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Sample records for cyber-shot dsc-t9 nikon

  1. Nikon Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Nikon FM compact has simplification feature derived from cameras designed for easy, yet accurate use in a weightless environment. Innovation is a plastic-cushioned advance lever which advances the film and simultaneously switches on a built in light meter. With a turn of the lens aperture ring, a glowing signal in viewfinder confirms correct exposure.

  2. Nikon EUVL development progress update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Takaharu; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kohama, Yoshiaki; Morita, Kenji; Hada, Kazunari; Ohkubo, Yukiharu; Kawai, Hidemi

    2008-03-01

    Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) has been widely regarded as the lithography technology to succeed optical lithography. It is now considered as one of the most promising technologies below hp45nm node [1], following ArF immersion lithography considering trend of achievable process K1 factors. In this paper we would like to present our significant progress on the development of EUV exposure tool. There are several key important areas which should be developed to realize EUVL to be feasible, such as reflective mask, resist, and tool itself. The reflective mask features such characteristics as pellicle-less, ultra-smooth blank flatness and defect free. The resist should be of high sensitivity and small line edge roughness (LER) as well as fine resolution. EUV exposure tool itself consists of major modules such as EUV light source, projection optics, vacuum body, vacuum stages, and so on. Nikon has developed new polishing technologies such as ion-beam figuring and elastic emission machining, and new ultra high-precision interferometers for aspheric surface metrology. Our multi-layer coating technology has been also improved. High reflective Mo/Si multi layer coating has been successfully achieved and irradiation tests using synchrotron radiation have been conducted. Successful achievement of those developments enables us to produce full-field projection optics for EUVL process development tool called EUV1. The proto-type development of full-field projection optics has been successfully completed and its technical achievement has reflected into production optics. Preparation of complete set of production and metrology tools necessary for projection optics production was completed and all tools are now in full operation. Nikon has already developed dual pod reticle carrier for EUV1 tool. In parallel Nikon has been developing the same concept carrier for HVM in cooperation with Canon and Entegris. Regarding to EUV1 tool development, all modules of EUV1 such as full

  3. Nikon EUVL development progress update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Takaharu; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Kawai, Hidemi; Kohama, Yoshiaki; Morita, Kenji; Hada, Kazunari; Ohkubo, Yukiharu

    2010-04-01

    Nikon has been developing the full field exposure tool called EUV1 for process development of 32nm hp node and beyond. The unique feature of EUV1 is the capability of variable illumination coherence and off-axis illumination. EUV1 was installed in Selete and used for EUV lithography process development. Nikon also has conducted continuous collaborative works with customers using EUV1. Since the last SPIE Symposium in 2009, many exposure results with EUV1 tools were obtained. They showed excellent resolution capability beyond 24nm L/S with off-axis illumination and stable overlay capability of 10nm (Mean + 3 sigma). Process development exposures of test chip patterns are ongoing. With regard to HVM tool development, imaging capability with high NA projection optics and throughput capability are reviewed.

  4. Nikon EUVL development progress update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Takaharu; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kohama, Yoshiaki; Morita, Kenji; Hada, Kazunari; Ohkubo, Yukiharu

    2007-03-01

    successfully completed and evaluated to be of enough performance. Preparation of complete set of production and metrology tools necessary for projection optics production was completed and all tools are now in full operation. Nikon has studied reticle protection method and developed Dual Pod Concept in cooperation with Canon. Nikon also has developed its own reticle cover to be implemented in EUV1 tool. Nikon has completed almost all module fabrication such as full-field projection optics module, illumination optics module, vacuum body module, vacuum compatible reticle/wafer stage modules, reticle/wafer loader modules, and EUV light source module. Nikon has already got into module integration production process to meet EUV1 development schedule. Nikon announced to start EUV1 tool installation in 1st half of 2007 and has been proceeding it on schedule. Nikon also would like to announce that development of 1st generation production EUVL tool dubbed EUV2 is now considered and that system concept design is under way.

  5. STS-70 Launch - Nikon E-2 Digital Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This test images was taken with a Nikon E-2 Digital Imaging System camera and are provided courtesy of Nikon (GIF 450x450 JPEG 1280x1000): The second Shuttle launch in 16 days hurtles off the pad into a sweltering summer sky. The unstable weather typical to Florida in the summertime didn't have a chance to coalesce and impact this morning's launch window, and the Space Shuttle Discovery began its planned seven-day, 22-hour flight on Mission STS-70 from Launch Pad 39B at 9:41:55.078 a.m. EDT, just seconds off schedule. On board for Discovery's 21st spaceflight are a crew of five: Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. The crew's primary objective during the 70th Shuttle flight is to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will join a constellation of other TDRS spacecraft already on orbit. TDRS-G is destined to become an on- orbit, fully operational 'ready reserve' satellite, available along with one other ready reserve TDRS spacecraft to back up the two primary TDRS satellites positions, TDRS East over the Atlantic Ocean and TDRS West over the Pacific. Assured capability of the TDRS communications network is essential for linking Earth-orbiting spacecraft such as the Shuttle and the Hubble Space Telescope with the ground.

  6. STS-70 Launch - Nikon E-2 Digital Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This test image was taken with a Nikon E-2 Digital Imaging System camera and are provided courtesy of Nikon (GIF 450x450 JPEG 1280x1000): The second Shuttle launch in 16 days hurtles off the pad into a sweltering summer sky. The unstable weather typical to Florida in the summertime didn't have a chance to coalesce and impact this morning's launch window, and the Space Shuttle Discovery began its planned seven-day, 22-hour flight on Mission STS-70 from Launch Pad 39B at 9:41:55.078 a.m. EDT, just seconds off schedule. On board for Discovery's 21st spaceflight are a crew of five: Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; and Mission Specialists Nancy Jane Currie, Donald A. Thomas and Mary Ellen Weber. The crew's primary objective during the 70th Shuttle flight is to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-G), which will join a constellation of other TDRS spacecraft already on orbit. TDRS-G is destined to become an on- orbit, fully operational 'ready reserve' satellite, available along with one other ready reserve TDRS spacecraft to back up the two primary TDRS satellites positions, TDRS East over the Atlantic Ocean and TDRS West over the Pacific. Assured capability of the TDRS communications network is essential for linking Earth-orbiting spacecraft such as the Shuttle and the Hubble Space Telescope with the ground.

  7. Calibration of the Nikon 200 for Close Range Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, Lassana; /City Coll., N.Y. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The overall objective of this project is to study the stability and reproducibility of the calibration parameters of the Nikon D200 camera with a Nikkor 20 mm lens for close-range photogrammetric surveys. The well known 'central perspective projection' model is used to determine the camera parameters for interior orientation. The Brown model extends it with the introduction of radial distortion and other less critical variables. The calibration process requires a dense network of targets to be photographed at different angles. For faster processing, reflective coded targets are chosen. Two scenarios have been used to check the reproducibility of the parameters. The first one is using a flat 2D wall with 141 coded targets and 12 custom targets that were previously measured with a laser tracker. The second one is a 3D Unistrut structure with a combination of coded targets and 3D reflective spheres. The study has shown that this setup is only stable during a short period of time. In conclusion, this camera is acceptable when calibrated before each use. Future work should include actual field tests and possible mechanical improvements, such as securing the lens to the camera body.

  8. ISAL 35mm NIKON camera mounted on aft flight deck onorbit station panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    On aft flight deck, Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) bracket-mounted 35mm NIKON camera is attached to onorbit station control panel A8U. Camera lens is pointed out aft viewing window W10 and surrounded by window shade.

  9. STS-33 Commander Gregory uses a NIKON 35mm camera on OV-103's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Commander Frederick D. Gregory aims NIKON 35mm camera out aft flight deck viewing window W10 while onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Gregory's profile is highlighted by sunlight shining through overhead window W8.

  10. Dynamic active telepathology over National Health Laboratory service network, South Africa: feasibility study using Nikon Coolscope.

    PubMed

    Banach, Lech; Stepien, Andrzej; Schneider, Johann; Wichrzycka-Lancaster, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Telepathology recently entered a new era with the introduction of digital microscopes combined with Internet technology. The microscope allows viewing real time of whole slide (macro) as well as different chosen fields in four different magnifications. Three Nikon Coolscope were installed in NHLS laboratories in Mthatha, East London and Port Elizabeth. All these microscopes are connected to NHLS server allowing real time viewing of the full slide at any time of the day using Internet browser. Viewing is possible from any PC connected to NHLS Intranet. The challenge was to be able to view slides from other than NHLS computers due to NHLS IT Department network security measures. This was solved by installing NHLS Virtual Private Network server. About 60 cases were viewed by pathologists in Cape Town (Stellenbosh University) and Pretoria (MEDUNSA). All users assessed the system as a helpful tool allowing easy access to cases needing consultation or second opinion. The quality of images was very good. Our experience with Nikon Coolscope is positive. It is an excellent tool for remote small histopathology departments lacking specialists in such areas as dermatopathology, oncology, and haematopathology. Further studies are needed especially in the scope of full utilization of the microscopes installed and impact on laboratory services. PMID:18673517

  11. Calibration of digital SLR Nikon D3X for the use in digital photogrammetry projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraszewski, B.

    2012-06-01

    Results of research on calibration of high-resolution digital camera Nikon D3X have been presented. CMOS matrix stability in recording process of digital images, calculation of principle distance as well as principal point, radial distortion and tangential distortion were determined. The interior orientation parameters determined during calibration in test project were examined. All test images were obtained using three replaceable Nikkor lens of 24, 35 and 50 mm focal length. The calibration process was executed in Camera Calibration and Field Calibration modules of PhotoModeler software using convergent terrestrial images. It was also executed for single photo in DLT module of AeroSys software. For the determination of interior orientation parameters of digital camera for each lens the 2D and 3D test fields were used. Stability and repeatability of recorded digital images on CMOS matrix were examined on 25 control points which were evenly distributed on a white calibration table. Accuracy of pixel position on the image for 24 mm, 35 mm and 50 mm focal length was 0.06, 0.08 and 0.04 of image pixel, respectively. It was found that interior orientation parameters calculated using the PhotoModeler software for both calibration methods were correctly determined while when using the Aerosys software they were determined with lower accuracy. The very high accuracy of elaboration of a test photogrammetric project for each camera lens was obtained using interior orientation parameters calculated on the basis of convergent images and 3D field.

  12. A series of flexible design adaptations to the Nikon E-C1 and E-C2 confocal microscope systems for UV, multiphoton and FLIM imaging.

    PubMed

    Botchway, Stanley W; Scherer, Kathrin M; Hook, Steve; Stubbs, Christopher D; Weston, Eleanor; Bisby, Roger H; Parker, Anthony W

    2015-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is widely employed in the life sciences using extrinsic fluorescence of low- and high-molecular weight labels with excitation and emission spectra in the visible and near infrared regions. For imaging of intrinsic and extrinsic fluorophores with excitation spectra in the ultraviolet region, multiphoton excitation with one- or two-colour lasers avoids the need for ultraviolet-transmitting excitation optics and has advantages in terms of optical penetration in the sample and reduced phototoxicity. Excitation and detection of ultraviolet emission around 300 nm and below in a typical inverted confocal microscope is more difficult and requires the use of expensive quartz optics including the objective. In this technical note we describe the adaptation of a commercial confocal microscope (Nikon, Japan E-C1 or E-C2) for versatile use with Ti-sapphire and OPO laser sources and the addition of a second detection channel that enables detection of ultraviolet fluorescence and increases detection sensitivity in a typical fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy experiment. Results from some experiments with this setup illustrate the resulting capabilities. PMID:25664385

  13. Automated Digital Image Analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2013-04-29

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples,but this technique may be susceptible to inter / intra observer variability, which may induce false positive / negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digitalimage analysis (ADIA) technique, for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number,islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation.Islets were isolated and purified from n=42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone,and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy, or automaticallyquantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope, with built in NIS-ElementsAdvanced Research (AR) software.The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible forengraftment compared to the standard manual method (P<0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(sup)2(/sup)≤0.91), and total islet number (r(sup)2(/sup)=0.88), and thus, increased to (r(sup)2(/sup)=0.93) when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intra-observer reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (P<0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method vs. the ADIA method(p<0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10-50 μm in size.Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments (Nikon) software is anunbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size ofeach islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of

  14. Automated digital image analysis of islet cell mass using Nikon's inverted eclipse Ti microscope and software to improve engraftment may help to advance the therapeutic efficacy and accessibility of islet transplantation across centers.

    PubMed

    Gmyr, Valery; Bonner, Caroline; Lukowiak, Bruno; Pawlowski, Valerie; Dellaleau, Nathalie; Belaich, Sandrine; Aluka, Isanga; Moermann, Ericka; Thevenet, Julien; Ezzouaoui, Rimed; Queniat, Gurvan; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Reliable assessment of islet viability, mass, and purity must be met prior to transplanting an islet preparation into patients with type 1 diabetes. The standard method for quantifying human islet preparations is by direct microscopic analysis of dithizone-stained islet samples, but this technique may be susceptible to inter-/intraobserver variability, which may induce false positive/negative islet counts. Here we describe a simple, reliable, automated digital image analysis (ADIA) technique for accurately quantifying islets into total islet number, islet equivalent number (IEQ), and islet purity before islet transplantation. Islets were isolated and purified from n = 42 human pancreata according to the automated method of Ricordi et al. For each preparation, three islet samples were stained with dithizone and expressed as IEQ number. Islets were analyzed manually by microscopy or automatically quantified using Nikon's inverted Eclipse Ti microscope with built-in NIS-Elements Advanced Research (AR) software. The AIDA method significantly enhanced the number of islet preparations eligible for engraftment compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). Comparisons of individual methods showed good correlations between mean values of IEQ number (r(2) = 0.91) and total islet number (r(2) = 0.88) and thus increased to r(2) = 0.93 when islet surface area was estimated comparatively with IEQ number. The ADIA method showed very high intraobserver reproducibility compared to the standard manual method (p < 0.001). However, islet purity was routinely estimated as significantly higher with the manual method versus the ADIA method (p < 0.001). The ADIA method also detected small islets between 10 and 50 µm in size. Automated digital image analysis utilizing the Nikon Instruments software is an unbiased, simple, and reliable teaching tool to comprehensively assess the individual size of each islet cell preparation prior to transplantation. Implementation of this

  15. Development of EUV lithography tool technologies at Nikon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Katsuhiko; Oshino, Tetsuya; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Yoshio; Ono, Takuro; Kandaka, Noriaki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Shibata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Masayuki

    2012-03-01

    6-mirror-system EUV projection optics design with NA of 0.4 plus was improved and the residual wavefront error was much reduced. Apodization is an issue for such high-NA EUV projection optics. Broad-band multilayer mirror can solve the problem. Broad-band multilayer mirrors were developed. Measured reflectivity performance of these multilayers was in good agreement with the designed performance. We have decided the measures to control contaminations of optics in HVM EUV exposure tools.

  16. Physical Modelling of Nikon Coolpix Camera RGB Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, Frank

    2013-04-01

    This contribution describes computer aided leaf digital image analysis based on reflectance imagery at leaf level. It is based on a fast, non-destructive measurement technique of leaf chlorophyll content imaging based on measurements of leaf reflectance. The validity of the method is demonstrated by a direct comparison of conventional chlorophyll extraction of both leaf chlorophyll pigments a and b with chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll estimates based on leaf reflectance imagery. The leaves of the species selected for this paper are characterized by heterogeneous chlorophyll distributions. The application of the software developed for image analysis at the leaf spatial level allows revealing the morphological structures at the origin of the spatial variation of leaf chlorophylls. Keywords: Physical modelling, leaf chlorophyll imaging, spatial analysis, RGB camera.

  17. DOF enhancement for contact holes by using Nikon's CDP option and its introduction into production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, Louis-Pierre; Dureuil, Virginie; Nuel, Laurent; Salvetat, Vincent; Meier, Winfried; Kraft, Andreas

    2006-03-01

    Historically the primary methods used to achieve the industries ever-tightening resolution requirements were reduction of exposure wavelength and increased projection lens NA. Today however, photo engineers are pushing optical lithography well beyond the realm of what was once considered practical. Specific scanner exposure tool features have to be implemented to achieve the aggressive imaging objectives. One such example is to use focus drilling to expand the depth of focus for contact layers. This paper describes the implementation of focus drilling through the Continuous DOF expansion Procedure (CDP). In CDP, the wafer is tilted along the scanning direction, while the wafer stage continuously moves upward or downward during exposure. CDP technology provides an enhanced process window with initial data showing a 30% improvement in DOF for 250-nm contact holes. It also eliminates the need for double exposures and therefore maintains high throughput, comparable to standard wafer exposure.

  18. Stereoscopic determination of all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based Nikon DSLR cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, R.; Miyoshi, Y.; Shigematsu, K.; Hampton, D.; Mori, Y.; Kubo, T.; Yamashita, A.; Tanaka, M.; Takahei, T.; Nakai, T.; Miyahara, H.; Shiokawa, K.

    2013-09-01

    A new stereoscopic measurement technique is developed to obtain an all-sky altitude map of aurora using two ground-based digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. Two identical full-color all-sky cameras were set with an 8 km separation across the Chatanika area in Alaska (Poker Flat Research Range and Aurora Borealis Lodge) to find localized emission height with the maximum correlation of the apparent patterns in the localized pixels applying a method of the geographical coordinate transform. It is found that a typical ray structure of discrete aurora shows the broad altitude distribution above 100 km, while a typical patchy structure of pulsating aurora shows the narrow altitude distribution of less than 100 km. Because of its portability and low cost of the DSLR camera systems, the new technique may open a unique opportunity not only for scientists but also for night-sky photographers to complementarily attend the aurora science to potentially form a dense observation network.

  19. Physical Modelling of Nikon Coolpix Camera RGB Responses for Application in non-Destructive Leaf Chlorophyll Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W. W.; Hufkens, K.; Grielen, B.; Colson, F.; Prinsen, E.

    2012-04-01

    The poster presentation describes the emerging technology of computer aided leaf digital image analysis. The analysis technique is based on a fast, non-destructive imaging measurement of leaf chlorophyll content based on of leaf reflectance in the R band of a commercial reflex camera. The validity of the method is demonstrated by direct comparison of conventional extraction of both leaf chlorophyll pigments from the same species with chlorophyll estimates based on leaf reflectance imagery. The leaves of the species selected for this paper are characterized by heterogeneous chlorophyll distributions. The application of software developed for image analysis at the spatial level (2D) of physiological processes or state variables does allow to reveal and quantify the morphological structures at the origin of the spatial variation of leaf chlorophyll. Keywords: Physical modelling, leaf chlorophyll imaging, spatial analysis, RGB reflex camera.

  20. 75 FR 11919 - Qimonda 200 MM Facility, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Tokyo Electron America, Nikon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2008 (73 FR 79914). The certification was amended on... firm. These notices were published in the Federal Register on February 23, 2009 (74 FR 8111), March 11, 2009 (74 FR 10619), April 7, 2009 (74 FR 15752), June 24, 2009 (74 FR 30112), July 30, 2009 (74...

  1. Space Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Nikon's F3 35mm camera was specially modified for use by Space Shuttle astronauts. The modification work produced a spinoff lubricant. Because lubricants in space have a tendency to migrate within the camera, Nikon conducted extensive development to produce nonmigratory lubricants; variations of these lubricants are used in the commercial F3, giving it better performance than conventional lubricants. Another spinoff is the coreless motor which allows the F3 to shoot 140 rolls of film on one set of batteries.

  2. A technique of measuring spectral characteristics of detector arrays in amateur and professional photocameras and their application for problems of digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesnichii, V. V.; Petrov, N. V.; Cheremkhin, P. A.

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of using commercial digital cameras that support image saving in the RAW format in scientific applications for measuring spatial intensity distributions in different ranges of the visible spectrum is considered. Spectral characteristics of photo sensors were measured for three digital cameras: Canon EOS 1000D, Nikon D50, and Nikon D90. Ways of applying spectral characteristics in problems of improving the quality of multicolor digital holograms are considered.

  3. A comparison of super wide field microscopy systems in mohs surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldsberry, Anne; Hanke, C William; Countryman, Nicholas B

    2014-12-01

    Microscopic frozen section interpretation is one of the cornerstones of Mohs surgery. The recent development of super wide field (SWF) microscopy can improve accuracy and efficiency while reading microscope sections, and also decrease the physician's musculoskeletal and ocular strain. Super wide field microscopy systems increase viewable field area (VA) by combining low magnification objectives, eg, 1x or 2x (Figure 1), with eyepieces that have a higher field number. This article reviews 3 SWF microscopy systems: Leica DM2000 (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany), Nikon Eclipse Ni (Nikon Instruments Inc., Melville, NY), and Olympus BX43 (Olympus, Center Valley, PA). The Leica DM2000's 1.25x objective results in a VA of 314.16 mm2. The Nikon Eclipse Ni's 1x objective results in a VA of 490.87 mm2. The Olympus BX43's 1.25x objective results in a VA of 352.99 mm2. The maximum VA at the lowest objective for Nikon is nearly 40% greater than for the Olympus and over 50% greater than for the Leica. The Nikon Eclipse Ni has a significantly higher maximum VA than the other 2 systems. PMID:25607789

  4. Multiphoton adaptation of a commercial low-cost confocal microscope for live tissue imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, James J.; Larson, Adam M.; Wensel, Theodore G.; Saggau, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The Nikon C1 confocal laser scanning microscope is a relatively inexpensive and user-friendly instrument. We describe a straightforward method to convert the C1 for multiphoton microscopy utilizing direct coupling of a femtosecond near-infrared laser into the scan head and fiber optic transmission of emission light to the three-channel detector box. Our adapted system can be rapidly switched between confocal and multiphoton mode, requires no modification to the original system, and uses only a few custom-made parts. The entire system, including scan mirrors and detector box, remain under the control of the user-friendly Nikon EZ-C1 software without modification.

  5. Study of Variations in the Branching Pattern of Lower Subscapular Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Havaldar, Pavan Prahlad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Variations in the origin of lower subscapular nerve of the posterior cord of brachial plexus are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of origin show population differences. Data from the South Indian population is scarce. Objective: To describe the variations in the origin of the lower subscapular nerve of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in the South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Forty brachial plexuses from 20 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and order of branching of lower subscapular nerve was recorded. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera (Sony Cyber shot R, W200, 7.2 Megapixels). Results: Lower subscapular nerves had origin from axillary nerve in 57.5% of specimens, in 37.5% specimens, it was originating from the posterior cord and in 5% of specimens it arose from common trunk. Conclusion: Lower subscapular nerves in studied population display a wide range of variations. Anesthesiologists administering local anesthetic blocks, clinicians interpreting effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb and surgeons operating in the axilla should be aware of these patterns to avoid in advertent injury. PMID:25584202

  6. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  7. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  8. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  9. STS-32 Mission Specialist Ivins juggles camera equipment on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Mission Specialist (MS) Marsha S. Ivins juggles camera equipment on Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, aft flight deck. Ivins holds a 35mm NIKON camera with telephoto lens in her right hand and a 70mm HASSELBLAD with telephoto lens in her left hand. Behind her, velcroed to the payload station, is additional camera equipment and film.

  10. STS-33 Commander Gregory uses 35mm camera to shoot scene outside window W8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Commander Frederick D. Gregory uses NIKON 35mm camera to shoot scene outside aft flight deck overhead window W8. His image is reflected in the window and his face is highlighted by the sunlight shining through the window. Gregory is documenting scenery outside Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  11. Pilot Hauck and Mission Specialist (MS) Fabian on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Hauck (with mustache) holds canvas stowage bag in one hand and steadies himself with the other hand on open forward modular locker single tray assembly (ASSY) as Mission Specialist (MS) Fabian looks on. Monodisperse Latex Reactor (MLR) apparatus container appears in forward locker position and sleep restraints appear in background on starboard wall. NIKON camera is visible between the two astronauts.

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  13. 75 FR 21353 - Intel Corporation, Fab 20 Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Technical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Intel Corporation, Fab 20 Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Volt Technical Resources, Staff Finders Technical, Kelly Services, Retronix International, Manpower-Oregon and Nikon Precision, Inc.,...

  14. Preparation of a Low-Cost Digital Camera System for Remote Sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-the-shelf consumer digital cameras are convenient and user-friendly. However, the use of these cameras in remote sensing is limited because convenient methods for concurrently determining visible and near-infrared (NIR) radiation have not been developed. Two Nikon COOLPIX 4300 digital cameras ...

  15. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  16. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each

  17. Illumination pupilgram control using an intelligent illuminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Mizuno, Yasushi; Mori, Masakazu; Kita, Naonori; Matsui, Ryota; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Nikon's Intelligent Illuminator, a freeform pupilgram generator, realizes a high flexibility for pupilgram control by using more than 10,000 degrees-of-freedom for pupilgram adjustment. In this work, an Intelligent Illuminator was integrated into an ArF scanner, the Nikon NSR-S621D. We demonstrate the pupilgram setting accuracy by direct correlation between on-body measured pupilgram and desired target pupilgram. We show that the Intelligent Illuminator is used for fine tuning of the pupilgram to match optical proximity effect (OPE) characteristics. We experimentally confirmed that a global source optimization software realized an improvement of lithographic process window without changing OPE characteristics by using optimized pupilgram made by Intelligent Illuminator.

  18. ISS nocturnal images as a scientic tool against Light Pollution: Flux calibration and colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pascual, S.; López Cayuela, M.; Ocaña, F.; Challupner, P.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Fernández-Renau, A.; Gómez, J. A.; de Miguel, E.

    2013-05-01

    The potential of the pictures of the Earth taken at night from the International Space Station (ISS) with a Nikon D3s digital camera to fight against light pollution is shown. We show that RAW pictures should be used to obtain fluxes. We have developed a method to perform absolute photometric calibration measuring fluxes of the stars recorded in the pictures and also calibrated sources at earth.

  19. 41-D crew briefings on use of camera for tail glow experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Steve Mende briefs one of the 41-D mission specialists on the operation of a camera setup for tail glow observations (33844); Astronaut Steve A. Hawley, left is briefed by Mende on the 41-D tail glow experiment. Hawley is a mission specialist for the 41-D flight. They are examing the Nikon camera and other gear to be used in the experiment. The briefing was held in the mockup and integration lab (33845).

  20. Recent developments in space shuttle remote sensing, using hand-held film cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the advantages and disadvantages of a number of camera systems which are currently employed for space shuttle remote sensing operations. Systems discussed include the modified Hasselbad, the Rolleiflex 6008, the Linkof 5-inch format system, and the Nikon F3/F4 systems. Film/filter combinations (color positive films, color infrared films, color negative films and polarization filters) are presented.

