 1 upon illumination by weak blue or far-red light. Compared with state 2, variable fluorescence yield in state 1 is strongly enhanced (almost 80%), while the functional absorption cross-section of PSII is only increased by 8%. In contrast to weak blue light, which enhances fluorescence yield via state 1 formation, strong blue light reversibly quenches Chl fluorescence in G. violaceus. This strongly suggests regulated heat dissipation which is triggered by the orange carotenoid protein whose presence was directly proven by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry in this primordial cyanobacterium. The results are discussed in the framework of cyanobacterial evolution. PMID:22302714

  4. Anesthetic sensitivity of the Gloeobacter violaceus proton-gated ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yun; Yang, Liya; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Sonner, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Receptors from the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels including gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA), glycine, 5HT3, and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are modulated by anesthetics in concentrations that are used clinically. Recently, a prokaryotic member of this family (denoted GLIC) was cloned from the cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus, its electrophysiology was characterized, and its three dimensional x-ray diffraction crystal structure was determined. Here we report its modulation by nine common anesthetics. Our goal was to identify agents that modulated GLIC and which therefore might merit further investigation by structural methods. Methods We studied the modulatory effect on GLIC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, xenon, nitrous oxide, etomidate, propofol, and ethanol. GLIC was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and studied using two-electrode voltage clamping. Results GLIC was potently inhibited by halothane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, and propofol, with concentrations producing 50% inhibition (IC50s) of 0.07 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.06 mM, 0.03 mM, and 0.5 ?M, respectively. Hill coefficients for these anesthetics were significantly less than 1: 0.27, 0.27, 0.32, 0.25, and 0.42, respectively. Hill coefficients for xenon and etomidate were not different from 1. IC50s for xenon and etomidate were 105 % atmospheres and 73 ?M respectively. 200 mM ethanol did not modulate channel currents, nor did 100% nitrous oxide. A two-site model fit the data for desflurane and halothane better than a one site model. Conclusion GLIC is modulated by many anesthetics at clinically relevant concentrations. We observed three patterns of modulation. Halogenated volatile anesthetics (desflurane, halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane) and propofol potently inhibited currents through GLIC, with Hill numbers averaging approximately 0.3 indicating negative cooperativity. A two site model fit the data for desflurane and halothane better than a one site model. Less potent drugs (xenon, etomidate) modulated GLIC at higher concentrations and over a narrower concentration range, with Hill numbers not different than 1. The modulation by xenon occurred at clinically relevant concentrations. The modulation by etomidate occurred above clinical concentrations. Ethanol and nitrous oxide did not modulate currents through GLIC at surgical anesthetic concentrations. These studies, together with the atomic scale structure of GLIC, lay the groundwork for further mechanistic studies of these allosteric effects. PMID:19933531

  5. Reconstitution of Gloeobacter violaceus Rhodopsin with a Light-Harvesting Carotenoid Antenna†

    PubMed Central

    Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Balashov, Sergei P.; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2009-01-01

    We show that salinixanthin, the light-harvesting carotenoid antenna of xanthorhodopsin, can be reconstituted into the retinal protein from Gloeobacter violaceus expressed in E. coli. Reconstitution of gloeobacter rhodopsin with the carotenoid is accompanied by characteristic absorption changes and the appearance of CD bands similar to those observed for xanthorhodopsin that indicate immobilization and twist of the carotenoid in the binding site. As in xanthorhodopsin, the carotenoid functions as a light-harvesting antenna. The excitation spectrum for retinal fluorescence emission shows that ca. 36% of the energy absorbed by the carotenoid is transferred to the retinal. From excitation anisotropy, we calculate the angle between the two chromophores as ca. 50°, similar to that in xanthorhodopsin. The results indicate that gloeobacter rhodopsin binds salinixanthin in a similar way as xanthorhodopsin, and suggest that it might bind a carotenoid also in vivo. In the crystallographic structure of xanthorhodopsin, the conjugated chain of the carotenoid lies on the surface of helices E and F, and the 4-keto-ring is immersed in the protein at van der Waals distance from the ionone ring of the retinal. The 4-keto-ring is in the space occupied by a tryptophan in bacteriorhodopsin, which is replaced by the smaller glycine in xanthorhodopsin and gloeobacter rhodopsin. Specific binding of the carotenoid and its light-harvesting function are eliminated by a single mutation of the gloeobacter protein that replaces this glycine with a tryptophan. This indicates that the 4-keto-ring is critically involved in carotenoid binding, and suggests that a number of other recently identified retinal proteins, from a diverse group of organisms, could also contain carotenoid antenna since they carry the homologous glycine near the retinal. PMID:19842712

  6. Reconstitution of Gloeobacter violaceus rhodopsin with a light-harvesting carotenoid antenna.

    PubMed

    Imasheva, Eleonora S; Balashov, Sergei P; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lanyi, Janos K

    2009-11-24

    We show that salinixanthin, the light-harvesting carotenoid antenna of xanthorhodopsin, can be reconstituted into the retinal protein from Gloeobacter violaceus expressed in Escherichia coli. Reconstitution of gloeobacter rhodopsin with the carotenoid is accompanied by characteristic absorption changes and the appearance of CD bands similar to those observed for xanthorhodopsin that indicate immobilization and twist of the carotenoid in the binding site. As in xanthorhodopsin, the carotenoid functions as a light-harvesting antenna. The excitation spectrum for retinal fluorescence emission shows that ca. 36% of the energy absorbed by the carotenoid is transferred to the retinal. From excitation anisotropy, we calculate the angle between the two chromophores as being ca. 50 degrees , similar to that in xanthorhodopsin. The results indicate that gloeobacter rhodopsin binds salinixanthin in a manner similar to that of xanthorhodopsin and suggest that it might bind a carotenoid also in vivo. In the crystallographic structure of xanthorhodopsin, the conjugated chain of the carotenoid lies on the surface of helices E and F, and the 4-keto ring is immersed in the protein at van der Waals distance from the ionone ring of the retinal. The 4-keto ring is in the space occupied by a tryptophan in bacteriorhodopsin, which is replaced by the smaller glycine in xanthorhodopsin and gloeobacter rhodopsin. Specific binding of the carotenoid and its light-harvesting function are eliminated by a single mutation of the gloeobacter protein that replaces this glycine with a tryptophan. This indicates that the 4-keto ring is critically involved in carotenoid binding and suggests that a number of other recently identified retinal proteins, from a diverse group of organisms, could also contain carotenoid antenna since they carry the homologous glycine near the retinal. PMID:19842712

  7. The Primitive Thylakoid-Less Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter Is a Common Rock-Dwelling Organism.

    PubMed

    Mareš, Jan; Hrouzek, Pavel; Ka?a, Radek; Ventura, Stefano; Strunecký, Otakar; Komárek, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an "evolutionary curiosity" with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide. PMID:23823729

  8. The Plasma Membrane of the Cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus Contains Segregated Bioenergetic Domains C W

    E-print Network

    Roegner, Matthias

    in the evolu- tion of plant cells. In the chloroplast, thylakoid membranes form complicated structures known internal membrane system located in the stroma of chloroplasts and the cytoplasm of cyanobacteria. The only membranes but also might include insights regarding thylakoid formation during chloroplast differentiation

  9. Gating of the proton-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus at pH 4 as revealed by X-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Giovanni; Cuello, Luis G.; Nair, Satish K.; Grosman, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography have recently been used to generate structural models that likely represent the unliganded closed-channel conformation and the fully liganded open-channel conformation of different members of the nicotinic-receptor superfamily. To characterize the structure of the closed-channel conformation in its liganded state, we identified a number of positions in the loop between transmembrane segments 2 (M2) and 3 (M3) of a proton-gated ortholog from the bacterium Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) where mutations to alanine reduce the liganded-gating equilibrium constant, and solved the crystal structures of two such mutants (T25?A and Y27?A) at pH ?4.0. At the level of backbone atoms, the liganded closed-channel model presented here differs from the liganded open-channel structure of GLIC in the pre-M1 linker, the M3–M4 loop, and much more prominently, in the extracellular half of the pore lining, where the more pronounced tilt of the closed-channel M2 ?-helices toward the pore’s long axis narrows the permeation pathway. On the other hand, no differences between the liganded closed-channel and open-channel models could be detected at the level of the extracellular domain, where conformational changes are expected to underlie the low-to-high proton-affinity switch that drives gating of proton-bound channels. Thus, the liganded closed-channel model is nearly indistinguishable from the recently described “locally closed” structure. However, because cross-linking strategies (which could have stabilized unstable conformations) and mutations involving ionizable side chains (which could have affected proton-gated channel activation) were purposely avoided, we favor the notion that this structure represents one of the end states of liganded gating rather than an unstable intermediate. PMID:24167270

  10. Cultivation and Complete Genome Sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a Lava Cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Jimmy H. W.; Schatz, Michael; Brown, Mark V.; Kunkel, Dennis D.; Foster, Jamie S.; Shick, Harry; Christensen, Stephanie; Hou, Shaobin; Wan, Xuehua; Donachie, Stuart P.

    2013-01-01

    The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421T is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain's genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1T, from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i. The strain's genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1T and G. violaceus PCC 7421T genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1T, for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1T has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute's Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1T genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1T may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:24194836

  11. Cultivation and complete genome sequencing of Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov., from a lava cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Saw, Jimmy H W; Schatz, Michael; Brown, Mark V; Kunkel, Dennis D; Foster, Jamie S; Shick, Harry; Christensen, Stephanie; Hou, Shaobin; Wan, Xuehua; Donachie, Stuart P

    2013-01-01

    The ancestor of Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421(T) is believed to have diverged from that of all known cyanobacteria before the evolution of thylakoid membranes and plant plastids. The long and largely independent evolutionary history of G. violaceus presents an organism retaining ancestral features of early oxygenic photoautotrophs, and in whom cyanobacteria evolution can be investigated. No other Gloeobacter species has been described since the genus was established in 1974 (Rippka et al., Arch Microbiol 100:435). Gloeobacter affiliated ribosomal gene sequences have been reported in environmental DNA libraries, but only the type strain's genome has been sequenced. However, we report here the cultivation of a new Gloeobacter species, G. kilaueensis JS1(T), from an epilithic biofilm in a lava cave in K?lauea Caldera, Hawai'i. The strain's genome was sequenced from an enriched culture resembling a low-complexity metagenomic sample, using 9 kb paired-end 454 pyrosequences and 400 bp paired-end Illumina reads. The JS1(T) and G. violaceus PCC 7421(T) genomes have little gene synteny despite sharing 2842 orthologous genes; comparing the genomes shows they do not belong to the same species. Our results support establishing a new species to accommodate JS1(T), for which we propose the name Gloeobacter kilaueensis sp. nov. Strain JS1(T) has been deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (BAA-2537), the Scottish Marine Institute's Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP 1431/1), and the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (ULC0316). The G. kilaueensis holotype has been deposited in the Algal Collection of the US National Herbarium (US# 217948). The JS1(T) genome sequence has been deposited in GenBank under accession number CP003587. The G+C content of the genome is 60.54 mol%. The complete genome sequence of G. kilaueensis JS1(T) may further understanding of cyanobacteria evolution, and the shift from anoxygenic to oxygenic photosynthesis. PMID:24194836

  12. Gloeobacter Rhodopsin, Limitation of Proton Pumping at High Electrochemical Load

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Arend; Wietek, Jonas; Hegemann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We studied the photocurrents of a cyanobacterial rhodopsin Gloeobacter violaceus (GR) in Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293 cells. This protein is a light-driven proton pump with striking similarities to marine proteorhodopsins, including the D121-H87 cluster of the retinal Schiff base counterion and a glutamate at position 132 that acts as a proton donor for chromophore reprotonation during the photocycle. Interestingly, at low extracellular pHo and negative voltage, the proton flux inverted and directed inward. Using electrophysiological measurements of wild-type and mutant GR, we demonstrate that the electrochemical gradient limits outward-directed proton pumping and converts it into a purely passive proton influx. This conclusion contradicts the contemporary paradigm that at low pH, proteorhodopsins actively transport H+ into cells. We identified E132 and S77 as key residues that allow inward directed diffusion. Substitution of E132 with aspartate or S77 with either alanine or cysteine abolished the inward-directed current almost completely. The proton influx is likely caused by the pKa of E132 in GR, which is lower than that of other microbial ion pumping rhodopsins. The advantage of such a low pKa is an acceleration of the photocycle and high pump turnover at high light intensities. PMID:24209850

  13. Reconstitution of gloeobacter rhodopsin with echinenone: role of the 4-keto group.

    PubMed

    Balashov, Sergei P; Imasheva, Eleonora S; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Liaaen-Jensen, Synnřve; Lanyi, Janos K

    2010-11-16

    In previous work, we reconstituted salinixanthin, the C(40)-carotenoid acyl glycoside that serves as a light-harvesting antenna to the light-driven proton pump xanthorhodopsin, into a different protein, gloeobacter rhodopsin expressed in Escherichia coli, and demonstrated that it transfers energy to the retinal chromophore [Imasheva, E. S., et al. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 10948]. The key to binding of salinixanthin was the accommodation of its ring near the retinal ?-ionone ring. Here we examine two questions. Do any of the native Gloeobacter carotenoids bind to gloeobacter rhodopsin, and does the 4-keto group of the ring play a role in binding? There is no salinixanthin in Gloeobacter violaceous, but a simpler carotenoid, echinenone, also with a 4-keto group but lacking the acyl glycoside, is present in addition to ?-carotene and oscillol. We show that ?-carotene does not bind to gloeobacter rhodopsin, but its 4-keto derivative, echinenone, does and functions as a light-harvesting antenna. This indicates that the 4-keto group is critical for carotenoid binding. Further evidence of this is the fact that salinixanthol, an analogue of salinixanthin in which the 4-keto group is reduced to hydroxyl, does not bind and is not engaged in energy transfer. According to the crystal structure of xanthorhodopsin, the ring of salinixanthin in the binding site is turned out of the plane of the polyene conjugated chain. A similar conformation is expected for echinenone in the gloeobacter rhodopsin. We suggest that the 4-keto group in salinixanthin and echinenone allows for the twisted conformation of the ring around the C6-C7 bond and probably is engaged in an interaction that locks the carotenoid in the binding site. PMID:20942439

  14. Reconstitution of Gloeobacter Rhodopsin with Echinenone: Role of the 4-keto Group†

    PubMed Central

    Balashov, Sergei P.; Imasheva, Eleonora S.; Choi, Ah Reum; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Liaaen-Jensen, Synnřve; Lanyi, Janos K.

    2010-01-01

    In previous work we reconstituted salinixanthin, the C40-carotenoid acyl glycoside that serves as a light-harvesting antenna to light-driven proton pump xanthorhodopsin, into a different protein, gloeobacter rhodopsin expressed in E. coli, and demonstrated that it transfers energy to the retinal chromophore (Imasheva et al. 2009. Biochemistry 48, 10948). The key to binding of salinixanthin was the accommodation of its ring near the retinal ?-ionone ring. Here we examine two questions: do any of the native Gloeobacter carotenoids bind to gloeobacter rhodopsin, and does the 4-keto group of the ring play a role in binding. There is no salinixanthin in Gloeobacter violaceous, but a simpler carotenoid, echinenone, also with a 4-keto group that lacks the acyl glycoside, is present in addition to ?-carotene and oscillol. We show that ?-carotene does not bind to gloeobacter rhodopsin, but its 4-keto derivative, echinenone, does and functions as a light-harvesting antenna. This indicates that the 4-keto group is critical for the carotenoid binding. Further evidence for this is that salinixanthol, an analogue of salinixanthin in which the 4-keto group is reduced to hydroxyl, does not bind and is not engaged in energy transfer. According to the crystal structure of xanthorhodopsin, the ring of salinixanthin in the binding site is turned out of the plane of the polyene conjugated chain. Similar conformation is expected for echinenone in the gloeobacter rhodopsin. We suggest that the 4-keto group in salinixanthin and echinenone allows for the twisted conformation of the ring around C6-C7 bond and probably is engaged in interaction that locks the carotenoid in the binding site. PMID:20942439

  15. Male satin bowerbirds ( Ptilonorhynchus violaceus ) compensate for sexual signal loss by enhancing multiple display features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Bravery; Anne W. Goldizen

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have focussed on the relationship between female choice and the multiple exaggerated sexual traits of males.\\u000a However, little is known about the ability of males to actively enhance specific components of their display in response to\\u000a the loss of one component. We investigated the capacity of male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) to respond to the loss of one

  16. Efficient femtosecond energy transfer from carotenoid to retinal in gloeobacter rhodopsin-salinixanthin complex.

    PubMed

    Iyer, E Siva Subramaniam; Gdor, Itay; Eliash, Tamar; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford

    2015-02-12

    The retinal proton pump xanthorhodopsin (XR) was recently found to function with an attached carotenoid light harvesting antenna, salinixanthin (SX). It is intriguing to discover if this departure from single chromophore architecture is singular or if it has been adopted by other microbial rhodopsins. In search of other cases, retinal protein encoding genes in numerous bacteria have been identified containing sequences corresponding to carotenoid binding sites like that in XR. Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR), exhibiting particularly close homology to XR, has been shown to attach SX, and fluorescence measurements suggest SX can function as a light harvesting (LH) antenna in GR as well. In this study, we test this suggestion in real time using ultrafast transient absorption. Results show that energy transfer indeed occurs from S2 of SX to retinal in the GR-SX composite with an efficiency of ?40%, even higher than that in XR. This validates the earlier fluorescence study, and supports the notion that many microbial retinal proteins use carotenoid antennae to harvest light. PMID:25144664

  17. [Amylase inhibitors from Streptomyces lucensis VKPM Ac-1743 and Streptomyces violaceus VKPM Ac-1734].

    PubMed

    Sharova, N Iu

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors synthesized by the Streptomyces lucensis VKPM AS-1743 and Streptomyces violaceus VKPM AS-1734 strains were studied for their influence on amylases of different origin. The effect of the inhibitors was shown to be different on fungal amylase, pancreatic amylase, and amylase from human blood. It has been found that the studied inhibitors are substances of a pseudooligosaccharide nature and exhibit their activity and stability over a wide range of pH and temperature values. The physico-chemical and biochemical properties of isolated inhibitors were compared with those of known microbial inhibitors of ?-glucosidases. PMID:25842903

  18. Genetic variation within and among populations of Orychophragmus violaceus (Cruciferae) in China as detected by ISSR analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Jun Zhang; Si-Lan Dai

    2010-01-01

    Orychophragmus violaceus, a ground covering plant that is widely distributed in China. It has both high economical value in food, forage, health care\\u000a and ornamental value in gardening. In this study, the genetic diversity of 245 individuals from nine populations in China\\u000a were investigated using the inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Of the 100 primers screened, eight were highly polymorphic.\\u000a Using

  19. Intergeneric hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus containing traits of agronomic importance for oilseed rape breeding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q.; Hansen, N.; Laursen, J.; Dixelius, C.; Andersen, B.

    2002-11-01

    Protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus for transfer of valuable traits to oilseed rape resulted in 257 somatic hybrid plants. Hybridity was confirmed by morphological, cytological and molecular means. Symmetric fusions gave rise to 131 plants. Fifty eight of these plants had an intermediate morphology and contained nuclear DNA corresponding to the sum of the parental species. All 131 plants were sterile with no pollen grains observed upon flowering. Another 126 plants were derived from asymmetric fusions in which protoplasts of the donor parent O. violaceus were irradiated by 100 or 200-Gy X-rays prior to fusion. Morphologically these plants showed a larger variation compared to the plants regenerated from symmetric fusion experiments. In contrast to plants obtained from symmetric fusions, fertile hybrids were recovered among regenerants from the asymmetric fusions. Twenty four of these plants released viable pollen grains and 14 of the determined 17 plants set seeds after either selfing or backcrossing to B. napus. Fourteen male-sterile plants were identified with female fertility. This observed male sterility most-likely originated from alloplasmic recombination and would be of great potential for the development of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system. The fatty acid composition of the fertile hybrids and their progenies showed a biased distribution towards the B. napus parent, which has a high erucic acid-content type. However, increased levels of palmitic and linoleic acids compared to B. napus were found in subsequent generations, as well as a reduced level of erucic acid. PMID:12582907

  20. Origin of new Brassica types from a single intergeneric hybrid between B. rapa and Orychophragmus violaceus by rapid chromosome evolution and introgression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan-Yuan Xu; Rui-Hong Wan-Yan; Zai-Yun Li

    2007-01-01

    Many novel lines were established from an intergeneric mixoploid between Brassica rapa (2n = 20) and Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24) through successive selections for fertility and viability. Pedigrees of individual F2 plants were advanced to the 10th generation by selfing. Their breeding habit was self-compatible and different from the self-incompatibility\\u000a of their female parent B. rapa, and these lines

  1. Assimilatory sulfur metabolism in marine microorganisms: sulfur metabolism, protein synthesis, and growth of Alteromonas luteo - violaceus and Pseudomonas halodurans during perturbed batch growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cuhel, R.L.; Taylor, C.D.; Jannasch, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol specifically blocked the incorporation of (35 S) sulfate into the residue protein of two marine bacteria, Pseudomonas halodurans and Alteromonas luteo-violaceus. Simultaneous inhibition of total protein synthesis occurred, but incorporation of 35 S into low-molecular-weight organic compounds continued. A. luteo-violaceus rapidly autolyzed, with similar reduction in cell counts, total culture protein and cellular sulfur, whereas P. halodurans remained viable. Treatment with chloramphenicol, growth during nitrogen and carbon limitation, and the carbon and energy sources used for growth did not alter the sulfur content of P. halodurans protein. The mean value (1.09%, by weight), representing a wide variety of environmentally relevant growth conditions, was in agreement with model protein composition. The variability of cellular composition of P. halodurnas and A. luteo-violaceus is discussed with respect to the measurement of bacterial growth in natural environments. Total carbon and nitrogen per cell varied greatly (coefficient of variation, ca. 100%) depending on growth conditions. Variation in total sulfur and protein per cell was much less (coefficient of variation, less than 50%), but the least variation was found for sulfate incorporation into residue protein (coefficient of variation, ca. 15%). Thus, sulfate incorporation into residue protein can be used as an accurate measurement of de novo protein synthesis in these bacteria. (Refs. 26).

  2. Genomes of diverse isolates of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus

    E-print Network

    Berube, Paul M.

    The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the numerically dominant photosynthetic organism in the oligotrophic oceans, and a model system in marine microbial ecology. Here we report 27 new whole genome sequences (2 ...

  3. Generic characters of the simplest cyanoprokaryotes Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium and Synechococcus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji?í Komárek; Ji?í Kopecký; Vladislav Cepák

    1999-01-01

    The cytomorphological features (cell morphology, type of cell division, cell structure, structure of photosynthetic apparatus) were studied in the type strains of the cyanoprokaryotic genera Cyanobium and Cyanobacterium, and in the reference strain of the traditional genus Synechococcus (Synechococcus PCC 6301; = “Anacystis nidulans” sensu auct.). They were originally described by Rippka & Cohen-Bazire, based on the mean DNA-base composition

  4. A primitive cyanobacterium as pioneer microorganism for terraforming Mars.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

    1995-03-01

    The primitive characteristics of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis suggest that it represents a very ancient type of the group. Its morphology is simple but shows a wide range of variability, and it resembles certain Proterozoic microfossils. Chroococcidiopsis is probably the most desiccation-resistant cyanobacterium, the sole photosynthetic organism in extreme arid habitats. It is also present in a wide range of other extreme environments, from Antarctic rocks to thermal springs and hypersaline habitats, but it is unable to compete with more specialized organisms. Genetic evidence suggests that all forms belong to a single species. Its remarkable tolerance of environmental extremes makes Chroococcidiopsis a prime candidate for use as a pioneer photosynthetic microorganism for terraforming of Mars. The hypolithic microbial growth form (which lives under stones of a desert pavement) could be used as a model for development of technologies for large-scale Martian farming. PMID:11539232

  5. An early-branching microbialite cyanobacterium forms intracellular carbonates.

    PubMed

    Couradeau, Estelle; Benzerara, Karim; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Moreira, David; Bernard, Sylvain; Brown, Gordon E; López-García, Purificación

    2012-04-27

    Cyanobacteria have affected major geochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) on Earth for billions of years. In particular, they have played a major role in the formation of calcium carbonates (i.e., calcification), which has been considered to be an extracellular process. We identified a cyanobacterium in modern microbialites in Lake Alchichica (Mexico) that forms intracellular amorphous calcium-magnesium-strontium-barium carbonate inclusions about 270 nanometers in average diameter, revealing an unexplored pathway for calcification. Phylogenetic analyses place this cyanobacterium within the deeply divergent order Gloeobacterales. The chemical composition and structure of the intracellular precipitates suggest some level of cellular control on the biomineralization process. This discovery expands the diversity of organisms capable of forming amorphous calcium carbonates. PMID:22539718

  6. Antialgal activity of a hepatotoxin-producing cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dhananjaya P. Singh; M. B. Tyagi; Arvind Kumar; J. K. Thakur; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of toxin produced by a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa has been studied. When tested against certain green algae, cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, the toxin inhibited growth of only green algae and cyanobacteria. The toxin has been partially purified employing Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques and appears to be microcystin-LR (leucine–arginine). Both

  7. Ecology and Physiology of the Pathogenic Cyanobacterium Roseofilum reptotaenium.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Laurie L; Stani?, Dina; May, Amanda; Brownell, Abigael; Gantar, Miroslav; Campagna, Shawn R

    2014-01-01

    Roseofilum reptotaenium is a gliding, filamentous, phycoerythrin-rich cyanobacterium that has been found only in the horizontally migrating, pathogenic microbial mat, black band disease (BBD) on Caribbean corals. R. reptotaenium dominates the BBD mat in terms of biomass and motility, and the filaments form the mat fabric. This cyanobacterium produces the cyanotoxin microcystin, predominately MC-LR, and can tolerate high levels of sulfide produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) that are also associated with BBD. Laboratory cultures of R. reptotaenium infect coral fragments, suggesting that the cyanobacterium is the primary pathogen of BBD, but since this species cannot grow axenically and Koch's Postulates cannot be fulfilled, it cannot be proposed as a primary pathogen. However, R. reptotaenium does play several major pathogenic roles in this polymicrobial disease. Here, we provide an overview of the ecology of this coral pathogen and present new information on R. reptotaenium ecophysiology, including roles in the infection process, chemotactic and other motility responses, and the effect of pH on growth and motility. Additionally, we show, using metabolomics, that exposure of the BBD microbial community to the cyanotoxin MC-LR affects community metabolite profiles, in particular those associated with nucleic acid biosynthesis. PMID:25517133

  8. Sheep mortality associated with paralytic shellfish poisons from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P Negri; Gary J Jones; Michael Hindmarsh

    1995-01-01

    This is the first report of sheep mortalities associated with paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis Rabenhorst. Fourteen sheep died within 150 m of a farm dam containing a dense bloom of A. circinalis. Extracts from both the cyanobacterium and small intestine from a dead ewe were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and found to contain

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanocapsa montana BDHKU 210001

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sourav; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Sen, Deeya; Panda, Arijit; Ghorai, Arpita; Bhan, Sushma; Sanghi, Neha

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time the draft genome sequence of Aphanocapsa montana BDHKU 210001, a halotolerant cyanobacterium isolated from India. This is a marine exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing cyanobacterium. The genome of this species is assembled into 11.50 million bases, with 296 scaffolds carrying approximately 7,296 protein-coding genes. PMID:25744997

  10. Structure of the Soluble Domain of Cytochrome f from the Cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum,

    E-print Network

    Cramer, William A.

    Structure of the Soluble Domain of Cytochrome f from the Cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum ABSTRACT: Cytochrome f from the photosynthetic cytochrome b6f complex is unique among c-type cytochromes of cytochrome f from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum demonstrates that an unusual buried

  11. Chemokinetic motility responses of the cyanobacterium oscillatoria terebriformis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillatoria terebriformis, a gliding, filamentous, thermophilic cyanobacterium, exhibited an inhibition of gliding motility upon exposure to fructose. The observed response was transient, and the duration of nonmotility was directly proportional to the concentration of fructose. Upon resumption of motility, the rate of motility was also inversely proportional to the concentration of fructose. Sulfide caused a similar response. The effect of sulfide was specific and not due to either anoxia or negative redox potential. Exposure to glucose, acetate, lactate, or mat interstitial water did not elicit any motility response.

  12. Hapalindole-related Alkaloids from the Cultured Cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Shunyan; Krunic, Aleksej; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Orjala, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    Four new hapalindole-related alkaloids, namely fischambiguines A and B, ambiguine P, ambiguine Q nitrile as well as ambiguine G nitrile were identified from the cultured cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua (UTEX 1903). The structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis including MS, 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The alkaloids possessed fused penta- and hexacyclic carbon skeletons. Fischambiguine B displayed a strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an MIC value of 2 ?M, with no detectable cytotoxicity in a Vero cell line. PMID:20965528

  13. Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in cyanobacterial cultures

    DOEpatents

    Piven, Irina; Friedrich, Alexandra; Duhring, Ulf; Uliczka, Frank; Baier, Kerstin; Inaba, Masami; Shi, Tuo; Wang, Kui; Enke, Heike; Kramer, Dan

    2014-09-30

    A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

  14. Mössbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambe, Shizuko

    1990-07-01

    Mössbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Mössbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with57Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) labeled with57Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with57Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein.

  15. The acid stress response of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean J. Huang; Nancy H. Kolodny; Jennifer T. Redfearn; Mary M. Allen

    2002-01-01

    . The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6308 has been shown to exhibit predictable physiological responses to acid stress. Originally isolated from a Wisconsin lake, this cyanobacterium grows optimally under alkaline conditions in the laboratory. After acid stress at a pH of between 4.4 and 7.7, cells return to exponential growth following a lag phase. The organism's response to this

  16. Anesthetic Binding in a Pentameric Ligand-Gated Ion Channel: GLIC Qiang Chen,6

    E-print Network

    Xu, Yan

    of these channels is still limited. Cys-loop receptors, a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs), have and GABA receptors with anion-selective channels and serotonin 5HT3 receptors and nicotinic acetyl- choline of interactions between anesthetics and cys-loop receptors. Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion

  17. Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, G.W.

    1985-05-01

    The present study supplies interaction data for combinations of mercuric ion (supplied as mercuric chloride), atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate) when tested towards growth of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena inaequalis. Mercury is one of the most important heavy metal pollutants and has been widely used in toxicology research. Atrazine is the most heavily used pesticide in the United States and its residues are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Permethrin is an important insecticide with expanding markets and is presently being evaluated for its environmental impact. A. inaequalis has been used extensively in this laboratory in previous interaction studies.

  18. Outdoor biophotolytic system using the cyanobacterium anabaena cylindrica B629

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.; Lambert, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica B629 was suspended in small glass beads and incubated in a gas-tight glass vessel outdoors under a gas atmosphere comprising carbon monoxide (0.2%), acetylene (5%), oxygen (6.5%), and nitrogen. The solution phase initially contained sodium bicarbonate (10mM) at pH 7. Under these conditions the organism continuously produced hydrogen gas for over three weeks. The temperature of the culture was maintained below 30 /degree/C and the minimum night temperatures were recorded. The vessel was covered by a shadecloth, which reduced the natural illumination by approximately 70%. The system is an alternative to those requiring the strict absence of oxygen and little nitrogen, and requires virtually no attention during the incubation period. 18 refs.

  19. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, T.

    1988-03-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

  20. A New Lyngbyatoxin from the Hawaiian Cyanobacterium Moorea producens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weina; Zhou, Wei; Uchida, Hajime; Kikumori, Masayuki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Bryan; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Lyngbyatoxin A from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) is known as the causative agent of “swimmer’s itch” with its highly inflammatory effect. A new toxic compound was isolated along with lyngbyatoxin A from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies revealed the isolated compound had the same planar structure with that of lyngbyatoxin A. The results of optical rotation and CD spectra indicated that the compound was a new lyngbyatoxin A derivative, 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A (1). While 12-epi-lyngbyatoxin A showed comparable toxicities with lyngbyatoxin A in cytotoxicity and crustacean lethality tests, it showed more than 100 times lower affinity for protein kinase C? (PKC?) using the PKC?-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. PMID:24824022

  1. Induction of anaerobic, photoautotrophic growth in the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica.

    PubMed Central

    Oren, A; Padan, E

    1978-01-01

    Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). The photoanaerobic growth rate (2 days doubling time) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions. The potential of oxygenic photosynthesis is constitutive in the cells; that of anoxygenic photosynthesis is rapidly (2 h) induced in the presence of Na2S in the light in a process requiring protein synthesis. The facultative anaerobic phototrophic growth physiology exhibited by O. limnetica would seem to represent an intermediate physiological pattern between the obligate anaerobic one of photosynthetic bacteria and the oxygenic one of eucaryotic algae. PMID:415043

  2. Two New Lyngbyatoxin Derivatives from the Cyanobacterium, Moorea producens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weina; Tan, Satoshi; Hanaki, Yusuke; Irie, Kazuhiro; Uchida, Hajime; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sakamoto, Bryan; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The toxin-producing cyanobacterium, Moorea producens, is a known causative organism of food poisoning and seaweed dermatitis (also known as “swimmer’s itch”). Two new toxic compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated from an ethyl acetate extract of M. producens collected from Hawaii. Analyses of HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopies, as well as optical rotations and CD spectra indicated two new lyngbyatoxin derivatives, 2-oxo-3(R)-hydroxy-lyngbyatoxin A (1) and 2-oxo-3(R)-hydroxy-13-N-desmethyl-lyngbyatoxin A (2). The cytotoxicity and lethal activities of 1 and 2 were approximately 10- to 150-times less potent than lyngbyatoxin A. Additionally, the binding activities of 1 and 2 possessed 10,000-times lower affinity for the protein kinase C? (PKC?)-C1B peptide when compared to lyngbyatoxin A. These findings suggest that these new lyngbyatoxin derivatives may mediate their acute toxicities through a non-PKC activation pathway. PMID:25470181

  3. Anticancer compounds from cyanobacterium Lyngbya species: a review.

    PubMed

    Swain, Shasank S; Padhy, Rabindra N; Singh, Pawan K

    2015-08-01

    The use of synthetic anticancer drugs and other methods followed in cancer therapy have several side effects; and ineffective methods or drugs give a way to the emergence of drug resistant cancer cells, with the intrinsic metastasis as the aftermath. Anticancer efficacy of many cyanobacterial compounds has been claimed in literature. This review considers 144 compounds isolated and characterized from seven species of the non-nitrogen fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya, as the source of antineoplastic agents, which have been screened primarily with cancer cell lines. Structure and information of Lyngbya compounds were retrieved from databases, PubChem, ChemSpider and ChEBI. Information and clinical status of Lyngbya compounds are summarized, and those might be the future anticancer drugs for drug-resistant cancer cells even, as complementary/adduct drugs, if pursued thoroughly in pharmacology and pharmaceutics. PMID:26026796

  4. Comparative amperometric study of uptake hydrogenase and hydrogen photoproduction activities between heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica B629 and nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1985-08-01

    Heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica B629 and nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain Miami BG7 were cultured in media with N/sub 2/ as the sole nitrogen source; and activities of oxygen-dependent hydrogen uptake, photohydrogen production photooxygen evolution, and respiration were compared amperometrically under the same or similar experimental conditions for both strains. Distinct differences in these activities were observed in both strains. The rates of hydrogen photoproduction and hydrogen accumulation were significantly higher in Oscillatoria sp. strain BG7 than in A. cylindrica B629 at every light intensity tested. The major reason for the difference was attributable to the fact that the heterocystous cyanobacterium had a high rate of oxygen-dependent hydrogen consumption activity and the nonheterocystous cyanobacterium did not. The activity of oxygen photoevolution and respiration also contributed to the difference. Oscillatoria sp. strain BG7 had lower O/sub 2/ evolution and higher respiration than did A. cylindrica B629. Thus, the effect of O/sub 2/ on hydrogen photoproduction was minimized in Oscillatoria sp. strain BG7. 32 references, 5 figures.

  5. Article published in Nucleic Acids Research 2001, Vol. 29, No. 7 DNA methyltransferases of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

    E-print Network

    Elhai, Jeff

    of the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 Andrey V. Matveyev, Kathryn T. Young, Andrew Meng, and Jeff Elhai* Department by the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 has been deduced. Anabaena has nine DNA MTases. Four are associated with Type II/). The insensitivity of genomes of the filamentous cyanobacteria within the genera Anabaena and Nostoc to digestion

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Cyanobacterium Geminocystis sp. Strain NIES-3708, Which Performs Type II Complementary Chromatic Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Yuu; Katayama, Mitsunori; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Misawa, Naomi; Iioka, Erica; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan; Eki, Toshihiko; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yo; Ishida, Makoto; Hattori, Masahira

    2015-01-01

    To explore the variation of the light-regulated genes during complementary chromatic acclimation (CCA), we determined the complete genome sequence of the cyanobacterium Geminocystis sp. strain NIES-3708. Within the light-regulated operon for CCA, we found genes for phycoerythrin but not phycocyanin, suggesting that this cyanobacterium modulates phycoerythrin composition only (type II CCA). PMID:25953174

  7. Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Isomura, Naoko; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Coral populations are in decline due to environmental changes and biological attacks by predators and infectious diseases. Here, we report a localized bloom of the benthic filamentous cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii (formerly Lyngbya bouillonii) observed exclusively on the gorgonian (sea fan) coral Annella reticulata at around 20?m depth in Japan. The degree of infection has reached 26% among different sizes of Annella colonies. Thick and continuous growth of Moorea may be sustained partly by symbiotic alpheid shrimp, which affix Moorea filaments to gorgonian corals for use as food and shelter. Most filaments get entangled on the coral colony, some penetrate into the stem of the coral with a swollen end like a root hair, which appears to function as an anchor in Annella. In addition to the cyanobacterium–shrimp interaction, the new trait of anchoring by the cyanobacterium into gorgonian coral may contribute to persistence of this bloom. PMID:25112498

  8. Radiation characteristics and optical properties of filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ri-Liang; Lee, Euntaek; Pilon, Laurent

    2014-04-01

    This study presents experimental measurements of the absorption and scattering cross sections and the spectral complex index of refraction of filamentous cyanobacteria. Filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica was chosen as a model organism. Its filaments consisted of long chains of polydisperse cells. Their average mass scattering and absorption cross sections were measured from 400 to 750 nm at four different times during their batch growth in medium BG-11(-N) under 3000 lux of white fluorescent light. The effective real (or refraction index) and imaginary (or absorption index) parts of the complex index of refraction were retrieved using an inverse method based on a genetic algorithm. The microorganisms were modeled as infinitely long and randomly oriented volume-equivalent cylinders. The absorption index featured peaks corresponding to chlorophyll a (Chl a) at 436 and 676 nm and phycocyanin (PCCN) at 630 nm and a shoulder around 480 nm, corresponding to photoprotective carotenoids. The absorption peaks of Chl a and PCCN concentrations increased and the shoulder due to carotenoids decreased in response to photolimitation caused by biomass growth. Subsequent nitrogen limitation caused the PCCN absorption peak to decrease significantly due to degradation of PCCN as an endogenous source of nitrogen for nitrogenase maintenance and synthesis, as confirmed by increasing heterocyst differentiation. The results can be used for predicting and optimizing light transfer in photobioreactors for wastewater treatment and ammonia or biofuel production. PMID:24695147

  9. Time-Course Analysis of Cyanobacterium Transcriptome: Detecting Oscillatory Genes

    PubMed Central

    Layana, Carla; Diambra, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The microarray technique allows the simultaneous measurements of the expression levels of thousands of mRNAs. By mining these data one can identify the dynamics of the gene expression time series. The detection of genes that are periodically expressed is an important step that allows us to study the regulatory mechanisms associated with the circadian cycle. The problem of finding periodicity in biological time series poses many challenges. Such challenge occurs due to the fact that the observed time series usually exhibit non-idealities, such as noise, short length, outliers and unevenly sampled time points. Consequently, the method for finding periodicity should preferably be robust against such anomalies in the data. In this paper, we propose a general and robust procedure for identifying genes with a periodic signature at a given significance level. This identification method is based on autoregressive models and the information theory. By using simulated data we show that the suggested method is capable of identifying rhythmic profiles even in the presence of noise and when the number of data points is small. By recourse of our analysis, we uncover the circadian rhythmic patterns underlying the gene expression profiles from Cyanobacterium Synechocystis. PMID:22028849

  10. Characterization of four superoxide dismutase genes from a filamentous cyanobacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, W S; Laudenbach, D E

    1995-01-01

    By using an oligonucleotide probe constructed from a conserved region of amino acids located in the carboxyl-terminal end of superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins, four SOD genes were cloned from the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum UTEX 485. One of these genes, designated sodB, encoded an FeSOD enzyme, while the remaining three genes, designated sodA1, sodA2, and sodA3, encoded MnSOD enzymes. To investigate the expression of these four genes, total cellular RNA was isolated from P. boryanum UTEX 485 cells grown under various conditions and RNA gel blot analysis was carried out. Results indicated that sodB and sodA1 were constitutively expressed, although sodB expression was partially repressed in cells grown under conditions of iron stress. sodA2 transcripts, which were not detectable in control cells, accumulated to high levels in cells treated with methyl viologen or in cells grown under conditions of iron or nitrogen stress. However, under microaerobic conditions, iron and nitrogen stress failed to induce sodA2, indicating that multiple factors affect the regulation of sodA2. While discrete transcripts were not detected for sodA3, hybridization was observed under a number of conditions, including those which increased the accumulation of sodA2 transcripts. Additionally, there were high levels of the sodA3 transcript detected in a P. boryanum UTEX 485 mutant strain resistant to methyl viologen treatment. PMID:7860607

  11. Deciphering the Genome Sequences of the Hydrophobic Cyanobacterium Scytonema tolypothrichoides VB-61278

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhishek; Panda, Arijit; Singh, Deeksha; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Bhan, Sushma

    2015-01-01

    Scytonema tolypothrichoides VB-61278, a terrestrial cyanobacterium, can be exploited to produce commercially important products. Here, we report for the first time a 10-Mb draft genome assembly of S. tolypothrichoides VB-61278, with 214 scaffolds and 7,148 putative protein-coding genes. PMID:25838486

  12. An overview of the genome of Nostoc punctiforme, a multicellular, symbiotic cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Meeks; Jeff Elhai; Teresa Thiel; Malcolm Potts; Frank Larimer; Jane Lamerdin; Paul Predki; Ronald Atlas

    2001-01-01

    Nostoc punctiforme is a filamentous cyanobacterium with extensive phenotypic characteristics and a relatively large genome, approaching 10 Mb. The phenotypic characteristics include a photoautotrophic, diazotrophic mode of growth, but N. punctiforme is also facultatively heterotrophic; its vegetative cells have multiple developmental alternatives, including terminal differentiation into nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and transient differentiation into spore-like akinetes or motile filaments called hormogonia; and

  13. Sustained ammonia production by immobilized filaments of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena 27893

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan C. Musgrave; Nigel W. Kerby; Geoffrey A. Codd; William D. P. Stewart

    1982-01-01

    Whole filaments of the N2-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena ATCC 27893 have been immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate gel beads. In a continuous flow fluidized bed reactor sustained photosynthesis, N2-fixation, and ammonia production have been achieved over a 130 hour period, the longest tested.

  14. Seasonal dynamics of the endosymbiotic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edo Bar Zeev; Tali Yogev; Dikla Man-Aharonovich; Nurit Kress; Barak Herut; Oded Béjŕ; Ilana Berman-Frank

    2008-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation has been suggested as an important source of nitrogen for the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the Levantine Basin of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we identify and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the N-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis. R. intracellularis is usually found as an endosymbiont within diatoms such as Rhizosolenia spp and Hemiaulus spp.

  15. Major Role of the Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium in Nutrient Cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Carpenter; Kristen Romans

    1991-01-01

    The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is a large (about 0.5 by 3 millimeters) phytoplankter that is common in tropical open-ocean waters. Measurements of abundance, plus a review of earlier observations, indicate that it, rather than the picophytoplankton, is the most important primary producer (about 165 milligrams of carbon per square meter per day) in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, nitrogen

  16. Competition for Light between Toxic and Nontoxic Strains of the Harmful Cyanobacterium Microcystis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. A. Kardinaal; L. Tonk; I. Janse; S. Hol; P. Slot; J. Huisman; P. M. Visser

    2007-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis can produce microcystins, a family of toxins that are of major concern in water management. In several lakes, the average microcystin content per cell gradually declines from high levels at the onset of Microcystis blooms to low levels at the height of the bloom. Such seasonal dynamics might result from a succession of toxic to nontoxic strains.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. Strain Heron Island J, Exhibiting Chromatic Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robin; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Buss, Kristina; Steel, Jason; Mohr, Remus; Hess, Wolfgang R.; Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    Leptolyngbya sp. strain Heron Island is a cyanobacterium exhibiting chromatic acclimation. However, this strain has strong interactions with other bacteria, making it impossible to obtain axenic cultures for sequencing. A protocol involving an analysis of tetranucleotide frequencies, G+C content, and BLAST searches has been described for separating the cyanobacterial scaffolds from those of its cooccurring bacteria. PMID:24503993

  18. Effects of iron limitation on the expression of metabolic genes in the marine cyanobacterium

    E-print Network

    Effects of iron limitation on the expression of metabolic genes in the marine cyanobacterium Department of Geological Sciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Summary Iron deficiency the major iron-binding pro- teins, including psbA and psbE of photosystem II, psaA and psaC of photosystem I

  19. Food quality of detritus derived from the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica for Daphnia galeata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Repka; Michele van der Vlies; Jacobus Vijverberg

    1998-01-01

    Detritus derived from the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was fed to Daphnia galeata. Detritus supported growth and reproduction comparable to that on the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The live filaments of O.limnetica were, however, of lower food quality. Biochemical parameters of these food types, thought to be important in Daphnia nutrition, were also determined. It is concluded that detritus can

  20. Gene Recognition in Cyanobacterium Genomic Sequence Data Using the Hidden Markov Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsushi Yada; Makoto Hirosawa

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a hidden Markov model (HMM) to detect the protein coding regions within one megabase contiguous sequence data, registered in a database called GenBank in eight entries, of the genome of cyanobacterium, Sgne- chocystis sp. strain PCC6803. Detection of the coding regions in the database entry was per- formed by using HMM whose parameters were determined by taking

  1. The Effect of Polymeric Substances on Apatite Reactivity in the Presence of a Freshwater Cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Schaperdoth; Laura J. Liermann; Susan L. Brantley

    2007-01-01

    Marine cyanobacteria have evolved phosphate uptake systems to live where P is limiting. Ultimately, P derives from apatite in rocks but little is known about apatite solubilization by cyanobacteria. Fluorapatite (FAP) was added to a P-free culture medium with and without Anabaena, as well as in cell-free supernatant to test reports that the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 enhances the dissolution

  2. CRISPR-Cas Systems in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Exhibit Distinct Processing

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    CRISPR-Cas Systems in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Exhibit Distinct Processing, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany Abstract The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short. A hallmark of CRISPR-Cas is the involvement of short crRNAs that guide associated proteins in the destruction

  3. New Pigments from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. Collected on the Mitaraka Inselberg, French Guyana

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 New Pigments from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. Collected on the Mitaraka of the ultraviolet-screening, photostable sheath pigment scytonemin. The organic extract of Scytonema sp., collected on the Mitaraka inselberg, French Guyana, yielded three new pigments, tetramethoxyscytonemin (1

  4. Potassium uptake in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 mainly depends on

    E-print Network

    Roegner, Matthias

    Potassium uptake in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 mainly depends First published online 3 July 2003 Edited by Stuart Ferguson Abstract The molecular basis of potassium potassium transporters can be identi˘ed in the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Mutants

  5. Reduction of Photoautotrophic Productivity in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 by Phycobilisome Antenna Truncation

    PubMed Central

    Page, Lawrence E.; Liberton, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Truncation of the algal light-harvesting antenna is expected to enhance photosynthetic productivity. The wild type and three mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. strain 6803 with a progressively smaller phycobilisome antenna were examined under different light and CO2 conditions. Surprisingly, such antenna truncation resulted in decreased whole-culture productivity for this cyanobacterium. PMID:22706065

  6. Abundance of active and inactive microcystin genotypes in populations of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Kurmayer; Guntram Christiansen; Jutta Fastner; Thomas Borner

    2004-01-01

    Summary To investigate the abundance of active and inactive microcystin genotypes in populations of the filamen- tous cyanobacterium Planktothrix spp., individual filaments were grown as clonal strains in the labora- tory and analysed for microcystin synthetase ( mcy ) genes and microcystin. Twenty-three green-pigmented strains of P. agardhii originating mostly from shallow water bodies fell into two groups, those possessing

  7. Isolation of Chlorine-Containing Antibiotic from the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Scytonema hofmanni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Mason; K. R. Edwards; R. E. Carlson; J. Pignatello; F. K. Gleason; J. M. Wood

    1982-01-01

    Scytonema hofmanni, a filamentous freshwater cyanobacterium (blue-green alga), produces secondary metabolites which inhibit the growth of other cyanobacteria and green algae. A rapid, qualitative assay for this inhibition has been developed with Synechococcus as the test organism. This assay procedure has led to the isolation and characterization of an antibiotic (named cyanobacterin) from Scytonema. The antibiotic has a molecular weight

  8. Evidence for Paralytic Shellfish Poisons in the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. W. CARMICHAEL; W. R. EVANS; Q. Q. YIN; P. BELL; E. MOCZYDLOWSKI

    1997-01-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prev- alent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville

  9. Effects of Solar UV Radiation on Morphology and Photosynthesis of Filamentous Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyan Wu; Kunshan Gao; Virginia E. Villafane; Teruo Watanabe; E. Walter Helbling

    2005-01-01

    To study the impact of solar UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) on the filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis, we examined the morphological changes and photosynthetic performance using an indoor-grown strain (which had not been exposed to sunlight for decades) and an outdoor-grown strain (which had been grown under sunlight for decades) while they were cultured with three solar

  10. Acclimation to and recovery from cadmium and zinc exposure by a freshwater cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zeng; Liuyan Yang; Wen-Xiong Wang

    2009-01-01

    To understand the metal tolerance of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, we investigated its acclimation to and recovery from cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) exposure. The intracellular Cd and Zn (intra-Cd and intra-Zn) quotas increased upon acclimation to increased metal concentrations and were reduced following 1-day or 5-day recovery. Different acclimation to varying metal concentrations or durations (5 days or

  11. Ultrafast Dynamics of Phytochrome from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis, Reconstituted with Phycocyanobilin and Phycoerythrobilin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Heyne; Johannes Herbst; Dietmar Stehlik; Berta Esteban; Tilman Lamparter; Jon Hughes; Rolf Diller

    2002-01-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy was employed to characterize for the first time the primary photoisomerization dynamics of a bacterial phytochrome system in the two thermally stable states of the photocycle. The 85-kDa phytochrome Cph1 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 expressed in Escherichia coli was reconstituted with phycocyanobilin (Cph1-PCB) and phycoerythrobilin (Cph1-PEB). The red-light-absorbing form Pr of Cph1-PCB shows

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema millei VB511283, Isolated from Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Sen, Diya; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Singh, Deeksha; Sanghi, Neha; Ghorai, Arpita; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Madduluri, Madhavi; Adhikary, Siba Prasad; Tripathy, Sucheta

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Scytonema millei VB511283, a cyanobacterium isolated from biofilms on the exterior of stone monuments in Santiniketan, eastern India. The draft genome is 11,627,246 bp long (11.63 Mb), with 118 scaffolds. About 9,011 protein-coding genes, 117 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs are predicted from this assembly. PMID:25744984

  13. Sterol compositions of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing terrestrial cyanobacterium Scytonema sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. ?ezanka; V. M. Dembitsky; J. V. Go; I. Dor; A. Prell; L. Hanuš

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen unsaturated sterols were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using serially-coupled capillary columns\\u000a from the filamentous nitrogen-fixing terrestrial cyanobacteriumScytonema sp. isolated from the microbial community of cyanobacterial on ‘Black Cover’ biofilms lime-stone walls in Jerusalem. The\\u000a dominant sterols were cholest-5-en-3?-ol (18.9 %), 3?-methoxycholest-5-ene (16.2 %) and 3?-acetoxycholest-5-ene (11.2 %).

  14. Eucapsitrione, an Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Anthraquinone Derivative from the Cultured Freshwater Cyanobacterium Eucapsis sp.

    PubMed Central

    Sturdy, Megan; Krunic, Aleksej; Cho, Sanghyun; Franzblau, Scott; Orjala, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    Eucapsitrione (1), an anthraquinone derivative with an indeno-anthracene-trione skeleton, was isolated from the cyanobacterium Eucapsis sp. (UTEX 1519) by bioassay-guided fractionation. The chemical structure was determined by analyzing MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Eucapsitrione (1) showed anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity in the microplate Alamar blue assay and low-oxygen-recovery assay with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.4 µM, respectively. PMID:20795743

  15. A novel rhythm of microcystin biosynthesis is described in the cyanobacterium Microcystis panniformis Komárek et al

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira; Paula Kujbida; Karina Helena Morais Cardozo; Valdemir Melechco Carvalho; Ariadne do Nascimento Moura; Pio Colepicolo; Ernani Pinto

    2005-01-01

    The presence of microcystins (MCY) in the cyanobacteria Microcystis panniformis Komárek et al. is reported for the first time. This strain of cyanobacterium has been isolated from Barra Bonita, an eutrophicated water reservoir in Săo Paulo state, Brazil. The identification of M. panniformis was confirmed by both traditional morphological analysis and the phycocyanin intergenic spacer sequences. MCY-LR and [Asp3]-MCY-LR were

  16. Flavonoid-Induced Expression of a Symbiosis-Related Gene in the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael F.; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    The flavonoid naringin was found to induce the expression of hrmA, a gene with a symbiotic phenotype in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme. A comparative analysis of several flavonoids revealed the 7-O-neohesperidoside, 4?-OH, and C-2 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 000000000000 C-3 double bond in naringin as structural determinants of its hrmA-inducing activity. PMID:10913102

  17. Growth characteristics of the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme in photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haifeng Yu; Shiru Jia; Yujie Dai

    2009-01-01

    Nostoc flagelliforme is a terrestrial cyanobacterium with high economic value. Dissociated cells separated from a natural colony of N. flagelliforme were cultivated for 7 days under either phototrophic, mixotrophic or heterotrophic culture conditions. The highest biomass,\\u000a 1.67 g L?1 cell concentration, was obtained under mixotrophic culture, representing 4.98 and 2.28 times the biomass obtained in phototrophic\\u000a and heterotrophic cultures, respectively. The biomass in

  18. Genome Erosion in a Nitrogen-Fixing Vertically Transmitted Endosymbiotic Multicellular Cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Ran; John Larsson; Theoden Vigil-Stenman; Johan A. A. Nylander; Karolina Ininbergs; Wei-Wen Zheng; Alla Lapidus; Stephen Lowry; Robert Haselkorn; Birgitta Bergman; Niyaz Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAn ancient cyanobacterial incorporation into a eukaryotic organism led to the evolution of plastids (chloroplasts) and subsequently to the origin of the plant kingdom. The underlying mechanism and the identities of the partners in this monophyletic event remain elusive.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo shed light on this evolutionary process, we sequenced the genome of a cyanobacterium residing extracellularly in an endosymbiosis with a

  19. Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshitomo Watanabe; D. O. Hall; J. De La Nouee

    1995-01-01

    The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m² basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema millei VB511283, Isolated from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Diya; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Singh, Deeksha; Sanghi, Neha; Ghorai, Arpita; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Madduluri, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Scytonema millei VB511283, a cyanobacterium isolated from biofilms on the exterior of stone monuments in Santiniketan, eastern India. The draft genome is 11,627,246 bp long (11.63 Mb), with 118 scaffolds. About 9,011 protein-coding genes, 117 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs are predicted from this assembly. PMID:25744984

  1. Ecological genomics of the newly discovered diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium ESFC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everroad, C.; Bebout, B.; Bebout, L. E.; Detweiler, A. M.; Lee, J.; Mayali, X.; Singer, S. W.; Stuart, R.; Weber, P. K.; Woebken, D.; Pett-Ridge, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mats played a key role in the evolution of the early Earth and provide a model for exploring the relationships between ecology, evolution and biogeochemistry. A recently described nonheterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium, strain ESFC-1, has been shown to be a major diazotroph year round in the intertidal microbial mat system at Elkhorn Slough, CA, USA. Based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16s RNA gene, ESFC-1 appears to belong to a unique, genus-level divergence within the cyanobacteria. Consequently, the draft genome sequence of this strain has been determined. Here we report features of this genome, particularly as they relate to the ecological functions and capabilities of strain ESFC-1. One striking feature of this cyanobacterium is the apparent lack of a functional bi-directional hydrogenase typically expected to be found within a diazotroph; consortia- and culture-based experiments exploring the metabolic processes of ESFC-1 also indicate that this hydrogenase is absent. Co-culture studies with ESFC-1 and some of the dominant heterotrophic members within the microbial mat system, including the ubiquitous Flavobacterium Muricauda sp., which often is found associated with cyanobacteria in nature and in culture collections worldwide, have also been performed. We report on these species-species interactions, including materials exchange between the cyanobacterium and heterotrophic bacterium. The combination of genomics with culture- and consortia-based experimental research is a powerful tool for understanding microbial processes and interactions in complex ecosystems.

  2. Influence of Leaching Parameters on the Biological Removal of Uranium from Coal by a Filamentous Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Michael G.; Krumbein, Wolfgang E.

    1985-01-01

    Axenic cultures of the filamentous cyanobacterium LPP OL3 were incubated with samples of uraniumbearing coal from a German mining area. The influence of leaching parameters such as coal concentration (pulp density), initial biomass, particle size, temperature, and composition of the growth medium on the leaching of uranium from the ore by the cyanobacterial strain was studied. When low pulp densities were applied, the yield of biologically extracted uranium was optimal (reaching 96% at 1% [wt/vol] coal) and all released uranium was found in the culture liquid. Above 10% (wt/vol) coal in the medium, the amount of cell-bound uranium increased. Initial biomass concentration (protein content of the cultures) and particle size were not critical parameters of leaching by LPP OL3. However, temperature and composition of the growth medium profoundly influenced the leaching of uranium and growth of the cyanobacterium. The yield of leached uranium (at 10% [wt/vol] coal) could not be raised with a tank leaching apparatus. Also, coal ashes were not suitable substrates for the leaching of uranium by LPP OL3. In conclusion, the reactions of the cyanobacterium to variations in leaching parameters were different from reactions of acidic leaching organisms. Images PMID:16346934

  3. Role of manganese in protection against oxidative stress under iron starvation in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Verma, Ekta; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2015-06-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 was grown in presence and absence of iron to decipher the role of manganese in protection against the oxidative stress under iron starvation and growth, manganese uptake kinetics, antioxidative enzymes, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, thiol content, total peroxide, proline and NADH content was investigated. Manganese supported the growth of cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 under iron deprived conditions where maximum uptake rate of manganese was observed with lower Km and higher Vmax values. Antioxidative enzymes were also found to be elevated in iron-starved conditions. Estimation of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage depicted the role of manganese in stabilizing the integrity of the membrane which was considered as the prime target of oxygen free radicals in oxidative stress. The levels of total peroxide, thiol, proline and NADH content, which are the representative of oxidative stress response in Anabaena 7120, were also showed increasing trends in iron starvation. Hence, the results discerned, clearly suggested the role of manganese in protection against the oxidative stress in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 under iron starvation either due to its antioxidative properties or involvement as cofactor in a number of antioxidative enzymes. PMID:25572501

  4. The exposure of green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) to tumour promoting compounds produced by the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula and their potential role in the aetiology of fibropapillomatosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Arthur; Colin Limpus; George Balazs; Angela Capper; James Udy; Glen Shaw; Ursula Keuper-Bennett; Peter Bennett

    2008-01-01

    Lyngbya majuscula, a benthic filamentous cyanobacterium found throughout tropical and subtropical oceans, has been shown to contain the tumour promoting compounds lyngbyatoxin A (LA) and debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT). It grows epiphytically on seagrass and macroalgae, which also form the basis of the diet of the herbivorous green turtle (Chelonia mydas). This toxic cyanobacterium has been observed growing in regions where turtles

  5. Aerobic hydrogen accumulation by a nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp

    SciTech Connect

    Asada, Y.; Kawamura, S.

    1986-05-01

    Hydrogen evolution by a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain N-7363, was tested in order to develop a water biophotolysis system under aerobic conditions. A culture of the strain supplemented with carbon dioxide under an air atmosphere evolved hydrogen and oxygen gas, which reached final concentrations of 9.7 and 69.8%, respectively, after 12 days of incubation. Hydrogen uptake activity was not observed during incubation, and nitrogenase was thought to be the sole enzyme responsible for the hydrogen evolution.