  1. Simulation of laser radar tooling ball measurements: focus dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel G.; Slotwinski, Anthony; Hedges, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The Nikon Metrology Laser Radar system focuses a beam from a fiber to a target object and receives the light scattered from the target through the same fiber. The system can, among other things, make highly accurate measurements of the position of a tooling ball by locating the angular position of peak signal quality, which is related to the fiber coupling efficiency. This article explores the relationship between fiber coupling efficiency and focus condition.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean reads data from book while holding teleprinter tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, reads data from book in his right hand while holding teleprinter tape in his left hand, in the ward room of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  3. Design-Data Based Inspection Of Photomasks And Reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabumoto, Seiichi; Arai, Tetsuyuki; Fujimori, Yoshihiko; Azuma, Toru

    1986-08-01

    A New automatic design-based inspection system called Nikon RMX has been developed. With its unique algorithm of comparing photomasks and reticles with their design data, good defect detection sensitivity and low false-defect detection are achieved. Firstly, the design data are converted into Nikon Format Data and stored in a magnetic disc device. At this time, more than one files can be merged together. A magnified image of the sample on the X-Y stage is converted to a bit-pattern image. Synchronized to the image of sample, Nikon Format Data are transferred from the disc, and a bit-pattern image of design data is generated on the frame memory. The window moves pixel by pixel in both design and sample bit-patterns. Each minute character (corner, step & isolated pattern) at the same window position is extracted by using so called Template-matching method, and compared. If the characters of the two bit-patterns are different, it means that the sample has a defect. Many kinds of templates are provided for defects on pattern edge (of 0°, 45°, 90° & any angle), defects at corner and isolated defects. Another unique point of this system is automatic resizing function (enlarging or shrinking of pattern). With this function, design-image can be matched to the sample-image precisely. All of defect analysis is performed by hardware-logic, so very fast inspection is possible.

  4. High hydrophobic topcoat approach for high volume production and yield enhancement of immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Natsuko; Nakano, Katsushi; Ishii, Yuuki; Kusabiraki, Kazunori; Shima, Motoyuki

    2012-03-01

    Immersion scanner performance is being improved generation by generation. Faster scan speed is required to increase scanner productivity. There are, however, several papers reporting defect increase with higher scan speed1, 2, 3. To overcome this challenge, both material and immersion scanner requires special tuning and optimization. This high stage speed is possible by employing topcoats that have higher hydrophobicity. In general, blob defect are generated at a higher rate with increase in hydrophobicity of topcoat. Nikon and JSR have collaborated to address this challenge by using next generation scanner and a newly developed topcoat material, respectively. JSR, as a topcoat supplier, introduces a new topcoat (TCX279), which shows low blob defects even with very high hydrophobicity. Nikon's latest immersion scanner S621D, equipped with latest nozzle design for optimizing immersion water flow, and an improved tandem stage system to reduce edge particles, resulted in achieving 5x defect reduction compared to S620D. Ultimately, zero immersion defects were realized by a combination of Nikon's S621D scanner and JSR's new topcoat, TCX279.

  5. Performance of low-cost X-ray area detectors with consumer digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panna, A.; Gomella, A. A.; Harmon, K. J.; Chen, P.; Miao, H.; Bennett, E. E.; Wen, H.

    2015-05-01

    We constructed X-ray detectors using consumer-grade digital cameras coupled to commercial X-ray phosphors. Several detector configurations were tested against the Varian PaxScan 3024M (Varian 3024M) digital flat panel detector. These include consumer cameras (Nikon D800, Nikon D700, and Nikon D3X) coupled to a green emission phosphor in a back-lit, normal incidence geometry, and in a front-lit, oblique incidence geometry. We used the photon transfer method to evaluate detector sensitivity and dark noise, and the edge test method to evaluate their spatial resolution. The essential specifications provided by our evaluation include discrete charge events captured per mm2 per unit exposure surface dose, dark noise in equivalents of charge events per pixel, and spatial resolution in terms of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the detector`s line spread function (LSF). Measurements were performed using a tungsten anode X-ray tube at 50 kVp. The results show that the home-built detectors provide better sensitivity and lower noise than the commercial flat panel detector, and some have better spatial resolution. The trade-off is substantially smaller imaging areas. Given their much lower costs, these home-built detectors are attractive options for prototype development of low-dose imaging applications.

  6. Compact two-photon laser-scanning microscope made from minimally modified commercial components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Vijay; Hoogland, Tycho; Losavio, Bradley E.; McQuiston, A. R.; Saggau, Peter

    2002-06-01

    A compact two-photon laser-scanning microscope (TPLSM) was constructed using a diode-pumped, mode-locked Nd:YLF laser (Biolight 1000, Coherent Laser Group) and a small confocal laser scan-head (PCM2000, Nikon Bioscience). The laser emits at 1047nm and is fiber-coupled to a compact compressor unit producing a pulse-width of ~175fsec. Both the pulse compressor and confocal scan head were interfaced on a small optical breadboard that was directly attached to an upright research microscope (Eclipse E600FN, Nikon Bioscience). Two-photon fluorescence emitted from the specimen was collected into a multimode fiber and transmitted directly to an external PMT supplied with the Nikon confocal system. The modifications to the scanhead were minimal (a single mirror replacement) and did not interfere with its confocal function. The resulting system offers several advantages: compact size, turnkey operation, and the ability to translate the microscope rather than an often delicate specimen. In addition, it is possible to switch between confocal and two-photon operation, allowing for straightforward comparison. Using this compact TPLSM, we obtained structural and functional images from hippocampal neurons in living brain slices using commonly available fluorophores.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Thermographic Cameras for Photogrammetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yastikli, N.; Guler, E.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is the performance evaluation of the termographic cameras for possible use for photogrammetric documentation and deformation analyses caused by moisture and isolation problem of the historical and cultural heritage. To perform geometric calibration of the termographic camera, the 3D test object was designed with 77 control points which were distributed in different depths. For performance evaluation, Flir A320 termographic camera with 320 × 240 pixels and lens with 18 mm focal length was used. The Nikon D3X SLR digital camera with 6048 × 4032 pixels and lens with 20 mm focal length was used as reference for comparison. The size of pixel was 25 μm for the Flir A320 termographic camera and 6 μm for the Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The digital images of the 3D test object were recorded with the Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera and the image coordinate of the control points in the images were measured. The geometric calibration parameters, including the focal length, position of principal points, radial and tangential distortions were determined with introduced additional parameters in bundle block adjustments. The measurement of image coordinates and bundle block adjustments with additional parameters were performed using the PHIDIAS digital photogrammetric system. The bundle block adjustment was repeated with determined calibration parameter for both Flir A320 termographic camera and Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image coordinates was 9.6 μm and 10.5 μm for Flir A320 termographic camera and 8.3 μm and 7.7 μm for Nikon D3X SLR digital camera. The obtained standard deviation of measured image points in Flir A320 termographic camera images almost same accuracy level with digital camera in comparison with 4 times bigger pixel size. The obtained results from this research, the interior geometry of the termographic cameras and lens distortion was modelled efficiently

  8. Evaluation of proximal caries in images resulting from different modes of radiographic digitalization

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, CRG; Araujo-Pires, AC; Poleti, ML; Rubira-Bullen, IRF; Ferreira, O; Capelozza, ALA

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of observers in diagnosing proximal caries in digital images obtained from digital bitewing radiographs using two scanners and four digital cameras in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and tagged image file format (TIFF) files, and comparing them with the original conventional radiographs. Method In total, 56 extracted teeth were radiographed with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) in a Kaycor Yoshida X-ray device (Kaycor X-707; Yoshida Dental Manufacturing Co., Tokyo, Japan) operating at 70 kV and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.40 s. The radiographs were obtained and scanned by CanonScan D646U (Canon USA Inc., Newport News, VA) and Genius ColorPage HR7X (KYE Systems Corp. America, Doral, FL) scanners, and by Canon Powershot G2 (Canon USA Inc.), Canon RebelXT (Canon USA Inc.), Nikon Coolpix 8700 (Nikon Inc., Melville, NY), and Nikon D70s (Nikon Inc.) digital cameras in JPEG and TIFF formats. Three observers evaluated the images. The teeth were then observed under the microscope in polarized light for the verification of the presence and depth of the carious lesions. Results The probability of no diagnosis ranged from 1.34% (Insight film) to 52.83% (CanonScan/JPEG). The sensitivity ranged from 0.24 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.53 (Insight film), the specificity ranged from 0.93 (Nikon Coolpix/JPEG, Canon Powershot/TIFF, Canon RebelXT/JPEG and TIFF) to 0.97 (CanonScan/TIFF and JPEG) and the accuracy ranged from 0.82 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.91 (CanonScan/JPEG). Conclusion The carious lesion diagnosis did not change in either of the file formats (JPEG and TIFF) in which the images were saved for any of the equipment used. Only the CanonScan scanner did not have adequate performance in radiography digitalization for caries diagnosis and it is not recommended for this purpose. PMID:21831972

  9. Evaluation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Luminance Mapping Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika; Galvin, Jim

    2004-12-30

    The potential, limitations, and applicability of the High Dynamic Range (HDR) photography technique is evaluated as a luminance mapping tool. Multiple exposure photographs of static scenes are taken with a Nikon 5400 digital camera to capture the wide luminance variation within the scenes. The camera response function is computationally derived using the Photosphere software, and is used to fuse the multiple photographs into HDR images. The vignetting effect and point spread function of the camera and lens system is determined. Laboratory and field studies have shown that the pixel values in the HDR photographs can correspond to the physical quantity of luminance with reasonable precision and repeatability.

  10. Astronaut Owen Garriott reconstitutes pre-packaged container of food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, reconstitutes a pre-packaged container of food at the crew quarters ward room table of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Note the knife and fork on the food tray and the utensil with which Garriott stirs the food mixed with water. Skylab is the first manned space program by NASA which affords the crewmen an opportunity to eat with the same type utensils used on Earth.

  11. Endeavors in micro-imaging spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.M.

    1995-10-19

    The goal of this apparatus is to better enable characterization of tissue samples both on a microscopic scale and across the visible spectrum. The set-up consists of a phase-contrast inverted Nikon microscope, a single-grating imaging spectrometer, a CCD camera, and a computer potentially controlling all three of the previous devices, The computer uses an object-oriented program development environment called LabVIEW to run the three devices. This apparatus will hopefully enable better, less invasive surgical procedures, as well as permitting higher-resolution, more up-close observation of cellular dynamics.

  12. Manned observations technology development, FY 1992 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven

    1992-01-01

    This project evaluated the suitability of the NASA/JSC developed electronic still camera (ESC) digital image data for Earth observations from the Space Shuttle, as a first step to aid planning for Space Station Freedom. Specifically, image resolution achieved from the Space Shuttle using the current ESC system, which is configured with a Loral 15 mm x 15 mm (1024 x 1024 pixel array) CCD chip on the focal plane of a Nikon F4 camera, was compared to that of current handheld 70 mm Hasselblad 500 EL/M film cameras.

  13. Extending the life of a Bausch and Lomb Research II metallograph

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Bausch and Lomb Research II metallograph has been out of production for several years and objective lenses are becoming impossible to get. As lenses become damaged and unavailable, the usefulness of an otherwise fine instrument drops to zero. A successful attempt to retrofit Nikon lenses to a research II has been made. Mechanical modifications to the metallograph were easily accomplished by an experienced service man using the machine shop facilities available. The resulting modifications have restored the usefulness of our metallograph beyond expectations, and provided us with a viable means of maintaining it in sevice for many years to come.

  14. KSC-03PD-2097

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA launches its second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, aboard a Delta II launch vehicle. The bright glare briefly illuminated Florida Space Coast beaches. Opportunitys dash to Mars began with liftoff at 11:18:15 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. The spacecraft separated successfully from the Delta's third stage 83 minutes later, after it had been boosted out of Earth orbit and onto a course toward Mars. [Photo courtesy of Ray Yost and Scott Andrews/NIKON

  15. Global source optimization for MEEF and OPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Ryota; Noda, Tomoya; Aoyama, Hajime; Kita, Naonori; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Flagello, Donis

    2013-04-01

    This work describes freeform source optimization considering mask error enhancement factor (MEEF), optical proximity effect (OPE), process window, and hardware-specific constraints. Our algorithm allows users to define maximum allowed MEEF and OPE error as constraints without defining weights among the metrics. We also consider hardware specific constraints, so that the optimized source is suitable to be realized in Nikon's Intelligent Illumination hardware. Our approach utilizes a global optimization procedure to arrive at a freeform source shape solution, and since each source grid-point is assigned as variable, the source solution encompasses the maximum amount of degrees of freedom.

  16. Experimental resolution comparison between the TOMBO and single lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Yang, Ping; Tang, Guomao; Xu, Bing; Ao, Mingwu

    2014-09-01

    Thin observation module by bounded optics (TOMBO) is an optical system substituting a micro lens-let array with smaller apertures for a conventional large full aperture. This array allows us to capture multiple low resolution sub-images of the same scene and use them to reconstruct a high resolution image. While lost resolutions can be recovered, there has been very little work on experimentally evaluating restored resolution performance in the TOMBO system. Our work focuses on resolution comparisons among a 4×4 lens-let TOMBO and Nikon lenses in the same f number condition. Experimental results present the equivalent focal length of the experimental TOMBO system.

  17. Comet C/2012 S1 (Ison)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, S.; Kadota, K.; Ikari, Y.

    2013-12-01

    S. Nakano, Sumoto, Japan, has also reported the following unsuccessful CCD searches for the comet after perihelion, with limiting magnitudes: Dec. 8.85 UT, [16.6 (K. Kadota, Ageo, Japan, 0.16-m f/3.3 hyperbolic astrograph); 8.88, [15 (Katsumi Yoshimoto, Yamaguchi, Japan, 16-cm reflector); 10.85, [17.2 (Kadota); 12.86, [17 (Y. Ikari, Moriyama, Shiga-ken, Japan, 0.26-m reflector); 14.86, [15.5 (Yoshimoto, Nikon digital camera + 180-mm f/2.8 lens).

  18. Computer-assisted reconstruction of axonal arborizations anterogradely labelled with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin technique.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, L; Le Bars, D

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes a computer-assisted method which allows the tracing of axonal arborizations, and the reconstruction in a either grey-scale or a binary image representation, of all labelled neuronal processes located within different focal planes of a single tissue section. The system includes a Nikon microscope connected to a CCD video camera, and a Macintosh microcomputer. Each step of the method is described in order to show that the capturing of images, retouching and pasting are easily and rapidly performed using commercially available hardware and software. PMID:7509017

  19. The validity of labeled parameters of aphakia-correcting soft contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Molinari, J F; Semes, L

    1982-08-01

    This study examines the validity of labeled parameters of aphakia-correcting soft contact lenses. The Nikon Projection Lensometer (NPL) and the Hydro-Vue Soft Lens Analyzer (HSLA) were used by two independent inspectors to measure 51 aphakia-correcting lenses. The contact lens power, diameter, and base curve were measured by each of the inspectors and compared to the labeled parameters. All parameter relations that were analyzed revealed that measurements made by the inspectors were not statistically different (p greater than 0.05) from each other and that their combined measurements were not statistically different (p greater than 0.05) from the labeled values. PMID:7137309

  20. Image processing and data reduction of Apollo low light level photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvord, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of the lens induced vignetting from a selected sample of the Apollo low light level photographs is discussed. The methods used were developed earlier. A study of the effect of noise on vignetting removal and the comparability of the Apollo 35mm Nikon lens vignetting was also undertaken. The vignetting removal was successful to about 10% photometry, and noise has a severe effect on the useful photometric output data. Separate vignetting functions must be used for different flights since the vignetting function varies from camera to camera in size and shape.

  1. Film annotation system for a space experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browne, W. R.; Johnson, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    This microprocessor system was designed to control and annotate a Nikon 35 mm camera for the purpose of obtaining photographs and data at predefined time intervals. The single STD BUSS interface card was designed in such a way as to allow it to be used in either a stand alone application with minimum features or installed in a STD BUSS computer allowing for maximum features. This control system also allows the exposure of twenty eight alpha/numeric characters across the bottom of each photograph. The data contains such information as camera identification, frame count, user defined text, and time to .01 second.

  2. Aberration averaging using point spread function for scanning projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2000-07-01

    Scanning projection system plays a leading part in current DUV optical lithography. It is frequently pointed out that the mechanically induced distortion and field curvature degrade image quality after scanning. On the other hand, the aberration of the projection lens is averaged along the scanning direction. This averaging effect reduces the residual aberration significantly. The aberration averaging based on the point spread function and phase retrieval technique in order to estimate the effective wavefront aberration after scanning is described in this paper. Our averaging method is tested using specified wavefront aberration, and its accuracy is discussed based on the measured wavefront aberration of recent Nikon projection lens.

  3. Exposure tool control for advanced semiconductor lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2015-08-01

    This is a review paper to show how we control exposure tool parameters in order to satisfy patterning performance and productivity requirements for advanced semiconductor lithography. In this paper, we will discuss how we control illumination source shape to satisfy required imaging performance, heat-induced lens aberration during exposure to minimize the aberration impact on imaging, dose and focus control to realize uniform patterning performance across the wafer and patterning position of circuit patterns on different layers. The contents are mainly about current Nikon immersion exposure tools.

  4. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Space Particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, G. A.

    2013-01-30

    The Special Analytical Studies Group at the 222-S Laboratory (222-S) examined the particulate recovered from a series of samples from the annular space of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) using solid phase characterization (SPC) methods. These include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX®1 scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku®2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon®3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information.

  5. STS-65 Mission Specialist Walz poolside at JSC's WETF during contingency exer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist Carl E. Walz, holding a NIKON camera, stands on the poolside of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) during extravehicular activity (EVA) contingency exercise preparations. Walz stands by to photograph two of his crewmates about to be lowered into the WETF's 25-feet deep pool. Astronauts Donald A. Thomas and Leroy Chiao were about to be submerged and made to be neutrally buoyant in order to rehearse several contingency tasks that would require a spacewalk. No spacewalks are scheduled for the STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission.

  6. Indicator Species Population Monitoring in Antarctica with Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmarz, A.; Korczak-Abshire, M.; Storvold, R.; Rodzewicz, M.; Kędzierska, I.

    2015-08-01

    A program to monitor bird and pinniped species in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica, has been conducted over the past 38 years. Annual monitoring of these indicator species includes estimations of breeding population sizes of three Pygoscelis penguin species: Adélie, gentoo and chinstrap. Six penguin colonies situated on the western shores of two bays: Admiralty and King George are investigated. To study changes in penguin populations Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were used for the first time in the 2014/15 austral summer season. During photogrammetric flights the high-resolution images of eight penguin breeding colonies were taken. Obtained high resolution images were used for estimation of breeding population size and compared with the results of measurements taken at the same time from the ground. During this Antarctic expedition eight successful photogrammetry missions (total distance 1500 km) were performed. Images were taken with digital SLR Canon 700D, Nikon D5300, Nikon D5100 with a 35mm objective lens. Flights altitude at 350 - 400 AGL, allowed images to be taken with a resolution GSD (ground sample distance) less than 5 cm. The Image J software analysis method was tested to provide automatic population estimates from obtained images. The use of UAV for monitoring of indicator species, enabled data acquisition from areas inaccessible by ground methods.

  7. Development of the Brican TD100 Small Uas and Payload Trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, B.; McLuckie, B.; Koski, W. R.; Bird, D.; Patterson, C.; Bohdanov, D.; Liu, H.; Mathews, T.; Gamage, G.

    2015-08-01

    The Brican TD100 is a high performance, small UAS designed and made in Brampton Ontario Canada. The concept was defined in late 2009 and it is designed for a maximum weight of 25 kg which is now the accepted cut-off defining small civil UASs. A very clean tractor propeller layout is used with a lightweight composite structure and a high aspect ratio wing to obtain good range and endurance. The design features and performance of the initial electrically powered version are discussed and progress with developing a multifuel engine version is described. The system includes features enabling operation beyond line of sight (BLOS) and the proving missions are described. The vehicle has been used for aerial photography and low cost mapping using a professional grade Nikon DSLR camera. For forest fire research a FLIR A65 IR camera was used, while for georeferenced mapping a new Applanix AP20 system was calibrated with the Nikon camera. The sorties to be described include forest fire research, wildlife photography of bowhead whales in the Arctic and surveys of endangered caribou in a remote area of Labrador, with all these applications including the DSLR camera.

  8. Matching image color from different cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Mark D.; Wyble, David R.; Johnson, Garrett M.

    2008-01-01

    Can images from professional digital SLR cameras be made equivalent in color using simple colorimetric characterization? Two cameras were characterized, these characterizations were implemented on a variety of images, and the results were evaluated both colorimetrically and psychophysically. A Nikon D2x and a Canon 5D were used. The colorimetric analyses indicated that accurate reproductions were obtained. The median CIELAB color differences between the measured ColorChecker SG and the reproduced image were 4.0 and 6.1 for the Canon (chart and spectral respectively) and 5.9 and 6.9 for the Nikon. The median differences between cameras were 2.8 and 3.4 for the chart and spectral characterizations, near the expected threshold for reliable image difference perception. Eight scenes were evaluated psychophysically in three forced-choice experiments in which a reference image from one of the cameras was shown to observers in comparison with a pair of images, one from each camera. The three experiments were (1) a comparison of the two cameras with the chart-based characterizations, (2) a comparison with the spectral characterizations, and (3) a comparison of chart vs. spectral characterization within and across cameras. The results for the three experiments are 64%, 64%, and 55% correct respectively. Careful and simple colorimetric characterization of digital SLR cameras can result in visually equivalent color reproduction.

  9. A comparison of dense matching algorithms for scaled surface reconstruction using stereo camera rigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadabadian, Ali Hosseininaveh; Robson, Stuart; Boehm, Jan; Shortis, Mark; Wenzel, Konrad; Fritsch, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Photogrammetric methods for dense 3D surface reconstruction are increasingly available to both professional and amateur users who have requirements that span a wide variety of applications. One of the key concerns in choosing an appropriate method is to understand the achievable accuracy and how choices made within the workflow can alter that outcome. In this paper we consider accuracy in two components: the ability to generate a correctly scaled 3D model; and the ability to automatically deliver a high quality data set that provides good agreement to a reference surface. The determination of scale information is particularly important, since a network of images usually only provides angle measurements and thus leads to unscaled geometry. A solution is the introduction of known distances in object space, such as base lines between camera stations or distances between control points. In order to avoid using known object distances, the method presented in this paper exploits a calibrated stereo camera utilizing the calibrated base line information from the camera pair as an observational based geometric constraint. The method provides distance information throughout the object volume by orbiting the object. In order to test the performance of this approach, four topical surface matching methods have been investigated to determine their ability to produce accurate, dense point clouds. The methods include two versions of Semi-Global Matching as well as MicMac and Patch-based Multi-View Stereo (PMVS). These methods are implemented on a set of stereo images captured from four carefully selected objects by using (1) an off-the-shelf low cost 3D camera and (2) a pair of Nikon D700 DSLR cameras rigidly mounted in close proximity to each other. Inter-comparisons demonstrate the subtle differences between each of these permutations. The point clouds are also compared to a dataset obtained with a Nikon MMD laser scanner. Finally, the established process of achieving accurate

  10. Dislocations and mechanical properties of single crystal niobium disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, S.A.; Chu, F.; Petrovic, J.J.; Mitchell, T.E.

    1996-09-01

    The mechanical properties of single crystal NbSi{sub 2} have been investigated along [0001] and 45{degree} from [0001] toward [11{bar 2}0] using a Nikon QM-2 hot hardness tester from room temperature to 900 C in vacuum. The hardness along [0001] increases from room temperature to 300 C followed by a sharp decrease in hardness with temperature which is accompanied by a large uplift observed surrounding the indentations. Dislocations surrounding the indentations at room temperature and 300 C were analyzed using techniques in transmission electron microscopy to find slip by <10{bar 1}0> dislocations at room temperature with a change in the active slip systems at 300 C. The hardness along a direction 45{degree} from [0001] toward [11{bar 2}0] sharply decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature. Coarse slip lines surround the indentations referring to slip on the basal plane.

  11. Lightning over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images were taken 9 seconds apart as the STS-97 Space Shuttle flew over equatorial Africa east of Lake Volta on December 11, 2000. The top of the large thunderstorm, roughly 20 km across, is illuminated by a full moon and frequent bursts of lightning. Because the Space Shuttle travels at about 7 km/sec, the astronaut perspectives on this storm system becomes more oblique over the 9-second interval between photographs. The images were taken with a Nikon 35 mm camera equipped with a 400 mm lens and high-speed (800 ISO) color negative film. Images are STS097-351-9 and STS097-351-12, provided and archived by the Earth Science and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/

  12. Innovative optical alignment technique for CMP wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaya, Ayako; Kanaya, Yuho; Nakajima, Shinichi; Nagayama, Tadashi; Shiraishi, Naomasa

    2002-07-01

    Detecting position of the wafers such as after CMP process is critical theme of current and forthcoming IC manufacturing. The alignment system must be with high accuracy for any process. To satisfy such requirements, we have studied and analyzed factors that have made alignment difficult. From the result of the studies, we have developed new optical alignment techniques which improve the accuracy of FIA (alignment sensor of Nikon's NSR series) and examined them. The approaches are optimizing the focus position, developing an advanced algorithm for position detection, and selecting a suitable mark design. For experiment, we have developed the special wafers that make it possible to evaluate the influence of CMP processes. The experimental results show that the overlay errors decrease dramatically with the new alignment techniques. FIA with these new techniques will be much accurate and suitable alignment sensor for CMP and other processes of future generation ULSI production.

  13. Tests and developments of the PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzelmüller, E.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2016-04-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) requires excellent particle identification. Two different DIRC detectors will utilize internally reflected Cherenkov light of charged particles to enable the separation of pions and kaons up to momenta of 4 GeV/c. The Endcap Disc DIRC will be placed in the forward endcap of PANDA's central spectrometer covering polar angles between 5° and 22°. Its final design is based on MCP-PMTs for the photon detection and an optical system made of fused silica. A new prototype has been investigated during a test beam at CERN in May 2015 and first results will be presented. In addition a new synthetic fused silica material by Nikon has been tested and was found to be radiation hard.

  14. Earth-based photography of Comet Kohoutek in sky on December 6, 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An earth-based photograph of the Comet Kohoutek in the sky on December 6, 1973, when the celestial phenomenon was more than 70 million miles from the Sun and some 119 million miles from Earth. This picture was taken from a dark mountain top area of Haleakala (Island of Maui) Hawaii, using a 35mm Nikon camera with a 55mm lens, a 300-second exposure at f/1.2 and with Tri-X film. The photographer was Frank Giovane. The indicated visible tail of the comet appears to be about 10 million miles long. Other reports have inferred that the length of the tail is up to 13 million miles. The Skylab 4 crewmen have reported that Kohoutek's tail-length was from 2 to 3 degrees or from 4 to 6 million miles as viewed with the naked eye from the Skylab space station in earth orbit.

  15. Concrete Slump Classification using GLCM Feature Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andayani, Relly; Madenda, Syarifudin

    2016-05-01

    Digital image processing technologies have been widely applies in analyzing concrete structure because the accuracy and real time result. The aim of this study is to classify concrete slump by using image processing technique. For this purpose, concrete mix design of 30 MPa compression strength designed with slump of 0-10 mm, 10-30 mm, 30-60 mm, and 60-180 mm were analysed. Image acquired by Nikon Camera D-7000 using high resolution was set up. In the first step RGB converted to greyimage than cropped to 1024 x 1024 pixel. With open-source program, cropped images to be analysed to extract GLCM feature. The result shows for the higher slump contrast getting lower, but higher correlation, energy, and homogeneity.

  16. A Russian Proton rocket launches with the Zvezda module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Russian 3-stage Proton rocket blasts into the sky at 12:56 a.m. EDT with the Russian-built Zvezda module in a successful launch from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Zvezda is the primary Russian contribution to the International Space Station, serving as the early Station living quarters. It will also provide early propulsive attitude control and reboost capabilities and be the main docking port for Russian Progress cargo resupply vehicles. The third Station component, Zvezda will dock by remote control with the already orbiting Zarya and Unity modules at an altitude of about 245 by 230 statute miles. (Image taken with Nikon D1 digital camera.) View of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An excellent view of the southern aurora, luminous bands or streamers of light, in the Southern Hemisphere, as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The space station was moving into the sunlight when this picture was taken. This view is near the edge of the aurora cap. The surface of the Earth is in the foreground. The permanent aurora over the South Pole is in the background. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, took this photograph with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera, with a four-second exposure at f/1.2, using high speed Ektachrome film. Because auroras are caused by solar activity, they occur at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  17. High-speed multicolour photometry with CMOS cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.; Reshetnyk, V. M.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of testing the commercial digital camera Nikon D90 with a CMOS sensor for high-speed photometry with a small telescope Celestron 11'' at the Peak Terskol Observatory. CMOS sensor allows to perform photometry in 3 filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system of CMOS sensors is close to the Johnson BVR system. The results of testing show that one can carry out photometric measurements with CMOS cameras for stars with the V-magnitude up to ≃14^{m} with the precision of 0.01^{m}. Stars with the V-magnitude up to ˜10 can be shot at 24 frames per second in the video mode.

  18. High-productivity immersion scanner enabling 1xnm hp manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirata, Yosuke; Shibazaki, Yuichi; Kosugi, Junichi; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Ohmura, Yasuhiro

    2013-04-01

    NSR-S622D, Nikon's new ArF immersion scanner, provides the best and practicable solutions to meet the escalating requirement from device manufactures to accommodate the further miniaturization of device pattern. NSR-S622D has various additional functions compared to the previous model such as the newly developed illumination system, new projection lens, new AF system new wafer table in addition to the matured Streamlign platform. These new features will derive the outstanding performance of NSR, enabling highly controlled CD uniformity, focus accuracy and overlay accuracy. NSR-S622D will provide the adequate capabilities that are demanded from a lithography tool for production of 1x nm hp node and beyond.

  19. KSC-03PD-1893

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Amid billows of smoke and steam, the Delta II rocket with its Mars Exploration Rover (MER-A) payload lifts off the pad on time at 1:58 p.m. EDT from Launch Complex 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. MER-A, known as 'Spirit,' is the first of two rovers being launched to Mars. When the two rovers arrive at the red planet in 2004, they will bounce to airbag-cushioned landings at sites offering a balance of favorable conditions for safe landings and interesting science. The rovers see sharper images, can explore farther and examine rocks better than anything that has ever landed on Mars. The designated site for the MER-A mission is Gusev Crater, which appears to have been a crater lake. The second rover, MER-B, is scheduled to launch June 25. Photo by NIKON/Scott Andrews

  1. Latest performance of ArF immersion scanner NSR-S630D for high-volume manufacturing for 7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funatsu, Takayuki; Uehara, Yusaku; Hikida, Yujiro; Hayakawa, Akira; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Hirayama, Toru; Kono, Hirotaka; Shirata, Yosuke; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    In order to achieve stable operation in cutting-edge semiconductor manufacturing, Nikon has developed NSR-S630D with extremely accurate overlay while maintaining throughput in various conditions resembling a real production environment. In addition, NSR-S630D has been equipped with enhanced capabilities to maintain long-term overlay stability and user interface improvement all due to our newly developed application software platform. In this paper, we describe the most recent S630D performance in various conditions similar to real productions. In a production environment, superior overlay accuracy with high dose conditions and high throughput are often required; therefore, we have performed several experiments with high dose conditions to demonstrate NSR's thermal aberration capabilities in order to achieve world class overlay performance. Furthermore, we will introduce our new software that enables long term overlay performance.

  2. Reference data set for camera spectral sensitivity estimation.

    PubMed

    Darrodi, Maryam Mohammadzadeh; Finlayson, Graham; Goodman, Teresa; Mackiewicz, Michal

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we describe a spectral sensitivity measurement procedure at the National Physical Laboratory, London, with the aim of obtaining ground truth spectral sensitivity functions for Nikon D5100 and Sigma SD1 Merill cameras. The novelty of our data is that the potential measurement errors are estimated at each wavelength. We determine how well the measured spectral sensitivity functions represent the actual camera sensitivity functions (as a function of wavelength). The second contribution of this paper is to test the performance of various leading sensor estimation techniques implemented from the literature using measured and synthetic data and also evaluate them based on ground truth data for the two cameras. We conclude that the estimation techniques tested are not sufficiently accurate when compared with our measured ground truth data and that there remains significant scope to improve estimation algorithms for spectral estimation. To help in this endeavor, we will make all our data available online for the community. PMID:26366649

  3. Time-Resolved Imaging Of Transient Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, L. S.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Singh, J.; Ahmad, Z.

    2009-07-07

    Pulsed capillary discharge is a compact device that is used to perform fast electrical discharge that is used to produce transient plasma. In this work, a more economical imaging technique is developed in order to study the dynamics of the plasma that is formed in a capillary tube. The imaging system consists of two main devices, a four-frame gated micro-channel plate and a Nikon Coolpix5000 camera. The time-resolved imaging that we have performed in order to study the dynamics of the plasma that is formed in a 10 mm long and 1 mm diameter low pressure capillary tube is reported. The images obtained portrayed that the plasma is heated up when the magnitude of the current is around the maximum and cools down when the current magnitude is around the minimum.

  4. Lunar orbital photography of astronomical phenomena.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, R. D.; Dunkelman, L.; Ross, C. L.; Worden, A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper reports further progress on photography of faint astronomical and geophysical phenomena accomplished during the recent Apollo missions. Command module pilots have been able to photograph such astronomical objects as the solar corona, zodiacal light-corona transition region, lunar libration region, and portions of the Milky Way. The methods utilized for calibration of the film by adaptation of the High Altitude Observatory sensitometer are discussed. Kodak 2485 high-speed recording film was used in both 35-mm and 70-mm formats. The cameras used were Nikon f/1.2 55-mm focal length and Hasselblad f/2.8 80-mm focal length. Preflight and postflight calibration exposures were included on both the flight and control films, corresponding to luminances extending from the inner solar corona to as faint as 1/10 of the luminance of the light of the night sky. The photographs obtained from unique vantage points available during lunar orbit are discussed.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Study of a Numerical Aperture for Multimode PCS Fiber Optics Using an Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saman, Q. Mawlud; Nahlah, Q. Muhamad

    2012-11-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the properties of numerical aperture (NA) of multimode graded-index plastic core silica (PCS) fibers by using an image technique. A He-Ne laser at wavelength 632.8 nm and output power 1 mW is used as the transmitter light source. The output beam images and intensity profiles of an optical fiber are investigated by using an imaging technique. The laser beam profiles captured by a sensitive digital Nikon camera are processed and analyzed by using a Gaussian intensity distribution in a 2D graph. A MathCAD 14 program is used for converting the image of the laser output beam into data. The theoretical and experimental values of the numerical aperture for the used optical fiber in this study are found to be 0.5 and 0.4924, respectively. The theoretical value of V-number is also calculated to be approximately 2482.

  6. Showering on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A close up view of astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth Orbit. This picture was taken with a hand-held 35mm Nikon camera. Astronaut Lousma, Alan Bean and Owen K. Garriott remained within the Skylab space station in orbit for 59 days conducting numerous medical, scientific and technological expierments. In deploying the shower facility the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  7. Time-Resolved Spectra of Dense Plasma Focus Using Spectrometer, Streak Camera, CCD Combination

    SciTech Connect

    F. J. Goldin, B. T. Meehan, E. C. Hagen, P. R. Wilkins

    2010-10-01

    A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny–Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.

  8. Enhancing the numerical aperture of lenses using ZnO nanostructure-based turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Manoj; Rawat, Nitin; Bir Barman, Partha; Jang, Hwanchol; Kumar, Rajesh; Lee, Heung-No

    2013-12-01

    Nanosheets, nanoparticles, and microstructures of ZnO were synthesized via a wet chemical method. ZnO films with a thickness of 44-46 μm were fabricated by spray coating, and these have been investigated for their potential use in turbid lens applications. A morphology-dependent comparative study of the transmittance of ZnO turbid films was conducted. Furthermore, these ZnO turbid films were used to enhance the numerical aperture (NA) of a Nikon objective lens. The variation in NA with different morphologies was explained using size-dependent scattering by the fabricated films. A maximum NA of around 1.971 of the objective lens with a turbid film of ZnO nanosheets was achieved.

  9. Optimizing view/illumination geometry for terrestrial features using Space Shuttle and aerial polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven A.; Holly, Mark H.; Whitehead, Victor S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes to relationship of polarimetric observations from orbital and aerial platforms and the determination optimum sun-target-sensor geometry. Polarimetric observations were evaluated for feature discrimination. The Space Shuttle experiment was performed using two boresighted Hasselblad 70 mm cameras with identical settings with linear polarizing filters aligned orthogonally about the optic axis. The aerial experiment was performed using a single 35 mm Nikon FE2 and rotating the linear polarizing filter 90 deg to acquire both minimum and maximum photographs. Characteristic curves were created by covertype and waveband for both aerial and Space Shuttle imagery. Though significant differences existed between the two datasets, the observed polarimetric signatures were unique and separable.

  10. Time-resolved spectra of dense plasma focus using spectrometer, streak camera, and CCD combination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, F. J.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.; Wilkins, P. R.

    2010-10-15

    A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny-Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.

  11. Spherical photography and virtual tours for presenting crime scenes and forensic evidence in new zealand courtrooms.

    PubMed

    Tung, Nicole D; Barr, Jason; Sheppard, Dion J; Elliot, Douglas A; Tottey, Leah S; Walsh, Kevan A J

    2015-05-01

    The delivery of forensic science evidence in a clear and understandable manner is an important aspect of a forensic scientist's role during expert witness delivery in a courtroom trial. This article describes an Integrated Evidence Platform (IEP) system based on spherical photography which allows the audience to view the crime scene via a virtual tour and view the forensic scientist's evidence and results in context. Equipment and software programmes used in the creation of the IEP include a Nikon DSLR camera, a Seitz Roundshot VR Drive, PTGui Pro, and Tourweaver Professional Edition. The IEP enables a clear visualization of the crime scene, with embedded information such as photographs of items of interest, complex forensic evidence, the results of laboratory analyses, and scientific opinion evidence presented in context. The IEP has resulted in significant improvements to the pretrial disclosure of forensic results, enhanced the delivery of evidence in court, and improved the jury's understanding of the spatial relationship between results. PMID:25651814

  12. Skylab 4 visual observations project report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltenbach, J. L.; Lenoir, W. B.; Mcewen, M. C.; Weitenhagen, R. A.; Wilmarth, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab 4 Visual Observations Project was undertaken to determine the ways in which man can contribute to future earth-orbital observational programs. The premission training consisted of 17 hours of lectures by scientists representing 16 disciplines and provided the crewmen information on observational and photographic procedures and the scientific significance of this information. During the Skylab 4 mission, more than 850 observations and 2000 photographs with the 70-millimeter Hasselblad and 35-millimeter Nikon cameras were obtained for many investigative areas. Preliminary results of the project indicate that man can obtain new and unique information to support satellite earth-survey programs because of his inherent capability to make selective observations, to integrate the information, and to record the data by describing and photographing the observational sites.

  13. Nova Sagittarii 2012 No. 3 = PNV J17522579-2126215

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-07-01

    Nova Sagittarii 2012 No. 3 = PNV J17522579-212621 was discovered independently by: Koichi Itagaki (Yamagata, Japan, reported by Hitoshi Yamaoka, Kyushu University), Yukio Sakurai (Mito, Ibaraki-ken, Japan). Discovery Magnitude: Itagaki (magnitude 10.3 on an unfiltered CCD image taken with a 0.21-m reflector), Sakurai (magnitude 9.9 on four 20-s frames taken with a Fuji FinePix S2 Digital Camera + Nikon 180-mm f/2.8 lens). Discovery date: Itagaki (2012 June 26.5494 UT), Sakurai (2012 June 26.540 UT). Coordinates (2000.0) from Itagaki (R.A. 17 52 25.79 Dec. -21 26 21.5), from Sakurai (R.A. 17 52 25.59 Dec. -21 26 22.9). Spectra confirm the object as a He/N type nova. All details and image URLs are in IAU CBET 3156. Report observations to the AAVSO International Database.

  14. Analysis of ocular torsion data from Space Labs D-1 and SL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, C. M.

    1990-01-01

    A series of preflight, inflight, and postflight vestibular experiments were conducted on Spacelab missions SL-1 and D-1. Two portions of the investigation, the 'sled' and 'dome' functional objectives, involved recording the torsional motion of human subject's eyes. In the SL-1 sled and dome experiments, preflight and postflight ocular torsion was recorded on 35 mm film using a Nikon motor driven camera (2.6 frames/sec). The film was to be analyzed by measuring the motion of contact lens landmarks using a Hermes senior film scanner. However, an inflight failure of the dome experiment camera flash unit led the crew to utilize the Spacelab video camera as an alternative contingency method for imaging the eye in this FO. A suitable method for analysis of the video data was developed. Results of the analysis are presented.

  15. Characterization of digital cameras for reflected ultraviolet photography; implications for qualitative and quantitative image analysis during forensic examination.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jair E; Wilksch, Philip A; Spring, Gale; Philp, Peta; Dyer, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Reflected ultraviolet imaging techniques allow for the visualization of evidence normally outside the human visible spectrum. Specialized digital cameras possessing extended sensitivity can be used for recording reflected ultraviolet radiation. Currently, there is a lack of standardized methods for ultraviolet image recording and processing using digital cameras, potentially limiting the implementation and interpretation. A methodology is presented for processing ultraviolet images based on linear responses and the sensitivity of the respective color channels. The methodology is applied to a FujiS3 UVIR camera, and a modified Nikon D70s camera, to reconstruct their respective spectral sensitivity curves between 320 and 400 nm. This method results in images with low noise and high contrast, suitable for qualitative and/or quantitative analysis. The application of this methodology is demonstrated in the recording of latent fingerprints. PMID:24117678

  16. [N.K.Karpinsky--first general-headquarter-doctor].

    PubMed

    Mirskiĭ, M B

    2010-10-01

    The article is devoted to biographies of the first head of the Department of Anatomy and Physiology of Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy Professor Nikon Karpovich Karpinsky (1745-1810). Karpinsky contributed to the development of domestic medicine, especially surgery. His first work "The course of surgical dressings" proved it (1776). Multi-faceted medical services Karpinsky successfully combined with various administrative assignments. In 1791 he was appointed as a member of the Medical Board--the highest government body, ruled the Russian medicine, and after its closure in 1804--the chief scientist of the expedition department in the state medical council and a member of the Medical Council. The apotheosis of his administrative career began in 1805 post-general headquarters, a doctor, who commanded all military medicine of the country. PMID:21254588

  17. Comparison of Kodak Professional Digital Camera System images to conventional film, still video, and freeze-frame images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Richard A.; McGlone, John T.; Zoltowski, Norbert W.

    1991-06-01

    Electronic cameras provide near real time image evaluation with the benefits of digital storage methods for rapid transmission or computer processing and enhancement of images. But how does the image quality of their images compare to that of conventional film? A standard Nikon F-3TM 35 mm SLR camera was transformed into an electro-optical camera by replacing the film back with Kodak's KAF-1400V (or KAF-1300L) megapixel CCD array detector back and a processing accessory. Images taken with these Kodak electronic cameras were compared to those using conventional films and to several still video cameras. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to compare images from these camera systems. Images captured on conventional video analog systems provide a maximum of 450 - 500 TV lines of resolution depending upon the camera resolution, storage method, and viewing system resolution. The Kodak Professional Digital Camera SystemTM exceeded this resolution and more closely approached that of film.

  18. Progress and Preliminary Results on EB Stepper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Shintaro; Hamashima, Muneki; Miura, Takaharu; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Takeshi

    2002-06-01

    The EB stepper is an electron beam projection lithography (EPL) system. The EB stepper system is similar to an optical scanning exposure system with a reticle. Nikon has been developing EB stepper on the basis of the optical stepper design. The field size of the electron optical (EO) subsystem of EB stepper (subfield/(SF)) is 1 mm square on a reticle and 250 μm square on a wafer (demagnification: 4×). For full chip exposure, SF exposures are stitched using electron beam deflection and stage movement. A new type of stage has been developed for EB stepper using air guides and linear motors to achieve a high-throughput target. These subsystems are assembled separately at present. In this paper, preliminary results on EB stepper as an exposure system are reported. Progress on infrastructures for EPL is discussed.

  19. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-108 Residual Waste Solids Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Gary A.; Pestovich, John A.; Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-05-29

    This report presents the results for solid phase characterization (SPC) of solid samples removed from tank 241-C-108 (C-108) on August 12-13,2012, using the off-riser sampler. Samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory on August 13 and were described and photographed. The SPC analyses that were performed include scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the ASPEX(R)l scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rigaku(R) 2 MiniFlex X-ray diffractometer, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) using the Nikon(R) 3 Eclipse Pol optical microscope. The SEM is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to provide chemical information. Gary A. Cooke conducted the SEM analysis, John A. Pestovich performed the XRD analysis, and Dr. Heinz J. Huber performed the PLM examination. The results of these analyses are presented here.

  20. Grafts of porcine small intestinal submucosa seeded with cultured homologous smooth muscle cells for bladder repair in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to numerous complications associated to gastrointestinal augmented cystoplasty, this study aimed to analyze the anatomic repair of the bladder of 10 female dogs using grafts of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) seeded with cultured homologous smooth muscle cells, and compare them with the acellular SIS grafts. Results We assessed the possible side effects and complications of each type of graft by clinical examination, abdominal ultrasound and laboratory findings. Anatomic repair of neoformed bladder was assessed by histological staining for H/E and Masson's Trichrome, analyzed with a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to the system of image analysis Image J. Conclusions We propose that SIS associated to homologous smooth cells can improve the quality of tissue repair, and consequently decrease the potential complications inherent to acellular SIS. PMID:23651843

  1. STS-53 Discovery, OV-103, DOD Hercules digital electronic imagery equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-53 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Department of Defense (DOD) mission Hand-held Earth-oriented Real-time Cooperative, User-friendly, Location, targeting, and Environmental System (Hercules) spaceborne experiment equipment is documented in this table top view. HERCULES is a joint NAVY-NASA-ARMY payload designed to provide real-time high resolution digital electronic imagery and geolocation (latitude and longitude determination) of earth surface targets of interest. HERCULES system consists of (from left to right): a specially modified GRID Systems portable computer mounted atop NASA developed Playback-Downlink Unit (PDU) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed HERCULES Attitude Processor (HAP); the NASA-developed Electronic Still Camera (ESC) Electronics Box (ESCEB) including removable imagery data storage disks and various connecting cables; the ESC (a NASA modified Nikon F-4 camera) mounted atop the NRL HERCULES Inertial Measurement Unit (HIMU) containing the three

  2. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions and Assessment of Subcellular Localization in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Evan P S; Owens, Jake L; Hockerman, Gregory H; Hu, Chang-Deng

    2016-01-01

    Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) is a fluorescence imaging technique used to visualize protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in live cells and animals. One unique application of BiFC is to reveal subcellular localization of PPIs. The superior signal-to-noise ratio of BiFC in comparison with fluorescence resonance energy transfer or bioluminescence resonance energy transfer enables its wide applications. Here, we describe how confocal microscopy can be used to detect and quantify PPIs and their subcellular localization. We use basic leucine zipper transcription factor proteins as an example to provide a step-by-step BiFC protocol using a Nikon A1 confocal microscope and NIS-Elements imaging software. The protocol given below can be readily adapted for use with other confocal microscopes or imaging software. PMID:27515079

  3. A Comparative Study of Microscopic Images Captured by a Box Type Digital Camera Versus a Standard Microscopic Photography Camera Unit

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nandini J.; Gupta, B. D.; Patel, Pratik Narendrabhai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obtaining images of slides viewed by a microscope can be invaluable for both diagnosis and teaching.They can be transferred among technologically-advanced hospitals for further consultation and evaluation. But a standard microscopic photography camera unit (MPCU)(MIPS-Microscopic Image projection System) is costly and not available in resource poor settings. The aim of our endeavour was to find a comparable and cheaper alternative method for photomicrography. Materials and Methods: We used a NIKON Coolpix S6150 camera (box type digital camera) with Olympus CH20i microscope and a fluorescent microscope for the purpose of this study. Results: We got comparable results for capturing images of light microscopy, but the results were not as satisfactory for fluorescent microscopy. Conclusion: A box type digital camera is a comparable, less expensive and convenient alternative to microscopic photography camera unit. PMID:25478350

  4. A perfect night-time launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery hurtles into the night sky, trailing a tail of fire from the solid rocket boosters, after a perfect on- time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. The launch of mission STS-92 carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with Nikon D1 camera.

  5. A perfect night-time launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery rises above the lighting mast on the Fixed Service Structure as it hurtles into the night sky on mission STS-92. Discovery launched on time at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with Nikon D1 camera.

  6. Digital photography: enhancing communication between burn therapists and nurses.

    PubMed

    Van, Lan B; Sicotte, K M; Lassiter, R R; Jablonski, K A; Crean, D A; Jeng, J C; Jordan, M H

    2004-01-01

    Burn rehabilitation therapists rely on nursing staff to follow through with the positioning and splinting programs. To communicate more effectively, a communication tool that consisted of digital photos and written instructions was created. Microsoft Word and Nikon View software were used to design the communication tool. The purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of a communication tool between burn therapists and burn nurses for splinting and positioning. Thirty-two surveys were distributed to burn nursing staff to assess their perception of the communication tool (digital photographs with written instructions) compared with previous methods of instructions (without digital photographs). Seventy-three percent of nurses felt the communication tool with verbal instructions were the best methods of communicating splinting and positioning needs. All respondents felt that the rehabilitation staff should continue to use the communication tool. PMID:14726739

  7. New Concept of Hungarian Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegedus, T.; Kiss, Z.; Biro, B.; Jager, Z.

    As the result of a longer innovation of a few Hungarian opto-mechanical and electronic small companies, a concept of fully robotic mounts has been formed some years ago. There are lots of Hungarian Automated Telescopes over the world (in Arizona, South Korea, Izrael and atop Mauna Kea, just below the famous Keck domes). These are cited as HAT telescopes (Bakos et al. 2002), and served thousands of large-frame time-series CCD images since 2004, and the working team found already 6 exoplanets, and a number of new variable stars, etc... The newest idea was to build a more robust robotic mount, hosting larger optics (D > 50 cm) for achieving much fainter celestial objects, than the HAT series (they are operating with Nikon teleobjective lenses) on a still relatively wide celestial area. The very first sample model is the BART-1, a 50cm f/6 telescope.

  8. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Method: Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400® coupled to a Nikon SM2800® stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. Results: The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. Conclusion: With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group. PMID:27027057

  9. Three-dimensional image study on the vascular structure after angiopoietin-1 transduction in isolated mouse pancreatic islets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Su, Dongming; Trucco, Massimo

    2008-02-01

    Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is essential for remodeling the primitive vascular plexus during embryonic development and for reducing plasma leakage in inflammation of adult vasculature. However, the role for Ang-1 in maintenance of vascular stability in isolated pancreatic islets is not fully understood. In this study, we compared the difference of vascular morphology between Ang-1 treated (n=5) and control mouse islets (n=5) using both two- and three-dimensional optical image analysis. Isolated mouse islets were transduced with Ang-1 or Lac Z (control) vector at 37°C for 16 hours. Islets were incubated with both rat anti-CD31 antibody and rabbit anti-insulin antibody followed by incubation with Rhodamine-conjugated goat anti-rat IgG and Alexa-488 conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. Islets were viewed under a Nikon confocal microscope. Serial optical section images were captured and reconstructed using Nikon EZ-C1 software. Individual two-D and reconstructed three-D images were analyzed using MetaMorph Image Analysis software. Islet vascular density was determined. In two-D images, there was no significant difference of vascular density between the two groups. The vascular morphology didn't show any obvious differences in two-D images either. However, in the three-D images, we found higher vascular density and more vascular branches in the Ang-1 transducted islets and vascular dilation in control group. In conclusion, using three-D image analysis, Ang-1 displayed functions in maintenance of vascular stability and in stimulating growth of vascular branches in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. In order to study further the regeneration of different cell contents in the spherical pancreatic islet, three-D image analysis is an effective method to approach this goal.

  10. Evaluating Commercial Scanners for Astronomical Image Digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, R. J.

    2009-08-01

    Many organizations have been interested in understanding if commercially available scanners are adequate for scientifically useful digitization. These scanners range in price from a few hundred to a few tens of thousands of dollars (USD), often with little apparent difference in performance specifications. This paper describes why the underlying technology used in flatbed scanners tends to effectively limit resolutions to the 600-1200 dots per inch (dpi) range and how the overall system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) can be used to evaluate the quality of the digitized data for the small feature sizes found in astronomical images. Two scanners, the Epson V750 flatbed scanner and the Nikon Cool Scan 9000ED film strip scanner, are evaluated through their Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF). The MTF of the Harvard DASCH scanner is also shown for comparison. The particular goal of this evaluation was to understand if the scanners could be used for digitizing spectral plates at the University of Toronto. The plates of primary interest were about 15 mm (5/8 inch) wide by 180 mm (7~inches) long and ˜50 mm x 80 mm (2 x 3 inches). The results of the MTF work show that the Epson scanner, despite claims of high resolution, is of limited value for scientific imaging of feature sizes below about 50 μm and therefore not a good candidate for digitizing the spectral plates and problematic for scanning direct plates. The Nikon scanner is better and, except for some frustrating limitations in its software, its performance seems to hold promise as a digitizer for spectral plates in the University of Toronto collection.