  6. Complete Genomic Sequence of the Filamentous Nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takakazu Kaneko; Yasukazu Nakamura; C. Peter Wolk; Tanya Kuritz; Shigemi Sasamoto; Akiko Watanabe; Mayumi Iriguchi; Atsuko Ishikawa; Kumiko Kawashima; Takaharu Kimura; Yoshie Kishida; Mitsuyo Kohara; Midori Matsumoto; Ai Matsuno; Akiko Muraki; Naomi Nakazaki; Sayaka Shimpo; Masako Sugimoto; Masaki Takazawa; Manabu Yamada; Miho Yasuda; Satoshi Tabata

    2001-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of a filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, was determined. The genome of Anabaena consisted of a single chromosome (6,413,771 bp) and six plasmids, designated pCC7120? (408,101 bp), pCC7120? (186,614 bp), pCC7120? (101,965 bp), pCC7120? (55,414 bp), pCC7120? (40,340 bp), and pCC7120? (5,584 bp). The chromosome bears 5368 po- tential protein-encoding genes,

  7. Inhibitory effect of petroleum oil on photosynthetic electron transport system in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.K.; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1991-12-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the site of action of oil and the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport, a process responsible for the generation of ATP and NADPH, which are essential for carbon fixation. The present study was an attempt to learn something about these aspects. The influence of diesel on photosynthetic O{sub 2}-evolution, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation, and electron transport system has been examined in Anabaena doliolum, a heterocystous cyanobacterium. A. doliolum and other heterocystous cyanobacteria are widely distributed in soil and aquatic ecosystems, and represent an important group of free-living nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

  8. A cyanobacterium that contains chlorophyll f--a red-absorbing photopigment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Li, Yaqiong; Birch, Debra; Willows, Robert D

    2012-09-21

    A Chl f-containing filamentous cyanobacterium was purified from stromatolites and named as Halomicronema hongdechloris gen., sp. nov. after its phylogenetic classification and the morphological characteristics. Hongdechloris contains four main carotenoids and two chlorophylls, a and f. The ratio of Chl f to Chl a is reversibly changed from 1:8 under red light to an undetectable level of Chl f under white-light culture conditions. Phycobiliproteins were induced under white light growth conditions. A fluorescence emission peak of 748 nm was identified as due to Chl f. The results suggest that Chl f is a red-light inducible chlorophyll. PMID:22796191

  9. Extraction and purification of an unusual phycoerythrin in a terrestrial desiccation tolerant cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Tripathi; Shivali Kapoor; Alpana Shrivastava

    2007-01-01

    Presence and stability of an unusual phycoerythrin (PE) characteristically similar to R-PE are described in a terrestrial,\\u000a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Lyngbya arboricola. Extraction and purification of the PE by using acetone precipitation, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography resulted\\u000a in achieving a purity index (A560\\/A280) of up to 5.2. SDS-PAGE of the PE showed presence of 18 kDa, 20 kDa and 32 kDa bands corresponding

  10. The effects of the toxic cyanobacterium Limnothrix (strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus larvae.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL(-1) of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to ?-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  11. Photosynthetic production of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis in a cone-shaped helical tubular photobioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Watanabe; D. O. Hall

    1996-01-01

    The photosynthetic productivity of the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis was investigated in a cone-shaped helical tubular photobioreactor. A laboratory-scale photobioreactor was constructed with a 0.255-m2 basal area and a conical shape (0.64rm highǴ.57rm top diameter). The photostage comprised transparent reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing with spirally wound, metal-wire reinforcing in the tubing wall (31rm in length and 1.6rcm internal diameter

  12. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL?1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to ?-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  13. Net light-induced oxygen evolution in photosystem I deletion mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    Net light-induced oxygen evolution in photosystem I deletion mutants of the cyanobacterium of net light-induced O2 evo- lution in vivo. The net light-induced O2 evolution requires glucose and can assimilate more CO2 in the light compared to the dark. However, the rate of the light-minus-dark CO2

  14. Draft genome sequence of calothrix strain 336/3, a novel h2-producing cyanobacterium isolated from a finnish lake.

    PubMed

    Isojärvi, Janne; Shunmugam, Sumathy; Sivonen, Kaarina; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari; Battchikova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Calothrix strain 336/3, an N2-fixing heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium isolated from a natural habitat. Calothrix 336/3 produces higher levels of hydrogen than Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Anabaena strain PCC 7120 and, therefore, is of interest for potential technological applications. PMID:25614574

  15. Time-series resolution of gradual nitrogen starvation and its impact on photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Krasikov; E. Aguirre von Wobeser; H. L. Dekker; J. Huisman; H. C. P. Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Sequential adaptation to nitrogen deprivation and ultimately to full starvation requires coordinated adjustment of cellular functions. We investigated changes in gene expression and cell physiology of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 during 96 h of nitrogen starvation. During the first 6 h, the transcriptome showed activation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation systems and of the core nitrogen and carbon assimilation

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Calothrix Strain 336/3, a Novel H2-Producing Cyanobacterium Isolated from a Finnish Lake

    PubMed Central

    Isojärvi, Janne; Shunmugam, Sumathy; Sivonen, Kaarina; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome sequence of Calothrix strain 336/3, an N2-fixing heterocystous filamentous cyanobacterium isolated from a natural habitat. Calothrix 336/3 produces higher levels of hydrogen than Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 and Anabaena strain PCC 7120 and, therefore, is of interest for potential technological applications. PMID:25614574

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-2549, a Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shigekatsu; Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Osana, Yasunori; Shimura, Yohei; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Kawachi, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-2549 is a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium isolated from Lake Kasumigaura, Japan. We report the complete 4.29-Mbp genome sequence of NIES-2549 and its annotation and discuss the genetic diversity of M. aeruginosa strains. This is the third genome sequence of M. aeruginosa isolated from Lake Kasumigaura. PMID:26021928

  18. Identification of a benthic microcystin-producing filamentous cyanobacterium (Oscillatoriales) associated with a dog poisoning in New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna A. Wood; Mark W. Heath; Patrick T. Holland; Rex Munday; Glenn B. McGregor; Ken G. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In November 2008 a dog died soon after ingesting benthic “algal” mat material from the Waitaki River, New Zealand. Based on a morphological examination of environmental material, the causative organism was putatively identified as the filamentous cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. Two strains (VUW25 and CYN61) were isolated and cultured to enable further taxonomic and cyanotoxin characterisation. Phylogenetic analyses based on a

  19. Solar PAR and UV radiation affects the physiology and morphology of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunshan Gao; Hongyan Yu; Murray T. Brown

    2007-01-01

    Solar UV radiation (280–400nm) may affect morphology of cyanobacteria, however, little has been evidenced on this aspect while their physiological responses were examined. We investigated the impacts of solar PAR and UVR on the growth, photosynthetic performance and morphology of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120 while it was grown under three different solar radiation treatments: exposures to (a) constant low

  20. Discovery of an Endosymbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium UCYN-A in Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Hagino, Kyoko; Onuma, Ryo; Kawachi, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    Braarudosphaera bigelowii (Prymnesiophyceae) is a coastal coccolithophore with a long fossil record, extending back to the late Cretaceous (ca. 100 Ma). A recent study revealed close phylogenetic relationships between B. bigelowii, Chrysochromulina parkeae (Prymnesiophyceae), and a prymnesiophyte that forms a symbiotic association with the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A. In order to further examine these relationships, we conducted transmission electron microscopic and molecular phylogenetic studies of B. bigelowii. TEM studies showed that, in addition to organelles, such as the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria, B. bigelowii contains one or two spheroid bodies with internal lamellae. In the 18S rDNA tree of the Prymnesiophyceae, C. parkeae fell within the B. bigelowii clade, and was close to B. bigelowii Genotype III (99.89% similarity). Plastid 16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were close to the unidentified sequences from the oligotrophic SE Pacific Ocean (e.g. HM133411) (99.86% similarity). Bacterial16S rDNA sequences obtained from B. bigelowii were identical to the UCYN-A sequence AY621693 from Arabian Sea, and fell in the UCYN-A clade. From these results, we suggest that; 1) C. parkeae is the alternate life cycle stage of B. bigelowii sensu stricto or that of a sibling species of B. bigelowii, and 2) the spheroid body of B. bigelowii originated from endosymbiosis of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium UCYN-A. PMID:24324722

  1. Unique thylakoid membrane architecture of a unicellular N2-fixing cyanobacterium revealed by electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Liberton, Michelle; Austin II, Jotham R; Berg, R. Howard; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  2. Aluminum effects on uptake and metabolism of phosphorus by the Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, A.; Haellbom, L. Bergman, B.

    1988-01-01

    Aluminum severely affects the growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica and induces symptoms indicating phosphorus starvation. Pre- or post-treating the cells with high (90 micromolar) phosphorus reduces the toxicity of aluminum compared to cells receiving a lower orthophosphate concentration. In this study aluminum (ranging from 9 to 36 micromolar) and phosphorus concentrations were chosen so that the precipitation of insoluble AlPO/sub 4/ never exceeded 10% of the total phosphate concentration. The uptake of /sup 32/P-phosphorus is not disturbed by aluminium either at high (100 micromolar) or low (10 micromolar) concentrations of phosphate. Also, the rapid accumulation of polyphosphate granules in cells exposed to aluminum indicates that the incorporation of phosphate is not disturbed. However, a significant decrease in the mobilization of the polyphosphates is observed, as is a lowered activity of the enzyme acid phosphatase, in aluminum treated cells. We conclude that aluminum acts on the intracellular metabolism of phosphate, which eventually leads to phosphorus starvation rather than on its uptake in the cyanobacterium A. cylindrica.

  3. Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, M; Amara, A; Aboul-Enein, A; Helmi, S; Ballot, A; Schnitzler, P

    2013-05-01

    Natural substances offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development with regard to broad spectrum antiviral properties and novel modes of action. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital herpetic infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug-resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. A nontoxic cyanobacterium Arthrospira strain from Chad has been characterized by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the phycocyanin gene. This cyanobacterium was identified as Arthrospira fusiformis by phylogenetic tree analysis. The antiherpetic activity of crude aqueous extracts from the Chad A. fusiformis isolate was determined. Antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex virus of cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract was assessed in plaque reduction assays and their mode of antiherpetic action was analysed. In virus suspension assays, cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract inhibited virus infectivity by 54.9%, 64.6%, and 99.8%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of cyanobacterial extracts separately at different time periods during the viral infection cycle. Extracts of A. fusiformis strain clearly inhibited herpesvirus multiplication before and during virus infection of host cells. The phosphate buffer extract of the A. fusiformis strain affected free herpes simplex virus prior to infection of host cells and inhibited intracellular viral replication. It is concluded, that Arthrospira compounds warrant further investigation to examine their potential role in the treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:23802437

  4. Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program. PMID:24959874

  5. Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142

    SciTech Connect

    Stockel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-02-22

    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ,30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for,5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  6. Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of a Unicellular N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Revealed by Electron Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Liberton, Michelle L.; Austin, Jotham R.; Berg, R. H.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, descendants of the endosymbiont that gave rise to modern-day chloroplasts, are vital contributors to global biological energy conversion processes. A thorough understanding of the physiology of cyanobacteria requires detailed knowledge of these organisms at the level of cellular architecture and organization. In these prokaryotes, the large membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains function in the intracellular thylakoid membranes. Like plants, the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in cyanobacteria has direct impact on cellular bioenergetics, protein transport, and molecular trafficking. However, whole-cell thylakoid organization in cyanobacteria is not well understood. Here we present, by using electron tomography, an in-depth analysis of the architecture of the thylakoid membranes in a unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. Based on the results of three-dimensional tomographic reconstructions of near-entire cells, we determined that the thylakoids in Cyanothece 51142 form a dense and complex network that extends throughout the entire cell. This thylakoid membrane network is formed from the branching and splitting of membranes and encloses a single lumenal space. The entire thylakoid network spirals as a peripheral ring of membranes around the cell, an organization that has not previously been described in a cyanobacterium. Within the thylakoid membrane network are areas of quasi-helical arrangement with similarities to the thylakoid membrane system in chloroplasts. This cyanobacterial thylakoid arrangement is an efficient means of packing a large volume of membranes in the cell while optimizing intracellular transport and trafficking.

  7. Dynamics of the Toxin Cylindrospermopsin and the Cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum in a Mediterranean Eutrophic Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Ali; Atoui, Ali; Lemaire, Bruno J.; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Slim, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Chrysosporum ovalisporum is a cylindrospermopsin toxin producing cyanobacterium that was reported in several lakes and reservoirs. Its growth dynamics and toxin distribution in field remain largely undocumented. Chrysosporum ovalisporum was reported in 2009 in Karaoun Reservoir, Lebanon. We investigated the factors controlling the occurrence of this cyanobacterium and vertical distribution of cylindrospermopsin in Karaoun Reservoir. We conducted bi-weekly sampling campaigns between May 2012 and August 2013. Results showed that Chrysosporum ovalisporum is an ecologically plastic species that was observed in all seasons. Unlike the high temperatures, above 26 °C, which is associated with blooms of Chrysosporum ovalisporum in Lakes Kinneret (Israel), Lisimachia and Trichonis (Greece) and Arcos Reservoir (Spain), Chrysosporum ovalisporum in Karaoun Reservoir bloomed in October 2012 at a water temperature of 22 °C during weak stratification. Cylindrospermopsin was detected in almost all water samples even when Chrysosporum ovalisporum was not detected. Chrysosporum ovalisporum biovolumes and cylindrospermopsin concentrations were not correlated (n = 31, r2 = ?0.05). Cylindrospermopsin reached a maximum concentration of 1.7 µg L?1. The vertical profiles of toxin concentrations suggested its possible degradation or sedimentation resulting in its disappearance from the water column. The field growth conditions of Chrysosporum ovalisporum in this study revealed that it can bloom at the subsurface water temperature of 22 °C increasing the risk of its development and expansion in lakes located in temperate climate regions. PMID:25354130

  8. Period doubling observed in the circadian photosynthetic rhythm of the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Cyanothece RF-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Tsu-Chiang; Cheng, Da-Long

    2005-03-01

    The circadian rhythm is an endogenous biological clock that governs biochemical phenomena or behavior in organisms. The Cyanothece RF-1 is the first prokaryote shown to exhibit circadian nitrogen-fixing rhythm. The observation of the circadian photosynthetic rhythm of this strain was recently reported by the authors. In this work, the dissolved-oxygen variation in the culture of Cyanothece RF-1 was recorded, which would reveal the photosynthetic activity of the strain. For a culture of about 1x10^8 cells/ml in concentration, a period-doubling pattern was clearly displayed in the circadian photosynthetic rhythm signals. The mechanism corresponding to this nonlinear effect will be discussed. These results represent the first observation of the period doubling in the circadian rhythm of a prokaryotic cyanobacterium.

  9. Sacrolide A, a new antimicrobial and cytotoxic oxylipin macrolide from the edible cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum.

    PubMed

    Oku, Naoya; Matsumoto, Miyako; Yonejima, Kohsuke; Tansei, Keijiroh; Igarashi, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Macroscopic gelatinous colonies of freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum, a luxury ingredient for Japanese cuisine, were found to contain a new oxylipin-derived macrolide, sacrolide A (1), as an antimicrobial component. The configuration of two chiral centers in 1 was determined by a combination of chiral anisotropy analysis and conformational analysis of different ring-opened derivatives. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of some species of Gram-positive bacteria, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, and was also cytotoxic to 3Y1 rat fibroblasts. Concern about potential food intoxication caused by accidental massive ingestion of A. sacrum was dispelled by the absence of 1 in commercial products. A manual procedure for degrading 1 in raw colonies was also developed, enabling a convenient on-site detoxification at restaurants or for personal consumption. PMID:25161741

  10. Back from the dead; the curious tale of the predatory cyanobacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Rochelle M.; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Parks, Donovan H.; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-01-01

    An uncultured non-photosynthetic basal lineage of the Cyanobacteria, the Melainabacteria, was recently characterised by metagenomic analyses of aphotic environmental samples. However, a predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, originally described in 1972 appears to be the first cultured representative of the Melainabacteria based on a 16S rRNA sequence recovered from a lyophilised co-culture of the organism. Here, we sequenced the genome of V. chlorellavorus directly from 36 year-old lyophilised material that could not be resuscitated confirming its identity as a member of the Melainabacteria. We identified attributes in the genome that likely allow V. chlorellavorus to function as an obligate predator of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, and predict that it is the first described predator to use an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-like conjugative type IV secretion system to invade its host. V. chlorellavorus is the first cyanobacterium recognised to have a predatory lifestyle and further supports the assertion that Melainabacteria are non-photosynthetic. PMID:26038723

  11. Purification and properties of glutathione reductase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, A.; Rivas, J.; Losada, M.

    1984-04-01

    An NADPH-glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) has been purified 6000-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119. The purified enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 249 U/mg and is characterized by being a dimeric flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing protein with a ratio of absorbance at 280 nm to absorbance at 462 nm of 5.8, a native molecular weight of 104,000, a Stokes radius of 4.13 nm, and a pI of 4.02. The enzyme activity is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and heavy-metal ions, especially in the presence of NADPH, with oxidized glutathione behaving as a protective agent. As is the case with the same enzyme from other sources, the kinetic data are consistent with a branched mechanism. Nevertheless, the cyanobacterial enzyme presents three distinctive

  12. Molecular cloning of a recA-like gene from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Owttrim, G.W.; Coleman, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    A recA-like gene isolated from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis was cloned and partially characterized. When introduced into Escherichia coli recA mutants, the 7.5-kilobase-pair plasmid-borne DNA insert restored resistance to methyl methanesulfonate and UV irradiation, as well as recombination proficiency when measured by Hfr-mediated conjugation. The cyanobacterial recA gene restored spontaneous but not mitomycin C-induced prophage production. Restriction analysis and subcloning yielded a 1.5-kilobase-pair Sau3A fragment which also restored methylmethane sulfonate resistance and coded for a 38- to 40-kilodalton polypeptide when expressed in an in vitro transcription-translation system.

  13. nifH,D,K gene organization in the cyanobacterium, Plectonema boryanum

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, S.R.; Gendel, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes with some species capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Detailed studies dealing with the organization of nitrogen fixation genes have been limited to Anabaena, a filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. The authors have determined the organization of nifH,D,K in Plectonema boryanum, a filamentous, nonheterocystous species that fixes nitrogen microaerophilically. It has been demonstrated that nifH,D,K genes are contiguous in cells grown under non-nitrogen fixing conditions using Anabaena nif genes as probes in Southern observed for all three nif genes as probes in southern hybridizations. A change in the pattern of hybridization was observed for all three nif genes isolated from cells grown under nitrogen fixing conditions. Restriction enzyme digestion experiments and analysis of cloned Plectonema nif genes are being used to determine the type of DNA modification and the location.

  14. Differences in energy transfer of a cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, grown in different cultivation media.

    PubMed

    Niki, Kenta; Aikawa, Shimpei; Yokono, Makio; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    Currently, cyanobacteria are regarded as potential biofuel sources. Large-scale cultivation of cyanobacteria in seawater is of particular interest because seawater is a low-cost medium. In the present study, we examined differences in light-harvesting and energy transfer processes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 grown in different cultivation media, namely modified A medium (the optimal growth medium for Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002) and f/2 (a seawater medium). The concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions were varied in both media. Higher nitrate ion and/or phosphate ion concentrations yielded high relative content of phycobilisome. The cultivation medium influenced the energy transfers within phycobilisome, from phycobilisome to photosystems, within photosystem II, and from photosystem II to photosystem I. We suggest that the medium also affects charge recombination at the photosystem II reaction center and formation of a chlorophyll-containing complex. PMID:25577255

  15. Cell Surface-Associated Proteins in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Hidehisa; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ohomori, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The cell surface senses environmental changes first and transfers signals into the cell. To understand the response to environmental changes, it is necessary to analyze cell surface components, particularly cell surface-associated proteins. We therefore investigated cell surface-associated proteins from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The cell surface-associated proteins extracted by an acidic buffer were resolved by SDS-PAGE. Eighteen proteins were identified from resolved bands by amino-terminal sequencing. Analysis of cell surface-associated proteins indicated that several proteins among them were involved in nucleic acid binding, protein synthesis, proteolytic activity and electron transfer, and other proteins were involved in the stress response. PMID:23059722

  16. Genotype × genotype interactions between the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis and its grazer, the waterflea Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Veerle; Brusciotti, Silvia; van Gremberghe, Ineke; Vyverman, Wim; Vanoverbeke, Joost; De Meester, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an important problem worldwide. The literature on toxic cyanobacteria blooms in inland waters reports widely divergent results on whether zooplankton can control cyanobacteria blooms or cyanobacteria suppress zooplankton by their toxins. Here we test whether this may be due to genotype × genotype interactions, in which interactions between the large-bodied and efficient grazer Daphnia and the widespread cyanobacterium Microcystis are not only dependent on Microcystis strain or Daphnia genotype but are specific to genotype × genotype combinations. We show that genotype × genotype interactions are important in explaining mortality in short-time exposures of Daphnia to Microcystis. These genotype × genotype interactions may result in local coadaptation and a geographic mosaic of coevolution. Genotype × genotype interactions can explain why the literature on zooplankton–cyanobacteria interactions is seemingly inconsistent, and provide hope that zooplankton can contribute to the suppression of cyanobacteria blooms in restoration projects. PMID:25568039

  17. Local Expansion of a Panmictic Lineage of Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Watanabe, Makoto M.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that the population structure of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is clonal. Expanded multilocus sequence typing analysis of M. aeruginosa using 412 isolates identified five intraspecific lineages suggested to be panmictic while maintaining overall clonal structure probably due to a reduced recombination rate between lineages. Interestingly, since 2005 most strains belonging to one of these panmictic clusters (group G) have been found in a particular locality (Lake Kasumigaura Basin) in Japan. In this locality, multiple, similar but distinct genotypes of this lineage predominated in the bloom, a pattern that is unprecedented for M. aeruginosa. The population structure underlying blooms associated with this lineage is comparable to epidemics of pathogens. Our results may reveal an expansion of the possible adaptive lineage in a localized aquatic environment, providing us with a unique opportunity to investigate its ecological and biogeographical consequences. PMID:21390221

  18. Major role of the cyanobacterium trichodesmium in nutrient cycling in the north atlantic ocean.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, E J; Romans, K

    1991-11-29

    The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is a large (about 0.5 by 3 millimeters) phytoplankter that is common in tropical open-ocean waters. Measurements of abundance, plus a review of earlier observations, indicate that it, rather than the picophytoplankton, is the most important primary producer (about 165 milligrams of carbon per square meter per day) in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Furthermore, nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium introduces the largest fraction of new nitrogen to the euphotic zone, approximately 30 milligrams of nitrogen per square meter per day, a value exceeding the estimated flux of nitrate across the thermocline. Inclusion of this organism, plus the abundant diazotrophic endosymbiont Richelia intracellularis that is present in some large diatoms, in biogeochemical studies of carbon and nitrogen may help explain the disparity between various methods of measuring productivity in the oligotrophic ocean. Carbon and nitrogen fixation by these large phytoplankters also introduces a new paradigm in the biogeochemistry of these elements in the sea. PMID:17773605

  19. Physiological effects of nickel chloride on the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. IU 625

    PubMed Central

    Nohomovich, Brian; Nguyen, Bao T.; Quintanilla, Michael; Lee, Lee H.; Murray, Sean R.; Chu, Tin-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a serious environmental problem globally. The ability of cyanobacteria, one of the major causative agents of HABs, to grow in heavy metal polluted areas is proving a challenge to environmental restoration initiatives. Some cyanobacteria secrete toxins, such as microcystin, that are potentially dangerous to animals and humans. In this study, the physiology of a cyanobacterium was assessed to nickel chloride exposure. Cell growths were monitored throughout the study with various nickel chloride concentrations (0, 10, 25 or 50 mg/L). Morphological abnormalities were observed with microscopic image analyses. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was carried out to trace the distribution of nickel during the growth period. This study provides insight on potential nickel response mechanisms in freshwater cyanobacteria, which may lead to effective HAB prevention strategy development. PMID:24073357

  20. Cytochrome c-553 is not required for photosynthetic activity in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Laudenbach, D E; Herbert, S K; McDowell, C; Fork, D C; Grossman, A R; Straus, N A

    1990-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, the water-soluble cytochrome c-553 functions as a mobile carrier of electrons between the membrane-bound cytochrome b6-f complex and P-700 reaction centers of Photosystem I. The structural gene for cytochrome c-553 (designated cytA) of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 was cloned, and the deduced amino acid sequence was shown to be similar to known cyanobacterial cytochrome c-553 proteins. A deletion mutant was constructed that had no detectable cytochrome c-553 based on spectral analyses and tetramethylbenzidine-hydrogen peroxide staining of proteins resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The mutant strain was not impaired in overall photosynthetic activity. However, this mutant exhibited a decreased efficiency of cytochrome f oxidation. These results indicate that cytochrome c-553 is not an absolute requirement for reducing Photosystem I reaction centers in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942. PMID:1967057

  1. Back from the dead; the curious tale of the predatory cyanobacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    PubMed

    Soo, Rochelle M; Woodcroft, Ben J; Parks, Donovan H; Tyson, Gene W; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An uncultured non-photosynthetic basal lineage of the Cyanobacteria, the Melainabacteria, was recently characterised by metagenomic analyses of aphotic environmental samples. However, a predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, originally described in 1972 appears to be the first cultured representative of the Melainabacteria based on a 16S rRNA sequence recovered from a lyophilised co-culture of the organism. Here, we sequenced the genome of V. chlorellavorus directly from 36 year-old lyophilised material that could not be resuscitated confirming its identity as a member of the Melainabacteria. We identified attributes in the genome that likely allow V. chlorellavorus to function as an obligate predator of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, and predict that it is the first described predator to use an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-like conjugative type IV secretion system to invade its host. V. chlorellavorus is the first cyanobacterium recognised to have a predatory lifestyle and further supports the assertion that Melainabacteria are non-photosynthetic. PMID:26038723

  2. Alterations in lipid and fatty acid composition of the cyanobacterium Scytonema geitleri bharadwaja under water stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, M K; Rai, P K; Rai, A; Singh, S

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the glycerolipids [monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)] and alterations in their saturation and unsaturation levels in response to osmotic and matric water potential have been investigated in the cyanobacterium Scytonema geitleri Bharadwaja. The level of MGDG in S. geitleri was high followed by PG, DGDG and SQDG. Whereas, the amount of fatty acids namely palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid were high, arachidic and behenic acid were, however, present in traces in the four glycerolipids. A significant reduction in the level of total lipid as well as individual class lipid was observed in S. geitleri in response to matric water potential to that of its total lipid and individual class lipid in response to osmotic water potential. The levels of polyunsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids also increased in response to matric water potential to that of osmotic water potential. PMID:25535713

  3. Isolation and characterization of multiple adenylate cyclase genes from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, M; Ohmori, M

    1997-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase genes, designated cyaA, cyaB1, cyaB2, cyaC, and cyaD, were isolated from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 by complementation of a strain of Escherichia coli defective for the presence of cya. These genes encoded polypeptides consisting of 735, 859, 860, 1,155, and 546 amino acid residues, respectively. Deduced amino acid sequences of the regions near the C-terminal ends of these cya genes were similar to those of catalytic domains of eukaryotic adenylate cyclases. The remaining part of each cya gene towards its N-terminal end showed a characteristic structure. CyaA had two putative membrane-spanning regions. Both CyaB1 and CyaB2 had regions that were very similar to the cyclic GMP (cGMP)-binding domain of cGMP-stimulated cGMP phosphodiesterase. CyaC consisted of four distinct domains forming sequentially from the N terminus: a response regulator-like domain, a histidine kinase-like domain, a response regulator-like domain, and the catalytic domain of adenylate cyclase. CyaD contained the forkhead-associated domain in its N-terminal region. Expression of these genes was examined by reverse transcription-PCR. The transcript of cyaC was shown to be predominant in this cyanobacterium. The cellular cyclic AMP level in the disruptant of the cyaC mutant was much lower than that in the wild type. PMID:9171404

  4. Purification and properties of a glyphosate-tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilary A. Powell; Nigel W. Kerby; Peter Rowell; David M. Mousdale; John R. Coggins

    1992-01-01

    5-Enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase; EC 2.5.1.9) from the glyphosate-tolerant cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis (ATCC 29413) was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme had a similar relative molecular mass to other EPSP synthases and showed similar kinetic properties except for a greatly elevated Ki for the herbicide glyphosate (approximately ten times higher than that of enzymes from other sources). With whole

  5. Diurnal expression of hetR and diazocyte development in the filamentous non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. El-Shehawy; C. Lugomela; A. Ernst; B. Bergman

    2003-01-01

    The marine non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium fixes atmospheric N2 aerobically in light. In situ immunolocalization\\/light microscopy of NifH revealed that lighter, non-granulated cell regions observed correspond to the nitrogenase-containing diazocyte clusters in Trichodesmium IMS101. The number of diazocyte clusters per trichome varied from 0 to 4 depending on trichome length. The constant percentage of diazocytes (approx. 15 %) in cultured strains

  6. Bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins from the cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis by the freshwater mussel Alathyria condola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Negri; Gary J. Jones

    1995-01-01

    The Australian fresh-water mussel Alathyria condola accumulated high levels of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins when fed the neurotoxic cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis, shown recently to contain high concentrations of C-toxins and gonyautoxins. Significant accumulation (>; 80 ?g\\/100 g of mussel flesh) was detected following 2–3 days exposure to water containing 2 × 105 cells\\/mlA. circinalis. Only trace accumulation of PSP

  7. Ultraviolet stress delays chromosome replication in light\\/dark synchronized cells of the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC9511

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Kolowrat; Frédéric Partensky; Daniella Mella-Flores; Gildas Le Corguillé; Christophe Boutte; Nicolas Blot; Morgane Ratin; Martial Ferréol; Xavier Lecomte; Priscillia Gourvil; Jean-François Lennon; David M Kehoe; Laurence Garczarek

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is very abundant in warm, nutrient-poor oceanic areas. The upper mixed layer of oceans is populated by high light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes, which despite their tiny genome (~1.7 Mb) seem to have developed efficient strategies to cope with stressful levels of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. At a molecular level, little is known yet about

  8. Photodynamic biocidal action of methylene blue and hydrogen peroxide on the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis under visible light irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy McCullagh; Peter K. J. Robertson

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm growth on stone surfaces is a significant contributing factor to stone biodeterioration. Current market based biocides are hazardous to the environment and to public health. We have investigated the photo-dynamic effect of methylene blue (MB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the destruction of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis (S. leopoliensis) under irradiation with visible light. Data presented

  9. Differential Effects of Bentazon and Molinate on Anabaena cylindrica , an Autochthonous Cyanobacterium of Portuguese Rice Field Agro-ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Galhano; F. Peixoto; J. Gomes-Laranjo; E. Fernández-Valiente

    2009-01-01

    The effects of bentazon and molinate, two selective herbicides recommended for integrated weed management in rice, were studied\\u000a in Anabaena cylindrica, an abundant cyanobacterium isolated from a Portuguese rice field agro-ecosystem. Comparative effects of both herbicides\\u000a on A. cylindrica were estimated under laboratory conditions by measuring its dry weight yield, photopigments, and carbohydrate and protein\\u000a contents in a time- and

  10. UV-B-Induced Synthesis of Photoprotective Pigments and Extracellular Polysaccharides in the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MONIKA EHLING-SCHULZ; WOLFGANG BILGER; ANDSIEGFRIED SCHERER

    1997-01-01

    Liquid cultures of the terrestrial cyanobacteriumNostoc communederived fromfield material were treated with artificial UV-B and UV-A irradiation. We studied the induction of various pigments which are thought to provide protection against damaging UV-B irradiation. First, UV-B irradiation induced an increase in caro- tenoids,especiallyechinenoneandmyxoxanthophyll,butdidnotinfluenceproductionofchlorophylla.Second, an increase of an extracellular, water-soluble UV-A\\/B-absorbing mycosporine occurred, which was associated with extracellular glycan synthesis. Finally,

  11. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel anti-HIV lectin from the cultured cyanobacterium, Oscillatoria agardhii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomomi Sato; Kanji Hori

    2009-01-01

    OAA, the potent anti-HIV protein from Oscillatoria agardhii NIES-204 belongs to a new lectin family, shows strict binding specificity for high-mannose N-glycans, and has an extremely high association constant in the picomolar range for recombinant gp120, an envelope protein\\u000a of HIV. In this study we have cloned the gene encoding OAA from the genomic DNA of the cyanobacterium, and efficiently

  12. Identification of an Na+Dependent Transporter Associated with Saxitoxin-Producing Strains of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Pomati; Brendan P. Burns; Brett A. Neilan

    2004-01-01

    Blooms of the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis are recognized as an important health risk worldwide due to the production of a range of toxins such as saxitoxin (STX) and its derivatives. In this study we used HIP1 octameric-palindrome repeated-sequence PCR to compare the genomic structure of phyloge- netically similar Australian isolates of A. circinalis. STX-producing and nontoxic cyanobacterial strains showed

  13. Low cellular P-quota and poor metabolic adaptations of the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena fertilissima Rao during Pi-limitation.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Keshawanand; Sharma, Naveen K; Rai, Vandna; Rai, Ashwani K

    2013-02-01

    Anabaena fertilissima is a filamentous freshwater N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium, isolated from a paddy field. Growth of the cyanobacterium was limited by the non-availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the growth medium and was found to be directly related to the cellular P quota, which declined rapidly in Pi-deficient cells. To overcome Pi-deficiency, cells induced both cell-bound and cell-free alkaline phosphatase activities (APase). The activity of cell-bound APase was rapid and 5-6 times higher than that of the cell-free APase activity. Native gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of two APase activity bands for both the cell bound and cell-free APase (Mr ?42 and 34 kDa). For Pi-deficient cells, APase activity was inversely related to cellular P-quota. In A. fertilissima phosphate uptake was facilitated by single high-affinity phosphate transporter (K ( s ), 4.54 ?M; V(max), 4.84 ?mol mg protein(-1) min(-1)). Pi-deficiency severely reduced the photosynthetic rate, respiration rate and nitrate uptake, as well as the activities of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and nitrogenase enzymes. In photosynthesis, PSII activity was maximally inhibited, followed by PSI and whole chain activities. Transcript levels of five key glycolytic enzymes showed the poor adaptability of the cyanobacterium to switch its metabolic activity to PPi-dependent enzyme variants, which has rather constant cellular concentrations. PMID:22968428

  14. Evidence for paralytic shellfish poisons in the freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, W W; Evans, W R; Yin, Q Q; Bell, P; Moczydlowski, E

    1997-08-01

    Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) comb. nov., a perennial mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium prevalent in lakes and reservoirs of the southeastern United States, was found to produce a potent, acutely lethal neurotoxin when tested in the mouse bioassay. Signs of poisoning were similar to those of paralytic shellfish poisoning. As part of the Tennessee Valley Authority master plan for Guntersville Reservoir, the mat-forming filamentous cyanobacterium L. wollei, a species that had recently invaded from other areas of the southern United States, was studied to determine if it could produce any of the known cyanotoxins. Of the 91 field samples collected at 10 locations at Guntersville Reservoir, Ala., on the Tennessee River, over a 3-year period, 72.5% were toxic. The minimum 100% lethal doses of the toxic samples ranged from 150 to 1,500 mg kg of lyophilized L. wollei cells-1, with the majority of samples being toxic at 500 mg kg-1. Samples bioassayed for paralytic shellfish toxins by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists method exhibited saxitoxin equivalents ranging from 0 to 58 micrograms g (dry weight)-1. Characteristics of the neurotoxic compound(s), such as the lack of adsorption by C18 solid-phase extraction columns, the short retention times on C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns, the interaction of the neurotoxins with saxiphilin (a soluble saxitoxin-binding protein), and external blockage of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, led to our discovery that this neurotoxin(s) is related to the saxitoxins, the compounds responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings. The major saxitoxin compounds thus far identified by comparison of HPLC fluorescence retention times are decarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2 and 3. There was no evidence of paralytic shellfish poison C toxins being produced by L. wollei. Fifty field samples were placed in unialgal culture and grown under defined culture conditions. Toxicity and signs of poisoning for these laboratory-grown strains of L. wollei were similar to those of the field collection samples. PMID:9251196

  15. Proteome-Wide Analysis and Diel Proteomic Profiling of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis PCC 8005

    PubMed Central

    Matallana-Surget, Sabine; Derock, Jérémy; Leroy, Baptiste; Badri, Hančne; Deschoenmaeker, Frédéric; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation. PMID:24914774

  16. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of ?- and ?- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of ?- and ?- subunits (known as ?? monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Ĺ to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of ?? monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of ?- and ?- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to ?-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  17. Fluorapatite as Inorganic Phosphate Source for the Cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaperdoth, I.; Brantley, S.

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 is able to use fluorapatite (FAP) as sole phosphate source for growth. In the experimental setup the dissolution of FAP was tested in a phosphate free growth medium in the presence and absence of the Anabaena, as well as the cell free supernatant of an Anabaena culture. The results were compared with that of an Anabaena culture grown without fluorapatite. Parameters measured were pH, dissolved P and Ca, as well as cell density. The FAP grains were analyzed using SEM and XPS. Additionally, the differential expression of secreted proteins in cultures with and without dissolved phosphate was examined. P-limited Anabaena cultures tend to aggregate and in the presence of FAP the cells attached themselves to the mineral grains. The cultures benefit from the presence of FAP. The cells have a very effective P-uptake system that is able to take up dissolved phosphate very efficiently and draw the concentrations down to very low levels. Furthermore, the SEM analysis of FAP showed an etching of the mineral grains in the samples from the Anabaena cultures. The mechanism of apatite dissolution with and without Anabaena will be discussed in terms of these experimental observations.

  18. Surplus Photosynthetic Antennae Complexes Underlie Diagnostics of Iron Limitation in a Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Paul S.; Milligan, Allen J.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence from phytoplankton provides a tool to assess iron limitation in the oceans, but the physiological mechanism underlying the fluorescence response is not understood. We examined fluorescence properties of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and a ?isiA knock-out mutant of the same species grown under three culture conditions which simulate nutrient conditions found in the open ocean: (1) nitrate and iron replete, (2) limiting-iron and high-nitrate, representative of natural high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll regions, and (3) iron and nitrogen co-limiting. We show that low variable fluorescence, a key diagnostic of iron limitation, results from synthesis of antennae complexes far in excess of what can be accommodated by the iron-restricted pool of photosynthetic reaction centers. Under iron and nitrogen co-limiting conditions, there are no excess antennae complexes and variable fluorescence is high. These results help to explain the well-established fluorescence characteristics of phytoplankton in high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ocean regions, while also accounting for the lack of these properties in low-iron, low-nitrogen regions. Importantly, our results complete the link between unique molecular consequences of iron stress in phytoplankton and global detection of iron stress in natural populations from space. PMID:21533084

  19. Crystal Structure of Allophycocyanin from Marine Cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Gagan Deep; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    Isolated phycobilisome (PBS) sub-assemblies have been widely subjected to X-ray crystallography analysis to obtain greater insights into the structure-function relationship of this light harvesting complex. Allophycocyanin (APC) is the phycobiliprotein always found in the PBS core complex. Phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores, covalently bound to conserved Cys residues of ?- and ?- subunits of APC, are responsible for solar energy absorption from phycocyanin and for transfer to photosynthetic apparatus. In the known APC structures, heterodimers of ?- and ?- subunits (known as ?? monomers) assemble as trimer or hexamer. We here for the first time report the crystal structure of APC isolated from a marine cyanobacterium (Phormidium sp. A09DM). The crystal structure has been refined against all the observed data to the resolution of 2.51 Ĺ to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.158 (0.229) with good stereochemistry of the atomic model. The Phormidium protein exists as a trimer of ?? monomers in solution and in crystal lattice. The overall tertiary structures of ?- and ?- subunits, and trimeric quaternary fold of the Phormidium protein resemble the other known APC structures. Also, configuration and conformation of the two covalently bound PCB chromophores in the marine APC are same as those observed in fresh water cyanobacteria and marine red algae. More hydrophobic residues, however, constitute the environment of the chromophore bound to ?-subunit of the Phormidium protein, owing mainly to amino acid substitutions in the marine protein. PMID:25923120

  20. Paired cloning vectors for complementation of mutations in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C. Peter Wolk [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Fan, Qing [Northwestern University, Evanston; Zhou, Ruanbao [Anhui Normal University, People's Republic of China; Huang, Guocun [University of Texas Southwestern Medical; Lechno-Yossef, Sigal [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Kuritz, Tanya [ORNL; Wojciuch, Elizabeth [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2007-01-01

    The clones generated in a sequencing project represent a resource for subsequent analysis of the organism whose genome has been sequenced. We describe an interrelated group of cloning vectors that either integrate into the genome or replicate, and that enhance the utility, for developmental and other studies, of the clones used to determine the genomic sequence of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. One integrating vector is a mobilizable BAC vector that was used both to generate bridging clones and to complement transposon mutations. Upon addition of a cassette that permits mobilization and selection, pUC-based sequencing clones can also integrate into the genome and thereupon complement transposon mutations. The replicating vectors are based on cyanobacterial plasmid pDU1, whose sequence we report, and on broad-host-range plasmid RSF1010. The RSF1010- and pDU1-based vectors provide the opportunity to express different genes from either cell-type-specific or -generalist promoters, simultaneously from different plasmids in the same cyanobacterial cells. We show that pDU1 ORF4 and its upstream region play an essential role in the replication and copy number of pDU1, and that ORFs alr2887 and alr3546 (hetF{sub A}) of Anabaena sp. are required specifically for fixation of dinitrogen under oxic conditions.

  1. Mathematical study of pattern formation accompanied by heterocyst differentiation in multicellular cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Jun-ichi; Tachikawa, Masashi; Iwasaki, Hideo; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2015-04-21

    The filamentous cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, is one of the simplest models of a multicellular system showing cellular differentiation. In nitrogen-deprived culture, undifferentiated vegetative cells differentiate into heterocysts at ~10-cell intervals along the cellular filament. As undifferentiated cells divide, the number of cells between heterocysts (segment length) increases, and a new heterocyst appears in the intermediate region. To understand how the heterocyst pattern is formed and maintained, we constructed a one-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model of the heterocyst pattern formation. The dynamics of vegetative cells is modeled by a stochastic transition process including cell division, differentiation and increase of cell age (maturation). Cell division and differentiation depend on the time elapsed after the last cell division, the "cell age". The model dynamics was mathematically analyzed by a two-step Markov approximation. In the first step, we determined steady state of cell age distribution among vegetative cell population. In the second step, we determined steady state distribution of segment length among segment population. The analytical solution was consistent with the results of numerical simulations. We then compared the analytical solution with the experimental data, and quantitatively estimated the immeasurable intercellular kinetics. We found that differentiation is initially independent of cellular maturation, but becomes dependent on maturation as the pattern formation evolves. Our mathematical model and analysis enabled us to quantify the internal cellular dynamics at various stages of the heterocyst pattern formation. PMID:25665721

  2. A biliverdin-binding cyanobacteriochrome from the chlorophyll d-bearing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

    PubMed

    Narikawa, Rei; Nakajima, Takahiro; Aono, Yuki; Fushimi, Keiji; Enomoto, Gen; Ni-Ni-Win; Itoh, Shigeru; Sato, Moritoshi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are linear tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors in cyanobacteria that absorb visible and near-ultraviolet light. CBCRs are divided into two types based on the type of chromophore they contain: phycocyanobilin (PCB) or phycoviolobilin (PVB). PCB-binding CBCRs reversibly photoconvert at relatively long wavelengths, i.e., the blue-to-red region, whereas PVB-binding CBCRs reversibly photoconvert at shorter wavelengths, i.e., the near-ultraviolet to green region. Notably, prior to this report, CBCRs containing biliverdin (BV), which absorbs at longer wavelengths than do PCB and PVB, have not been found. Herein, we report that the typical red/green CBCR AM1_1557 from the chlorophyll d-bearing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina can bind BV almost comparable to PCB. This BV-bound holoprotein reversibly photoconverts between a far red light-absorbing form (Pfr, ?max = 697?nm) and an orange light-absorbing form (Po, ?max = 622?nm). At room temperature, Pfr fluoresces with a maximum at 730?nm. These spectral features are red-shifted by 48~77?nm compared with those of the PCB-bound domain. Because the absorbance of chlorophyll d is red-shifted compared with that of chlorophyll a, the BV-bound AM1_1557 may be a physiologically relevant feature of A. marina and is potentially useful as an optogenetic switch and/or fluorescence imager. PMID:25609645

  3. Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei-pei; Jia, Shi-ru; Sun, Ying; Tan, Zhi-lei; Zhong, Cheng; Dai, Yu-jie; Tan, Ning; Shen, Shi-gang

    2014-09-01

    The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state. PMID:24832956

  4. Exposure of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sipia, V.O.; Franson, J.C.; Sjovall, O.; Pflugmacher, S.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Rocke, T.E.; Meriluoto, J.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Nodularin (NODLN) is a cyclic pentapeptide hepatotoxin produced by the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, which forms extensive blooms during the summer in the Baltic Sea. Nodularin was detected in liver, muscle and/or feather samples of several common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic Sea) in 2002-2005. Published information on the adverse effects of NODLN in marine birds is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of NODLN, and determine the concentrations of NODLN in liver and muscle tissue in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to N. spumigena. Mallards received a single or multiple exposure via oral gavage with an aqueous slurry containing toxic N. spumigena. Dosages ranged from 200 to 600 ??g NODLN per kg body weight (bw). There were minimal histopathological changes in liver tissue, and brain cholinesterase activity did not differ among treatment groups. Concentrations of NODLN measured by LC-MS in liver varied between approximately 3-120 ??g kg-1 dry weight (dw) and ducks receiving multiple exposures had significantly greater liver toxin levels than ducks receiving the two lowest single exposures. In muscle, NODLN concentrations were approximately 2-6 ??g kg-1 dw, but did not differ significantly among exposure groups. This is the first in vivo lab study examining the effects and bioaccumulation of NODLN from N. spumigena in birds. The mallards in this study were resistant to adverse effects and did not bioaccumulate substantial levels of NODLN at the doses given. ?? 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  5. Novel water stress protein from a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium. Purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Scherer, S; Potts, M

    1989-07-25

    A desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc commune accumulates a novel group of acidic proteins when colonies are subjected to repeated cycles of drying and rehydration. The proteins occur in high concentrations; they have isoelectric points between 4.3 and 4.8 and apparent molecular masses between 30 and 39 kDa. The purification of three of these proteins with molecular masses of 33, 37, and 39 kDa is described. The amino-terminal sequence of the 39-kDa protein is Ala-Leu-Tyr-Gly-Tyr-Thr-Ile-Gly-Glu. Peptide mapping of the 39- and the 33-kDa proteins, using different protease, gave similar patterns of digestion fragments. The amino acid compositions of the proteins isolated were similar, and each cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the largest (39-kDa) protein. The results indicate that the microheterogeneity observed was generated by in vivo proteolysis of the 39-kDa protein. It is suggested that this protein is a water stress protein with a protective function on a structural level. PMID:2501307

  6. Microcystin production by a freshwater spring cyanobacterium of the genus Fischerella.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marli Fátima; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; da Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Shishido, Tânia Keiko; Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cantúsio Neto, Romeu; Silva-Stenico, Maria Estela

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the production of a hepatotoxic, cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin, by a filamentous branched cyanobacterium belonging to the order Stigonematales, genus Fischerella. The freshwater Fischerella sp. strain CENA161 was isolated from spring water in a small concrete dam in Piracicaba, Săo Paulo State, Brazil, and identified by combining a morphological description with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Microcystin (MCYST) analysis performed using an ELISA assay on cultured cells gave positive results. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis detected 33.6microg MCYST-LR per gram dry weight of cyanobacterial cells. Microcystin profile revealed by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis confirmed the production of MCYST-LR. Furthermore, genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR for sequences similar to the ketosynthase (KS) domain of the type I polyketide synthase gene, which is involved in microcystin biosynthesis. This revealed the presence of a KS nucleotide fragment similar to the mcyD and ndaD genes of the microcystin and nodularin synthetase complexes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the Fischerella KS sequence together with mcyD sequences of the three known microcystin synthetase operon (Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena) and ndaD of the nodularin synthetase operon, with 100% bootstrap support. Our findings demonstrate that Fischerella sp. CENA161 produces MYCST-LR and for the first time identify a nucleotide sequence putatively involved in microcystin synthesis in this genus. PMID:19233225

  7. Electron transport kinetics in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. grown across a range of light levels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoni; Gao, Kunshan; Fu, Feixue; Campbell, Douglas A; Beardall, John; Hutchins, David A

    2015-04-01

    The diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is a major contributor to marine nitrogen fixation. We analyzed how light acclimation influences the photophysiological performance of Trichodesmium IMS101 during exponential growth in semi-continuous nitrogen fixing cultures under light levels of 70, 150, 250, and 400 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1), across diel cycles. There were close correlations between growth rate, trichome length, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen assimilation, and cellular absorbance, which all peaked at 150 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1). Growth rate was light saturated by about 100 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1) and was photoinhibited above 150 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1). In contrast, the light level (I k) to saturate PSII electron transport (e (-) PSII(-1) s(-1)) was much higher, in the range of 450-550 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1), and increased with growth light. Growth rate correlates with the absorption cross section as well as with absorbed photons per cell, but not to electron transport per PSII; this disparity suggests that numbers of PSII in a cell, along with the energy allocation between two photosystems and the state transition mechanism underlie the changes in growth rates. The rate of state transitions after a transfer to darkness increased with growth light, indicating faster respiratory input into the intersystem electron transport chain. PMID:25616859

  8. Composition of the carbohydrate granules of the cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that temporally separates O2-sensitive N2 fixation from oxygenic photosynthesis. The energy and reducing power needed for N2 fixation appears to be generated by an active respiratory apparatus that utilizes the contents of large interthylakoidal carbohydrate granules. We report here on the carbohydrate and protein composition of the granules of Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142. The carbohydrate component is a glucose homopolymer with branches every nine residues and is chemically identical to glycogen. Granule-associated protein fractions showed temporal changes in the number of proteins and their abundance during the metabolic oscillations observed under diazotrophic conditions. There also were temporal changes in the protein pattern of the granule-depleted supernatant fractions from diazotrophic cultures. None of the granule-associated proteins crossreacted with antisera directed against several glycogen-metabolizing enzymes or nitrogenase, although these proteins were tentatively identified in supernatant fractions. It is suggested that the granule-associated proteins are structural proteins required to maintain a complex granule architecture.

  9. Palmyramide A, a Cyclic Depsipeptide from a Palmyra Atoll Collection of the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Nunnery, Joshawna K.; Engene, Niclas; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Byrum, Tara; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Gerwick, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract of a consortium of a marine cyanobacterium and a red alga (Rhodophyta) led to the discovery of a novel compound, palmyramide A, along with the known compounds curacin D and malyngamide C. The planar structure of palmyramide A was determined by one- and two-dimensional NMR studies and mass spectrometry. Palmyramide A is a cyclic depsipeptide which features an unusual arrangement of three amino acids and three hydroxy acids; one of the hydroxy acids is the rare 2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid unit (Dmhha). The absolute configurations of the six residues were determined by Marfey’s analysis, chiral HPLC analysis and GC/MS analysis of the hydrolysate. Morphological and phylogenetic studies revealed the sample to be composed of a Lyngbya majuscula-Centroceras sp. association. MALDI-imaging analysis of the cultured L. majuscula indicated that it was the true producer of this new depsipeptide. Pure palmyramide A showed sodium channel blocking activity in neuro-2a cells and cytotoxic activity in H-460 human lung carcinoma cells. PMID:19839606

  10. Optimization of photobioreactor growth conditions for a cyanobacterium expressing mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins.

    PubMed

    Ketseoglou, Irene; Bouwer, Gustav

    2013-08-10

    An Anabaena strain (PCC 7120#11) that was genetically engineered to express Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry genes has shown good larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis, a major vector of malaria in Africa. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the relationship between key growth factors and the volumetric productivity of PCC 7120#11 in an indoor, flat-plate photobioreactor. The interaction of input CO? concentration and airflow rate had a statistically significant effect on the volumetric productivity of PCC 7120#11, as did the interaction of airflow rate and photosynthetic photon flux density. Model-based numerical optimization indicated that the optimal factor level combination for maximizing PCC 7120#11 volumetric productivity was a photosynthetic photon flux density of 154 ?mol m?˛ s?ą and air enriched with 3.18% (v/v) CO? supplied at a flow rate of 1.02 vessel volumes per minute. At the levels evaluated in the study, none of the growth factors had a significant effect on the median lethal concentration of PCC 7120#11 against An. arabiensis larvae. This finding is important because loss of mosquitocidal activity under growth conditions that maximize volumetric productivity would impact on the feasibility of using PCC 7120#11 in malaria vector control programs. The study showed the usefulness of response surface methodology for determination of the optimal growth conditions for a cyanobacterium that is genetically engineered to have larvicidal activity against malaria vectors. PMID:23732832

  11. Cytoplasmic membrane changes during adaptation of the fresh water cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311 to salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefort-Tran, M.; Pouphile, M.; Spath, S.; Packer, L.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation, changes were characterized in cell structure and cytoplasmic membrane organization that occur when the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus 6311 is transferred from 'low salt' (0.03 molar NaCl) to 'high salt' (0.5 molar NaCl) media (i.e. sea water concentration). Cells were examined at several time points after the imposition of the salt stress and compared to control cells, in thin sections and freeze fracture electron microscopy, and by flow cytometry. One minute after exposure to high salt, i.e. 'salt shock', virtually all intracellular granules disappeared, the density of the cytoplasm decreased, and the appearance of DNA material was changed. Glycogen and other granules, however, reappeared by 4 hours after salt exposure. The organization of the cytoplasmic membrane undergoes major reorganization following salt shock. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy showed that small intramembrane particles (diameter 7.5 and 8.5 nanometers) are reduced in number by two- to fivefold, whereas large particles, (diameters 14.5 and 17.5 nanometers) increase two- to fourfold in frequency, compared to control cells grown in low salt medium. The changes in particle size distribution suggest synthesis of new membrane proteins, in agreement with the known increases in respiration, cytochrome oxidase, and sodium proton exchange activity of the cytoplasmic membrane.

  12. Cyclic Depsipeptides, Grassypeptolides D, E and Ibu epidemethoxylyngbyastatin 3, from a Red Sea Leptolyngbya Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Thornburg, Christopher C.; Thimmaiah, Muralidhara; Shaala, Lamiaa A.; Hau, Andrew M.; Malmo, Jay M.; Ishmael, Jane E.; Youssef, Diaa T.A.; McPhail, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    Two new grassypeptolides and a lyngbyastatin analogue, together with the known dolastatin 12, have been isolated from field collections and laboratory cultures of the marine cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. collected from the SS Thistlegorm shipwreck in the Red Sea. The overall stereostructures of grassypeptolides D (1) and E (2) and Ibu-epidemethoxylyngbyastatin 3 (3) were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, MS analysis, Marfey's methodology, and HPLC-MS. Compounds 1 and 2 contain 2-methyl-3-aminobutyric acid (Maba) and 2-aminobutyric acid (Aba), while biosynthetically distinct 3 contains 3-amino-2-methylhexanoic acid (Amha) and the ?-keto amino acid 4-amino-2,-2-dimethyl-3-oxopentanoic acid (Ibu). Grassypeptolides D (1) and E (2) showed significant cytotoxicity to HeLa (IC50 = 335 and 192 nM, respectively) and mouse neuro-2a blastoma cells (IC50 = 599 and 407 nM, respectively), in contrast to Ibu-epidemethoxylyngbyastatin 3 (neuro-2a cells, IC50 > 10 ?M) and dolastatin 12 (neuro-2a cells, IC50 > 1 ?M). PMID:21806012

  13. Novel toxic effects associated with a tropical Limnothrix/Geitlerinema-like cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Catherine; Froscio, Suzanne; Campbell, Rebecca; Monis, Paul; Humpage, Andrew; Fabbro, Larelle

    2011-06-01

    The presence of a toxic strain of a fine filamentous cyanobacterium belonging to the Oscillatorialean family Pseudanabaenacea was detected during a survey of cyanobacterial taxa associated with the presence of cylindrospermopsin in dams in Central Queensland (Australia). The strain, AC0243, was isolated and cultured, its genomic DNA extracted and 16S RNA gene sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis placed AC0243 with Limnothrix species, although this genus appears polyphyletic. Moreover, not all morphological characters are consistent with this genus but more closely fit the description of Geitlerinema unigranulatum (R.N. Singh) Komárek and Azevedo. The potential toxic effects of AC0243 extract were assessed chemically and biologically. Cell free protein synthesis was inhibited by the extract. Exposure of Vero cells to the extract resulted in a significant reduction in cellular ATP levels following 24-72 h incubation. The presence of cylindrospermopsin was excluded based on the nature of responses obtained in cell and cell-free assays; in addition, (i) it could not be detected by HPLC, LC-MS, or immunological assay, and (ii) no genes currently associated with the production of cylindrospermopsin were found in the genome. Other known cyanobacterial toxins were not detected. The apparent novelty of this toxin is discussed. PMID:19950362

  14. Seasonal dynamics of the endosymbiotic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Zeev, Edo Bar; Yogev, Tali; Man-Aharonovich, Dikla; Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Béjŕ, Oded; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2008-09-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation has been suggested as an important source of nitrogen for the ultra-oligotrophic waters of the Levantine Basin of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we identify and characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the N-fixing (diazotrophic) cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis. R. intracellularis is usually found as an endosymbiont within diatoms such as Rhizosolenia spp and Hemiaulus spp. and is an important diazotroph in marine tropical oceans. In this study, two stations off the Mediterranean coast of Israel were sampled monthly during 2005-2007. R. intracellularis was identified by microscopy and by reverse transcribed-PCR which confirmed a 98.8% identity with known nifH sequences of R. intracellularis from around the world. The diatom-diazotroph associations were found throughout the year peaking during autumn (October-November) at both stations. Abundance of R. intracellularis ranged from 10 to 55 heterocysts l(-1) and correlated positively with the dissolved Si(OH)(4)/(NO(3)+NO(2)) ratio in surface waters. Although the rates of nitrogen fixation were very low, averaging approximately 1.1 nmol N l(-1) day(-1) for the R. intracellularis size fraction (>10 microm) from surface waters, they correlated positively with heterocyst counts during thermal stratification. The lack of large-scale diatom-diazotroph blooms and the low rates of nitrogen fixation by these diazotrophs may result from the P-starved conditions affecting the Levantine basin. PMID:18580972

  15. Light-Induced Proton Release by the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis1

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Siegfried; Riege, Heike; Böger, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Light-induced acidification by the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis is biphasic (a fast phase I and slow phase II) and shown to be sodium-dependent with an optimum concentration of 40 to 60 millimolar Na+. Cells grown under low CO2 concentrations at pH 9 (i.e. mainly HCO3? present in the medium) exhibited the slow phase II of proton efflux only, while cells grown under low CO2 concentrations at pH 6.3 (i.e. CO2 and HCO3? present) exhibited both phases. Light-induced proton release of phase I was dependent on inorganic carbon available in the bathing medium with an apparent Km for CO2 of 20 to 70 micromolar. As was concluded from the CO2 dependence of acidification measured at different pH of the bathing medium, bicarbonate inhibited phase-I acidification noncompetetively. Acidification was inhibited by acetazolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase. Apparently, acidification of phase I is due to a light-dependent uptake of CO2 being converted to HCO3? by a carbonic anhydrase-like function of the HCO3?-transport system (M Volokita, D Zenvirth, A Kaplan, L Reinhold 1984 Plant Physiol 76: 599-602) before or during entering the cell, thus releasing one proton per CO2 converted to HCO3?. PMID:16665985

  16. Modeling the Dynamic Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in the Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Rabouille, Sophie; Staal, Marc; Stal, Lucas J.; Soetaert, Karline

    2006-01-01

    A physiological, unbalanced model is presented that explicitly describes growth of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. at the expense of N2 (diazotrophy). The model involves the dynamics of intracellular reserves of carbon and nitrogen and allows the uncoupling of the metabolism of these elements. The results show the transient dynamics of N2 fixation when combined nitrogen (NO3?, NH4+) is available and the increased rate of N2 fixation when combined nitrogen is insufficient to cover the demand. The daily N2 fixation pattern that emerges from the model agrees with measurements of rates of nitrogenase activity in laboratory cultures of Trichodesmium sp. Model simulations explored the influence of irradiance levels and the length of the light period on fixation activity and cellular carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry. Changes in the cellular C/N ratio resulted from allocations of carbon to different cell compartments as demanded by the growth of the organism. The model shows that carbon availability is a simple and efficient mechanism to regulate the balance of carbon and nitrogen fixed (C/N ratio) in filaments of cells. The lowest C/N ratios were obtained when the light regime closely matched nitrogenase dynamics. PMID:16672460

  17. Glycosylated Porphyra-334 and Palythine-Threonine from the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    PubMed Central

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Yamaba, Minami; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally different MAAs have been identified in eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria. In this study novel glycosylated MAAs were found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune (N. commune). An MAA with an absorption maximum at 334 nm was identified as a hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative with a molecular mass of 508 Da. Another MAA with an absorption maximum at 322 nm was identified as a two hexose-bound palythine-threonine derivative with a molecular mass of 612 Da. These purified MAAs have radical scavenging activities in vitro, which suggests multifunctional roles as sunscreens and antioxidants. The 612-Da MAA accounted for approximately 60% of the total MAAs and contributed approximately 20% of the total radical scavenging activities in a water extract, indicating that it is the major water-soluble UV-protectant and radical scavenger component. The hexose-bound porphyra-334 derivative and the glycosylated palythine-threonine derivatives were found in a specific genotype of N. commune, suggesting that glycosylated MAA patterns could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the characterization of the morphologically indistinguishable N. commune. The glycosylation of porphyra-334 and palythine-threonine in N. commune suggests a unique adaptation for terrestrial environments that are drastically fluctuating in comparison to stable aquatic environments. PMID:24065157

  18. Molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic characterization of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring species.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hiromi; Horiguchi, Noriomi; Takaichi, Shinichi; Kofuji, Rumiko; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Wada, Keishiro; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    The phylogeny of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune and its neighboring Nostoc species was studied using molecular genetic and chemotaxonomic approaches. At least eight genotypes of N. commune were characterized by the differences among 16S rRNA gene sequences and the petH gene encoding ferredoxin-NADP? oxidoreductase and by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genotypes of N. commune were distributed in Japan without regional specificity. The nrtP gene encoding NrtP-type nitrate/nitrite permease was widely distributed in the genus Nostoc, suggesting that the occurrence of the nrtP gene can be one of the characteristic features that separate cyanobacteria into two groups. The wspA gene encoding a 36-kDa water stress protein was only found in N. commune and Nostoc verrucosum, suggesting that these Nostoc species that form massive colonies with extracellular polysaccharides can be exclusively characterized by the occurrence of the wspA gene. Fifteen species of Nostoc and Anabaena were investigated by comparing their carotenoid composition. Three groups with distinct patterns of carotenoids were related to the phylogenic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA sequences. Nostoc commune and Nostoc punctiforme were clustered in one monophyletic group and characterized by the occurrence of nostoxanthin, canthaxanthin, and myxol glycosides. PMID:22066798

  19. Photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor incorporating the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Hall, D.O. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Nouee, J. De La [Univ. Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology

    1995-07-20

    The photosynthetic performance of a helical tubular photobioreactor (``Biocoil``), incorporating the filamentous cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, was investigated. The photobioreactor was constructed in a cylindrical shape with a 0.25-m{sup 2} basal area and a photostage comprising 60 m of transparent PVC tubing of 1.6-cm inner diameter. The inner surface of the cylinder was illuminated with cool white fluorescent lamps; the energy input of photosynthetically active radiation into the photobioreactor was 2,920 kJ per day. An air-lift system incorporating 4% CO{sub 2} was used to circulate the growth medium in the tubing. The maximum productivity achieved in batch culture was 7.18 g dry biomass per day which corresponded to a photosynthetic (PAR) efficiency of 5.45%. The CO{sub 2} was efficiently removed from the gaseous stream; monitoring the CO{sub 2} in the outlet and inlet gas streams showed a 70% removal of CO{sub 2} from the inlet gas over an 8-h period with almost maximum growth rate.

  20. Ultradian metabolic rhythm in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    PubMed Central

    ?ervený, Jan; Sinetova, Maria A.; Valledor, Luis; Sherman, Louis A.; Nedbal, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51142 is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis during the day and microoxic nitrogen fixation at night. These mutually exclusive processes are possible only by temporal separation by circadian clock or another cellular program. We report identification of a temperature-dependent ultradian metabolic rhythm that controls the alternating oxygenic and microoxic processes of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 under continuous high irradiance and in high CO2 concentration. During the oxygenic photosynthesis phase, nitrate deficiency limited protein synthesis and CO2 assimilation was directed toward glycogen synthesis. The carbohydrate accumulation reduced overexcitation of the photosynthetic reactions until a respiration burst initiated a transition to microoxic N2 fixation. In contrast to the circadian clock, this ultradian period is strongly temperature-dependent: 17 h at 27 °C, which continuously decreased to 10 h at 39 °C. The cycle was expressed by an oscillatory modulation of net O2 evolution, CO2 uptake, pH, fluorescence emission, glycogen content, cell division, and culture optical density. The corresponding ultradian modulation was also observed in the transcription of nitrogenase-related nifB and nifH genes and in nitrogenase activities. We propose that the control by the newly identified metabolic cycle adds another rhythmic component to the circadian clock that reflects the true metabolic state depending on the actual temperature, irradiance, and CO2 availability. PMID:23878254

  1. CyanOmics: an integrated database of omics for the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaohua; Feng, Jie; Li, Tao; Ge, Feng; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are an important group of organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis and play vital roles in both the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the Earth. The annotated genome of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, as an ideal model cyanobacterium, is available. A series of transcriptomic and proteomic studies of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 cells grown under different conditions have been reported. However, no database of such integrated omics studies has been constructed. Here we present CyanOmics, a database based on the results of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 omics studies. CyanOmics comprises one genomic dataset, 29 transcriptomic datasets and one proteomic dataset and should prove useful for systematic and comprehensive analysis of all those data. Powerful browsing and searching tools are integrated to help users directly access information of interest with enhanced visualization of the analytical results. Furthermore, Blast is included for sequence-based similarity searching and Cluster 3.0, as well as the R hclust function is provided for cluster analyses, to increase CyanOmics’s usefulness. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first integrated omics analysis database for cyanobacteria. This database should further understanding of the transcriptional patterns, and proteomic profiling of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and other cyanobacteria. Additionally, the entire database framework is applicable to any sequenced prokaryotic genome and could be applied to other integrated omics analysis projects. Database URL: http://lag.ihb.ac.cn/cyanomics PMID:25632108

  2. A biliverdin-binding cyanobacteriochrome from the chlorophyll d–bearing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina

    PubMed Central

    Narikawa, Rei; Nakajima, Takahiro; Aono, Yuki; Fushimi, Keiji; Enomoto, Gen; Ni-Ni-Win; Itoh, Shigeru; Sato, Moritoshi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are linear tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors in cyanobacteria that absorb visible and near-ultraviolet light. CBCRs are divided into two types based on the type of chromophore they contain: phycocyanobilin (PCB) or phycoviolobilin (PVB). PCB-binding CBCRs reversibly photoconvert at relatively long wavelengths, i.e., the blue-to-red region, whereas PVB-binding CBCRs reversibly photoconvert at shorter wavelengths, i.e., the near-ultraviolet to green region. Notably, prior to this report, CBCRs containing biliverdin (BV), which absorbs at longer wavelengths than do PCB and PVB, have not been found. Herein, we report that the typical red/green CBCR AM1_1557 from the chlorophyll d–bearing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina can bind BV almost comparable to PCB. This BV-bound holoprotein reversibly photoconverts between a far red light–absorbing form (Pfr, ?max = 697?nm) and an orange light–absorbing form (Po, ?max = 622?nm). At room temperature, Pfr fluoresces with a maximum at 730?nm. These spectral features are red-shifted by 48~77?nm compared with those of the PCB-bound domain. Because the absorbance of chlorophyll d is red-shifted compared with that of chlorophyll a, the BV-bound AM1_1557 may be a physiologically relevant feature of A. marina and is potentially useful as an optogenetic switch and/or fluorescence imager. PMID:25609645

  3. Advances in the Function and Regulation of Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Veaudor, Théo; Chauvat, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In order to use cyanobacteria for the biological production of hydrogen, it is important to thoroughly study the function and the regulation of the hydrogen-production machine in order to better understand its role in the global cell metabolism and identify bottlenecks limiting H2 production. Most of the recent advances in our understanding of the bidirectional [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase (Hox) came from investigations performed in the widely-used model cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 where Hox is the sole enzyme capable of combining electrons with protons to produce H2 under specific conditions. Recent findings suggested that the Hox enzyme can receive electrons from not only NAD(P)H as usually shown, but also, or even preferentially, from ferredoxin. Furthermore, plasmid-encoded functions and glutathionylation (the formation of a mixed-disulfide between the cysteines residues of a protein and the cysteine residue of glutathione) are proposed as possible new players in the function and regulation of hydrogen production. PMID:25365180

  4. Identification of a carotenoid-binding protein in the cytoplasmic membrane from the heterotrophic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6714.