  11. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  12. Economical LED based, real-time, in vivo imaging of murine corneal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ghoghawala, S Y; Mannis, M J; Murphy, C J; Rosenblatt, M I; Isseroff, R R

    2007-06-01

    An optimal system for monitoring in vivo corneal wound healing is inexpensive, has utility for wounding and imaging, and is able to provide previews before photography. We outline such an imaging system that takes advantage of a consumer digital camera and an LED-based light source for fluorescein excitation. Using FVB/NJ mice, 2mm diameter, circular, axial corneal epithelial defects were created using a crescent blade. The corneal wounds were imaged every four hours until healed using a Nikon Coolpix 5400 camera attached to a Nikon SMZ-10A stereomicroscope, using the illumination from a 16 LED 464nm flashlight. The wound area was calculated, and the linear regressions of the linear phase of wound healing were compared using the F-test. The slopes of the linear regressions for the 6 trials of 4 mice/trial had an average of -52.95microm/h (SEM=0.55microm/h) and were statistically equivalent (p>0.05). The mean of the R(2) values for the linear regressions was 0.9546 (SEM=0.0121). The equivalent linear regressions and R(2)>0.90 suggest that the imaging system could precisely monitor the wound healing of multiple trials and of animals within each trial, respectively. Using a consumer digital camera and LED-based illumination, we have established a system that is economical, is used in both wounding and imaging, is operated by a single person, and is able to provide real-time previews to monitor corneal wound healing precisely. PMID:17445800

  13. Multispectral hypercolorimetry and automatic guided pigment identification: some masterpieces case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, Marcello; Miccoli, Matteo; Quarta, Donato

    2013-05-01

    A couple of years ago we proposed, in this same session, an extension to the standard colorimetry (CIE '31) that we called Hypercolorimetry. It was based on an even sampling of the 300-1000nm wavelength range, with the definition of 7 hypercolor matching functions optimally shaped to minimize the methamerism. Since then we consolidated the approach through a large number of multispectral analysis and specialized the system to the non invasive diagnosis for paintings and frescos. In this paper we describe the whole process, from the multispectral image acquisition to the final 7 bands computation and we show the results on paintings from Masters of the colour. We describe and propose in this paper a systematic approach to the non invasive diagnosis that is able to change a subjective analysis into a repeatable measure indipendent from the specific lighting conditions and from the specific acquisition system. Along with the Hypercolorimetry and its consolidation in the field of non invasive diagnosis, we developed also a standard spectral reflectance database of pure pigments and pigments painted with different bindings. As we will see, this database could be compared to the reflectances of the painting to help the diagnostician in identifing the proper matter. We used a Nikon D800FR (Full Range) camera. This is a 36megapixel reflex camera modified under a Nikon/Profilocolore common project, to achieve a 300-1000nm range sensitivity. The large amount of data allowed us to perform very accurate pixels comparisions, based on their spectral reflectance. All the original pigments and their binding have been provided by the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Firenze, Italy, while the analyzed masterpieces belong to the collection of the Pinacoteca Nazionale of Bologna, Italy.

  14. Characterization of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jaqueline M; Crispim, Verginia Reis; da Silva, Marlei Gomes; Furtado, Vanessa Rodrigues; Duarte, Rafael Da Silva

    2013-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium shares many characteristics with Corynebacterium and Actinomyces genera, among which the genomic guanine plus cytosine content and the production of long branched-chain fatty acids, known as mycolic acids are enhanced. Growth rate and optimal temperature of mycobacteria are variable. The genus comprises more than 140 known species; however Mycobacterium fortuitum, a fast growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is clinically significant, because it has been associated to several lesions following surgery procedures such as liposuction, silicone breast and pacemaker implants, exposure to prosthetic materials besides sporadic lesions in the skin, soft tissues and rarely lungs. The objective of the present study is to reduce the time necessary for M. fortuitum characterization based on its morphology and the use of the neutron radiography technique substituting the classical biochemical assays. We also aim to confirm the utility of dendrimers as boron carriers. The samples were sterilized through conventional protocols using 10% formaldehyde. In the incubation process, two solutions with different molar ratios (10:1 and 20:1) of sodium borate and PAMAM G4 dendrimer and also pure sodium borate were used. After doping and sterilization procedures, the samples were deposited on CR-39 sheets, irradiated with a 4.6×10(5) n/cm(2)s thermal neutron flux for 30 min, from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta IEN/CNEN reactor. The images registered in the CR-39 were visualized in a Nikon E400 optical transmission microscope and captured by a Nikon Coolpix 995 digital camera. Developing the nuclear tracks registered in the CR-39 allowed a 1000× enlargement of mycobacterium images, facilitating their characterization, the use of more sophisticated equipment not being necessary. The use of neutron radiography technique reduced the time necessary for characterization. Doping with PAMAM dendrimer improved the visualization of NTM in neutron radiography

  15. Evaluation of the geometric stability and the accuracy potential of digital cameras — Comparing mechanical stabilisation versus parameterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke-Zapp, D.; Tecklenburg, W.; Peipe, J.; Hastedt, H.; Haig, Claudia

    Recent tests on the geometric stability of several digital cameras that were not designed for photogrammetric applications have shown that the accomplished accuracies in object space are either limited or that the accuracy potential is not exploited to the fullest extent. A total of 72 calibrations were calculated with four different software products for eleven digital camera models with different hardware setups, some with mechanical fixation of one or more parts. The calibration procedure was chosen in accord to a German guideline for evaluation of optical 3D measuring systems [VDI/VDE, VDI/VDE 2634 Part 1, 2002. Optical 3D Measuring Systems-Imaging Systems with Point-by-point Probing. Beuth Verlag, Berlin]. All images were taken with ringflashes which was considered a standard method for close-range photogrammetry. In cases where the flash was mounted to the lens, the force exerted on the lens tube and the camera mount greatly reduced the accomplished accuracy. Mounting the ringflash to the camera instead resulted in a large improvement of accuracy in object space. For standard calibration best accuracies in object space were accomplished with a Canon EOS 5D and a 35 mm Canon lens where the focusing tube was fixed with epoxy (47 μm maximum absolute length measurement error in object space). The fixation of the Canon lens was fairly easy and inexpensive resulting in a sevenfold increase in accuracy compared with the same lens type without modification. A similar accuracy was accomplished with a Nikon D3 when mounting the ringflash to the camera instead of the lens (52 μm maximum absolute length measurement error in object space). Parameterisation of geometric instabilities by introduction of an image variant interior orientation in the calibration process improved results for most cameras. In this case, a modified Alpa 12 WA yielded the best results (29 μm maximum absolute length measurement error in object space). Extending the parameter model with Fi

  16. Multi-temporal Reconstruction of a 35km reach of the Dart River Valley, New Zealand with the Structure-from-Motion pipeline (SfM).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Joe; Brasington, James; Cook, Simon; Cox, Simon; Lotsari, Eliisa; McColl, Sam; Lehane, Niall; Williams, Richard; Vericat, Damia

    2016-04-01

    Two discrete surveys, May 2014 and May 2015, were undertaken to capture the topography of a 35km reach of the Dart River, immediately downstream of a significant landslide that initially dammed the river in January 2014. Repeat surveys provide the opportunity to broadly quantify morphological response in terms of elevation change through Dem-of-Differencing. Such an approach requires the generation of consistent surfaces devoid of systematic bias across each epoch that are accurately geo-referenced and of a research specific, minimum accuracy. For this study, the highly automated cost effective method of SfM has been used to generate catchment models at a x, y resolution of 0.5m. This was achieved through the helicopter mounted capture of ~2,000 nadir only images, using a Nikon D90 (2014) and ~10,000 convergent images using two Nikon D750'S (2015) at a height of 350m above ground at a flight speed of 85 knots. Both surveys were geo-referenced by 100 Ground Control Points (GCP) measured with Real-Time-Kinetic (RTK) GPS, with additional control in the form of a series of TLS scans across the length of the catchment. Initial results from 2014 show prevalent systematic errors from both inadequate camera network geometry and ground control. The following survey from 2015 makes use of a convergent network with increased ground control to theoretically provide catchment topography with minimal bias. In the absence of a convergent network, results from 2014 may be improved via additional ground control to extend the 3-dimensional radius of control, beyond which, results are often inferred. In this instance the 2015 data set has been used to provide additional reference through the identification of concurrent features which are unlikely to have moved between surveys, such as town buildings. The final reconstructions from both 2014 and 2015 are sufficiently accurate to provide us with the opportunity to perform detailed analysis to answer a range of geomorphological

  17. Design of a bioresorbable polymeric scaffold for osteoblast culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditaranto, Vincent M., Jr.

    Bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) using the compression molding method. The material used in the construction of the scaffolds was a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), Hydroxyapatite (HA), Glycerin (GL) and salt (NaCl) for porosity. The concentration of the several materials utilized, was determined by volume. Past research at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has successfully utilized the compression molding method for the construction of scaffolds, but was unable to accomplish the goal of long term cell survival and complete cellular proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. This research investigated various concentrations of the materials and molding temperatures used for the manufacture of scaffolds in order to improve the scaffold design and address those issues. The design of the scaffold using the compression molding process is detailed in the Method and Materials section of this thesis. The porogen (salt) used for porosity was suspected as a possible source of contamination causing cell apoptosis in past studies. This research addressed the issues for cell survival and proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. The leaching of the salt was one major design modification. This research successfully used ultrasonic leaching in addition to the passive method. Prior to cell culture, the scaffolds were irradiated to 2.75 Mrad, with cobalt-60 gamma radionuclide. The tissue culture consisted of two trials: (1) cell culture in scaffolds cleaned with passive leaching; (2) cell culture with scaffolds cleaned with ultrasonic leaching. Cell survival and proliferation was accomplished only with the addition of ultrasonic leaching of the scaffolds. Analysis of the scaffolds included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Nikon light microscopy and x-ray mapping of the calcium, sodium and chloride ion distribution. The cells were analyzed by Environmental Scanning

  18. Direct write electron beam lithography: a historical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeiffer, Hans C.

    2010-09-01

    Maskless pattern generation capability in combination with practically limitless resolution made probe-forming electron beam systems attractive tools in the semiconductor fabrication process. However, serial exposure of pattern elements with a scanning beam is a slow process and throughput presented a key challenge in electron beam lithography from the beginning. To meet this challenge imaging concepts with increasing exposure efficiency have been developed projecting ever larger number of pixels in parallel. This evolution started in the 1960s with the SEM-type Gaussian beam systems writing one pixel at a time directly on wafers. During the 1970s IBM pioneered the concept of shaped beams containing multiple pixels which led to higher throughput and an early success of e-beam direct write (EBDW) in large scale manufacturing of semiconductor chips. EBDW in a mix-and match approach with optical lithography provided unique flexibility in part number management and cycle time reduction and proved extremely cost effective in IBM's Quick-Turn-Around-Time (QTAT) facilities. But shaped beams did not keep pace with Moore's law because of limitations imposed by the physics of charged particles: Coulomb interactions between beam electrons cause image blur and consequently limit beam current and throughput. A new technology approach was needed. Physically separating beam electrons into multiple beamlets to reduce Coulomb interaction led to the development of massively parallel projection of pixels. Electron projection lithography (EPL) - a mask based imaging technique emulating optical steppers - was pursued during the 1990s by Bell Labs with SCALPEL and by IBM with PREVAIL in partnership with Nikon. In 2003 Nikon shipped the first NCR-EB1A e-beam stepper based on the PREVAIL technology to Selete. It exposed pattern segments containing 10 million pixels in single shot and represented the first successful demonstration of massively parallel pixel projection. However the window

  19. Immersion and dry ArF scanners enabling 22nm HP production and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Yusaku; Ishikawa, Jun; Kohno, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Eiichiro; Ohba, Masanori; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2012-03-01

    Pattern shrinks using multiple patterning techniques will continue to the 22nm half pitch (HP) node and beyond. The cutting-edge Nikon NSR-S621D immersion lithography tool, which builds upon the technology advancements of the NSR-S620D [1], was developed to satisfy the aggressive requirements for the 22 nm HP node and subsequent generations. The key design challenge for the S621D was to deliver further improvements to product overlay performance and CD uniformity, while also providing increased productivity. Since many different products are made within an IC manufacturing facility, various wafer process-related issues, including the flatness or grid distortion of the processed wafers and exposure-induced heating had to be addressed. Upgrades and enhancements were made to the S620D hardware and software systems to enable the S621D to minimize these process-related effects and deliver the necessary scanner performance. To enable continued process technology advancements, in addition to pattern shrinks at the most critical layers, resolution for less critical layers must also be improved proportionally. As a result, increased demand for dry ArF instead of KrF scanners is expected for less critical layers, and dry ArF tools are already being employed for some of these applications. Further, multiple patterning techniques, such as sidewall double patterning, actually enable use of dry ArF instead of immersion scanners for some critical layers having relaxed pattern resolution requirements. However, in order for this to be successful, the ArF dry tool must deliver overlay performance that is comparable to the latest generation immersion systems. Understanding these factors, an ArF dry scanner that has excellent overlay performance could be used effectively for critical layers and markedly improve cost of ownership (CoO). Therefore, Nikon has developed the NSR-S320F, a new dry ArF scanner also built upon the proven S620D Streamlign platform. By incorporating the

  20. Video-rate scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and ratio imaging with cameleons.

    PubMed

    Fan, G Y; Fujisaki, H; Miyawaki, A; Tsay, R K; Tsien, R Y; Ellisman, M H

    1999-05-01

    A video-rate (30 frames/s) scanning two-photon excitation microscope has been successfully tested. The microscope, based on a Nikon RCM 8000, incorporates a femtosecond pulsed laser with wavelength tunable from 690 to 1050 nm, prechirper optics for laser pulse-width compression, resonant galvanometer for video-rate point scanning, and a pair of nonconfocal detectors for fast emission ratioing. An increase in fluorescent emission of 1.75-fold is consistently obtained with the use of the prechirper optics. The nonconfocal detectors provide another 2.25-fold increase in detection efficiency. Ratio imaging and optical sectioning can therefore be performed more efficiently without confocal optics. Faster frame rates, at 60, 120, and 240 frames/s, can be achieved with proportionally reduced scan lines per frame. Useful two-photon images can be acquired at video rate with a laser power as low as 2.7 mW at specimen with the genetically modified green fluorescent proteins. Preliminary results obtained using this system confirm that the yellow "cameleons" exhibit similar optical properties as under one-photon excitation conditions. Dynamic two-photon images of cardiac myocytes and ratio images of yellow cameleon-2.1, -3.1, and -3.1nu are also presented. PMID:10233058

  1. The effect of exposure on MaxRGB color constancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funt, Brian; Shi, Lilong

    2010-02-01

    The performance of the MaxRGB illumination-estimation method for color constancy and automatic white balancing has been reported in the literature as being mediocre at best; however, MaxRGB has usually been tested on images of only 8-bits per channel. The question arises as to whether the method itself is inadequate, or rather whether it has simply been tested on data of inadequate dynamic range. To address this question, a database of sets of exposure-bracketed images was created. The image sets include exposures ranging from very underexposed to slightly overexposed. The color of the scene illumination was determined by taking an extra image of the scene containing 4 Gretag Macbeth mini Colorcheckers placed at an angle to one another. MaxRGB was then run on the images of increasing exposure. The results clearly show that its performance drops dramatically when the 14-bit exposure range of the Nikon D700 camera is exceeded, thereby resulting in clipping of high values. For those images exposed such that no clipping occurs, the median error in MaxRGB's estimate of the color of the scene illumination is found to be relatively small.

  2. The Solar Corona and a CME at the 2010 Total Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, V.; Druckmüllerová, H.; Saniga, M.; Lu, M.; Malamut, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Golub, L.; Engell, A. J.; Hill, S. W.; Lucas, R.

    2011-05-01

    The 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse was observed on the ground from French Polynesia and, 83 minutes later, from Easter Island, and near-simultaneous images were made with spacecraft instruments including AIA/SDO, HMI/SDO, EUVI/STEREO, SWAP/PROBA2, EIT/SOHO, and LASCO/SOHO. We report on changes in the corona detectable with high-resolution image processing of the ground-based eclipse coronal imaging, including two CME's that were seen to evolve. We compare with the spacecraft images to give a complete depiction of coronal structure at the time of the eclipse, which corresponded to a low but rising phase of the solar-activity cycle. We acknowledge the support of NASA's MSFC NNX10AK47A, NSF REU AST-1005024 with DoD ASSURE, VEGA 2/0098/10 of the Slovak Acad. Sci, 205/09/1469 of the Czech Science Foundation, PRODEX C90345 of ESA/BELSPO, FP7/2007-2013/218816 SOTERIA, Lockheed Martin; for equipment: Nikon Professional Services, ASTELCO Systems GmbH (Germany), and National Geographic Society's Photographic Division; and colleagues Y.-M. Wang (NRL), S. Habbal (U. Hawaii), H. Lanteires (Tatakoto), and J. Kern (Carnegie Obs.).

  3. Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for directly detecting nucleic acids and proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Fang, Xueen; Cao, Hongmei; Kong, Jilie

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (FRET) is gaining great interest in detecting macro-biological molecule. It is difficult to achieve conveniently and fast detection for macro-biological molecule. Herein, a graphene oxide (GO)-based paper chip (glass fiber) integrated with fluorescence labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for fast, inexpensive and direct detection of biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) has been developed. In this paper, we employed the Cy3/FAM-labeled ssDNA as the reporter and the GO as quencher and the original glass fiber paper as data acquisition substrates. The chip which was designed and fabricated by a cutting machine is a miniature biosensor that monitors fluorescence recovery from resonance energy transfer. The hybridization assays and fluorescence detection were all simplified, and the surface of the chip did not require immobilization or washing. A Nikon Eclipse was employed as excited resource and a commercial digital camera was employed for capturing digital images. This paper-based microfluidics chip has been applied in the detection of proteins and nucleic acids. The biosensing capability meets many potential requirements for disease diagnosis and biological analysis. PMID:26807518

  4. A new miniature hydrostatic pressure chamber for microscopy. Strain- free optical glass windows facilitate phase-contrast and polarized- light microscopy of living cells. Optional fixture permits simultaneous control of pressure and temperature

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniature, temperature- controlled, stainless steel pressure chamber which uses strain-free optical glass for windows. It is directly adaptable to standard phase- contrast and polarized-light microscopes and requires a minimum amount of equipment to generate and measure pressure. Birefringence retardation (BR) og 0.1 nm up to 3,000 psi, 0.4 nm up to 5,000 psi and 1.0 nm up to 10,000 psi can be detected over a 0.75-mm central field with two strain-free Leitz 20 times UM objectives, one used as a condenser. In phase-contrast studies a Nikon DML 40 times phase objective and Zeiss model IS long working-distance phase condenser were used, with little deterioration of image quality or contrast at pressures as high as 12,000 psi. The actual design process required a synthesis of various criteria which may be categorized under four main areas of consideration: (a) specimen physiology; (b) constraints imposed by available optical equipment and standard microscope systems; (c) mechanical strength and methods for generating pressure; and (d) optical requirements of the chamber windows. Procedures for using the chambers, as well as methods for shifting and controlling the temperature within the chamber, are included. PMID:1094021

  5. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2016-06-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  6. A comprehensive reticle handling and storage approach for optimized fab yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobe, Atsushi; Kawashima, Hideaki; Kurikawa, Akinori; Kasahara, Hisashi; Ohta, Fumiko; Okubo, Yasushi

    2005-11-01

    In the field, each customer uses their owned designed reticle case as for shipping, storage. To modify the case is so expensive that it is very difficult to improve, especially in time respect. At the blank suppliers, they ship their mask blanks packing into their owned designed multiple shipper, however the market needs single shipper with next generation blanks to prevent from particle and outgas of case material damage. At the mask shops, most of them use MP567 (Trade mark of Dainichi Shoji K.K.) single case which was designed about 15years ago to ship their products to their customers. It is not designed for robot handling, so contamination from manual handling makes reticle damaged. Adhesive tape is also required to seal it, so chemical contamination will be occurred on quartz glass, i.e. haze. At the IC fabs, scanner case such as Nikon, Canon and ASML case is the most common in their process. However these cases are not airtight, so they cannot be handled under class 10000 circumstances. RSP (Reticle SMIF Pod) has a capability of automatic transportation, however it is not airtight case. We develop new mask case named Universal Reticle Pod (URP) at affordable price, airtight and chemical tight so as to be used as shipping, storage and process case. We evaluate it as blanks shipping case, so we would like to report its results.

  7. Comprehensive reticle handling and storage approach for optimized fab yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Toshiya; Kawashima, Hideaki

    2005-06-01

    In the field, each customer uses their owned designed reticle case as for shipping, storage. To modify the case is so expensive that it is very difficult to improve, especially in time respect. At the blank suppliers, they ship their mask blanks packing into their owned designed multiple shipper, however the market needs single shipper with next generation blanks to prevent from particle and outgas of case material damage. At the mask shops, most of them use MP567 (Trade mark of Dainichi Shoji K.K.) single case which was designed about 15 years ago to ship their products to their customers. It is not designed for robot handling, so contamination from manual handling makes reticle damaged. Adhesive tape is also required to seal it, so chemical contamination will be occurred on quartz glass, i.e. haze. At the IC fabs, scanner case such as Nikon, Canon and ASML case is the most common in their process. However these cases are not airtight, so they cannot be handled under class 10000 circumstances. RSP (Reticle SMIF Pod) is airtight case and has a capability of automatic transportation, however it is very expensive compared to other cases. We develop new mask case named Universal Reticle Pod (URP) at affordable price so as to be used as shipping, storage and process case, so we would like to report its performance in this paper.

  8. Multi-Sensor Radiometric Study to Detect Pathologies in Historical Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo, S.; Herrero-Pascual, J.; Felipe-García, B.; Hernández-López, D.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study with different remote sensing technologies to recognize pathologies in façades of historical buildings. Building materials deteriorate over the years due to different extrinsic and intrinsic agents, so assessing these diseases in a non-invasive way is crucial to help preserve them. Most of these buildings are extremely valuable and some of them have been declared monuments of cultural interest. In this way through close range remote sensing techniques, it is possible to study material pathologies in a rigorous way and in a short duration field campaign. For the investigation two different acquisition systems were applied, active and passive methods. The terrestrial laser scanner FARO Focus 3D was used as active sensor, working at the wavelength of 905 nm. For the case of passive sensors, a Nikon D-5000 and a 6- bands Mini-MCA multispectral camera (530-801 nm) were applied covering visible and near infrared spectral range. This analysis allows assessing the sensor, or sensors combination, suitability for pathologies detection, addressing the limitations according to the spatial and spectral resolution. Moreover, the pathology detection by unsupervised classification methods is addressed in order to evaluate the automation capability of this process.

  9. Overview of Target Fabrication in Support of Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroen, Diana; Breden, Eric; Florio, Joseph; Grine-Jones, Suzi; Holt, Randy; Krych, Wojtek; Metzler, James; Russell, Chris; Stolp, Justin; Streit, Jonathan; Youngblood, Kelly

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has succeeded in making its pulsed power driver, the Z machine, a valuable testbed for a great variety of experiments. These experiments include ICF, weapon physics, Equation of State and astrophysics. There are four main target types: Dynamic Hohlraum, Double Pinch, Fast Igniter and EOS. The target sizes are comparable to projected NIF sizes. For example, capsules up to 5 mm have been fielded. This talk will focus on the assembly challenges and the use of foams to create these targets. For many targets, diagnostics and capsules are embedded in the foams, and foam dopants have been added. It is the 14 mg/cc foam target with an embedded capsule (containing deuterium) that has reproducibly produced thermonuclear neutrons. For all target types, the characterization and documentation has had to develop to ensure understanding of target performance. To achieve the required resolution we are using a Nikon automated microscope and a custom OMEGA/NIF target assembly system. Our drive for quality has lead us develop a management system that been registered to ISO 9001.

  10. Dgnss/ins Van Project For Road Survey In The Cei Countries: The Problem of Digital Cameras Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deruda, G.; Falchi, E.; Sanna, G.; Vacca, G.

    In order to assess the influence of distortion of objective lens on digital photocameras and videocameras a series of experiments, using a digital photocamera by Nikon, a videocamera by Samsung and a webcam by Creative have been performed with the aim to test the possibility to enhance camera images by means of resampling tech- niques. For this purpose a network of fiducial points has been materialized on two walls of a building in the Faculty of Engineering of Cagliari. Points coordinate have been obtained by means of a topographic survey. Images and video sequences of the fronts have been taken at several distances and different focal lens, obtaining an esti- mate of the lens behaviour, on the basis of witch a regular grid of the displacement of points on the photo has been generated for each camera. The grid has been used in a resampling procedure to remove distortion influence by the images. The improvement of accuracy has been estimated between about 30 and 50%.

  11. Determining the coordinates of lamps in an illumination dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.; Ahmadabadian, Ali H.; Robson, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    The UCL Dome consists of an acrylic hemisphere of nominal diameter 1030 mm, fitted with 64 flash lights, arranged in three tiers of 16, one tier of 12, and one tier of 4 lights at approximately equal intervals. A Nikon D200 digital camera is mounted on a rigid steel frame at the `north pole' of the dome pointing vertically downwards with its optical axis normal to the horizontal baseboard in the `equatorial' plane. It is used to capture sets of images in pixel register for visualisation and surface reconstruction. Three techniques were employed for the geometric calibration of flash light positions in the dome: (1) the shadow cast by a vertical pin onto graph paper; (2) multi-image photogrammetry with retro-reflective targets; and (3) multi-image photogrammetry using the flash lights themselves as targets. The precision of the coordinates obtained by the three techniques was analysed, and it was found that although photogrammetric methods could locate individual targets to an accuracy of 20 μm, the uncertainty of locating the centroids of the flash lights was approximately 1.5 mm. This result was considered satisfactory for the purposes of using the dome for photometric imaging, and in particular for the visualisation of object surfaces by the polynomial texture mapping (PTM) technique.

  12. The implications of free 3D scanning in the conservation state assessment of old wood painted icon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Marius; Sandu, Ion

    2016-06-01

    The present paper presents the conservation state and the making of a 3D model of a XVIII-th century orthodox icon on wood support, using free available software and cloud computing. In order to create the 3D model of the painting layer of the icon a number of 70 pictures were taken using a Nikon DSLR D3300, 24.2 MP in setup with a Hama Star 75 photo tripod, in loops 360° around the painting, at three different angles. The pictures were processed with Autodesk I23D Catch, which automatically finds and matches common features among all of the uploaded photographs in order to create the 3D scene, using the power and speed of cloud computing. The obtained 3D model was afterwards analyzed and processed in order to obtain a final version, which can now be use to better identify, to map and to prioritize the future conservation processes and finally can be shared online as an animation.