    PubMed Central

    Bullerjahn, G S; Sherman, L A

    1986-01-01

    We isolated a carotenoid-binding protein from the cytoplasmic membrane of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6714. The polypeptide demonstrated a characteristic mobility shift when electrophoresed in lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The protein migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 35 kilodaltons when solubilized at 0 degrees C, but after solubilization at 70 degrees C, the protein migrated as a 45-kilodalton species. The carotenoid-binding protein accumulated only in autotrophically grown cells; cytoplasmic membranes prepared from photoheterotrophically grown cells lacked this component. Images PMID:3087963

  5. Cloning of a copper resistance gene cluster from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by recombineering recovery.

    PubMed

    Gittins, John R

    2015-07-01

    A copper resistance gene cluster (6 genes, ?8.2kb) was isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by recombineering recovery (RR). Following integration of a narrow-host-range plasmid vector adjacent to the target region in the Synechocystis genome (pSYSX), DNA was isolated from transformed cells and the plasmid plus flanking sequence circularized by recombineering to precisely clone the gene cluster. Complementation of a copper-sensitive Escherichia coli mutant demonstrated the functionality of the pcopM gene encoding a copper-binding protein. RR provides a novel alternative method for cloning large DNA fragments from species that can be transformed by homologous recombination. PMID:25980606

  6. Using recombinant cyanobacterium (Synechococcus elongatus) with increased carbohydrate productivity as feedstock for bioethanol production via separate hydrolysis and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Chow, Te-Jin; Su, Hsiang-Yen; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Chou, Hsiang-Hui; Lee, Tse-Min; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a recombinant cyanobacterium strain with increased photosynthesis rate, cell growth and carbohydrate production efficiency was genetically engineered by co-expressing ictB, ecaA, and acsAB (encoded for bacterial cellulose) in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. The resulting cyanobacterial biomass could be effectively hydrolyzed with dilute acid (2% sulfuric acid), achieving a nearly 90% glucose recovery at a biomass concentration of 80 g/L. Bioethanol can be produced from fermenting the acidic hydrolysate of S. elongatus PCC7942 via separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process at a concentration of 7.2 g/L and with a 91% theoretical yield. PMID:25453434

  7. Components of natural gas resulting from thermal degradation of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Oscillatoria tenuis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingyu Wu; Guoging Sheng; Jiamo Fu

    1989-01-01

    Cultures of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium)Oscillatoria tenuis were used to simulate thermal degradation and gas formation by heating without oxygen at 250 and 350 C for 100 h. Analysis\\u000a through gas chromatography showed that the gases were mainly CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iC4 (isobutane), nC4 (normal butane), iC5 (isopentane), nC5 (normal pentane), H2, C02 and N2. The volume of gases per

  8. Dependence of the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus on hydrogen peroxide scavenging microbes for growth at the ocean's surface.

    PubMed

    Morris, J Jeffrey; Johnson, Zackary I; Szul, Martin J; Keller, Martin; Zinser, Erik R

    2011-01-01

    The phytoplankton community in the oligotrophic open ocean is numerically dominated by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus, accounting for approximately half of all photosynthesis. In the illuminated euphotic zone where Prochlorococcus grows, reactive oxygen species are continuously generated via photochemical reactions with dissolved organic matter. However, Prochlorococcus genomes lack catalase and additional protective mechanisms common in other aerobes, and this genus is highly susceptible to oxidative damage from hydrogen peroxide (HOOH). In this study we showed that the extant microbial community plays a vital, previously unrecognized role in cross-protecting Prochlorococcus from oxidative damage in the surface mixed layer of the oligotrophic ocean. Microbes are the primary HOOH sink in marine systems, and in the absence of the microbial community, surface waters in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean accumulated HOOH to concentrations that were lethal for Prochlorococcus cultures. In laboratory experiments with the marine heterotroph Alteromonas sp., serving as a proxy for the natural community of HOOH-degrading microbes, bacterial depletion of HOOH from the extracellular milieu prevented oxidative damage to the cell envelope and photosystems of co-cultured Prochlorococcus, and facilitated the growth of Prochlorococcus at ecologically-relevant cell concentrations. Curiously, the more recently evolved lineages of Prochlorococcus that exploit the surface mixed layer niche were also the most sensitive to HOOH. The genomic streamlining of these evolved lineages during adaptation to the high-light exposed upper euphotic zone thus appears to be coincident with an acquired dependency on the extant HOOH-consuming community. These results underscore the importance of (indirect) biotic interactions in establishing niche boundaries, and highlight the impacts that community-level responses to stress may have in the ecological and evolutionary outcomes for co-existing species. PMID:21304826

  9. Feeding and filtration rates of zooplankton (rotifers and cladocerans) fed toxic cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S

    2014-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is generally dominant in many Mexican freshwater ecosystems interacting with zooplankton species. Hence, feeding and filtration rates were quantified for three cladoceran (Daphnia pulex, Moina micrura and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and three rotifer species (Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus rubens and Plationus patulus) using sonicated M. aeruginosa alone or mixed with Scenedesmus acutus in different proportions (25, 50 and 75%, based on cell density), offering a combined initial density of 100,000 cells·ml(-1). All the three cladoceran species ingested M. aeruginosa (100-300 cells ind(-1) min(-1)) when fed exclusively with cyanobacterium. When green alga offered as exclusive diet, the number of cells ingested by the tested cladocerans varied from 80 to 400 cells ind(-1) min(-1). Compared to cladocerans, rotifers in general consumed much lower quantity (< 200 cells ind(-1) min(-1)) of M. aeruginosa and S. acutus. The filtration rate for Daphnia pulex was inversely related to the proportion of green alga in the diet. For other tested cladocerans, no such clear trend was evident. In mixed treatments containing M. aeruginosa, the filtration rate of Daphnia was highest (about 220 ?l ind(-1) min(-1)) when the medium contained 75% of S. acutus. Among the rotifer species, P. patulus filtered highest volume (100 ?l ind(-1) min(-1) from mixed diets containing higher proportions (50 or 75%) of M. aeruginosa. Thus, there were species-specific differences in the filtration and feeding rates of zooplankton when offered mixed diets of green algae and toxic cyanobacteria. These probably explain the coexistence of different zooplankton species in Microcystis-dominant waterbodies. PMID:25522500

  10. The genome of Cyanothece 51142, a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium important in the marine nitrogen cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Stockel, Jana; Loh, Thomas; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Wang, Chunyan; Wollam, Aye; Fulton, Robert S.; Clifton, Sandra W.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Sherman, Louis A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilson, Richard K.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-09-30

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria that have significant roles in global biological carbon sequestration and oxygen production. They occupy a diverse range of habitats, from open ocean, to hot springs, deserts, and arctic waters. Cyanobacteria are known as the progenitors of the chloroplasts of plants and algae, and are the simplest known organisms to exhibit circadian behavior4. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a unicellular marine cyanobacterium capable of N2-fixation, a process that is biochemically incompatible with oxygenic photosynthesis. To resolve this problem, Cyanothece performs photosynthesis during the day and nitrogen fixation at night, thus temporally separating these processes in the same cell. The genome of Cyanothece 51142 was completely sequenced and found to contain a unique arrangement of one large circular chromosome, four small plasmids, and one linear chromosome, the first report of such a linear element in a photosynthetic bacterium. Annotation of the Cyanothece genome was aided by the use of highthroughput proteomics data, enabling the reclassification of 25% of the proteins with no informative sequence homology. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that nitrogen fixation is an ancient process that arose early in evolution and has subsequently been lost in many cyanobacterial strains. In cyanobacterial cells, the circadian clock influences numerous processes, including carbohydrate synthesis, nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis, respiration, and the cell division cycle. During a diurnal period, Cyanothece cells actively accumulate and degrade different storage inclusion bodies for the products of photosynthesis and N2-fixation. This ability to utilize metabolic compartmentalization and energy storage makes Cyanothece an ideal system for bioenergy research, as well as studies of how a unicellular organism balances multiple, often incompatible, processes in the same cell.

  11. Increase of nitrogenase activity in the blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum (Cyanobacterium).

    PubMed

    Scherer, S; Kerfin, W; Böger, P

    1980-12-01

    Preincubation of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Nostoc muscorum under hydrogen or argon (nongrowing conditions, neither CO(2) nor N(2) or bound nitrogen present) in the light resulted in a two- to fourfold increase of light-induced hydrogen evolution and a 30% increase of acetylene reduction. Preincubation under the same gases in the dark led to a decrease of both activities. Cultivation of algae under a hydrogen-containing atmosphere (N(2), H(2), CO(2)) increased neither hydrogen nor ethylene evolution by the cells. Formation of both ethylene and hydrogen is due to nitrogenase activity, which apparently was induced by the absence of N(2) or bound nitrogen and not by the presence of hydrogen. Inhibitors of protein biosynthesis prevented the increase of nitrogenase activity. Hydrogen uptake by the cells was almost unaffected under all of these conditions. With either ammonia or chloramphenicol present, nitrogenase activity decreased under growing conditions (i.e., an atmosphere of N(2) and CO(2)). The kinetics of decrease were the same with ammonia or chloramphenicol, which was interpreted as being due to rapid protein breakdown with a half-life of approximately 4 h. The decay of nitrogenase activity caused by chloramphenicol could be counteracted by nitrogenase-inducing conditions, i.e., by the absence of N(2) or bound nitrogen. A cell-free system from preconditioned algae with an adenosine 5'-triphosphate-generating system exhibited the same increase or decrease of nitrogenase activity as the intact cell filaments, indicating that this effect resided in the nitrogenase complex only. We tentatively assume that not the whole nitrogenase complex, but merely a subunit or a special protein with regulatory function, is susceptible to fast turnover. PMID:6777364

  12. DL-7-azatryptophan and citrulline metabolism in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 1F

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.H.; Van Baalen, C.; Tabita, F.R.

    1987-03-01

    An alternative route for the primary assimilation of ammonia proceeds via glutamine synthetase-carbamyl phosphate synthetase and its inherent glutaminase activity in Anabaena sp. strain 1F, a marine filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium. Evidence for the presence of this possible alternative route to glutamate was provided by the use of amino acid analogs as specific enzyme inhibitors, enzymological studies, and radioistopic labeling experiments. The amino acid pool patterns of continuous cultures of Anabaena sp. strain 1F were markedly influenced by the nitrogen source. A relatively high concentration of glutamate was maintained in the amino acid pools of all cultures irrespective of the nitrogen source, reflecting the central role of glutamate in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of 1.0 microM azaserine increased the intracellular pools of glutamate and glutamine. All attempts to detect any enzymatic activity for glutamate synthase by measuring the formation of L-(/sup 14/C)glutamate from 2-keto-(1-/sup 14/C)glutarate and glutamine failed. The addition of 10 microM DL-7-azatryptophan caused a transient accumulation of intracellular citrulline and alanine which was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol. The in vitro activity of carbamyl phosphate synthetase and glutaminase increased severalfold in the presence of azatryptophan. Results from radioisotopic labeling experiments with (/sup 14/C)bicarbonate and L-(1-/sup 14/C)ornithine also indicated that citrulline was formed via carbamyl phosphate synthetase and ornithine transcarbamylase. In addition to its effects on nitrogen metabolism, azatryptophan also affected carbon metabolism by inhibiting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of the Small Subunit of the Uptake Hydrogenase from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme*

    PubMed Central

    Raleiras, Patrícia; Kellers, Petra; Lindblad, Peter; Styring, Stenbjörn; Magnuson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    In nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, hydrogen evolution is associated with hydrogenases and nitrogenase, making these enzymes interesting targets for genetic engineering aimed at increased hydrogen production. Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that expresses the uptake hydrogenase HupSL in heterocysts under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Little is known about the structural and biophysical properties of HupSL. The small subunit, HupS, has been postulated to contain three iron-sulfur clusters, but the details regarding their nature have been unclear due to unusual cluster binding motifs in the amino acid sequence. We now report the cloning and heterologous expression of Nostoc punctiforme HupS as a fusion protein, f-HupS. We have characterized the anaerobically purified protein by UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Our results show that f-HupS contains three iron-sulfur clusters. UV-visible absorption of f-HupS has bands ?340 and 420 nm, typical for iron-sulfur clusters. The EPR spectrum of the oxidized f-HupS shows a narrow g = 2.023 resonance, characteristic of a low-spin (S = ˝) [3Fe-4S] cluster. The reduced f-HupS presents complex EPR spectra with overlapping resonances centered on g = 1.94, g = 1.91, and g = 1.88, typical of low-spin (S = ˝) [4Fe-4S] clusters. Analysis of the spectroscopic data allowed us to distinguish between two species attributable to two distinct [4Fe-4S] clusters, in addition to the [3Fe-4S] cluster. This indicates that f-HupS binds [4Fe-4S] clusters despite the presence of unusual coordinating amino acids. Furthermore, our expression and purification of what seems to be an intact HupS protein allows future studies on the significance of ligand nature on redox properties of the iron-sulfur clusters of HupS. PMID:23649626

  14. Highly plastic genome of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, a ubiquitous toxic freshwater cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Frangeul, Lionel; Quillardet, Philippe; Castets, Anne-Marie; Humbert, Jean-François; Matthijs, Hans CP; Cortez, Diego; Tolonen, Andrew; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Kehr, Jan-Christoph; Zilliges, Yvonne; Ziemert, Nadine; Becker, Sven; Talla, Emmanuel; Latifi, Amel; Billault, Alain; Lepelletier, Anthony; Dittmann, Elke; Bouchier, Christiane; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Background The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria. Results Deciphering the 5,172,804 bp sequence of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 has revealed the high plasticity of its genome: 11.7% DNA repeats containing more than 1,000 bases, 6.8% putative transposases and 21 putative restriction enzymes. Compared to the genomes of other cyanobacterial lineages, strain PCC 7806 contains a large number of atypical genes that may have been acquired by lateral transfers. Metabolic pathways, such as fermentation and a methionine salvage pathway, have been identified, as have genes for programmed cell death that may be related to the rapid disappearance of Microcystis blooms in nature. Analysis of the PCC 7806 genome also reveals striking novel biosynthetic features that might help to elucidate the ecological impact of secondary metabolites and lead to the discovery of novel metabolites for new biotechnological applications. M. aeruginosa and other large cyanobacterial genomes exhibit a rapid loss of synteny in contrast to other microbial genomes. Conclusion Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 appears to have adopted an evolutionary strategy relying on unusual genome plasticity to adapt to eutrophic freshwater ecosystems, a property shared by another strain of M. aeruginosa (NIES-843). Comparisons of the genomes of PCC 7806 and other cyanobacterial strains indicate that a similar strategy may have also been used by the marine strain Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 to adapt to other ecological niches, such as oligotrophic open oceans. PMID:18534010

  15. Intercellular Diffusion of a Fluorescent Sucrose Analog via the Septal Junctions in a Filamentous Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, Dennis J.; Mariscal, Vicente; Bornikoel, Jan; Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Krauß, Norbert; Herrero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many filamentous cyanobacteria produce specialized nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts, which are located at semiregular intervals along the filament with about 10 to 20 photosynthetic vegetative cells in between. Nitrogen fixation in these complex multicellular bacteria depends on metabolite exchange between the two cell types, with the heterocysts supplying combined-nitrogen compounds but dependent on the vegetative cells for photosynthetically produced carbon compounds. Here, we used a fluorescent tracer to probe intercellular metabolite exchange in the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We show that esculin, a fluorescent sucrose analog, is incorporated by a sucrose import system into the cytoplasm of Anabaena cells. The cytoplasmic esculin is rapidly and reversibly exchanged across vegetative-vegetative and vegetative-heterocyst cell junctions. Our measurements reveal the kinetics of esculin exchange and also show that intercellular metabolic communication is lost in a significant fraction of older heterocysts. SepJ, FraC, and FraD are proteins located at the intercellular septa and are suggested to form structures analogous to gap junctions. We show that a ?sepJ ?fraC ?fraD triple mutant shows an altered septum structure with thinner septa but a denser peptidoglycan layer. Intercellular diffusion of esculin and fluorescein derivatives is impaired in this mutant, which also shows a greatly reduced frequency of nanopores in the intercellular septal cross walls. These findings suggest that FraC, FraD, and SepJ are important for the formation of junctional structures that constitute the major pathway for feeding heterocysts with sucrose. PMID:25784700

  16. Regulation of Three Nitrogenase Gene Clusters in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Teresa; Pratte, Brenda S

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts that form in response to an environmental deficiency in combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is mediated by the enzyme nitrogenase, which is very sensitive to oxygen. Heterocysts are microxic cells that allow nitrogenase to function in a filament comprised primarily of vegetative cells that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. A. variabilis is unique among well-characterized cyanobacteria in that it has three nitrogenase gene clusters that encode different nitrogenases, which function under different environmental conditions. The nif1 genes encode a Mo-nitrogenase that functions only in heterocysts, even in filaments grown anaerobically. The nif2 genes encode a different Mo-nitrogenase that functions in vegetative cells, but only in filaments grown under anoxic conditions. An alternative V-nitrogenase is encoded by vnf genes that are expressed only in heterocysts in an environment that is deficient in Mo. Thus, these three nitrogenases are expressed differentially in response to environmental conditions. The entire nif1 gene cluster, comprising at least 15 genes, is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Transcriptional control of many of the downstream nif1 genes occurs by a combination of weak promoters within the coding regions of some downstream genes and by RNA processing, which is associated with increased transcript stability. The vnf genes show a similar pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression suggesting that the complex pattern of regulation of the nif1 cluster is conserved in other cyanobacterial nitrogenase gene clusters. PMID:25513762

  17. Binding of ferric heme by the recombinant globin from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J T; Scott, N L; Vu, B C; Falzone, C J

    2001-05-29

    The product of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 gene slr2097 is a 123 amino acid polypeptide chain belonging to the truncated hemoglobin family. Recombinant, ferric heme-reconstituted Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 hemoglobin is a low-spin complex whose endogenous hexacoordination gives rise to optical and NMR characteristics reminiscent of cytochrome b(5) [Scott, N. L., and Lecomte, J. T. J. (2000) Protein Sci. 9, 587-597]. In this work, the sequential assignments using (15)N-(13)C-labeled protein, (1)H nuclear Overhauser effects, and longitudinal relaxation data identified His70 as the proximal histidine and His46 as the sixth ligand to the iron ion. It was also found that one of two possible heme orientations within the protein matrix is highly preferred (>90%) and that this orientation is the same as in vertebrate myoglobins. The rate constant for the 180 degrees rotation of the heme within a protein cage to produce the favored isomer was 0.5 h(-1) at 25 degrees C, approximately 35 times faster than in sperm whale myoglobin. Variable temperature studies revealed an activation energy of 132 +/- 4 kJ mol(-1), similar to the value in metaquomyoglobin at the same pH. The rate constant for heme loss from the major isomer was estimated to be 0.01 h(-1) by optical spectroscopy, close to the value for myoglobin and decades slower than in the related Nostoc commune cyanoglobin. The slow heme loss was attributed in part to the additional coordination bond to His46, whereas the relatively fast rate of heme reorientation suggested that this bond was weaker than the proximal His70-Fe bond. The standard reduction potential of the hexacoordinated protein was measured with and without poly-L-lysine as a mediator and found to be approximately -150 mV vs SHE, indicating a stabilization of the ferric state compared to most hemoglobins and b(5) cytochromes. PMID:11371218

  18. Characterization of the activity of heavy metal-responsive promoters in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Peca, Loredana; Kós, P B; Vass, I

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at developing cyanobacterial-based biosensors for heavy metal detection, expression of heavy metal inducible genes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR upon 15 minutes exposure to biologically relevant concentrations of Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Cr6+, As3+ and As5+. The ziaA gene, which encodes a Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPase showed a markedly increased mRNA level after incubation with Cd2+ and arsenic ions, besides the expected induction by Zn2+ ions. The Co2+ efflux system-encoding gene coaT was strongly induced by Co2+ and Zn2+ ions, moderately induced by As3+ ions, and induced at a relatively low level by Cd2+ and As5+ ions. Expression of nrsB, which encodes a part of a putative Ni2+ efflux system was highly induced by Ni2+ salts and at a low extent by Co2+ and Zn2+ salts. The arsB gene, which encodes a putative arsenite-specific efflux pump was highly induced by As3+ and As5+ ions, while other metal salts provoked insignificant transcript level increase. The transcript of chrA, in spite of the high sequence similarity of its protein product with several bacterial chromate transporters, shows no induction upon Cr6+ salt exposure. We conclude that due to the largely unspecific heavy metal response of the studied genes only nrsB and arsB are potential candidates for biosensing applications for detection of Ni2+ and arsenic pollutants, respectively. PMID:18297791

  19. Molecular structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, F X; Sun, Z; Chamovitz, D; Hirschberg, J; Gantt, E

    1994-01-01

    A gene encoding the enzyme lycopene cyclase in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942 was mapped by genetic complementation, cloned, and sequenced. This gene, which we have named crtL, was expressed in strains of Escherichia coli that were genetically engineered to accumulate the carotenoid precursors lycopene, neurosporene, and zeta-carotene. The crtL gene product converts the acyclic hydrocarbon lycopene into the bicyclic beta-carotene, an essential component of the photosynthetic apparatus in oxygen-evolving organisms and a source of vitamin A in human and animal nutrition. The enzyme also converts neurosporene to the monocyclic beta-zeacarotene but does not cyclize zeta-carotene, indicating that desaturation of the 7-8 or 7'-8' carbon-carbon bond is required for cyclization. The bleaching herbicide 2-(4-methylphenoxy)triethylamine hydrochloride (MPTA) effectively inhibits both cyclization reactions. A mutation that confers resistance to MPTA in Synechococcus sp PCC7942 was identified as a point mutation in the promoter region of crtL. The deduced amino acid sequence of lycopene cyclase specifies a polypeptide of 411 amino acids with a molecular weight of 46,125 and a pI of 6.0. An amino acid sequence motif indicative of FAD utilization is located at the N terminus of the polypeptide. DNA gel blot hybridization analysis indicated a single copy of crtL in Synechococcus sp PCC7942. Other than the FAD binding motif, the predicted amino acid sequence of the cyanobacterial lycopene cyclase bears little resemblance to the two known lycopene cyclase enzymes from nonphotosynthetic bacteria. Preliminary results from DNA gel blot hybridization experiments suggest that, like two earlier genes in the pathway, the Synechococcus gene encoding lycopene cyclase is homologous to plant and algal genes encoding this enzyme. PMID:7919981

  20. Optimal conditions for genetic transformations of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.S.; Sherman, L.A.

    1984-04-01

    Under optimal conditions, the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans R2 was transformed to ampicillin resistance at frequencies of >10/sup 7/ transformants per ..mu..g of plasmid (pCH1) donor DNA. No stringent period of competency was detected, and high frequencies of transformation were achieved with cultures at various growth stages. Transformation increased with time after addition of donor DNA up to 15 to 18 h. The peak of transformation efficiency (transformants/donor molecule) occurred at plasmid concentrations of 125 to 325 ng/ml with an ampicillin resistance donor plasmid (pCH1) and 300 to 625 ng/ml for chloramphenicol resistance conferred by plasmid pSG111. The efficiency of transformation was enhanced by excluding light during the incubation or by blocking photosynthesis with the electron transport inhibitor 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. Preincubation of cells in darkness for 15 to 18 h before addition of donor DNA significantly decreased transformation efficiency. Growth of cells in iron-deficient medium before transformation enhanced efficiency fourfold. These results were obtained with selection for ampicillin (pCH1 donor plasmid)- or chloramphenicol (pSG111 donor plasmid)-resistant transformants. Approximately 1000 transformants per ..mu..g were obtained when chromosomal DNA from a herbicide (DCMU)-resistant mutant was used as donor DNA. DCMU resistance was also transferred to recipient cells by using restriction fragments of chromosomal DNA from DCMU-resistant mutants. This procedure allowed size classes of fragments to be assayed for the presence of the DCMU resistance gene.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ferredoxin isolated from thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.

    PubMed

    Fish, Alexander; Lebendiker, Mario; Nechushtai, Rachel; Livnah, Oded

    2003-04-01

    Ferredoxins are soluble iron-sulfur proteins that are involved in numerous electron-transfer reactions. Plant-type ferredoxins, which carry a single [2Fe-2S] cluster, serve as the electron acceptors of Photosystem I. The ferredoxin from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus has unique thermostable properties. The isolated protein is active at temperatures of higher than 338 K. The gene encoding the ferredoxin from M. laminosus was subcloned into an expression vector and overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified to near-homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop method. Thin needle-like crystals were grown in several crystallization conditions but were unsuitable for X-ray analysis owing to poor scattering. In order to obtain better diffracting crystals, ferredoxin was purified directly from M. laminosus cells. Single crystals were obtained using 30% PEG 4000, 0.32 M Mg(NO(3))(2), 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.2. These crystals diffracted to 1.25 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and were found to belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 28.45, b = 50.93, c = 110.91 A. The asymmetric unit was found to contain two ferredoxin molecules, with a corresponding V(M) of 1.9 A(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 34%. The present study indicates that overcoming the poor diffraction of crystals obtained from recombinant protein can be achieved by producing crystals from protein purified from the native host. PMID:12657796

  2. Evaluation of free radical-generating compounds for toxicity towards the cyanobacterium Planktothrix perornata which causes musty off-flavor in pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cyanobacterium Planktothrix perornata grows in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production ponds in the southeastern United States and produces the musty-odor compound 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). MIB can rapidly accumulate in the flesh of the catfish, thereby rendering the fish unpalatable a...

  3. Isolation, sequence and expression of two members of the 32 kd thylakoid membrane protein gene family from the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie E. Curtis; Robert Haselkorn

    1984-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena contains at least three copies of DNA sequences related to the unique gene encoding the 32 kd thylakoid membrane protein in spinach chloroplast DNA, based on hybridization with the cloned spinach probe. Two of the identified Anabaena DNA fragments were isolated from a recombinant lambda library and the complete nucleotide sequences of the coding regions were determined.

  4. Crinalium epipsammum sp. nov.: a filamentous cyanobacterium with trichomes composed of elliptical cells and containing poly- -(1,4) glucar (cellulose)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BEN DE WINDER; LUCAS J. STAL; LUUC R. MUR

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation and characterization of a new species of cyanobacterium, Crinalium epipSammum. The assignment to the genus Crinalium, first described by Crow (1927), is based on a property which is und for cyanobacteria: trichomes viewed in cross-section are elliptical rather than circular. This organism was isolated from the surface layer of sandy soil of coastal dunes in

  5. Inter and intraspecific differences in Daphnia life histories in response to two food sources: The green alga Scenedesmus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Repka

    1996-01-01

    The effects of two food sources on life history traits of Daphnia galeata, Daphnia cucullata and their interspecific hybrid, D.cucullataxgaleata, were studied. For each taxon, two clones were reared on both a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) and a filamentous cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria limnetica). Reproduction on Oscillatoria was generally lower than on Scenedesmus, but a positive population growth rate was still achieved,

  6. Pathway-Level Acceleration of Glycogen Catabolism by a Response Regulator in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Species PCC 68031[W

    PubMed Central

    Osanai, Takashi; Oikawa, Akira; Numata, Keiji; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Iijima, Hiroko; Doi, Yoshiharu; Saito, Kazuki; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2014-01-01

    Response regulators of two-component systems play pivotal roles in the transcriptional regulation of responses to environmental signals in bacteria. Rre37, an OmpR-type response regulator, is induced by nitrogen depletion in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis species PCC 6803. Microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that genes related to sugar catabolism and nitrogen metabolism were up-regulated by rre37 overexpression. Protein levels of GlgP(slr1367), one of the two glycogen phosphorylases, in the rre37-overexpressing strain were higher than those of the parental wild-type strain under both nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions. Glycogen amounts decreased to less than one-tenth by rre37 overexpression under nitrogen-replete conditions. Metabolome analysis revealed that metabolites of the sugar catabolic pathway and amino acids were altered in the rre37-overexpressing strain after nitrogen depletion. These results demonstrate that Rre37 is a pathway-level regulator that activates the metabolic flow from glycogen to polyhydroxybutyrate and the hybrid tricarboxylic acid and ornithine cycle, unraveling the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of primary metabolism in this unicellular cyanobacterium. PMID:24521880

  7. Optimization and effects of different culture conditions on growth of Halomicronema hongdechloris – a filamentous cyanobacterium containing chlorophyll f

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaqiong; Lin, Yuankui; Loughlin, Patrick C.; Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris) was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. The extremely slow growth rate of H. hongdechloris has hindered research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for future research. This work investigated the effects of various culture conditions, essential nutrients and light environments to determine the optimal growth conditions for H. hongdechloris and the biosynthetic rate of chlorophyll f. Based on the total chlorophyll concentration, an optimal growth rate of 0.22 ± 0.02 day-1(doubling time: 3.1 ± 0.3 days) was observed when cells were grown under continuous illumination with far-red light with an intensity of 20 ?E at 32°C in modified K + ES seawater (pH 8.0) with additional nitrogen and phosphor supplements. High performance liquid chromatography on H. hongdechloris pigments confirmed that chlorophyll a is the major chlorophyll and chlorophyll f constitutes ~10% of the total chlorophyll from cells grown under far-red light. Fluorescence confocal image analysis demonstrated changes of photosynthetic membranes and the distribution of photopigments in response to different light conditions. The total photosynthetic oxygen evolution yield per cell showed no changes under different light conditions, which confirms the involvement of chlorophyll f in oxygenic photosynthesis. The implications of the presence of chlorophyll f in H. hongdechloris and its relationship with the ambient light environment are discussed. PMID:24616731

  8. Analysis of UV-absorbing photoprotectant mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. CU2556.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2014-07-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are ecologically important biomolecules with great photoprotective potential. The present study aimed to investigate the biosynthesis of MAAs in the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. CU2556. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode-array detection studies revealed the presence of a UV-absorbing compound with an absorption maximum at 310 nm. Based on its UV absorption spectrum and ion trap liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis, the compound was identified as a primary MAA mycosporine-glycine (m/z: 246). To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence of MAA mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly) in Arthrospira strains studied so far. In contrast to photosynthetic activity under UV-A radiation, the induction of the biosynthesis of M-Gly was significantly more prominent under UV-B radiation. The content of M-Gly was found to increase with the increase in exposure time under UV-B radiation. The MAA M-Gly was highly stable under UV radiation, heat, strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. It also exhibited good antioxidant activity and photoprotective ability by detoxifying the in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by UV radiation. Our results indicate that the studied cyanobacterium may protect itself by synthesizing the UV-absorbing/screening compounds as important defense mechanisms, in their natural brightly-lit habitat with high solar UV-B fluxes. PMID:24769912

  9. Chemoheterotrophic Growth of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Dependent on a Functional Cytochrome c Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Stebegg, Ronald; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mikulic, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium commonly used as a model organism for studying cyanobacterial cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. For many decades, this cyanobacterium was considered an obligate photo-lithoautotroph. We now discovered that this strain is also capable of mixotrophic, photo-organoheterotrophic, and chemo-organoheterotrophic growth if high concentrations of fructose (at least 50 mM and up to 200 mM) are supplied. Glucose, a substrate used by some facultatively organoheterotrophic cyanobacteria, is not effective in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. The gtr gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding a glucose carrier was introduced into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Surprisingly, the new strain containing the gtr gene did not grow on glucose but was very sensitive to glucose, with a 5 mM concentration being lethal, whereas the wild-type strain tolerated 200 mM glucose. The Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 strain containing gtr can grow mixotrophically and photo-organoheterotrophically, but not chemo-organoheterotrophically with fructose. Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five respiratory chains ending in five different respiratory terminal oxidases. One of these enzymes is a mitochondrial-type cytochrome c oxidase. As in almost all cyanobacteria, this enzyme is encoded by three adjacent genes called coxBAC1. When this locus was disrupted, the cells lost the capability for chemo-organoheterotrophic growth. PMID:22730128

  10. Growth inhibition of bloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa by green route fabricated copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Prasath, Barathan Balaji; Nandakumar, Ravichandran; Santhanam, Perumal; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-12-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa can potentially proliferate in a wide range of freshwater bionetworks and create extensive secondary metabolites which are harmful to human and animal health. The M. aeruginosa release toxic microcystins that can create a wide range of health-related issues to aquatic animals and humans. It is essential to eliminate them from the ecosystem with convenient method. It has been reported that engineered metal nanoparticles are potentially toxic to pathogenic organisms. In the present study, we examined the growth inhibition effect of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles against M. aeruginosa. The green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles exhibit an excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 270 nm confirmed using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed that synthesized nanoparticles are colloidal in nature and having a particle size of 551 nm with high stability at -26.6 mV. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis shows that copper oxide nanoparticles are spherical, rod and irregular in shape, and consistently distributed throughout the solution. The elemental copper and oxide peak were confirmed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX). Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicates the presence of functional groups which is mandatory for the reduction of copper ions. Besides, green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles shows growth inhibition against M. aeruginosa. The inhibition efficiency was 31.8 % at lower concentration and 89.7 % at higher concentration of copper oxide nanoparticles, respectively. The chlorophyll (a and b) and carotenoid content of M. aeruginosa declined in dose-dependent manner with respect to induction of copper oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, we analyzed the mechanism behind the cytotoxicity of M. aeruginosa induced by copper oxide nanoparticles through evaluating membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) level. The results expose that there is a loss in membrane integrity with ROS formation that leads to alteration in the ??m, which ends up with severe mitochondrial injury in copper oxide nanoparticles treated cells. Hence, green way synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles may be a useful selective biological agent for the control of M. aeruginosa. PMID:25074832

  11. Ethoxyzolamide Inhibition of CO(2)-Dependent Photosynthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942.

    PubMed

    Price, G D; Badger, M R

    1989-01-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942, grown under high inorganic carbon (C(i)) conditions (1% CO(2); pH 8) were found to be photosynthetically dependent on exogenous CO(2). This was judged by the fact that they had a similar photosynthetic affinity for CO(2) (K(0.5)[CO(2)] of 3.4-5.4 micromolar) over the pH range 7 to 9 and that the low photosynthetic affinity for C(i) measured in dense cell suspensions was improved by the addition of exogenous carbonic anhydrase (CA). The CA inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide (EZ), was shown to reduce photosynthetic affinity for CO(2) in high C(i) cells. The addition of 200 micromolar EZ to high C(i) cells increased K(0.5)(CO(2)) from 4.6 micromolar to more than 155 micromolar at pH 8.0, whereas low C(i) cells (grown at 30 microliters CO(2) per liter of air) were less sensitive to EZ. EZ inhibition in high and low C(i) cells was largely relieved by increasing exogenous C(i) up to 100 millimolar. Lipid soluble CA inhibitors such as EZ and chlorazolamide were shown to be the most effective inhibitors of CO(2) usage, whereas water soluble CA inhibitors such as methazolamide and acetazolamide had little or no effect. EZ was found to cause a small drop in photosystem II activity, but this level of inhibition was not sufficient to explain the large effect that EZ had on CO(2) usage. High C(i) cells of Anabaena variabilis M3 and Synechocystis PCC6803 were also found to be sensitive to 200 micromolar EZ. We discuss the possibility that the inhibitory effect of EZ on CO(2) usage in high C(i) cells of Synechococcus PCC7942 may be due to inhibition of a ;CA-like' function associated with the CO(2) utilizing C(i) pump or due to inhibition of an internal CA activity, thus affecting CO(2) supply to ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase. PMID:16666544

  12. Identification and characterization of a carboxysomal ?-carbonic anhydrase from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Charlotte; Arefeen, Dewan; Tadesse, Yohannes; Long, Benedict M; Price, G Dean; Rowlett, Roger S; Kimber, Matthew S; Espie, George S

    2014-09-01

    Carboxysomes are proteinaceous microcompartments that encapsulate carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco); carboxysomes, therefore, catalyze reversible HCO3 (-) dehydration and the subsequent fixation of CO2. The N- and C-terminal domains of the ?-carboxysome scaffold protein CcmM participate in a network of protein-protein interactions that are essential for carboxysome biogenesis, organization, and function. The N-terminal domain of CcmM in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 is also a catalytically active, redox regulated ?-CA. To experimentally determine if CcmM from a mesophilic cyanobacterium is active, we cloned, expressed and purified recombinant, full-length CcmM from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 as well as the N-terminal 209 amino acid ?-CA-like domain. Both recombinant proteins displayed ethoxyzolamide-sensitive CA activity in mass spectrometric assays, as did the carboxysome-enriched TP fraction. NstCcmM209 was characterized as a moderately active and efficient ?-CA with a k cat of 2.0 × 10(4) s(-1) and k cat/K m of 4.1 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 25 °C and pH 8, a pH optimum between 8 and 9.5 and a temperature optimum spanning 25-35 °C. NstCcmM209 also catalyzed the hydrolysis of the CO2 analog carbonyl sulfide. Circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence analysis demonstrated that NstCcmM209 was progressively and irreversibly denatured above 50 °C. NstCcmM209 activity was inhibited by the reducing agent tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, an effect that was fully reversed by a molar excess of diamide, a thiol oxidizing agent, consistent with oxidative activation being a universal regulatory mechanism of CcmM orthologs. Immunogold electron microscopy and Western blot analysis of TP pellets indicated that Rubisco and CcmM co-localize and are concentrated in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 carboxysomes. PMID:24907906

  13. Direct measurement of excitation transfer dynamics between two trimers in C-phycocyanin hexamer from cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingmin; Zhao, Fuli; Zheng, Xiguang; Wang, Hezhou

    1999-05-01

    We provide the first experimental evidence for the excitation transfers between two trimers of an isolated C-phycocyanin hexamer (??) 6PCL RC27, at the end of the rod proximal to the core of PBS in cyanobacterium of Anabaena variabilis, with picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Our results strongly suggest that the observed fluorescence decay constants around 20 and 10 ps time scales, shown in anisotropy decay, not in isotropic decay experiments arose from the excitation transfers between two trimers via two types of transfer pathways such as 1? 155?6? 155 (2? 155?5? 155 and 3? 155?4? 155) and 2? 84?5? 84 (3? 84?6? 84 and 1? 84?4? 84) channels and these could be described by Föster dipole-dipole resonance mechanism.

  14. Characterization of three putative xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolases in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Takashi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Sekine, Kohsuke; Sato, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    Xylulose 5-phosphate/fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) is a key enzyme in the central carbohydrate metabolism in heterofermentative bacteria, in which enzymatic property of Xfps is well characterized. This is not the case in other microbes. The cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 possesses three putative genes encoding Xfp, all1483, all2567, and alr1850. We purified three putative Xfps as recombinant proteins. The results of gel filtration indicated that these proteins form homomultimer complex. All1483 and All2567 showed phosphoketolase activity, whereas Alr1850 did not show the activity. Kinetic analyses demonstrated that substrates, fructose 6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate, are cooperatively bound to enzymes positively and negatively, respectively. PMID:25530123

  15. Use of a transposon with luciferase as a reporter to identify environmentally responsive genes in a cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C.P.; Yuping Cai; Panoff, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-06-15

    Anabaena, a filamentous cyanobacterium, is of developmental interest because, when deprived of fixed nitrogen, it shows patterned differentiation of N{sub 2}-fixing cells called heterocysts. To help elucidate its early responses to a decrease in nitrogen, the authors used a derivative of transposon Tn5 to generate transcriptional fusions of promoterless bacterial luciferase genes, luxAB, to the Anabaena genome. Genes that responded to removal of fixed nitrogen or to other environmental shifts by increased or decreased transcription were identified by monitoring the luminescence of colonies from transposon-generated libraries. The Tn5 derivative transposed in Anabaena at ca. 1-4 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} per cell and permitted high-resolution mapping of its position and orientation in the genome and facile cloning of contiguous genomic DNA.

  16. Characterization of the IS895 family of insertion sequences from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, J.; Vrba, J.M.; Martin, J.A.; Weislo, L.J.; Curtis, S.E. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States)); Yuping Cai (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-09-01

    A family of repetitive elements from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was identified through the proximity of one element to the psbAI gene. Four members of this seven-member family were isolated and shown to have structures characteristic of bacterial insertion sequences. Each element is approximately 1,200 bp in length, is delimited by a 30-bp inverted repeat, and contains two open reading frames in tandem on the same DNA strand. The four copies differ from each other by small insertions or deletions, some of which alter the open reading frames. By using a system designed to trap insertion elements, one of the elements, denoted IS895, was shown to be mobile. The target site was not duplicated upon insertion of the element. Two other filamentous cyanobacterial strains were also found to contain sequences homologous to IS895.

  17. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venâncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Uchôa, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution. PMID:11887207

  18. Protein synthesis and proteolysis in immobilized cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 exposed to matric water stress.

    PubMed Central

    Potts, M

    1985-01-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune UTEX 584 in exponential growth were subjected to acute water stress by immobilizing them on solid supports and drying them at a matric water potential (psi m) of -99.5 MPa. Cells which had been grown in the presence of Na235SO4 before immobilization and rapid drying continued to incorporate 35S into protein for 90 min. This incorporation was inhibited by chloramphenicol. No unique proteins appeared to be synthesized during this time. Upon further drying, the level of incorporation of 35S in protein began to decrease. In contrast, there was an apparent increase in the level of certain phycobiliprotein subunits in solubilized protein extracts of these cells. Extensive proteolysis was detected after prolonged desiccation (17 days) of the cells in the light, although they still remained intact. Phycobilisomes became dissociated in both light- and dark-stored desiccated material. Images PMID:3934134

  19. Changes in gene expression, cell physiology and toxicity of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Cunsolo, Serena; Schuurmans, J. Merijn; Matthijs, Hans C. P.; Huisman, Jef

    2015-01-01

    Rising CO2 concentrations may have large effects on aquatic microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how elevated pCO2 affects the harmful freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. This species is capable of producing dense blooms and hepatotoxins called microcystins. Strain PCC 7806 was cultured in chemostats that were shifted from low to high pCO2 conditions. This resulted in a transition from a C-limited to a light-limited steady state, with a ~2.7-fold increase of the cyanobacterial biomass and ~2.5-fold more microcystin per cell. Cells increased their chlorophyll a and phycocyanin content, and raised their PSI/PSII ratio at high pCO2. Surprisingly, cells had a lower dry weight and contained less carbohydrates, which might be an adaptation to improve the buoyancy of Microcystis when light becomes more limiting at high pCO2. Only 234 of the 4691 genes responded to elevated pCO2. For instance, expression of the carboxysome, RuBisCO, photosystem and C metabolism genes did not change significantly, and only a few N assimilation genes were expressed differently. The lack of large-scale changes in the transcriptome could suit a buoyant species that lives in eutrophic lakes with strong CO2 fluctuations very well. However, we found major responses in inorganic carbon uptake. At low pCO2, cells were mainly dependent on bicarbonate uptake, whereas at high pCO2 gene expression of the bicarbonate uptake systems was down-regulated and cells shifted to CO2 and low-affinity bicarbonate uptake. These results show that the need for high-affinity bicarbonate uptake systems ceases at elevated CO2. Moreover, the combination of an increased cyanobacterial abundance, improved buoyancy, and higher toxin content per cell indicates that rising atmospheric CO2 levels may increase the problems associated with the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis in eutrophic lakes. PMID:25999931

  20. Changes in gene expression, cell physiology and toxicity of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Giovanni; Cunsolo, Serena; Schuurmans, J Merijn; Matthijs, Hans C P; Huisman, Jef

    2015-01-01

    Rising CO2 concentrations may have large effects on aquatic microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how elevated pCO2 affects the harmful freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. This species is capable of producing dense blooms and hepatotoxins called microcystins. Strain PCC 7806 was cultured in chemostats that were shifted from low to high pCO2 conditions. This resulted in a transition from a C-limited to a light-limited steady state, with a ~2.7-fold increase of the cyanobacterial biomass and ~2.5-fold more microcystin per cell. Cells increased their chlorophyll a and phycocyanin content, and raised their PSI/PSII ratio at high pCO2. Surprisingly, cells had a lower dry weight and contained less carbohydrates, which might be an adaptation to improve the buoyancy of Microcystis when light becomes more limiting at high pCO2. Only 234 of the 4691 genes responded to elevated pCO2. For instance, expression of the carboxysome, RuBisCO, photosystem and C metabolism genes did not change significantly, and only a few N assimilation genes were expressed differently. The lack of large-scale changes in the transcriptome could suit a buoyant species that lives in eutrophic lakes with strong CO2 fluctuations very well. However, we found major responses in inorganic carbon uptake. At low pCO2, cells were mainly dependent on bicarbonate uptake, whereas at high pCO2 gene expression of the bicarbonate uptake systems was down-regulated and cells shifted to CO2 and low-affinity bicarbonate uptake. These results show that the need for high-affinity bicarbonate uptake systems ceases at elevated CO2. Moreover, the combination of an increased cyanobacterial abundance, improved buoyancy, and higher toxin content per cell indicates that rising atmospheric CO2 levels may increase the problems associated with the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis in eutrophic lakes. PMID:25999931

  1. Microenvironmental Ecology of the Chlorophyll b-Containing Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian Lissoclinum patella

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Michael; Behrendt, Lars; Trampe, Erik; Qvortrup, Klaus; Schreiber, Ulrich; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo; Larkum, Anthony W. D.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the cyanobacterium Prochloron was the first finding of a bacterial oxyphototroph with chlorophyll (Chl) b, in addition to Chl a. It was first described as Prochloron didemni but a number of clades have since been described. Prochloron is a conspicuously large (7–25??m) unicellular cyanobacterium living in a symbiotic relationship, primarily with (sub-) tropical didemnid ascidians; it has resisted numerous cultivation attempts and appears truly obligatory symbiotic. Recently, a Prochloron draft genome was published, revealing no lack of metabolic genes that could explain the apparent inability to reproduce and sustain photosynthesis in a free-living stage. Possibly, the unsuccessful cultivation is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the microenvironmental conditions and ecophysiology of Prochloron in its natural habitat. We used microsensors, variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and imaging of O2 and pH to obtain a detailed insight to the microenvironmental ecology and photobiology of Prochloron in hospite in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. The microenvironment within ascidians is characterized by steep gradients of light and chemical parameters that change rapidly with varying irradiances. The interior zone of the ascidians harboring Prochloron thus became anoxic and acidic within a few minutes of darkness, while the same zone exhibited O2 super-saturation and strongly alkaline pH after a few minutes of illumination. Photosynthesis showed lack of photoinhibition even at high irradiances equivalent to full sunlight, and photosynthesis recovered rapidly after periods of anoxia. We discuss these new insights on the ecological niche of Prochloron and possible interactions with its host and other microbes in light of its recently published genome and a recent study of the overall microbial diversity and metagenome of L. patella. PMID:23226144

  2. High iron requirement for growth, photosynthesis, and low-light acclimation in the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris

    PubMed Central

    Sunda, William G.; Huntsman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron limits carbon fixation in much of the modern ocean due to the very low solubility of ferric iron in oxygenated ocean waters. We examined iron-limitation of growth rate under varying light intensities in the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris, a descendent of the oxygenic phototrophs that evolved ca. 3 billion years ago when the ocean was reducing and iron was present at much higher concentrations as soluble Fe(II). Decreasing light intensity increased the cellular iron:carbon (Fe:C) ratio needed to support a given growth rate, indicating that iron and light may co-limit the growth of Synechococcus in the ocean, as shown previously for eukaryotic phytoplankton. The cellular Fe:C ratios needed to support a given growth rate were 5- to 8-fold higher than ratios for coastal eukaryotic algae growing under the same light conditions. The higher iron requirements for growth in the coastal cyanobacterium may be largely caused by the high demand for iron in photosynthesis, and to higher ratios of iron-rich photosystem I to iron-poor photosystem II in Synechococcus than in eukaryotic algae. This high iron requirement may also be vestigial and represent an adaptation to the much higher iron levels in the ancient reducing ocean. Due to the high cellular iron requirement for photosynthesis and growth, and for low light acclimation, Synechococcus may be excluded from many low-iron and low-light environments. Indeed, it decreases rapidly with depth within the ocean’s deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) where iron and light levels are low, and lower-iron requiring picoeukaryotes typically dominate the biomass of phytoplankton community within the mid to lower DCM. PMID:26150804

  3. The freshwater cyanobacterium Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea produces compounds toxic to mice and to mammalian and fish cells.

    PubMed

    Teneva, Ivanka; Asparuhova, Dafinka; Dzhambazov, Balik; Mladenov, Rumen; Schirmer, Kristin

    2003-02-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the presence of cyanobacterial toxins, knowledge about the ability of specific species to produce toxic compounds is still rather limited. It was the overall goal of the current work to investigate if probes derived from the freshwater species Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea (Kutz.) Gomont, a cyanobacterium frequently found in southern Europe and not previously investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds, were capable of eliciting in vivo and in vitro toxicity. The cyanobacterial extract revealed signs of neuro- as well as hepatotoxicity in mice, although these signs could not be explained by the well-known respective cyanobacterial neuro- and hepatotoxins saxitoxin and microcystin. Cytotoxicity was elicited by the cyanobacterial extract in all mammalian cell lines tested. As well, the rainbow trout liver cell line, RTL-W1, was found to be susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of the extract, although the cytotoxicity was dependent on temperature. In contrast, the cyanobacterial growth medium elicited cytotoxicity independent of temperature, leading to morphological changes indicative of alterations to the cytoskeleton. Overall, the results suggest that Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea is an important cyanobacterium to be considered for its potential to cause health risks on environmental exposure of it to mammals and fish. Applying a combination of mammalian and piscine cell line bioassays is a unique approach that, combined with chemical analysis, could be used in the future to identify the structure and cellular mechanisms of the as-yet-unknown toxic Lyngbya aerugineo-coerulea metabolites in particular and to screen cyanobacterial extracts for their toxicity in general. PMID:12539139

  4. The reaction mechanism of Photosystem I reduction by plastocyanin and cytochrome c 6 follows two different kinetic models in the cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena sp. PCC 6903

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Hervás; José A. Navarro; Fernando P. Molina-Heredia; Miguel A. De la Rosa

    1998-01-01

    Plastocyanin (Pc) and cytochrome c6 (Cyt) have been purified to homogeneity from the cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena sp. PCC 6903, which occupies a unique divergent branch in the evolutionary tree of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. The two metalloproteins have similar molecular masses (9–10 kDa), as well as almost identical isoelectric points (ca. 8) and midpoint redox potentials (ca. 350 mV, at pH 7).

  5. Inactivation of Hill reaction by long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVA) and its photoreactivation by visible light in the cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayasu Hirosawa; Shigetoh Miyachi

    1983-01-01

    The dose effect curve for the inhibition of p-benzoquinone Hill reaction revealed that the long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (320–390 nm, UV-A) cannot completely inactivate this reaction in the cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans. The inactivated Hill reaction is photoreactivated by visible light. Relative quantum responsivity curve for photoreactivation shows peaks at around 440, 630 nm and a minimum at around 520 nm. The

  6. Long-Term Response toward Inorganic Carbon Limitation in Wild Type and Glycolate Turnover Mutants of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 68031,[W

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Eisenhut; Eneas Aguirre von Wobeser; M. C. J. Jonas; Hendrik Schubert; Bas W. Ibelings; Hermann Bauwe; Hans C. P. Matthijs; Martin Hagemann

    2007-01-01

    Concerted changes in the transcriptional pattern and physiological traits that result from long-term (here defined as up to 24 h) limitation of inorganic carbon (Ci) have been investigated for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Results from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and genome-wide DNA microarray analyses indicated stable up-regulation of genes for inducible CO2 and HCO3– uptake systems and

  7. Concerted changes in gene expression and cell physiology of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 during transitions between nitrogen and light-limited growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Aquirre von Wobeser; B. W. Ibelings; J. M. Bok; V. Krasikov; J. Huisman; H. C. P. Matthijs

    2011-01-01

    Physiological adaptation and genome-wide expression profiles of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in response to gradual transitions between nitrogen-limited and light-limited growth conditions were measured in continuous cultures. Transitions induced changes in pigment composition, light absorption coefficient, photosynthetic electron transport, and specific growth rate. Physiological changes were accompanied by reproducible changes in the expression of several hundred open

  8. Biotic factors in induced defence revisited: cell aggregate formation in the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 is triggered by spent Daphnia medium and disrupted cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Becker

    2010-01-01

    Bioassays with the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806, its non-toxic mutant ?mcyB, and Daphnia magna as grazer were used to evaluate biotic factors in induced defence, in particular cyanobacterial and grazer-released info-chemicals.\\u000a Three main questions were addressed in this study: Does Daphnia grazing lead to a loss of cyanobaterial biomass? Is the survival time of Daphnia shorter in a

  9. Role of Sigma Factors in Controlling Global Gene Expression in Light\\/Dark Transitions in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina C. Summerfield; Louis A. Sherman

    2007-01-01

    We report on differential gene expression in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 after light-dark transitions in wild-type, sigB, and sigD strains. We also studied the effect of day length in the presence of glucose on a sigB sigE mutant. Our results indicated that the absence of SigB or SigD predominately altered gene expression in the dark or in

  10. Evaluation of the Natural Product SeaKleen for Controlling the Musty-Odor-Producing Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata in Catfish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin K. Schrader; Agnes M. Rimando; Craig S. Tucker; Jan Glinski; Stephen J. Cutler; Horace G. Cutler

    2004-01-01

    The cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Oscillatoria perornata is the major cause of musty off-flavor in farm-raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in western Mississippi. Currently, the only federally approved compounds for use as selective algicides in catfish aquaculture ponds in the southeastern United States are the herbicide diuron and copper-based products (e.g., copper sulfate). Due to environmental issues and the broad-spectrum toxicity

  11. Increased H 2 production in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 by redirecting the electron supply via genetic engineering of the nitrate assimilation pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wipawee Baebprasert; Saowarath Jantaro; Wanthanee Khetkorn; Peter Lindblad; Aran Incharoensakdi

    2011-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 contains a single bidirectional NiFe-Hox-hydrogenase, which evolves hydrogen under certain environmental conditions. The nitrate assimilation pathway is a potential competing pathway that may reduce the electron flow to the hydrogenase and thereby limit hydrogen production. To improve H2 production, the nitrate assimilation pathway was disrupted by genetic engineering to redirect the electron

  12. Outdoor culture of a cyanobacterium with a vertical flat-plate photobioreactor: effects on productivity of the reactor orientation, distance setting between the plates, and culture temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zhang; N. Kurano; S. Miyachi

    1999-01-01

    The ability of a photobioreactor to fix CO2 was evaluated with the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechocystis aquatilis SI-2. The reactor consisted of three to five flat plates of transparent acrylic plastic standing upright and in parallel\\u000a and giving a 0.015-m light path. The reactor was 0.8?m high and 1?m long with 9?l working volume. The effects of the orientation\\u000a of the

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Strain 2012/KM1/D3, Isolated from the Curonian Lagoon (Baltic Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Alzbutas, Gediminas; Kvederavi?i?t?, Kotryna; Koreivien?, Judita; Zakrys, Linas; Lubys, Arvydas; Paškauskas, Ri?ardas

    2015-01-01

    We report here the de novo genome assembly of a cyanobacterium, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae strain 2012/KM1/D3, a harmful bloom-forming species in temperate aquatic ecosystems. The genome is 5.7 Mb with a G+C content of 38.2%, and it is enriched mostly with genes involved in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:25593252

  14. Theophylline-dependent riboswitch as a novel genetic tool for strict regulation of protein expression in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, Yoichi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a major model species for studies of photosynthesis. It is are also a potential cell factory for the production of renewable biofuels and valuable chemicals. We employed engineered riboswitches to control translational initiation of target genes in this cyanobacterium. A firefly luciferase reporter assay revealed that three theophylline riboswitches performed as expected in the cyanobacterium. Riboswitch-E* exhibited very low leaky expression of luciferase and superior and dose-dependent on/off regulation of protein expression by theophylline. The maximum magnitude of the induction vs. basal level was ?190-fold. Furthermore, the induction level was responsive to a wide range of theophylline concentrations in the medium, from 0 to 2 mM, facilitating the fine-tuning of luciferase expression. We adapted this riboswitch to another gene regulation system, in which expression of the circadian clock kaiC gene product is controlled by the theophylline concentration in the culture medium. The results demonstrated that the adequately adjusted expression level of KaiC restored complete circadian rhythm in the kaiC-deficient arrhythmic mutant. This theophylline-dependent riboswitch system has potential for various applications as a useful genetic tool in cyanobacteria. PMID:23969558

  15. Engineering a cyanobacterium as the catalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to 1,2-propanediol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern society primarily relies on petroleum and natural gas for the production of fuels and chemicals. One of the major commodity chemicals 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO), which has an annual production of more than 0.5 million tons in the United States, is currently produced by chemical processes from petroleum derived propylene oxide, which is energy intensive and not sustainable. In this study, we sought to achieve photosynthetic production of 1,2-PDO from CO2 using a genetically engineered cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Compared to the previously reported biological 1,2-PDO production processes which used sugar or glycerol as the substrates, direct chemical production from CO2 in photosynthetic organisms recycles the atmospheric CO2 and will not compete with food crops for arable land. Results In this study, we reported photosynthetic production of 1,2-PDO from CO2 using a genetically engineered cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Introduction of the genes encoding methylglyoxal synthase (mgsA), glycerol dehydrogenase (gldA), and aldehyde reductase (yqhD) resulted in the production of ~22mg/L 1,2-PDO from CO2. However, a comparable amount of the pathway intermediate acetol was also produced, especially during the stationary phase. The production of 1,2-PDO requires a robust input of reducing equivalents from cellular metabolism. To take advantage of cyanobacteria’s NADPH pool, the synthetic pathway of 1,2-PDO was engineered to be NADPH-dependent by exploiting the NADPH-specific secondary alcohol dehydrogenases which have not been reported for 1,2-PDO production previously. This optimization strategy resulted in the production of ~150mg/L 1,2-PDO and minimized the accumulation of the incomplete reduction product, acetol. Conclusion This work demonstrated that cyanobacteria can be engineered as a catalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to 1,2-PDO. This work also characterized two NADPH-dependent sADHs for their catalytic capacity in 1,2-PDO formation, and suggested that they may be useful tools for renewable production of reduced chemicals in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:23339487

  16. Inhibition of hydrogen uptake in Escherichia coli by expressing the hydrogenase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Vardar, Gönül; Self, William T; Wood, Thomas K

    2007-01-01

    Background Molecular hydrogen is an environmentally-clean fuel and the reversible (bi-directional) hydrogenase of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as well as the native Escherichia coli hydrogenase 3 hold great promise for hydrogen generation. These enzymes perform the simple reaction 2H+ + 2e- ? H2 (g). Results Hydrogen yields were enhanced up to 41-fold by cloning the bidirectional hydrogenase (encoded by hoxEFUYH) from the cyanobacterium into E. coli. Using an optimized medium, E. coli cells expressing hoxEFUYH also produced twice as much hydrogen as the well-studied Enterobacter aerogenes HU-101, and hydrogen gas bubbles are clearly visible from the cultures. Overexpression of HoxU alone (small diaphorase subunit) accounts for 43% of the additional hydrogen produced by HoxEFUYH. In addition, hydrogen production in E. coli mutants with defects in the native formate hydrogenlyase system show that the cyanobacterial hydrogenase depends on both the native E. coli hydrogenase 3 as well as on its maturation proteins. Hydrogen absorption by cells expressing hoxEFUYH was up to 10 times lower than cells which lack the cloned cyanobacterial hydrogenase; hence, the enhanced hydrogen production in the presence of hoxEFUYH is due to inhibition of hydrogen uptake activity in E. coli. Hydrogen uptake by cells expressing hoxEFUYH was suppressed in three wild-type strains and in two hycE mutants but not in a double mutant defective in hydrogenase 1 and hydrogenase 2; hence, the active cyanobacterial locus suppresses hydrogen uptake by hydrogenase 1 and hydrogenase 2 but not by hydrogenase 3. Differential gene expression indicated that overexpression of HoxEFUYH does not alter expression of the native E. coli hydrogenase system; instead, biofilm-related genes are differentially regulated by expression of the cyanobacterial enzymes which resulted in 2-fold elevated biofilm formation. This appears to be the first enhanced hydrogen production by cloning a cyanobacterial enzyme into a heterologous host. Conclusion Enhanced hydrogen production in E. coli cells expressing the cyanobacterial HoxEFUYH is by inhibiting hydrogen uptake of both hydrogenase 1 and hydrogenase 2. PMID:17521447

  17. PilB localization correlates with the direction of twitching motility in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Schuergers, Nils; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Wallner, Thomas; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Wilde, Annegret

    2015-05-01

    Twitching motility depends on the adhesion of type IV pili (T4P) to a substrate, with cell movement driven by extension and retraction of the pili. The mechanism of twitching motility, and the events that lead to a reversal of direction, are best understood in rod-shaped bacteria such as Myxococcus xanthus. In M. xanthus, the direction of movement depends on the unipolar localization of the pilus extension and retraction motors PilB and PilT to opposite cell poles. Reversal of direction results from relocalization of PilB and PilT. Some cyanobacteria utilize twitching motility for phototaxis. Here, we examine twitching motility in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which has a spherical cell shape without obvious polarity. We use a motile Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strain expressing a functional GFP-tagged PilB1 protein to show that PilB1 tends to localize in 'crescents' adjacent to a specific region of the cytoplasmic membrane. Crescents are more prevalent under the low-light conditions that favour phototactic motility, and the direction of motility strongly correlates with the orientation of the crescent. We conclude that the direction of twitching motility in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is controlled by the localization of the T4P apparatus, as it is in M. xanthus. The PilB1 crescents in the spherical cells of Synechocystis can be regarded as being equivalent to the leading pole in the rod-shaped cells. PMID:25721851

  18. The blooms of a cyanobacterium, Microcystis cf. aeruginosa in a severely polluted estuary, the Golden Horn, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta?, Seyfettin; Oku?, Erdo?an; Aslan-Y?lmaz, Asl?

    2006-07-01

    The distribution of toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis cf. aeruginosa in the severely polluted Golden Horn Estuary was studied from 1998 to 2000. Microcystis persisted at the upper estuary where the water circulation was poor and values ranged between 2.9 × 10 4 and 2.7 × 10 6 cells ml -1 throughout the study. Simultaneously measured physical (salinity, temperature, rainfall and secchi disc) and chemical parameters (nutrients and dissolved oxygen) were evaluated together with Microcystis data. Although the Microcystis blooms generally occur in summer due to the increase in temperature, the blooms were recorded in winter in the present study. The abundance of Microcystis depended on the variations in salinity and both blooms were recorded below S = 2. A moderate partial correlation between Microcystis abundance and salinity was detected in the presence of temperature, dissolved oxygen and precipitation data ( r = -0.561, p = 0.002). The M. cf. aeruginosa abundance was low in the summer when the salinity was higher than winter. A remarkable increase in the eukaryotic phytoplankton abundance following the improvements in the water quality of the estuary occurred, whilst the Microcystis abundance remained below bloom level.