  13. Web conferencing systems: Skype and MSN in telepathology.

    PubMed

    Klock, Clóvis; Gomes, Regina de Paula Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Virtual pathology is a very important tool that can be used in several ways, including interconsultations with specialists in many areas and for frozen sections. We considered in this work the use of Windows Live Messenger and Skype for image transmission. The conference was made through wide broad internet using Nikon E 200 microscope and Digital Samsung Colour SCC-131 camera. Internet speed for transmission varied from 400 Kb to 2.0 Mb. Both programs allow voice transmission concomitant to image, so the communication between the involved pathologists was possible using microphones and speakers. A live image could be seen by the receptor pathologist who was able to ask for moving the field or increase/diminish the augmentation. No phone call or typing required. The programs MSN and Skype can be used in many ways and with different operational systems installed in the computer. The capture system is simple and relatively cheap, what proves the viability of the system to be used in developing countries and in cities where do not exist pathologists. With the improvement of software and the improvement of digital image quality, associated to the use of the high speed broad band Internet this will be able to become a new modality in surgical pathology. PMID:18673501

  14. The place for performance in the digital holographic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Sandford-Richardson, Elizabeth; Bernardo, Luis Miguel; Crespo, Helder

    2014-02-01

    In this series of digital art holograms and lenticulars, we are examining different kinds of movement inside the digital holographic space explored by Elizabeth Sandford-Richardson, a visual performance artist. During the process of capturing the image, we used the HoloCam Portable Light System, equipped with Canon and Nikon cameras positioned at different heights and angles, in order to improve the rendering of the holographic space. Based on the "Performativity of Performance Documentation" a notion introduced by Philip Auslanderi we revisit some authors that have been working in the "theatrical" practise, mainly in photography, adding the possibility of movement in 3D space. We must realise that the movement of the viewer in front of a digital holographic image creates the performance that he/she is looking at. We should consider the physical space, outside the hologram, and this kind of "performance acts", also part of the work. In summary, we propose a reflection on the digital holographic space, time, movement and its place in contemporary art.

  15. Construction, figures of merit, and testing of a single-cell fluorescence excitation spectroscopy system

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Laura S.; Richardson, Tammi L.; Profeta, Luisa T. M.; Shaw, Timothy J.; Hintz, Christopher J.; Twining, Benjamin S.; Lawrenz, Evelyn; Myrick, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of phytoplankton community composition is critical to understanding the ecology and biogeochemistry of the oceans. One approach to taxonomic characterization takes advantage of differing pigmentation between algal taxa and thus differences in fluorescence excitation spectra. Analyses of bulk water samples, however, may be confounded by interference from chromophoric dissolved organic matter or suspended particulate matter. Here, we describe an instrument that uses a laser trap based on a Nikon TE2000-U microscope to position individual phytoplankton cells for confocal fluorescence excitation spectroscopy, thus avoiding interference from the surrounding medium. Quantitative measurements of optical power give data in the form of photons emitted per photon of exposure for an individual phytoplankton cell. Residence times for individual phytoplankton in the instrument can be as long as several minutes with no substantial change in their fluorescence excitation spectra. The laser trap was found to generate two-photon fluorescence from the organisms so a modification was made to release the trap momentarily during data acquisition. Typical signal levels for an individual cell are in the range of 106 photons∕s of fluorescence using a monochromated 75 W Xe arc lamp excitation source with a 2% transmission neutral density filter. PMID:20113077

  16. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  17. Investigation of UFO defect on DUV CAR and BARC process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yet, Siew Ing; Ko, Bong Sang; Lee, Soo Man; May, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Photo process defect reduction is one of the most important factors to improve the process stability and yield in sub-0.18um DUV process. In this paper, a new approach to minimize the Deep-UV (DUV) Chemically Amplified Resist (CAR) and Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) induced defect known as UFO (UnidentiFied Object) defect will be introduced. These defects have mild surface topography difference on BARC; it only exists on the wide exposed area where there is no photoresist pattern. In this test, Nikon KrF Stepper & Scanner and TEL Clean track were used. Investigation was carried out on the defect formulation on both Acetal and ESCAP type of photoresist while elemental analysis was done by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) & Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). Result indicated that both BARC and photoresist induce this UFO defect; total defect quantity is related with Post Exposure Bake (PEB) condition. Based on the elemental analysis and process-split test, we can conclude that this defect is caused by lack of acid amount and low diffusivity which is related to PAG (Photo Acid Generator) and TAG (Thermal Acid Generator) in KrF photoresist and BARC material. By optimizing photoresist bake condition, this UFO defect as well as other related defect such as Satellite defect could be eliminated.

  18. The development of an energy-independent personnel neutron dosimeter using CR-39

    SciTech Connect

    Doremus, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    The addition of specialized (n,{alpha}) radiators to a standard polyethylene/CR-39 (PE/CR-39) neutron dosimetry system was evaluated for improved response to low energy neutrons. Specialized radiators consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) complexed with boron (natural and enriched boron-10) and poly(acrylic acid) complexed with lithium (enriched lithium-6) were evaluated. The complexion of boron with poly(vinyl alcohol) was accomplished by incorporation or surface coating. The complexion of lithium with poly(acrylic acid) was exclusively performed by incorporation. The dosimeter was designed such that the specialized radiator was in contact with the CR-39 detector (i.e., the specialized radiator was sandwiched between the CR-39 detector and polyethylene radiator). The neutron response of this dosimetry system was investigated using {sup 252}Cf (moderated and bare) spontaneous fission neutrons. Detectors were chemically etched and then read with a Nikon OPTIPHOT microscope. The mean response (tracks {center dot} field{sup {minus}1}) of detectors treated with specialized (n,{alpha}) radiators were evaluated against PE/CR-39 controls. The results of this investigation demonstrate that PE/CR-39 dosimeters equipped with specialized (n,{alpha}) radiators have a noticeable response to low energy neutrons that in many instances is significantly greater than that of the controls. The addition of specialized radiators to this dosimetry system did not effect (diminish) its response to fast neutrons.

  19. STS-92 Crew Walkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- The STS-92 crew eagerly walk out of the Operations and Checkout Building for the second time for their trip to Launch Pad 39A. On the left side, from front to back, are Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao and Koichi Wakata of Japan. On the right side, front to back, are Commander Brian Duffy and Mission Specialists Peter J.K . Wisoff, William S. McArthur Jr. and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. This launch is the fourth for Duffy and Wisoff, the third for Chiao and McArthur, second for Wakata and Lopez-Alegria, and first for Melroy. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with a Nikon D1 camera.

  20. Sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass alter the gut-brain communication.

    PubMed

    Ballsmider, L A; Vaughn, A C; David, M; Hajnal, A; Di Lorenzo, P M; Czaja, K

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anatomical integrity of vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operations. The retrograde tracer fast blue (FB) was injected into the stomach to label vagal neurons originating from nodose ganglion (NG) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Microglia activation was determined by quantifying changes in the fluorescent staining of hindbrain sections against an ionizing calcium adapter binding molecule 1 (Iba1). Reorganization of vagal afferents in the hindbrain was studied by fluorescent staining against isolectin 4 (IB4). The density of Iba1- and IB4-immunoreactivity was analyzed using Nikon Elements software. There was no difference in the number of FB-labeled neurons located in NG and DMV between VSG and VSG-sham rats. RYGB, but not RYGB-sham rats, showed a dramatic reduction in number of FB-labeled neurons located in the NG and DMV. VSG increased, while the RYGB operation decreased, the density of vagal afferents in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). The RYGB operation, but not the VSG procedure, significantly activated microglia in the NTS and DMV. Results of this study show that the RYGB, but not the VSG procedure, triggers microglia activation in vagal structures and remodels gut-brain communication. PMID:25722893

  1. The STS-101 crew exit the O&C on their way to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    (Nikon D1 Test) The STS-101 crew wave to onlookers as they leave the Operations and Checkout Building enroute for the second time to Launch Pad 39A and another attempt at liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis. In their orange launch and entry suits, they are (front line) Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Commander James D. Halsell Jr.; (second line) Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber and Jeffrey N. Williams; and (third line) Mission Specialists Susan J. Helms, Yury Usachev of Russia and James S. Voss The first attempt on April 24 was scrubbed due to unfavorable weather conditions. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. Liftoff is targeted for 3:52 p.m. EDT. The mission is expected to last about 10 days, with Atlantis landing at KSC Saturday, May 6, about 11:53 a.m. EDT.

  2. The STS-92 crew exits O&C on way to Launch Pad 39A for the second time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-92 crew eagerly walk out of the Operations and Checkout Building for the second time for their trip to Launch Pad 39A. On the left side, from front to back, are Pilot Pamela Ann Melroy and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao and Koichi Wakata of Japan. On the right side, front to back, are Commander Brian Duffy and Mission Specialists Peter J.K. '''Jeff''' Wisoff, William S. McArthur Jr. and Michael E. Lopez-Alegria. During the 11-day mission to the International Space Station, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or spacewalks, are planned for construction. The payload includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1 and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter. The Z-1 truss is the first of 10 that will become the backbone of the Space Station, eventually stretching the length of a football field. PMA-3 will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. This launch is the fourth for Duffy and Wisoff, the third for Chiao and McArthur, second for Wakata and Lopez-Alegria, and first for Melroy. Launch is scheduled for 7:17 p.m. EDT. Landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT. [Photo taken with a Nikon D1 camera.

  3. Symmetry of external auditive meatus. A pilot study on human skulls.

    PubMed

    Mizgiryte, Simona; Vaitelis, Julius; Barkus, Arunas; Zaleckas, Linas; Pletkus, Rolandas; Auskalnis, Adomas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the perpendicularity of the line connecting external auditive meatus to the midsagital plane and the palatal suture as a midsagittal symmetry reference line. Setting and Sample Population - 62 randomly chosen human skulls from osteological collection (Vilnius University). MATERIAL AND METHODS. The skulls were photographed (Nikon 40 D, Nikkor lens 50 mm) from basal, frontobasal and frontal views. Photos were analysed with Adobe Photoshop CS5 (Adobe). The first line connected frontal points of external auditive meatus and the angle to the midsagittal plane was measured. The second line (the palatal suture) was compared to the median sagittal plane. Data was analysed with SPSS 17 (IBM). RESULTS. The mean value for the angles of the line between the external auditive meatus and the midsagittal plane in basal views was 90.12° (SD=1.48°) and in frontobasal 90.36° (SD=2.25°). No statistically significant differences were found between groups of age and sex. The inter-rater agreement for evaluation of the adequacy of palatal suture with the midsagital plane was high (Cohen's Kappa 0.702 (p<0.05)) as well as the coincidence of both lines in basal and frontobasal views (90.3% and 85.5% respectively). CONCLUSION. Considering the limits of this study the angle between external auditive meatus and midsagital skull plane has a characteristic fluctuating asymmetry. The congruence of palatal suture and midsagital plane is debatable. PMID:25471994

  4. Line-Based Multi-Image Matching for FAÇADE Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, T. A.; Kao, C. H.

    2012-07-01

    This research integrates existing LOD 2 building models and multiple close-range images for façade structural lines extraction. The major works are orientation determination and multiple image matching. In the orientation determination, Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) is applied to extract tie points automatically. Then, tie points and control points are combined for block adjustment. An object-based multi-images matching is proposed to extract the façade structural lines. The 2D lines in image space are extracted by Canny operator followed by Hough transform. The role of LOD 2 building models is to correct the tilt displacement of image from different views. The wall of LOD 2 model is also used to generate hypothesis planes for similarity measurement. Finally, average normalized cross correlation is calculated to obtain the best location in object space. The test images are acquired by a nonmetric camera Nikon D2X. The total number of image is 33. The experimental results indicate that the accuracy of orientation determination is about 1 pixel from 2515 tie points and 4 control points. It also indicates that line-based matching is more flexible than point-based matching.

  5. Investigation of the application of phase contrast imaging using a point X-ray source to industrial non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuaki; Haig, Ian

    2014-03-01

    X-Tek Systems, a division of Nikon Metrology UK, designs, develops and manufactures microfocus X-ray radiography and computed tomography systems for industrial non-destructive testing. The range of X-ray acceleration voltages of its current standard products is 130-450 kV. It is widely known that X-ray images can be created using phase contrast formed by the natural propagation of X-rays. Simulation of the natural propagation of X-rays through a cylindrical test sample predicted a small contrast peak at the boundary between the cylinder material and air. Comparison data were obtained using an X-ray source with acceleration voltage above 100 kV. The simulation results correlated well with the experimental data. A further practical example (a 'magic mirror' amulet from an old Japanese shrine) is introduced and discussed. In this specimen, we detected intensity variation including the effect of phase contrast in the operating region above 100 kV. In summary, natural propagation phase contrast was observed in radiographic images from a standard point X-ray source with acceleration voltages exceeding 100 kV. PMID:24470417

  6. A new species of Nemacerota Hampson, [1893] (Lepidoptera, Thyatiridae) from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhao-Hui; Ronkay, Gábor; Ronkay, László; Han, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nemacerota Hampson, [1893] includes 14 species worldwide, which are mainly distributed from Pakistan along the main Himalayan chain, the eastern frontier of the Tibetan plateau and the Central Chinese mountains to the northern Pacific regions. Ten species have been recorded from China. Among them, only N. tancrei (Graeser, 1888) occurs in NE China, whereas all other taxa inhabit mountainous areas in Central China, the eastern frontier of the Tibetan plateau or Tibet. N. igorkostjuki Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 is found only in the southern edge of Tibet (Nyalam = Nielamu); N. mandibulata Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. taurina Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. stueningi Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007, N. pectinata (Houlbert, 1921), N. inouei Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 and N. owadai Laszlo, Ronkay, Ronkay & Witt, 2007 are known from Mt. Taibaishan, Shaanxi Province; N. griseobasalis (Sick, 1941), N. decorata (Sick, 1941) and N. pectinata (Houlbert, 1921) occur in the northwestern parts of Yunnan Province (and, possibly, also in southern Sichuan).        Here we describe a new species from the Linzhi area, Autonomous Region Xizang (Tibet), China. Specimens were dissected and examined using standard methods; adult photographs were photographed with a Nikon D700; genitalic slides were photographed using the Qcapture pro system, and processed in Adobe Photoshop CS5 software. PMID:24869682

  7. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, September 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William; Reginald, Nelson; Streander, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The COR1 Engineering Test Unit (ETU), which had been previously tested at the NCAR/HAO and NRL test facilities, was modified into an instrument capable of observing the Sun. It was then taken to the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory to observe the corona. The changes made to observe the Sun were as follows: 1. The plate scale was changed to accommodate the smaller Apogee camera. This change had already been made for the NRL tests. 2. The previous Oriel polarizer was replaced with a commercial Polarcor polarizer from Newport to be more flight-like. However, because of cost and availability considerations, this polarizer was smaller than those which will be used for flight. 3. A structure was placed around the back section of the instrument, to protect it from stray light. 4. A pointing spar borrowed from HAO was used to track the Sun. A few days into the test, it became evident that some artifacts were appearing in the data, and these artifacts were changing as the polarizer was rotated. It was decided to test two other polarizers, the Oriel polarizer which had been used in the previous tests at HAO and NRL, and a Nikon polarizer which was borrowed from a camera belonging to one of the observatory staff members. These three polarizers had much different qualities are shown.

  8. Simplified Human Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) Isolation and Handling.

    PubMed

    Najmeh, Sara; Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Giannias, Betty; Spicer, Jonathan; Ferri, Lorenzo E

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) have been recently identified as part of the neutrophil's antimicrobial armamentarium. Apart from their role in fighting infections, recent research has demonstrated that they may be involved in many other disease processes, including cancer progression. Isolating purified NETs is a crucial element to allow the study of these functions. In this video, we demonstrate a simplified method of cell free NET isolation from human whole blood using readily available reagents. Isolated NETs can then be used for immunofluorescence staining, blotting or various functional assays. This enables an assessment of their biologic properties in the absence of the potential confounding effects of neutrophils themselves. A density gradient separation technique is employed to isolate neutrophils from healthy donor whole blood. Isolated neutrophils are then stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to induce NETosis. Activated neutrophils are then discarded, and a cell-free NET stock is obtained. We then demonstrate how isolated NETs can be used in an adhesion assay with A549 human lung cancer cells. The NET stock is used to coat the wells of a 96 well cell culture plate O/N, and after ensuring an adequate NET monolayer formation on the bottom of the wells, CFSE labeled A549 cells are added. Adherent cells are quantified using a Nikon TE300 fluorescent microscope. In some wells, 1000U DNAse1 is added 10 min before counting to degrade NETs. PMID:25938591

  9. Comparative analysis of imaging configurations and objectives for Fourier microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kurvits, Jonathan A; Jiang, Mingming; Zia, Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Fourier microscopy is becoming an increasingly important tool for the analysis of optical nanostructures and quantum emitters. However, achieving quantitative Fourier space measurements requires a thorough understanding of the impact of aberrations introduced by optical microscopes that have been optimized for conventional real-space imaging. Here we present a detailed framework for analyzing the performance of microscope objectives for several common Fourier imaging configurations. To this end, we model objectives from Nikon, Olympus, and Zeiss using parameters that were inferred from patent literature and confirmed, where possible, by physical disassembly. We then examine the aberrations most relevant to Fourier microscopy, including the alignment tolerances of apodization factors for different objective classes, the effect of magnification on the modulation transfer function, and vignetting-induced reductions of the effective numerical aperture for wide-field measurements. Based on this analysis, we identify an optimal objective class and imaging configuration for Fourier microscopy. In addition, the Zemax files for the objectives and setups used in this analysis have been made publicly available as a resource for future studies. PMID:26560923

  10. Apollo 15 Lunar eclipse views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    During the lunar eclipse that occured during the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission, Astronaut Alfred M. Worden, command module (CM) pilot, used a 35mm Nikon camera to obtain a series of photographs while the moon was entering and exiting the earth's umbra. This task was an attempt to measure by photographic photometry the amount of scattered light reaching the moon. The first view (l-r) is a four-second exposure which was taken at the moment when the moon had just entered the umbra; the second is a 15-second exposure taken two minutes after entry; the third, a 30-second exposure three minutes after entry; and the fourth is a 60-second exposure four minutes after entry. The background star field is clearly evident. The spacecrafrt was in full sunlight when these photographs were taken, and it was pointed almost directly away from the sun so that the windows and a close-in portion of the camera's line-of-sight were in shadow.

  11. Metrics and statistics of frequency of occurrence of metamerism in consumer cameras for natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Dilip K; Wenhe, Looi

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents metrics and statistics of frequency of occurrence of metamerism in three consumer cameras, viz., Canon 1D Mark III, Nikon D40, and Sony α7, using spectral and RGB images of natural scenes. Both sensor metamerism and observer metamerism of the cameras' sensors are studied. We use the concept of dissimilarity of two spectral power distributions in the spectral domain and the RGB domain for studying the occurrence sensor metamerism. Specifically, we use angular difference and digital equivalence approaches for this purpose. For studying the occurrence observer metamerism, we use the weighted Nimeroff's index for dissimilarity in the spectral domain with respect to the CIE color space along with the conventionally used CIE LAB color difference for dissimilarity in the CIE color space. The statistics of the frequency of occurrence of metamerism are generated on a dataset of 423 spectral images of indoor scenes in 5 illumination conditions and outdoor scenes in natural illumination conditions. Experiments show that about 18%-22% of the pixels in the images are metameric in the sense of angular difference. It is also observed that 1%-4% of the colors that would have appeared similar to human eyes are reproduced as distinct colors in the cameras. Dataset and details can be found at https://sites.google.com/site/dilipprasad/source-codes. PMID:26367171

  12. Winter sky brightness and cloud cover at Dome A, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Anna M.; Yang, Yi; Fu, Jianning; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long Long; Gong, Xuefei; Hu, Zhongwen; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel M.; Riddle, Reed; Shang, Zhaohui; Sims, Geoff; Storey, John W. V.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Travouillon, Tony; Wang, Lifan; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi

    2013-01-01

    At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical observatories. The Gattini Dome A project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fisheye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R) and a long-pass red filter for the detection and monitoring of airglow emission. The system operated continuously throughout the 2009, and 2011 winter seasons and part-way through the 2010 season, recording long exposure images sequentially for each filter. We have in hand one complete winter-time dataset (2009) returned via a manned traverse. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric V band, cloud cover statistics measured so far and an estimate of the extinction.

  13. Mix-and-match overlay performance of the NSR-S622D immersion scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Katsushi; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Sasamoto, Satoru; Hongki, Park; Mori, Akiko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Wakamoto, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    Current technology nodes, as well as subsequent generations necessitate ongoing improvements to the mix-and-match overlay (MMO) capabilities of lithography scanners. This work will introduce newly developed scanner solutions to address this requirement, and performance data from the latest generation immersion scanner, the NSR-S622D, will be introduced. Enhanced MMO accuracy is imperative for the 22 nm half-pitch and future technology nodes. In order for the matched overlay accuracy to approach single machine overlay (SMO) capabilities, MMO errors must be reduced further. The dominant MMO error sources can be divided into three main areas: SMO, lens distortion matching and wafer grid matching. Nikon continues to decrease these matching error contributors over time, and the latest generation NSRS622D immersion scanner provides a number of innovative solutions to satisfy the most demanding overlay matching requirements ; as a result MMO performance within 3nm is achieved on S622D. Moreover, overlay master system is developed for further product overlay accuracy and stability improvement.

  14. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-10-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect the vacuum vessel internal structures in both the visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diam fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 60/sup 0/ field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35-mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16-mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing rate up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

  15. Calibration of Panoramic Cameras with Coded Targets and a 3d Calibration Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Marcato, J., Jr.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Silva, S. L. A.; Artero, A. O.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present results achieved with a 3D terrestrial calibration field, designed for calibrating digital cameras and omnidirectional sensors. This terrestrial calibration field is composed of 139 ARUCO coded targets. Some experiments were performed using a Nikon D3100 digital camera with 8mm Samyang Bower fisheye lens. The camera was calibrated in this terrestrial test field using a conventional bundle adjustment with the Collinearity and mathematical models specially designed for fisheye lenses. The CMC software (Calibration with Multiple Cameras), developed in-house, was used for the calibration trials. This software was modified to use fisheye models to which the Conrady-Brown distortion equations were added. The target identification and image measurements of its four corners were performed automatically with a public software. Several experiments were performed with 16 images and the results were presented and compared. Besides the calibration of fish-eye cameras, the field was designed for calibration of a catadrioptic system and brief informations on the calibration of this unit will be provided in the paper.

  16. The Annular Two-phase Flow on Rod Bundle: The Effects of Spacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunugi, Tomoaki; Pham, Son; Kawara, Zensaku; Yokomine, Takehiko

    2013-11-01

    The annular two-phase flow on rod bundle keeps an important role in many heat exchange systems but our knowledge about it, especially the interaction between the liquid film flowing on the rods' surfaces and the spacers is very limited. This study is aimed to the investigation of how the spacer affects the disturbance waves of the flow in a 3 × 3 simulating BWR fuel rod bundle test section. Firstly, the characteristics of the disturbance waves at both upstream and downstream locations of the spacer were obtained by using reflected light arrangement with a high speed camera Phantom V7.1 (Vision Research Inc.) and a Nikon macro lens 105mm f/2.8. The data showed that the parameters such as frequency and circumferential coherence of the disturbance waves are strongly modified when they go through the spacer. Then, the observations at the locations right before and after the spacer were performed by using the back light arrangement with the same high speed camera and a Cassegrain optical system (Seika Cooperation). The obtained images at micro-scale of time and space provided the descriptions of the wavy interface behaviors right before and after the spacer as well as different droplets creation processes caused by the presence of this spacer.

  17. Reconstructing 3D coastal cliffs from airborne oblique photographs without ground control points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewez, T. J. B.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal cliff collapse hazard assessment requires measuring cliff face topography at regular intervals. Terrestrial laser scanner techniques have proven useful so far but are expensive to use either through purchasing the equipment or through survey subcontracting. In addition, terrestrial laser surveys take time which is sometimes incompatible with the time during with the beach is accessible at low-tide. By comparison, structure from motion techniques (SFM) are much less costly to implement, and if airborne, acquisition of several kilometers of coastline can be done in a matter of minutes. In this paper, the potential of GPS-tagged oblique airborne photographs and SFM techniques is examined to reconstruct chalk cliff dense 3D point clouds without Ground Control Points (GCP). The focus is put on comparing the relative 3D point of views reconstructed by Visual SFM with their synchronous Solmeta Geotagger Pro2 GPS locations using robust estimators. With a set of 568 oblique photos, shot from the open door of an airplane with a triplet of synchronized Nikon D7000, GPS and SFM-determined view point coordinates converge to X: ±31.5 m; Y: ±39.7 m; Z: ±13.0 m (LE66). Uncertainty in GPS position affects the model scale, angular attitude of the reference frame (the shoreline ends up tilted by 2°) and absolute positioning. Ground Control Points cannot be avoided to orient such models.

  18. Tracking protein dynamics with photoconvertible Dendra2 on spinning disk confocal systems.

    PubMed

    Woods, Elena; Courtney, Jane; Scholz, Dimitri; Hall, William W; Gautier, Virginie W

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the dynamic properties of cellular proteins in live cells and in real time is essential to delineate their function. In this context, we introduce the Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching-Photoactivation unit (Andor) combined with the Nikon Eclipse Ti E Spinning Disk (Andor) confocal microscope as an advantageous and robust platform to exploit the properties of the Dendra2 photoconvertible fluorescent protein (Evrogen) and analyse protein subcellular trafficking in living cells. A major advantage of the spinning disk confocal is the rapid acquisition speed, enabling high temporal resolution of cellular processes. Furthermore, photoconversion and imaging are less invasive on the spinning disk confocal as the cell exposition to illumination power is reduced, thereby minimizing photobleaching and increasing cell viability. We have tested this commercially available platform using experimental settings adapted to track the migration of fast trafficking proteins such as UBC9, Fibrillarin and have successfully characterized their differential motion between subnuclear structures. We describe here step-by-step procedures, with emphasis on cellular imaging parameters, to successfully perform the dynamic imaging and photoconversion of Dendra2-fused proteins at high spatial and temporal resolutions necessary to characterize the trafficking pathways of proteins. PMID:25186063

  19. Automated microscopy system for detection and genetic characterization of fetal nucleated red blood cells on slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravkin, Ilya; Temov, Vladimir

    1998-04-01

    The detection and genetic analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood will permit noninvasive prenatal screening for genetic defects. Applied Imaging has developed and is currently evaluating a system for semiautomatic detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells on slides and acquisition of their DNA probe FISH images. The specimens are blood smears from pregnant women (9 - 16 weeks gestation) enriched for nucleated red blood cells (NRBC). The cells are identified by using labeled monoclonal antibodies directed to different types of hemoglobin chains (gamma, epsilon); the nuclei are stained with DAPI. The Applied Imaging system has been implemented with both Olympus BX and Nikon Eclipse series microscopes which were equipped with transmission and fluorescence optics. The system includes the following motorized components: stage, focus, transmission, and fluorescence filter wheels. A video camera with light integration (COHU 4910) permits low light imaging. The software capabilities include scanning, relocation, autofocusing, feature extraction, facilities for operator review, and data analysis. Detection of fetal NRBCs is achieved by employing a combination of brightfield and fluorescence images of nuclear and cytoplasmic markers. The brightfield and fluorescence images are all obtained with a single multi-bandpass dichroic mirror. A Z-stack of DNA probe FISH images is acquired by moving focus and switching excitation filters. This stack is combined to produce an enhanced image for presentation and spot counting.