  19. Seawater cultivation of freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 drastically alters amino acid composition and glycogen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Water use assessment is important for bioproduction using cyanobacteria. For eco-friendly reasons, seawater should preferably be used for cyanobacteria cultivation instead of freshwater. In this study, we demonstrated that the freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 could be grown in a medium based on seawater. The Synechocystis wild-type strain grew well in an artificial seawater (ASW) medium supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The addition of HEPES buffer improved cell growth overall, although the growth in ASW medium was inferior to that in the synthetic BG-11 medium. The levels of proteins involved in sugar metabolism changed depending on the culture conditions. The biosynthesis of several amino acids including aspartate, glutamine, glycine, proline, ornithine, and lysine, was highly up-regulated by cultivation in ASW. Two types of natural seawater (NSW) were also made available for the cultivation of Synechocystis cells, with supplementation of both nitrogen and phosphorus sources. These results revealed the potential use of seawater for the cultivation of freshwater cyanobacteria, which would help to reduce freshwater consumption during biorefinery using cyanobacteria. PMID:25954257

  20. Influence of Various Levels of Iron and Other Abiotic Factors on Siderophorogenesis in Paddy Field Cyanobacterium Anabaena oryzae.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Siderophore production in Anabaena oryzae was investigated under the influence of various levels of iron and other abiotic factors such as pH, temperature, light and different nitrogen sources. Optimization of culture conditions under controlled mechanisms of these abiotic factors lead to the siderophore production in significant amount. Under iron-starved condition, A. oryzae extracellularly releases 89.17 % hydroxymate-type siderophore. Slightly alkaline pH and 30 °C temperature was found stimulatory for the cyanobacterial growth and siderophorogenesis (88.52 % SU and 83.87 % SU, respectively). Excess iron loading had a negative impact on siderophore production along with the alterations in the morphology and growth. Further, scanning electron microphotographs signified that higher concentrations of iron lead to complete damage of the cells and alterations in membrane proteins possibly transporters responsible for exchange of siderophore complex from environment to the cell. SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell proteins showed overexpression of low molecular weight proteins ranges between 20.1 to 29.0 kDa up to 100-?M iron concentrations. These polypeptides/proteins might be involved in maintaining iron homeostasis by regulating siderophore production. Results suggest that lower concentrations of iron ?50 ?M along with other abiotic factors are stimulatory, whereas higher concentrations (>50 ?M) are toxic. Data further suggested that cyanobacterium A. oryzae can serve as a potential biofertilizer especially in iron-rich soil through sequestration by the power of natural Fe(III)-siderophore complex formation. PMID:25805017

  1. Sustained photoproduction of ammonia from dinitrogen and water by the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain ATCC33047

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J.L.; Guerrero, M.G.; Losada, M.

    1984-07-01

    Conditions have been developed that lengthen the time during which photosynthetic dinitrogen fixation by filaments of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 33047 proceeds freely, whereas the subsequent conversion of ammonia into organic nitrogen remains blocked, with the resulting ammonia released to the outer medium. When L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine was added every 20 h, maximal rates of ammonia production (25 to 30 ..mu..mol/mg of chlorophyll per h) were maintained for about 50 h. After this time, ammonia production ceased due to a deficiency of glutamine and other nitrogenous compounds in the filaments, conditions which finally led to cell lysis. The effective ammonia production period could be further extended to about 7 days by adding a small amount of glutamine at the end of a 40-h production period or by allowing the cells to recover for 8 h in the absence of L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine after every 40-h period in the presence of the inhibitor. A more prolonged steady production of ammonia, lasting for longer than 2 weeks, was achieved by alternating treatments with the glutamine synthetase inhibitors L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine and phosphinothricin, provided that 8-h recovery periods in the absence of either compound were also alternated throughout. The biochemically manipulated cyanobacterial filaments thus represent a system that is relatively stable with time for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy, with the net generation of a valuable fuel and fertilizer through the photoreduction of dinitrogen to ammonia.

  2. Characterization of the light-regulated operon encoding the phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins from the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon.

    PubMed Central

    Federspiel, N A; Grossman, A R

    1990-01-01

    Many biological processes in photosynthetic organisms can be regulated by light quantity or light quality or both. A unique example of the effect of specific wavelengths of light on the composition of the photosynthetic apparatus occurs in cyanobacteria that undergo complementary chromatic adaptation. These organisms alter the composition of their light-harvesting organelle, the phycobilisome, and exhibit distinct morphological features as a function of the wavelength of incident light. Fremyella diplosiphon, a filamentous cyanobacterium, responds to green light by activating transcription of the cpeBA operon, which encodes the pigmented light-harvesting component phycoerythrin. We have isolated and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of another operon, cpeCD, that encodes the linker proteins associated with phycoerythrin hexamers in the phycobilisome. The cpeCD operon is activated in green light and expressed as two major transcripts with the same 5' start site but differing 3' ends. Analysis of the kinetics of transcript accumulation in cultures of F. diplosiphon shifted from red light to green light and vice versa shows that the cpeBA and cpeCD operons are regulated coordinately. A common 17-base-pair sequence is found upstream of the transcription start sites of both operons. A comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of the phycoerythrin-associated linker proteins CpeC and CpeD with sequences of other previously characterized rod linker proteins shows 49 invariant residues, most of which are in the amino-terminal half of the proteins. Images PMID:1694529

  3. Ecological Physiology of Synechococcus sp. Strain SH-94-5, a Naturally Occurring Cyanobacterium Deficient in Nitrate Assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott R.; Castenholz, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world. PMID:11425713

  4. Alterations in cell pigmentation, protein expression, and photosynthetic capacity of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria tenuis grown under low iron conditions.

    PubMed

    Trick, C G; Wilhelm, S W; Brown, C M

    1995-12-01

    To better describe the iron-limited nutrient status of aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms, we examined the effects of iron limitation on pigment content, maximum rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, and respiratory oxygen consumption in the filamentous cyanobacterium Oscillatoria tenuis Ag. Within the range of iron (4.2 x 10(-5)-5.1 x 10(-9) M FeCl3), growth rates were not limited by photosynthetic capacity but rather by another, as of yet undetermined, iron-requiring cellular function. We have also investigated membrane proteins that are induced when the cells are grown in low iron medium. Using membrane fractionation techniques we were able to recognize specific proteins localized in the outer membrane and periplasmic space of O. tenuis. The recovery of growth rates at low iron levels occurred in parallel with the induction of these proteins and the production of extracellular siderophores. The additional iron acquired by this high affinity transport system did not reestablish photosynthesis in O. tenuis to the iron-satiated level but did reestablish growth to iron-replete levels. Oscillatoria tenuis appears to invoke an alternate physiology to compensate for iron deficiency. PMID:8542553

  5. In-Situ Optical and Acoustical Measurements of the Buoyant Cyanobacterium P. Rubescens: Spatial and Temporal Distribution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Hilmar; Peeters, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Optical (fluorescence) and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP) and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF). In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS) were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV). The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes) and spatial (decimeters) resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal) and spatial (basin scale) scales. PMID:24303028

  6. Photoacclimation of cultured strains of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to high-light and low-light conditions.

    PubMed

    Bańares-Espańa, Elena; Kromkamp, Jacco C; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa forms blooms that can consist of colonies. We have investigated how M. aeruginosa acclimatizes to changing light conditions such as can occur during blooms. Three different strains were exposed to two irradiance levels: lower (LL) and higher (HL) than the irradiance-onset saturation parameter. We measured the photosynthetic pigment concentrations, PSII photochemical efficiency, electron transport rate (ETR), irradiance-saturated ETR and ETR efficiency. The relationship between ETR and photosynthetic oxygen production and the excess in PSII capacity were also studied for one strain. Higher values of chlorophyll a and phycocyanin and lower values of total carotenoids were found under LL conditions in the three strains. The strains showed clear differences in the irradiance-saturated ETR and in ETR efficiency under both LL and HL treatments. No differences were found in the linear relationship between ETR and photosynthetic oxygen production under both irradiance treatments. LL-acclimated cells showed higher PSII excess capacity than HL ones, possibly because their higher pigment content could result in a higher light stress than HL cells when forming surface blooms. The fact that the genetically different strains show different photosynthetic physiologies suggests that the very dynamic light climate observed in lakes may allow their coexistence. PMID:23057858

  7. Short-term light adaptation of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, probed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Seiji; Yokono, Makio; Yokono, Erina; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-08-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the interactions among pigment-protein complexes change in response to light conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the transfer of excitation energy from the phycobilisome (PBS) and photosystem (PS) II to PSI in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. After 20 min of dark adaptation, Synechocystis cells were illuminated for 5 min with strong light with different spectral profiles, blue, green, two kinds of red, and white light. After illumination, the energy-transfer characteristics were evaluated using steady-state fluorescence and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The fluorescence rise and decay curves were analyzed by global analysis to obtain fluorescence decay-associated spectra, followed by spectral component analysis. Under illumination with strong light, the contribution of the energy transfer from the PSII to PSI (spillover) became greater, and that of the energy transfer from the PBS to PSI decreased; the former change was larger than the latter. The energy transfer pathway to PSI was sensitive to red light. We discuss the short-term adaptation of energy-transfer processes in Synechocystis under strong-light conditions. PMID:24495908

  8. Characterization of the chemical diversity of glycosylated mycosporine-like amino acids in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Nazifi, Ehsan; Wada, Naoki; Asano, Tomoya; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Chinaka, Satoshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Sakamoto, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing pigments, and structurally unique glycosylated MAAs are found in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In this study, we examined two genotypes of N.commune colonies with different water extract UV-absorption spectra. We found structurally distinct MAAs in each genotype. The water extract from genotype A showed a UV-absorbing spectrum with an absorption maximum at 335nm. The extract contained the following compounds: 7-O-(?-arabinopyranosyl)-porphyra-334 (478Da), pentose-bound shinorine (464Da), hexose-bound porphyra-334 (508Da) and porphyra-334 (346Da). The water extract from genotype B showed a characteristic UV-absorbing spectrum with double absorption maxima at 312 and 340nm. The extract contained hybrid MAAs (1050Da and 880Da) with two distinct chromophores of 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one and 1,3-diaminocyclohexen linked to 2-O-(?-xylopyranosyl)-?-galactopyranoside. A novel 273-Da MAA with an absorption maximum at 310nm was also identified in genotype B. The MAA consisted of a 3-aminocyclohexen-1-one linked to a ?-aminobutyric acid chain. These MAAs had potent radical scavenging activities in vitro and the results confirmed that the MAAs have multiple roles as a UV protectant and an antioxidant relevant to anhydrobiosis in N. commune. The two genotypes of N. commune exclusively produced their own characteristic glycosylated MAAs, which supports that MAA composition could be a chemotaxonomic marker for the classification of N. commune. PMID:25543549

  9. Santacruzamate A, a Potent and Selective Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitor from the Panamanian Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Symploca sp.

    PubMed Central

    Pavlik, Christopher M.; Wong, Christina Y.B.; Ononye, Sophia; Lopez, Dioxelis D.; Engene, Niclas; McPhail, Kerry L.; Gerwick, William H.; Balunas, Marcy J.

    2013-01-01

    A dark-brown tuft-forming cyanobacterium, morphologically resembling the genus Symploca, was collected during an expedition to the Coiba National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the Pacific coast of Panama. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it is 4.5% divergent from the type strain for Symploca, and thus is likely a new genus. Fractionation of the crude extract led to the isolation of a new cytotoxin, designated santacruzamate A (1), which has several structural features in common with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid [(2), SAHA, trade name Vorinostat®], a clinically approved histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor used to treat refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Recognition of the structural similarly of 1 and SAHA led to the characterization of santacruzamate A as a picomolar level selective inhibitor of HDAC2, a Class I HDAC, with relatively little inhibition of HDAC4 or HDAC6, both Class II HDACs. As a result, chemical syntheses of santacruzamate A as well as a structurally intriguing hybrid molecule, which blends aspects of both agents (1 and 2), were achieved and evaluated for their HDAC activity and specificity. PMID:24164245

  10. Contribution of a Sodium Ion Gradient to Energy Conservation during Fermentation in the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima CS-328 ? †

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Damian; Ananyev, Gennady; Lenz, Oliver; Bryant, Donald A.; Dismukes, G. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Sodium gradients in cyanobacteria play an important role in energy storage under photoautotrophic conditions but have not been well studied during autofermentative metabolism under the dark, anoxic conditions widely used to produce precursors to fuels. Here we demonstrate significant stress-induced acceleration of autofermentation of photosynthetically generated carbohydrates (glycogen and sugars) to form excreted organic acids, alcohols, and hydrogen gas by the halophilic, alkalophilic cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima CS-328. When suspended in potassium versus sodium phosphate buffers at the start of autofermentation to remove the sodium ion gradient, photoautotrophically grown cells catabolized more intracellular carbohydrates while producing 67% higher yields of hydrogen, acetate, and ethanol (and significant amounts of lactate) as fermentative products. A comparable acceleration of fermentative carbohydrate catabolism occurred upon dissipating the sodium gradient via addition of the sodium-channel blocker quinidine or the sodium-ionophore monensin but not upon dissipating the proton gradient with the proton-ionophore dinitrophenol (DNP). The data demonstrate that intracellular energy is stored via a sodium gradient during autofermentative metabolism and that, when this gradient is blocked, the blockage is compensated by increased energy conversion via carbohydrate catabolism. PMID:21890670

  11. Oscillating behavior of carbohydrate granule formation and dinitrogen fixation in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneegurt, M. A.; Sherman, D. M.; Nayar, S.; Sherman, L. A.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that some aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacteria temporally separate photosynthetic O2 evolution and oxygen-sensitive N2 fixation. Cyanothece sp. ATCC strain 51142 is an aerobic, unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium that fixes N2 during discrete periods of its cell cycle. When the bacteria are maintained under diurnal light-dark cycles, N2 fixation occurs in the dark. Similar cycling is observed in continuous light, implicating a circadian rhythm. Under N2-fixing conditions, large inclusion granules form between the thylakoid membranes. Maximum granulation, as observed by electron microscopy, occurs before the onset of N2 fixation, and the granules decrease in number during the period of N2 fixation. The granules can be purified from cell homogenates by differential centrifugation. Biochemical analyses of the granules indicate that these structures are primarily carbohydrate, with some protein. Further analyses of the carbohydrate have shown that it is a glucose polymer with some characteristics of glycogen. It is proposed that N2 fixation is driven by energy and reducing power stored in these inclusion granules. Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 represents an excellent experimental organism for the study of the protective mechanisms of nitrogenase, metabolic events in cyanobacteria under normal and stress conditions, the partitioning of resources between growth and storage, and biological rhythms.

  12. Effect of Nitrogen on Cellular Production and Release of the Neurotoxin Anatoxin-A in a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Alexis; Pick, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    Anatoxin-a (ANTX) is a neurotoxin produced by several freshwater cyanobacteria and implicated in lethal poisonings of domesticated animals and wildlife. The factors leading to its production in nature and in culture are not well understood. Resource availability may influence its cellular production as suggested by the carbon-nutrient hypothesis, which links the amount of secondary metabolites produced by plants or microbes to the relative abundance of nutrients. We tested the effects of nitrogen supply (as 1, 5, and 100% N of standard cyanobacterial medium corresponding to 15, 75, and 1500?mg?L?1 of NaNO3 respectively) on ANTX production and release in a toxic strain of the planktonic cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (Nostocales). We hypothesized that nitrogen deficiency might constrain the production of ANTX. However, the total concentration and more significantly the cellular content of anatoxin-a peaked (max. 146??g/L and 1683??g?g?1 dry weight) at intermediate levels of nitrogen supply when N-deficiency was evident based on phycocyanin to chlorophyll a and carbon to nitrogen ratios. The results suggest that the cellular production of anatoxin-a may be stimulated by moderate nitrogen stress. Maximal cellular contents of other cyanotoxins have recently been reported under severe stress conditions in another Nostocales species. PMID:22701451

  13. Global Proteomics Reveal an Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen Assimilation by a Cyanobacterium Under Diverse Environmental Perturbations*

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Singh, Abhay K.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric A.; Keren, Nir; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, are present in diverse ecological niches and play crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. To proliferate in nature, cyanobacteria utilize a host of stress responses to accommodate periodic changes in environmental conditions. A detailed knowledge of the composition of, as well as the dynamic changes in, the proteome is necessary to gain fundamental insights into such stress responses. Toward this goal, we have performed a large-scale proteomic analysis of the widely studied model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under 33 different environmental conditions. The resulting high-quality dataset consists of 22,318 unique peptides corresponding to 1955 proteins, a coverage of 53% of the predicted proteome. Quantitative determination of protein abundances has led to the identification of 1198 differentially regulated proteins. Notably, our analysis revealed that a common stress response under various environmental perturbations, irrespective of amplitude and duration, is the activation of atypical pathways for the acquisition of carbon and nitrogen from urea and arginine. In particular, arginine is catabolized via putrescine to produce succinate and glutamate, sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. This study provides the most comprehensive functional and quantitative analysis of the Synechocystis proteome to date, and shows that a significant stress response of cyanobacteria involves an uncommon mode of acquisition of carbon and nitrogen. PMID:20858728

  14. Seawater cultivation of freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 drastically alters amino acid composition and glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Water use assessment is important for bioproduction using cyanobacteria. For eco-friendly reasons, seawater should preferably be used for cyanobacteria cultivation instead of freshwater. In this study, we demonstrated that the freshwater unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 could be grown in a medium based on seawater. The Synechocystis wild-type strain grew well in an artificial seawater (ASW) medium supplemented with nitrogen and phosphorus sources. The addition of HEPES buffer improved cell growth overall, although the growth in ASW medium was inferior to that in the synthetic BG-11 medium. The levels of proteins involved in sugar metabolism changed depending on the culture conditions. The biosynthesis of several amino acids including aspartate, glutamine, glycine, proline, ornithine, and lysine, was highly up-regulated by cultivation in ASW. Two types of natural seawater (NSW) were also made available for the cultivation of Synechocystis cells, with supplementation of both nitrogen and phosphorus sources. These results revealed the potential use of seawater for the cultivation of freshwater cyanobacteria, which would help to reduce freshwater consumption during biorefinery using cyanobacteria. PMID:25954257

  15. Consortium of the 'bichlorophyllous' cyanobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica and chemoheterotrophic partner bacteria: culture and metagenome-based description.

    PubMed

    Velichko, Natalia; Chernyaeva, Ekaterina; Averina, Svetlana; Gavrilova, Olga; Lapidus, Alla; Pinevich, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    'Bacterial consortium' sensu lato applies to mutualism or syntrophy-based systems consisting of unrelated bacteria. Consortia of cyanobacteria have been preferentially studied on Anabaena epibioses; non-photosynthetic satellites of other filamentous or unicellular cyanobacteria were also considered although structure-functional data are few. At the same time, information about consortia of cyanobacteria which have light-harvesting antennae distinct from standard phycobilisome was missing. In this study, we characterized first, via a polyphasic approach, the cultivable consortium of Prochlorothrix hollandica?CCAP 1490/1 (filamentous cyanobacterium which contains chlorophylls a, b/carotenoid/protein complex in the absence of phycobilisome) and non-photosynthetic heterotrophic bacteria. The strains of most abundant satellites were isolated and identified. Consortium metagenome reconstructed via 454-pyro and Illumina sequencing was shown to include, except for P.?hollandica, several phylotypes of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The ratio of consortium members was essentially stable irrespective of culture age, and restored after artificially imposed imbalance. The consortium had a complex spatial arrangement as demonstrated by FISH and SEM images of the association, epibiosis, and biofilm type. Preliminary data of metagenome annotation agreed with the hypothesis that satellite bacteria contribute to P.?hollandica protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:25990300

  16. Genetic diversity along the life cycle of the cyanobacterium Microcystis: highlight on the complexity of benthic and planktonic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sabart, Marion; Misson, Benjamin; Jobard, Marlčne; Bronner, Gisčle; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Duffaud, Emilie; Salençon, Marie-José; Amblard, Christian; Latour, Delphine

    2015-03-01

    Microcystis is a toxic freshwater cyanobacterium with an annual life cycle characterized by the alternation of a planktonic proliferation stage in summer and a benthic resting stage in winter. Given the importance of both stages for the development and the survival of the population, we investigated the genotypic composition of the planktonic and benthic Microcystis subpopulations from the Grangent reservoir (France) during two distinct proliferation periods. Our results showed a succession of different dominant genotypes in the sediment as well as in the water all along the study periods with some common genotypes to both compartments. Analysis of molecular variance and UniFrac analysis confirmed the similarity between some benthic and planktonic samples, thus evidencing exchanges of genotypes between water and sediment. Thanks to these data, recruitment and sedimentation were proven not to be restricted to spring and autumn, contrary to what was previously thought. Finally, genetic diversity was significantly higher in the sediment than in the water (P?

  17. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, Joăo Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Yunes, Joăo Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2011-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100??g/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100??g/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms. PMID:22253623

  18. Acclimation of the Global Transcriptome of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 to Nutrient Limitations and Different Nitrogen Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and is a potential platform for biotechnological applications. Two of its most notable properties are its exceptional tolerance of high-light intensity and very rapid growth under optimal conditions. In this study, transcription profiling by RNAseq has been used to perform an integrated study of global changes in transcript levels in cells subjected to limitation for the major nutrients CO2, nitrogen, sulfate, phosphate, and iron. Transcriptional patterns for cells grown on nitrate, ammonia, and urea were also studied. Nutrient limitation caused strong decreases of transcript levels of the genes encoding major metabolic pathways, especially for components of the photosynthetic apparatus, CO2 fixation, and protein biosynthesis. Uptake mechanisms for the respective nutrients were strongly up-regulated. The transcription data further suggest that major changes in the composition of the NADH dehydrogenase complex occur upon nutrient limitation. Transcripts for flavoproteins increased strongly when CO2 was limiting. Genes involved in protection from oxidative stress generally showed high, constitutive transcript levels, which possibly explains the high-light tolerance of this organism. The transcriptomes of cells grown with ammonia or urea as nitrogen source showed increased transcript levels for components of the CO2 fixation machinery compared to cells grown with nitrate, but in general transcription differences in cells grown on different N-sources exhibited surprisingly minor differences. PMID:22514553

  19. The Microcystin Composition of the Cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii Changes toward a More Toxic Variant with Increasing Light Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Tonk, Linda; Visser, Petra M.; Christiansen, Guntram; Dittmann, Elke; Snelder, Eveline O. F. M.; Wiedner, Claudia; Mur, Luuc R.; Huisman, Jef

    2005-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii, which is dominant in many shallow eutrophic lakes, can produce hepatotoxic microcystins. Currently, more than 70 different microcystin variants have been described, which differ in toxicity. In this study, the effect of photon irradiance on the production of different microcystin variants by P. agardhii was investigated using light-limited turbidostats. Both the amount of the mRNA transcript of the mcyA gene and the total microcystin production rate increased with photon irradiance up to 60 ?mol m?2 s?1, but they started to decrease with irradiance greater than 100 ?mol m?2 s?1. The cellular content of total microcystin remained constant, independent of the irradiance. However, of the two main microcystin variants detected in P. agardhii, the microcystin-DeRR content decreased twofold with increased photon irradiance, whereas the microcystin-DeLR content increased threefold. Since microcystin-DeLR is considerably more toxic than microcystin-DeRR, this implies that P. agardhii becomes more toxic at high light intensities. PMID:16151102

  20. Growth inhibition of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and degradation of its microcystin toxins by the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Zakaria A; Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad A

    2014-08-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are recognized as a rapidly expanding global problem that threatens human and ecosystem health. Many bacterial strains have been reported as possible agents for inhibiting and controlling these blooms. However, such algicidal activity is largely unexplored for fungi. In this study, a fungal strain kkuf-0955, isolated from decayed cyanobacterial bloom was tested for its capability to inhibit phytoplankton species in batch cultures. The strain was identified as Trichoderma citrinoviride Based on its morphological characteristics and DNA sequence. Microcystis aeruginosa co-cultivated with living fungal mycelia rapidly decreased after one day of incubation, and all cells completely died and lysed after 2 days. The fungal filtrate of 5-day culture also exhibited an inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa, and this inhibition increased with the amount of filtrate and incubation time. Conversely, green algae and diatoms have not been influenced by either living fungal mycelia or culture filtrate. Interestingly, the fungus was not only able to inhibit Microcystis growth but also degraded microcystin produced by this cyanobacterium. The toxins were completely degraded within 5 days of incubation with living fungal mycelia, but not significantly changed with fungal filtrate. This fungus could be a potential bioagent to selectively control Microcystis blooms and degrade microcystin toxins. PMID:24874888

  1. Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasound on Biomass Reduction and Toxin Release in the Cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Lürling, Miquel; Meng, Debin; Faassen, Elisabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are expected to increase, and the toxins they produce threaten human health and impair ecosystem services. The reduction of the nutrient load of surface waters is the preferred way to prevent these blooms; however, this is not always feasible. Quick curative measures are therefore preferred in some cases. Two of these proposed measures, peroxide and ultrasound, were tested for their efficiency in reducing cyanobacterial biomass and potential release of cyanotoxins. Hereto, laboratory assays with a microcystin (MC)-producing cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa) were conducted. Peroxide effectively reduced M. aeruginosa biomass when dosed at 4 or 8 mg L?1, but not at 1 and 2 mg L?1. Peroxide dosed at 4 or 8 mg L?1 lowered total MC concentrations by 23%, yet led to a significant release of MCs into the water. Dissolved MC concentrations were nine-times (4 mg L?1) and 12-times (8 mg L?1 H2O2) higher than in the control. Cell lysis moreover increased the proportion of the dissolved hydrophobic variants, MC-LW and MC-LF (where L = Leucine, W = tryptophan, F = phenylalanine). Ultrasound treatment with commercial transducers sold for clearing ponds and lakes only caused minimal growth inhibition and some release of MCs into the water. Commercial ultrasound transducers are therefore ineffective at controlling cyanobacteria. PMID:25513892

  2. Soft x-ray imaging of intracellular granules of filamentous cyanobacterium generating musty smell in Lake Biwa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemoto, K.; Mizuta, G.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, M.; Ichise, S.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2013-10-01

    A planktonic blue-green algae, which are currently identified as Phormidium tenue, was observed by a soft x-ray microscopy (XM) for comparing a musty smell generating green strain (PTG) and a non-smell brown strain (PTB). By XM, cells were clearly imaged, and several intracellular granules which could not be observed under a light microscope were visualized. The diameter of granules was about 0.5-1 ?m, and one or a few granules were seen in a cell. XM analyses showed that width of cells and sizes of intracellular granules were quite different between PTG and PTB strains. To study the granules observed by XM, transmission in more detail, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and indirect fluorescent-antibody technique (IFA) were applied. By TEM, carboxysomes, thylakoids and polyphosphate granules were observed. IFA showed the presence of carboxysomes. Results lead to the conclusion that intracellular granules observed under XM are carboxysomes or polyphosphate granules. These results demonstrate that soft XM is effective for analyzing fine structures of small organisms such as cyanobacterium, and for discriminating the strains which generates musty smells from others.

  3. Amino Acid Transporters and Release of Hydrophobic Amino Acids in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Pernil, Rafael; Picossi, Silvia; Herrero, Antonia; Flores, Enrique; Mariscal, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is a filamentous cyanobacterium that can use inorganic compounds such as nitrate or ammonium as nitrogen sources. In the absence of combined nitrogen, it can fix N2 in differentiated cells called heterocysts. Anabaena also shows substantial activities of amino acid uptake, and three ABC-type transporters for amino acids have been previously characterized. Seven new loci encoding predicted amino acid transporters were identified in the Anabaena genomic sequence and inactivated. Two of them were involved in amino acid uptake. Locus alr2535-alr2541 encodes the elements of a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter that is mainly involved in the uptake of glycine. ORF all0342 encodes a putative transporter from the dicarboxylate/amino acid:cation symporter (DAACS) family whose inactivation resulted in an increased uptake of a broad range of amino acids. An assay to study amino acid release from Anabaena filaments to the external medium was set up. Net release of the alanine analogue ?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed when transport system N-I (a hydrophobic amino acid ABC-type transporter) was engaged in the uptake of a specific substrate. The rate of AIB release was directly proportional to the intracellular AIB concentration, suggesting leakage from the cells by diffusion. PMID:25915115

  4. Identification of two genes, sll0804 and slr1306, as putative components of the CO2-concentrating mechanism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shulu; Spann, Kevin W; Frankel, Laurie K; Moroney, James V; Bricker, Terry M

    2008-12-01

    Insertional transposon mutations in the sll0804 and slr1306 genes were found to lead to a loss of optimal photoautotrophy in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 grown under ambient CO(2) concentrations (350 ppm). Mutants containing these insertions (4BA2 and 3ZA12, respectively) could grow photoheterotrophically on glucose or photoautotrophically at elevated CO(2) concentrations (50,000 ppm). Both of these mutants exhibited an impaired affinity for inorganic carbon. Consequently, the Sll0804 and Slr1306 proteins appear to be putative components of the carbon-concentrating mechanism in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. PMID:18931125

  5. Chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d are produced in the cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii when cultured under natural light and near-infrared radiation.

    PubMed

    Airs, R L; Temperton, B; Sambles, C; Farnham, G; Skill, S C; Llewellyn, C A

    2014-10-16

    We report production of chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d in the cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii cultured under near-infrared and natural light conditions. C. fritschii produced chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d when cultured under natural light to a high culture density in a 20 L bubble column photobioreactor. In the laboratory, the ratio of chlorophyll f to chlorophyll a changed from 1:15 under near-infrared, to an undetectable level of chlorophyll f under artificial white light. The results provide support that chlorophylls f and d are both red-light inducible chlorophylls in C. fritschii. PMID:25176411

  6. CO 2 removal by high-density culture of a marine cyanobacterium synechococcus sp. using an improved photobioreactor employing light-diffusing optical fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Takano; Haruko Takeyama; Noriyuki Nakamura; Koji Sode; J. Grant BURGESS; Eichi Manabe; Morio Hirano; Tadashi Matsunaga

    1992-01-01

    A light diffusing optical fiber (LDOF) photobioreactor with an improved gas input system has been used for the high-density\\u000a culture of a marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Optimum conditions for CO2 removal and biomass production were investigated.\\u000a Maximum CO2 removal of 4.44 g\\/L\\/d was achieved using an initial cell concentration of 6.8 g\\/L. The biomass yield was 0.97\\u000a g\\/L for a

  7. Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen Assimilation by a Cyanobacterium Under Diverse Environmental Perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Singh, Abhay K.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Welsh, Eric A.; Keren, Nir S.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Ghosh, Bijoy K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2010-12-01

    Cyanobacteria, the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, are present in diverse ecological niches and play crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. To proliferate in nature, cyanobacteria utilize a host of stress responses to accommodate periodic changes in environmental conditions. A detailed knowledge of the composition of, as well as the dynamic changes in, the proteome is necessary to gain fundamental insights into such stress responses. Toward this goal, we have performed a largescale proteomic analysis of the widely studied model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under 33 different environmental conditions. The resulting high-quality dataset consists of 22,318 unique peptides corresponding to 1,955 proteins, a coverage of 53% of the predicted proteome. Quantitative determination of protein abundances has led to the identification of 1,198 differentially regulated proteins. Notably, our analysis revealed that a common stress response under various environmental perturbations, irrespective of amplitude and duration, is the activation of atypical pathways for the acquisition of carbon and nitrogen from urea and arginine. In particular, arginine is catabolized via putrescine to produce succinate and glutamate, sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. This study provides the most comprehensive functional and quantitative analysis of the Synechocystis proteome to date, and shows that a significant stress response of cyanobacteria involves an uncommon mode of acquisition of carbon and nitrogen. Oxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes, the progenitors of the chloroplast, are crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has historically been a model cyanobacterium for photosynthetic research and is emerging as a promising biofuel platform. Cellular responses are severely modified by environmental conditions, such as temperature and nutrient availability. However the global protein responses of Synechocystis 6803 under physiological relevant environmental stresses have not been characterized. Here we present the first global proteome analysis of a photoautotrophic bacteria and the most complete coverage to date of a photosynthetic prokaryotic proteome. To obtain a more complete description of the protein components of Synechocystis 6803, we have performed an in-depth proteome analysis of this organism utilizing the Accurate Mass and Time (AMT) tag approach1 utilizing 33 growth conditions and timepoints. The resulting proteome consists of 22,318 unique peptides, corresponding to 2,369 unique proteins, covering 65% of the predicted proteins. Quantitative analysis of protein abundance ratios under nutrient stress revealed that Synechocystis 6803 resorts to a universal mechanism for nitrogen utilization under phosphate, sulfate, iron, and nitrogen depletion. Comparison of this proteomic data with previously published microarray studies under similar environmental conditions showed that the general response predicted by both types of analyses are common but that the actual levels of protein expression can not be inferred from gene expression data. Our results demonstrate a global nitrogen response to multiple stressors that may be similar to that used by other cyanobacteria under various stress conditions. We anticipate that this protein expression data will be a foundation for the photosynthetic and biofuel communities to better understand metabolic changes under physiological conditions relevant to global productivity. Further more, this comparison of correlation between gene and protein expression data provides deeper insight into the ongoing debate as to whether gene expression can be used to infer cellular response.

  8. Wastewater utilization for poly-?-hydroxybutyrate production by the cyanobacterium Aulosira fertilissima in a recirculatory aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Shilalipi; Nayak, Jitendra Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2011-12-01

    Intensive aquaculture releases large quantities of nutrients into aquatic bodies, which can lead to eutrophication. The objective of this study was the development of a biological recirculatory wastewater treatment system with a diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Aulosira fertilissima, and simultaneous production of valuable product in the form of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). To investigate this possible synergy, batch scale tests were conducted under a recirculatory aquaculture system in fiber-reinforced plastic tanks enhanced by several manageable parameters (e.g., sedimentation, inoculum size, depth, turbulence, and light intensity), an adequate combination of which showed better productivity. The dissolved-oxygen level increased in the range of 3.2 to 6.9 mg liter?ą during the culture period. Nutrients such as ammonia, nitrite, and phosphate decreased to as low as zero within 15 days of incubation, indicating the system's bioremediation capability while yielding valuable cyanobacterial biomass for PHB production. Maximum PHB accumulation in A. fertilissima was found in sedimented fish pond discharge at 20-cm culture depth with stirring and an initial inoculum size of 80 mg dry cell weight (dcw) liter?ą. Under optimized conditions, the PHB yield was boosted to 92, 89, and 80 g m?˛, respectively for the summer, rainy, and winter seasons. Extrapolation of the result showed that a hectare of A. fertilissima cultivation in fish pond discharge would give an annual harvest of ?17 tons dry biomass, consisting of 14 tons of PHB with material properties comparable to those of the bacterial polymer, with simultaneous treatment of 32,640 mł water discharge. PMID:21984242

  9. Identification of OmpR-Family Response Regulators Interacting with Thioredoxin in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Taro; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Hisabori, Toru; Hihara, Yukako

    2015-01-01

    The redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain is known to act as a signal to regulate the transcription of key genes involved in the acclimation responses to environmental changes. We hypothesized that the protein thioredoxin (Trx) acts as a mediator connecting the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and transcriptional regulation, and established a screening system to identify transcription factors (TFs) that interact with Trx. His-tagged TFs and S-tagged mutated form of Trx, TrxMC35S, whose active site cysteine 35 was substituted with serine to trap the target interacting protein, were co-expressed in E. coli cells and Trx-TF complexes were detected by immuno-blotting analysis. We examined the interaction between Trx and ten OmpR family TFs encoded in the chromosome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (S.6803). Although there is a highly conserved cysteine residue in the receiver domain of all OmpR family TFs, only three, RpaA (Slr0115), RpaB (Slr0946) and ManR (Slr1837), were identified as putative Trx targets. The recombinant forms of wild-type TrxM, RpaA, RpaB and ManR proteins from S.6803 were purified following over-expression in E. coli and their interaction was further assessed by monitoring changes in the number of cysteine residues with free thiol groups. An increase in the number of free thiols was observed after incubation of the oxidized TFs with Trx, indicating the reduction of cysteine residues as a consequence of interaction with Trx. Our results suggest, for the first time, the possible regulation of OmpR family TFs through the supply of reducing equivalents from Trx, as well as through the phospho-transfer from its cognate sensor histidine kinase. PMID:25774906

  10. Cell Envelope Components Influencing Filament Length in the Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Burnat, Mireia; Schleiff, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells (known as trichomes or filaments) that can be hundreds of cells long. The filament consists of individual cells surrounded by a cytoplasmic membrane and peptidoglycan layers. The cells, however, share a continuous outer membrane, and septal proteins, such as SepJ, are important for cell-cell contact and filament formation. Here, we addressed a possible role of cell envelope components in filamentation, the process of producing and maintaining filaments, in the model cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. We studied filament length and the response of the filaments to mechanical fragmentation in a number of strains with mutations in genes encoding cell envelope components. Previously published peptidoglycan- and outer membrane-related gene mutants and strains with mutations in two genes (all5045 and alr0718) encoding class B penicillin-binding proteins isolated in this work were used. Our results show that filament length is affected in most cell envelope mutants, but the filaments of alr5045 and alr2270 gene mutants were particularly fragmented. All5045 is a dd-transpeptidase involved in peptidoglycan elongation during cell growth, and Alr2270 is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of lipid A, a key component of lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that both components of the cell envelope, the murein sacculus and the outer membrane, influence filamentation. As deduced from the filament fragmentation phenotypes of their mutants, however, none of these elements is as important for filamentation as the septal protein SepJ. PMID:25201945

  11. Identification of a gene essential for protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase activity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kazushige; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Sano, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Ayumi; Hosaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX during the synthesis of tetrapyrrole molecules. Protox is encoded by the hemY gene in eukaryotes and by the hemG gene in many ?-proteobacteria, including Escherichia coli. It has been suggested that other bacteria possess a yet unidentified type of Protox. To identify a unique bacterial gene encoding Protox, we first introduced the Arabidopsis hemY gene into the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We subsequently mutagenized the cells by transposon tagging and screened the tagged lines for mutants that were sensitive to acifluorfen, which is a specific inhibitor of the hemY-type Protox. Several cell lines containing the tagged slr1790 locus exhibited acifluorfen sensitivity. The slr1790 gene encodes a putative membrane-spanning protein that is distantly related to the M subunit of NADH dehydrogenase complex I. We attempted to disrupt this gene in the wild-type background of Synechocystis, but we were only able to obtain heteroplasmic disruptants. These cells accumulated a substantial amount of protoporphyrin IX, suggesting that the slr1790 gene is essential for growth and Protox activity of cells. We found that most cyanobacteria and many other bacteria possess slr1790 homologs. We overexpressed an slr1790 homolog of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in Escherichia coli and found that this recombinant protein possesses Protox activity in vitro. These results collectively demonstrate that slr1790 encodes a unique Protox enzyme and we propose naming the slr1790 gene “hemJ.” PMID:20823222

  12. Identification of OmpR-family response regulators interacting with thioredoxin in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Taro; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Hisabori, Toru; Hihara, Yukako

    2015-01-01

    The redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain is known to act as a signal to regulate the transcription of key genes involved in the acclimation responses to environmental changes. We hypothesized that the protein thioredoxin (Trx) acts as a mediator connecting the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and transcriptional regulation, and established a screening system to identify transcription factors (TFs) that interact with Trx. His-tagged TFs and S-tagged mutated form of Trx, TrxMC35S, whose active site cysteine 35 was substituted with serine to trap the target interacting protein, were co-expressed in E. coli cells and Trx-TF complexes were detected by immuno-blotting analysis. We examined the interaction between Trx and ten OmpR family TFs encoded in the chromosome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (S.6803). Although there is a highly conserved cysteine residue in the receiver domain of all OmpR family TFs, only three, RpaA (Slr0115), RpaB (Slr0946) and ManR (Slr1837), were identified as putative Trx targets. The recombinant forms of wild-type TrxM, RpaA, RpaB and ManR proteins from S.6803 were purified following over-expression in E. coli and their interaction was further assessed by monitoring changes in the number of cysteine residues with free thiol groups. An increase in the number of free thiols was observed after incubation of the oxidized TFs with Trx, indicating the reduction of cysteine residues as a consequence of interaction with Trx. Our results suggest, for the first time, the possible regulation of OmpR family TFs through the supply of reducing equivalents from Trx, as well as through the phospho-transfer from its cognate sensor histidine kinase. PMID:25774906

  13. Site of non-photochemical quenching of the phycobilisome by orange carotenoid protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Stadnichuk, Igor N; Yanyushin, Mikhail F; Maksimov, Evgeni G; Lukashev, Evgeni P; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Elanskaya, Irina V; Paschenko, Vladimir Z

    2012-08-01

    In cyanobacteria, the thermal dissipation of excess absorbed energy at the level of the phycobilisome (PBS)-antenna is triggered by absorption of strong blue-green light by the photoactive orange carotenoid protein (OCP). This process known as non-photochemical quenching, whose molecular mechanism remains in many respects unclear, is revealed in vivo as a decrease in phycobilisome fluorescence. In vitro reconstituted system on the interaction of the OCP and the PBS isolated from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 presents evidence that the OCP is not only a photosensor, but also an effecter that makes direct contacts with the PBS and causes dissipation of absorbed energy. To localize the site(s) of quenching, we have analyzed the role of chromophorylated polypeptides of the PBS using PBS-deficient mutants in conjunction with in vitro systems of assembled PBS and of isolated components of the PBS core. The results demonstrated that L(CM), the core-membrane linker protein and terminal emitter of the PBS, could act as the docking site for OCP in vitro. The ApcD and ApcF terminal emitters of the PBS core are not directly subjected to quenching. The data suggests that there could be close contact between the phycocyanobilin chromophore of L(CM) and the 3'-hydroxyechinenone chromophore present in OCP and that L(CM) could be involved in OCP-induced quenching. According to the reduced average life-time of the PBS-fluorescence and linear dependence of fluorescence intensity of the PBS on OCP concentration, the quenching has mostly dynamic character. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22483736

  14. Induction, isolation, and some properties of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from the nonheterocystous cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Bilbao, M; Martinez, A; Urkijo, I; Llama, M J; Serra, J L

    1988-01-01

    The level of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.4.1.4) from nitrate-grown cells of the thermophilic non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum OH-1-p.Cl1 could be significantly enhanced by the presence of ammonium or nitrite, as well as by L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine and other sources of organic nitrogen (L-Glu, L-Gln, and methylamine). The enzyme was purified more than 4,400-fold by ultracentrifugation, ion-exchange chromatography, and affinity chromatography, and at 30 degrees C it showed a specific activity of 32.9 mumol of NADPH oxidized per min per mg of protein. The purified enzyme showed no aminotransferase activity and catalyzed the amination of 2-oxoglutarate preferentially to the reverse catabolic reaction. The enzyme was very specific for its substrates 2-oxoglutarate (Km = 1.25 mM) and NADPH (Km = 64 microM), for which hyperbolic kinetics were obtained. However, negative cooperativity (Hill coefficient h = 0.89) and [S]0.5 of 18.2 mM were observed for ammonium. The mechanism of the aminating reaction was of a random type with independent sites. The purified enzyme showed its maximal activity at 60 degrees C (Ea = 5.1 kcal/mol [21.3 kJ/mol]) and optimal pH values of 8.0 and 7.5 when assayed in Tris hydrochloride and potassium phosphate buffers, respectively. The native molecular mass of the enzyme was about 280 kilodaltons. The possible physiological role of the enzyme in ammonia assimilation is discussed. PMID:3139639

  15. The UV-B stimulon of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune comprises early shock proteins and late acclimation proteins.

    PubMed

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Schulz, Stefan; Wait, Robin; Görg, Angelika; Scherer, Siegfried

    2002-11-01

    The UV-B and desiccation-tolerant terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune was grown under defined UV irradiation. Proteome changes were monitored in the membrane and the cytosolic and the extracellular fractions. Tools were developed to separate stress-triggered from growth stage-dependent changes. UV-B changed the relative cellular concentration of 493 out of 1,350 protein spots at least by a factor of three, rendering the UV-B stimulon of N. commune the most complex one described so far. It comprises two different parts: an early shock response influencing 214 proteins and a late acclimation response involving 279 proteins. The shock response comprised many membrane or membrane-associated proteins, whereas the acclimation response mainly changed cytosolic proteins. Most of the shock-induced changes were transient and did not overlap with the acclimation response. In the extracellular fraction, UV irradiation induced superoxide dismutase and the water stress protein. In total, 27 intracellular, UV-B-induced proteins were partially sequenced by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Three functional classes were identified: proteins involved in lipid metabolism, in carbohydrate metabolism and in regulatory pathways. About 50% of the sequenced proteins were homologous to cyanobacterial database entries with un-known function. Interestingly, all of these proteins belong to the UV-B acclimation response. We conclude that the UV-B shock response and the UV-B acclimation response represent two completely different and remarkably complex strategies of N. commune to protect itself against UV-B radiation in its natural environment. PMID:12410839

  16. The influence of iron limitation on the growth and activity of Crocosphaera watsonii, an unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacq, V.; Ridame, C.

    2012-04-01

    Diazotrophic cyanobacteria are able to use atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) dissolved in seawater as source of nitrogen for primary production. This metabolic function confers an ecological advantage for such organisms in N-limited environments, such as tropical oligotrophic regions. There, N2 fixation represents a significant source of new nitrogen in the euphotic zone which is available for the non diazotrophic phytoplankton community. Thus, diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute significantly to new production and play a key role in the global cycling of carbon and nitrogen. The filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium is the best known and most studied marine diazotroph. However, recent research has highlighted the biogeochemical importance of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN), such as Crocosphaera watsonii. The factors that control N2 fixation have been intensively studied. Due to the high iron content of the nitrogenase enzyme complex, N2 fixation and growth of diazotrophic cyanobacteria can be controlled by iron bioavailability. Many studies have been conducted on the impact of iron limitation on Trichodesmium, but less is known for UCYN. Here, for the first time, we address the issue of iron limitation on the N2 fixation and growth of UCYN, namely Crocosphaera watsonii. We have designed a study on cultures of Crocosphaera watsonii strain WH8501 grown under a range of dissolved iron, from 2 nM to 400 nM, with a constant EDTA concentration of 2 µM. Our experiment encompasses low iron concentrations (2 nM), representative of those measured in the field. Preliminary findings demonstrate a major control of iron availability on the biomass and growth of Crocosphaera watsonii. These results, complemented with data on photosynthetic and diazotrophic activities, significantly contribute to our understanding of the dynamics of N2 fixation by unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria and of the role of iron in controlling this process. Keywords: N2 fixation, unicellular cyanobacteria, iron limitation.

  17. Salinity Tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the Use of Salinity for Contamination Control by the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica

    PubMed Central

    von Alvensleben, Nicolas; Stookey, Katherine; Magnusson, Marie; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and –water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles – an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass. PMID:23667639

  18. The ? Subunit of RNA Polymerase Is Essential for Thermal Acclimation of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis Sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Gunnelius, Liisa; Kurkela, Juha; Hakkila, Kaisa; Koskinen, Satu; Parikainen, Marjaana; Tyystjärvi, Taina

    2014-01-01

    The rpoZ gene encodes the small ? subunit of RNA polymerase. A ?rpoZ strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 grew well in standard conditions (constant illumination at 40 µmol photons m?2 s?1; 32°C; ambient CO2) but was heat sensitive and died at 40°C. In the control strain, 71 genes were at least two-fold up-regulated and 91 genes down-regulated after a 24-h treatment at 40°C, while in ?rpoZ 394 genes responded to heat. Only 62 of these heat-responsive genes were similarly regulated in both strains, and 80% of heat-responsive genes were unique for ?rpoZ. The RNA polymerase core and the primary ? factor SigA were down-regulated in the control strain at 40°C but not in ?rpoZ. In accordance with reduced RNA polymerase content, the total RNA content of mild-heat-stress-treated cells was lower in the control strain than in ?rpoZ. Light-saturated photosynthetic activity decreased more in ?rpoZ than in the control strain upon mild heat stress. The amounts of photosystem II and rubisco decreased at 40°C in both strains while PSI and the phycobilisome antenna protein allophycocyanin remained at the same level as in standard conditions. The phycobilisome rod proteins, phycocyanins, diminished during the heat treatment in ?rpoZ but not in the control strain, and the nblA1 and nblA2 genes (encode NblA proteins required for phycobilisome degradation) were up-regulated only in ?rpoZ. Our results show that the ? subunit of RNAP is essential in heat stress because it is required for heat acclimation of diverse cellular processes. PMID:25386944

  19. Elevated growth temperature can enhance photosystem I trimer formation and affects xanthophyll biosynthesis in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells.

    PubMed

    K?odawska, Kinga; Kovács, László; Várkonyi, Zsuzsanna; Kis, Mihály; Sozer, Özge; Laczkó-Dobos, Hajnalka; Kóbori, Ottilia; Domonkos, Ildikó; Strza?ka, Kazimierz; Gombos, Zoltán; Malec, Przemys?aw

    2015-03-01

    In the thylakoid membranes of the mesophilic cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803, PSI reaction centers (RCs) are organized as monomers and trimers. PsaL, a 16 kDa hydrophobic protein, a subunit of the PSI RC, was previously identified as crucial for the formation of PSI trimers. In this work, the physiological effects accompanied by PSI oligomerization were studied using a PsaL-deficient mutant (?psaL), not able to form PSI trimers, grown at various temperatures. We demonstrate that in wild-type Synechocystis, the monomer to trimer ratio depends on the growth temperature. The inactivation of the psaL gene in Synechocystis grown phototropically at 30°C induces profound morphological changes, including the accumulation of glycogen granules localized in the cytoplasm, resulting in the separation of particular thylakoid layers. The carotenoid composition in ?psaL shows that PSI monomerization leads to an increased accumulation of myxoxantophyll, zeaxanthin and echinenone irrespective of the temperature conditions. These xanthophylls are formed at the expense of ?-carotene. The measured H2O?CO2 oxygen evolution rates in the ?psaL mutant are higher than those observed in the wild type, irrespective of the growth temperature. Moreover, circular dichroism spectroscopy in the visible range reveals that a peak attributable to long-wavelength-absorbing carotenoids is apparently enhanced in the trimer-accumulating wild-type cells. These results suggest that specific carotenoids are accompanied by the accumulation of PSI oligomers and play a role in the formation of PSI oligomer structure. PMID:25520404

  20. Comparative genomics reveals diversified CRISPR-Cas systems of globally distributed Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Lin, Feibi; Li, Qi; Li, Tao; Zhao, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common and dominant bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater lakes around the world. Microcystis cells can produce toxic secondary metabolites, such as microcystins, which are harmful to human health. Two M. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two highly eutrophic lakes in China and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis was performed with the 12 other available M. aeruginosa genomes and closely related unicellular cyanobacterium. Each genome of M. aeruginosa containing at least one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus and total 71 loci were identified, suggesting it is ubiquitous in M. aeruginosa genomes. In addition to the previously reported subtype I-D cas gene sets, three CAS subtypes I-A, III-A and III-B were identified and characterized in this study. Seven types of CRISPR direct repeat have close association with CAS subtype, confirming that different and specific secondary structures of CRISPR repeats are important for the recognition, binding and process of corresponding cas gene sets. Homology search of the CRISPR spacer sequences provides a history of not only resistance to bacteriophages and plasmids known to be associated with M. aeruginosa, but also the ability to target much more exogenous genetic material in the natural environment. These adaptive and heritable defense mechanisms play a vital role in keeping genomic stability and self-maintenance by restriction of horizontal gene transfer. Maintaining genomic stability and modulating genomic plasticity are both important evolutionary strategies for M. aeruginosa in adaptation and survival in various habitats. PMID:26029174

  1. Anion inhibition study of the ?-carbonic anhydrase (CahB1) from the cyanobacterium Coleofasciculus chthonoplastes (ex-Microcoleus chthonoplastes).

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Kupriyanova, Elena V; Scozzafava, Andrea; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the catalytic activity and inhibition of the ?-class carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) CahB1, from the relict cyanobacterium Coleofasciculus chthonoplastes (previously denominated Microcoleus chthonoplastes). The enzyme showed good activity as a catalyst for the CO2 hydration, with a kcat of 2.4 × 10(5)s(-1) and a kcat/Km of 6.3 × 10(7)M(-1)s(-1). A range of inorganic anions and small molecules were investigated as inhibitors of CahB1. Perchlorate and tetrafluoroborate did not inhibit the enzyme (KIs >200 mM) whereas selenate and selenocyanide were ineffective inhibitors too, with KIs of 29.9-48.61 mM. The halides, pseudohalides, carbonate, bicarbonate, trithiocarbonate and a range of heavy metal ions-containing anions were submillimolar-millimolar inhibitors (KIs in the range of 0.15-0.90 mM). The best CahB1 inhibitors were N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, with KIs in the range of 8-75 ?M, whereas acetazolamide inhibited the enzyme with a KI of 76 nM. This is the first kinetic and inhibition study of a cyanobacterial CA. As these enzymes are widespread in many cyanobacteria, being crucial for the carbon concentrating mechanism which assures substrate to RubisCO for the CO2 fixation by these organisms, a detailed kinetic/inhibition study may be essential for a better understanding of this superfamily of metalloenzymes and for potential biotechnological applications in biomimetic CO2 capture processes. PMID:24529310

  2. Cloning, expression, purification, and preliminary characterization of a putative hemoglobin from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, N. L.; Lecomte, J. T.

    2000-01-01

    The genome of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains a gene (slr2097, glbN) encoding a 123 amino-acid product with sequence similarity to globins. Related proteins from cyanobacteria, ciliates, and green algae bind oxygen and have a pronounced tendency to coordinate the heme iron with two protein ligands. To study the structural and functional properties of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 hemoglobin, slr2097 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purification of the hemoglobin was performed after addition of hemin to the clarified cell lysate. Recombinant, heme-reconstituted ferric Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 hemoglobin was found to be a stable helical protein, soluble to concentrations higher than 500 microM. At neutral pH, it yielded an electronic absorption spectrum typical of a low-spin ferric species, with maxima at 410 and 546 nm. The proton NMR spectrum revealed sharp lines spread over a chemical shift window narrower than 40 ppm, in support of low-spin hexacoordination of the heme iron. Nuclear Overhauser effects demonstrated that the heme is inserted in the protein matrix to produce one major equilibrium form. Addition of dithionite resulted in an absorption spectrum with maxima at 426, 528, and 560 nm. This reduced form appeared capable of carbon monoxide binding. Optical data also suggested that cyanide ions could bind to the heme in the ferric state. The spectral properties of the putative Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 hemoglobin confirmed that it can be used for further studies of an ancient hemoprotein structure. PMID:10752621

  3. Expression of Human Carbonic Anhydrase in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 Creates a High CO2-Requiring Phenotype 1

    PubMed Central

    Price, G. D.; Badger, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Active human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) protein was expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942 by means of transformation with the bidirectional expression vector, pCA. This expression was driven by the bacterial Tac promoter and was regulated by the IacIQ repressor protein, which was expressed from the same plasmid. Expression levels reached values of around 0.3% of total cell protein and this protein appeared to be entirely soluble in nature and located within the cytosol of the cell. The expression of this protein has dramatic effects on the photosynthetic physiology of the cell. Induction of expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in both high dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) and low Ci grown cells leads the creation of a high Ci requiring phenotype causing: (a) a dramatic increase in the K0.5 (Ci) for photosynthesis, (b) a loss of the ability to accumulate internal Ci, and (c) a decrease in the lag between the initial Ci accumulation following illumination and the efflux of CO2 from the cells. In addition, the effects of the expressed CA can largely be reversed by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ethoxyzolamide. As a result of the above findings, it is concluded that the CO2 concentrating mechanism in Synechococcus PCC7942 is largely dependent on (a) the absence of CA activity from the cytosol, and (b) the specific localization of CA activity in the carboxysome. A theoretical model of photosynthesis and Ci accumulation is developed in which the carboxysome plays a central role as both the site of CO2 generation from HCO3? and a resistance barrier to CO2 efflux from the cell. There is good qualitative agreement between this model and the measured physiological effects of expressed cytosolic CA in Synechococcus cells. Images Figure 7 PMID:16667062

  4. Effects of UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation on the morphogenesis of the edible terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Na; Zhang, Zhong-Chun; Feng, Jun-Li; Qiu, Bao-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    The terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Berk. et M. A. Curtis has been a popular food and herbal ingredient for hundreds of years. To meet great market demand and protect the local ecosystem, for decades researchers have tried to cultivate N. flagelliforme but have failed to get macroscopic filamentous thalli. In this study, single trichomes with 50 to 200 vegetative cells were induced from free-living cells by low light and used to investigate the morphogenesis of N. flagelliforme under low UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation. Low-fluence-rate UV-B (0.1 W m(-2)) did not inhibit trichome growth; however, it significantly increased the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and mycosporine-like amino acids and promoted sheath formation outside the trichomes. Under low UV-B radiation, single trichomes developed into filamentous thalli more than 1 cm long after 28 days of cultivation, most of which grew separately in liquid BG11 medium. With periodic desiccation treatment, the single trichomes formed flat or banded thalli that grew up to 2 cm long after 3 months on solid BG11 medium. When trichomes were cultivated on solid BG11 medium with alternate treatments of low UV-B and periodic desiccation, dark and scraggly filamentous thalli that grew up to about 3 cm in length after 40 days were obtained. In addition, the cultivation of trichomes on nitrogen-deficient solid BG11 medium (BG11(0)) suggested that nitrogen availability could affect the color and lubricity of newly developed thalli. This study provides promising techniques for artificial cultivation of N. flagelliforme in the future. PMID:22865081

  5. Persistent Phytoplankton Bloom in Lake St. Lucia (iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa) Caused by a Cyanobacterium Closely Associated with the Genus Cyanothece (Synechococcaceae, Chroococcales) ?

    PubMed Central

    Muir, David G.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2011-01-01

    Lake St. Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa, is the largest estuarine lake in Africa. Extensive use and manipulation of the rivers flowing into it have reduced freshwater inflow, and the lake has also been subject to a drought of 10 years. For much of this time, the estuary has been closed to the Indian Ocean, and salinities have progressively risen throughout the system, impacting the biotic components of the ecosystem, reducing zooplankton and macrobenthic biomass and diversity in particular. In June 2009, a bloom of a red/orange planktonic microorganism was noted throughout the upper reaches of Lake St. Lucia. The bloom persisted for at least 18 months, making it the longest such bloom on record. The causative organism was characterized by light and electron microscopy and by 16S rRNA sequencing and was shown to be a large, unicellular cyanobacterium most strongly associated with the genus Cyanothece. The extent and persistence of the bloom appears to be unique to Lake St. Lucia, and it is suggested that the organism's resistance to high temperatures, to intense insolation, and to hypersalinity as well as the absence of grazing pressure by salinity-sensitive zooplankton all contributed to its persistence as a bloom organism until a freshwater influx, due to exceptionally heavy summer rains in 2011, reduced the salinity for a sufficient length of time to produce a crash in the cyanobacterium population as a complex, low-salinity biota redeveloped. PMID:21742912

  6. The signal transducer P(II) and bicarbonate acquisition in Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511, a marine cyanobacterium naturally deficient in nitrate and nitrite assimilation.

    PubMed

    Palinska, Katarzyna A; Laloui, Wassila; Bédu, Sylvie; Loiseaux-de Goër, Susan; Castets, Anne Marie; Rippka, Rosmarie; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole

    2002-08-01

    The amino acid sequence of the signal transducer P(II) (GlnB) of the oceanic photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511 displays a typical cyanobacterial signature and is phylogenetically related to all known cyanobacterial glnB genes, but forms a distinct subclade with two other marine cyanobacteria. P(II) of P. marinus was not phosphorylated under the conditions tested, despite its highly conserved primary amino acid sequence, including the seryl residue at position 49, the site for the phosphorylation of the protein in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942. Moreover, P. marinus lacks nitrate and nitrite reductase activities and does not take up nitrate and nitrite. This strain, however, expresses a low- and a high-affinity transport system for inorganic carbon (C(i); K(m,app) 240 and 4 micro M, respectively), a result consistent with the unphosphorylated form of P(II) acting as a sensor for the control of C(i) acquisition, as proposed for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. The present data are discussed in relation to the genetic information provided by the P. marinus MED4 genome sequence. PMID:12177334

  7. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nabakishore; Rath, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  8. Inactivation of agmatinase expressed in vegetative cells alters arginine catabolism and prevents diazotrophic growth in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PubMed Central

    Burnat, Mireia; Flores, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Arginine decarboxylase produces agmatine, and arginase and agmatinase are ureohydrolases that catalyze the production of ornithine and putrescine from arginine and agmatine, respectively, releasing urea. In the genome of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, ORF alr2310 putatively encodes an ureohydrolase. Cells of Anabaena supplemented with [14C]arginine took up and catabolized this amino acid generating a set of labeled amino acids that included ornithine, proline, and glutamate. In an alr2310 deletion mutant, an agmatine spot appeared and labeled glutamate increased with respect to the wild type, suggesting that Alr2310 is an agmatinase rather than an arginase. As determined in cell-free extracts, agmatinase activity could be detected in the wild type but not in the mutant. Thus, alr2310 is the Anabaena speB gene encoding agmatinase. The ?alr2310 mutant accumulated large amounts of cyanophycin granule polypeptide, lacked nitrogenase activity, and did not grow diazotrophically. Growth tests in solid media showed that agmatine is inhibitory for Anabaena, especially under diazotrophic conditions, suggesting that growth of the mutant is inhibited by non-metabolized agmatine. Measurements of incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]leucine into macromolecules showed, however, a limited inhibition of protein synthesis in the ?alr2310 mutant. Analysis of an Anabaena strain producing an Alr2310-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion showed expression in vegetative cells but much less in heterocysts, implying compartmentalization of the arginine decarboxylation pathway in the diazotrophic filaments of this heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium. PMID:25209059

  9. Complex Mate Searching in the Satin Bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Albert C. Uy; Gail L. Patricelli; Gerald Borgia

    2001-01-01

    Mate-choice studies typically focus on male traits af- fecting female mating decisions, but few studies seek to identify the behavioral rules females use when searching for mates. Current mod- els suggest that females may either directly compare a set of males (\\

  10. Combined Effects of CO2 and Light on the N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101: Physiological Responses1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sven A.; Levitan, Orly; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Prášil, Ond?ej; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Rost, Björn

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum (IMS101) showed that increasing CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) enhances N2 fixation and growth. Significant uncertainties remain as to the degree of the sensitivity to pCO2, its modification by other environmental factors, and underlying processes causing these responses. To address these questions, we examined the responses of Trichodesmium IMS101 grown under a matrix of low and high levels of pCO2 (150 and 900 ?atm) and irradiance (50 and 200 ?mol photons m?2 s?1). Growth rates as well as cellular carbon and nitrogen contents increased with increasing pCO2 and light levels in the cultures. The pCO2-dependent stimulation in organic carbon and nitrogen production was highest under low light. High pCO2 stimulated rates of N2 fixation and prolonged the duration, while high light affected maximum rates only. Gross photosynthesis increased with light but did not change with pCO2. HCO3? was identified as the predominant carbon source taken up in all treatments. Inorganic carbon uptake increased with light, but only gross CO2 uptake was enhanced under high pCO2. A comparison between carbon fluxes in vivo and those derived from 13C fractionation indicates high internal carbon cycling, especially in the low-pCO2 treatment under high light. Light-dependent oxygen uptake was only detected under low pCO2 combined with high light or when low-light-acclimated cells were exposed to high light, indicating that the Mehler reaction functions also as a photoprotective mechanism in Trichodesmium. Our data confirm the pronounced pCO2 effect on N2 fixation and growth in Trichodesmium and further show a strong modulation of these effects by light intensity. We attribute these responses to changes in the allocation of photosynthetic energy between carbon acquisition and the assimilation of carbon and nitrogen under elevated pCO2. These findings are supported by a complementary study looking at photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of photosystem II, photosynthetic unit stoichiometry (photosystem I:photosystem II), and pool sizes of key proteins in carbon and nitrogen acquisition. PMID:20625004

  11. Elucidation of Insertion Elements Carried on Plasmids and In Vitro Construction of Shuttle Vectors from the Toxic Cyanobacterium Planktothrix

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Guntram; Goesmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Several gene clusters that are responsible for toxin synthesis in bloom-forming cyanobacteria have been found to be associated with transposable elements (TEs). In particular, insertion sequence (IS) elements were shown to play a role in the inactivation or recombination of the genes responsible for cyanotoxin synthesis. Plasmids have been considered important vectors of IS element distribution to the host. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the IS elements propagated on the plasmids and the chromosome of the toxic cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA126/8 by means of high-throughput sequencing. In total, five plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA14, pPA50, pPA79, and pPA115, of 5, 6, 50, 79, and 120 kbp, respectively) were elucidated, and two plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA115) were found to propagate full IS element copies. Large stretches of shared DNA information between plasmids were constituted of TEs. Two plasmids (pPA5.5, pPA14) were used as candidates to engineer shuttle vectors (named pPA5.5SV and pPA14SV, respectively) in vitro by PCR amplification and the subsequent transposition of the Tn5 cat transposon containing the R6K? origin of replication of Escherichia coli. While pPA5.5SV was found to be fully segregated, pPA14SV consistently co-occurred with its wild-type plasmid even under the highest selective pressure. Interestingly, the Tn5 cat transposon became transferred by homologous recombination into another plasmid, pPA50. The availability of shuttle vectors is considered to be of relevance in investigating genome plasticity as a consequence of homologous recombination events. Combining the potential of high-throughput sequencing and in vitro production of shuttle vectors makes it simple to produce species-specific shuttle vectors for many cultivable prokaryotes. PMID:24907328

  12. Kinetic Modeling of Arsenic Cycling by a Freshwater Cyanobacterium as Influenced by N:P Ratios: A Potential Biologic Control in an Iron-Limited Drainage Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.