  20. Spectral imaging using consumer-level devices and kernel-based regression.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Ville; Cámara, Clara; Hirvonen, Tapani; Penttinen, Niko

    2016-06-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance factor image estimations were performed in the 400-700 nm wavelength range using a portable consumer-level laptop display as an adjustable light source for a trichromatic camera. Targets of interest were ColorChecker Classic samples, Munsell Matte samples, geometrically challenging tempera icon paintings from the turn of the 20th century, and human hands. Measurements and simulations were performed using Nikon D80 RGB camera and Dell Vostro 2520 laptop screen as a light source. Estimations were performed without spectral characteristics of the devices and by emphasizing simplicity for training sets and estimation model optimization. Spectral and color error images are shown for the estimations using line-scanned hyperspectral images as the ground truth. Estimations were performed using kernel-based regression models via a first-degree inhomogeneous polynomial kernel and a Matérn kernel, where in the latter case the median heuristic approach for model optimization and link function for bounded estimation were evaluated. Results suggest modest requirements for a training set and show that all estimation models have markedly improved accuracy with respect to the DE00 color distance (up to 99% for paintings and hands) and the Pearson distance (up to 98% for paintings and 99% for hands) from a weak training set (Digital ColorChecker SG) case when small representative training data were used in the estimation. PMID:27409436

  1. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  2. Heterogeneity of spine density in pyramidal neurons of isocortex of mongoose, Herpestes edwardsii (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1818).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, U C; Singh, Sippy; Chauhan, Prashant

    2013-08-01

    The characteristics of pyramidal neurons within six layers of Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) isocortex have been investigated using Golgi and Cresyl-Violet methods. Pyramidal neurons and the cytoarchitecture of isocortex of mongoose were photographed with the help of computer aided Nikon eclipse 80i microscope whereas the lucida drawings were made by simple light microscope equipped with camera lucida. The cortical neurons exhibit marked regional differences in phenotype. The differences occur in morphology and distribution of spines within the cortical neurons not only among different species but also within an animal's brain. The present investigation aims at studying the features of pyramidal neurons and to find out the differences if any in distribution of spines in different layers (II-VI) as well as regions (Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, and Occipital) of isocortex of mongoose, which will provide information regarding importance of different layer and region. This piece of work embarks the findings that spine density shows inter-regional as well as interlaminar variations within isocortex of mongoose indicating that pyramidal cells present in varied layer and region are not equally functional and there do exists differences in activity among layers and regions. Among regions, the Temporal region possessing highest spine density contributes more toward functioning of mongoose isocortex and might play significant role in predatory nature of mongoose because this region in mammals is associated with auditory, visual perception, and object recognition. PMID:23733533

  3. Common fluorescent proteins for single-molecule localization microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementieva, Natalia V.; Bozhanova, Nina G.; Mishina, Natalie M.; Zagaynova, Elena V.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Mishin, Alexander S.

    2015-07-01

    Super-resolution techniques for breaking the diffraction barrier are spread out over multiple studies nowadays. Single-molecule localization microscopy such as PALM, STORM, GSDIM, etc allow to get super-resolved images of cell ultrastructure by precise localization of individual fluorescent molecules via their temporal isolation. However, these methods are supposed the use of fluorescent dyes and proteins with special characteristics (photoactivation/photoconversion). At the same time, there is a need for retaining high photostability of fluorophores during long-term acquisition. Here, we first showed the potential of common red fluorescent protein for single-molecule localization microscopy based on spontaneous intrinsic blinking. Also, we assessed the effect of different imaging media on photobleaching of these fluorescent proteins. Monomeric orange and red fluorescent proteins were examined for stochastic switching from a dark state to a bright fluorescent state. We studied fusions with cytoskeletal proteins in NIH/3T3 and HeLa cells. Imaging was performed on the Nikon N-STORM system equipped with EMCCD camera. To define the optimal imaging conditions we tested several types of cell culture media and buffers. As a result, high-resolution images of cytoskeleton structure were obtained. Essentially, low-intensity light was sufficient to initiate the switching of tested red fluorescent protein reducing phototoxicity and provide long-term live-cell imaging.

  4. New X-ray Computed Tomography Capability for Pore-Scale Flow and Transport Experimentation at EMSL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, N. J.; White, T. A.; Varga, T.; Zhang, C.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    A new x-ray computed tomography capability for flow and transport research of geologic cores at the pore scale is now available to users at the U.S. Department of Energy’s EMSL, a national scientific laboratory located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new capability consists of a NIKON Metris 225-320 LC with three interchangeable static and rotating targets generating variable 225-320 kV x-ray energies and spot sizes between 3 and 10 microns. This system was specifically designed to image the pore structure and connectivity of large diameter cores of loosely consolidated sediments typical of the vadose zone. The high energies of the system will permit CT imaging of cores up to 15 cm in diameter with a spatial resolution between 12 and 75 microns dependent on the diameter of the core. Examples of time-lapse imaging will be presented as well dual energy capability for differentiating air versus fluid filled pores. Additional in situ tomography capabilities will be demonstrated, and the EMSL user access via peer-review proposal process will be discussed

  5. Virtual slides: application in pulmonary pathology consultations.

    PubMed

    Słodkowska, Janina; Chyczewski, Lech; Wojciechowski, Michał

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Slide (VS) is an interactive microscope emulator that presents a complete digitized tissue section via the Internet. A successful implementation of VS has been observed for educational, research venues and quality control. VS acquisition for consultative pathology is not so common. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and usability of VS in the consultative pulmonary telepathology. 20 lung tumors entered the study. The performance was programmed for 2 medical centers specialized in pulmonary pathology (beginner and advancer in telepathology). A high-quality VSs were prepared by Coolscope (Nikon, Eclipsnet VSL, Japan), and were evaluated via the Internet. The cases were reviewed for the second time with conventional light microscope. VS diagnostic accuracy and the interobserver variability were evaluated. Also the time taken by examiners to render the diagnoses and time needed to scan the microscopic slide were analyzed. Percentage concordance between original glass-slides diagnosis and diagnosis for VSs was very high. Pathologists found the download speed of VSs adequate; experience in telepathology reduced the time of VS diagnosis. VS implementation suggests advantages for teleconsulation and education but also indicate some technical limitations. This is the first Polish trial of VS implementation in telepathology consultative service. PMID:18296275

  6. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  7. Uav-Based Automatic Tree Growth Measurement for Biomass Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpina, M.; Jarząbek-Rychard, M.; Tymków, P.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    Manual in-situ measurements of geometric tree parameters for the biomass volume estimation are time-consuming and economically non-effective. Photogrammetric techniques can be deployed in order to automate the measurement procedure. The purpose of the presented work is an automatic tree growth estimation based on Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) imagery. The experiment was conducted in an agriculture test field with scots pine canopies. The data was collected using a Leica Aibotix X6V2 platform equipped with a Nikon D800 camera. Reference geometric parameters of selected sample plants were measured manually each week. In situ measurements were correlated with the UAV data acquisition. The correlation aimed at the investigation of optimal conditions for a flight and parameter settings for image acquisition. The collected images are processed in a state of the art tool resulting in a generation of dense 3D point clouds. The algorithm is developed in order to estimate geometric tree parameters from 3D points. Stem positions and tree tops are identified automatically in a cross section, followed by the calculation of tree heights. The automatically derived height values are compared to the reference measurements performed manually. The comparison allows for the evaluation of automatic growth estimation process. The accuracy achieved using UAV photogrammetry for tree heights estimation is about 5cm.

  8. Periscope-camera system for visible and infrared imaging diagnostics on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; Dimock, D.L.; Hayes, S.; Long, D.; Lowrence, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Young, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    An optical diagnostic consisting of a periscope which relays images of the torus interior to an array of cameras is used on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to view plasma discharge phenomena and inspect vacuum vessel internal structures in both visible and near-infrared wavelength regions. Three periscopes view through 20-cm-diameter fused-silica windows which are spaced around the torus midplane to provide a viewing coverage of approximately 75% of the vacuum vessel internal surface area. The periscopes have f/8 optics and motor-driven controls for focusing, magnification selection (5/sup 0/, 20/sup 0/, and 60/sup 0/ field of view), elevation and azimuth setting, mast rotation, filter selection, iris aperture, and viewing port selection. The four viewing ports on each periscope are equipped with multiple imaging devices which include: (1) an inspection eyepiece, (2) standard (RCA TC2900) and fast (RETICON) framing rate television cameras, (3) a PtSi CCD infrared imaging camera, (4) a 35 mm Nikon F3 still camera, or (5) a 16 mm Locam II movie camera with variable framing up to 500 fps. Operation of the periscope-camera system is controlled either locally or remotely through a computer-CAMAC interface. A description of the equipment and examples of its application are presented.

  9. Investigation of absorption spectra of Gafchromic EBT2 film's components and their impact on UVR dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydarous, Abdulkadir

    2016-05-01

    The absorption spectra of the EBT2 film's components were investigated in conjunction with its use for UVA dosimetry. The polyester (topside) and adhesive layers of the EBT2 film have been gently removed. Gafchromic™ EBT2 films with and without the protected layers (polyester and adhesive) were exposed to UVR of 365 nm for different durations. Thereafter, the UV-visible spectra were measured using a UV-visible spectrophotometer (Model Spectro Dual Split Beam, UVS-2700). Films were digitized using a Nikon CanoScan 9000F Mark II flatbed scanner. The dosimetric characteristics including film's uniformity, reproducibility and post-irradiation development were investigated. The color development of EBT2 and new modified EBT2 (EBT2-M) films irradiated with UVA was relatively stable (less than 1%) immediately after exposure. Based on this study, the sensitivity of EBT2 to UVR with wavelength between ~350 nm and ~390 nm can significantly be enhanced if the adhesive layer (~25 μm) is removed. The polyester layer plays almost no part on absorbing UVR with wavelength between ~320 nm and ~390 nm. Furthermore, various sensitivities for the EBT2-M film has been established depending on the wavelength of analysis.

  10. Live confocal imaging of intrashell cytoplasm and calcification process in a symbiotic large benthic foraminifer Amphisorus kudakajimensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Fuita, Kazuhiko; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Algal symbiont-bearing large benthic foraminifers are primary and carbonate producers as well as paleoenvironmental indicators in tropical and subtropical reef environments. Despite their importance, their cellular physiology is not well known. In this study, we have developed methods to observe in vivo images of a living symbiotic porcelaneous large foraminifer, Amphisorus kudakajimensis. Nikon A1 confocal laser scanning microscope with Calcein-AM as a fluorescent indicator was used to visualize morphology and streaming of cytoplasm in living A. kudakajimensis. The observation showed that in the marginal part of intrashell cytoplasm, cytoplasm gradually became highly branched and vacuolated. We also succeeded in observing elevated pH (pH 9.0) and lowered pH (pH 6.0) vesicles in reticulopodia-like cytoplasms, using a cell membrane-impermeable fluorescent pH indicator with low toxicity (HPTS). This study demonstrate the use of confocal microscopy in studying cytoplasmic dynamics and initial calcification process such as seawater endocytosis and alkalization of seawater vacuoles.

  11. Simultaneous optimization of dose and focus controls in advanced ArF immersion scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, Tsuyoshi; Izikson, Pavel; Kosugi, Junichi; Sakasai, Naruo; Saotome, Keiko; Suzuki, Kazuaki; Kandel, Daniel; Robinson, John C.; Koyanagi, Yuji

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a new scheme of process control combining a CD metrology system and an exposure tool. A new model based on Neural Networks has been created in KLA-Tencor's "KT Analyzer" which calculates the dose and focus errors simultaneously from CD parameters, such as mid CD and height information, measured by a scatterometry (OCD) measurement tool. The accuracy of this new model was confirmed by experiment. Nikon's "CDU master" then calculated the control parameters for dose and focus per each field from the dose and focus error data of a reference wafer provided by KT Analyzer. Using the corrected parameters for dose and focus from CDU master, we exposed wafers on an NSR-S610C (ArF immersion scanner), and measured the CDU on a KLA SCD100 (OCD tool). As a result, we confirmed that CDU in the entire wafer can be improved more than 60% (from 3.36nm (3σ) to 1.28nm (3σ)).

  12. Process variation monitoring (PVM) by wafer inspection tool as a complementary method to CD-SEM for mapping LER and defect density on production wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabtay, Saar; Blumberg, Yuval; Levi, Shimon; Greenberg, Gadi; Harel, Daniel; Conley, Amiad; Meshulach, Doron; Kan, Kobi; Dolev, Ido; Kumar, Surender; Mendel, Kalia; Goto, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Naoaki; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Shinichi; Nagaoka, Shirou; Sekito, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    As design rules shrink, Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) and Line Edge Roughness (LER) constitute a higher percentage of the line-width and hence the need to control these parameters increases. Sources of CDU and LER variations include: scanner auto-focus accuracy and stability, lithography stack thickness and composition variations, exposure variations, etc. These process variations in advanced VLSI manufacturing processes, specifically in memory devices where CDU and LER affect cell-to-cell parametric variations, are well known to significantly impact device performance and die yield. Traditionally, measurements of LER are performed by CD-SEM or Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) metrology tools. Typically, these measurements require a relatively long time and cover only a small fraction of the wafer area. In this paper we present the results of a collaborative work of the Process Diagnostic & Control Business Unit of Applied Materials® and Nikon Corporation®, on the implementation of a complementary method to the CD-SEM and OCD tools, to monitor post litho develop CDU and LER on production wafers. The method, referred to as Process Variation Monitoring (PVM), is based on measuring variations in the light reflected from periodic structures, under optimized illumination and collection conditions, and is demonstrated using Applied Materials DUV brightfield (BF) wafer inspection tool. It will be shown that full polarization control in illumination and collection paths of the wafer inspection tool is critical to enable to set an optimized Process Variation Monitoring recipe.

  13. Glycine uptake by lamprey spinal neurons demonstrated by light microscopic autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, P.H.; Youngs, L.J.; Krieger, N.R.; Selzer, M.E.

    1984-02-20

    We have mapped the neuronal uptake of 3H-glycine in the spinal cords of large larval sea lampreys: Petromyzon marinus. Spinal cords were incubated in 10(-6) M 3H-glycine for 15 minutes. They were rinsed in lamprey solution, fixed in phosphate-buffered 2% glutaraldehyde, and washed in phosphate buffer. They were then sectioned with a cryostat at 16-m thickness or dehydrated, embedded in Epon, and sectioned at 1-4 micron. Sections were coated with a photographic emulsion and maintained at 4 degrees C for 1-7 days. By sectioning horizontally, it was possible to obtain complete serial reconstructions of up to 1.5-mm lengths of cord in 100-150 sections. The outlines of labelled cells were traced with a Nikon drawing attachment. For one Epon-embedded spinal cord sectioned at 4 micron, tracings were superimposed to form complete maps for 0.6-1.5-mm lengths in three representative regions of cord: rostral (gill region), caudal (dorsal fin region), and midsection. The labelled neurons were small (5-10-micron diameter) cells distributed throughout the central gray columns. They numbered 22 cells per hemisegment in the rostral region, 33 in the midsection, and 43 in the caudal region. None of the previously identified cell types were labelled, including lateral interneurons, edge cells, giant interneurons, dorsal cells, and Mueller and Mauthner axons.

  14. Orthogonal Double View Digital Holographic Diagnostics for Random Motion of Micro Polymer Jet by Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaiho; Sallam, Khaled

    2008-11-01

    An experimental investigation of three-dimensional random behavior of polymer micro jet generated by electrospinning is described. Two frequency doubled Nd:YAG lasers were used as the light source and a commercial grade CCD sensor (Nikon D-70) was used for holograms recording. The two lasers could be fired with a pulse separation as small as 100 ns, and the two laser beams were aligned with three polarized beam splitter cubes. Orthogonal double-view and double-pulses were recorded on the same camera frame. The camera frame was split into two, and both of the halves of the frame were used for each view. Two objective lenses (M 5x) and two spatial filters (Pinhole ˜ 5μm) were used to generate expanding laser beams in the digital microscopic holography (DMH) optical setup. As the electric field (˜20 kV) was intensified, the polymer solution formed a charged filament (or multiple filaments) from the tip of the Taylor cone. As the filament was accelerated toward the collector, its diameter was shrunk and axisymmetric disturbances grew further away from the exit. The polymer was randomly deposited on the collector as non woven microfiber.

  15. Effect of sintering temperatures and screen printing types on TiO2 layers in DSSC applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanto, Agus; Furqoni, Lutfi; Nurosyid, Fahru; Hidayat, Jojo; Suryana, Risa

    2016-03-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a candidate solar cell, which has a big potential in the future due to its eco-friendly material. This research is conducted to study the effect of sintering temperature and the type of screen-printing toward the characteristics of TiO2 layer as a working electrode in DSSC. TiO2 layers were fabricated using a screen-printing method with a mesh size of T-49, T-55, and T-61. TiO2 layers were sintered at temperatures of 600°C and 650°C for 60 min. DSSC structure was composed of TiO2 as semiconductors, ruthenium complex as dyes, and carbon as counter electrodes. The morphology of TiO2 layer was observed by using Nikon E2 Digital Camera Microscopy. The efficiencies of DSSC were calculated from the I-V curves. The highest efficiency is 0.015% at TiO2 layer fabricated with screen type T-61 and at a sintering temperature of 650°C.

  16. EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE ON FLOW OF METALLIC GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. NOURI; Y. LIU; P. WESSELING; J. LEWANDOWSKI

    2006-04-12

    Micro-hardness experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures using a Nikon QM micro-hardness machine on a number of metallic glass (e.g. Zr-, Fe-, Al-) systems. Although high micro-hardness was exhibited at room temperature, significant hardness reductions were exhibited near the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}. The effects of changes in test temperature on the micro-hardness will be reported. The effects of exposure time on the hardness evolution at a given temperature will also be summarized to illustrate some of the differences in behavior of the systems shown. The extreme softening near T{sub g}, characteristic of bulk metallic glass systems, enables the exploration of novel deformation processing. In order to develop deformation processing windows, the evaluation of bulk metallic glass mechanical properties under quasi-static conditions and the determination of flow properties at different temperatures and strain rates are reported. The use of such information to create layered/composite bulk metallic glasses will be summarized.

  17. Analysis of Point Cloud Generation from UAS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, S.; Jóźków, G.; Toth, C.; Vander Jagt, B.

    2014-11-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) allow for the collection of low altitude aerial images, along with other geospatial information from a variety of companion sensors. The images can then be processed using sophisticated algorithms from the Computer Vision (CV) field, guided by the traditional and established procedures from photogrammetry. Based on highly overlapped images, new software packages which were specifically developed for UAS technology can easily create ground models, such as Point Clouds (PC), Digital Surface Model (DSM), orthoimages, etc. The goal of this study is to compare the performance of three different software packages, focusing on the accuracy of the 3D products they produce. Using a Nikon D800 camera installed on an ocotocopter UAS platform, images were collected during subsequent field tests conducted over the Olentangy River, north from the Ohio State University campus. Two areas around bike bridges on the Olentangy River Trail were selected because of the challenge the packages would have in creating accurate products; matching pixels over the river and dense canopy on the shore presents difficult scenarios to model. Ground Control Points (GCP) were gathered at each site to tie the models to a local coordinate system and help assess the absolute accuracy for each package. In addition, the models were also relatively compared to each other using their PCs.

  18. Postdevelopment defect evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Osamu; Kiba, Yukio; Ono, Yuko

    2001-08-01

    Reduction of defects after development is a critical issue in photolithography. A special category of post development defects is the satellite defect which is located in large exposed areas generally in proximity to large unexposed regions of photoresist. We have investigated the formation of this defect type on ESCAP and ACETAL DUV resists with and without underlying organic BARCs, In this paper, we will present AFM and elemental analysis data to determine the origin of the satellite defect. Imaging was done on a full-field Nikon 248nm stepper and resist processing was completed on a TEL CLEAN TRACK ACT 8 track. Defect inspection and review were performed on a KLA-Tencor and Hitachi SEM respectively. Results indicate that the satellite defect is generated on both BARC and resist films and defect counts are dependent on the dark erosion. Elemental analysis indicates that the defects are composed of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. We suspect that the defect is formed as a result of a reaction between PAG, quencher and TMAH. This defect type is removed after a DIW re-rinse.

  19. Distinct perturbations of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepti; Sandhu, Simarpreet V; Bansal, Himanta; Gupta, Shruti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oral cancer constitutes a major health issue in developing countries, representing the leading cause of death. Quantitative assessment by sophisticated diagnostic techniques is becoming increasingly important. Hence, a histochemical staining procedure and morphometric evaluation are used to obtain optimal information on the cellular events. The objective of present study is to assess the variation in cellular area, nuclear area, cellular diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio respectively in normal subjects, smokeless tobacco users, (smokers, combination and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methods Total 125 number of subjects were divided into five groups, each comprising 25 subjects of more than 40 years of age. These groups were: a. Normal, b. smokeless tobacco users, c. smokers d. combination and e. oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral smears were obtained, stained with Feulgen stain and the cells were measured cytomorphometrically using Nikon imaging software. Results Our study showed a significant reduction in the cellular diameter, cellular area and increase in the nuclear diameter, nuclear area and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients as compared to tobacco users and normal patients. Significant changes were found in group I, II, III and IV when compared with group V but as such no significant intergroup variation was found in cellular and nuclear dimensions in smokers, smokeless tobacco users, combination and control group. Conclusion Quantitative parameters could be assessed by cytomorphometry. Cytomorphological changes in exfoliated squames could serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:26609293

  20. Responses of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand: xenobiotic stress versus water stress.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Chapman, Mark M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    The adaptations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) arising from growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand (0.8 g kg(-1) sand dry weight (dw)) were investigated in the contexts of xenobiotic stress and water stress. The transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) across the root endodermis was investigated using the hydrophobic Nile red stain as a PAH homologue. Nile red was applied to the epidermis of a living root to visualise uptake into the root through the transpiration stream, and the distance travelled by the stain into the root tissues was investigated using epi-fluorescence microscopy (Nikon Eclipse 90i). The results showed that the Nile red applied to the roots grown in naphthalene-contaminated sand was unable to penetrate the roots beyond the endodermis, whereas those grown in 'clean' sand showed evidence of uptake into the xylem vessels beyond the endodermis. Furthermore, partial collapse was observed in the cortex of naphthalene-treated roots, suggesting drought stress. Interestingly, the treated plants showed visual resilience to drought stress whilst the leaves of the control plants showed signs of wilting. PMID:25874421

  1. Laser radiation bracket debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Jelínková, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Koranda, Petr; Nemec, Michal; Racek, Jaroslav; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2008-02-01

    Ceramic brackets are an aesthetic substitute for conventional stainless steel brackets in orthodontic patients. However, ceramic brackets are more brittle and have higher bond strengths, which can lead to bracket breakage and enamel damage during classical type of debonding. This study examined the possibility of laser radiation ceramic brackets removing as well as the possible damage of a surface structure of hard dental tissue after this procedure. Two types of lasers were used for the experiments - a laser diode LIMO HLU20F400 generating a wavelength of 808 nm with the maximum output power 20W at the end of the fiber (core diameter 400 μm, numerical aperture 0.22). As a second source, a diode-pumped Tm:YAP laser system generating a wavelength of 1.9 μm, with up to 3.8 W maximum output power was chosen. For the investigation, extracted incisors with ceramic brackets were used. In both cases, laser radiation was applied for 0.5 minute at a maximum power of 1 W. Temperature changes of the irradiated tissue was registered by camera Electrophysics PV320. After the interaction experiment, the photo-documentation was prepared by the stereomicroscope Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan. The surface tissue analysis was processed in "low vacuum" (30 Pa) regime without desiccation. This technique was used to record back-scattered electron images. Selecting the appropriate laser, resin, and bracket combination can minimize risks of enamel degradation and make debonding more safe.

  2. Reconstruction of crimes by infrared photography.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, V; Bohnert, M

    2016-09-01

    Whenever blunt or sharp forces are used in a crime, analysis of bloodstain pattern distribution may provide important information for the reconstruction of happenings. Thereby, attention should be paid to both the crime scene and the clothes of everyone involved in the crime. On dark textiles, though, it is difficult or even impossible for the human eye to detect bloodstains because of the low contrast to the background. However, in the near infrared wavelength range, contrast is considerably higher. Many textiles reflect light beyond a wavelength of 830 nm and thus appear light-colored, whereas blood absorbs the light and appears dark. In our studies, a D7000 NIKON reflex camera modified for infrared photography produced high-resolution photographs visualizing even very small spatter stains on dark textiles. The equipment can be used at any crime scene or lab and provides immediately available and interpretable images. Thus, important findings can be obtained at an early stage of police investigations, as two examples (homicide and attempted homicide) illustrate. PMID:26932868

  3. Investigation of testosterone-mediated non-transcriptional inhibition of Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    HU, ZHONGQIAN; MA, RUI; GONG, JIANBIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effect of short-term testosterone treatment on Ca2+ in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of male rats. Cells were loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fura-2 and intracellular Ca2+ signals of VSMCs were measured using a Nikon TE2000-E live cell imaging workstation. The baseline level of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in resting state VSMCs was ~100 nmol/l. Testosterone alone led to a slow increase in [Ca2+]i, but there was no significant difference compared with the ethanol vehicle control. When VSMCs were stimulated with a high-potassium solution (containing 42 mmol/l of K+), [Ca2+]i rose rapidly and remained at a high plateau level. Short-term treatment using physiological (40 nmol/l) or supraphysiological (4 µmol/l) levels of testosterone at either the plateau phase or the pretreatment stage could significantly inhibit the [Ca2+]i increase induced by high-potassium solutions. Testosterone coupled to bovine serum albumin also had a similar effect and repetitive testosterone interventions over a short time-frame led to inhibition. Testosterone has a non-transcriptional inhibition effect on the [Ca2+]i of VSMCs and acts with the cell membranes of VSMCs to inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated Ca2+ influx, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying testosterone-mediated vasodilation. PMID:26893838

  4. Application of optical tweezers and excimer laser to study protoplast fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantawang, Titirat; Samipak, Sompid; Limtrakul, Jumras; Chattham, Nattaporn

    2015-07-01

    Protoplast fusion is a physical phenomenon that two protoplasts come in contact and fuse together. Doing so, it is possible to combine specific genes from one protoplast to another during fusion such as drought resistance and disease resistance. There are a few possible methods to induce protoplast fusion, for example, electrofusion and chemical fusion. In this study, chemical fusion was performed with laser applied as an external force to enhance rate of fusion and observed under a microscope. Optical tweezers (1064 nm with 100X objective N.A. 1.3) and excimer laser (308 nm LMU-40X-UVB objective) were set with a Nikon Ti-U inverted microscope. Samples were prepared by soaking in hypertonic solution in order to induce cell plasmolysis. Elodea Canadensis and Allium cepa plasmolysed leaves were cut and observed under microscope. Concentration of solution was varied to induce difference turgor pressures on protoplasts pushing at cell wall. Free protoplasts in solution were trapped by optical tweezers to study the effect of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. PEG was diluted by Ca+ solution during the process to induced protoplast cell contact and fusion. Possibility of protoplast fusion by excimer laser was investigated and found possible. Here we report a novel tool for plant cell fusion using excimer laser. Plant growth after cell fusion is currently conducted.

  5. The impact of realistic source shape and flexibility on source mask optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Hajime; Mizuno, Yasushi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki; Kita, Naonori; Matsui, Ryota; Izumi, Hirohiko; Tajima, Keiichi; Siebert, Joachim; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Source mask optimization (SMO) is widely used to make state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in high volume manufacturing. To realize mature SMO solutions in production, the Intelligent Illuminator, which is an illumination system on Nikon scanner, is useful because it can provide generation of freeform sources with high fidelity to the target. Proteus SMO, which employs co-optimization method and an insertion of validation with mask 3D effect and resist properties for an accurate prediction of wafer printing, can take into account the properties of Intelligent Illuminator. We investigate an impact of the source properties on the SMO to pattern of a static-random access memory. Quality of a source made on the scanner compared to the SMO target is evaluated with in-situ measurement and aerial image simulation using its measurement data. Furthermore we discuss an evaluation of a universality of the source to use it in multiple scanners with a validation with estimated value of scanner errors.

  6. Influence of variation of etching conditions on the sensitivity of PADC detectors with a new evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Fiechtner-Scharrer, A; Mayer, S; Boschung, M; Whitelaw, A

    2011-03-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institut, a personal neutron dosimetry system based on chemically etched poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) detectors and an automatic track counting (Autoscan 60) for neutron dose evaluations has been in routine use since 1998. Today, the hardware and the software of the Autoscan 60 are out of date, no spare components are available anymore and more sophisticated image-analysis systems are already developed. Therefore, a new evaluation system, the 'TASLIMAGE', was tested thoroughly in 2009 for linearity, reproducibility, influence of etching conditions and so forth, with the intention of replacing the Autoscan 60 in routine evaluations. The TASLIMAGE system is based on a microscope (high-quality Nikon optics) and an ultra-fast three-axis motorised control for scanning the detectors. In this paper, the TASLIMAGE system and its possibilities for neutron dose calculation are explained in more detail and the study of the influence of the variation of etching conditions on the sensitivity and background of the PADC detectors is described. The etching temperature and etching duration were varied, which showed that the etching conditions do not have a significant influence on the results of non-irradiated detectors. However, the sensitivity of irradiated detectors decreases by 5 % per 1°C when increasing the etching temperature. For the variation of the etching duration, the influence on the sensitivity of irradiated detectors is less pronounced. PMID:21212078

  7. Accuracy potential of large-format still-video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Hans-Gerd; Niederoest, Markus

    1997-07-01

    High resolution digital stillvideo cameras have found wide interest in digital close range photogrammetry in the last five years. They can be considered fully autonomous digital image acquisition systems without the requirement of permanent connection to an external power supply and a host computer for camera control and data storage, thus allowing for convenient data acquisition in many applications of digital photogrammetry. The accuracy potential of stillvideo cameras has been extensively discussed. While large format CCD sensors themselves can be considered very accurate measurement devices, lenses, camera bodies and sensor mounts of stillvideo cameras are not compression techniques in image storage, which may also affect the accuracy potential. This presentation shows recent experiences from accuracy tests with a number of large format stillvideo cameras, including a modified Kodak DCS200, a Kodak DCS460, a Nikon E2 and a Polaroid PDC-2000. The tests of the cameras include absolute and relative measurements and were performed using strong photogrammetric networks and good external reference. The results of the tests indicate that very high accuracies can be achieved with large blocks of stillvideo imagery especially in deformation measurements. In absolute measurements, however, the accuracy potential of the large format CCD sensors is partly ruined by a lack of stability of the cameras.

  8. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  9. D Model of AL Zubarah Fortress in Qatar - Terrestrial Laser Scanning VS. Dense Image Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, T.; Mechelke, K.; Maziull, L.

    2015-02-01

    In September 2011 the fortress Al Zubarah, built in 1938 as a typical Arabic fortress and restored in 1987 as a museum, was recorded by the HafenCity University Hamburg using terrestrial laser scanning with the IMAGER 5006h and digital photogrammetry for the Qatar Museum Authority within the framework of the Qatar Islamic Archaeology and Heritage Project. One goal of the object recording was to provide detailed 2D/3D documentation of the fortress. This was used to complete specific detailed restoration work in the recent years. From the registered laser scanning point clouds several cuttings and 2D plans were generated as well as a 3D surface model by triangle meshing. Additionally, point clouds and surface models were automatically generated from digital imagery from a Nikon D70 using the open-source software Bundler/PMVS2, free software VisualSFM, Autodesk Web Service 123D Catch beta, and low-cost software Agisoft PhotoScan. These outputs were compared with the results from terrestrial laser scanning. The point clouds and surface models derived from imagery could not achieve the same quality of geometrical accuracy as laser scanning (i.e. 1-2 cm).

  10. The Effect of Surface Wettability on Viscous Film Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herescu, A.; Allen, J.

    2008-11-01

    The viscous deposition of a liquid film on the inside of a capillary has been experimentally investigated and the relationship between the film thickness and surface wettability was examined. With distilled water as a working fluid tests were run in a 500 microns diameter glass tube with less than 30 degrees and 105 degrees contact angle. The thickness h of the deposited film was then estimated from the liquid mass flow rate exiting the capillary and the gas-liquid interface (meniscus) velocity, and compared with Taylor's data and with modified Bretherton's correlation as a function of the Capillary number. In a different set of experiments direct film thickness measurements were obtained by matching the refractive index of the capillary with that of the investigated fluid. The tube was also placed in an index-matched view box to minimize distortion and allow for accurate evaluation of the film thickness. The results were checked against data resulting from the aforementioned procedure. The thickness measurements as well as the meniscus velocity were determined with the aid of a Photron high speed camera with 10000 frames per second sampling capability coupled with a Nikon TE-2000 inverted microscope.

  11. High Speed Telescopic Imaging of Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHarg, M. G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Kanmae, T.; Haaland, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    A total of 21 sprite events were recorded at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, during the nights of 14 and 15 July 2010 with a 500 mm focal length Takahashi Sky 90 telescope. The camera used was a Phantom 7.3 with a VideoScope image intensifier. The images were 512x256 pixels for a field of view of 1.3x0.6 degrees. The data were recorded at 16,000 frames per second (62 μs between images) and an integration time of 20 μs per image. Co-aligned with the telescope was a second similar high-speed camera, but with an 85 mm Nikon lens; this camera recorded at 10,000 frames per second with 100 μs exposure. The image format was also 512x256 pixels for a field of view of 7.3x3.7 degrees. The 21 events recorded include all basic sprite elements: Elve, sprite halos, C-sprites, carrot sprites, and large jellyfish sprites. We compare and contrast the spatial details seen in the different types of sprites, including streamer head size and the number of streamers subsequent to streamer head splitting. Telescopic high speed image of streamer tip splitting in sprites recorded at 07:06:09 UT on 15 July 2010.

  12. Robot Kinematics Identification: KUKA LWR4+ Redundant Manipulator Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolyubin, Sergey; Paramonov, Leonid; Shiriaev, Anton

    2015-11-01

    This work is aimed at a comprehensive discussion of algorithms for the kinematic parameters identification of robotic manipulators. We deal with an open-loop geometric calibration task, when a full 6D robot's end-effector pose is measured. Effective solutions of such a task is of high interest in many practical applications, because it can dramatically improve key robot characteristics. On the first step, we select optimal calibration configurations. A comparative analysis of three different algorithms and two observability indexes used for numerical optimization is provided. Afterwards, using the acquired and pre-processed experimental data we identify modified Denavit-Hartenberg parameters of the manipulator. Estimates are obtained resolving original nonlinear forward kinematics relations. Finally, we compare nominal and calibrated geometric parameters and show how much deviations in these parameters affect robot positioning accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, such integrated efforts are new for the KUKA LWR4+ robot and Nikon K610 optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM), which were used in the study. Discussion of practical issues on how to organise the experiment is an additional contribution of this work. The proposed procedure is highly automated and can be implemented to improve manipulator's performance on a periodic basis.

  13. Observations of Leonids 2009 by the Tajikistan Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovicka, J.; Borovicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fireball network in Tajikistan has operated since 2009. Five stations of the network covering the territory of near eleven thousands square kilometers are equipped with all-sky cameras with the Zeiss Distagon "fish-eye" objectives and by digital SLR cameras Nikon with the Nikkor "fish-eye" objectives. Observations of the Leonid activity in 2009 were carried out during November 13-21. In this period, 16 Leonid fireballs have been photographed. As a result of astrometric and photometric reductions, the precise data including atmospheric trajectories, velocities, orbits, light curves, photometric masses and densities were determined for 10 fireballs. The radiant positions during the maximum night suggest that the majority of the fireball activity was caused by the annual stream component with only minor contribution from the 1466 trail. According to the PE criterion, the majority of Leonid fireballs belonged to the most fragile and weak fireball group IIIB. However, one detected Leonid belonged to the fireball group I. This is the first detection of an anomalously strong Leonid individual.

  14. A simple and cost-effective solid-phase protein nano-assay using polyacrylamide-coated glass plates.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wladyslaw A

    2015-02-01

    A new solid-phase protein nano-assay is suggested for simple and sensitive estimation of protein content in sample buffers (a 1-μl sample is sufficient for analysis). The assay is different from conventional "on-filter" assays in that it uses inexpensive fully transparent polyacrylamide gel (PAAG)-coated glass plates as solid support and, thus, combines the convenience of "on-membrane" staining with the sensitivity and ease of documentation of "in-gel" staining (and, therefore, is especially suited for standard lab gel documentation systems). The PAAG plates assay is compatible with all dyes for in-gel protein staining. Depending on the sensitivity of the staining protocol, the assay can be used in macro-, micro-, and nano-assay formats. We also describe a low-cost two-component colloidal Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 (CBB G-250) staining protocol for fast quantitative visualization of proteins spotted on a PAAG plate (the detection limit is up to 2 ng of proteins even when using a Nikon CoolPix digital camera and white light transilluminator instead of a gel scanner). The suggested colloidal CBB G-250 protocol could also be used for visualizing nano-amounts of proteins in polyacrylamide gels. The PAAG plate assay could be useful for proteomic applications and, in general, for all cases where a fast, sensitive, and easily documentable cost-effective solid-phase protein assay is required. PMID:25449300

  15. Three dimensional anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament: a new approach in anatomical orthopedic studies and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Moraes, Eduardo Ramalho; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Jalikjian, Wahi; Golano, Pau; Cohen, Moisés

    2012-01-01

    Background The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important structure in the knee. The ACL does not heal following lesions, and surgical reconstruction is the standard treatment among athletes. Some steps of ACL reconstruction remain controversial. It is important to fully understand the anatomy of the ACL to accurately reproduce its anatomy during surgical reconstructions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of anaglyphic images that produce 3D images to better visualize the anatomy of the ACL, and to highlight the anatomical features of this ligament as reported in the literature. Methods We included ten knees in this study. After dissection of the knee structures, pictures were acquired using a camera with Nikon D40, AF-S Nikkor 18–55 mm (1:3.5–5.6 G2 ED), and Micro Nikkor 105 mm (1:2.8) lenses. The pair of images was processed using Callipyan 3D Anabuilder software, which transforms the two images into one anaglyphic image. Results During the dissection of the knees, nine pictures were acquired and transformed into anaglyphic images. Conclusion This study, demonstrated that the use of 3D images is a useful tool that can improve the knowledge of the anatomy of the knee, while also facilitating knee reconstruction surgery. PMID:24198601

  16. A three-dimensional anatomy of the posterolateral compartment of the knee: the use of a new technology in the study of musculoskeletal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego Costa; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Jalikjian, Wahy; Golano, Pau; Cohen, Moises

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, an interest has developed in understanding the anatomy of the posterior and posterolateral knee. The posterolateral compartment of the knee corresponds to a complex arrangement of ligaments and myotendinous structures. Undiagnosed lesions in this compartment are the main reason for failure of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Understanding the anatomy of these structures is essential to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. The aim of this study was to better understand the relationship between these structures of the knee using three-dimensional technology. Methods Ten knees were included from cadaver lower limbs of adult patients. The skin and subcutaneous tissue were removed leaving only the muscle groups and ligaments. The neurovascular bundles and their ramifications were preserved. Images were acquired from the dissections using a Nikon D40 camera with AF-S Nikkor 18–55 mm (1:3.5 5.6 GII ED) and Micro Nikkor 105 mm (1:2.8) lenses. The pair of images were processed using Callipyan 3D and AnaBuilder software, which transforms the two images into one anaglyphic image. Results During the dissection of the knees, twelve pictures were acquired and transformed into anaglyphic images. Conclusion The use of three-dimensional images in this study demonstrates that this technique is useful to improve the knowledge in anatomy of the knee as well as for knee reconstruction surgery. PMID:24198580

  17. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  18. Terrestrial scanning or digital images in inventory of monumental objects? - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markiewicz, J. S.; Zawieska, D.

    2014-06-01

    Cultural heritage is the evidence of the past; monumental objects create the important part of the cultural heritage. Selection of a method to be applied depends on many factors, which include: the objectives of inventory, the object's volume, sumptuousness of architectural design, accessibility to the object, required terms and accuracy of works. The paper presents research and experimental works, which have been performed in the course of development of architectural documentation of elements of the external facades and interiors of the Wilanów Palace Museum in Warszawa. Point clouds, acquired from terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5003h) and digital images taken with Nikon D3X and Hasselblad H4D cameras were used. Advantages and disadvantages of utilisation of these technologies of measurements have been analysed with consideration of the influence of the structure and reflectance of investigated monumental surfaces on the quality of generation of photogrammetric products. The geometric quality of surfaces obtained from terrestrial laser scanning data and from point clouds resulting from digital images, have been compared.

  19. [Development of telepathology systems between different types of terminals based on the standard for image collaboration command protocol].

    PubMed

    Tofukuji, Ikuo; Nakagawa, Shuji; Suzuki, Akitoshi; Saito, Makoto; Hara, Shigeji; Tsuchihashi, Yasunari; Shiraishi, Taizo; Ooshiro, Mariko; Sawai, Takashi; Kaihara, Shigekoto

    2003-01-01

    In Japan telepathology systems have been developed in medical or pathological environment such as a shortage and an uneven distribution of pathologists. More than 100 telepathology terminals are working mainly for intraoperative quick diagnosis. They cannot communicate with different types each other. In March 2000 the Medical Information System Development Center(MEDIS-DC) successfully demonstrated the interconnection between different types of telepathology terminals based on the Standard for Image Collaboration Command Protocol (SICCP). Nikon, NTTdata and Olympus had joined the development. In February 2002 MEDIS-DC examined these systems for pathological consultations in the fields of Okinawa-Kyoto, Kyoto-Mie and Mie-Okinawa. These successful examinations let us know that telepathology systems need new observation methodologies for telecytology and teleconsultation in addition to the flow for intraoperative quick diagnosis, new GUI guidelines for telepathology terminal design and, education and support for users of their smooth operation. Outcomes of MEDIS-DC activities encourageed us to challenge the next generation telepathology. We found some new trends in telepathology or pathology informatics such as virtual slide technologies and the internet applications in US and Europe. In order to keep Japanese priority, MEDIS-DC telepathology comittee has started investigations to construct a strategy for development of Japanese next generation telepathology. PMID:12832859

  20. Cultural Heritage: An example of graphical documentation with automated photogrammetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    In the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used, in particular for the study and for the documentation of the ancient ruins. This work has been carried out during the PhD cycle that was produced the "Carta Archeologica del territorio intorno al monte Massico". The study suggests the archeological documentation of the mausoleum "Torre del Ballerino" placed in the south-west area of Falciano del Massico, along the Via Appia. The graphic documentation has been achieved by using photogrammetric system (Image Based Modeling) and by the classical survey with total station, Nikon Nivo C. The data acquisition was carried out through digital camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II with Canon EF 17-40 mm f/4L USM @ 20 mm with images snapped in RAW and corrected in Adobe Lightroom. During the data processing, the camera calibration and orientation was carried out by the software Agisoft Photoscans and the final result has allowed to achieve a scaled 3D model of the monument, imported in software MeshLab for the different view. Three orthophotos in jpg format were extracted by the model, and then were imported in AutoCAD obtaining façade's surveys.

  1. Process window control using CDU master

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Toki, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Daishi; Sato, Maki; Kosugi, Junichi; Tanaka, Rika; Sakasai, Naruo; Ohashi, Toshio; Nakasone, Ryoko; Tokui, Akira

    2012-03-01

    As double patterning techniques such as spacer double/quadruple patterning mature, ArF water immersion lithography is expected to be applied down to the 1x nm hp node or beyond. This will necessitate precise process control solutions to accommodate extremely small process windows. In the case of spacer double/quadruple patterning in particular, CD uniformity of the final feature is strongly related to the lithography performance of the initial pre-spacer feature. CD uniformity of the resist image is affected by many sources. In the case of the exposure tool, CD error on the reticle, as well as exposure dose and focus errors are the key factors. For the resist process, heterogeneity of the stacked resist film thickness, post exposure bake (PEB) plate temperature, and development all have an impact. Furthermore, the process wafer also has error sources that include under-layer non-uniformities or wafer flatness. Fortunately, the majorities of these non-uniformities are quite stable in a volume production process. To improve and maintain the CD uniformity, a technique to calculate exposure dose and focus correction values simultaneously using the measured resist image feature was reported previously [1]. Further, a demonstration of a correction loop using a neural network calculation model was reported in SPIE 2010 [2], and the corrected CD uniformity was less than 1.5 nm (3 sigma) within a wafer. For further improvement, a demonstration of precise dose and focus control using high order field-by-field correction was then reported at SPIE 2011[3]. In that work, the interand intra-field CD uniformities reported were less than 1 nm (3 sigma) respectively. A key aspect of this method is the simultaneous compensation of dose and focus offsets, which successfully maximizes the process margin of a target pattern. The Nikon CDU Master then derives the optimal control parameters for each compensation function in the scanner using the exposure dose and focus correction data

  2. Utilisation of X-Ray computed microtomography for evaluation of iron sulphide distribution in roofing slate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, Kamil; Daněk, Tomáš; Vavro, Martin; Botula, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    Roofing slate represents a traditional natural stone used for centuries for roofing and other construction applications in various types of buildings. Quality roofing slate must be primarily splittable into large, thin and waterproof tiles. In addition, it must be stable in colour and resistant against weathering. The abundance of mineral phases that weather easily or minerals that are long-term unstable has the effect of reducing the durability of slates in exterior conditions. One of the most problematic rock components, which are in a larger or smaller extent present in almost all slates, are iron sulphides, such as pyrite, marcasite or pyrrhotite. Under common atmospheric conditions, these minerals tend to oxidise, which leads to the formation of limonite and sulphuric acid. As a consequence of the origin of red-brown Fe oxyhydroxides, the undesirable colour changes of the slate may occur. But the most serious problem which occurs during this process is the changes in volume. This can cause disintegration of slate depending on the form of the iron sulphide occurrence. The content and size distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate is normally determined using the microscopic analysis in transmitted light, combined with the observation in reflected light. For quantitative determination of iron sulphides in slate, the X-Ray powder diffraction is also often used. The results of the microscopic and X-Ray analyses need to be mutually compared and should not differ fundamentally. This paper is focused on the assessing the possibility of application of the X-Ray computed microtomography (CT) as a new complementary technique enabling the analysis of content and size (volume) distribution of iron sulphides in roofing slate. The X-Ray CT study was conducted using an XT H 225 ST industrial micro-tomographic system made by Nikon Metrology NV. Studied samples were reconstructed using the CT Pro 3D software (Nikon Metrology NV). The visualisation and analysis software

  3. Preliminary fluid inclusions study in the Bucium Rodu-Frasin Neogene volcanic structure, Metaliferi Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatan, E. L.; Berbeleac, I.

    2012-04-01

    Bucium Rodu maar-diatreme and Frasin dome volcanic structures and related Au-Ag epithermal deposits are located in the northeastern part of the South Apuseni Mountains, and belong to Bucium-Rosia Montana-Baia de Aries metallogenic district, within so called "Golden Quadrilateral". The microthermometric measurements were carried out using double polished sections, on bipyramidal magmatic quartz phenocrysts and hydrothermal quartz phenocrysts. Depending on the clarity of the quartz, samples were polished down to 200 - 400 μm thick. A standard microscope for transmitted and reflected light was used for the sample petrography. Linkam THM SG600 heating-freezing stage, combined with a Nikon E 400 microscope and a Nikon DXM 1200F digital camera, were used to measure the fluid inclusions homogenization temperatures. The Frasin magmatic quartz phenocrysts, occurs as well-formed bipyramidal β -form quartz phenocrysts and contain apatite, zircon, melt inclusions and fluid inclusions. They reach up to 1 cm in diameter and their cracks are re-filled with carbonate, sericite and sulfides. The size of fluid inclusions ranges from very fine (2-3 μm) up to 25 μm. Primary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions are not common, they occur in small groups with sizes ranging between 5-20 μm, having two phases: liquid and vapor. Based on the homogenization temperatures and phase proportions at room temperature, we could separate 2 types/fields of range for primary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions as follows: 1. Liquid rich fluid inclusions (50-60 vol. % liquid) with Th=370-406°C and 2. Vapor rich fluid inclusions (10-30 vol. % liquid) with Th=420-519°C. All of the fluid inclusions homogenize by the disappearance of the vapor phase. Microthermometric data from hydrothermal quartz crystals were obtained from quartz phenocrysts of carbonate-quartz-base metal sulfides-gold veins of the dacite breccias. Primary fluid inclusions from hydrothermal quartz crystals have sizes up to 50

  4. The Performance Evaluation of Multi-Image 3d Reconstruction Software with Different Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, V.; Khosravi, M.; Ahmadi, M.; Noori, N.; Naveh, A. Hosseini; Varshosaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    the most popular ones in each category were selected (Arc 3D, Visual SfM, Sure, Agisoft). Also four small objects with distinct geometric properties and especial complexities were chosen and their accurate models as reliable true data was created using ATOS Compact Scan 2M 3D scanner. Images were taken using Fujifilm Real 3D stereo camera, Apple iPhone 5 and Nikon D3200 professional camera and three dimensional models of the objects were obtained using each of the software. Finally, a comprehensive comparison between the detailed reviews of the results on the data set showed that the best combination of software and sensors for generating three-dimensional models is directly related to the object shape as well as the expected accuracy of the final model. Generally better quantitative and qualitative results were obtained by using the Nikon D3200 professional camera, while Fujifilm Real 3D stereo camera and Apple iPhone 5 were the second and third respectively in this comparison. On the other hand, three software of Visual SfM, Sure and Agisoft had a hard competition to achieve the most accurate and complete model of the objects and the best software was different according to the geometric properties of the object.

  5. Trend of digital camera and interchangeable zoom lenses with high ratio based on patent application over the past 10 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensui, Takayuki

    2012-10-01

    Although digitalization has tripled consumer-class camera market scale, extreme reductions in prices of fixed-lens cameras has reduced profitability. As a result, a number of manufacturers have entered the market of the System DSC i.e. digital still camera with interchangeable lens, where large profit margins are possible, and many high ratio zoom lenses with image stabilization functions have been released. Quiet actuators are another indispensable component. Design with which there is little degradation in performance due to all types of errors is preferred for good balance in terms of size, lens performance, and the rate of quality to sub-standard products. Decentering, such as that caused by tilting, sensitivity of moving groups is especially important. In addition, image stabilization mechanisms actively shift lens groups. Development of high ratio zoom lenses with vibration reduction mechanism is confronted by the challenge of reduced performance due to decentering, making control over decentering sensitivity between lens groups everything. While there are a number of ways to align lenses (axial alignment), shock resistance and ability to stand up to environmental conditions must also be considered. Naturally, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to make lenses smaller and achieve a low decentering sensitivity at the same time. 4-group zoom construction is beneficial in making lenses smaller, but decentering sensitivity is greater. 5-group zoom configuration makes smaller lenses more difficult, but it enables lower decentering sensitivities. At Nikon, the most advantageous construction is selected for each lens based on specifications. The AF-S DX NIKKOR 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR II and AF-S NIKKOR 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR are excellent examples of this.