    2004-12-01

    Elevated As levels are common in South Texas surface waters, where As is derived from the natural weathering of geogenic sources and a byproduct of historical uranium mining. The impacted surface waters of the Nueces River drainage basin supply Lake Corpus Christi (LCC), a major drinking water reservoir for the Corpus Christi area. The soils and sediments of the Nueces River drainage basin generally have low levels of reactive iron (average concentration of 2780 mg/kg), limiting the control of iron oxyhydroxides on As geochemistry and bioavailability. Given these conditions, biologic cycling of As may have a large influence on As fate and transport in LCC. Sediment cores from LCC show evidence for cyanobacterial blooms after reservoir formation based upon stable isotopes, total organic matter and specific elemental correlations. While algae have been shown to accumulate and reduce inorganic As(V), few studies have reported biologic cycling of As by cyanobacteria. Therefore, As(V) uptake, accumulation, reduction, and excretion in a 1.0 ? M As(V) solution by the freshwater cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120, was measured over time as a function of low, middle and high N:P ratios (1.2, 12, 120) to determine nutrient effects on As cycling by the cyanobacterium. Total As(V) reduction was observed in all three conditions upon completion of the ten-day experiment. Maximum As(V) reduction rates ranged from (0.013 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the low N:P solution to (0.398 mmol g C-1 day-1) in the high N:P solution. Increased cell biomass in the low N:P ratio solution compensated for the low maximum reduction rate to allow total As(V) reduction. Kinetic equations commonly used to model algal-nutrient interactions were utilized in modeling the current data. The Michaelis-Menten enzyme saturation equation modified with a competitive inhibition term adequately modeled As(III) excretion in the high and middle N:P ratio test conditions. The low N:P test condition further required a growth term to adequately model As(III) excretion by the cyanobacterium. The impact of N:P ratios on As reduction rates implies that N:P cycling can be coupled to As biogeochemistry in surface waters through the action of phytoplankton.

  13. Regulation of Genes Involved in Heterocyst Differentiation in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 by a Group 2 Sigma Factor SigC.

    PubMed

    Ehira, Shigeki; Miyazaki, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells for nitrogen fixation called heterocysts upon limitation of combined nitrogen in the medium. During heterocyst differentiation, expression of approximately 500 genes is upregulated with spatiotemporal regulation. In the present study, we investigated the functions of sigma factors of RNA polymerase in the regulation of heterocyst differentiation. The transcript levels of sigC, sigE, and sigG were increased during heterocyst differentiation, while expression of sigJ was downregulated. We carried out DNA microarray analysis to identify genes regulated by SigC, SigE, and SigG. It was indicated that SigC regulated the expression of genes involved in heterocyst differentiation and functions. Moreover, genes regulated by SigC partially overlapped with those regulated by SigE, and deficiency of SigC was likely to be compensated by SigE. PMID:25692906

  14. Regulation of Genes Involved in Heterocyst Differentiation in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 by a Group 2 Sigma Factor SigC

    PubMed Central

    Ehira, Shigeki; Miyazaki, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells for nitrogen fixation called heterocysts upon limitation of combined nitrogen in the medium. During heterocyst differentiation, expression of approximately 500 genes is upregulated with spatiotemporal regulation. In the present study, we investigated the functions of sigma factors of RNA polymerase in the regulation of heterocyst differentiation. The transcript levels of sigC, sigE, and sigG were increased during heterocyst differentiation, while expression of sigJ was downregulated. We carried out DNA microarray analysis to identify genes regulated by SigC, SigE, and SigG. It was indicated that SigC regulated the expression of genes involved in heterocyst differentiation and functions. Moreover, genes regulated by SigC partially overlapped with those regulated by SigE, and deficiency of SigC was likely to be compensated by SigE. PMID:25692906

  15. The tolerance of cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii to low-temperature photo-inhibition affected by the induction of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Várkonyi, Z; Zsiros, O; Farkas, T; Garab, G; Gombos, Z

    2000-12-01

    Acyl-lipid desaturation introduces double bonds (unsaturated bonds) at specifically defined positions of fatty acids that are esterified to the glycerol backbone of membrane glycerolipids. Desaturation patterns of the glycerolipids of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, a filamentous cyanobacterium, were determined in cells grown at 35 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The lowering of the growth temperature from 35 degrees C to 25 degrees C resulted in a considerable accumulation of polyunsaturated octadecanoic fatty acids in all lipid classes. The tolerance to low-temperature photo-inhibition of the C. raciborskii cells grown at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C was also compared. The lower growth temperature increased the tolerance of C. raciborskii cells. These results strengthen the importance of polyunsaturated glycerolipids in the tolerance to environmental stresses and may give a physiological explanation for the determinative role of C. raciborskii in algal blooming in Lake Balaton (Hungary). PMID:11171248

  16. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the oxidant-sensing probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Rajesh P. [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany) [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Singh, Shailendra P.; Haeder, Donat-P. [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)] [Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Sinha, Rajeshwar P., E-mail: r.p.sinha@gmx.net [Laboratory of Photobiology and Molecular Microbiology, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2010-07-02

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under simulated solar radiation (UV-B: 0.30 Wm{sup -2}, UV-A: 25.70 Wm{sup -2} and PAR: 118.06 Wm{sup -2}) was studied in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 using the oxidant-sensing fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DCFH-DA is a nonpolar dye, converted into the polar derivative DCFH by cellular esterases that are nonfluorescent but switched to highly fluorescent DCF when oxidized by intracellular ROS and other peroxides. The images obtained from the fluorescence microscope after 12 h of irradiation showed green fluorescence from cells covered with 295, 320 or 395 nm cut-off filters, indicating the generation of ROS in all treatments. However, the green/red fluorescence ratio obtained from fluorescence microscopic analysis showed the highest generation of ROS after UV-B radiation in comparison to PAR or UV-A radiation. Production of ROS was also measured by a spectrofluorophotometer and results obtained supported the results of fluorescence microscopy. Low levels of ROS were detected at the start (0 h) of the experiment showing that they are generated even during normal metabolism. This study also showed that UV-B radiation causes the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments which could be due to the observed oxidative stress. This is the first report for the detection of intracellular ROS in a cyanobacterium by fluorescence microscopy using DCFH-DA and thereby suggesting the applicability of this method in the study of in vivo generation of ROS.

  17. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ran; Yang, Mingkun; Chen, Zhuo; Cheng, Zhongyi; Yi, Xingling; Li, Chongyang; He, Chenliu; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ge, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are the oldest known life form inhabiting Earth and the only prokaryotes capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) is a model cyanobacterium used extensively in research on photosynthesis and environmental adaptation. Posttranslational protein modification by lysine acetylation plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, its extent and function in cyanobacteria remain unexplored. Herein, we performed a global acetylome analysis on Synechocystis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and high accuracy LC-MS/MS analysis; identified 776 acetylation sites on 513 acetylated proteins; and functionally categorized them into an interaction map showing their involvement in various biological processes. Consistent with previous reports, a large fraction of the acetylation sites are present on proteins involved in cellular metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, many proteins involved in photosynthesis, including the subunits of phycocyanin (CpcA, CpcB, CpcC, and CpcG) and allophycocyanin (ApcA, ApcB, ApcD, ApcE, and ApcF), were found to be lysine acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation may play regulatory roles in the photosynthesis process. Six identified acetylated proteins associated with photosynthesis and carbon metabolism were further validated by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Our data provide the first global survey of lysine acetylation in cyanobacteria and reveal previously unappreciated roles of lysine acetylation in the regulation of photosynthesis. The provided data set may serve as an important resource for the functional analysis of lysine acetylation in cyanobacteria and facilitate the elucidation of the entire metabolic networks and photosynthesis process in this model cyanobacterium. PMID:25621733

  18. Adaptation of a Cyanobacterium to a Biochemically Rich Environment in Experimental Evolution as an Initial Step toward a Chloroplast-Like State

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shingo; Miyazaki, Mikako; Takikawa, Go; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Sueyoshi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Kiuchi, Ayako; Mori, Kotaro; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplasts originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. The original cyanobacterial endosymbiont evolved to adapt to the biochemically rich intracellular environment of the host cell while maintaining its photosynthetic function; however, no such process has been experimentally demonstrated. Here, we show the adaptation of a model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, to a biochemically rich environment by experimental evolution. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 does not grow in a biochemically rich, chemically defined medium because several amino acids are toxic to the cells at approximately 1 mM. We cultured the cyanobacteria in media with the toxic amino acids at 0.1 mM, then serially transferred the culture, gradually increasing the concentration of the toxic amino acids. The cells evolved to show approximately the same specific growth rate in media with 0 and 1 mM of the toxic amino acid in approximately 84 generations and evolved to grow faster in the media with 1 mM than in the media with 0 mM in approximately 181 generations. We did not detect a statistically significant decrease in the autotrophic growth of the evolved strain in an inorganic medium, indicating the maintenance of the photosynthetic function. Whole-genome resequencing revealed changes in the genes related to the cell membrane and the carboxysome. Moreover, we quantitatively analyzed the evolutionary changes by using simple mathematical models, which evaluated the evolution as an increase in the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) and estimated quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary process. Our results clearly demonstrate not only the potential of a model cyanobacterium to adapt to a biochemically rich environment without a significant decrease in photosynthetic function but also the properties of its evolutionary process, which sheds light of the evolution of chloroplasts at the initial stage. PMID:24874568

  19. Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Shalapyonok, Alexi; Reynolds, Rick A.

    1995-01-01

    The optical properties of the ocenanic cyanobacterium Synechococcus (clone WH8103) were examined in a nutrient-replete laboratory culture grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance. Measurements of the spectral absorption and beam attenuation coefficients, the size distribution of cells in suspension, and microscopic analysis of samples were made at intervals of 2-4 hours for 2 days. These measurements were used to calculate the optical properties at the level of a single 'mean' cell representative of the acutal population, specifically, the optical cross sections for spectral absorption bar-(sigma(sub a)), scattering bar-sigma(sub b))(lambda), and attentuation bar-(sigma(sub c))(lambda). In addition, concurrent determinations of chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon allowed calculation of the Chl a- and C-specific optical coefficients. The refractive index of cells was derived from the observed data using a theory of light absorption and scattering by homogeneous spheres. Low irradiance because of cloudy skies resulted in slow division rates of cells in the culture. The percentage of dividing cells was unusually high (greater than 30%) throughout the experiment. The optical cross sections varied greatly over a day-night cycle, with a minimum near dawn or midmorning and maximum near dusk. During daylight hours, bar-(sigma(sub b)) and bar-(sigma(sub c)) can increase more than twofold and bar-(sigma(sub a) by as much as 45%. The real part of the refractive index n increaed during the day; changes in n had equal or greater effect than the varying size distribution on changes in bar-(sigma(sub c)) and bar-(sigma(sub b)). The contribution of changes in n to the increase of bar-(sigma(sub c))(660) during daylight hours was 65.7% and 45.1% on day 1 and 2, respectively. During the dark period, when bar-(sigma(sub c))(660) decreased by a factor of 2.9, the effect of decreasing n was dominant (86.3%). With the exception of a few hours during the second light period, the imaginary part of the refractive index n' showed little variation over a day-night cycle, and bar-(sigma(sub a)) was largely controlled by variations in cell size. The real part of the refractive index at lambda = 660 nm was correlated with the intracellular C concentration and the imaginary part at lambda = 678 nm with the intracellular Chl a concentration. The C-specfic attenuation coefficient showed significant diel variability, which has implications for the estimation of oceanic primary production from measurements of diel variability in beam attenuation. This study provides strong evidence that diel variability is an important component of the optical characterization of marine phytoplankton.

  20. A Pair of Iron-Responsive Genes Encoding Protein Kinases with a Ser\\/Thr Kinase Domain and a His Kinase Domain Are Regulated by NtcA in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Cheng; Jian-Hong Li; Lei Shi; Li Wang; Amel Latifi; Cheng-Cai Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N2 when combined nitrogen is not available in the growth medium. It has a family of 13 genes encoding proteins with both a Ser\\/Thr kinase domain and a His kinase domain. The function of these enzymes is unknown. Two of them are encoded by pkn41 (alr0709) and pkn42 (alr0710). These

  1. Purification and characterization of a hydroperoxidase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803: identification of its gene by peptide mass mapping using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günther Regelsberger; Christian Obinger; Roland Zoder; Friedrich Altmann; Günter A Peschek

    1999-01-01

    A cytosolic catalase-peroxidase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 was purified to homogeneity by a six-step purification procedure. It is a homodimeric enzyme with a subunit molecular mass of 85 kDa. The isoelectric point of the protein is at pH 5.5; Michaelis constant, turnover number, and catalytic efficiency of the catalase activity for H2O2 were measured to be 4.8 mM,

  2. Sucrose Synthesis in the Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 Is Controlled by the Two-Component Response Regulator OrrA

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shogo; Ohmori, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 accumulates sucrose as a compatible solute against salt stress. Sucrose-phosphate synthase activity, which is responsible for the sucrose synthesis, is increased by salt stress, but the mechanism underlying the regulation of sucrose synthesis remains unknown. In the present study, a response regulator, OrrA, was shown to control sucrose synthesis. Expression of spsA, which encodes a sucrose-phosphate synthase, and susA and susB, which encode sucrose synthases, was induced by salt stress. In the orrA disruptant, salt induction of these genes was completely abolished. The cellular sucrose level of the orrA disruptant was reduced to 40% of that in the wild type under salt stress conditions. Moreover, overexpression of orrA resulted in enhanced expression of spsA, susA, and susB, followed by accumulation of sucrose, without the addition of NaCl. We also found that SigB2, a group 2 sigma factor of RNA polymerase, regulated the early response to salt stress under the control of OrrA. It is concluded that OrrA controls sucrose synthesis in collaboration with SigB2. PMID:25002430

  3. NADPH fluorescence in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: a versatile probe for in vivo measurements of rates, yields and pools.

    PubMed

    Kauny, Jocelyn; Sétif, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    We measured the kinetics of light-induced NADPH formation and subsequent dark consumption by monitoring in vivo its fluorescence in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Spectral data allowed the signal changes to be attributed to NAD(P)H and signal linearity vs the chlorophyll concentration was shown to be recoverable after appropriate correction. Parameters associated to reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH by ferredoxin-NADP(+)-oxidoreductase were determined: After single excitation of photosystem I, half of the signal rise is observed in 8ms; Evidence for a kinetic limitation which is attributed to an enzyme bottleneck is provided; After two closely separated saturating flashes eliciting two photosystem I turnovers in less than 2ms, more than 50% of the cytoplasmic photoreductants (reduced ferredoxin and photosystem I acceptors) are diverted from NADPH formation by competing processes. Signal quantitation in absolute NADPH concentrations was performed by adding exogenous NADPH to the cell suspensions and by estimating the enhancement factor of in vivo fluorescence (between 2 and 4). The size of the visible (light-dependent) NADP (NADP(+)+NADPH) pool was measured to be between 1.4 and 4 times the photosystem I concentration. A quantitative discrepancy is found between net oxygen evolution and NADPH consumption by the light-activated Calvin-Benson cycle. The present study shows that NADPH fluorescence is an efficient probe for studying in vivo the energetic metabolism of cyanobacteria which can be used for assessing multiple phenomena occurring over different time scales. PMID:24463053

  4. The TolC-like Protein HgdD of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 Is Involved in Secondary Metabolite Export and Antibiotic Resistance*

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Mirus, Oliver; Schleiff, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The role of TolC has largely been explored in proteobacteria, where it functions as a metabolite and protein exporter. In contrast, little research has been carried out on the function of cyanobacterial homologues, and as a consequence, not much is known about the mechanism of cyanobacterial antibiotic uptake and metabolite secretion in general. It has been suggested that the TolC-like homologue of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, termed heterocyst glycolipid deposition protein D (HgdD), is involved in both protein and lipid secretion. To describe its function in secondary metabolite secretion, we established a system to measure the uptake of antibiotics based on the fluorescent molecule ethidium bromide. We analyzed the rate of porin-dependent metabolite uptake and confirmed the functional relation between detoxification and the action of HgdD. Moreover, we identified two major facilitator superfamily proteins that are involved in this process. It appears that anaOmp85 (Alr2269) is not required for insertion or assembly of HgdD, because an alr2269 mutant does not exhibit a phenotype similar to the hgdD mutant. Thus, we could assign components of the metabolite efflux system and describe parameters of detoxification by Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:23071120

  5. Alr5068, a Low-Molecular-Weight protein tyrosine phosphatase, is involved in formation of the heterocysts polysaccharide layer in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui; Wan, Shuang; Liu, Pi-Qiong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Chen, Wen-Li

    2013-10-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 forms nitrogen-fixing heterocysts after deprivation of combined nitrogen. Under such conditions, vegetative cells provide heterocysts with photosynthate and receive fixed nitrogen from the latter. Heterocyst envelope contains a glycolipid layer and a polysaccharide layer to restrict the diffusion of oxygen into heterocysts. Low-Molecular-Weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPs) are involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides in bacteria. Alr5068, a protein from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, shows significant sequence similarity with LMW-PTPs. In this study we characterized the enzymatic properties of Alr5068 and showed that it can dephosphorylate several autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases (Alr2856, Alr3059 and All4432) of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 in vitro. Several conserved residues among LMW-PTPs are shown to be essential for the phosphatase activity of Alr5068. Overexpression of alr5068 results in a strain unable to survive under diazotrophic conditions, with the formation of morphologically mature heterocysts detached from the filaments. Overexpression of an alr5068 allele that lost phosphatase activity led to the formation of heterocyst with an impaired polysaccharide layer. The alr5068 gene was upregulated after nitrogen step-down and its mutation affected the expression of hepA and hepC, two genes necessary for the formation of the heterocyst envelope polysaccharide (HEP) layer. Our results suggest that Alr5068 is associated with the production of HEP in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:23827083

  6. Identification and Upregulation of Biosynthetic Genes Required for Accumulation of Mycosporine-2-Glycine under Salt Stress Conditions in the Halotolerant Cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica

    PubMed Central

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Sopun, Warangkana; Tanaka, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are valuable molecules that are the basis for important photoprotective constituents. Here we report molecular analysis of mycosporine-like amino acid biosynthetic genes from the halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica, which can survive at high salinity and alkaline pH. This extremophile was found to have a unique MAA core (4-deoxygadusol)-synthesizing gene separated from three other genes. In vivo analysis showed accumulation of the mycosporine-2-glycine but not shinorine or mycosporine-glycine. Mycosporine-2-glycine accumulation was stimulated more under the stress condition of high salinity than UV-B radiation. The Aphanothece MAA biosynthetic genes also manifested a strong transcript level response to salt stress. Furthermore, the transformed Escherichia coli and Synechococcus strains expressing four putative Aphanothece MAA genes under the control of a native promoter were found to be capable of synthesizing mycosporine-2-glycine. The accumulation level of mycosporine-2-glycine was again higher under the high-salinity condition. In the transformed E. coli cells, its level was approximately 85.2 ± 0.7 ?mol/g (dry weight). Successful production of a large amount of mycosporine in these cells provides a new opportunity in the search for an alternative natural sunscreen compound source. PMID:24375141

  7. Novel photosensory two-component system (PixA-NixB-NixC) involved in the regulation of positive and negative phototaxis of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Narikawa, Rei; Suzuki, Fumiko; Yoshihara, Shizue; Higashi, Sho-ichi; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2011-12-01

    Two wild-type substrains of a motile cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 show positive phototaxis toward a light source (PCC-P) and negative phototaxis away from light (PCC-N). In this study, we found that a novel two-component system of photoresponse is involved in the phototactic regulation. Inactivation of slr1212 (pixA), which encodes a photoreceptor histidine kinase, reverted the positive phototaxis of PCC-P to negative phototaxis, and inactivation of the downstream slr1213 (nixB) and slr1214 (nixC), which encode AraC-like transcription factor-type and PatA-type response regulators, respectively, reverted the negative phototaxis of PCC-N to positive phototaxis. Opposite effects of pixA and nixBC disruption implies an unexpected signal transduction pathway in the switching of positive and negative phototaxis. The blue/green-type cyanobacteriochrome GAF domain of PixA was expressed in Synechocystis and phycocyanobilin-producing Escherichia coli. The holoprotein covalently bound a chromophore phycoviolobilin and showed reversible photoconversion between the violet- (Pv, ?(peak) = 396 nm) and green-absorbing (Pg, ?(peak) = 533 nm) forms, although the protein from E. coli partially bound a precursor phycocyanobilin. These results were discussed with regard to an idea that PixA serves as a violet light receptor for switching of positive and negative phototaxis by transcriptional and functional regulation. PMID:22065076

  8. Sll0939 is induced by Slr0967 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and is essential for growth under various stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Junji; Asakura, Ryosuke; Moriyama, Atsushi; Kubo, Yuko; Shibata, Yousuke; Yoshino, Yuka; Tahara, Hiroko; Matsuhashi, Ayumi; Sato, Shusei; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ohta, Hisataka

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the genes expressed in response to low pH stress were identified in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using DNA microarrays. The expression of slr0967 and sll0939 constantly increased throughout 4-h acid stress conditions. Overexpression of these two genes under the control of the trc promoter induced the cells to become tolerant to acid stress. The ?slr0967 and ?sll0939 mutant cells exhibited sensitivity to osmotic and salt stress, whereas the trc mutants of these genes exhibited tolerance to these types of stress. Microarray analysis of the ?slr0967 mutant under acid stress conditions showed that expression of the high light-inducible protein ssr2595 (HliB) and the two-component response regulator slr1214 (rre15) were out of regulation due to gene inactivation, whereas they were upregulated by acid stress in the wild-type cells. Microarray analysis and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the expression of sll0939 was significantly repressed in the slr0967 deletion mutant. These results suggest that sll0939 is directly involved in the low pH tolerance of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and that slr0967 may be essential for the induction of acid stress-responsive genes. PMID:24629663

  9. Functional and Structural Characterization of a Cation-dependent O-Methyltransferase from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803*S?

    PubMed Central

    Kopycki, Jakub Grzegorz; Stubbs, Milton T.; Brandt, Wolfgang; Hagemann, Martin; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Schliemann, Willibald; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Vogt, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The coding sequence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 slr0095 gene was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. The corresponding enzyme was classified as a cation- and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase (SynOMT), consistent with considerable amino acid sequence identities to eukaryotic O-methyltransferases (OMTs). The substrate specificity of SynOMT was similar with those of plant and mammalian CCoAOMT-like proteins accepting a variety of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids as substrates. In contrast to the known mammalian and plant enzymes, which exclusively methylate the meta-hydroxyl position of aromatic di- and trihydroxy systems, Syn-OMT also methylates the para-position of hydroxycinnamic acids like 5-hydroxyferulic and 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid, resulting in the formation of novel compounds. The x-ray structure of SynOMT indicates that the active site allows for two alternative orientations of the hydroxylated substrates in comparison to the active sites of animal and plant enzymes, consistent with the observed preferred para-methylation and position promiscuity. Lys3 close to the N terminus of the recombinant protein appears to play a key role in the activity of the enzyme. The possible implications of these results with respect to modifications of precursors of polymers like lignin are discussed. PMID:18502765

  10. Biochemical and Molecular Phylogenetic Study of Agriculturally Useful Association of a Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium and Nodule Sinorhizobium with Medicago sativa L.

    PubMed Central

    Karaushu, E. V.; Kravzova, T. R.; Vorobey, N. A.; Kiriziy, D. A.; Olkhovich, O. P.; Taran, N. Yu.; Kots, S. Ya.; Omarova, E.

    2015-01-01

    Seed inoculation with bacterial consortium was found to increase legume yield, providing a higher growth than the standard nitrogen treatment methods. Alfalfa plants were inoculated by mono- and binary compositions of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Their physiological and biochemical properties were estimated. Inoculation by microbial consortium of Sinorhizobium meliloti T17 together with a new cyanobacterial isolate Nostoc PTV was more efficient than the single-rhizobium strain inoculation. This treatment provides an intensification of the processes of biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria in the root nodules and an intensification of plant photosynthesis. Inoculation by bacterial consortium stimulates growth of plant mass and rhizogenesis and leads to increased productivity of alfalfa and to improving the amino acid composition of plant leaves. The full nucleotide sequence of the rRNA gene cluster and partial sequence of the dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) gene of Nostoc PTV were deposited to GenBank (JQ259185.1, JQ259186.1). Comparison of these gene sequences of Nostoc PTV with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that this cyanobacterial strain does not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this cyanobacterium clustered with high credibility values with Nostoc muscorum. PMID:26114100

  11. Enhancing photo-catalytic production of organic acids in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 ?glgC, a strain incapable of glycogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Carrieri, Damian; Broadbent, Charlie; Carruth, David; Paddock, Troy; Ungerer, Justin; Maness, Pin-Ching; Ghirardi, Maria; Yu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    A key objective in microbial biofuels strain development is to maximize carbon flux to target products while minimizing cell biomass accumulation, such that ideally the algae and bacteria would operate in a photo-catalytic state. A brief period of such a physiological state has recently been demonstrated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.?PCC 6803 ?glgC strain incapable of glycogen storage. When deprived of nitrogen, the ?glgC excretes the organic acids alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate for a number of days without increasing cell biomass. This study examines the relationship between the growth state and the photo-catalytic state, and characterizes the metabolic adaptability of the photo-catalytic state to increasing light intensity. It is found that the culture can transition naturally from the growth state into the photo-catalytic state when provided with limited nitrogen supply during the growth phase. Photosynthetic capacity and pigments are lost over time in the photo-catalytic state. Reversal to growth state is observed with re-addition of nitrogen nutrient, accompanied by restoration of photosynthetic capacity and pigment levels in the cells. While the overall productivity increased under high light conditions, the ratio of alpha-ketoglutarate/pyruvate is altered, suggesting that carbon partition between the two products is adaptable to environmental conditions. PMID:25616027

  12. Enhancing photo-catalytic production of organic acids in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.?PCC 6803 ?glgC, a strain incapable of glycogen storage.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Damian; Broadbent, Charlie; Carruth, David; Paddock, Troy; Ungerer, Justin; Maness, Pin-Ching; Ghirardi, Maria; Yu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    A key objective in microbial biofuels strain development is to maximize carbon flux to target products while minimizing cell biomass accumulation, such that ideally the algae and bacteria would operate in a photo-catalytic state. A brief period of such a physiological state has recently been demonstrated in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.?PCC 6803 ?glgC strain incapable of glycogen storage. When deprived of nitrogen, the ?glgC excretes the organic acids alpha-ketoglutarate and pyruvate for a number of days without increasing cell biomass. This study examines the relationship between the growth state and the photo-catalytic state, and characterizes the metabolic adaptability of the photo-catalytic state to increasing light intensity. It is found that the culture can transition naturally from the growth state into the photo-catalytic state when provided with limited nitrogen supply during the growth phase. Photosynthetic capacity and pigments are lost over time in the photo-catalytic state. Reversal to growth state is observed with re-addition of nitrogen nutrient, accompanied by restoration of photosynthetic capacity and pigment levels in the cells. While the overall productivity increased under high light conditions, the ratio of alpha-ketoglutarate/pyruvate is altered, suggesting that carbon partition between the two products is adaptable to environmental conditions. PMID:25616027

  13. CRISPR-Cas systems in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 exhibit distinct processing pathways involving at least two Cas6 and a Cmr2 protein.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Ingeborg; Lange, Sita J; Hein, Stephanie; Hess, Wolfgang R; Backofen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats--CRISPR associated proteins) system provides adaptive immunity in archaea and bacteria. A hallmark of CRISPR-Cas is the involvement of short crRNAs that guide associated proteins in the destruction of invading DNA or RNA. We present three fundamentally distinct processing pathways in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 for a subtype I-D (CRISPR1), and two type III systems (CRISPR2 and CRISPR3), which are located together on the plasmid pSYSA. Using high-throughput transcriptome analyses and assays of transcript accumulation we found all CRISPR loci to be highly expressed, but the individual crRNAs had profoundly varying abundances despite single transcription start sites for each array. In a computational analysis, CRISPR3 spacers with stable secondary structures displayed a greater ratio of degradation products. These structures might interfere with the loading of the crRNAs into RNP complexes, explaining the varying abundancies. The maturation of CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 transcripts depends on at least two different Cas6 proteins. Mutation of gene sll7090, encoding a Cmr2 protein led to the disappearance of all CRISPR3-derived crRNAs, providing in vivo evidence for a function of Cmr2 in the maturation, regulation of expression, Cmr complex formation or stabilization of CRISPR3 transcripts. Finally, we optimized CRISPR repeat structure prediction and the results indicate that the spacer context can influence individual repeat structures. PMID:23441196

  14. Structural and Synthetic Investigations of Tanikolide Dimer, a SIRT2 Selective Inhibitor, and Tanikolide Seco Acid from the Madagascar Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Marcelino; Andrianasolo, Eric H.; Shin, Won Kyo; Goeger, Douglas E.; Yokochi, Alexandre; Schemies, Jörg; Jung, Manfred; France, Dennis; Cornell-Kennon, Susan; Lee, Eun; Gerwick, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Tanikolide seco acid 2 and tanikolide dimer 3, the latter a novel and selective SIRT2 inhibitor, were isolated from the Madagascar marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. The structure of 2, isolated as the pure R enantiomer, was elucidated by an X-ray experiment in conjunction with NMR and optical rotation data, whereas the depside molecular structure of 3 was initially thought to be a meso compound as established by NMR, MS and chiral HPLC analyses. Subsequent total synthesis of the three tanikolide dimer stereoisomers 4, 5, and ent-5, followed by chiral GC-MS comparisons with the natural product, showed it to be exclusively the R,R-isomer 5. Tanikolide dimer 3 (=5) inhibited SIRT2 with an IC50 = 176 nM in one assay format, and 2.4 µM in another. Stereochemical determination of symmetrical dimers such as compound 3 pose intriguing and subtle questions in structure elucidation, and as shown in the current work, are perhaps best answered in conjunction with total synthesis. PMID:19572575

  15. Tolerance of the widespread cyanobacterium Nostoc commune to extreme temperature variations (-269 to 105°C), pH and salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Jespersen, Thomas Sand

    2012-06-01

    Nostoc commune is a widespread colonial cyanobacterium living on bare soils that alternate between frost and thaw, drought and inundation and very low and high temperatures. We collected N. commune from alternating wet and dry limestone pavements in Sweden and tested its photosynthesis and respiration at 20°C after exposure to variations in temperature (-269 to 105°C), pH (2-10) and NaCl (0.02-50 g NaCl kg(-1)). We found that dry field samples and rewetted specimens tolerated exposure beyond that experienced in natural environmental conditions: -269 to 70°C, pH 3-10 and 0-20 g NaCl kg(-1), with only a modest reduction of respiration, photosynthesis and active carbon uptake at 20°C. (14)CO(2) uptake from air declined markedly below zero and above 55°C, but remained positive. Specimens maintained a high metabolism with daily exposure to 6 h of rehydration and 18 h of desiccation at -18 and 20°C, but died at 40°C. The field temperature never exceeded the critical 40°C threshold during the wet periods, but it frequently exceeded this temperature during dry periods when N. commune is already dry and unaffected. We conclude that N. commune has an excellent tolerance to low temperatures, long-term desiccation and recurring cycles of desiccation and rewetting. These traits explain why it is the pioneer species in extremely harsh, nutrient-poor and alternating wet and dry environments. PMID:22120705

  16. The hglK gene is required for localization of heterocyst-specific glycolipids in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K; Buikema, W J; Haselkorn, R

    1995-01-01

    Mutant strain 543 of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was originally isolated as a Fox- mutant following chemical mutagenesis. Ultrastructural analysis shows that in nitrogen-replete media the vegetative cells of the mutant are more cylindrical and have thicker septa than those of the wild type, while in nitrogen-free media the mutant heterocysts lack the normal glycolipid layer external to the cell wall. Although this layer is absent, strain 543 heterocysts nevertheless contain heterocyst-specific glycolipids, as determined by thin-layer chromatography. The mutation in strain 543 is in a gene we have named hglK, encoding a protein of 727 amino acids. The wild-type HglK protein appears to contain four membrane-spanning regions followed by 36 repeats of a degenerate pentapeptide sequence, AXLXX. The mutation in strain 543 introduces a termination codon immediately upstream of the pentapeptide repeat region. A mutant constructed by insertion of an antibiotic resistance cassette near the beginning of the hglK gene has the same phenotype as strain 543. We propose that hglK encodes a protein necessary for the localization of heterocyst glycolipids and that this function requires the pentapeptide repeats of the HglK protein. PMID:7592418

  17. Characterization of devA, a gene required for the maturation of proheterocysts in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed Central

    Maldener, I; Fiedler, G; Ernst, A; Fernández-Pińas, F; Wolk, C P

    1994-01-01

    Mutant M7, obtained by transposon mutagenesis of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, is impaired in the development of mature heterocysts. Under aerobic conditions, the mutant is unable to fix N2 because of a deficiency of at least two components of the oxygen-protective mechanisms: a hemoprotein-coupled oxidative reaction and heterocyst-specific glycolipids. DNA contiguous with the inserted transposon was recovered from the mutant and sequenced. The transposon had inserted itself within a 732-bp open reading frame designated devA. The wild-type form of devA, obtained from a lambda-EMBL3 library of Anabaena sp. DNA, had the identical sequence. Directed mutagenesis of devA in the wild-type strain showed that the phenotype of the mutant was caused by insertion of the transposon. The wild-type form of devA on a shuttle vector complemented the mutation in M7. Expression of devA by whole filaments, monitored following nitrogen stepdown by using luxAB as the reporter, increased ca. eightfold during differentiation; the increase within differentiating cells was much greater. The deduced sequence of the DevA protein shows strong similarity to the ATP-binding subunit of binding protein-dependent transport systems. The product of devA may, therefore, be a component of a periplasmic permease that is required for the transition from a proheterocyst to a mature, nitrogen-fixing heterocyst. Images PMID:8002578

  18. Genome-Scale Modeling of Light-Driven Reductant Partitioning and Carbon Fluxes in Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    PubMed Central

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Lipton, Mary S.; Osterman, Andrei; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Konopka, Allan E.; Beliaev, Alexander S.; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC) share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a genome-scale model for the diazotrophic cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142. The resulting metabolic reconstruction, iCce806, consists of 806 genes associated with 667 metabolic reactions and includes a detailed representation of the ETC and a biomass equation based on experimental measurements. Both computational and experimental approaches were used to investigate light-driven metabolism in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, with a particular focus on reductant production and partitioning within the ETC. The simulation results suggest that growth and metabolic flux distributions are substantially impacted by the relative amounts of light going into the individual photosystems. When growth is limited by the flux through photosystem I, terminal respiratory oxidases are predicted to be an important mechanism for removing excess reductant. Similarly, under photosystem II flux limitation, excess electron carriers must be removed via cyclic electron transport. Furthermore, in silico calculations were in good quantitative agreement with the measured growth rates whereas predictions of reaction usage were qualitatively consistent with protein and mRNA expression data, which we used to further improve the resolution of intracellular flux values. PMID:22529767

  19. Inactivation of the petE gene for plastocyanin lowers photosynthetic capacity and exacerbates chilling-induced photoinhibition in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, A K; Campbell, D

    1996-01-01

    We describe the identification and expression of a petE gene in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942, a cyanobacterium previously thought to lack plastocyanin. The petE gene is a 420-bp open reading frame that encodes a protein 70 to 75% similar to plastocyanins from other cyanobacteria. Synechococcus possesses a single genomic copy of petE located immediately upstream of the clpB gene. It is transcribed as a single mRNA (550 bases) and, in contrast to most other photobionts, the level of petE expression in Synechococcus is unaffected by variable copper concentrations during acclimated growth. Inactivation of petE does not prevent photoautotrophic growth, but does induce a dramatic increase in mRNA for the alternative electron carrier cytochrome C6. Despite this adjustment, loss of plastocyanin results in slower growth, lower photosystem I content, and a decreased maximum capacity for photosynthetic electron transport. The mutant is also more susceptible to chilling-induced photoinhibition during a shift from 37 to 25 degrees C, at which temperature its inherently lower photosynthetic capacity exacerbates the normal slowing of electron transfer reactions at low temperatures. Under similar conditions, the amount of petE message in the wild type decreases by 50% in the 1st h, but then increases dramatically to almost three times the 37 degrees C level by 9 h. PMID:8972599

  20. Transduction of the light signal during complementary chromatic adaptation in the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. PCC 7601: DNA-binding proteins and modulation by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sobczyk, A; Schyns, G; Tandeau de Marsac, N; Houmard, J

    1993-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. PCC 7601 can adapt its pigment content in response to changes in the incident light wavelength. It synthesizes, as major light-harvesting pigments, either phycocyanin 2 (PC2, encoded by the cpc2 operon) under red light or phycoerythrin (PE, encoded by the cpeBA operon) under green light conditions. The last step of the signal transduction pathway is characterized by a transcriptional control of the expression of these operons. Partially purified protein extracts were used in gel retardation assays and DNase I footprinting experiments to identify the factors that interact with the promoter region of the cpeBA operon. We found that two proteins, RcaA and RcaB, only detected in extracts of cells grown under green light, behave as positive transcriptional factors for the expression of the cpeBA operon. Treatment of the fractions containing RcaA and RcaB with alkaline phosphatase prevents the binding of RcaA but not of RcaB to the cpeBA promoter region. A post-translational modification of RcaA thus modulates its affinity for DNA. Images PMID:8458347

  1. Expression of the ggpS Gene, Involved in Osmolyte Synthesis in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002, Revealed Regulatory Differences between This Strain and the Freshwater Strain Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrecht, Friederike; Marin, Kay; Hagemann, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of the osmolyte glucosylglycerol (GG) in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 was characterized. The ggpS gene, which encodes the key enzyme (GG-phosphate synthase [GgpS]) in GG biosynthesis, was cloned by using PCR. A 2,030-bp DNA sequence which contained one open reading frame (ORF) was obtained. The protein deduced from this ORF exhibited 85% similarity to the GgpS of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The function of the protein was confirmed by generating a ggpS null mutant, which was not able to synthesize GG and thus exhibited a salt-sensitive phenotype. Expression of the ggpS gene was analyzed in salt-shocked cells by performing Northern blot and immunoblot experiments. While almost no expression was detected in cells grown in low-salt medium, immediately after a salt shock the amounts of ggpS mRNA and GgpS protein increased up to 100-fold. The finding that salt-induced expression occurred was confirmed by measuring enzyme activities, which were negligible in control cells but clearly higher in salt-treated Synechococcus sp. cells. The salt-induced increase in GgpS activity could be inhibited by adding chloramphenicol, while in protein extracts of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 a constitutive, high level of enzyme activity that was not affected by chloramphenicol was found. A comparison of GG accumulation in the two cyanobacteria revealed that in the marine strain osmolyte synthesis seemed to be regulated mainly by transcriptional control, whereas in the freshwater strain control seemed to be predominantly posttranslational. PMID:10543792

  2. Spectroscopic and functional characterization of cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutants on the cytoplasmic-side of cytochrome b559 in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yi-Fang; Chen, Yung-Han; Roncel, Mercedes; Dilbeck, Preston L; Huang, Jine-Yung; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Ortega, José M; Burnap, Robert L; Chu, Hsiu-An

    2013-04-01

    We performed spectroscopic and functional characterization on cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 with mutations of charged residues of the cytoplasmic side of cytochrome (Cyt) b559 in photosystem II (PSII). All of the mutant cells grew photoautotrophically and assembled stable PSII. However, R7E?, R17E? and R17L? mutant cells grew significantly slower and were more susceptible to photoinhibition than wild-type cells. The adverse effects of the arginine mutations on the activity and the stability of PSII were in the following order (R17L?>R7E?>R17E? and R17A?). All these arginine mutants exhibited normal period-four oscillation in oxygen yield. Thermoluminescence characteristics indicated a slight decrease in the stability of the S3QB(-)/S2QB(-) charge pairs in the R7E? and R17L? mutant cells. R7E? and R17L? PSII core complexes contained predominantly the low potential form of Cyt b559. EPR results indicated the displacement of one of the two axial ligands to the heme of Cyt b559 in R7E? and R17L? mutant reaction centers. Our results demonstrate that the electrostatic interactions between these arginine residues and the heme propionates of Cyt b559 are important to the structure and redox properties of Cyt b559. In addition, the blue light-induced nonphotochemical quenching was significantly attenuated and its recovery was accelerated in the R7L? and R17L? mutant cells. Furthermore, ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that the PQ pool was more reduced in the R7E? and R17L? mutant cells than wild-type cells in the dark. Our data support a functional role of Cyt b559 in protection of PSII under photoinhibition conditions in vivo. PMID:23399490

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of the Respiratory Genes in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 during the Early Response to Glucose Feeding1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghyeob; Ryu, Jee-Youn; Kim, Soo Youn; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Song, Ji Young; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Sang-Bong; Choi, Doil; de Marsac, Nicole Tandeau; Park, Youn-Il

    2007-01-01

    The coordinated expression of the genes involved in respiration in the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 during the early period of glucose (Glc) treatment is poorly understood. When photoautotrophically grown cells were supplemented with 10 mm Glc in the light or after a dark adaptation period of 14 h, significant increases in the respiratory activity, as determined by NAD(P)H turnover, respiratory O2 uptake rate, and cytosolic alkalization, were observed. At the same time, the transcript levels of 18 genes coding for enzymes associated with respiration increased with differential induction kinetics; these genes were classified into three groups based on their half-rising times. Transcript levels of the four genes gpi, zwf, pdhB, and atpB started to increase along with a net increase in NAD(P)H, while the onset of net NAD(P)H consumption coincided with an increase in those of the genes tktA, ppc, pdhD, icd, ndhD2, ndbA, ctaD1, cydA, and atpE. In contrast, the expression of the atpI/G/D/A/C genes coding for ATP synthase subunits was the slowest among respiratory genes and their expression started to accumulate only after the establishment of cytosolic alkalization. These differential effects of Glc on the transcript levels of respiratory genes were not observed by inactivation of the genes encoding the Glc transporter or glucokinase. In addition, several Glc analogs could not mimic the effects of Glc. Our findings suggest that genes encoding some enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level during the switch of nutritional mode. PMID:17827271

  4. ChIP analysis unravels an exceptionally wide distribution of DNA binding sites for the NtcA transcription factor in a heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The CRP-family transcription factor NtcA, universally found in cyanobacteria, was initially discovered as a regulator operating N control. It responds to the N regime signaled by the internal 2-oxoglutarate levels, an indicator of the C to N balance of the cells. Canonical NtcA-activated promoters bear an NtcA-consensus binding site (GTAN8TAC) centered at about 41.5 nucleotides upstream from the transcription start point. In strains of the Anabaena/Nostoc genera NtcA is pivotal for the differentiation of heterocysts in response to N stress. Results In this study, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify the whole catalog of NtcA-binding sites in cells of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 three hours after the withdrawal of combined N. NtcA has been found to bind to 2,424 DNA regions in the genome of Anabaena, which have been ascribed to 2,153 genes. Interestingly, only a small proportion of those genes are involved in N assimilation and metabolism, and 65% of the binding regions were located intragenically. Conclusions The distribution of NtcA-binding sites identified here reveals the largest bacterial regulon described to date. Our results show that NtcA has a much wider role in the physiology of the cell than it has been previously thought, acting both as a global transcriptional regulator and possibly also as a factor influencing the superstructure of the chromosome (and plasmids). PMID:24417914

  5. The Peptidoglycan-Binding Protein SjcF1 Influences Septal Junction Function and Channel Formation in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Mareike; Tetik, Nalan; Ramos-León, Félix; Flinner, Nadine; Ngo, Giang; Stevanovic, Mara; Burnat, Mireia; Pernil, Rafael; Flores, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria exchange nutrients and regulators between cells for diazotrophic growth. Two alternative modes of exchange have been discussed involving transport either through the periplasm or through septal junctions linking adjacent cells. Septal junctions and channels in the septal peptidoglycan are likely filled with septal junction complexes. While possible proteinaceous factors involved in septal junction formation, SepJ (FraG), FraC, and FraD, have been identified, little is known about peptidoglycan channel formation and septal junction complex anchoring to the peptidoglycan. We describe a factor, SjcF1, involved in regulation of septal junction channel formation in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. SjcF1 interacts with the peptidoglycan layer through two peptidoglycan-binding domains and is localized throughout the cell periphery but at higher levels in the intercellular septa. A strain with an insertion in sjcF1 was not affected in peptidoglycan synthesis but showed an altered morphology of the septal peptidoglycan channels, which were significantly wider in the mutant than in the wild type. The mutant was impaired in intercellular exchange of a fluorescent probe to a similar extent as a sepJ deletion mutant. SjcF1 additionally bears an SH3 domain for protein-protein interactions. SH3 binding domains were identified in SepJ and FraC, and evidence for interaction of SjcF1 with both SepJ and FraC was obtained. SjcF1 represents a novel protein involved in structuring the peptidoglycan layer, which links peptidoglycan channel formation to septal junction complex function in multicellular cyanobacteria. Nonetheless, based on its subcellular distribution, this might not be the only function of SjcF1. PMID:26126850

  6. The bacterial-type [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin 7 has a regulatory function under photooxidative stress conditions in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Mustila, H; Allahverdiyeva, Y; Isojärvi, J; Aro, E M; Eisenhut, M

    2014-08-01

    Ferredoxins function as electron carrier in a wide range of metabolic and regulatory reactions. It is not clear yet, whether the multiplicity of ferredoxin proteins is also reflected in functional multiplicity in photosynthetic organisms. We addressed the biological function of the bacterial-type ferredoxin, Fed7 in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The expression of fed7 is induced under low CO? conditions and further enhanced by additional high light treatment. These conditions are considered as promoting photooxidative stress, and prompted us to investigate the biological function of Fed7 under these conditions. Loss of Fed7 did not inhibit growth of the mutant strain ?fed7 but significantly modulated photosynthesis parameters when the mutant was grown under low CO? and high light conditions. Characteristics of the ?fed7 mutant included elevated chlorophyll and photosystem I levels as well as reduced abundance and activity of photosystem II. Transcriptional profiling of the mutant under low CO? conditions demonstrated changes in gene regulation of the carbon concentrating mechanism and photoprotective mechanisms such as the Flv2/4 electron valve, the PSII dimer stabilizing protein Sll0218, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. We conclude that the function of Fed7 is connected to coping with photooxidative stress, possibly by constituting a redox-responsive regulatory element in photoprotection. In photosynthetic eukaryotes domains homologous to Fed7 are exclusively found in chloroplast DnaJ-like proteins that are likely involved in remodeling of regulator protein complexes. It is conceivable that the regulatory function of Fed7 evolved in cyanobacteria and was recruited by Viridiplantae as the controller for the chloroplast DnaJ-like proteins. PMID:24780314

  7. Transcription Profiling of the Model Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 by Next-Gen (SOLiD™) Sequencing of cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The genome of the unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 encodes about 3200 proteins. Transcripts were detected for nearly all annotated open reading frames by a global transcriptomic analysis by Next-Generation (SOLiD™) sequencing of cDNA. In the cDNA samples sequenced, ?90% of the mapped sequences were derived from the 16S and 23S ribosomal RNAs and ?10% of the sequences were derived from mRNAs. In cells grown photoautotrophically under standard conditions [38°C, 1% (v/v) CO2 in air, 250??mol photons m?2?s?1], the highest transcript levels (up to 2% of the total mRNA for the most abundantly transcribed genes; e.g., cpcAB, psbA, psaA) were generally derived from genes encoding structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. High-light exposure for 1?h caused changes in transcript levels for genes encoding proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus, Type-1 NADH dehydrogenase complex and ATP synthase, whereas dark incubation for 1?h resulted in a global decrease in transcript levels for photosynthesis-related genes and an increase in transcript levels for genes involved in carbohydrate degradation. Transcript levels for pyruvate kinase and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decreased sharply in cells incubated in the dark. Under dark anoxic (fermentative) conditions, transcript changes indicated a global decrease in transcripts for respiratory proteins and suggested that cells employ an alternative phosphoenolpyruvate degradation pathway via phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (ppsA) and the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (nifJ). Finally, the data suggested that an apparent operon involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and fatty acid desaturation, acsF2–ho2–hemN2–desF, may be regulated by oxygen concentration. PMID:21779275

  8. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using the cell extract of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena strain L31 and its conjugation with UV-B absorbing compound shinorine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garvita; Babele, Piyoosh K; Kumar, Ashok; Srivastava, Anup; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Tyagi, Madhu B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we describe a cheap, unexplored and simple procedure for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) using the cell extract of the cyanobacterium, Anabaena strain L31. An attempt was also made to conjugate synthesized ZnONPs with a UV-absorbing water soluble compound shinorine. UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses were made to elucidate the formation and characterization of ZnONPs and ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate. The synthesized ZnONPs were characterized by a sharp peak at 370 nm in UV-vis spectrum. TEM images showed the formation of spherical shaped nanoparticles with an average size of 80 nm. Results of selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern showed a set of rings which suggested uniform shape with hexagonal structure of ZnONPs. XRD spectra confirmed the crystalline structure of particles. Conjugation of ZnONPs with shinorine was successfully achieved at pH 7.0 and 10mM concentration of shinorine. The conjugate showed a zeta potential value of -3.75 mV as compared to +30.25 mV of ZnONPs. The change in zeta potential value of ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate was attributed to the changes in the surface functionalities after conjugation. The generation of in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Anabaena strain L31 with treatment of ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate showed approximately 75% less ROS generation as compared to ZnONPs. Properties exhibited by the ZnONPs-shinorine conjugate suggest that it may be used as a potential agent in developing environmental-friendly sunscreen filters of biological origin. PMID:24911272

  9. Long-Term Response toward Inorganic Carbon Limitation in Wild Type and Glycolate Turnover Mutants of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 68031[W

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Marion; von Wobeser, Eneas A.; Jonas, Ludwig; Schubert, Hendrik; Ibelings, Bas W.; Bauwe, Hermann; Matthijs, Hans C.P.; Hagemann, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Concerted changes in the transcriptional pattern and physiological traits that result from long-term (here defined as up to 24 h) limitation of inorganic carbon (Ci) have been investigated for the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Results from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and genome-wide DNA microarray analyses indicated stable up-regulation of genes for inducible CO2 and HCO3? uptake systems and of the rfb cluster that encodes enzymes involved in outer cell wall polysaccharide synthesis. Coordinated up-regulation of photosystem I genes was further found and supported by a higher photosystem I content and activity under low Ci (LC) conditions. Bacterial-type glycerate pathway genes were induced by LC conditions, in contrast to the genes for the plant-like photorespiratory C2 cycle. Down-regulation was observed for nitrate assimilation genes and surprisingly also for almost all carboxysomal proteins. However, for the latter the observed elongation of the half-life time of the large subunit of Rubisco protein may render compensation. Mutants defective in glycolate turnover (?glcD and ?gcvT) showed some transcriptional changes under high Ci conditions that are characteristic for LC conditions in wild-type cells, like a modest down-regulation of carboxysomal genes. Properties under LC conditions were comparable to LC wild type, including the strong response of genes encoding inducible high-affinity Ci uptake systems. Electron microscopy revealed a conspicuous increase in number of carboxysomes per cell in mutant ?glcD already under high Ci conditions. These data indicate that an increased level of photorespiratory intermediates may affect carboxysomal components but does not intervene with the expression of majority of LC inducible genes. PMID:17600135

  10. Genetic Analysis of the Hox Hydrogenase in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Reveals Subunit Roles in Association, Assembly, Maturation, and Function*

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Carrie; Boehm, Marko; Carrieri, Damian; Yu, Jianping; Dubini, Alexandra; Nixon, Peter J.; Maness, Pin-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that catalyze 2H+ + 2e? ? H2. A multisubunit, bidirectional [NiFe]-hydrogenase has been identified and characterized in a number of bacteria, including cyanobacteria, where it is hypothesized to function as an electron valve, balancing reductant in the cell. In cyanobacteria, this Hox hydrogenase consists of five proteins in two functional moieties: a hydrogenase moiety (HoxYH) with homology to heterodimeric [NiFe]-hydrogenases and a diaphorase moiety (HoxEFU) with homology to NuoEFG of respiratory Complex I, linking NAD(P)H ? NAD(P)+ as a source/sink for electrons. Here, we present an extensive study of Hox hydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We identify the presence of HoxEFUYH, HoxFUYH, HoxEFU, HoxFU, and HoxYH subcomplexes as well as association of the immature, unprocessed large subunit (HoxH) with other Hox subunits and unidentified factors, providing a basis for understanding Hox maturation and assembly. The analysis of mutants containing individual and combined hox gene deletions in a common parental strain reveals apparent alterations in subunit abundance and highlights an essential role for HoxF and HoxU in complex/subcomplex association. In addition, analysis of individual and combined hox mutant phenotypes in a single strain background provides a clear view of the function of each subunit in hydrogenase activity and presents evidence that its physiological function is more complicated than previously reported, with no outward defects apparent in growth or photosynthesis under various growth conditions. PMID:23139416

  11. Identification of Homophenylalanine Biosynthetic Genes from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102 and Application to Its Microbial Production by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Tabata, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    l-Homophenylalanine (l-Hph) is a useful chiral building block for synthesis of several drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and the novel proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib. While the chemoenzymatic route of synthesis is fully developed, we investigated microbial production of l-Hph to explore the possibility of a more efficient and sustainable approach to l-Hph production. We hypothesized that l-Hph is synthesized from l-Phe via a mechanism homologous to 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoic acid conversion to 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid during leucine biosynthesis. Based on bioinformatics analysis, we found three putative homophenylalanine biosynthesis genes, hphA (Npun_F2464), hphB (Npun_F2457), and hphCD (Npun_F2458), in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme PCC73102, located around the gene cluster responsible for anabaenopeptin biosynthesis. We constructed Escherichia coli strains harboring hphABCD-expressing plasmids and achieved the fermentative production of l-Hph from l-Phe. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of the genes responsible for homophenylalanine synthesis in any organism. Furthermore, to improve the low conversion efficiency of the initial strain, we optimized the expression of hphA, hphB, and hphCD, which increased the yield to ?630 mg/liter. The l-Hph biosynthesis and l-Leu biosynthesis genes from E. coli were also compared. This analysis revealed that HphB has comparatively relaxed substrate specificity and can perform the function of LeuB, but HphA and HphCD show tight substrate specificity and cannot complement the LeuA and LeuC/LeuD functions, and vice versa. Finally, the range of substrate tolerance of the l-Hph-producing strain was examined, which showed that m-fluorophenylalanine, o-fluorophenylalanine, and l-tyrosine were accepted as substrates and that the corresponding homoamino acids were generated. PMID:23354699

  12. Protein expressed by the ho2 gene of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a true heme oxygenase. Properties of the heme and enzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuhong; Migita, Catharina T; Sato, Michihiko; Sasahara, Masanao; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2005-02-01

    Two isoforms of a heme oxygenase gene, ho1 and ho2, with 51% identity in amino acid sequence have been identified in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Isoform-1, Syn HO-1, has been characterized, while isoform-2, Syn HO-2, has not. In this study, a full-length ho2 gene was cloned using synthetic DNA and Syn HO-2 was demonstrated to be highly expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble, catalytically active protein. Like Syn HO-1, the purified Syn HO-2 bound hemin stoichiometrically to form a heme-enzyme complex and degraded heme to biliverdin IXalpha, CO and iron in the presence of reducing systems such as NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin and sodium ascorbate. The activity of Syn HO-2 was found to be comparable to that of Syn HO-1 by measuring the amount of bilirubin formed. In the reaction with hydrogen peroxide, Syn HO-2 converted heme to verdoheme. This shows that during the conversion of hemin to alpha-meso-hydroxyhemin, hydroperoxo species is the activated oxygen species as in other heme oxygenase reactions. The absorption spectrum of the hemin-Syn HO-2 complex at neutral pH showed a Soret band at 412 nm and two peaks at 540 nm and 575 nm, features observed in the hemin-Syn HO-1 complex at alkaline pH, suggesting that the major species of iron(III) heme iron at neutral pH is a hexa-coordinate low spin species. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) revealed that the iron(III) complex was in dynamic equilibrium between low spin and high spin states, which might be caused by the hydrogen bonding interaction between the distal water ligand and distal helix components. These observations suggest that the structure of the heme pocket of the Syn HO-2 is different from that of Syn HO-1. PMID:15691334

  13. Effects of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+) on the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2009-05-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a model organism known for its unique combination of highly desirable molecular genetic, physiological and morphological characteristics, was employed in the present study. The species was cultured in BG11 liquid medium contained various initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L). The experiment was conducted for six days and the metal induced alterations in the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents were assessed. Alterations in the ultrastructure of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells became evident with the increased (>4 mg/L Pb2+) metal concentration. The photosynthetic apparatus (thylakoid membranes) were found to be the worst affected. Deteriorated or completely destroyed thylakoid membranes have made large empty spaces in the cell interior. In addition, at the highest concentration (8 mg/L Pb2+), the polyphosphate granules became more prominent both in size and number. Despite the initial slight stimulations (0.2, 3.8 and 6.5% respectively at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L Pb2+), both metals inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner as incubation progressed. Pigment contents (chlorophyll ?, ? carotene and phycocyanin) were also decreased with increasing metal concentration. Cells exposed to 6 mg/L Pb2+, resulted in 36.56, 37.39 and 29.34% reductions of chlorophyll ?, ? carotene and phycocyanin respectively over the control. Corresponding reductions for the same Cd2+concentrations were 57.83, 48.94 and 56.90%. Lethal concentration (96 h LC50) values (3.47 mg/L Cd2+ and 12.11 mg/L Pb2+) indicated that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is more vulnerable to Cd2+ than Pb2+.

  14. Chorismate Pyruvate-Lyase and 4-Hydroxy-3-solanesylbenzoate Decarboxylase Are Required for Plastoquinone Biosynthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    Pfaff, Christian; Glindemann, Niels; Gruber, Jens; Frentzen, Margrit; Sadre, Radin

    2014-01-01

    Plastoquinone is a redox active lipid that serves as electron transporter in the bifunctional photosynthetic-respiratory transport chain of cyanobacteria. To examine the role of genes potentially involved in cyanobacterial plastoquinone biosynthesis, we have focused on three Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 genes likely encoding a chorismate pyruvate-lyase (sll1797) and two 4-hydroxy-3-solanesylbenzoate decarboxylases (slr1099 and sll0936). The functions of the encoded proteins were investigated by complementation experiments with Escherichia coli mutants, by the in vitro enzyme assays with the recombinant proteins, and by the development of Synechocystis sp. single-gene knock-out mutants. Our results demonstrate that sll1797 encodes a chorismate pyruvate-lyase. In the respective knock-out mutant, plastoquinone was hardly detectable, and the mutant required 4-hydroxybenzoate for growth underlining the importance of chorismate pyruvate-lyase to initiate plastoquinone biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. The recombinant Slr1099 protein displayed decarboxylase activity and catalyzed in vitro the decarboxylation of 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate with different prenyl side chain lengths. In contrast to Slr1099, the recombinant Sll0936 protein did not show decarboxylase activity regardless of the conditions used. Inactivation of the sll0936 gene in Synechocystis sp., however, caused a drastic reduction in the plastoquinone content to levels very similar to those determined in the slr1099 knock-out mutant. This proves that not only slr1099 but also sll0936 is required for plastoquinone synthesis in the cyanobacterium. In summary, our data demonstrate that cyanobacteria produce plastoquinone exclusively via a pathway that is in the first reaction steps almost identical to ubiquinone biosynthesis in E. coli with conversion of chorismate to 4-hydroxybenzoate, which is then prenylated and decarboxylated. PMID:24337576

  15. Involvement of the HtrA family of proteases in the protection of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 from light stress and in the repair of photosystem II.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Paulo; Choi, Young-Jun; Hassan, Hanadi A G; Nixon, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is prone to irreversible light-induced damage, with the D1 polypeptide a major target. Repair processes operate in the cell to replace a damaged D1 subunit within the complex with a newly synthesized copy. As yet, the molecular details of PSII repair are relatively obscure despite the critical importance of this process for maintaining PSII activity and cell viability. We are using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to identify the various proteases and chaperones involved in D1 turnover in vivo. Two families of proteases are being studied: the FtsH family (four members) of Zn(2+)-activated nucleotide-dependent proteases; and the HtrA (or DegP) family (three members) of serine-type proteases. In this paper, we report the results of our studies on a triple mutant in which all three copies of the htrA gene family have been inactivated. Growth of the mutant on agar plates was inhibited at high light intensities, especially in the presence of glucose. Oxygen evolution measurements indicated that, under conditions of high light, the rate of synthesis of functional PSII was less in the mutant than in the wild-type. Immunoblotting experiments conducted on cells blocked in protein synthesis further indicated that degradation of D1 was slowed in the mutant. Overall, our observations indicate that the HtrA family of proteases are involved in the resistance of Synechocystis 6803 to light stress and play a part, either directly or indirectly, in the repair of PSII in vivo. PMID:12437885

  16. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PUPCCC 62: a potential candidate for biotransformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the presence of sulphate.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Shahnaz; Khattar, J I S; Singh, D P

    2015-07-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp., an isolate from polluted water of Satluj river, India, was found resistant to chromium(VI) up to 200 nmol mL(-1). In this study, it has been demonstrated that this organism takes up Cr(VI) through a phosphate transporter. The organism removed 250 nmol Cr(VI), 210 nmol phosphate and 180 nmol sulphate mg(-1) protein from a buffer solution in 8 h. Cr(VI) uptake by the organism decreased to 135 nmol Cr(VI) removed per milligram protein in the presence of 200 nmol phosphate mL(-1), but the same concentration of sulphate did not affect the Cr(VI) uptake. Similarly, the presence of Cr(VI) in the solution affected the phosphate uptake but not sulphate uptake by the test organism. The kinetic studies on Cr(VI) uptake in the presence of phosphate revealed that phosphate and Cr(VI) acted as competitive inhibitors for one another. Phosphate-starved cells of the organism removed more amount of Cr(VI) than the basal medium-grown cells. The uptake of Cr(VI) as well as phosphate by the organism was observed to be a light-dependent process. Cinnamic acid, a phosphate transporter inhibitor, inhibited Cr(VI) uptake by the organism. Results clearly demonstrated that the test organism takes up chromate ions by phosphate transporter and not by the sulphate transporter. This organism is thus a potential candidate for the bioremediation of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) and sulphate-laden water. PMID:25752632

  17. Directed mutagenesis of an iron-sulfur protein of the photosystem I complex in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, R M; Whitmarsh, J; Nyman, P; Pakrasi, H B

    1991-01-01

    In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms the PSI-C polypeptide, encoded by the psaC gene, provides the ligands for two [4Fe-4S] centers, FA and FB, the terminal electron acceptors in the photosystem I (PSI) complex. An insertion mutation introduced in the psaC locus of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 resulted in the creation of a mutant strain, T398-1, that lacks the PSI-C polypeptide. In medium supplemented with 5 mM fructose, the mutant cells grew well in the dark. However, when grown in the same medium under light, the doubling rate of T398-1 cells was significantly decreased. In intact cells of T398-1, bicarbonate-dependent whole-chain electron transport (PSII and PSI) could not be detected, although partial electron transport reactions involving either one of the two photosystems could be measured at significant rates. The low-temperature EPR signals attributed to the [4Fe-4S] centers FA and FB were absent in the mutant cells. Chemical titration measurements indicated that the ratios of chlorophyll to the primary donor P700 were virtually identical in membranes from the wild-type and mutant cells. Moreover, room-temperature optical spectroscopic analysis of the thylakoid membranes isolated from T398-1 showed flash-induced P700 oxidation followed by dark rereduction, indicating primary photochemistry in PSI. Thus stable assembly of the reaction center of PSI can occur in the absence of the Fe-S cluster cofactors FA and FB. These studies demonstrate that Anabaena 29413 offers a useful genetic system for targeted mutagenesis of the PSI complex. Images PMID:1658798

  18. Glutamate production from CO{sub 2} by marine cyanobacterium synechococcus sp. using a novel biosolar reactor employing light-diffusing optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Takeyama, Haruko; Sudo, Hiroaki [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan)] [and others

    1991-12-31

    A photobioreactor was constructed in the form of a Perspex column 900 mm tall with an internal diameter of 70 mm. The reactor volume was 1.8 L and the light source consisted of a metal-halide lamp to reproduce sunlight. Light was distributed through the culture using a new type of optical fiber that diffuses light out through its surface, perpendicular to the fiber axis. A cluster of 661 light-diffusing optical fibers (LDOFs) pass from the light source through the reactor column (60-cm culture depth) and are connected to a mirror at the top of the reactor. This biosolar reactor has been used for the production of glutamate from CO{sub 2} by the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. NKBG040607. We present here details of the construction of the biosolar reactor and characterization of its properties. The effect of light intensity on glutamate production was measured. Carbon dioxide-to-glutarnate conversion ratios were determined at different cell densities: the maximum conversion ratio (28%) was achieved at a cell density of 3{times}10{sup 8} cells/mL. A comparison of glutamate production using the LDOF biosolar reactor described here with production by batch culture using free or immobilized cells showed that use of an optical-fiber biosolar reactor increased glutamate-production efficiency 6.75-fold. We conclude that as a result of its high surface-to-volume ratio (692/m) increased photoproduction of useful compounds may be achieved. Such a system is generally applicable to all aspects of photobiotechnology.

  19. Transcriptional and translational regulation of nitrogenase in light-dark- and continuous-light-grown cultures of the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142.

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, M S; Sherman, D M; Sherman, L A

    1997-01-01

    Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 is a unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium which demonstrated extensive metabolic periodicities of photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen fixation when grown under N2-fixing conditions. N2 fixation and respiration peaked at 24-h intervals early in the dark or subjective-dark period, whereas photosynthesis was approximately 12 h out of phase and peaked toward the end of the light or subjective-light phase. Gene regulation studies demonstrated that nitrogenase is carefully controlled at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Indeed, Cyanothece sp. strain ATCC 51142 has developed an expensive mode of regulation, such that nitrogenase was synthesized and degraded each day. These patterns were seen when cells were grown under either light-dark or continuous-light conditions. Nitrogenase mRNA was synthesized from the nifHDK operon during the first 4 h of the dark period under light-dark conditions or during the first 6 h of the subjective-dark period when grown in continuous light. The nitrogenase NifH and NifDK subunits reached a maximum level at 4 to 10 h in the dark or subjective-dark periods and were shown by Western blotting and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry to be thoroughly degraded toward the end of the dark periods. An exception is the NifDK protein (MoFe-protein), which appeared not to be completely degraded under continuous-light conditions. We hypothesize that cellular O2 levels were kept low by decreasing photosynthesis and by increasing respiration in the early dark or subjective-dark periods to permit nitrogenase activity. The subsequent increase in O2 levels resulted in nitrogenase damage and eventual degradation. PMID:9209050

  20. Effect of Metal Cations on the Viscosity of a Pectin-Like Capsular Polysaccharide from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D. L.; Schram, B. R.; Plude, J. L.; Moore, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of purified capsular polysaccharide from the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae C3-40 were examined by capillary viscometry. Capsule suspensions exhibited similar viscosities between pH 6 and 10 but were more viscous at pH <=4 than at pH 6 to 11. At pH 7, a biphasic effect of metal ion concentration on capsule viscosity was observed: (i) capsule viscosity increased with increasing metal ion concentration until a maximal viscosity occurred at a specific concentration that was a reproducible characteristic of each metal ion, and (ii) the viscosity decreased with further addition of that ion. Because the latter part of the biphasic curve was complicated by additional factors (especially the precipitation or gelation of capsule by divalent metal ions), the effects of various metal chlorides were compared for the former phase in which capsule viscosity increased in the presence of metal ions. Equivalent increases in capsule viscosity were observed with micromolar concentrations of divalent metal ions but only with 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of Na(sup+). The relative abilities of various metal salts to increase capsule viscosity were as follows: CdCl(inf2), Pb(NO(inf3))(inf2), FeCl(inf2) > MnCl(inf2) > CuCl(inf2), CaCl(inf2) >> NaCl. This pattern of metal efficacy resembles known cation influences on the structural integrity of capsule in naturally occurring and cultured M. flos-aquae colonies. The data are the first direct demonstration of an interaction between metal ions and purified M. flos-aquae capsule, which has previously been proposed to play a role in the environmental cycling of certain multivalent metals, especially manganese. The M. flos-aquae capsule and the plant polysaccharide pectin have similar sugar compositions but differ in their relative responses to various metals, suggesting that capsular polysaccharide could be a preferable alternative to pectin for certain biotechnological applications. PMID:16535287

  1. Electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance studies of flavoproteins involved in the photosynthetic electron transport in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7119.

    PubMed

    Medina, M; Gomez-Moreno, C; Cammack, R

    1995-01-15

    The flavins of ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) and flavodoxin from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 were obtained in their semiquinone states at pH 7 by photoreduction of the pure proteins in the presence of EDTA and 5-deazariboflavin. For FNR, the ESR signal of the FAD semiquinone was centred at g = 2.005 with linewidths 2.0 mT in H2O and 1.48 mT in D2O. These data are in agreement with those reported for other neutral flavin semiquinones. The linewidths were the same when measured either at X-band (9.35 GHz) or at S-band (4 GHz), indicating that line broadening is due to unresolved nuclear hyperfine couplings, caused in part by exchangeable protons. When the substrate, NADP+, was added to the semiquinone form of the protein no changes in the linewidth or shape of the spectra were detected, but a decrease in the ESR signal due to the FNR semiquinone was observed, consistent with the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH by reduced FNR and, subsequent displacement of the equilibrium. No changes in the shape or linewidth of the FNR ESR signals were observed when photoreduction of FNR was performed in the presence of either flavodoxin or ferredoxin. Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy of FNR semiquinone from Anabaena PCC 7119 provided further information about the interactions of the flavin radical with protons. A group of signals, with couplings of 5-9.5 MHz, is attributed to protons on C6 and on 8-CH3 of the flavin ring. No change in these hyperfine couplings was detected when the protein was studied in D2O, but the coupling Aiso attributed to protons on 8-CH3 decreased from 8.12 MHz to 7.72 MHz in the presence of NADP+. The decrease in the electron spin density distribution on this part of the flavin ring system was attributed to binding of the substrate, polarising the electron density distribution of the flavin towards the pyrimidine ring. A second group of signals was observed, with hyperfine couplings less than 3 MHz, some of which disappeared when the protein was transferred into D2O. Effects of NADP+ binding to the protein were also observed in these weak couplings. These signals are attributed to displaced water protons, or to exchangeable protons from amino acid residues on the protein near the flavin-binding site, involved in substrate stabilization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7851433

  2. Extracellular polymeric substances buffer against the biocidal effect of H2O2 on the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Lee, Duu-Jong; Halik, Umut

    2015-02-01

    H2O2 is an emerging biocide for bloom-forming cyanobacteria. It is important to investigate the H2O2 scavenging ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of cyanobacteria because EPS with strong antioxidant activity may "waste" considerable amounts of H2O2 before it kills the cells. In this study, the buffering capacity against H2O2 of EPS from the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated. IC50 values for the ability of EPS and vitamin C (VC) to scavenge 50% of the initial H2O2 concentration were 0.097 and 0.28 mg mL(-1), respectively, indicating the higher H2O2 scavenging activity of EPS than VC. Both proteins and polysaccharides are significantly decomposed by H2O2 and the polysaccharides were more readily decomposed than proteins. H2O2 consumed by the EPS accounted for 50% of the total amount of H2O2 consumed by the cells. Cell growth and photosynthesis were reduced more for EPS-free cells than EPS coated cells when the cells were treated with 0.1 or 0.2 mg mL(-1) H2O2, and the maximum photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm of EPS coated cells recovered to higher values than EPS-free cells. Concentrations of H2O2 above 0.3 mg mL(-1) completely inhibited photosynthesis and no recovery was observed for both EPS-free and EPS coated cells. This shows that EPS has some buffering capacity against the killing effect of H2O2 on cyanobacterial cells. Such a strong H2O2 scavenging ability of EPS is not favorable for killing bloom-forming cyanobacteria. The high H2O2 scavenging capacity means considerable amounts of H2O2 have to be used to break through the EPS barrier before H2O2 exerts any killing effects on the cells. It is therefore necessary to determine the H2O2 scavenging capacity of the EPS of various bloom-forming cyanobacteria so that the cost-effective amount of H2O2 needed to be used for killing the cyanobacteria can be estimated. PMID:25463931

  3. LexA protein of cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 exhibits in vitro pH-dependent and RecA-independent autoproteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Kirti, Anurag; Rajaram, Hema

    2015-02-01

    The LexA protein of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120 exhibits a RecA-independent and alkaline pH-dependent autoproteolytic cleavage. The autoproteolytic cleavage of Anabaena LexA occurs at pH 8.5 and above, stimulated by the addition of Ca(2+) and in the temperature range of 30-57°C. Mutational analysis of Anabaena LexA protein indicated that the cleavage occurred at the peptide bond between Ala-84 and Gly-85, and optimal cleavage required the presence of Ser-118 and Lys-159, as also observed for LexA protein of Escherichia coli. Cleavage of Anabaena LexA was affected upon deletion of three amino acids, (86)GLI. These three amino acids are unique to all cyanobacterial LexA proteins predicted to be cleavable. The absence of RecA-dependent cleavage at physiological pH, which has not been reported for other bacterial LexA proteins, is possibly due to the absence of RecA interacting sites on Anabaena LexA protein, corresponding to the residues identified in E. coli LexA, and low cellular levels of RecA in Anabaena. Exposure to SOS-response inducing stresses, such as UV-B and mitomycin C neither affected the expression of LexA in Anabaena nor induced cleavage of LexA in either Anabaena 7120 or E. coli overexpressing Anabaena LexA protein. Though the LexA may be acting as a repressor by binding to the LexA box in the vicinity of the promoter region of specific gene, their derepression may not be via proteolytic cleavage during SOS-inducing stresses, unless the stress induces increase in cytoplasmic pH. This could account for the regulation of several carbon metabolism genes rather than DNA-repair genes under the regulation of LexA in cyanobacteria especially during high light induced oxidative stress. PMID:25523083

  4. Differences in the Interactions between the Subunits of Photosystem II Dependent on D1 Protein Variants in the Thermophilic Cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus*

    PubMed Central

    Sugiura, Miwa; Iwai, Eri; Hayashi, Hidenori; Boussac, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The main cofactors involved in the oxygen evolution activity of Photosystem II (PSII) are located in two proteins, D1 (PsbA) and D2 (PsbD). In Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, the D1 protein is encoded by either the psbA1 or the psbA3 gene, the expression of which is dependent on environmental conditions. It has been shown that the energetic properties of the PsbA1-PSII and those of the PsbA3-PSII differ significantly (Sugiura, M., Kato, Y., Takahashi, R., Suzuki, H., Watanabe, T., Noguchi, T., Rappaport, F., and Boussac, A. (2010) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1797, 1491–1499). In this work the structural stability of PSII upon a PsbA1/PsbA3 exchange was investigated. Two deletion mutants lacking another PSII subunit, PsbJ, were constructed in strains expressing either PsbA1 or PsbA3. The PsbJ subunit is a 4-kDa transmembrane polypeptide that is surrounded by D1 (i.e. PsbA1), PsbK, and cytochrome b559 (Cyt b559) in existing three-dimensional models. It is shown that the structural properties of the PsbA3/?PsbJ-PSII are not significantly affected. The polypeptide contents, the Cyt b559 properties, and the proportion of PSII dimer were similar to those found for PsbA3-PSII. In contrast, in PsbA1/?PsbJ-PSII the stability of the dimer is greatly diminished, the EPR properties of the Cyt b559 likely indicates a decrease in its redox potential, and many other PSII subunits are lacking. These results shows that the 21-amino acid substitutions between PsbA1 and PsbA3, which appear to be mainly conservative, must include side chains that are involved in a network of interactions between PsbA and the other PSII subunits. PMID:20630865

  5. Toxicities of four anti-neoplastic drugs and their binary mixtures tested on the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis.

    PubMed

    Brezovšek, Polona; Eleršek, Tina; Filipi?, Metka

    2014-04-01

    The residues of anti-neoplastic drugs are new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. This is not only because of their increasing use, but also because due to their mechanisms of action, they belong to a group of particularly dangerous compounds. However, information on their ecotoxicological properties is very limited. We tested the toxicities of four anti-neoplastic drugs with different mechanisms of action (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], cisplatin [CDDP], etoposide [ET], and imatinib mesylate [IM]), and some of their binary mixtures, against two phytoplankton species: the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis. These four drugs showed different toxic potential, and the two species examined also showed differences in their susceptibilities towards the tested drugs and their mixtures. With P. subcapitata, the most toxic of these drugs was 5-FU (EC50, 0.13 mg/L), followed by CDDP (EC50, 1.52 mg/L), IM (EC50, 2.29 mg/L), and the least toxic, ET (EC50, 30.43 mg/L). With S. leopoliensis, the most toxic was CDDP (EC50, 0.67 mg/L), followed by 5-FU (EC50, 1.20 mg/L) and IM (EC50, 5.36 mg/L), while ET was not toxic up to 351 mg/L. The toxicities of the binary mixtures tested (5-FU + CDDP, 5-FU + IM, CDDP + ET) were predicted by the concepts of 'concentration addition' and 'independent action', and are compared to the experimentally determined toxicities. The measured toxicity of 5-FU + CDDP with P. subcapitata and S. leopoliensis was higher than that predicted, while the measured toxicity of CDDP + ET with both species was lower than that predicted. The measured toxicity of 5-FU + IM with P. subcapitata was higher, and with S. leopoliensis was lower, than that predicted. These data show that these mixtures can have compound-specific and species-specific synergistic or antagonistic effects, and they suggest that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient for the prediction of the aquatic toxicities of such anticancer drug mixtures. PMID:24472702

  6. Stability of toxin gene proportion in red-pigmented populations of the cyanobacterium Planktothrix during 29 years of re-oligotrophication of Lake Zürich

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Harmful algal blooms deteriorate the services of aquatic ecosystems. They are often formed by cyanobacteria composed of genotypes able to produce a certain toxin, for example, the hepatotoxin microcystin (MC), but also of nontoxic genotypes that either carry mutations in the genes encoding toxin synthesis or that lost those genes during evolution. In general, cyanobacterial blooms are favored by eutrophication. Very little is known about the stability of the toxic/nontoxic genotype composition during trophic change. Results Archived samples of preserved phytoplankton on filters from aquatic ecosystems that underwent changes in the trophic state provide a so far unrealized possibility to analyze the response of toxic/nontoxic genotype composition to the environment. During a period of 29 years of re-oligotrophication of the deep, physically stratified Lake Zürich (1980 to 2008), the population of the stratifying cyanobacterium Planktothrix was at a minimum during the most eutrophic years (1980 to 1984), but increased and dominated the phytoplankton during the past two decades. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that during the whole observation period the proportion of the toxic genotype was strikingly stable, that is, close to 100%. Inactive MC genotypes carrying mutations within the MC synthesis genes never became abundant. Unexpectedly, a nontoxic genotype, which lost its MC genes during evolution, and which could be shown to be dominant under eutrophic conditions in shallow polymictic lakes, also co-occurred in Lake Zürich but was never abundant. As it is most likely that this nontoxic genotype contains relatively weak gas vesicles unable to withstand the high water pressure in deep lakes, it is concluded that regular deep mixing selectively reduced its abundance through the destruction of gas vesicles. Conclusions The stability in toxic genotype dominance gives evidence for the adaptation to deep mixing of a genotype that retained the MC gene cluster during evolution. Such a long-term dominance of a toxic genotype draws attention to the need to integrate phylogenetics into ecological research as well as ecosystem management. PMID:23216925

  7. Genetic evidence of a major role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in nitrogen fixation and dark growth of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain ATCC 29133.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, M L; Wallis, J G; Campbell, E L; Meeks, J C

    1995-01-01

    Heterocysts, sites of nitrogen fixation in certain filamentous cyanobacteria, are limited to a heterotrophic metabolism, rather than the photoautotrophic metabolism characteristic of cyanobacterial vegetative cells. The metabolic route of carbon catabolism in the supply of reductant to nitrogenase and for respiratory electron transport in heterocysts is unresolved. The gene (zwf) encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the initial enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, was inactivated in the heterocyst-forming, facultatively heterotrophic cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. strain ATCC 29133. The zwf mutant strain had less than 5% of the wild-type apparent G6PD activity, while retaining wild-type rates of photoautotrophic growth with NH4+ and of dark O2 uptake, but it failed to grow either under N2-fixing conditions or in the dark with organic carbon sources. A wild-type copy of zwf in trans in the zwf mutant strain restored only 25% of the G6PD specific activity, but the defective N2 fixation and dark growth phenotypes were nearly completely complemented. Transcript analysis established that zwf is in an operon also containing genes encoding two other enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and transaldolase, as well as a previously undescribed gene (designated opcA) that is cotranscribed with zwf. Inactivation of opcA yielded a growth phenotype identical to that of the zwf mutant, including a 98% decrease, relative to the wild type, in apparent G6PD specific activity. The growth phenotype and lesion of G6PD activity in the opcA mutant were complemented in trans with a wild-type copy of opcA. In addition, placement in trans of a multicopy plasmid containing the wild-type copies of both zwf and opcA in the zwf mutant resulted in an approximately 20-fold stimulation of G6PD activity, relative to the wild type, complete restoration of nitrogenase activity, and a slight stimulation of N2-dependent photoautotrophic growth and fructose-supported dark growth. These results unequivocally establish that G6PD, and most likely the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, represents the essential catabolic route for providing reductant for nitrogen fixation and respiration in differentiated heterocysts and for dark growth of vegetative cells. Moreover, the opcA gene product is involved by an as yet unknown mechanism in G6PD synthesis or catalytic activity. PMID:7592384

  8. Simultaneous production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in closed vessels by marine cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. TU37-1 under high-cell-density conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, Shuzo; Asakawa, Hidenori [Tokai Univ., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1995-05-20

    A marine cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. TU37-1, exhibited stable production of hydrogen and oxygen in closed vessels. About 8.4 and 4.3 mL (at atmospheric pressure) of hydrogen and oxygen accumulated, respectively, in flasks with 20 mL gas phase during 48 h incubation. Thus, concentration of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} became 26 and 13% of the gas phase, respectively. Duration of hydrogen production was prolonged by the periodic gas replacement in the reaction vessel. The conversion efficiencies of photosynthetically active radiation (fluorescent light, 22 W/m{sup 2}) to hydrogen were 2.4 and 2.2% during the initial 12- and 24-h incubation periods respectively.

  9. The putative eukaryote-like O-GlcNAc transferase of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 hydrolyzes UDP-GlcNAc and is involved in multiple cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Kerry A; Olszewski, Neil E

    2015-01-01

    The posttranslational addition of a single O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine or threonine residues regulates numerous metazoan cellular processes. The enzyme responsible for this modification, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), is conserved among a wide variety of organisms and is critical for the viability of many eukaryotes. Although OGTs with domain structures similar to those of eukaryotic OGTs are predicted for many bacterial species, the cellular roles of these OGTs are unknown. We have identified a putative OGT in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 that shows active-site homology and similar domain structure to eukaryotic OGTs. An OGT deletion mutant was created and found to exhibit several phenotypes. Without agitation, mutant cells aggregate and settle out of the medium. The mutant cells have higher free inorganic phosphate levels, wider thylakoid lumen, and differential accumulation of electron-dense inclusion bodies. These phenotypes are rescued by reintroduction of the wild-type OGT but are not fully rescued by OGTs with single amino acid substitutions corresponding to mutations that reduce eukaryotic OGT activity. S. elongatus OGT purified from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed the sugar donor, UDP-GlcNAc, while the mutant OGTs that did not fully rescue the deletion mutant phenotypes had reduced or no activity. These results suggest that bacterial eukaryote-like OGTs, like their eukaryotic counterparts, influence multiple processes. PMID:25384478

  10. Mutation of sepJ reduces the intercellular signal range of a hetN-dependent paracrine signal, but not of a patS-dependent signal, in the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Orion S; Videau, Patrick; Callahan, Sean M

    2014-12-01

    Formation and maintenance of a periodic pattern of nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts by the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 is dependent on regulators encoded by patS and hetN. In this study, genetic mosaic filaments that consisted of cells engineered to produce one of the developmental regulators flanked by target cells capable of reporting the activity of the developmental regulator were used to investigate the intercellular movement of patS- and hetN-dependent activity. We provide evidence that hetN encodes a paracrine signal with a signal range of several cells. The signal that moved between cells did not include the C-terminus of the annotated HetN protein as indicated by similar signal ranges from source cells expressing either hetN-YFP or hetN alone, despite a lack of intercellular exchange of the HetN-YFP fusion protein. Deletion of sepJ, which has been shown to encode a component of intercellular channels, caused a significant decrease in the signal range of hetN expressed from source cells but not of patS. These results are consistent with symplastic transport of a paracrine hetN-dependent signal between vegetative cells of Anabaena. PMID:25336355

  11. Bower destruction and sexual competition in the satin bowerbird ( Ptilonorhynchus violaceus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Borgia

    1985-01-01

    Male satin bowerbirds often destroy the bowers of other males. Bowers are a key element in male sexual display and their destruction represents a unique pattern of sexual competition. For two mating seasons bowers of displaying males were continously monitored to produce a complete record of bower destructions. The number of destructions at bowers and the amount of destruction of

  12. Dynamic mate-searching tactic allows female satin bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus violaceus to reduce searching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. C. Uy; G. L. Patricelli; G. Borgia

    2000-01-01

    Females can maximize the bene˘ts of mate choice by ˘nding high-quality mates while using search tactics that limit the costs of searching for mates. Mate-searching models indicate that speci˘c search tactics would best optimize this trade-oˇ under diˇerent conditions. These models do not, however, consider that females may use information from previous years to improve mate searching and reduce search

  13. Male satin bowerbirds, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus, adjust their display intensity in response to female startling

    E-print Network

    Patricelli, Gail

    ), but models of sexual selection generally characterize males as having a single trait value (Lande 1981 (West & King 1988; Balsby & Dabels- teen 2002; Meffert & Regan 2002; Patricelli 2002; Patricelli et al

  14. A Pair of Iron-Responsive Genes Encoding Protein Kinases with a Ser/Thr Kinase Domain and a His Kinase Domain Are Regulated by NtcA in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yong; Li, Jian-Hong; Shi, Lei; Wang, Li; Latifi, Amel; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N2 when combined nitrogen is not available in the growth medium. It has a family of 13 genes encoding proteins with both a Ser/Thr kinase domain and a His kinase domain. The function of these enzymes is unknown. Two of them are encoded by pkn41 (alr0709) and pkn42 (alr0710). These two genes are separated by only 72 bp on the chromosome, and our results indicate that they are cotranscribed. The expression of pkn41 and pkn42 is induced by iron deprivation irrespective of the nature of the nitrogen source. Mutants inactivating either pkn41, pkn42, or both grow similarly to the wild type under normal conditions, but their growth is impaired either in the presence of an iron chelator or under conditions of nitrogen fixation and iron limitation, two situations where the demand for iron is particularly strong. Consistent with these results, these mutants display lower iron content than the wild type and a higher level of expression for nifJ1 and nifJ2, which encode pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases. Both nifJ1 and nifJ2 are known to be induced by iron limitation. NtcA, a global regulatory factor for different metabolic pathways, binds to the putative promoter region of pkn41, and the induction of pkn41 in response to iron limitation no longer occurs in an ntcA mutant. Our results suggest that ntcA not only regulates the expression of genes involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism but also coordinates iron acquisition and nitrogen metabolism by activating the expression of pkn41 and pkn42. PMID:16788191

  15. A pair of iron-responsive genes encoding protein kinases with a Ser/Thr kinase domain and a His kinase domain are regulated by NtcA in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yong; Li, Jian-Hong; Shi, Lei; Wang, Li; Latifi, Amel; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-07-01

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N(2) when combined nitrogen is not available in the growth medium. It has a family of 13 genes encoding proteins with both a Ser/Thr kinase domain and a His kinase domain. The function of these enzymes is unknown. Two of them are encoded by pkn41 (alr0709) and pkn42 (alr0710). These two genes are separated by only 72 bp on the chromosome, and our results indicate that they are cotranscribed. The expression of pkn41 and pkn42 is induced by iron deprivation irrespective of the nature of the nitrogen source. Mutants inactivating either pkn41, pkn42, or both grow similarly to the wild type under normal conditions, but their growth is impaired either in the presence of an iron chelator or under conditions of nitrogen fixation and iron limitation, two situations where the demand for iron is particularly strong. Consistent with these results, these mutants display lower iron content than the wild type and a higher level of expression for nifJ1 and nifJ2, which encode pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductases. Both nifJ1 and nifJ2 are known to be induced by iron limitation. NtcA, a global regulatory factor for different metabolic pathways, binds to the putative promoter region of pkn41, and the induction of pkn41 in response to iron limitation no longer occurs in an ntcA mutant. Our results suggest that ntcA not only regulates the expression of genes involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism but also coordinates iron acquisition and nitrogen metabolism by activating the expression of pkn41 and pkn42. PMID:16788191

  16. The Outer Membrane TolC-like Channel HgdD Is Part of Tripartite Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) Efflux Systems Conferring Multiple-drug Resistance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120*

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander; Stevanovic, Mara; Mirus, Oliver; Lytvynenko, Iryna; Pos, Klaas Martinus; Schleiff, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The TolC-like protein HgdD of the filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is part of multiple three-component “AB-D” systems spanning the inner and outer membranes and is involved in secretion of various compounds, including lipids, metabolites, antibiotics, and proteins. Several components of HgdD-dependent tripartite transport systems have been identified, but the diversity of inner membrane energizing systems is still unknown. Here we identified six putative resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) type factors. Four of them are expressed during late exponential and stationary growth phase under normal growth conditions, whereas the other two are induced upon incubation with erythromycin or ethidium bromide. The constitutively expressed RND component Alr4267 has an atypical predicted topology, and a mutant strain (I-alr4267) shows a reduction in the content of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol as well as an altered filament shape. An insertion mutant of the ethidium bromide-induced all7631 did not show any significant phenotypic alteration under the conditions tested. Mutants of the constitutively expressed all3143 and alr1656 exhibited a Fox? phenotype. The phenotype of the insertion mutant I-all3143 parallels that of the I-hgdD mutant with respect to antibiotic sensitivity, lipid profile, and ethidium efflux. In addition, expression of the RND genes all3143 and all3144 partially complements the capability of Escherichia coli ?acrAB to transport ethidium. We postulate that the RND transporter All3143 and the predicted membrane fusion protein All3144, as homologs of E. coli AcrB and AcrA, respectively, are major players for antibiotic resistance in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. PMID:24014018

  17. A line-scanning semi-confocal multi-photon fluorescence microscope with a simultaneous broadband spectral acquisition and its application to the study of the thylakoid membrane of a cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120.

    PubMed

    Kumazaki, Shigeichi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Ghoneim, Mohammad; Shimizu, Yugo; Okamoto, Kenji; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Oh-Oka, Hirozo; Terazima, Masahide

    2007-11-01

    We describe the construction and characterization of a laser-line-scanning microscope capable of detection of broad fluorescence spectra with a resolution of 1 nm. A near-infrared femtosecond pulse train at 800 nm was illuminated on a line (one lateral axis, denoted as X axis) in a specimen by a resonant scanning mirror oscillating at 7.9 kHz, and total multi-photon-induced fluorescence from the linear region was focused on the slit of an imaging polychromator. An electron-multiplying CCD camera was used to resolve fluorescence of different colours at different horizontal pixels and fluorescence of different spatial positions in a specimen at different vertical pixels. Scanning on the other two axes (Y and Z) was achieved by a closed-loop controlled sample scanning stage and a piezo-driven objective actuator. The full widths at half maximum of the point-spread function of the system were estimated to be 0.39-0.40, 0.33 and 0.56-0.59 mum for the X (lateral axis along the line-scan), Y (the other lateral axis) and Z axes (the axial direction), respectively, at fluorescence wavelengths between 644 and 690 nm. A biological application of this microscope was demonstrated in a study of the sub-cellular fluorescence spectra of thylakoid membranes in a cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC7120. It was found that the fluorescence intensity ratio between chlorophyll molecules mainly of photosystem II and phycobilin molecules of phycobilisome (chlorophyll/phycobilin), in the thylakoid membranes, became lower as one probed deeper inside the cells. This was attributable not to position dependence of re-absorption or scattering effects, but to an intrinsic change in the local physiological state of the thylakoid membrane, with the help of a transmission spectral measurement of sub-cellular domains. The efficiency of the new line-scanning spectromicroscope was estimated in comparison with our own point-by-point scanning spectromicroscope. Under typical conditions of observing cyanobacterial cells, the total exposure time became shorter by about 50 times for a constant excitation density. The improvement factor was proportional to the length of the line-scanned region, as expected. PMID:17970923

  18. Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Schriek, Sarah; Rückert, Christian; Staiger, Dorothee; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Michel, Klaus-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i) an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii) an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii) an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 ?mol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s) of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24 cyanobacterial genomes revealed that five different L-arginine-degrading pathways are present in the investigated cyanobacterial species. In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 an L-arginine deiminase pathway and an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway represent the major pathways, while the L-arginine decarboxylase pathway most likely only functions in polyamine biosynthesis. The transcripts encoding the enzymes of the two major pathways were constitutively expressed with the exception of the transcript for the carbamate kinase, which was substantially up-regulated in cells grown with L-arginine. PMID:18045455

  19. Poles Apart: Arctic and Antarctic Octadecabacter strains Share High Genome Plasticity and a New Type of Xanthorhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Vollmers, John; Voget, Sonja; Dietrich, Sascha; Gollnow, Kathleen; Smits, Maike; Meyer, Katja; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The genus Octadecabacter is a member of the ubiquitous marine Roseobacter clade. The two described species of this genus, Octadecabacter arcticus and Octadecabacter antarcticus, are psychrophilic and display a bipolar distribution. Here we provide the manually annotated and finished genome sequences of the type strains O. arcticus 238 and O. antarcticus 307, isolated from sea ice of the Arctic and Antarctic, respectively. Both genomes exhibit a high genome plasticity caused by an unusually high density and diversity of transposable elements. This could explain the discrepancy between the low genome synteny and high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between both strains. Numerous characteristic features were identified in the Octadecabacter genomes, which show indications of horizontal gene transfer and may represent specific adaptations to the habitats of the strains. These include a gene cluster encoding the synthesis and degradation of cyanophycin in O. arcticus 238, which is absent in O. antarcticus 307 and unique among the Roseobacter clade. Furthermore, genes representing a new subgroup of xanthorhodopsins as an adaptation to icy environments are present in both Octadecabacter strains. This new xanthorhodopsin subgroup differs from the previously characterized xanthorhodopsins of Salinibacter ruber and Gloeobacter violaceus in phylogeny, biogeography and the potential to bind 4-keto-carotenoids. Biochemical characterization of the Octadecabacter xanthorhodopsins revealed that they function as light-driven proton pumps. PMID:23671678

  20. NMR Structure and Dynamics of a Designed Water-soluble Transmembrane Domain of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Tanxing; Mowrey, David; Bondarenko, Vasyl; Tillman, Tommy; Ma, Dejian; Landrum, Elizabeth; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; He, Jing; Wang, Wei; Saven, Jeffery G.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important therapeutic target for a wide range of pathophysiological conditions, for which rational drug designs often require receptor structures at atomic resolution. Recent proof-of-concept studies demonstrated a water-solubilization approach to structure determination of membrane proteins by NMR (Slovic et al., PNAS, 101: 1828-1833, 2004; Ma et al., PNAS, 105: 16537-42, 2008). We report here the computational design and experimental characterization of WSA, a water-soluble protein with ?83% sequence identity to the transmembrane (TM) domain of the nAChR ?1 subunit. Although the design was based on a low-resolution structural template, the resulting high-resolution NMR structure agrees remarkably well with the recent crystal structure of the TM domains of the bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), demonstrating the robustness and general applicability of the approach. NMR T2 dispersion measurements showed that the TM2 domain of the designed protein was dynamic, undergoing conformational exchange on the NMR timescale. Photoaffinity labeling with isoflurane and propofol photolabels identified a common binding site in the immediate proximity of the anesthetic binding site found in the crystal structure of the anesthetic-GLIC complex. Our results illustrate the usefulness of high-resolution NMR analyses of water-solubilized channel proteins for the discovery of potential drug binding sites. PMID:22155685

  1. Functional validation of virtual screening for novel agents with general anesthetic action at ligand-gated ion channels.

    PubMed

    Heusser, Stephanie A; Howard, Rebecca J; Borghese, Cecilia M; Cullins, Madeline A; Broemstrup, Torben; Lee, Ui S; Lindahl, Erik; Carlsson, Jens; Harris, R Adron

    2013-11-01

    GABA(A) receptors play a crucial role in the actions of general anesthetics. The recently published crystal structure of the general anesthetic propofol bound to Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), a bacterial homolog of GABA(A) receptors, provided an opportunity to explore structure-based ligand discovery for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). We used molecular docking of 153,000 commercially available compounds to identify molecules that interact with the propofol binding site in GLIC. In total, 29 compounds were selected for functional testing on recombinant GLIC, and 16 of these compounds modulated GLIC function. Active compounds were also tested on recombinant GABA(A) receptors, and point mutations around the presumed binding pocket were introduced into GLIC and GABA(A) receptors to test for binding specificity. The potency of active compounds was only weakly correlated with properties such as lipophilicity or molecular weight. One compound was found to mimic the actions of propofol on GLIC and GABA(A), and to be sensitive to mutations that reduce the action of propofol in both receptors. Mutant receptors also provided insight about the position of the binding sites and the relevance of the receptor's conformation for anesthetic actions. Overall, the findings support the feasibility of the use of virtual screening to discover allosteric modulators of pLGICs, and suggest that GLIC is a valid model system to identify novel GABA(A) receptor ligands. PMID:23950219

  2. Experimental determination of the vertical alignment between the second and third transmembrane segments of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mnatsakanyan, Nelli; Jansen, Michaela

    2013-06-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are members of the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Muscle nAChR are heteropentamers that assemble from two ?, and one each of ?, ?, and ? subunits. Each subunit is composed of three domains, extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular. The transmembrane domain consists of four ?-helical segments (M1-M4). Pioneering structural information was obtained using electronmicroscopy of Torpedo nAChR. The recently solved X-ray structure of the first eukaryotic Cys-loop receptor, a truncated (intracellular domain missing) glutamate-gated chloride channel ? (GluCl?) showed the same overall architecture. However, a significant difference with regard to the vertical alignment between the channel-lining segment M2 and segment M3 was observed. Here, we used functional studies utilizing disulfide trapping experiments in muscle nAChR to determine the spatial orientation between M2 and M3. Our results are in agreement with the vertical alignment as obtained when using the GluCl? structure as a template to homology model muscle nAChR, however, they cannot be reconciled with the current Torpedo nAChR model. The vertical M2-M3 alignments as observed in X-ray structures of prokaryotic Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel and GluCl? are in agreement. Our results further confirm that this alignment in Cys-loop receptors is conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:23565737

  3. Structural basis for potentiation by alcohols and anaesthetics in a ligand-gated ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Sauguet, Ludovic; Howard, Rebecca J.; Malherbe, Laurie; Lee, Ui S.; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Harris, R. Adron; Delarue, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol alters nerve signalling by interacting with proteins in the central nervous system, particularly pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. A recent series of mutagenesis experiments on Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel, a prokaryotic member of this family, identified a single-site variant that is potentiated by pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Here we determine crystal structures of the ethanol-sensitized variant in the absence and presence of ethanol and related modulators, which bind in a transmembrane cavity between channel subunits and may stabilize the open form of the channel. Structural and mutagenesis studies defined overlapping mechanisms of potentiation by alcohols and anaesthetics via the inter-subunit cavity. Furthermore, homology modelling show this cavity to be conserved in human ethanol-sensitive glycine and GABA(A) receptors, and to involve residues previously shown to influence alcohol and anaesthetic action on these proteins. These results suggest a common structural basis for ethanol potentiation of an important class of targets for neurological actions of ethanol. PMID:23591864

  4. Phosphorus physiology of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium

    E-print Network

    Orchard, Elizabeth Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Primary producers play a critical role in the oceanic food chain and the global cycling of carbon. The marine diazotroph Trichodesmium is a major contributor to both primary production and nitrogen fixation in the tropical ...

  5. Assessment of Homology Templates and an Anesthetic Binding Site within the ?-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bertaccini, Edward J.; Yoluk, Ozge; Lindahl, Erik R.; Trudell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anesthetics mediate portions of their activity via modulation of the ?-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAaR). While its molecular structure remains unknown, significant progress has been made towards understanding its interactions with anesthetics via molecular modeling. Methods The structure of the torpedo acetylcholine receptor (nAChR?), the structures of the ?4 and ?2 subunits of the human nAChR, the structures of the eukaryotic glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl), and the prokaryotic pH sensing channels, from Gloeobacter violaceus and Erwinia chrysanthemi, were aligned with the SAlign and 3DMA algorithms. A multiple sequence alignment from these structures and those of the GABAaR was performed with ClustalW. The Modeler and Rosetta algorithms independently created three-dimensional constructs of the GABAaR from the GluCl template. The CDocker algorithm docked a congeneric series of propofol derivatives into the binding pocket and scored calculated binding affinities for correlation with known GABAaR potentiation EC50’s. Results Multiple structure alignments of templates revealed a clear consensus of residue locations relevant to anesthetic effects except for torpedo nAChR. Within the GABAaR models generated from GluCl, the residues notable for modulating anesthetic action within transmembrane segments 1, 2, and 3 converged on the intersubunit interface between alpha and beta subunits. Docking scores of a propofol derivative series into this binding site showed strong linear correlation with GABAaR potentiation EC50. Conclusion Consensus structural alignment based on homologous templates revealed an intersubunit anesthetic binding cavity within the transmembrane domain of the GABAaR, which showed correlation of ligand docking scores with experimentally measured GABAaR potentiation. PMID:23770602

  6. Photoaffinity Labeling the Propofol Binding Site in GLIC†

    PubMed Central

    Chiara, David C.; Gill, Jonathan F.; Chen, Qiang; Tillman, Tommy; Dailey, William P.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei; Cohen, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic, produces many of its anesthetic effects in vivo by potentiating the responses of GABA type A receptors (GABAAR), members of the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) that contain anion-selective channels. Propofol also inhibits pLGICs containing cation-selective channels, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GLIC, a prokaryotic proton-gated homolog from Gloeobacter violaceus. In the structure of GLIC co-crystallized with propofol at pH 4 (presumed open/desensitized states), propofol was localized to an intrasubunit pocket at the extracellular end of the transmembrane domain within the bundle of transmembrane ?-helices [Nury, H, et. al. (2011) Nature 469, 428–431]. To identify propofol binding sites in GLIC in solution, we used a recently developed photoreactive propofol analog (2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol or AziPm) which acts as an anesthetic in vivo and potentiates GABAAR in vitro. For GLIC expressed in Xenopus oocytes, propofol and AziPm inhibited current responses at pH 5.5 (EC20) with IC50s of 20 and 50 ?M, respectively. When [3H]AziPm (7 ?M) was used to photolabel detergent-solubilized, affinity-purified GLIC at pH 4.4, protein microsequencing identified propofol-inhibitable photolabeling of three residues in the GLIC transmembrane domain: Met-205, Tyr-254, and Asn-307 in the M1, M3, and M4 transmembrane helices, respectively. Thus, in GLIC in solution, propofol and AziPm bind competitively to a site in proximity to these residues, which in the GLIC crystal structure are in contact with the propofol bound in the intrasubunit pocket. PMID:24341978

  7. Length of the TM3-4 loop of the glycine receptor modulates receptor desensitization.

    PubMed

    Langlhofer, G; Janzen, D; Meiselbach, Heike; Villmann, C

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies on the molecular determinants important for glycine receptor biogenesis and function mechanisms indicate an important role of basic residues within the intracellular loop between transmembrane domains (TM) 3 and 4. We investigate the role of loop length and loop exchange in combination with the presence or absence of basic stretches (318)RRKRR and (385)KKIDK of the human glycine receptor ?1 using expression in transfected cell lines. Exchanges of the large intracellular loop between members of the Cys-loop receptor family have been shown to keep functionality of the host receptor. Here, constructs were generated with deletion of the intracellular loop of the glycine receptor ?1, insertion of the loop from the prokaryotic Cys-loop receptor of Gloeobacter violaceus both with and without leaving the basic stretches at the N-terminal and C-terminal part of the intracellular domain. All receptor constructs were expressed at the cell surface with the significantly lowest expression of the construct with a deletion of the glycine receptor ?1 TM3-4 loop, except the two basic stretches adjoined. Functionality of the inhibitory glycine receptor chimeras was demonstrated with whole cell recordings from transfected cells. Chimeras lacking the basic stretches result in non-functionality. An analysis of receptor desensitization demonstrated that close proximity of both basic stretches resulted in large fractions of desensitizing currents. We conclude that the TM3-4 loop length is critical for glycine receptor ?1 desensitization and a direct neighborhood of both basic stretches changes receptor properties from non-desensitizing to desensitizing. PMID:26079326

  8. A gating mechanism of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Calimet, Nicolas; Simoes, Manuel; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Karplus, Martin; Taly, Antoine; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) play a central role in intercellular communication in the nervous system and are involved in fundamental processes such as attention, learning, and memory. They are oligomeric protein assemblies that convert a chemical signal into an ion flux through the postsynaptic membrane, but the molecular mechanism of gating ions has remained elusive. Here, we present atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the prokaryotic channels from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC), whose crystal structures are thought to represent the active and the resting states of pLGICs, respectively, and of the eukaryotic glutamate-gated chloride channel from Caenorhabditis elegans (GluCl), whose open-channel structure was determined complexed with the positive allosteric modulator ivermectin. Structural observables extracted from the trajectories of GLIC and ELIC are used as progress variables to analyze the time evolution of GluCl, which was simulated in the absence of ivermectin starting from the structure with bound ivermectin. The trajectory of GluCl with ivermectin removed shows a sequence of structural events that couple agonist unbinding from the extracellular domain to ion-pore closing in the transmembrane domain. Based on these results, we propose a structural mechanism for the allosteric communication leading to deactivation/activation of the GluCl channel. This model of gating emphasizes the coupling between the quaternary twisting and the opening/closing of the ion pore and is likely to apply to other members of the pLGIC family. PMID:24043807

  9. Bioproduction of antimicrobial compounds by using marine filamentous cyanobacterium cultivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson H. Caicedo; Birgit Heyduck-Söller; Ulrich Fischer; Jorg Thöming

    The synthesis of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity, excreted by marine cyanobacteria, strongly depends on their\\u000a growth conditions. Due to the wide variety of biomolecules which could show properties as growth inhibitors and their low\\u000a concentrations within the culture medium, the activity of their crude extracts also seems to be related to the extraction\\u000a method used. Using the marine filamentous

  10. Functional genomics of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 

    E-print Network

    Chen, You

    2009-05-15

    , and 3) to determine the complete genome sequence. In cooperation with the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), the genome sequence has been finalized using a combination of JGI shotgun sequences and our transposon-mediated sequences, which greatly...

  11. Mass Appearance of Cyanobacterium Planktothrix rubescens in Lake Piaseczno, Poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANUTA KRUPA; KRZYSZTOF CZERNAS

    In 1989, Lake Piaseczno, Poland, exhibited a mass appearance of Planktothrix rubescens. During this time the pelagic and littoral areas exhibited significant increases in areal primary production (400 and 41 mg C m-2 h-1, respectively), chlorophyll a (100 and 6.9 mg m-2, respectively) and assimilation number (4 and 5.9 mg C m-2 h-1\\/mg chla m-2, respectively). After the water bloom

  12. Salt Tolerance and Polyphyly in the Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Pleurocapsales)1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumbers, John Robert; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2014-01-01

    Chroococcidiopsis Geitler (Geitler 1933) is a genus of cyanobacteria containing desiccation and radiation resistant species. Members of the genus live in habitats ranging from hot and cold deserts to fresh and saltwater environments. Morphology and cell division pattern have historically been used to define the genus. To better understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the genus, 15 species were selected that had been previously isolated from different locations, including salt and freshwater environments. Four markers were sequenced from these 15 species, the 16S rRNA, rbcL, desC1 and gltX genes. Phylogenetic trees were generated which identified two distinct clades, a salt-tolerant clade and a freshwater clade. This study demonstrates that the genus is polyphyletic based on saltwater and freshwater phenotypes. To understand the resistance to salt in more details, species were grown on a range of sea salt concentrations which demonstrated that the freshwater species were salt-intolerant whilst the saltwater species required salt for growth. This study shows an increased resolution of the phylogeny of Chroococcidiopsis and provides further evidence that the genus is polyphyletic and should be reclassified to improve clarity in the literature.

  13. Functional genomics of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

    E-print Network

    Chen, You

    2009-05-15

    adopted to disrupt essentially every locus in the genome so as to identify all of the loci that are involved in clock function. The complete genome sequence has been determined by a combination of shotgun sequences and transposon-mediated sequences. The S...

  14. Analysis of photoregulation in a cyanobacterium through reverse genetics 

    E-print Network

    Cogdell, David Earl

    1997-01-01

    . As determined by the genetic interruption, the cloned response regulator srrB, is not involved in the transcriptional induction of the psbAII gene encoding the photosystem 11 reaction center protein DI under high-light conditions. No phenotype is known for srr...

  15. Trichodesmium – a widespread marine cyanobacterium with unusual nitrogen fixation properties

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Birgitta; Sandh, Gustaf; Lin, Senjie; Larsson, John; Carpenter, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    The last several decades have witnessed dramatic advances in unfolding the diversity and commonality of oceanic diazotrophs and their N2-fixing potential. More recently, substantial progress in diazotrophic cell biology has provided a wealth of information on processes and mechanisms involved. The substantial contribution by the diazotrophic cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium to the nitrogen influx of the global marine ecosystem is by now undisputable and of paramount ecological importance, while the underlying cellular and molecular regulatory physiology has only recently started to unfold. Here, we explore and summarize current knowledge, related to the optimization of its diazotrophic capacity, from genomics to ecophysiological processes, via, for example, cellular differentiation (diazocytes) and temporal regulations, and suggest cellular research avenues that now ought to be explored. PMID:22928644

  16. Iron reduction by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Rebecca J; Schneider, Kenneth; Hu, Huaining; Cameron, Petra J

    2015-10-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 uptakes iron using a reductive mechanism, similar to that exhibited by many other microalgae. Various bio-electrochemical technologies have made use of this reductive cellular capacity, but there is still a lack of fundamental understanding of cellular reduction rates under different conditions. This study used electrochemical techniques to further investigate the reductive interactions of Synechocystis cells with Fe(III) from the iron species potassium ferricyanide, with varying cell and ferricyanide concentrations present. At the lowest cell concentrations tested, cell reduction machinery appeared to kinetically limit the reduction reaction, but ferricyanide reduction rates were mass transport controlled at the higher cell and ferricyanide concentrations studied. Improving the understanding of the reduction of Fe(III) by whole cyanobacterial cells is important for improving the efficiencies of technologies that rely on this interaction. PMID:26079619

  17. Cylindrocyclophanes with Proteasome Inhibitory Activity from the Cyanobacterium Nostoc sp

    PubMed Central

    Chlipala, George E.; Sturdy, Megan; Krunic, Aleksej; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Shen, Qi; Porter, Kyle; Swanson, Steven M.; Orjala, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    Material collected from a parkway in the city of Chicago afforded the isolation of a Nostoc species (UIC 10022A). The extract of this strain displayed significant inhibition of the 20S proteasome as well as antiproliferative activity against HT29, MCF7, NCI-H460, and SF268 cancer cell lines. A standardized dereplication protocol allowed for the rapid identification of three known (11-13) and nine new (1-9) chlorinated cylindrocyclophanes from less than 100 mg of organic extract. Scale-up isolation of 1-9 and 11-13 from a larger extract was guided by LC-UV-MS data. In addition, KBr enrichment of the culture media afforded the isolation of a brominated cylindrocyclophane (10). Biological evaluation of 1-5, 9, and 10-13 revealed a large range of activity against the 20S proteasome and allowed the determination of preliminary structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the cylindrocyclophane pharmacophore. PMID:20825206

  18. Host/virus interactions in the marine cyanobacterium prochlorococcus

    E-print Network

    Frois-Moniz, Katya

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial viruses shape the diversity, metabolic function, and community dynamics of their microbial hosts. As microbes drive many major biogeochemical cycles, viral infection is therefore a phenomenon of global significance. ...

  19. Characterization of recombinant phytochrome from the cyanobacterium?Synechocystis

    PubMed Central

    Lamparter, Tilman; Mittmann, Franz; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Börner, Thomas; Hartmann, Elmar; Hughes, Jon

    1997-01-01

    The complete sequence of the Synechocystis chromosome has revealed a phytochrome-like sequence that yielded an authentic phytochrome when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In this paper we describe this recombinant Synechocystis phytochrome in more detail. Islands of strong similarity to plant phytochromes were found throughout the cyanobacterial sequence whereas C-terminal homologies identify it as a likely sensory histidine kinase, a family to which plant phytochromes are related. An ?300 residue portion that is important for plant phytochrome function is missing from the Synechocystis sequence, immediately in front of the putative kinase region. The recombinant apoprotein is soluble and can easily be purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. Phycocyanobilin and similar tetrapyrroles are covalently attached within seconds, an autocatalytic process followed by slow conformational changes culminating in red-absorbing phytochrome formation. Spectral absorbance characteristics are remarkably similar to those of plant phytochromes, although the conformation of the chromophore is likely to be more helical in the Synechocystis phytochrome. According to size-exclusion chromatography the native recombinant apoproteins and holoproteins elute predominantly as 115- and 170-kDa species, respectively. Both tend to form dimers in vitro and aggregate under low salt conditions. Nevertheless, the purity and solubility of the recombinant gene product make it a most attractive model for molecular studies of phytochrome, including x-ray crystallography. PMID:9342316

  20. Adaptation of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to light intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Raps, S.; Wyman, K.; Siegelman, H.W.; Falkowski, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Light intensity adaptation (20 to 565 microeinsteins per square meter per second) of Microcystis aeruginosa (UV-027) was examined in turbidostat culture. Chlorophyll a and phycocyanin concentrations decreased with increasing light intensity while carotenoid, cellular carbon, and nitrogen contents did not vary. Variation in the number but not the size of photosynthetic units per cell, based on chlorophyll a/P/sub 700/ ratios, occurred on light intensity adaptation. Changes in the numbers of photosynthetic units partially dampened the effects of changes in light intensity on growth rates.

  1. Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Associated with the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942.

    PubMed

    Badger, M R; Price, G D

    1989-01-01

    Intact cells and crude homogenates of high (1% CO(2)) and low dissolved inorganic carbon (C(i)) (30-50 microliters per liter of CO(2)) grown Synechococcus PCC7942 have carbonic anhydrase (CA)-like activity, which enables them to catalyze the exchange of (18)O from CO(2) to H(2)O. This activity was studied using a mass spectrometer coupled to a cuvette with a membrane inlet system. Intact high and low C(i) cells were found to contain CA activity, separated from the medium by a membrane which is preferentially permeable to CO(2). This activity is most apparent in the light, where (18)O-labeled CO(2) species are being taken up by the cells but the effluxing CO(2) has lost most of its label to water. In the dark, low C(i) cells catalyze the depletion of the (18)O enrichment of CO(2) and this activity is inhibited by both ethoxyzolamide and 2-(trifluoromethoxy)carbonyl cyanide. This may occur via a common inhibition of the C(i) pump and the C(i) pump is proposed as a potential site for the exchange of (18)O. CA activity was measurable in homogenates of both cell types but was 5- to 10-fold higher in low C(i) cells. This was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide with an I(50) of 50 to 100 micromolar in both low and high C(i) cells. A large proportion of the internal CA activity appears to be pelletable in nature. This pelletability is increased by the presence of Mg(2+) in a manner similar to that of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase activity and chlorophyll (thylakoids) and may be the result of nonspecific aggregation. Separation of crude homogenates on sucrose gradients is consistent with the notion that CA and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase activity may be associated with the same pelletable fraction. However, we cannot unequivocally establish that CA is located within the carboxysome. The sucrose gradients show the presence of separate soluble and pelletable CA activity. This may be due to the presence of separate forms of the enzyme or may arise from the same pelletable association which is unstable during extraction. PMID:16666546

  2. Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn W. Stratton

    1985-01-01

    The proliferation of the numbers and quantities of environmental contaminants has elicited numerous studies on their potential ecological impact. Of particular importance is research into effects on non-target microorganisms, since these organisms are vital components of all biospheric nutrient cycles and are therefore unrivalled in their ecological significance. The two most commonly studied groups of environmental toxicants in microbiology are

  3. Regulation of Phosphate Accumulation in the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, John F.; Gibson, Jane

    1979-01-01

    The phosphorus contents of acid-soluble pools, lipid, ribonucleic acid, and acid-insoluble polyphosphate were lowered in Synechococcus in proportion to the reduction in growth rate in phosphate-limited but not in nitrate-limited continuous culture. Phosphorus in these cell fractions was lost proportionately during progressive phosphate starvation of batch cultures. Acid-insoluble polyphosphate was always present in all cultural conditions to about 10% of total cell phosphorus and did not turn over during balanced exponential growth. Extensive polyphosphate formation occurred transiently when phosphate was given to cells which had been phosphate limited. This material was broken down after 8 h even in the presence of excess external orthophosphate, and its phosphorus was transferred into other cell fractions, notably ribonucleic acid. Phosphate uptake kinetics indicated an invariant apparent Km of about 0.5 ?M, but Vmax was 40 to 50 times greater in cells from phosphate-limited cultures than in cells from nitrate-limited or balanced batch cultures. Over 90% of the phosphate taken up within the first 30 s at 15°C was recovered as orthophosphate. The uptake process is highly specific, since neither phosphate entry nor growth was affected by a 100-fold excess of arsenate. The activity of polyphosphate synthetase in cell extracts increased at least 20-fold during phosphate starvation or in phosphate-restricted growth, but polyphosphatase activity was little changed by different growth conditions. The findings suggest that derepression of the phosphate transport and polyphosphate-synthesizing systems as well as alkaline phosphatase occurs in phosphate shortage, but that the breakdown of polyphosphate in this organism is regulated by modulation of existing enzyme activity. PMID:227842

  4. Mechanism of activation of the prokaryotic channel ELIC by propylamine: A single-channel study

    PubMed Central

    Marabelli, Alessandro; Lape, Remigijus

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic channels, such as Erwinia chrysanthemi ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC) and Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel, give key structural information for the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family, which includes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. ELIC, a cationic channel from E. chrysanthemi, is particularly suitable for single-channel recording because of its high conductance. Here, we report on the kinetic properties of ELIC channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Single-channel currents elicited by the full agonist propylamine (0.5–50 mM) in outside-out patches at ?60 mV were analyzed by direct maximum likelihood fitting of kinetic schemes to the idealized data. Several mechanisms were tested, and their adequacy was judged by comparing the predictions of the best fit obtained with the observable features of the experimental data. These included open-/shut-time distributions and the time course of macroscopic propylamine-activated currents elicited by fast theta-tube applications (50–600 ms, 1–50 mM, ?100 mV). Related eukaryotic channels, such as glycine and nicotinic receptors, when fully liganded open with high efficacy to a single open state, reached via a preopening intermediate. The simplest adequate description of their activation, the “Flip” model, assumes a concerted transition to a single intermediate state at high agonist concentration. In contrast, ELIC open-time distributions at saturating propylamine showed multiple components. Thus, more than one open state must be accessible to the fully liganded channel. The “Primed” model allows opening from multiple fully liganded intermediates. The best fits of this type of model showed that ELIC maximum open probability (99%) is reached when at least two and probably three molecules of agonist have bound to the channel. The overall efficacy with which the fully liganded channel opens was ?102 (?20 for ?1? glycine channels). The microscopic affinity for the agonist increased as the channel activated, from 7 mM for the resting state to 0.15 mM for the partially activated intermediate state. PMID:25548135

  5. Binding Site and Affinity Prediction of General Anesthetics to Protein Targets Using Docking

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renyu; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; Liang, David; Saven, Jeffery G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The protein targets for general anesthetics remain unclear. A tool to predict anesthetic binding for potential binding targets is needed. In this study, we explore whether a computational method, AutoDock, could serve as such a tool. Methods High-resolution crystal data of water soluble proteins (cytochrome C, apoferritin and human serum albumin), and a membrane protein (a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel from Gloeobacter violaceus, GLIC) were used. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments were performed to determine anesthetic affinity in solution conditions for apoferritin. Docking calculations were performed using DockingServer with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm and the Solis and Wets local search method (https://www.dockingserver.com/web). Twenty general anesthetics were docked into apoferritin. The predicted binding constants are compared with those obtained from ITC experiments for potential correlations. In the case of apoferritin, details of the binding site and their interactions were compared with recent co-crystallization data. Docking calculations for six general anesthetics currently used in clinical settings (isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, halothane, propofol, and etomidate) with known EC50 were also performed in all tested proteins. The binding constants derived from docking experiments were compared with known EC50s and octanol/water partition coefficients for the six general anesthetics. Results All 20 general anesthetics docked unambiguously into the anesthetic binding site identified in the crystal structure of apoferritin. The binding constants for 20 anesthetics obtained from the docking calculations correlate significantly with those obtained from ITC experiments (p=0.04). In the case of GLIC, the identified anesthetic binding sites in the crystal structure are among the docking predicted binding sites, but not the top ranked site. Docking calculations suggest a most probable binding site located in the extracellular domain of GLIC. The predicted affinities correlated significantly with the known EC50s for the six commonly used anesthetics in GLIC for the site identified in the experimental crystal data (p=0.006). However, predicted affinities in apoferritin, human serum albumin, and cytochrome C did not correlate with these six anesthetics’ known experimental EC50s. A weak correlation between the predicted affinities and the octanol/water partition coefficients was observed for the sites in GLIC. Conclusion We demonstrated that anesthetic binding sites and relative affinities can be predicted using docking calculations in an automatic docking server (Autodock) for both water soluble and membrane proteins. Correlation of predicted affinity and EC50 for six commonly used general anesthetics was only observed in GLIC, a member of a protein family relevant to anesthetic mechanism. PMID:22392968

  6. Response of the Unicellular Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii to Iron Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Jacq, Violaine; Ridame, Céline; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Kaczmar, Fanny; Saliot, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is widely suspected as a key controlling factor of N2 fixation due to the high Fe content of nitrogenase and photosynthetic enzymes complex, and to its low concentrations in oceanic surface seawaters. The influence of Fe limitation on the recently discovered unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria (UCYN) is poorly understood despite their biogeochemical importance in the carbon and nitrogen cycles. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted culture experiments on Crocosphaera watsonii WH8501 growing under a range of dissolved Fe concentrations (from 3.3 to 403 nM). Overall, severe Fe limitation led to significant decreases in growth rate (2.6-fold), C, N and chlorophyll a contents per cell (up to 4.1-fold), N2 and CO2 fixation rates per cell (17- and 7-fold) as well as biovolume (2.2-fold). We highlighted a two phased response depending on the degree of limitation: (i) under a moderate Fe limitation, the biovolume of C. watsonii was strongly reduced, allowing the cells to keep sufficient energy to maintain an optimal growth, volume-normalized contents and N2 and CO2 fixation rates; (ii) with increasing Fe deprivation, biovolume remained unchanged but the entire cell metabolism was affected, as shown by a strong decrease in the growth rate, volume-normalized contents and N2 and CO2 fixation rates. The half-saturation constant for growth of C. watsonii with respect to Fe is twice as low as that of the filamentous Trichodesmium indicating a better adaptation of C. watsonii to poor Fe environments than filamentous diazotrophs. The physiological response of C. watsonii to Fe limitation was different from that previously shown on the UCYN Cyanothece sp, suggesting potential differences in Fe requirements and/or Fe acquisition within the UCYN community. These results contribute to a better understanding of how Fe bioavailability can control the activity of UCYN and explain the biogeography of diverse N2 fixers in ocean. PMID:24466221

  7. Structural Basis for the Thermostability of Ferredoxin from the Cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    of L1,2 into a rigid b-turn (DL1,2) and two point mutations (E90S and E96S) that disrupt the salt) are soluble iron-sulfur proteins, found in bacteria, plants, and mammalian cells, which are involved, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria, denoted as plant-type ferredoxins, have a single [2Fe-2S] cluster

  8. Regulation of the Nitrogen Fixation Genes in the Heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Krithika

    2012-02-14

    vegetative cells. The exchange of metabolites and intercellular signals that control the regulated spacing of the heterocysts require movement of molecules between cells along a filament, possibly through a continuous periplasm (55). According... could result in the GFP being anchored to the membrane or localized to the space on the inner side of the peptidoglycan layer. Electron micrographs of Anabaena peptidoglycan layer around each cell and sometimes a distinct "junctional space" between...

  9. Lyngbyabellins K-N from Two Palmyra Atoll Collections of the Marine Cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyukjae; Mevers, Emily; Byrum, Tara; Valeriote, Frederick A; Gerwick, William H

    2012-09-01

    Five lipopeptides of the lyngbyabellin structure class, four cyclic (1-3, and 5) and one linear (4), were isolated from the extracts of two collections of filamentous marine cyanobacteria obtained from Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific Ocean. Their planar structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by combined spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses as well as chemical synthesis of fragments. In addition to structural features typical of the lyngbyabellins, such as two thiazole rings and a chlorinated 2-methyloctanoate residue, these new compounds possess several unique aspects. Of note, metabolites 2 and 3 possessed rare mono-chlorination on the 3-acyloxy-2-methyloctanoate residue while lyngbyabellin N (5) had an unusual N,N-dimethylvaline terminus. Lyngbyabellin N also possessed a leucine statine residue, and showed strong cytotoxic activity against HCT116 colon cancer cell line (IC50 = 40.9 ± 3.3 nM). PMID:24574859

  10. Carbon Status Constrains Light Acclimation in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus1

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Tyler D.B.; Burns, Robert A.; Campbell, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Acclimation to one environmental factor may constrain acclimation to another. Synechococcus elongatus (sp. PCC7942), growing under continuous light in high inorganic carbon (Ci; approximately 4 mm) and low-Ci (approximately 0.02 mm) media, achieve similar photosynthetic and growth rates under continuous low or high light. During acclimation from low to high light, however, high-Ci cells exploit the light increase by accelerating their growth rate, while low-Ci cells maintain the prelight shift growth rate for many hours, despite increased photosynthesis under the higher light. Under increased light, high-Ci cells reorganize their photosynthetic apparatus by shrinking the PSII pool and increasing Rubisco pool size, thus decreasing the photosynthetic source-to-sink ratio. Low-Ci cells also decrease their reductant source-to-sink ratio to a similar level as the high-Ci cells, but do so only by increasing their Rubisco pool. Low-Ci cells thus invest more photosynthetic reductant into maintaining their larger photosystem pool and increasing their Rubisco pool at the expense of population growth than do high-Ci cells. In nature, light varies widely over minutes to hours and is ultimately limited by daylength. Photosynthetic acclimation in S. elongatus occurs in both high and low Ci, but low-Ci cells require more time to achieve acclimation. Cells that can tolerate low Ci do so at the expense of slower photosynthetic acclimation. Such differences in rates of acclimation relative to rates of change in environmental parameters are important for predicting community productivity under variable environments. PMID:15466225

  11. Carbon, nitrogen and O(2) fluxes associated with the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ploug, Helle; Adam, Birgit; Musat, Niculina; Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2011-09-01

    Photosynthesis, respiration, N(2) fixation and ammonium release were studied directly in Nodularia spumigena during a bloom in the Baltic Sea using a combination of microsensors, stable isotope tracer experiments combined with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) and fluorometry. Cell-specific net C- and N(2)-fixation rates by N. spumigena were 81.6±6.7 and 11.4±0.9 fmol N per cell per h, respectively. During light, the net C:N fixation ratio was 8.0±0.8. During darkness, carbon fixation was not detectable, but N(2) fixation was 5.4±0.4 fmol N per cell per h. Net photosynthesis varied between 0.34 and 250 nmol O(2) h(-1) in colonies with diameters ranging between 0.13 and 5.0 mm, and it reached the theoretical upper limit set by diffusion of dissolved inorganic carbon to colonies (>1 mm). Dark respiration of the same colonies varied between 0.038 and 87 nmol O(2) h(-1), and it reached the limit set by O(2) diffusion from the surrounding water to colonies (>1 mm). N(2) fixation associated with N. spumigena colonies (>1 mm) comprised on average 18% of the total N(2) fixation in the bulk water. Net NH(4)(+) release in colonies equaled 8-33% of the estimated gross N(2) fixation during photosynthesis. NH(4)(+) concentrations within light-exposed colonies, modeled from measured net NH(4)(+) release rates, were 60-fold higher than that of the bulk. Hence, N. spumigena colonies comprise highly productive microenvironments and an attractive NH(4)(+) microenvironment to be utilized by other (micro)organisms in the Baltic Sea where dissolved inorganic nitrogen is limiting growth. PMID:21390075

  12. Carbon, nitrogen and O2 fluxes associated with the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ploug, Helle; Adam, Birgit; Musat, Niculina; Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthesis, respiration, N2 fixation and ammonium release were studied directly in Nodularia spumigena during a bloom in the Baltic Sea using a combination of microsensors, stable isotope tracer experiments combined with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) and fluorometry. Cell-specific net C- and N2-fixation rates by N. spumigena were 81.6±6.7 and 11.4±0.9?fmol N per cell per h, respectively. During light, the net C:N fixation ratio was 8.0±0.8. During darkness, carbon fixation was not detectable, but N2 fixation was 5.4±0.4?fmol N per cell per h. Net photosynthesis varied between 0.34 and 250?nmol O2?h?1 in colonies with diameters ranging between 0.13 and 5.0?mm, and it reached the theoretical upper limit set by diffusion of dissolved inorganic carbon to colonies (>1?mm). Dark respiration of the same colonies varied between 0.038 and 87?nmol O2?h?1, and it reached the limit set by O2 diffusion from the surrounding water to colonies (>1?mm). N2 fixation associated with N. spumigena colonies (>1?mm) comprised on average 18% of the total N2 fixation in the bulk water. Net NH4+ release in colonies equaled 8–33% of the estimated gross N2 fixation during photosynthesis. NH4+ concentrations within light-exposed colonies, modeled from measured net NH4+ release rates, were 60-fold higher than that of the bulk. Hence, N. spumigena colonies comprise highly productive microenvironments and an attractive NH4+ microenvironment to be utilized by other (micro)organisms in the Baltic Sea where dissolved inorganic nitrogen is limiting growth. PMID:21390075

  13. Isolation of Regulated Genes of the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 by Differential Display†

    PubMed Central

    Bhaya, Devaki; Vaulot, Daniel; Amin, Pinky; Takahashi, Akiko Watanabe; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2000-01-01

    Global identification of differentially regulated genes in prokaryotes is constrained because the mRNA does not have a 3? polyadenylation extension; this precludes specific separation of mRNA from rRNA and tRNA and synthesis of cDNAs from the entire mRNA population. Knowledge of the entire genome sequence of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 has enabled us to develop a differential display procedure that takes advantage of a short palindromic sequence that is dispersed throughout the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genome. This sequence, designated the HIP (highly iterated palindrome) element, occurs in approximately half of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genes but is absent in rRNA and tRNA genes. To determine the feasibility of exploiting the HIP element, alone or in combination with specific primer subsets, for analyzing differential gene expression, we used HIP-based primers to identify light intensity-regulated genes. Several gene fragments, including those encoding ribosomal proteins and phycobiliprotein subunits, were differentially amplified from RNA templates derived from cells grown in low light or exposed to high light for 3 h. One novel finding was that expression of certain genes of the pho regulon, which are under the control of environmental phosphate levels, were markedly elevated in high light. High-light activation of pho regulon genes correlated with elevated growth rates that occur when the cells are transferred from low to high light. These results suggest that in high light, the rate of growth of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 exceeds its capacity to assimilate phosphate, which, in turn, may trigger a phosphate starvation response and activation of the pho regulon. PMID:11004166

  14. Effect of orthophosphate and bioavailability of dissolved organic phosphorous compounds to typically harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Wang, Zhongwei; Cao, Xin; Wang, Zhengfang; Zheng, Zheng

    2015-03-15

    Results show that Microcystis aeruginosa can utilize both dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) and orthophosphate (DIP) even under low phosphorus (P) conditions to sustain its growth. Total P concentrations decreased markedly in all three P source treatments. Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the different P sources tested changed in response to the DOP and DIP. The APA of DOP groups remained low after decreasing significantly, but the APA in the DIP treatments remained high during the period of culture. Changes in APA at different PO4(3-)-P concentrations in a culture medium revealed negative correlations between APA and DIP. However, a positive relationship was observed between APA and DOP under low P concentrations. These findings indicate that M. aeruginosa can regulate its physiological metabolism to acclimate to low ambient DIP environments. PMID:25627194

  15. Production of the antibiotic cyanobacterin LU1 by Nostoc linckia CALU 892 (cyanobacterium)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris V. Gromov; Alexey A. Vepritskiy; Nina N. Titova; Kira A. Mamkayeva; Olga V. Alexandrova

    1991-01-01

    Cyanobacterin LU-1, produced by Nostoc linckia CALU 892, inhibits the growth of many cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. The minimum effective dose of a crude preparation\\u000a to Synechococcus sp. R-2 is ca 1 g ml?1. The antibiotic hinders cell division and light-dependent oxygen evolution in Synechococcus sp. R-2 (PCC 7942) cells. It is not active against heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, and

  16. Elevated CO2 causes changes in the photosynthetic apparatus of a toxic cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

    PubMed

    Pierangelini, Mattia; Stojkovic, Slobodanka; Orr, Philip T; Beardall, John

    2014-07-15

    We studied the physiological acclimation of growth, photosynthesis and CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) in Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii exposed to low (present day; L-CO2) and high (1300ppm; H-CO2) pCO2. Results showed that under H-CO2 the cell specific division rate (?c) was higher and the CO2- and light-saturated photosynthetic rates (Vmax and Pmax) doubled. The cells' photosynthetic affinity for CO2 (K0.5CO2) was halved compared to L-CO2 cultures. However, no significant differences were found in dark respiration rates (Rd), pigment composition and light harvesting efficiency (?). In H-CO2 cells, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), associated with state transitions of the electron transport chain (ETC), was negligible. Simultaneously, a reorganisation of PSII features including antenna connectivity (JconPSII?), heterogeneity (PSII?/?) and effective absorption cross sectional area (?PSII?/?) was observed. In relation to different activities of the CCM, our findings suggest that for cells grown under H-CO2: (1) there is down-regulation of CCM activity; (2) the ability of cells to use the harvested light energy is altered; (3) the occurrence of state transitions is likely to be associated with changes of electron flow (cyclic vs linear) through the ETC; (4) changes in PSII characteristics are important in regulating state transitions. PMID:24878143

  17. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Lu, Liping; Xiao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L) were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils. PMID:26177203

  18. Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billi, D.; Friedmann, E. I.; Hofer, K. G.; Caiola, M. G.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of X-ray irradiation on cell survival, induction, and repair of DNA damage was studied by using 10 Chroococcidiopsis strains isolated from desert and hypersaline environments. After exposure to 2.5 kGy, the percentages of survival for the strains ranged from 80 to 35%. In the four most resistant strains, the levels of survival were reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude after irradiation with 5 kGy; viable cells were recovered after exposure to 15 kGy but not after exposure to 20 kGy. The severe DNA damage evident after exposure to 2.5 kGy was repaired within 3 h, and the severe DNA damage evident after exposure to 5 kGy was repaired within 24 h. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity in the culture supernatant after irradiation with 2.5 kGy might have been due to cell lysis and/or an excision process involved in DNA repair. The radiation resistance of Chroococcidiopsis strains may reflect the ability of these cyanobacteria to survive prolonged desiccation through efficient repair of the DNA damage that accumulates during dehydration.

  19. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of gluathione, an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  20. An unusual cyanobacterium from saline thermal waters with relatives from unexpected habitats.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Meenakshi; Everroad, R Craig; Castenholz, Richard W

    2009-07-01

    Cyanobacteria that grow above seawater salinity at temperatures above 45 degrees C have rarely been studied. Cyanobacteria of this type of thermo-halophilic extremophile were isolated from siliceous crusts at 40-45 degrees C in a geothermal seawater lagoon in southwest Iceland. Iceland Clone 2e, a Leptolyngbya morphotype, was selected for further study. This culture grew only at 45-50 degrees C, in medium ranging from 28 to 94 g L(-1) TDS, It showed 3 doublings 24 h(-1) under continuous illumination. This rate at 54 degrees C was somewhat reduced, and death occurred at 58 degrees C. A comparison of the 16S rDNA sequence with all others in the NCBI database revealed 2 related Leptolyngbya isolates from a Greenland hot spring (13-16 g L(-1) TDS). Three other similar sequences were from Leptolyngbya isolates from dry, endolithic habitats in Yellowstone National Park. All 6 formed a phylogenetic clade, suggesting common ancestry. These strains shared many similarities to Iceland Clone 2e with respect to temperature and salinity ranges and optima. Two endolithic Leptolyngbya isolates, grown previously at 23 degrees C in freshwater medium, grew well at 50 degrees C but only in saline medium. This study shows that limited genotypic similarity may reveal some salient phenotypic similarities, even when the related cyanobacteria are from vastly different and remote habitats. PMID:19543949

  1. An integrative approach to energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Ross Overbeek, Veronika Fonstein, Andrei Osterman, Svetlana Gerdes, Olga Vassieva, Olga Zagnitko, Dmitry Rodionov

    2005-02-15

    The team of the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes (FIG) under the leadership of Ross Overbeek, began working on this Project in November 2003. During the previous year, the Project was performed at Integrated Genomics Inc. A transition from the industrial environment to the public domain prompted us to adjust some aspects of the Project. Notwithstanding the challenges, we believe that these adjustments had a strong positive impact on our deliverables. Most importantly, the work of the research team led by R. Overbeek resulted in the deployment of a new open source genomic platform, the SEED (Specific Aim 1). This platform provided a foundation for the development of CyanoSEED a specialized portal to comparative analysis and metabolic reconstruction of all available cyanobacterial genomes (Specific Aim 3). The SEED represents a new generation of software for genome analysis. Briefly, it is a portable and extendable system, containing one of the largest and permanently growing collections of complete and partial genomes. The complete system with annotations and tools is freely available via browsing or via installation on a user's Mac or Linux computer. One of the important unique features of the SEED is the support of metabolic reconstruction and comparative genome analysis via encoding and projection of functional subsystems. During the project period, the FIG research team has validated the new software by developing a significant number of core subsystems, covering many aspects of central metabolism (Specific Aim 2), as well as metabolic areas specific for cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophic organisms (Specific Aim 3). In addition to providing a proof of technology and a starting point for further community-based efforts, these subsystems represent a valuable asset. An extensive coverage of central metabolism provides the bulk of information required for metabolic modeling in Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803. Detailed analysis of several subsystems covering energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and other cyanobacteria has been performed (Specific Aim 4). The main objectives for this year (adjusted to reflect a new, public domain, setting of the Project research team) were: Aim 1. To develop, test, and deploy a new open source system, the SEED, for integrating community-based annotation, and comparative analysis of all publicly available microbial genomes. Develop a comprehensive genomic database by integrating within SEED all publicly available complete and nearly complete genome sequences with special emphasis on genomes of cyanobacteria, phototrophic eukaryotes, and anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria--invaluable for comparative genomic studies of energy and carbon metabolism in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Aim 2. To develop the SEED's biological content in the form of a collection of encoded Subsystems largely covering the conserved cellular machinery in prokaryotes (and central metabolic machinery in eukaryotes). Aim 3. To develop, utilizing core SEED technology, the CyanoSEED--a specialized WEB portal for community-based annotation, and comparative analysis of all publicly available cyanobacterial genomes. Encode the set of additional subsystems representing key metabolic transformations in cyanobacteria and other photoautotrophs. We envisioned this resource as complementary to other public access databases for comparative genomic analysis currently available to the cyanobacterial research community. Aim 4. Perform in-depth analysis of several subsystems covering energy, carbon, and redox metabolism in the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and all other cyanobacteria with available genome sequences. Reveal inconsistencies and gaps in the current knowledge of these subsystems. Use functional and genome context analysis tools in CyanoSEED to predict, whenever possible, candidate genes for inferred functional roles. To disseminate freely these conjectures and predictions by publishing them on CyanoSEED (http://cyanoseed.thefig.info/) and the Subsystems Forum (http://brucella.uchicago.edu/Su

  2. Identification of a transporter Slr0982 involved in ethanol tolerance in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanan; Niu, Xiangfeng; Shi, Mengliang; Pei, Guangsheng; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce ethanol through recent synthetic biology efforts. However, one major challenge to the cyanobacterial systems for high-efficiency ethanol production is their low tolerance to the ethanol toxicity. With a major goal to identify novel transporters involved in ethanol tolerance, we constructed gene knockout mutants for 58 transporter-encoding genes of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and screened their tolerance change under ethanol stress. The efforts allowed discovery of a mutant of slr0982 gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter which grew poorly in BG11 medium supplemented with 1.5% (v/v) ethanol when compared with the wild type, and the growth loss could be recovered by complementing slr0982 in the ?slr0982 mutant, suggesting that slr0982 is involved in ethanol tolerance in Synechocystis. To decipher the tolerance mechanism involved, a comparative metabolomic and network-based analysis of the wild type and the ethanol-sensitive ?slr0982 mutant was performed. The analysis allowed the identification of four metabolic modules related to slr0982 deletion in the ?slr0982 mutant, among which metabolites like sucrose and L-pyroglutamic acid which might be involved in ethanol tolerance, were found important for slr0982 deletion in the ?slr0982 mutant. This study reports on the first transporter related to ethanol tolerance in Synechocystis, which could be a useful target for further tolerance engineering. In addition, metabolomic and network analysis provides important findings for better understanding of the tolerance mechanism to ethanol stress in Synechocystis. PMID:26052317

  3. Function and Regulation of Ferredoxins in the Cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC6803: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Cassier-Chauvat, Corinne; Chauvat, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Ferredoxins (Fed), occurring in most organisms, are small proteins that use their iron-sulfur cluster to distribute electrons to various metabolic pathways, likely including hydrogen production. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ferredoxins in cyanobacteria, the prokaryotes regarded as important producers of the oxygenic atmosphere and biomass for the food chain, as well as promising cell factories for biofuel production. Most studies of ferredoxins were performed in the model strain, Synechocystis PCC6803, which possesses nine highly-conserved ferredoxins encoded by monocistronic or operonic genes, some of which are localized in conserved genome regions. Fed1, encoded by a light-inducible gene, is a highly abundant protein essential to photosynthesis. Fed2-Fed9, encoded by genes differently regulated by trophic conditions, are low-abundant proteins that play prominent roles in the tolerance to environmental stresses. Concerning the selectivity/redundancy of ferredoxin, we report that Fed1, Fed7 and Fed9 belong to ferredoxin-glutaredoxin-thioredoxin crosstalk pathways operating in the protection against oxidative and metal stresses. Furthermore, Fed7 specifically interacts with a DnaJ-like protein, an interaction that has been conserved in photosynthetic eukaryotes in the form of a composite protein comprising DnaJ- and Fed7-like domains. Fed9 specifically interacts with the Flv3 flavodiiron protein acting in the photoreduction of O2 to H2O. PMID:25387163

  4. Cloning and gene arrangement of PSAC, NDHE and NDHD from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.L.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    In higher plants the psaC gene, which encodes the 9 kDa 2(Fe-4S) containing Photosystem I subunit, is located in the small single copy region of the chloroplast DNA between two ORF's with homology to genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial NADH Dehydrogenase complex. The psaC gene has been cloned from Synechocystis and analysis of the flanking sequences has shown the 5'ndhE-psaCndhD3{prime} arrangement of higher plants is only partially conserved in Synechocystis. An open reading frame 5{prime} to psaC has 79% identity to the maize ndhE gene. Downstream of psaC there is an open reading frame of only 273 bp with 48% identity to the 5{prime} end of the maize ndhD gene (1,545 bp). Southern analysis shows that psaC, ndhE and the region of homology to ndhD are present in only a single copy in the Synechocystis genome. Probes to the 3{prime} portion of the wheat ndhD gene did not hybridize to Synechocystis or Anabaena genomic DNA, but did hybridize to Oenothera chloroplast DNA, indicating the entire ndhD gene is not present in these cyanobacteria.

  5. Genes Coding for Hepatotoxic Heptapeptides (Microcystins) in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena Strain 90

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo Rouhiainen; Tanja Vakkilainen; Berit Lumbye Siemer; William Buikema; Robert Haselkorn; Kaarina Sivonen

    2004-01-01

    The cluster of microcystin synthetase genes from Anabaena strain 90 was sequenced and characterized. The total size of the region is 55.4 kb, and the genes are organized in three putative operons. The first operon (mcyA-mcyB-mcyC) is transcribed in the opposite direction from the second operon (mcyG-mcyD-mcyJ-mcyE- mcyF-mcyI) and the third operon (mcyH). The genes mcyA, mcyB, and mcyC encode

  6. Immuno-gold localization of glutamine synthetase in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium ( Anabaena cylindrica )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bergman; P. Lindblad; A. Pettersson; E. Renström; E. Tiberg

    1985-01-01

    Localization of glutamine synthetase in thin sections of nitrogen-fixing Anabaena cylindrica was performed using immuno-gold\\/transmission electronmicroscopy. The enzyme was present in all of the three cell types possible; vegetative cells, heterocysts and akinetes. The specific gold label was always more pronounced in heterocysts compared with vegetative cells, and showed a uniform distribution in all three types. No specific label was

  7. Transcriptomic response to prolonged ethanol production in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The production of biofuels in photosynthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria is a promising alternative to the generation of fuels from fossil resources. To be economically competitive, producer strains need to be established that synthesize the targeted product at high yield and over a long time. Engineering cyanobacteria into forced fuel producers should considerably interfere with overall cell homeostasis, which in turn might counteract productivity and sustainability of the process. Therefore, in-depth characterization of the cellular response upon long-term production is of high interest for the targeted improvement of a desired strain. Results The transcriptome-wide response to continuous ethanol production was examined in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 using high resolution microarrays. In two independent experiments, ethanol production rates of 0.0338% (v/v) ethanol d-1 and 0.0303% (v/v) ethanol d-1 were obtained over 18 consecutive days, measuring two sets of biological triplicates in fully automated photobioreactors. Ethanol production caused a significant (~40%) delay in biomass accumulation, the development of a bleaching phenotype and a down-regulation of light harvesting capacity. However, microarray analyses performed at day 4, 7, 11 and 18 of the experiment revealed only three mRNAs with a strongly modified accumulation level throughout the course of the experiment. In addition to the overexpressed adhA (slr1192) gene, this was an approximately 4 fold reduction in cpcB (sll1577) and 3 to 6 fold increase in rps8 (sll1809) mRNA levels. Much weaker modifications of expression level or modifications restricted to day 18 of the experiment were observed for genes involved in carbon assimilation (Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and Glutamate decarboxylase). Molecular analysis of the reduced cpcB levels revealed a post-transcriptional processing of the cpcBA operon mRNA leaving a truncated mRNA cpcA* likely not competent for translation. Moreover, western blots and zinc-enhanced bilin fluorescence blots confirmed a severe reduction in the amounts of both phycocyanin subunits, explaining the cause of the bleaching phenotype. Conclusions Changes in gene expression upon induction of long-term ethanol production in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 are highly specific. In particular, we did not observe a comprehensive stress response as might have been expected. PMID:24502290

  8. Growth on Urea Can Trigger Death and Peroxidation of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Toshio; Delgaizo, Victoria B.; Bryant, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory conditions have been identified that cause the rapid death of cultures of cyanobacteria producing urease. Once the death phase had initiated in the stationary growth phase, cells were rapidly bleached of all pigmentation. Null mutations in the ureC gene, encoding the alpha subunit of urease, were constructed, and these mutants were no longer sensitive to growth in the presence of urea. High levels of peroxides, including lipid peroxides, were detected in the bleaching cells. Exogenously added polyunsaturated fatty acids triggered a similar death response. Vitamin E suppressed the formation of peroxides and delayed the onset of cell bleaching. The results suggest that these cyanobacterial cells undergo a metabolic imbalance that ultimately leads to oxidative stress and lipid peroxide formation. These observations may provide insights into the mechanism of sudden cyanobacterial bloom disappearance in nature. PMID:9647800

  9. Effects of modified Phycobilin biosynthesis in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Alvey, Richard M; Biswas, Avijit; Schluchter, Wendy M; Bryant, Donald A

    2011-04-01

    The pathway for phycocyanobilin biosynthesis in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 comprises two enzymes: heme oxygenase and phycocyanobilin synthase (PcyA). The phycobilin content of cells can be modified by overexpressing genes encoding alternative enzymes for biliverdin reduction. Overexpression of the pebAB and HY2 genes, encoding alternative ferredoxin-dependent biliverdin reductases, caused unique effects due to the overproduction of phycoerythrobilin and phytochromobilin, respectively. Colonies overexpressing pebAB became reddish brown and visually resembled strains that naturally produce phycoerythrin. This was almost exclusively due to the replacement of phycocyanobilin by phycoerythrobilin on the phycocyanin ?-subunit. This phenotype was unstable, and such strains rapidly reverted to the wild-type appearance, presumably due to strong selective pressure to inactivate pebAB expression. Overproduction of phytochromobilin, synthesized by the Arabidopsis thaliana HY2 product, was tolerated much better. Cells overexpressing HY2 were only slightly less pigmented and blue-green than the wild type. Although the pcyA gene could not be inactivated in the wild type, pcyA was easily inactivated when cells expressed HY2. These results indicate that phytochromobilin can functionally substitute for phycocyanobilin in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002. Although functional phycobilisomes were assembled in this strain, the overall phycobiliprotein content of cells was lower, the efficiency of energy transfer by these phycobilisomes was lower than for wild-type phycobilisomes, and the absorption cross-section of the cells was reduced relative to that of the wild type because of an increased spectral overlap of the modified phycobiliproteins with chlorophyll a. As a result, the strain producing phycobiliproteins carrying phytochromobilin grew much more slowly at low light intensity. PMID:21296968

  10. Two Novel Phycoerythrin-Associated Linker Proteins in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain WH8102

    PubMed Central

    Six, Christophe; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Thion, Laurent; Lemoine, Yves; Zal, Frank; Partensky, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    The recent availability of the whole genome of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102 allows us to have a global view of the complex structure of the phycobilisomes of this marine picocyanobacterium. Genomic analyses revealed several new characteristics of these phycobilisomes, consisting of an allophycocyanin core and rods made of one type of phycocyanin and two types of phycoerythrins (I and II). Although the allophycocyanin appears to be similar to that found commonly in freshwater cyanobacteria, the phycocyanin is simpler since it possesses only one complete set of ? and ? subunits and two rod-core linkers (CpcG1 and CpcG2). It is therefore probably made of a single hexameric disk per rod. In contrast, we have found two novel putative phycoerythrin-associated linker polypeptides that appear to be specific for marine Synechococcus spp. The first one (SYNW2000) is unusually long (548 residues) and apparently results from the fusion of a paralog of MpeC, a phycoerythrin II linker, and of CpeD, a phycoerythrin-I linker. The second one (SYNW1989) has a more classical size (300 residues) and is also an MpeC paralog. A biochemical analysis revealed that, like MpeC, these two novel linkers were both chromophorylated with phycourobilin. Our data suggest that they are both associated (partly or totally) with phycoerythrin II, and we propose to name SYNW2000 and SYNW1989 MpeD and MpeE, respectively. We further show that acclimation of phycobilisomes to high light leads to a dramatic reduction of MpeC, whereas the two novel linkers are not significantly affected. Models for the organization of the rods are proposed. PMID:15716439

  11. Subcellular proteomic characterization of the high-temperature stress response of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    PubMed Central

    Hongsthong, Apiradee; Sirijuntarut, Matura; Yutthanasirikul, Rayakorn; Senachak, Jittisak; Kurdrid, Pavinee; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the changes in protein expression in Spirulina platensis upon exposure to high temperature, with the changes in expression analyzed at the subcellular level. In addition, the transcriptional expression level of some differentially expressed proteins, the expression pattern clustering, and the protein-protein interaction network were analyzed. The results obtained from differential expression analysis revealed up-regulation of proteins involved in two-component response systems, DNA damage and repair systems, molecular chaperones, known stress-related proteins, and proteins involved in other biological processes, such as capsule formation and unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The clustering of all differentially expressed proteins in the three cellular compartments showed: (i) the majority of the proteins in all fractions were sustained tolerance proteins, suggesting the roles of these proteins in the tolerance to high temperature stress, (ii) the level of resistance proteins in the photosynthetic membrane was 2-fold higher than the level in two other fractions, correlating with the rapid inactivation of the photosynthetic system in response to high temperature. Subcellular communication among the three cellular compartments via protein-protein interactions was clearly shown by the PPI network analysis. Furthermore, this analysis also showed a connection between temperature stress and nitrogen and ammonia assimilation. PMID:19723342

  12. Gloeocapsopsis AAB1, an extremely desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium isolated from the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Azua-Bustos, Armando; Zúńiga, Jorge; Arenas-Fajardo, Cristián; Orellana, Marcelo; Salas, Loreto; Rafael, Vicuńa

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive study of microorganisms that evolved in the Atacama Desert, the driest and oldest on earth, may help to understand the key role of water for life. In this context, we previously characterized the microenvironment that allows colonization of the underside of quartzes in the Coastal Range of this desert by hypolithic microorganisms (Azua-Bustos et al. Microb Ecol 58:568-581, 2011). Now, we describe the biodiversity composition of these biofilms and the isolation from it of a new cyanobacterial strain. Based on morphologic and phylogenetic analyses, this isolate (AAB1) was classified as a new member of the Gloeocapsopsis genus. Physiological, morphological and molecular responses by isolate AAB1 show that this strain is extremely tolerant to desiccation. Our results also indicate that the isolate biosynthesizes sucrose and trehalose in response to this stressful condition. We identified two candidate genes involved in sucrose synthesis, namely sucrose 6-phosphate synthase and sucrose 6-phosphate phosphatase. Thus, the Gloeocapsopsis isolate AAB1 may represent a suitable model for understanding tolerance to low water availability. PMID:24141552

  13. Short RNA half-lives in the slow-growing marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus

    E-print Network

    Steglich, Claudia

    Background RNA turnover plays an important role in the gene regulation of microorganisms and influences their speed of acclimation to environmental changes. We investigated whole-genome RNA stability of Prochlorococcus, a ...

  14. Short RNA half-lives in the slow-growing marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus

    E-print Network

    Steglich, Claudia

    Background: RNA turnover plays an important role in the gene regulation of microorganisms and influences their speed of acclimation to environmental changes. We investigated whole-genome RNA stability of Prochlorococcus, ...

  15. Effect of APCD and APCF subunits depletion on phycobilisome fluorescence of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Kuzminov, F I; Bolychevtseva, Yu V; Elanskaya, I V; Karapetyan, N V

    2014-04-01

    Long-wavelength allophycocyanin (APC) subunits in cyanobacteria (APCD, APCE, and APCF) are required for phycobilisome (PBS) assembly, stability, and energy transfer to photosystems. Here we studied fluorescence properties of PBS in vivo, using Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant cells deficient in both photosystems and/or long-wavelength APC subunits. At room temperature, an absence of APCD and APCF subunits resulted in ?2-fold decrease of long-wavelength APC (APC680) fluorescence. In 77K fluorescence spectra, we observed only a slight shift of long-wavelength emission. However, 77K fluorescence of a PSI/PSII/APCF-less mutant was also characterized by increased emission from short-wavelength APC, which suggested the importance of this subunit in energy transfer from APC660 to APC680. Under blue-green actinic light, all mutants showed significant non-photochemical fluorescence quenching of up to 80% of the initial dark fluorescence level. Based on the mutants' quenching spectra, we determined quenching to originate from the pool of short-wavelength APC, while the spectral data alone was not sufficient to make unambiguous conclusion on the involvement of long-wavelength APC in non-photochemical quenching. Using a model of quenching center formation, we determined interaction rates between PBS and orange carotenoid protein (OCP) in vivo. Absence of APCD or APCF subunits had no effect on the rates of quenching center formation confirming the data obtained for isolated OCP-PBS complexes. Thus, although APCD and APCF subunits were required for energy transfer in PBS in vivo, their absence did not affect rates of OCP-PBS binding. PMID:24727864

  16. Cytology of long-term desiccation in the desert cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis (Chroococcales)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiola, M. G.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Young and old cultures (up to 66 months) of two Chroococcidiopsis sp. strains isolated from the Negev desert, Israel, were examined by epifluorescence and electron microscopy. In old cultures, cell viability and autofluorescence were lower than in young cultures. An increase was seen with age in the polysaccharide content of the sheaths of nanocytes and nanocyte mother cells, and a decrease of phycobiliproteins was also seen. In the oldest cultures most of the cells were dead and in various stages of degeneration. Single living cells were scattered among the dead ones. No resting cells were formed in the oldest cultures, but many cell groups showed highly electron-dense sheaths and, in the cytoplasm, ribosomes and glycogen. These changes in cell structure may have a role in preventing water loss from the cell.

  17. Extraction and characterization of bound extracellular polymeric substances from cultured pure cyanobacterium (Microcystis wesenbergii).

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhen; Qin, Boqiang; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Gao, Guang; Huang, Qi; Yao, Xin

    2014-08-01

    Preliminary characterization of bound extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS) of cyanobacteria is crucial to obtain a better understanding of the formation mechanism of cyanobacterial bloom. However, the characterization of bEPS can be affected by extraction methods. Five sets (including the control) of bEPS from Microcystis extracted by different methods were characterized using three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy combined chemical spectrophotometry; and the characterization results of bEPS samples were further compared. The agents used for extraction were NaOH, pure water and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing cationic exchange resins, and hot water. Extraction methods affected the fluorescence signals and intensities in the bEPS. Five fluorescence peaks were observed in the excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectra of bEPS samples. Two peaks (peaks T? and T?) present in all extractions were identified as protein-like fluorophores, two (peaks A and C) as humic-like fluorophores, and one (peak E) as a fulvic-like substance. Among these substances, the humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescences were only seen in the bEPS extracted with hot water. Also, NaOH solution extraction could result in strong fluorescence intensities compared to the other extraction methods. It was suggested that NaOH at pH10.0 was the most appropriate method to extract bEPS from Microcystis. In addition, dialysis could affect the yields and characteristics of extracted bEPS during the determination process. These results will help us to explore the issues of cyanobacterial blooms. PMID:25108729

  18. Comparative Protein Expression in Different Strains of the Bloom-forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa*

    PubMed Central

    Alexova, Ralitza; Haynes, Paul A.; Ferrari, Belinda C.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    Toxin production in algal blooms presents a significant problem for the water industry. Of particular concern is microcystin, a potent hepatotoxin produced by the unicellular freshwater species Microcystis aeruginosa. In this study, the proteomes of six toxic and nontoxic strains of M. aeruginosa were analyzed to gain further knowledge in elucidating the role of microcystin production in this microorganism. This represents the first comparative proteomic study in a cyanobacterial species. A large diversity in the protein expression profiles of each strain was observed, with a significant proportion of the identified proteins appearing to be strain-specific. In total, 475 proteins were identified reproducibly and of these, 82 comprised the core proteome of M. aeruginosa. The expression of several hypothetical and unknown proteins, including four possible operons was confirmed. Surprisingly, no proteins were found to be produced only by toxic or nontoxic strains. Quantitative proteome analysis using the label-free normalized spectrum abundance factor approach revealed nine proteins that were differentially expressed between toxic and nontoxic strains. These proteins participate in carbon-nitrogen metabolism and redox balance maintenance and point to an involvement of the global nitrogen regulator NtcA in toxicity. In addition, the switching of a previously inactive toxin-producing strain to microcystin synthesis is reported. PMID:21610102

  19. Frequent genetic recombination in natural populations of the marine cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes.

    PubMed

    Lodders, Nicole; Stackebrandt, Erko; Nübel, Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    A culture-independent method for multilocus sequence typing of Microcoleus chthonoplastes was developed based on mechanical separation of individual cyanobacterial filaments from natural microbial mat populations through micromanipulation, subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequence analysis of three genetic loci (kaiC, petB/D, rDNA-ITS). Among 81 individuals sampled from intertidal sand flats of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, we found 8-14 different sequences (alleles) per genetic locus, resulting in 36 distinct genotypes with unique allele profiles. Non-congruent phylogenetic gene trees for the three loci analysed and split decomposition analysis indicated the occurrence of horizontal genetic exchange. The index of association determined for the entire population was 0.096, indicating that recombination occurs frequently enough to cause almost random association (linkage equilibrium) among alleles. Analysing individuals from three different locations in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, we did not find evidence for geographic subdivisions between populations. PMID:15683403

  20. Double Mutation in Photosystem II Reaction Centers and Elevated CO2 Grant Thermotolerance to Mesophilic Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Dinamarca, Jorge; Shlyk-Kerner, Oksana; Kaftan, David; Goldberg, Eran; Dulebo, Alexander; Gidekel, Manuel; Gutierrez, Ana; Scherz, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    Photosynthetic biomass production rapidly declines in mesophilic cyanobacteria grown above their physiological temperatures largely due to the imbalance between degradation and repair of the D1 protein subunit of the heat susceptible Photosystem II reaction centers (PSIIRC). Here we show that simultaneous replacement of two conserved residues in the D1 protein of the mesophilic Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, by the analogue residues present in the thermophilic Thermosynechococcus elongatus, enables photosynthetic growth, extensive biomass production and markedly enhanced stability and repair rate of PSIIRC for seven days even at 43°C but only at elevated CO2 (1%). Under the same conditions, the Synechocystis control strain initially presented very slow growth followed by a decline after 3 days. Change in the thylakoid membrane lipids, namely the saturation of the fatty acids is observed upon incubation for the different strains, but only the double mutant shows a concomitant major change of the enthalpy and entropy for the light activated QA??QB electron transfer, rendering them similar to those of the thermophilic strain. Following these findings, computational chemistry and protein dynamics simulations we propose that the D1 double mutation increases the folding stability of the PSIIRC at elevated temperatures. This, together with the decreased impairment of D1 protein repair under increased CO2 concentrations result in the observed photothermal tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery in the double mutant PMID:22216094

  1. Siderophore mediated uranium sequestration by marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus BDU 130911.

    PubMed

    Rashmi, Vijayaraghavan; Shylajanaciyar, Mohandass; Rajalakshmi, Ramamoorthy; D'Souza, Stanley F; Prabaharan, Dharmar; Uma, Lakshmanan

    2013-02-01

    Four different marine cyanobacterial morphotypes were tested for their efficacy to produce siderophores in Fe minus [Fe(-)], Fe minus Uranium dosed [Fe(-)U(+)], and Fe dosed Uranium dosed [Fe(-)U(+)] media. Of the four organisms tested, Synechococcus elongatus BDU 130911 produced the highest amount of siderophore of 58?gmg(-1) dryweight. The results clearly indicate that uranium induces siderophore production in marine cyanobacteria even in the presence of iron [Fe(-)U(+)] condition. The type of siderophore revealed by FeCl(3), Tetrazolium and Atkin's tests is a hydroxamate; and thin layer chromatogram also authenticates our finding. Uranium siderophore complexation was confirmed through modified Chrome Azurol S (CAS) assay as well as based on residual uranium presence. In silico docking studies further validate siderophore complexation with uranium. PMID:23306130

  2. Abstract The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechoc-cocus leopoliensis is used in a micro-electrochemical

    E-print Network

    Carpentier, Robert

    et al. 1999). In the above application, artificial electron acceptors such as potassium ferricyanide at the acceptor side of photosystem I to form superoxide radicals. The latter spontaneously or en- zymatically

  3. Effects of metals on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yang, Zhen; Yao, Shuchun; Li, Shanying

    2015-01-01

    Effects of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and Ag(+) on the uptake of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene by Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated. A biomimic passive sampler, triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) was used to help to study the related mechanisms. The facilitation effects of the metals on the uptake of the PAHs by M. aeruginosa increased with the softness order of the metals (Zn(2+)?Cd(2+)

  4. Factors regulating cryIVB expression in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7942

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Soltes-Rak; Donn J. Kushner; D. Dudley Williams; John R. Coleman

    1995-01-01

    The expression of the larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cryIVB gene in cyanobacteria has been suggested to be an effective means of controlling mosquito populations. Using a variety of cryIVB constructs, in this study we have examined the effect of Synechococcus PCC 7942 culture age on intracellular toxin levels and have attempted to determine the mechanisms by which cryIVB gene

  5. Structural and Regulatory Properties of Pyruvate Kinase from the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6301*

    E-print Network

    Plaxton, William

    algae and vascular plants display remarkable diversity, they can all be traced to a single successful). Cyanobacteria, also known as blue- green algae, are widely distributed aquatic eubacteria in which as the predominant metabolic fuel at night (2). Glucose residues derived from gly- cogen are catabolized via

  6. Enhancement of chilling tolerance of a cyanobacterium by genetic manipulation of fatty acid desaturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Wada; Zoltan Combos; Norio Murata

    1990-01-01

    THE sensitivity (or tolerance) of plants to chilling determines their choice of natural habitat and also limits the worldwide production of crops. Although the molecular mechanism for chilling sensitivity has long been debated, no definitive conclusion has so far been reached about its nature. A probable hypothesis1,2, however, is that chilling injury is initiated by phase transition of lipids of

  7. Biochemical Validation of the Glyoxylate Cycle in the Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii Strain PCC 9212.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyi; Bryant, Donald A

    2015-05-29

    Cyanobacteria are important photoautotrophic bacteria with extensive but variable metabolic capacities. The existence of the glyoxylate cycle, a variant of the TCA cycle, is still poorly documented in cyanobacteria. Previous studies reported the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, the key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle in some cyanobacteria, but other studies concluded that these enzymes are missing. In this study the genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase from Chlorogloeopsis fritschii PCC 9212 were identified, and the recombinant enzymes were biochemically characterized. Consistent with the presence of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, C. fritschii could assimilate acetate under both light and dark growth conditions. Transcript abundances for isocitrate lyase and malate synthase increased, and C. fritschii grew faster, when the growth medium was supplemented with acetate. Adding acetate to the growth medium also increased the yield of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. When the genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase were expressed in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, the acetate assimilation capacity of the resulting strain was greater than that of wild type. Database searches showed that the genes for the glyoxylate cycle exist in only a few other cyanobacteria, all of which are able to fix nitrogen. This study demonstrates that the glyoxylate cycle exists in a few cyanobacteria, and that this pathway plays an important role in the assimilation of acetate for growth in one of those organisms. The glyoxylate cycle might play a role in coordinating carbon and nitrogen metabolism under conditions of nitrogen fixation. PMID:25869135

  8. Odorous compounds from a cyanobacterium in a water purification plant in central Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Hu; P. C. Chiang

    1996-01-01

    Microorganisms that rapidly proliferated as brown granules and attached to the walls of a storage vessel in a municipal plant for water purification were cultured in the laboratory. From the cultured broth a distinctly offensive odor was detected and filamentous organisms were found predominant. The objectives of this work were to isolate and identify the odor-producing microorganisms and analyze the

  9. Characteristics of the Freshwater Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Grown in Iron-Limited Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Dang, T. C.; Fujii, M.; Rose, A. L.; Bligh, M.

    2012-01-01

    A continuous culturing system (chemostat) made of metal-free materials was successfully developed and used to maintain Fe-limited cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 at nanomolar iron (Fe) concentrations (20 to 50 nM total Fe). EDTA was used to maintain Fe in solution, with bioavailable Fe controlled by absorption of light by the ferric EDTA complex and resultant reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). A kinetic model describing Fe transformations and biological uptake was applied to determine the biologically available form of Fe (i.e., unchelated ferrous iron) that is produced by photoreductive dissociation of the ferric EDTA complex. Prediction by chemostat theory modified to account for the light-mediated formation of bioavailable Fe rather than total Fe was in good agreement with growth characteristics of M. aeruginosa under Fe limitation. The cellular Fe quota increased with increasing dilution rates in a manner consistent with the Droop theory. Short-term Fe uptake assays using cells maintained at steady state indicated that M. aeruginosa cells vary their maximum Fe uptake rate (?max) depending on the degree of Fe stress. The rate of Fe uptake was lower for cells grown under conditions of lower Fe availability (i.e., lower dilution rate), suggesting that cells in the continuous cultures adjusted to Fe limitation by decreasing ?max while maintaining a constant affinity for Fe. PMID:22210212

  10. A novel type of lycopene ?-cyclase in the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus MED4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Stickforth; Sabine Steiger; Wolfgang R. Hess; Gerhard Sandmann

    2003-01-01

    Chlorophyll-b-possessing cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus share the presence of high amounts of ?- and ?-carotenoids with green algae and higher plants. The branch point in carotenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of lycopene, for which in higher plants two distinct enzymes are required, ε- and ?-lycopene cyclase. All cyanobacteria studied so far possess a single ?-cyclase. Here, two different Prochlorococcus

  11. Iron Superoxide Dismutase Protects against Chilling Damage in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus species PCC79421

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Dave

    electron transport activ- ity. The sodB strain was more sensitive to chilling stress at 17°C than the wild, indicating that the FeSOD does not provide protection against severe chilling stress in light. Total SOD7942). Chilling stress has been shown to decrease cell viability (Siva et al., 1977), PET (Janz

  12. Nickel effects on phosphate uptake, alkaline phosphatase, and ATPase of a cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Asthana, R.K.; Singh, S.P.; Singh, R.K. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India))

    1992-01-01

    The ever increasing input of Ni in the environment either through geological or anthropogenic activities could lead drastic alterations in aquatic ecosystems and since cyanobacteria constitute the vital component of biosphere, the effects of Ni as a pollutant on such microbes seems to be of primary concern. In this paper, the authors present the effect of Ni on growth, phosphate uptake, alkaline phosphatase and membrane bound Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}-dependent ATPases in Nostoc muscorum ISU.

  13. Genomic analysis of parallel-evolved cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under acid stress.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Junji; Kanesaki, Yu; Iwata, Naoya; Asakura, Ryousuke; Funamizu, Kento; Tasaki, Rizumu; Agatsuma, Mina; Tahara, Hiroko; Matsuhashi, Ayumi; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Satoru; Ohta, Hisataka

    2015-08-01

    Experimental evolution is a powerful tool for clarifying phenotypic and genotypic changes responsible for adaptive evolution. In this study, we isolated acid-adapted Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803) strains to identify genes involved in acid tolerance. Synechocystis 6803 is rarely found in habitants with pH < 5.75. The parent (P) strain was cultured in BG-11 at pH 6.0. We gradually lowered the pH of the medium from pH 6.0 to pH 5.5 over 3 months. Our adapted cells could grow in acid stress conditions at pH 5.5, whereas the parent cells could not. We performed whole-genome sequencing and compared the acid-adapted and P strains, thereby identifying 11 SNPs in the acid-adapted strains, including in Fo F1-ATPase. To determine whether the SNP genes responded to acid stress, we examined gene expression in the adapted strains using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. sll0914, sll1496, sll0528, and sll1144 expressions increased under acid stress in the P strain, whereas sll0162, sll0163, slr0623, and slr0529 expressions decreased. There were no differences in the SNP genes expression levels between the P strain and two adapted strains, except for sll0528. These results suggest that SNPs in certain genes are involved in acid stress tolerance in Synechocystis 6803. PMID:25736465

  14. Development of cyanobacterium-based biofilms and their in vitro evaluation for agriculturally useful traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prasanna; S. Pattnaik; T. C. K Sugitha; L. Nain; A. K. Saxena

    2011-01-01

    The ability of cyanobacteria to be useful as matrices for agriculturally important bacteria was evaluated. Biofilms were generated\\u000a with the selected strain Anabaena torulosa after co-culturing with Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas striata, Serratia marcescens, and Mesorhizobium ciceri. The biochemical attributes were compared with individual bacterial and cyanobacterial cultures. The biofilms were characterized\\u000a in terms of proteins, chlorophyll, IAA production, acetylene-reducing activity,

  15. Effect of Glucose Utilization on Nitrite Excretion by the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, J. C.; Chávez, S.; Muro-Pastor, M. I.; Candau, P.; Florencio, F. J.

    1993-01-01

    Up to 1 mM nitrite was excreted by Synechocystis strain 6803 cells growing under mixotrophic or photoheterotrophic conditions. This excretion is not due to a lower ratio of nitrite and nitrate reductase activities in the presence of glucose but seems to be related to a shortage of reduced ferredoxin, their electron donor, as a result of a decrease in noncyclic photosynthetic flow observed under these circumstances. Because about 60% of the reduced nitrate is excreted, the potential utilization of cyanobacteria for removal of nitrate from contaminated waters containing high concentrations of organic compounds is questioned. PMID:16349056

  16. Electron Transport Controls Glutamine Synthetase Activity in the Facultative Heterotrophic Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, J. C.; Crespo, J. L.; Garcia-Dominguez, M.; Florencio, F. J.

    1995-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was inactivated in vivo by transferring cells from light to darkness or by incubation with the photosynthetic inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea but not with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone. Addition of glucose prevented both dark and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea GS inactivation. In a Synechocystis psbE-psbF mutant (T1297) lacking photosystem II, glucose was required to maintain active GS, even in the light. However, in nitrogen-starved T1297 cells the removal of glucose did not affect GS activity. The fact that dark-inactivated GS was reactivated in vitro by the same treatments that reactivate the ammonium-inactivated GS points out that both nitrogen metabolism and redox state of the cells lead to the same molecular regulatory mechanism in the control of GS activity. Using GS antibodies we detected that dark-inactivated GS displayed a different electrophoretic migration with respect to the active form in nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but not in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The possible pathway to modulate GS activity by the electron transport flow in Synechocystis cells is discussed. PMID:12228640

  17. A transcriptional-switch model for Slr1738-controlled gene expression in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein-DNA interactions play a crucial role in the life of biological organisms in controlling transcription, regulation, as well as DNA recombination and repair. The deep understanding of these processes, which requires the atomic description of the interactions occurring between the proteins and their DNA partners is often limited by the absence of a 3D structure of such complexes. Results In this study, using a method combining sequence homology, structural analogy modeling and biochemical data, we first build the 3D structure of the complex between the poorly-characterized PerR-like regulator Slr1738 and its target DNA, which controls the defences against metal and oxidative stresses in Synechocystis. In a second step, we propose an expanded version of the Slr1738-DNA structure, which accommodates the DNA binding of Slr1738 multimers, a feature likely operating in the complex Slr1738-mediated regulation of stress responses. Finally, in agreement with experimental data we present a 3D-structure of the Slr1738-DNA complex resulting from the binding of multimers of the FUR-like regulator onto its target DNA that possesses internal repeats. Conclusion Using a combination of different types of data, we build and validate a relevant model of the tridimensional structure of a biologically important protein-DNA complex. Then, based on published observations, we propose more elaborated multimeric models that may be biologically important to understand molecular mechanisms. PMID:22289274

  18. Cytotoxic Veraguamides, Alkynyl Bromide-containing Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium cf. Oscillatoria margaritifera

    PubMed Central

    Mevers, Emily; Liu, Wei-Ting; Engene, Niclas; Mohimani, Hosein; Byrum, Tara; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Spadafora, Carmenza; Gerwick, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A family of cancer cell cytotoxic cyclodepsipeptides, veraguamides A-C (1-3) and H-L (4-8), were isolated from a collection of cf. Oscillatoria margaritifera obtained from the Coiba National Park, Panama as part of the Panama International Cooperation Biodiversity Group (ICBG) program. The planar structure of veraguamide A (1) was deduced by 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry whereas the structures of 2-8 were mainly determined by a combination of 1H NMR and MS2/MS3 techniques. These new compounds are analogous to the mollusk-derived kulomo'opunalide natural products, with two of the veraguamides (C and H) containing the same terminal alkyne moiety. However, four veraguamides, A, B, K and L, also feature an alkynyl bromide, a functionality that has only been previously observed in one other marine natural product, jamaicamide A. Veraguamide A showed potent cytotoxicity to the H-460 human lung cancer cell line (LD50 = 141 nM). PMID:21488639

  19. Ultrastructure of the membrane systems in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Liberton; R. Howard Berg; John Heuser; Robin Roth; Himadri B. Pakrasi

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  Among prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are unique in having highly differentiated internal membrane systems. Like other Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, cyanobacteria such as Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 have a cell envelope consisting of a plasma membrane, peptidoglycan layer, and outer membrane. In addition,\\u000a these organisms have an internal system of thylakoid membranes where the electron transfer reactions of photosynthesis and\\u000a respiration occur. A

  20. Programmed cell death in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium mediates carbon and nitrogen export

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Edo; Avishay, Itamar; Bidle, Kay D; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    The extent of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) export to the deep ocean depends upon the efficacy of the biological pump that transports primary production to depth, thereby preventing its recycling in the upper photic zone. The dinitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) Trichodesmium spp. contributes significantly to oceanic C and N cycling by forming extensive blooms in nutrient-poor tropical and subtropical regions. These massive blooms generally collapse several days after forming, but the cellular mechanism responsible, along with the magnitude of associated C and N export processes, are as yet unknown. Here, we used a custom-made, 2-m high water column to simulate a natural bloom and to specifically test and quantify whether the programmed cell death (PCD) of Trichodesmium mechanistically regulates increased vertical flux of C and N. Our findings demonstrate that extremely rapid development and abrupt, PCD-induced demise (within 2–3 days) of Trichodesmium blooms lead to greatly elevated excretions of transparent exopolymers and a massive downward pulse of particulate organic matter. Our results mechanistically link autocatalytic PCD and bloom collapse to quantitative C and N export fluxes, suggesting that PCD may have an impact on the biological pump efficiency in the oceans. PMID:23887173

  1. Characterization of three bioenergetically active respiratory terminal oxidases in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Pils, D; Schmetterer, G

    2001-09-25

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains three respiratory terminal oxidases (RTOs): cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), quinol oxidase (Cyd), and alternate RTO (ARTO). Mutants lacking combinations of the RTOs were used to characterize these key enzymes of respiration. Pentachlorophenol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide inhibited Cyd completely, but had little effect on electron transport to the other RTOs. KCN inhibited all three RTOs but the in vivo K(I) for Cox and Cyd was quite different (7 vs. 27 microM), as was their affinity for oxygen (K(M) 1.0 vs. 0.35 microM). ARTO has a very low respiratory activity. However, when uptake of 3-O-methylglucose, an active H+ co-transport, was used to monitor energization of the cytoplasmic membrane, ARTO was similarly effective as the other RTOs. As removal of the gene for cytochrome c(553) had the same effects as removal of ARTO genes, we propose that the ARTO might be a second Cox. The possible functions, localization and regulation of the RTOs are discussed. PMID:11583851

  2. Upregulation of Plasmid Genes during Stationary Phase in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803, a Cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Berla, Bertram M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed DNA microarrays to identify highly expressed genes during stationary-phase growth of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Many identified genes are on endogenous plasmids, with copy numbers between 0.4 and 7 per chromosome. The promoters of such genes will be useful for synthetic biology applications with this phototrophic host. PMID:22636001

  3. Molecular Characterization of a Novel Peroxidase from the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. Strain PCC 7120 ?

    PubMed Central

    Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Kamiike, Takaaki; Hashimoto, Naoya; Ashida, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    The open reading frame alr1585 of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 encodes a heme-dependent peroxidase (Anabaena peroxidase [AnaPX]) belonging to the novel DyP-type peroxidase family (EC 1.11.1.X). We cloned and heterologously expressed the active form of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was a 53-kDa tetrameric protein with a pI of 3.68, a low pH optima (pH 4.0), and an optimum reaction temperature of 35°C. Biochemical characterization revealed an iron protoporphyrin-containing heme peroxidase with a broad specificity for aromatic substrates such as guaiacol, 4-aminoantipyrine and pyrogallol. The enzyme efficiently catalyzed the decolorization of anthraquinone dyes like Reactive Blue 5, Reactive Blue 4, Reactive Blue 114, Reactive Blue 119, and Acid Blue 45 with decolorization rates of 262, 167, 491, 401, and 256 ?M·min?1, respectively. The apparent Km and kcat/Km values for Reactive Blue 5 were 3.6 ?M and 1.2 × 107 M?1 s?1, respectively, while the apparent Km and kcat/Km values for H2O2 were 5.8 ?M and 6.6 × 106 M?1 s?1, respectively. In contrast, the decolorization activity of AnaPX toward azo dyes was relatively low but was significantly enhanced 2- to ?50-fold in the presence of the natural redox mediator syringaldehyde. The specificity and catalytic efficiency for hydrogen donors and synthetic dyes show the potential application of AnaPX as a useful alternative of horseradish peroxidase or fungal DyPs. To our knowledge, this study represents the only extensive report in which a bacterial DyP has been tested in the biotransformation of synthetic dyes. PMID:19801472

  4. Cellular Dynamics Drives the Emergence of Supracellular Structure in the Cyanobacterium, Phormidium sp. KS

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Naoki; Katsumata, Yutaro; Sato, Kaoru; Tajima, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Motile filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Arthrospira, are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments. As noted by Nägeli in 1860, many of them form complex three-dimensional or two-dimensional structures, such as biofilm, weed-like thalli, bundles of filaments and spirals, which we call supracellular structures. In all of these structures, individual filaments incessantly move back and forth. The structures are, therefore, macroscopic, dynamic structures that are continuously changing their microscopic arrangement of filaments. In the present study, we analyzed quantitatively the movement of individual filaments of Phormidium sp. KS grown on agar plates. Junctional pores, which have been proposed to drive cell movement by mucilage/slime secretion, were found to align on both sides of each septum. The velocity of movement was highest just after the reversal of direction and, then, attenuated exponentially to a final value before the next reversal of direction. This kinetics is compatible with the “slime gun” model. A higher agar concentration restricts the movement more severely and, thus, resulted in more spiral formation. The spiral is a robust form compatible with non-homogeneous movements of different parts of a long filament. We propose a model of spiral formation based on the microscopic movement of filaments. PMID:25460162

  5. Evidence for saxitoxins production by the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in a French recreational water body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ledreux; S. Thomazeau; A. Catherine; C. Duval; C. Yéprémian; A. Marie; C. Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, a scientific consensus has emerged regarding the increasing frequency and severity of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater environments. Consequently, recreational and drinking water bodies are now increasingly monitored by local authorities to prevent animal and human poisoning related to cyanobacteria and their toxins. A survey of a water body used for recreational activities (at Champs-sur-Marne, Paris

  6. First report of saxitoxin production by a species of the freshwater benthic cyanobacterium, Scytonema Agardh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine M. J. Smith; Susanna A. Wood; Roel van Ginkel; Paul A. Broady; Sally Gaw

    2011-01-01

    Saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSP) are neurotoxins produced by some species of freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. Samples collected from the metaphyton of a drinking-water supply’s pre-treatment reservoir and a small eutrophic lake in New Zealand returned positive results when screened using a Jellett PSP Rapid Test Kit. The dominant species in the sample was identified as Scytonema cf.

  7. Paralytic shellfish poisons produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae NH-5.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N A; Carmichael, W W

    1986-01-01

    A single filament clonal isolate of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae was made from a water bloom sample taken at a small pond near Durham, New Hampshire, in 1980. When batch cultured the strain was toxic to mice and had an i.p. LD50 of about 5.0 mg/kg. Using an extraction procedure originally designed for paralytic shellfish poisons and other neurotoxins of freshwater cyanobacteria, a purification method was developed. The procedure involved acidified water/ethanol extraction of the cells followed by ultrafiltration, gel filtration, use of C18 cartridges to remove pigments, ion-exchange and high performance liquid chromatography using u.v. detection at 220 or 240 nm. Thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography results indicate that Aphanizomenon flos-aquae NH-5 may produce paralytic shellfish poisons, mainly neo-saxitoxin and saxitoxin. Three labile toxins were also detected which were not similar to any of the known paralytic shellfish poisons. PMID:3085292

  8. Crossbyanols A-D, Toxic Brominated Polyphenyl Ethers from the Hawai'ian Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya crossbyana

    E-print Network

    Smith, Jennifer E.

    DriVe, La Jolla, California 92093, Botany Department, UniVersity of Hawai'i at Manoa, 3190 Maile Way, Honolulu, Hawai'i 96822, and Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uni crossbyana (Tilden) Anagnostidis et Koma´rek 1988 reported on Honaunau reef in Hawai'i.2 Dense colonies of L

  9. Light-Limited Growth Rate Modulates Nitrate Inhibition of Dinitrogen Fixation in the Marine Unicellular Cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nathan S.; Hutchins, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is the dominant supply of new nitrogen (N) to the oceans, but is often inhibited in the presence of fixed N sources such as nitrate (NO3?). Anthropogenic fixed N inputs to the ocean are increasing, but their effect on marine N2 fixation is uncertain. Thus, global estimates of new oceanic N depend on a fundamental understanding of factors that modulate N source preferences by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. We examined the unicellular diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii (strain WH0003) to determine how the light-limited growth rate influences the inhibitory effects of fixed N on N2 fixation. When growth (µ) was limited by low light (µ?=?0.23 d?1), short-term experiments indicated that 0.4 µM NH4+ reduced N2-fixation by ?90% relative to controls without added NH4+. In fast-growing, high-light-acclimated cultures (µ?=?0.68 d?1), 2.0 µM NH4+ was needed to achieve the same effect. In long-term exposures to NO3?, inhibition of N2 fixation also varied with growth rate. In high-light-acclimated, fast-growing cultures, NO3? did not inhibit N2-fixation rates in comparison with cultures growing on N2 alone. Instead NO3? supported even faster growth, indicating that the cellular assimilation rate of N2 alone (i.e. dinitrogen reduction) could not support the light-specific maximum growth rate of Crocosphaera. When growth was severely light-limited, NO3? did not support faster growth rates but instead inhibited N2-fixation rates by 55% relative to controls. These data rest on the basic tenet that light energy is the driver of photoautotrophic growth while various nutrient substrates serve as supports. Our findings provide a novel conceptual framework to examine interactions between N source preferences and predict degrees of inhibition of N2 fixation by fixed N sources based on the growth rate as controlled by light. PMID:25503244

  10. Characterization of insertion sequence IS892 and related elements from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120

    SciTech Connect

    Yuping Cai (Michigan State Univ. Plant Research Lab., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-09-01

    IS892, one of the several insertion sequence (IS) elements discovered in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, is 1,675 bp with 24-bp near-perfect inverted terminal repeats and has two open reading frames (ORFs) that could code for proteins of 233 and 137 amino acids. Upon insertion into target sites, this IS generated an 8-bp directly repeated target duplication. A 32-bp sequence in the region between ORF1 and ORF2 is similar to the sequence of the inverted termini. Similar inverted repeats are found within each of those three segments, and the sequences of these repeats bear some similarity to the 11-bp direct repeats flanking the 11-kb insertion interrupting the nifD gene of this strain. A sequence similar to that of a binding site for the Escherichia coli integration host factor is found about 120 bp from the left end of IS892. Partial nucleotide sequences of active IS elements IS 892N and IS892T, members of the IS892 family from the same Anabaena strain, were shown to be very similar to the sequence of IS892.

  11. A Gene Encoding a Protein Related to Eukaryotic Protein Kinases from the Filamentous Heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Cai Zhang

    1993-01-01

    Protein kinases play essential roles in the development of eukaryotic cells. These enzymes display various degrees of sequence similarity in their catalytic domains. This conservation has allowed the identification of protein kinases in a variety of organisms, including the Gram-negative bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. In this study, sequences related to those encoding eukaryotic protein kinases were amplified by PCR from DNA

  12. Factors affecting the photoproduction of ammonia from dinitrogen and water by the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 33047

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, J.L.; Guerrero, M.G.; Losada, M.

    1987-04-01

    Synthesis of ammonia from dinitrogen and water by suspensions of Anabaena sp. strain ATCC 33047 treated with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor L-methionine-D,L-sulfoximine is strictly dependent on light. Under otherwise optimal conditions, the yield of ammonia production is influenced by irradiance, as well as by the density, depth, and turbulence of the cell suspension. The interaction among these factors seems to determine the actual amount of light available to each single cell or filament in the suspension for the photoproduction process. Under convenient illumination, the limiting factor in the synthesis of ammonia seems to be the cellular nitrogenase activity level, but under limiting light conditions the limiting factor could, however, be the assimilatory power required for nitrogen fixation. Photosynthetic ammonia production from atmospheric nitrogen and water can operate with an efficiency of ca. 10% of its theoretical maximum, representing a remarkable process for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy.

  13. Control of nitrogenase recovery from oxygen inactivation by ammonia in the cyanobacterium anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.; Van Baalen, C. (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas (USA)); Tabita, F.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA) Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The control of nitrogenase recovery from inactivation by oxygen was studied in Anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047). Nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in cultures grown in 1% CO{sub 2} in air was inhibited by exposure to 1% CO{sub 2}-99% O{sub 2} and allowed to recover in the presence of high oxygen tensions. Cultures exposed to hyperbaric levels of oxygen in the presence of 10 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were incapable of regaining nitrogenase activity, whereas control cultures returned to 65 to 80% of their original activity within about 3 h after exposure to high oxygen tension. In contrast to the regulation of heterocyst differentiation and nitrogenase synthesis, recovery from oxygen inactivation in this organism was shown to be under the control of NH{sub 4}{sup +} rather than NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}.

  14. Energy transfer in the chlorophyll f-containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris, analyzed by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshiyuki; Chen, Min; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Tomo, Tatsuya

    2015-08-01

    We prepared thylakoid membranes from Halomicronema hongdechloris cells grown under white fluorescent light or light from far-red (740 nm) light-emitting diodes, and observed their energy-transfer processes shortly after light excitation. Excitation-relaxation processes were examined by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopies. Two time-resolved fluorescence techniques were used: time-correlated single photon counting and fluorescence up-conversion methods. The thylakoids from the cells grown under white light contained chlorophyll (Chl) a of different energies, but were devoid of Chl f. At room temperature, the excitation energy was equilibrated among the Chl a pools with a time constant of 6.6 ps. Conversely, the thylakoids from the cells grown under far-red light possessed both Chl a and Chl f. Two energy-transfer pathways from Chl a to Chl f were identified with time constants of 1.3 and 5.0 ps, and the excitation energy was equilibrated between the Chl a and Chl f pools at room temperature. We also examined the energy-transfer pathways from phycobilisome to the two photosystems under white-light cultivation. PMID:25648637

  15. Dissection of respiration and photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 by the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takako; Sonoike, Kintake

    2015-03-01

    In cyanobacteria, photosynthesis and respiration share some components of electron transport chain. To explore the interaction between photosynthesis and respiration, we monitored the change in the yield of chlorophyll fluorescence due to state transition in ndh genes disruptants, deficient in NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes serving for respiration or for carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM). The disruption of ndh genes essential for respiration resulted in low levels of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in the dark (NPQDark) as well as in the low light (NPQLL). The lowered NPQDark and NPQLL in these ndh genes disruptants could be ascribed to the oxidation of the PQ pool due to the poor electron supply from NDH-1 complexes in respiratory electron transport. On the other hand, only NPQLL decreased upon disruption of the ndh genes essential for CCM. We propose that, in the disruptants of these ndh genes, the PQ pool is oxidized in the light through the increased photosystem I content, resulting in the lowered NPQLL. Apparently, the two different subsets of ndh genes affect photosynthetic electron transport although in totally different manners. It is also suggested that monitoring state transition is a simple method to evaluate the condition of photosynthesis, respiration and CCM. PMID:25723341

  16. A green light-absorbing phycoerythrin is present in the high-light-adapted marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus sp. MED4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Steglich; Nicole Frankenberg-Dinkel; Sigrid Penno; Wolfgang R. Hess

    2005-01-01

    Summary In the high-light-adapted unicellular marine cyano- bacterium Prochlorococcus sp. MED4 the cpeB gene is the only gene coding for a structural phycobilipro- tein. The absence of any other phycoerythrin gene in the fully sequenced genome of this organism, the previous inability to detect a gene product, and the mutation of two out of four cysteine residues, nor- mally involved

  17. Carbon-13 NMR studies of salt shock-induced carbohydrate turnover in the marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tel-Or, E.; Spath, S.; Packer, L.; Mehlhorn, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon turnover in response to abrupt changes in salinity, including the mobilization of glycogen for use in osmoregulation was studied with pulse-chase strategies utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-silent and NMR-detectable 12C and 13C isotopes, respectively. Growth of Agmenellum quadruplicatum in 30%-enriched 13C bicarbonate provided sufficient NMR-detectability of intracellular organic osmoregulants for these studies. A comparison of NMR spectra of intact cells and their ethanol extracts showed that the intact cell data were suitable for quantitative work, and, when combined with ESR measurements of cell volumes, yielded intracellular glucosylglycerol concentrations without disrupting the cells. NMR pulse-chase experiments were used to show that 13C-enriched glycogen, which had previously been accumulated by the cells under nitrogen-limited growth at low salinities, could be utilized for the synthesis of glucosylglycerol when the cells were abruptly transferred to hypersaline media, but only in the light. It was also shown that the accumulation of glucosylglycerol in the light occurred on a time scale similar to that of cell doubling. Depletion of glucosylglycerol when cells abruptly transferred to lower salinities appeared to be rapid--the intracellular pool of this osmoregulant was decreased 2-fold within 2 hours of hypotonic shock.

  18. Arsenate uptake, sequestration and reduction by a freshwater cyanobacterium: a potenial biologic control of arsenic in South Texas

    E-print Network

    Markley, Christopher Thomas

    2005-08-29

    ). This suggests photoautotrophic organisms have the ability to biotransform inorganic arsenic to organic forms. Meharg and MacNair (1991) shows arsenate uptake by the grass H. Lanatus occurs through phosphate uptake system. The marine alga Chlorella vulgaris...

  19. Cadmium exerts its toxic effects on photosynthesis via a cascade mechanism in the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Tünde; Zsiros, Ottó; Kis, Mihály; Garab, Gy?z?; Kovács, László

    2012-12-01

    Despite intense research, the mechanism of Cd(2+) toxicity on photosynthesis is still elusive because of the multiplicity of the inhibitory effects and different barriers in plants. The quick Cd(2+) uptake in Synechocystis PCC 6803 permits the direct interaction of cadmium with the photosynthetic machinery and allows the distinction between primary and secondary effects. We show that the CO(2) -dependent electron transport is rapidly inhibited upon exposing the cells to 40?µm Cd(2+) (50% inhibition in ?15?min). However, during this time we observe only symptoms of photosystem I acceptor side limitation and a build of an excitation pressure on the reaction centres, as indicated by light-induced P700 redox transients, O(2) polarography and changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. Inhibitory effects on photosystem II electron transport and the degradation of the reaction centre protein D1 can only be observed after several hours, and only in the light, as revealed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, thermoluminescence and immunoblotting. Despite the marked differences in the manifestations of these short- and long-term effects, they exhibit virtually the same Cd(2+) concentration dependence. These data strongly suggest a cascade mechanism of the toxic effect, with a primary effect in the dark reactions. PMID:22583050

  20. Sigma factor SigC is required for heat acclimation of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilona Tuominen; Maija Pollari; Eneas Aguirre von Wobeser; Esa Tyystjärvi; Bas W. Ibelings; Hans C. P. Matthijs; Taina Tyystjärvi

    2008-01-01

    The role of the primary-like sigma factor SigC was studied in Synechocystis. Under high temperature stress (48°C) the ?sigC inactivation strain showed a lower survival rate than the control strain. The ?sigC strain grew poorly at 43°C in liquid cultures under normal air. However, change to 3% CO2 enhanced growth of ?sigC at 43°C. Differences in expression of many genes

  1. Coupling of Cellular Processes and Their Coordinated Oscillations under Continuous Light in Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, S; Gaudana, Sandeep B; Vinh, Nguyen X; Viswanathan, Ganesh A; Chetty, Madhu; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-01-01

    Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 (henceforth Cyanothece), temporally separate the oxygen sensitive nitrogen fixation from oxygen evolving photosynthesis not only under diurnal cycles (LD) but also in continuous light (LL). However, recent reports demonstrate that the oscillations in LL occur with a shorter cycle time of ~11 h. We find that indeed, majority of the genes oscillate in LL with this cycle time. Genes that are upregulated at a particular time of day under diurnal cycle also get upregulated at an equivalent metabolic phase under LL suggesting tight coupling of various cellular events with each other and with the cell's metabolic status. A number of metabolic processes get upregulated in a coordinated fashion during the respiratory phase under LL including glycogen degradation, glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These precede nitrogen fixation apparently to ensure sufficient energy and anoxic environment needed for the nitrogenase enzyme. Photosynthetic phase sees upregulation of photosystem II, carbonate transport, carbon concentrating mechanism, RuBisCO, glycogen synthesis and light harvesting antenna pigment biosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongates PCC 7942, a non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, expression of a relatively smaller fraction of genes oscillates under LL condition with the major periodicity being 24 h. In contrast, the entire cellular machinery of Cyanothece orchestrates coordinated oscillation in anticipation of the ensuing metabolic phase in both LD and LL. These results may have important implications in understanding the timing of various cellular events and in engineering cyanobacteria for biofuel production. PMID:25973856

  2. Arsenate uptake, sequestration and reduction by a freshwater cyanobacterium: a potenial biologic control of arsenic in South Texas 

    E-print Network

    Markley, Christopher Thomas

    2005-08-29

    -surface environments. Elevated arsenic levels are common in South Texas from geogenic processes (weathering of As-containing rock units) and anthropogenic sources (a byproduct from decades of uranium mining). Sediments collected from South Texas show low reactive iron...

  3. Management of a toxic cyanobacterium bloom (Planktothrix rubescens) affecting an Italian drinking water basin: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bogialli, Sara; Nigro di Gregorio, Federica; Lucentini, Luca; Ferretti, Emanuele; Ottaviani, Massimo; Ungaro, Nicola; Abis, Pier Paolo; Cannarozzi de Grazia, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    An extraordinary bloom of Planktothrix rubescens, which can produce microcystins (MCs), was observed in early 2009 in the Occhito basin, used even as a source of drinking water in Southern Italy. Several activities, coordinated by a task force, were implemented to assess and manage the risk associated to drinking water contaminated by cyanobacteria. Main actions were: evaluation of analytical protocols for screening and confirmatory purpose, monitoring the drinking water supply chain, training of operators, a dedicated web site for risk communication. ELISA assay was considered suitable for health authorities as screening method for MCs and to optimize frequency of sampling according to alert levels, and as internal control for the water supplier. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method able to quantify 9 MCs was optimized with the aim of supporting health authorities in a comprehensive risk evaluation based on the relative toxicity of different congeners. Short, medium, and long-term corrective actions were implemented to mitigate the health risk. Preoxidation with chlorine dioxide followed by flocculation and settling have been shown to be effective in removing MCs in the water treatment plant. Over two years, despite the high levels of cyanobacteria (up to 160 × 10(6) cells/L) and MCs (28.4 ?g/L) initially reached in surface waters, the drinking water distribution was never limited. PMID:23167492

  4. Counteractive Action of Nitric Oxide on the Decrease of Nitrogenase Activity Induced by Enhanced Ultraviolet-B Radiation in Cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingui Xue; Shiweng Li; Baoqin Zhang; Xiaoxia Shi; Sijing Chang

    2011-01-01

    The experimental enhancement of UV-B radiation resulted in damage to chlorophyll-a in Spirulina platensis 794, and the degree of this damage was modified by chemical treatments. The addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP),\\u000a a donor of nitric oxide (NO), to cultures of Spirulina platensis 794 could markedly alleviate the damage to chlorophyll-a caused by enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation. Exposure of N2-fixing

  5. Trichormamides C and D, antiproliferative cyclic lipopeptides from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium cf. Oscillatoria sp. UIC 10045.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shangwen; Kang, Hahk-Soo; Krunic, Aleksej; Chen, Wei-Lun; Yang, Jilai; Woodard, John L; Fuchs, James R; Hyun Cho, Sang; Franzblau, Scott G; Swanson, Steven M; Orjala, Jimmy

    2015-07-01

    Extract from the cultured freshwater cf. Oscillatoria sp. UIC 10045 showed antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cell line. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new cyclic lipopeptides, named trichormamides C (1) and D (2). The planar structures were determined by combined analyses of HRESIMS, Q-TOF ESIMS/MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of the amino acid residues were assigned by advanced Marfey's analysis after partial and complete acid hydrolysis. Trichormamides C (1) is a cyclic undecapeptide and D (2) is a cyclic dodecapeptide, both containing a lipophilic ?-aminodecanoic acid residue. Trichormamide C (1) displayed antiproliferative activities against HT-29 and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.0?M, respectively, as well as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity with MIC value of 23.8?g/mL (17.3?M). Trichormamide D (2) was found to be less potent against both HT-29 and MDA-MB-435 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 11.5 and 11.7?M, respectively. PMID:26001342

  6. Low-carbon acclimation in carboxysome-less and photorespiratory mutants of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Claudia; Huege, Jan; Engelhardt, Annerose; Wittink, Floyd; Laue, Michael; Matthijs, Hans C P; Kopka, Joachim; Bauwe, Hermann; Hagemann, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Using metabolic and transcriptomic phenotyping, we studied acclimation of cyanobacteria to low inorganic carbon (LC) conditions and the requirements for coordinated alteration of metabolism and gene expression. To analyse possible metabolic signals for LC sensing and compensating reactions, the carboxysome-less mutant ?ccmM and the photorespiratory mutant ?glcD1/D2 were compared with wild-type (WT) Synechocystis. Metabolic phenotyping revealed accumulation of 2-phosphoglycolate (2PG) in ?ccmM and of glycolate in ?glcD1/D2 in LC- but also in high inorganic carbon (HC)-grown mutant cells. The accumulation of photorespiratory metabolites provided evidence for the oxygenase activity of RubisCO at HC. The global gene expression patterns of HC-grown ?ccmM and ?glcD1/D2 showed differential expression of many genes involved in photosynthesis, high-light stress and N assimilation. In contrast, the transcripts of LC-specific genes, such as those for inorganic carbon transporters and components of the carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM), remained unchanged in HC cells. After a shift to LC, ?glcD1/D2 and WT cells displayed induction of many of the LC-inducible genes, whereas ?ccmM lacked similar changes in expression. From the coincidence of the presence of 2PG in ?ccmM without CCM induction and of glycolate in ?glcD1/D2 with CCM induction, we regard a direct role for 2PG as a metabolic signal for the induction of CCM during LC acclimation as less likely. Instead, our data suggest a potential role for glycolate as a signal molecule for enhanced expression of CCM genes. PMID:22096149

  7. An Integrative Approach to Energy, Carbon, and Redox Metabolism in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Special Report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbeek, R.

    2003-06-30

    The main objectives for the first year were to produce a detailed metabolic reconstruction of synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 especially in interrelated areas of photosynthesis, respiration, and central carbon metabolism to support a more complete understanding and modeling of this organism. Additionally, Integrated Genomics, Inc., provided detailed bioinformatic analysis of selected functional systems related to carbon and energy generation and utilization, and of the corresponding pathways, functional roles and individual genes to support wet lab experiments by collaborators.

  8. Enhancing the light-driven production of D-lactate by engineering cyanobacterium using a combinational strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Tao, Fei; Ni, Jun; Wang, Yu; Yao, Feng; Xu, Ping

    2015-05-01

    It is increasingly attractive to engineer cyanobacteria for bulk production of chemicals from CO2. However, cofactor bias of cyanobacteria is different from bacteria that prefer NADH, which hampers cyanobacterial strain engineering. In this study, the key enzyme D-lactate dehydrogenase (LdhD) from Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC11842 was engineered to reverse its favored cofactor from NADH to NADPH. Then, the engineered enzyme was introduced into Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 to construct an efficient light-driven system that produces D-lactic acid from CO2. Mutation of LdhD drove a fundamental shift in cofactor preference towards NADPH, and increased D-lactate productivity by over 3.6-fold. We further demonstrated that introduction of a lactic acid transporter and bubbling CO2-enriched air also enhanced D-lactate productivity. Using this combinational strategy, increased D-lactate concentration and productivity were achieved. The present strategy may also be used to engineer cyanobacteria for producing other useful chemicals.

  9. Sequence conservation among the glucose transporter from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and mammalian glucose transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg R. Schmetterer

    1990-01-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is capable of facultative photoheterotrophy with glucose as the sole carbon source. Eight mutants that were unable to take up glucose were transformed with plasmids from pooled gene banks of wild-type Synechocystis DNA prepared in an Escherichia coli vector that does not replicate in Synechocystis. One mutant (EG216) could be complemented with all gene banks to

  10. Ichthyotoxic Brominated Diphenyl Ethers from a Mixed Assemblage of a Red Alga and Cyanobacterium: Structure Clarification and Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Takashi L.; Cao, Zhengyu; Murray, Thomas F.; Gerwick, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Primary fractions from the extract of a tropical red alga mixed with filamentous cyanobacteria, collected from Papua New Guinea, were active in a neurotoxicity assay. Bioassay guided isolation led to two natural products (1, 2) with relatively potent calcium ion influx properties. The more prevalent of the neurotoxic compounds (1) was characterized by extensive NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, and shown to be identical to a polybrominated diphenyl ether metabolite present in the literature, but reported with different NMR properties. To clarify this anomalous result, we synthesized a candidate isomeric polybrominated diphenyl ether (3), but this clearly had different NMR shifts than the reported compound. We conclude that the original isolate of 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)phenol was contaminated with a minor compound, giving rise to the observed anomalous NMR shifts. The second and less abundant natural product (2) isolated in this study was a more highly brominated species. All three compounds showed a low micromolar ability to increase intracellular calcium ion concentrations in mouse neocortical neurons as well as toxicity to zebrafish. Because polybrominated diphenyl ethers have both natural as well as anthropomorphic origins, and accumulate in marine organisms at higher trophic level (mammals, fish, birds), these neurotoxic properties are of environmental significance and concern. PMID:19638282

  11. Production of poly-?-hydroxybutyrate by thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19, under phosphate-limited conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motomu Nishioka; Katsuya Nakai; Masato Miyake; Yasuo Asada; Masahito Taya

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. MA19, grown autotrophically under phosphate-limited conditions at 50 °C, produced poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) when intracellular phosphate content was 0.043–0.076mmol per g of cellular components. In the culture for 260h using Ca3(PO4)2 as a phosphate source, strain MA19 accumulated PHB at 55% (w\\/w) of the dry cells and the amount of PHB produced was 2.4gl-1 which was almost twice that

  12. RNA-Seq analysis and targeted mutagenesis for improved free fatty acid production in an engineered cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-energy-density biofuels are typically derived from the fatty acid pathway, thus establishing free fatty acids (FFAs) as important fuel precursors. FFA production using photosynthetic microorganisms like cyanobacteria allows for direct conversion of carbon dioxide into fuel precursors. Recent studies investigating cyanobacterial FFA production have demonstrated the potential of this process, yet FFA production was also shown to have negative physiological effects on the cyanobacterial host, ultimately limiting high yields of FFAs. Results Cyanobacterial FFA production was shown to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lead to increased cell membrane permeability. To identify genetic targets that may mitigate these toxic effects, RNA-seq analysis was used to investigate the host response of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Stress response, nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, and protein folding genes were up-regulated during FFA production while genes involved in carbon and hydrogen metabolisms were down-regulated. Select genes were targeted for mutagenesis to confirm their role in mitigating FFA toxicity. Gene knockout of two porins and the overexpression of ROS-degrading proteins and hypothetical proteins reduced the toxic effects of FFA production, allowing for improved growth, physiology, and FFA yields. Comparative transcriptomics, analyzing gene expression changes associated with FFA production and other stress conditions, identified additional key genes involved in cyanobacterial stress response. Conclusions A total of 15 gene targets were identified to reduce the toxic effects of FFA production. While single-gene targeted mutagenesis led to minor increases in FFA production, the combination of these targeted mutations may yield additional improvement, advancing the development of high-energy-density fuels derived from cyanobacteria. PMID:23919451

  13. Catalytic properties and reaction mechanism of the CrtO carotenoid ketolase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, Jürgen; Gerjets, Tanja; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2013-01-15

    CrtW and CrtO are two distinct non-homologous ?-carotene ketolases catalyzing the formation of echinenone and canthaxanthin. CrtO belongs to the CrtI family which comprises carotene desaturases and carotenoid oxidases. The CrtO protein from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been heterologously expressed, extracted and purified. Substrate specificity has been determined in vitro. The enzyme from Synechocystis is basically a mono ketolase. Nevertheless, small amounts of diketo canthaxanthin can be formed. The poor diketolation reaction could be explained by the low relative turnover numbers for the mono keto echinenone. Also other carotenoids with an unsubstituted ?-ionone ring were utilized with low conversion rates by CrtO regardless of the substitutions at the other end of the molecule. The CrtO ketolase was independent of oxygen and utilized an oxidized quinone as co-factor. In common to CrtI-type desaturases, the first catalytic step involved hydride transfer to the quinone. The stabilization reaction of the resulting carbo cation was a reaction with OH(-) forming a hydroxy group. Finally, the keto group resulted from two subsequent hydroxylations at the same C-atom and water elimination. This reaction mechanism was confirmed by in vitro conversion of the postulated hydroxy intermediates and by their enrichment and identification as trace intermediates during ketolation. PMID:23220023

  14. Identification of protein binding sites in the promoter regions of a light-responsive gene family in a cyanobacterium 

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Ulrich Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEIN BINDING BITEB IN TEE PROMOTER REGIONB OF A LIGHT RESPONSIVE GENE FAMILY IN A CYANOEACTERIUM A Thesis by ULRICH WOLFGANG MUELLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial f ulf i 1...lment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Biology ZDIBlTZPZCATION OP PROTEIN BINDINQ SITES IN TEB PROMOTER REGIONS OP A LIGHT RESPONSIVE SBBB FAMILY IN A CYANOBACTBRZUM A Thesis by ULRICH WOLFGANG...

  15. Genotypic composition and the relationship between genotypic composition and geographical proximity of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in western Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Kako; Hodoki, Yoshikuni; Kobayashi, Yuki; Okuda, Noboru; Nakano, Shin-ichi

    2013-04-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the bloom-forming harmful algae in freshwater ecosystems. We genetically characterized Microcystis populations during bloom-forming periods in various reservoirs, lakes, and ponds in Japan during 2009. Using phylogenetic analysis, we evaluated the relationship between current genotype expansions and geographic location within western Japan and intraspecific variation. Microcystis aeruginosa colonies were isolated at 15 sites and were analyzed by sequencing the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal operon, and the potential to produce toxins was assessed by PCR-based detection of the microcystin synthetase gene mcyG. In total, 171 colonies were separated into 41 genotypes. The highest genotypic composition was detected in the south basin of Lake Biwa and the lowest in Lagoon Iba. Cluster analysis indicated no obvious association between genotypic composition and geographic distance. Thus, clear genetic differentiation accompanied by geographic origins was not found in western Japan. The resulting neighbor-joining tree revealed 3 clusters, 2 of which contained strains that showed both nonamplification and amplification of the mcyG gene. PMID:23586751

  16. Biofilm and Planktonic Lifestyles Differently Support the Resistance of the Desert Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis Under Space and Martian Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqué, Mickael; Scalzi, Giuliano; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Billi, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    When Chroococcidiopsis sp. strain CCMEE 057 from the Sinai Desert and strain CCMEE 029 from the Negev Desert were exposed to space and Martian simulations in the dried status as biofilms or multilayered planktonic samples, the biofilms exhibited an enhanced rate of survival. Compared to strain CCMEE 029, biofilms of strain CCME 057 better tolerated UV polychromatic radiation (5 × 105 kJ/m2 attenuated with a 0.1 % neutral density filter) combined with space vacuum or Martian atmosphere of 780 Pa. CCMEE 029, on the other hand, failed to survive UV polychromatic doses higher than 1.5 × 103 kJ/m2. The induced damage to genomic DNA, plasma membranes and photosynthetic apparatus was quantified and visualized by means of PCR-based assays and CLSM imaging. Planktonic samples of both strains accumulated a higher amount of damage than did the biofilms after exposure to each simulation; CLSM imaging showed that photosynthetic pigment bleaching, DNA fragmentation and damaged plasma membranes occurred in the top 3-4 cell layers of both biofilms and of multilayered planktonic samples. Differences in the EPS composition were revealed by molecular probe staining as contributing to the enhanced endurance of biofilms compared to that of planktonic samples. Our results suggest that compared to strain CCMEE 029, biofilms of strain CCMEE 057 might better tolerate 1 year's exposure in space during the next EXPOSE-R2 mission.

  17. Phenological and liver antioxidant profiles of adult Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to toxic live cyanobacterium (Microcystis aeruginosa Kützing) cells.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Hanan M; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Ibrahem, Mai D

    2012-01-01

    Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) constitute the greater part of the phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa is amongst the most ubiquitously distributed cyanobacterial species, and almost invariably produces cyclic heptapeptide toxins called microcystins (MCs). The present study was designed to investigate the phenological and liver antioxidant profiles of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus chronically exposed to toxic live M. aeruginosa cells. Fish were grown in the absence and presence of M. aeruginosa in three different concentrations for seven days, and subsequently reared for another 30 days in the absence of the cyanobacteria. While cyanobacteria did not cause any fish mortality, there was a progressive development of yellowish discolouration in the livers of exposed fish. In the livers, the activities and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in response to the concentration of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, DNA fragmentation and DNA-protein crosslinks were measured. These parameters can thus be considered potential biomarkers for the fish exposure to M. aeruginosa. The present study sheds light on cyanobacterial blooms like health, environmental, and economic problem, respectively. PMID:23413757

  18. A Method for DNA Extraction from the Desert Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis and Its Application to Identification of ftsZ

    PubMed Central

    Billi, Daniela; Grilli Caiola, Maria; Paolozzi, Luciano; Ghelardini, Patrizia

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed for extraction of DNA from Chroococcidiopsis that overcomes obstacles posed by bacterial contamination and the presence of a thick envelope surrounding the cyanobacterial cells. The method is based on the resistance of Chroococcidiopsis to lysozyme and consists of a lysozyme treatment followed by osmotic shock that reduces the bacterial contamination by 3 orders of magnitude. Then DNase treatment is performed to eliminate DNA from the bacterial lysate. Lysis of Chroococcidiopsis cells is achieved by grinding with glass beads in the presence of hot phenol. Extracted DNA is further purified by cesium-chloride density gradient ultracentrifugation. This method permitted the first molecular approach to the study of Chroococcidiopsis, and a 570-bp fragment of the gene ftsZ was cloned and sequenced. PMID:9758840

  19. Impairment of O-antigen production confers resistance to grazing in a model amoeba–cyanobacterium predator–prey system

    PubMed Central

    Simkovsky, Ryan; Daniels, Emy F.; Tang, Karen; Huynh, Stacey C.; Golden, Susan S.; Brahamsha, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    The grazing activity of predators on photosynthetic organisms is a major mechanism of mortality and population restructuring in natural environments. Grazing is also one of the primary difficulties in growing cyanobacteria and other microalgae in large, open ponds for the production of biofuels, as contaminants destroy valuable biomass and prevent stable, continuous production of biofuel crops. To address this problem, we have isolated a heterolobosean amoeba, HGG1, that grazes upon unicellular and filamentous freshwater cyanobacterial species. We have established a model predator–prey system using this amoeba and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Application of amoebae to a library of mutants of S. elongatus led to the identification of a grazer-resistant knockout mutant of the wzm ABC O-antigen transporter gene, SynPCC7942_1126. Mutations in three other genes involved in O-antigen synthesis and transport also prevented the expression of O-antigen and conferred resistance to HGG1. Complementation of these rough mutants returned O-antigen expression and susceptibility to amoebae. Rough mutants are easily identifiable by appearance, are capable of autoflocculation, and do not display growth defects under standard laboratory growth conditions, all of which are desired traits for a biofuel production strain. Thus, preventing the production of O-antigen is a pathway for producing resistance to grazing by certain amoebae. PMID:23012457

  20. Ichthyotoxic brominated diphenyl ethers from a mixed assemblage of a red alga and cyanobacterium: Structure clarification and biological properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi L. Suyama; Zhengyu Cao; Thomas F. Murray; William H. Gerwick

    2010-01-01

    Primary fractions from the extract of a tropical red alga mixed with filamentous cyanobacteria, collected from Papua New Guinea, were active in a neurotoxicity assay. Bioassay-guided isolation led to two natural products (1,2) with relatively potent calcium ion influx properties. The more prevalent of the neurotoxic compounds (1) was characterized by extensive NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography, and shown

  1. Cylindrospermopsin accumulation and release by the benthic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp PCC 6506 under different light conditions and growth phases

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; extracellular; light intensity; growth phase INTRODUCTION Cyanobacteria are known to produce a variety of toxins, cylindrospermopsins, saxitoxins, nodularins, anatoxins and more recently beta-methylamino- L-alinine or BMAA. Although cytotoxin produced by several cyanobacterial species : Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Aphanizomenon

  2. Photo- and heterotrophic nitrogenase activity by the cyano-bacterium Nostoc in symbiosis with the bryophyte Anthoceros

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, N.A.; Meeks, J.C.

    1987-04-01

    In symbiosis with Anthoceros, Nostoc is thought to do little or no photosynthesis. However, light-dependent /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation by symbiotic Nostoc, freshly isolated from pure cultures of the reconstituted Anthoceros-Nostoc association, was 16% of that by free-living Nostoc. A DCMU-resistant mutant of Nostoc was isolated that fixed CO/sub 2/ at rates comparable to wild-type in both symbiotic and free-living growth states. To determine if symbiotic Nostoc can use its photosynthate directly to fix nitrogen, acetylene reduction by Anthoceros associations reconstituted with wild-type Nostoc was compared to associations with the DCMU-resistant mutant. In wild-type Anthoceros-Nostoc acetylene reduction was inhibited 97% by 5 ..mu..M DCMU, while inhibition of the DCMU-resistant Nostoc association was only 63%. Additions of glucose, fructose, maltose or sucrose to wild-type associations completely restored DCMU-inhibited acetylene reduction in the light. Acetylene reduction in the dark was stimulated by glucose, attaining 84% of the uninhibited light-dependent value. The authors conclude that symbiotic Nostoc maintains a pool of photosynthate which supports nitrogenase activity. The pool can also be supplemented from plant sources.

  3. Vol. 56, No. 11 Ammonium Excretion by an L-Methionine-DL-Sulfoximine-Resistant

    E-print Network

    Zaritsky, Arieh

    Field Cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis SELWIN P. THOMAS,1 ARIEH ZARITSKY,2 AND SAMMY BOUSSIBAl) of the rice field nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis was isolated after ethyl methanesulfonate release ammonium continuously. Mutants of Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc muscorum resistant

  4. Supplementary Information Species Optimal N:P Freshwater/ Taxon Source

    E-print Network

    Cyanobacterium 8 Heterosigma akashiwo 13.1 Marine Rhaphydophyte 9 Anabaena solitaria 14.0 Freshwater Coccolithophorid 11 Oscillatoria redekei 17.1 Freshwater Cyanobacterium 8 Anabaena flos-aquae 17.7 Freshwater

  5. JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, Mar. 2003, p. 15991607 Vol. 185, No. 5 0021-9193/03/$08.00 0 DOI: 10.1128/JB.185.5.15991607.2003

    E-print Network

    for the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis except that two additional peaks were ob- served at 550 and 730 nm (18-wavelength UV ir- radiation (360 nm) (8). In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis, negative

  6. Structures of the Complexes of a Potent Anti-HIV Protein Cyanovirin-N and High Mannose Oligosaccharides*

    E-print Network

    the cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) Nostoc el- lipsosporum with potent virucidal activity, was identi- fied isolated from cultures of the cyanobacterium (blue- green algae) Nostoc ellipsosporum (4). Nanomolar

  7. Identification and Localization of the CupB Protein Involved in Constitutive CO? uptake in the Cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Min; Ogawa, Teruo; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Mi, Hualing

    2008-06-01

    The CupB protein was identified in the membranes of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in which CupB was tagged with cMyc-6His. Both CupA and NdhH were detected in a highly resolved subcellular fraction containing two protein complexes of about 450 and 550 kDa, obtained after nickel column and gel filtration chromatography of the membranes solubilized with n-dodecyl-?-D-maltoside.

  8. Cysteine and serine protease-mediated proteolysis in body homogenate of a zooplankter, Moina macrocopa, is inhibited by the toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Manish Kumar; Bagchi, Divya; Bagchi, Suvendra Nath

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes the characterization of proteases in the whole body homogenate of Moina macrocopa, which can possibly be inhibited by the extracts of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806. With the use of oligopeptide substrates and specific inhibitors, we detected the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase and cysteine protease. Cysteine protease, the predominant enzyme behind proteolysis of a natural substrate, casein, was partially purified by gel filtration. The substrate SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of body homogenate revealed the presence of nine bands of proteases (17-72 kDa). The apparent molecular mass of an exclusive cysteine protease was 60 kDa, whereas of trypsin, it was 17-24 kDa. An extract of M. aeruginosa PCC7806 significantly inhibited the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and cysteine protease in M. macrocopa body homogenate at estimated IC(50) of 6- to 79-microg dry mass mL(-1). Upon fractionation by C-18 solid-phase extraction, 60% methanolic elute contained all the protease inhibitors, and these metabolites could be further separated by reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The metabolites inhibitory to M. macrocopa proteases also inhibited the corresponding class of proteases of mammalian/plant origin. The study suggests that protease inhibition may contribute to chemical interaction of cyanobacteria and crustacean zooplankton. PMID:15820132

  9. Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pre-treatment for Microcystis aeruginosa removal by Al coagulation: simultaneous enhanced cyanobacterium removal and residual coagulant control.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-11-15

    A novel Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pre-treatment was proposed to simultaneously enhance the removal of Microcystis aeruginosa by aluminum chloride (AlCl3) coagulation and enabled lowering the dose of Al as effective coagulation can be achieved only by Al, however, at higher doses. In this process, permanganate [Mn(VII)] and ferrous sulfate [Fe(II)] were dosed sequentially prior to Al. The application of Fe(II) not only avoids the extensive oxidation of M. aeruginosa by Mn(VII) but also introduces Fe(III) formed in situ into the system. Results show that, at Al doses of 83.3-108.3 ?M, Mn(VII)-Fe(II) pretreatment (Mn(VII) dose: 8.3-16.7 ?M; Fe(II) dose: 39.5 ?M) is capable of enhancing M. aeruginosa removal by 73.4-81.4%. In contrast, only 0-65.4% and 2.7-8.2% increase in M. aeruginosa removal is achieved by Mn(VII) and Fe(II) pre-treatment, respectively. The ESI-MS spectrum shows that the freshly formed Fe(III) hydrolyzes much more slowly than pre-formed Fe(III) does, and this effect results in its higher efficiency towards the removal of M. aeruginosa. Moreover, in the co-existing system, Fe tends to hydrolyze preferentially and the presence of Fe salts improves the precipitation of Al and vice versa. Thus, the use of Fe and Al as dual-coagulants is practically valuable to control the residual level of coagulant(s) besides its improvement on the removal of M. aeruginosa. PMID:25090625

  10. Involvement of the 5'-untranslated region in cold-regulated expression of the rbpA1 gene in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis M3.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, N; Nakamura, A

    1998-01-01

    Transcript of the rbpA1 gene in Anabaena variabilis accumulates significantly at low growth temperatures below 28 degreesC. This accumulation was maximal at 16 degreesC. Accumulation of the rbpA1 transcript was completely abolished by rifampicin, but not by chloramphenicol. Photosynthesis was not required for this cold-induced accumulation. This accumulation of transcript was partly accounted for by increased stability of the rbpA1 transcript at low temperature. Expression of chimeric genes containing 3'-deleted rbpA1 sequences fused to the lacZ gene was regulated by low temperature when almost the entire 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remained undeleted. Further deletion resulted in constitutive expression of the chimeric gene. The 5'-UTR sequence formed two types of complexes in vitro with protein extract from cells grown at 38 degreesC, but not with extract from the 22 degreesC grown cells. Affinity purification identified polypeptides of 75 and 32 kDa in Complex 1 and a 72 kDa polypeptide in Complex 2. These results are compatible with a model in which expression of the rbpA1 gene is regulated by transcriptional derepression at low temperature, although additional mechanisms, such as regulation of mRNA stability, might also contribute to temperature-dependent regulation. PMID:9547280

  11. Influence of a non-copper algicide on the cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme, and the green alga, Hydrodictyon reticulatum, in field and laboratory experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanobacteria grow in California rice fields where they form large mats that may smoother seedlings or cause them to dislodge, resulting in yield loss. The most troublesome species is Nostoc spongiaeforme. It is very difficult to control using currently accepted methods, i.e., aerial applications of...

  12. A Systems-Level Analysis of the Effects of Light Quality on the Metabolism of a Cyanobacterium1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay K.; Bhattacharyya-Pakrasi, Maitrayee; Elvitigala, Thanura; Ghosh, Bijoy; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms experience changes in light quantity and light quality in their natural habitat. In response to changes in light quality, these organisms redistribute excitation energy and adjust photosystem stoichiometry to maximize the utilization of available light energy. However, the response of other cellular processes to changes in light quality is mostly unknown. Here, we report a systematic investigation into the adaptation of cellular processes in Synechocystis species PCC 6803 to light that preferentially excites either photosystem II or photosystem I. We find that preferential excitation of photosystem II and photosystem I induces massive reprogramming of the Synechocystis transcriptome. The rewiring of cellular processes begins as soon as Synechocystis senses the imbalance in the excitation of reaction centers. We find that Synechocystis utilizes the cyclic photosynthetic electron transport chain for ATP generation and a major part of the respiratory pathway to generate reducing equivalents and carbon skeletons during preferential excitation of photosystem I. In contrast, cytochrome c oxidase and photosystem I act as terminal components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain to produce sufficient ATP and limited amounts of NADPH and reduced ferredoxin during preferential excitation of photosystem II. To overcome the shortage of NADPH and reduced ferredoxin, Synechocystis preferentially activates transporters and acquisition pathways to assimilate ammonia, urea, and arginine over nitrate as a nitrogen source. This study provides a systematic analysis of cellular processes in cyanobacteria in response to preferential excitation and shows that the cyanobacterial cell undergoes significant adjustment of cellular processes, many of which were previously unknown. PMID:19759342

  13. Isolation and sequence of the gene for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Stephanie E.; Haselkorn, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Cloned DNA probes containing genes coding for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcA) of corn and of Chlamydomonas were used to identify, by heterologous hybridization, DNA fragments from Anabaena 7120 carrying the corresponding gene sequence. The same probes were used to isolate, from a recombinant ? library, a 17-kilobase-pair EcoRI Anabaena DNA fragment containing the coding sequence for the rbcA gene. The entire coding sequence, as well as 210 base pairs of 5? flanking region and 210 base pairs of 3? flanking region, was determined. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences with those of corn, spinach, Chlamydomonas, and Synechococcus rbcA genes revealed homology of 71-77% at the nucleotide level and 80-85% at the amino acid level. Conservation of sequence is lost immediately outside the coding region on either side. Codon usage in the Anabaena rbcA gene is not significantly different from that in the Anabaena genes for nitrogenase reductase and nitrogenase ? subunit. Images PMID:16593300

  14. The patA Gene Product, which Contains a Region Similar to CheY of Escherichia coli, Controls Heterocyst Pattern Formation in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihong Liang; Lori Scappino; Robert Haselkorn

    1992-01-01

    In Anabaena 7120, heterocysts (cells specialized for nitrogen fixation) develop at the ends of filaments and at intervals within each filament. We have isolated a mutant Anabaena strain that develops heterocysts mostly at the ends of filaments. This mutant, PAT-1, grows poorly under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The wild-type gene that complements the mutation in PAT-1, called patA, was cloned and sequenced.

  15. Growth Responses of Tropical Cladocerans to Seston from Lake Monte Alegre (Brazil) Supplemented with Phosphorus, Fatty acids, a Green Algae and a Cyanobacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aloysio da S. Ferrăo-Filho; Marlene S. Arcifa

    2006-01-01

    The cladocerans Ceriodaphnia richardi, Daphnia ambigua, D. gessneri and Moina micrura were used to access food quality of Lake Monte Alegre’s seston. Experiments were carried out in summer and autumn as growth\\u000a assays with lake seston only (control) and seston supplemented with phosphate, fatty acids or Synechococcus, and Scenedesmus. In summer, high C:P ratios in seston suggested strong phosphorus limitation,

  16. A new type of dual-Cys cyanobacteriochrome GAF domain found in cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina, which has an unusual red/blue reversible photoconversion cycle.

    PubMed

    Narikawa, Rei; Enomoto, Gen; Ni-Ni-Win; Fushimi, Keiji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2014-08-12

    Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) form a large, spectrally diverse family of photoreceptors (linear tetrapyrrole covalently bound via a conserved cysteine) that perceive ultraviolet to red light. The underlying mechanisms are reasonably well understood with, in certain cases, reversible formation of an adduct between a second cysteine and the chromophore accounting, in part, for their spectral diversity. These CBCRs are denoted as dual-Cys CBCRs, and most such CBCRs had been shown to reversibly absorb blue and green light. Herein, we report the structural and mechanistic characterization of a new type of dual-Cys CBCR, AM1_1186, which exhibits reversible photoconversion between a red-absorbing dark state (?max = 641 nm) and a blue-absorbing photoproduct (?max = 416 nm). The wavelength separation of AM1_1186 photoconversion is the largest found to date for a CBCR. In addition to one well-conserved cysteine responsible for covalent incorporation of the chromophore into the apoprotein, AM1_1186 contains a second cysteine in a unique position of its photosensory domain, which would be more properly classified as a red/green CBCR according to its sequence. Carboxyamidomethylation and mutagenesis of the cysteines revealed that the second cysteine forms an adduct with the tetrapyrrole, the phycocyanobilin, that can be reversed under blue light. The proline immediately upstream of this cysteine appears to determine the rate at which the cysteinylation following photoexcitation of the dark state chromophore can occur. We propose a possible reaction scheme and color-tuning mechanism for AM1_1186 in terms of its structure and its place in a phylogenetic tree. PMID:25029277

  17. Combined mutagenesis and kinetics characterization of the bilin-binding GAF domain of the protein Slr1393 from the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiu-Ling; Gutt, Alexander; Mechelke, Jonas; Raffelberg, Sarah; Tang, Kun; Miao, Dan; Valle, Lorena; Borsarelli, Claudio D; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-26

    The gene slr1393 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 encodes a protein composed of three GAF domains, a PAS domain, and a histidine kinase domain. GAF3 is the sole domain able to bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) as chromophore and to accomplish photochemistry: switching between a red-absorbing parental and a green-absorbing photoproduct state (?max =649 and 536 nm, respectively). Conversions in both directions were followed by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with the separately expressed GAF3 domain of Slr1393. Global fit analysis of the recorded absorbance changes yielded three lifetimes (3.2 ?s, 390 ?s, and 1.5 ms) for the red-to-green conversion, and 1.2 ?s, 340 ?s, and 1 ms for the green-to-red conversion. In addition to the wild-type (WT) protein, 24 mutated proteins were studied spectroscopically. The design of these site-directed mutations was based on sequence alignments with related proteins and by employing the crystal structure of AnPixJg2 (PDB ID: 3W2Z), a Slr1393 orthologous from Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The structure of AnPixJg2 was also used as template for model building, thus confirming the strong structural similarity between the proteins, and for identifying amino acids to target for mutagenesis. Only amino acids in close proximity to the chromophore were exchanged, as these were considered likely to have an impact on the spectral and dynamic properties. Three groups of mutants were found: some showed absorption features similar to the WT protein, a second group showed modified absorbance properties, and the third group had lost the ability to bind the chromophore. The most unexpected result was obtained for the exchange at residue 532 (N532Y). In vivo assembly yielded a red-absorbing, WT-like protein. Irradiation, however, not only converted it into the green-absorbing form, but also produced a 660 nm, further-red-shifted absorbance band. This photoproduct was fully reversible to the parental form upon green light irradiation. PMID:24764310

  18. ApcD, ApcF and ApcE are not required for the Orange Carotenoid Protein related phycobilisome fluorescence quenching in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Jallet, Denis; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana

    2012-08-01

    In cyanobacteria, strong blue-green light induces a photoprotective mechanism involving an increase of energy thermal dissipation at the level of phycobilisome (PB), the cyanobacterial antenna. This leads to a decrease of the energy arriving to the reaction centers. The photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) has an essential role in this mechanism. The binding of the red photoactivated OCP to the core of the PB triggers energy and PB fluorescence quenching. The core of PBs is constituted of allophycocyanin trimers emitting at 660 or 680nm. ApcD, ApcF and ApcE are the responsible of the 680nm emission. In this work, the role of these terminal emitters in the photoprotective mechanism was studied. Single and double Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutants, in which the apcD or/and apcF genes were absent, were constructed. The Cys190 of ApcE which binds the phycocyanobilin was replaced by a Ser. The mutated ApcE attached an unusual chromophore emitting at 710nm. The activated OCP was able to induce the photoprotective mechanism in all the mutants. Moreover, in vitro reconstitution experiments showed similar amplitude and rates of fluorescence quenching. Our results demonstrated that ApcD, ApcF and ApcE are not required for the OCP-related fluorescence quenching and they strongly suggested that the site of quenching is one of the APC trimers emitting at 660nm. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22172739

  19. Heme oxygenase 2 of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is induced under a microaerobic atmosphere and is required for microaerobic growth at high light intensity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mete Yilmaz; Ilgu Kang; Samuel I. Beale

    2010-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptomonad algae utilize phycobilin chromophores that are attached to phycobiliproteins to\\u000a harvest solar energy. Heme oxygenase (HO) in these organisms catalyzes the first step in phycobilin formation through the\\u000a conversion of heme to biliverdin IX?, CO, and iron. The Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 genome contains two open reading frames, ho1 (sll1184) and ho2 (sll1875), whose products

  20. Changes in the photosynthetic apparatus in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 following light-to-dark and dark-to-light transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Vernotte; M. Picaud; D. Kirilovsky; J. Olive; G. Ajlani; C. Astier

    1992-01-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 cells grown chemoheterotrophically (dark with glucose as a carbon source) and photoautotrophically (light in a mineral medium) were compared. Dark-grown cells show a decrease in phycocyanin content and an even greater decrease in chlorophyll content with respect to light-grown cells. Analysis of fluorescence emission spectra at 77 K and at 20 °C,

  1. Effects of irradiation and pH on fluorescence properties and flocculation of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Chroococcus minutus.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam

    2015-04-01

    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) may flocculate or be decomposed when environmental factors change, which significantly influences nutrient cycling and transport of heavy metals. However, little information is available on the stability of EPS in natural environments. Fluorescence and flocculation properties of EPS from Chroococcus minutus under different irradiation and pH conditions were studied. Two aromatic protein-like fluorescence peaks and one tyrosine protein-like peak were identified from the excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of EPS. UVB (ultraviolet B) and solar irradiation increased the fluorescence intensity of all the three peaks while UVC (ultraviolet C) irradiation had little effect. EPS formed unstable flocs after exposure to UV (ultraviolet) irradiation and formed stable flocs under solar irradiation. EPS were prone to flocculation under highly acidic conditions and minimal fluorescence of peaks was observed. The fluorophores in EPS were relatively stable under neutral and alkaline conditions. These findings are helpful for understanding the behavior of EPS in aquatic environments and their role in biogeochemical cycles of the elements. PMID:25731101

  2. The high-energy radiation protectant extracellular sheath pigment scytonemin and its reduced counterpart in the cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. R77DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sonani, Ravi R; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-11-01

    A cyanobacterial extracellular sheath pigment from Scytonema sp. R77DM was partially characterized and investigated for its increased production under abiotic factors, and UV-screening function. HPLC with PDA detection, and ion trap liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of a pigment scytonemin and its reduced counterpart. Ultraviolet radiation showed more stimulative effects on scytonemin production. A significant synergistic enhancement of scytonemin synthesis was observed under combined stress of heat and UV radiation. Scytonemin also exhibited efficient UV-screening function by reducing the in vivo production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclobutane thymine dimer. UV-induced formation of ROS and thymine dimer was also reduced upon exposure of cyanobacterial cells to exogenous antioxidant, ascorbic acid; however, the effect was more significant when both scytonemin and ascorbic acid were applied in combination. Moreover, the results indicate the potential role of scytonemin pigment as natural photoprotectant against high energy solar insolation. PMID:25226055

  3. State of the Data in Synechococcus NCGR May 2003 Current state of the data in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus prepared for the

    E-print Network

    Synechococcus prepared for the DOE Genomes To Life project CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN SYNECHOCOCCUS SP.: FROM of the relevant carbon sequestrating molecular machines are likely to be dubious if based solely on comparative of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of Synechococcus carbon sequestration, and thus a physiological

  4. Establishment of the forward genetic analysis of the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017 by applying in vivo transposon mutagenesis system.

    PubMed

    Watabe, Kazuyuki; Mimuro, Mamoru; Tsuchiya, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017 possesses chlorophyll (Chl) d as a major Chl, which enables this organism to utilize far-red light for photosynthesis. Thus, the adaptation mechanism of far-red light utilization, including Chl d biosynthesis, has received much attention, though a limited number of reports on this subject have been published. To identify genes responsible for Chl d biosynthesis and adaptation to far-red light, molecular genetic analysis of A. marina was required. We developed a transformation system for A. marina and introduced expression vectors into A. marina. In this study, the high-frequency in vivo transposon mutagenesis system recently established by us was applied to A. marina. As a result, we obtained mutants with the transposon in their genomic DNA at various positions. By screening transposon-tagged mutants, we isolated a mutant (Y1 mutant) that formed a yellow colony on agar medium. In the Y1 mutant, the transposon was inserted into the gene encoding molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein A (MoaA). The Y1 mutant was functionally complemented by introducing the moaA gene or increasing the ammonium ion in the medium. These results indicate that the mutation of the moaA gene reduced nitrate reductase activity, which requires molybdenum cofactor, in the Y1 mutant. This is the first successful forward genetic analysis of A. marina, which will lead to the identification of genes responsible for adaptation to far-red light. PMID:25596846

  5. NanoSIMS Analyses of Mo Indicate Nitrogenase Activity and Help Solve a N and C Fixation Puzzle in a Marine Cyanobacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.; Finzi, J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Capone, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    Diazotrophic cyanobacteria are capable of both CO2 and N2 fixation, yet must separate these two functions because the nitrogenase enzymes used in N2 fixation are strongly inhibited by O2 produced during photosynthesis. Some lineages, such as Anabaena, use specialized cells (heterocysts) to maintain functional segregation. However the mechanism of this segregation is poorly understood in Trichodesmium, a critical component of marine primary production in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. While some Trichodesmium studies suggest a temporal segregation of the nitrogen and carbon fixing processes, others indicate nitrogen fixation is spatially isolated in differentiated cells called diazocytes. In order to isolate the intracellular location of N fixation in both species, we used a combination of TEM, SEM and NanoSIMS analysis to map the distribution of C, N and Mo (a critical nitrogenase co-factor) isotopes in intact cells. NanoSIMS is a powerful surface analysis tool which combines nanometer-scale imaging resolution with the high sensitivity of mass spectrometry. Using cells grown in a 13CO^2 and 15N2 enriched atmosphere, our analyses indicate that in Anabaena, heterocysts are consistently enriched in Mo, and Mo accumulation suggests active N fixation (as opposed to N storage). In the non- heterocystous Trichodesmium, Mo is concentrated in sub-regions of individual cells, and is not associated with regions of N storage (cyanophycin granules). We suggest that NanoSIMS mapping of metal enzyme co- factors is a unique method of identifying physiological and morphological characteristics within individual bacterial cells. This combination of NanoSIMS analysis and high resolution microscopy allows isotopic analysis to be linked to morphological features and holds great promise for fine-scale studies of bacteria metabolism.

  6. The effect of naphthalene-acetic acid on biomass productivity and chlorophyll content of green algae, coccolithophore, diatom, and cyanobacterium cultures.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ryan W; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, K C

    2011-08-01

    The application of biochemical stimulants to enhance biomass and metabolite productivity is being investigated here and may be a simpler approach to achieve our goals of higher productivity and lower costs than methods such as genetic modification. The research builds on prior work of screening various biochemical stimulants representing different types of plant growth regulators with the green alga, Chlorella sorokiniana. Here, we report the impact on biomass and chlorophyll productivity by comparing the delivery method of a previously identified superior stimulant, the synthetic auxin naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), solubilized in ethanol or methanol. Algae evaluated included the green alga, C. sorokiniana, as well as a mixed consortium that includes C. sorokiniana along with two other wild-isolated green algae, Scenedesmus bijuga and Chlorella minutissima. It was found that NAA dissolved in ethanol was more effective in enhancing biomass productivity of C. sorokiniana. However, no differences were observed with the mixed consortia. The most effective treatment from this step, EtOH(500ppm)?+?NAA(5ppm), along with two other NAA concentrations (EtOH(500ppm)?+?NAA(2.5ppm) and EtOH(500ppm)?+?NAA(10ppm)), was then applied to six diverse species of microalgae to determine if the treatment dosage was effective for other freshwater and marine green algae, cyanobacteria, coccolithophore, and diatoms. It was found that three of the species bioassayed, Pleurochrysis carterae, C. sorokiniana, and Haematococcus pluvialis exhibited a substantial boost in biomass productivity over the 10-day growth period. The use of ethanol and NAA at a combined dosage of EtOH(500ppm)?+?NAA(5ppm) was found to generate the highest biomass productivity for each of the species that responded positively to the treatments. If scalable, NAA and ethanol may have the potential to lower production costs by increasing biomass yields for commercial microalgae cultivation. PMID:21431321

  7. Comparison of bacterial community structures of terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme in three different regions of China using PCR-DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei-Pei; Shen, Shi-Gang; Jia, Shi-Ru; Wang, Hui-Yan; Zhong, Cheng; Tan, Zhi-Lei; Lv, He-Xin

    2015-07-01

    Filamentous Nostoc flagelliforme form colloidal complex, with beaded cells interacting with other bacteria embedded in the complex multilayer sheath. However, the species of bacteria in the sheath and the interaction between N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria remain unclear. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to investigate the bacterial communities of N. flagelliforme from three regions of China. DGGE patterns showed variations in all samples, exhibiting 25 discrete bands with various intensities. The diversity index analysis of bands profiles suggested the high similarity of bacterial communities to each other but also the dependence of microbial composition on each location. Phylogenetic affiliation indicated that the majority of the sequences obtained were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, of which Cyanobacteria was dominant, followed the Proteobacteria. Members of the genus Nostoc were the most abundant in all samples. Rhizobiales and Actinobacteria were identified, whereas, Craurococcus, Caulobacter, Pseudomonas, Terriglobus and Mucilaginibacter were also identified at low levels. Through comparing the bacterial composition of N. flagelliforme from different regions, it was revealed that N. flagelliforme could facilitate the growth of other microorganisms including both autotrophic bacteria and heterotrophic ones and positively contributed to their harsh ecosystems. The results indicated N. flagelliforme played an important role in diversifying the microbial community composition and had potential application in soil desertification. PMID:25940326

  8. Construction of a genomic DNA library with a TA vector and its application in cloning of the phytoene synthase gene from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis M-135

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Hiroyuki, Kojima

    1998-03-01

    An efficient and simple method for constructing a genomic DNA library using a TA cloning vector is presented. It is based on the sonicative cleavage of genomic DNA and modification of fragment ends with Taq DNA polymerase, followed by ligation using a TA vector. This method was applied for cloning of the phytoene synthase gene crt B from Spirulina platensis. This method is useful when genomic DNA cannot be efficiently digested with restriction enzymes, a problem often encountered during the construction of a genomic DNA library of cyanobacteria.

  9. Identification of the light-independent phosphoserine pathway as an additional source of serine in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Klemke, Friederike; Baier, Antje; Knoop, Henning; Kern, Ramona; Jablonsky, Jiri; Beyer, Gabriele; Volkmer, Thomas; Steuer, Ralf; Lockau, Wolfgang; Hagemann, Martin

    2015-05-01

    l-Serine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids and participates in several essential processes in all organisms. In plants, the light-dependent photorespiratory and the light-independent phosphoserine pathways contribute to serine biosynthesis. In cyanobacteria, the light-dependent photorespiratory pathway for serine synthesis is well characterized, but the phosphoserine pathway has not been identified. Here, we investigated three candidate genes for enzymes of the phosphoserine pathway in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Only the gene for the d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is correctly annotated in the genome database, whereas the 3-phosphoserine transaminase and 3-phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) proteins are incorrectly annotated and were identified here. All enzymes were obtained as recombinant proteins and showed the activities necessary to catalyse the three-step phosphoserine pathway. The genes coding for the phosphoserine pathway were found in most cyanobacterial genomes listed in CyanoBase. The pathway seems to be essential for cyanobacteria, because it was impossible to mutate the gene coding for PSP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 or in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. A model approach indicates a 30-60?% contribution of the phosphoserine pathway to the overall serine pool. Hence, this study verified that cyanobacteria, similar to plants, use the phosphoserine pathway in addition to photorespiration for serine biosynthesis. PMID:25701735

  10. A prokaryotic sucrose synthase gene ( susA ) isolated from a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium encodes a protein similar to those of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Curatti; Andrea C. Porchia; Luis Herrera-Estrella; Graciela L. Salerno

    2000-01-01

    .   Sucrose synthase (SS), a key enzyme in plant carbohydrate metabolism, has recently been isolated from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7119, and biochemically characterized; two forms (SS-I and SS-II) were detected (Porchia et?al. 1999, Planta\\u000a 210: 34–40). The present study describes the first isolation and characterization of a prokaryotic SS gene, susA, encoding SS-II from that strain of Anabaena. A

  11. A Cyanobacterium Lacking Iron Superoxide Dismutase Is Sensitized to Oxidative Stress Induced with Methyl Viologen but Is Not Sensitized to Oxidative Stress Induced with Norflurazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Thomas; Thomas J. Avenson; Jannette B. Thomas; Stephen K. Herbert

    1998-01-01

    A strain of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 with no functional Fe superoxide dismutase (SOD), designated sodB2, was character- ized by its growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, and cyclic photo- synthetic electron transport activity when treated with methyl vi- ologen or norflurazon (NF). In their unstressed conditions, both the sodB2 and wild-type strains had similar chlorophyll and carotenoid contents and catalase

  12. Characterization of a Chromosomal Type II Toxin–Antitoxin System mazEaFa in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Degang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Zhaoying; Xu, Qinggang

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved to survive stressful environmental changes by regulating growth, however, the underlying mechanism for this is obscure. The ability of chromosomal type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems to modulate growth or cell death has been documented in a variety of prokaryotes. A chromosomal mazEaFa locus of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 has been predicted as a putative mazEF TA system. Here we demonstrate that mazEaFa form a bicistronic operon that is co-transcribed under normal growth conditions. Overproduction of MazFa induced Anabaena growth arrest which could be neutralized by co-expression of MazEa. MazFa also inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli cells, and this effect could be overcome by simultaneous or subsequent expression of MazEa via formation of the MazEa-MazFa complex in vivo, further confirming the nature of the mazEaFa locus as a type II TA system. Interestingly, like most TA systems, deletion of mazEaFa had no effect on the growth of Anabaena during the tested stresses. Our data suggest that mazEaFa, or together with other chromosomal type II TA systems, may promote cells to cope with particular stresses by inducing reversible growth arrest of Anabaena. PMID:23451033

  13. Synthesis of Water-soluble 9,10-Anthraquinone Analogues with Potent Cyanobactericidal Activity Toward the Musty-Odor Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria perornata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of water-soluble 9,10-anthraquinone analogs were prepared and evaluated for their selective toxicity towards Oscillatoria perornata which grows in catfish production ponds and causes “musty” off-flavor in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Water-soluble mono- and dicationic salts were pre...

  14. Efficient hydrogen photoproduction by synchronously grown cells of a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511, under high cell density conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzo Kumazawa; Akira Mitsui

    1994-01-01

    The capability of hydrogen photoproduction under high cell density conditions was examined using synchronously grown cells of nitrogen-fixing Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. Optimum hydrogen yield was obtained when vessels contained 0.2 to 0.3 mg chlorophyll a in 3-mL cell suspension. During a 24-h incubation period, an initial phase of hydrogen and carbon dioxide production and a subsequent phase of

  15. Genome-Scale Modeling of Light-Driven Reductant Partitioning and Carbon Fluxes in Diazotrophic Unicellular Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trang T. Vu; Sergey M. Stolyar; Grigoriy E. Pinchuk; Eric A. Hill; Leo A. Kucek; Roslyn N. Brown; Mary S. Lipton; Andrei L. Osterman; Jim K. Fredrickson; Allan E. Konopka; Alexander S. Beliaev; Jennifer L. Reed

    2012-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models have proven useful for answering fundamental questions about metabolic capabilities of a variety of microorganisms, as well as informing their metabolic engineering. However, only a few models are available for oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms, particularly in cyanobacteria in which photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains (ETC) share components. We addressed the complexity of cyanobacterial ETC by developing a

  16. Temporal Orchestration of Glycogen Synthase (GlgA) Gene Expression and Glycogen Accumulation in the Oceanic Picoplanktonic Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain WH8103

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen is accumulated during the latter half of the diel cycle in Synechococcus sp. strain WH8103 following a midday maximum in glgA (encoding glycogen synthase) mRNA abundance. This temporal pattern is quite distinct from that of Prochlorococcus and may highlight divergent regulatory control of carbon/nitrogen metabolism in these closely related picocyanobacteria. PMID:22522678

  17. Localization of cytochrome b6f complexes implies an incomplete respiratory chain in cytoplasmic membranes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    E-print Network

    Roegner, Matthias

    Localization of cytochrome b6f complexes implies an incomplete respiratory chain in cytoplasmic Cyanobacteria Quinol oxidase The cytochrome b6f complex is an integral part of the photosynthetic of four subunits, cytochrome b, cytochrome f, subunit IV and the Rieske protein (PetC). In this study

  18. Proteome Analyses of Strains ATCC 51142 and PCC 7822 of the Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. under Culture Conditions Resulting in Enhanced H2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Uma K.; Callister, Stephen J.; Mishra, Sujata; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Angel, Thomas E.; Shukla, Anil K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Moore, Ronald J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Cultures of the cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece have been shown to produce high levels of biohydrogen. These strains are diazotrophic and undergo pronounced diurnal cycles when grown under N2-fixing conditions in light-dark cycles. We seek to better understand the way in which proteins respond to these diurnal changes, and we performed quantitative proteome analysis of Cyanothece sp. strains ATCC 51142 and PCC 7822 grown under 8 different nutritional conditions. Nitrogenase expression was limited to N2-fixing conditions, and in the absence of glycerol, nitrogenase gene expression was linked to the dark period. However, glycerol induced expression of nitrogenase during part of the light period, together with cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), glycogen phosphorylase (Glp), and glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes. This indicated that nitrogenase expression in the light was facilitated via higher levels of respiration and glycogen breakdown. Key enzymes of the Calvin cycle were inhibited in Cyanothece ATCC 51142 in the presence of glycerol under H2-producing conditions, suggesting a competition between these sources of carbon. However, in Cyanothece PCC 7822, the Calvin cycle still played a role in cofactor recycling during H2 production. Our data comprise the first comprehensive profiling of proteome changes in Cyanothece PCC 7822 and allow an in-depth comparative analysis of major physiological and biochemical processes that influence H2 production in both strains. Our results revealed many previously uncharacterized proteins that may play a role in nitrogenase activity and in other metabolic pathways and may provide suitable targets for genetic manipulation that would lead to improvement of large-scale H2 production. PMID:23204418

  19. Thylakoid Terminal Oxidases Are Essential for the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 to Survive Rapidly Changing Light Intensities1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lea-Smith, David J.; Ross, Nic; Zori, Maria; Bendall, Derek S.; Dennis, John S.; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Alison G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis and respiration in the thylakoid membrane, suggesting that the two processes are interlinked. However, the role of the respiratory electron transfer chain under natural environmental conditions has not been established. Through targeted gene disruption, mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were generated that lacked combinations of the three terminal oxidases: the thylakoid membrane-localized cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and quinol oxidase (Cyd) and the cytoplasmic membrane-localized alternative respiratory terminal oxidase. All strains demonstrated similar growth under continuous moderate or high light or 12-h moderate-light/dark square-wave cycles. However, under 12-h high-light/dark square-wave cycles, the COX/Cyd mutant displayed impaired growth and was completely photobleached after approximately 2 d. In contrast, use of sinusoidal light/dark cycles to simulate natural diurnal conditions resulted in little photobleaching, although growth was slower. Under high-light/dark square-wave cycles, the COX/Cyd mutant suffered a significant loss of photosynthetic efficiency during dark periods, a greater level of oxidative stress, and reduced glycogen degradation compared with the wild type. The mutant was susceptible to photoinhibition under pulsing but not constant light. These findings confirm a role for thylakoid-localized terminal oxidases in efficient dark respiration, reduction of oxidative stress, and accommodation of sudden light changes, demonstrating the strong selective pressure to maintain linked photosynthetic and respiratory electron chains within the thylakoid membrane. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a phenotypic difference in growth between terminal oxidase mutants and wild-type cells and highlights the need to examine mutant phenotypes under a range of conditions. PMID:23463783

  20. Severe Hepatotoxicity CausedbytheTropical Cyanobacterium (Blue-Green Alga) Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenaya andSubbaRajuIsolated fromaDomestic Water Supply Reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. RUNNEGAR; ALAN R. B. JACKSON

    raciborskii, atropical blooming species ofcyanobacterium (blue-green alga), wasisolated fromthedomestic water supply reservoir onPalmIsland, acontinental island offthetropical northeast coast ofAustralia. Thisspecies, notpreviously knowntobetoxic, wasshowntobeseverely hepatotoxic formice. The 50%lethal doseat24hafter injection wasfound tobe64± 5mgoffreeze-dried culture perkgofmouse. The principal lesion produced wascentrilobular tomassive hepatocyte necrosis, butvarious degrees ofinjury were also seen inthekidneys, adrenal glands, lungs, andintestine. Thepossible implication ofthis finding inrelation toanincident ofhepatoenteritis