  6. Remote-Raman spectroscopic study of minerals under supercritical CO2 relevant to Venus exploration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shiv K; Misra, Anupam K; Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Acosta, Tayro E; Bates, David E

    2011-10-01

    The authors have utilized a recently developed compact Raman spectrometer equipped with an 85 mm focal length (f/1.8) Nikon camera lens and a custom mini-ICCD detector at the University of Hawaii for measuring remote Raman spectra of minerals under supercritical CO(2) (Venus chamber, ∼102 atm pressure and 423 K) excited with a pulsed 532 nm laser beam of 6 mJ/pulse and 10 Hz. These experiments demonstrate that by focusing a frequency-doubled 532 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser beam with a 10× beam expander to a 1mm spot on minerals located at 2m inside a Venus chamber, it is possible to measure the remote Raman spectra of anhydrous sulfates, carbonates, and silicate minerals relevant to Venus exploration during daytime or nighttime with 10s integration time. The remote Raman spectra of gypsum, anhydrite, barite, dolomite and siderite contain fingerprint Raman lines along with the Fermi resonance doublet of CO(2). Raman spectra of gypsum revealed dehydration of the mineral with time under supercritical CO(2) at 423 K. Fingerprint Raman lines of olivine, diopside, wollastonite and α-quartz can easily be identified in the spectra of these respective minerals under supercritical CO(2). The results of the present study show that time-resolved remote Raman spectroscopy with a compact Raman spectrometer of moderate resolution equipped with a gated intensified CCD detector and low power laser source could be a potential tool for exploring Venus surface mineralogy both during daytime and nighttime from a lander. PMID:21333587

  7. MEDEA+ project 2T302 MUSCLE: masks through user's supply chain: leadership by excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsy, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    The rapid evolution of our information society depends on the continuous developments and innovations of semiconductor products. The cost per chip functionality keeps reducing by a factor of 2 every 18 month. However, this performance and success of the semiconductor industry critically depends on the quality of the lithographic photomasks. The need for the high quality of photomask drives lithography costs sensitively, which is a key factor in the manufacture of microelectronics devices. Therefore, the aim is to reduce production costs while overcoming challenges in terms of feature sizes, complexity and cycle times. Consequently, lithography processes must provide highest possible quality at reasonable prices. This way, the leadership in the lithographic area can be maintained and European chipmakers can stay competitive with manufacturers in the Far East and the USA. Under the umbrella of MEDEA+, a project called MUSCLE (<< Masks through User's Supply Chain: Leadership by Excellence >>) has been started among leading semiconductor companies in Europe: ALTIS Semiconductor (Project Leader), ALCATEL Vacuum, ATMEL, CEA/LETI, Entegris, NXP Semiconductors, TOPPAN Photomasks, AMTC, Carl ZEISS SMS, DMS, Infineon Technologies, VISTEC Semiconductor, NIKON Precision, SCHOTT Lithotec, ASML, PHOTRONICS, IMEC, DCE, DNP Photomask, STMicroelectronics, XYALIS and iCADA. MUSCLE focuses particularly on mask data flow, photomask carrier, photomask defect characterization and photomask data handling. In this paper, we will discuss potential solutions like standardization and automation of the photomask data flow based on SEMI P10, the performance and the impact of the supply chain parameter within the photomask process, the standardization of photomask defect characterization and a discussion of the impact of new Reticle Enhancement Technologies (RET) such as mask process correction and finally a generic model to describe the photomasks key performance indicators for prototype

  8. Aerial Surveys Using Consumer Electronics: Fast, Cheap and Best of All: Useful!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dearborn, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    We report results from two low-cost, low-altitude, aerial imaging surveys of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) carried out in late 2009. In total 541 km of the fault was imaged with a ground sample distance (pixel size) of a few cm. The two surveys covered the Carrizo Plain and points north to the Choice Valley on 24 Sep 2009, and the SAF between I-5 (Tejon Pass) and I-15 (Cajon Pass) on 29 Dec 2009. Each area was imaged twice, once on the first pass and a short time later on the return pass. The I-5 to I-15 flight included Lone Pine Canyon east of Wrightwood soon after the Sheep Fire of early Oct 2009. Ground that was normally covered by heavy brush was revealed for the first time in many years. The data set consists of 5216 6Mb jpg photographs (31 Gb total) which were posted on the internet within hours of their acquisition. Shortly thereafter they were placed into PICASA web albums for easy browsing. Total cost for both surveys (excluding camera) was about $5000. The pictures were taken with a Nikon D90 with an attached GP-1 receiver that wrote the aircraft’s position into the EXIF file of each photograph. Organization, manipulation and geolocation of the images were done on a Macintosh laptop. All photographs are freely available and carry no copyright. They are in the public domain. Lynch, David K., Kenneth W. Hudnut and David S. P. Dearborn “Low Altitude Aerial Color Digital Photographic Survey of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain”, Seismological Research Letters, 81, 453-459 (2010) Full frame image of Wallace Creek. The inset shows a visitor. The pixel size at the center of the frame is about 4 cm.

  9. Fast quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadri-wave interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual

  10. Color (RGB) imaging laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri De Collibus, M.; Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Francucci, M.; Guarneri, M.; Nuvoli, M.; Paglia, E.; Ricci, R.

    2008-03-01

    We present a new color (RGB) imaging 3D laser scanner prototype recently developed in ENEA, Italy). The sensor is based on AM range finding technique and uses three distinct beams (650nm, 532nm and 450nm respectively) in monostatic configuration. During a scan the laser beams are simultaneously swept over the target, yielding range and three separated channels (R, G and B) of reflectance information for each sampled point. This information, organized in range and reflectance images, is then elaborated to produce very high definition color pictures and faithful, natively colored 3D models. Notable characteristics of the system are the absence of shadows in the acquired reflectance images - due to the system's monostatic setup and intrinsic self-illumination capability - and high noise rejection, achieved by using a narrow field of view and interferential filters. The system is also very accurate in range determination (accuracy better than 10 -4) at distances up to several meters. These unprecedented features make the system particularly suited to applications in the domain of cultural heritage preservation, where it could be used by conservators for examining in detail the status of degradation of frescoed walls, monuments and paintings, even at several meters of distance and in hardly accessible locations. After providing some theoretical background, we describe the general architecture and operation modes of the color 3D laser scanner, by reporting and discussing first experimental results and comparing high-definition color images produced by the instrument with photographs of the same subjects taken with a Nikon D70 digital camera.

  11. Effect of intraperitoneal selenium administration on liver glycogen levels in rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    PubMed

    Akil, Mustafa; Bicer, Mursel; Kilic, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    There are a few of studies examining how selenium, which is known to reduce oxidative damage in exercise, influences glucose metabolism and exhaustion in physical activity. The present study aims to examine how selenium administration affects liver glycogen levels in rats subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study included 32 Sprague-Dawley type male rats, which were equally allocated to four groups: Group 1, general control; Group 2; selenium-supplemented control (6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite); Group 3, swimming control; Group 4, selenium-supplemented swimming (6 mg/kg/day sodium selenite). Liver tissue samples collected from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. From the tissue samples buried into paraffin, 5-µm cross-sections were obtained using a microtome, put on a microscope slide, and stained with PAS. Stained preparations were assessed using a Nikon Eclipse E400 light microscope. All images obtained with the light microscope were transferred to a PC and evaluated using Clemex PE 3.5 image analysis software. The highest liver glycogen levels were found in groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). The levels in group 4 were lower than those in groups 1 and 2 but higher than the levels in group 3 (p < 0.05). The lowest liver glycogen levels were obtained in group 3 (p < 0.05). Results of the study indicate that liver glycogen levels that decrease in acute swimming exercise can be restored by selenium administration. It can be argued that physiological doses of selenium administration can contribute to performance. PMID:20340052

  12. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  13. Classical taxonomy studies of medicinally important Ipomoea leari

    PubMed Central

    Porwal, Omji; Gupta, Saurabh; Nanjan, Moola Joghee; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea leari which belongs to the family Convolvulaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the whole plant is used for various disorders such as anti-inflammatory, psychotomimetic and anticancer activities. The current study seeks to standardize the parameters for this herb. Materials and Methods: The identification of the pharmacognostical, morphoanatomical characters of Ipomoea leari (leaf, stem and root) were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analyses. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values were determined by World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The plant material was fixed in formalin-5 mL + acetic acid-5 mL + 70% ethyl alcohol-9 mL (FAA) and dehydrated with graded series of tertiary-butyl alcohol. Toluidine blue, a polychromatic stain was used for staining the sections and then whole components were observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Microscopically, leaf consists of prominent midrib and the lamina, both having dorsiventral symmetry. The stomata are actinocytic. The stem consists of an epidermal layer of one cell thickness, wide cortex, vascular cylinder and wide pith. The root measuring 1.6 mm thick was studied. It consists of uniformly thick and continuous periderm, wide cortex and thick vascular cylinder. Qualitative analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopic, phytoconstituent and chromatographic analyses of Ipomoea leari. Various standard methods were adopted to carry out the investigation. Conclusion: The results of the present study provide valuable pharmacognostic information of Ipomoea leari for its identification. Our result's suggest that Ipomoea leari is a promising candidate as an

  14. Fluorescein angiography of the newborn rat. Implications in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Larrazabal, L I; Penn, J S

    1990-05-01

    The current technique was developed to characterize the morphologic changes in the retinas of oxygen-reared rats, as an animal model of retinopathy of prematurity. Past studies have used ink perfusion to observe the retinal vasculature, but this method is static and requires the sacrifice of the subject. Fluorescein angiography, however, is dynamic and relatively noninvasive, and allows the survival of the animal for further study. The fundus camera cannot be used because the source of light that is focused in an annulus is too large for the pupil size of a young (approximately 14-day-old) rat. To overcome this, a Nikon inverted microscope (Diaphot-TMD) was used. Using the proper exciting and barrier filters for fluorescene, a photographic sequence was made by rapidly focusing to the plane of the retinal vessels. To our knowledge, similar photographs have not been previously published. This technique was used in newborn pigmented ratlings that were 1) exposed to 80% oxygen for the first 14 days of life; 2) exposed to 80% oxygen for the first 21 days of life; or 3) exposed for the first 14 days followed by 7 days in room air. Age-matched controls were raised simultaneously in room air and evaluated with the same technique. Differences were observed between treatments in the amount of retinal capillary loss, and in the tortuosity and diameter of the major retinal vessels. The hyaloid system also varied between treatment groups. Oxygen-exposed rats showed a persistence of the hyaloid vessels that was particularly prominent in the group returned to room air before analysis. Comparisons are made to past results obtained with other histologic techniques. PMID:2335449

  15. Laser selective microablation of sensitized intracellular components within auditory receptor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Evans, Burt N.; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph

    1995-05-01

    A laser system can be coupled to a light microscope for laser microbeam ablation and trapping of single cells in vitro. We have extended this technology by sensitization of target structures with vital dyes to provide selective ablation of specific subcellular components. Isolated auditory receptor cells (outer hair cells, OHCs) are known to elongate and contract in response to electrical, chemical and mechanical stimulation. Various intracellular structures are candidate components mediating motility of OHCs, but the exact mechanism(s) is currently unknown. In ongoing studies of OHC motility, we have used the microbeam for selective ablation of lateral wall components and of an axial cytoskeletal core that extends from the nucleus to the cell apex. Both the area beneath the subsurface cistemae of the lateral wall and the core are rich in mitochondria. OHCs isolated from guinea pig cochlea are suspended in L- 15 medium containing 2.0 (mu) M Rhodamine 123, a porphyrin with an affinity for mitochondria. A spark-pumped nitrogen laser pumping a dye cell (Coumarin 500) was aligned on the optical axis of a Nikon Optiphot-2 to produce a 3 ns, 0.5 - 10 micrometers spot (diameter above ablation threshold w/50X water immersion, N.A. 0.8), and energy at the target approximately equals 10 (mu) J/pulse. At short incubation times in Rh123 irradiation caused local blebbing or bulging of cytoplastic membrane and thus loss of the OHC's cylindrical shape. At longer Rh123 incubation times when the central axis of the cell was targeted we observed cytoplasmic clearing, immediate cell elongation (approximately equals 5%) and clumping of core material at nuclear and apical attachments. Experiments are underway to examine the significance of these preliminary observations.

  16. ROC Analysis of the Accuracy of Noncycloplegic Retinoscopy, Retinomax Autorefractor, and SureSight Vision Screener for Preschool Vision Screening

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Cyert, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate, by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the accuracy of three instruments of refractive error in detecting eye conditions among 3- to 5-year-old Head Start preschoolers and to evaluate differences in accuracy between instruments and screeners and by age of the child. Methods. Children participating in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (n = 4040), had screening tests administered by pediatric eye care providers (phase I) or by both nurse and lay screeners (phase II). Noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR), the Retinomax Autorefractor (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan), and the SureSight Vision Screener (SureSight, Alpharetta, GA) were used in phase I, and Retinomax and SureSight were used in phase II. Pediatric eye care providers performed a standardized eye examination to identify amblyopia, strabismus, significant refractive error, and reduced visual acuity. The accuracy of the screening tests was summarized by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and compared between instruments and screeners and by age group. Results. The three screening tests had a high AUC for all categories of screening personnel. The AUC for detecting any VIP-targeted condition was 0.83 for NCR, 0.83 (phase I) to 0.88 (phase II) for Retinomax, and 0.86 (phase I) to 0.87 (phase II) for SureSight. The AUC was 0.93 to 0.95 for detecting group 1 (most severe) conditions and did not differ between instruments or screeners or by age of the child. Conclusions. NCR, Retinomax, and SureSight had similar and high accuracy in detecting vision disorders in preschoolers across all types of screeners and age of child, consistent with previously reported results at specificity levels of 90% and 94%. PMID:22125281

  17. In vivo Study of the Accuracy of Dual-arch Impressions

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Luciana Martinelli Santayana; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Junior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated in vivo the accuracy of metal (Smart®) and plastic (Triple Tray®) dual-arch trays used with vinyl polysiloxane (Flexitime®), in the putty/wash viscosity, as well as polyether (Impregum Soft®) in the regular viscosity. Materials and Methods: In one patient, an implant-level transfer was screwed on an implant in the mandibular right first molar, serving as a pattern. Ten impressions were made with each tray and impression material. The impressions were poured with Type IV gypsum. The width and height of the pattern and casts were measured in a profile projector (Nikon). The results were submitted to Student’s t-test for one sample (α = 0.05). Results: For the width distance, the plastic dual-arch trays with vinyl polysiloxane (4.513 mm) and with polyether (4.531 mm) were statistically wider than the pattern (4.489 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane (4.504 mm) and with polyether (4.500 mm) did not differ statistically from the pattern. For the height distance, only the metal dual-arch tray with polyether (2.253 mm) differed statistically from the pattern (2.310 mm). Conclusion: The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane, in the putty/wash viscosities, reproduced casts with less distortion in comparison with the same technique with the plastic dual-arch tray. The plastic or metal dual-arch trays with polyether reproduced cast with greater distortion. How to cite the article: Santayana de Lima LM, Borges GA, Burnett LH Jr, Spohr AM. In vivo study of the accuracy of dual-arch impressions. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):50-5. PMID:25083032

  18. Portable retinal imaging for eye disease screening using a consumer-grade digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, Simon; Larichev, Andrey; Zamora, Gilberto; Soliz, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The development of affordable means to image the retina is an important step toward the implementation of eye disease screening programs. In this paper we present the i-RxCam, a low-cost, hand-held, retinal camera for widespread applications such as tele-retinal screening for eye diseases like diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, and age-related ocular diseases. Existing portable retinal imagers do not meet the requirements of a low-cost camera with sufficient technical capabilities (field of view, image quality, portability, battery power, and ease-of-use) to be distributed widely to low volume clinics, such as the offices of single primary care physicians serving rural communities. The i-RxCam uses a Nikon D3100 digital camera body. The camera has a CMOS sensor with 14.8 million pixels. We use a 50mm focal lens that gives a retinal field of view of 45 degrees. The internal autofocus can compensate for about 2D (diopters) of focusing error. The light source is an LED produced by Philips with a linear emitting area that is transformed using a light pipe to the optimal shape at the eye pupil, an annulus. To eliminate corneal reflex we use a polarization technique in which the light passes through a nano-wire polarizer plate. This is a novel type of polarizer featuring high polarization separation (contrast ratio of more than 1000) and very large acceptance angle (>45 degrees). The i-RxCam approach will yield a significantly more economical retinal imaging device that would allow mass screening of the at-risk population.

  19. Astronomy Legacy Project - Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Thurburn; Castelaz, Michael W.; Rottler, Lee; Cline, J. Donald

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) is a not-for-profit public foundation in North Carolina dedicated to providing hands-on educational and research opportunities for a broad cross-section of users in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines. In November 2007 a Workshop on a National Plan for Preserving Astronomical Photographic Data (2009ASPC,410,33O, Osborn, W. & Robbins, L) was held at PARI. The result was the establishment of the Astronomical Photographic Data Archive (APDA) at PARI. In late 2013 PARI began ALP (Astronomy Legacy Project). ALP's purpose is to digitize an extensive set of twentieth century photographic astronomical data housed in APDA. Because of the wide range of types of plates, plate dimensions and emulsions found among the 40+ collections, plate digitization will require a versatile set of scanners and digitizing instruments. Internet crowdfunding was used to assist in the purchase of additional digitization equipment that were described at AstroPlate2014 Plate Preservation Workshop (www.astroplate.cz) held in Prague, CZ, March, 2014. Equipment purchased included an Epson Expression 11000XL scanner and two Nikon D800E cameras. These digital instruments will compliment a STScI GAMMA scanner now located in APDA. GAMMA will be adapted to use an electroluminescence light source and a digital camera with a telecentric lens to achieve high-speed high-resolution scanning. The 1μm precision XY stage of GAMMA will allow very precise positioning of the plate stage. Multiple overlapping CCD images of small sections of each plate, tiles, will be combined using a photo-mosaic process similar to one used in Harvard's DASCH project. Implementation of a software pipeline for the creation of a SQL database containing plate images and metadata will be based upon APPLAUSE as described by Tuvikene at AstroPlate2014 (www.astroplate.cz/programs/).

  20. Spacer process and alignment assessment for SADP process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattard, L.; McCallum, M.; Morton, R.; Fujiwara, T.; Makino, K.; Tokui, A.; Takahashi, N.; Sasamoto, S.

    2012-03-01

    Self Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) is now widely accepted as a viable technology for the further extension of 193nm immersion lithography towards the 22nm /18nm technology nodes. SADP was primary introduced for the manufacturing of flash memory due to its 1D design geometry. However, SADP is now becoming a main stream technology for advanced technology nodes for logic product. SADP results in alignment marks with reduced image contrast after completion of spacer patterning. Consequently there is an elevated risk that the alignment performance of the cut lithography layer on the spacer [1] may be negatively impacted. Initial studies indicate that it may be necessary to consider new mark designs. In this paper, we will evaluate different types of SADP processes with the alignment system of the Nikon S620D and S621D immersion scanner. We will discuss the performances and the differences observed due to the SADP materials. Included in this study is an intensive characterization of the morphology of the spacer after SADP process. We will use for this a 3D-AFM from Insight, and characterize the spacer profile of the spacer. Using a standard AFM microscope, we can characterize the surface roughness in the inner and the outer part of the wafer. The self aligned spacer process results in asymmetric spacers. Two types of surface (inside and outside) of the spacer are formed. The impact of this asymmetry is also assessed. The roughness difference, between the two parts, will play an important roll in the alignment contrast.

  1. Tunable thin-film optical filters for hyperspectral microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favreau, Peter F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2013-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for use in remote sensing applications. More recently, it has been applied to biological imaging systems, such as fluorescence microscopes. The ability to distinguish molecules based on spectral differences has been especially advantageous for identifying fluorophores in highly autofluorescent tissues. A key component of hyperspectral imaging systems is wavelength filtering. Each filtering technology used for hyperspectral imaging has corresponding advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a new optical filtering technology has been developed that uses multi-layered thin-film optical filters that can be rotated, with respect to incident light, to control the center wavelength of the pass-band. Compared to the majority of tunable filter technologies, these filters have superior optical performance including greater than 90% transmission, steep spectral edges and high out-of-band blocking. Hence, tunable thin-film optical filters present optical characteristics that may make them well-suited for many biological spectral imaging applications. An array of tunable thin-film filters was implemented on an inverted fluorescence microscope (TE 2000, Nikon Instruments) to cover the full visible wavelength range. Images of a previously published model, GFP-expressing endothelial cells in the lung, were acquired using a charge-coupled device camera (Rolera EM-C2, Q-Imaging). This model sample presents fluorescently-labeled cells in a highly autofluorescent environment. Linear unmixing of hyperspectral images indicates that thin-film tunable filters provide equivalent spectral discrimination to our previous acousto-optic tunable filter-based approach, with increased signal-to-noise characteristics. Hence, tunable multi-layered thin film optical filters may provide greatly improved spectral filtering characteristics and therefore enable wider acceptance of hyperspectral widefield microscopy.

  2. Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

    2013-11-01

    The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

  3. Multi-image acquisition-based distance sensor using agile laser spot beam.

    PubMed

    Riza, Nabeel A; Amin, M Junaid

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel laser-based distance measurement technique that uses multiple-image-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared with the first-generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at its minimum beam waist location. The proposed high-resolution distance sensor design uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device, such as a charged-coupled device (CCD), to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL, along with a 20 cm focal length bias lens, and using five spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution, which is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and 3D object shape mapping and imaging. PMID:25321381

  4. Simultaneous vibration and high-speed microscopy to study mechanotransduction in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, David W.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Au, Jen; Beaucage, Kim; Kishimoto, Jessica; Dixon, S. Jeffrey

    2012-03-01

    Cells exhibit the ability to sense and respond to local mechanical stimuli, leading to changes in function. This capability, referred to as mechanotransduction, is essential to normal tissue function, but the exact mechanisms by which cells sense local forces (strain, shear, compression and vibration) remain unclear. Recent studies in small animals and humans indicate that the frequency of cyclic mechanical stimuli is important, with physiological responses observed for stimuli ranging between 1 and 90 Hz. To better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction, it will be important to observe cells in real time, using optical microscopy during high-frequency mechanical stimulation. We have developed a motion-control platform that can produce sinusoidal vibration of live cells during simultaneous high-speed microscopy and fluorimetry, at frequencies up to 100 Hz with peak acceleration up to 9.8 m s-2. The platform is driven by a voice coil and acceleration is measured with an accelerometer (Dytran 7521A1). The motion waveform was verified by high-speed imaging, using a digital camera (Casio EX-F1) operating at 1200 frames s-1 attached to an inverted microscope (Nikon Diaphot). When operating at 45 Hz and 2.94 m s-2 peak acceleration, the observed motion waveform exhibited sinusoidal behaviour, with measured peak-to-peak amplitude of 72 μm. Cultured osteoblast-like cells (UMR-106) were subjected to 2.94 m s-2 vibration at 45 Hz and remained attached and viable. This device provides - for the first time - the capability to mechanically stimulate living cells while simultaneously observing responses with optical microscopy.

  5. A novel multi-digital camera system based on tilt-shift photography technology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Fang, Jun-Yong; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Xue; Tong, Qing-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-digital camera systems (MDCS) are constantly being improved to meet the increasing requirement of high-resolution spatial data. This study identifies the insufficiencies of traditional MDCSs and proposes a new category MDCS based on tilt-shift photography to improve ability of the MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data. A prototype system, including two or four tilt-shift cameras (TSC, camera model: Nikon D90), is developed to validate the feasibility and correctness of proposed MDCS. Similar to the cameras of traditional MDCSs, calibration is also essential for TSC of new MDCS. The study constructs indoor control fields and proposes appropriate calibration methods for TSC, including digital distortion model (DDM) approach and two-step calibrated strategy. The characteristics of TSC are analyzed in detail via a calibration experiment; for example, the edge distortion of TSC. Finally, the ability of the new MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data is verified through flight experiments. The results of flight experiments illustrate that geo-position accuracy of prototype system achieves 0.3 m at a flight height of 800 m, and spatial resolution of 0.15 m. In addition, results of the comparison between the traditional (MADC II) and proposed MDCS demonstrate that the latter (0.3 m) provides spatial data with higher accuracy than the former (only 0.6 m) under the same conditions. We also take the attitude that using higher accuracy TSC in the new MDCS should further improve the accuracy of the photogrammetry senior product. PMID:25835187

  6. Comparison of - and Mutual Informaton Based Calibration of Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Digital Camera for Deformation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidalizarandi, M.; Neumann, I.

    2015-12-01

    In the current state-of-the-art, geodetic deformation analysis of natural and artificial objects (e.g. dams, bridges,...) is an ongoing research in both static and kinematic mode and has received considerable interest by researchers and geodetic engineers. In this work, due to increasing the accuracy of geodetic deformation analysis, a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS; here the Zoller+Fröhlich IMAGER 5006) and a high resolution digital camera (Nikon D750) are integrated to complementarily benefit from each other. In order to optimally combine the acquired data of the hybrid sensor system, a highly accurate estimation of the extrinsic calibration parameters between TLS and digital camera is a vital preliminary step. Thus, the calibration of the aforementioned hybrid sensor system can be separated into three single calibrations: calibration of the camera, calibration of the TLS and extrinsic calibration between TLS and digital camera. In this research, we focus on highly accurate estimating extrinsic parameters between fused sensors and target- and targetless (mutual information) based methods are applied. In target-based calibration, different types of observations (image coordinates, TLS measurements and laser tracker measurements for validation) are utilized and variance component estimation is applied to optimally assign adequate weights to the observations. Space resection bundle adjustment based on the collinearity equations is solved using Gauss-Markov and Gauss-Helmert model. Statistical tests are performed to discard outliers and large residuals in the adjustment procedure. At the end, the two aforementioned approaches are compared and advantages and disadvantages of them are investigated and numerical results are presented and discussed.

  7. Increase of Readability and Accuracy of 3d Models Using Fusion of Close Range Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašparović, M.; Malarić, I.

    2012-07-01

    The development of laser scanning technology has opened a new page in geodesy and enabled an entirely new way of presenting data. Products obtained by the method of laser scanning are used in many sciences, as well as in archaeology. It should be noted that 3D models of archaeological artefacts obtained by laser scanning are fully measurable, written in 1:1 scale and have high accuracy. On the other hand, texture and RGB values of the surface of the object obtained by a laser scanner have lower resolution and poorer radiometric characteristics in relation to the textures captured with a digital camera. Scientific research and the goal of this paper are to increase the accuracy and readability of the 3D model with textures obtained with a digital camera. Laser scanning was performed with triangulation scanner of high accuracy, Vivid 9i (Konica Minolta), while for photogrammetric recording digital camera Nikon D90 with a lens of fixed focal length 20 mm, was used. It is important to stress that a posteriori accuracy score of the global registration of point clouds in the form of the standard deviation was ± 0.136 mm while the average distance was only ± 0.080 mm. Also research has proven that the quality projection texture model increases readability. Recording of archaeological artefacts and making their photorealistic 3D model greatly contributes to archaeology as a science, accelerates processing and reconstruction of the findings. It also allows the presentation of findings to the general public, not just to the experts.

  8. Immersion scanners enabling 10nm half-pitch production and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egashira, Hiroyuki; Uehara, Yusaku; Shirata, Yosuke; Shibazaki, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Jun; Funatsu, Takayuki; Ohba, Masanori

    2014-03-01

    Nikon's new immersion scanner "NSR-S630D" has been developed to deliver enhanced product overlay and CD uniformity while improving productivity at 10 nm half pitch node and beyond. The NSR-S630D is equipped with various advanced technologies. Among them are the new reticle stage with encoder servo control and advanced reticle bending mechanism, new optics with enhanced correction knobs for thermal aberration control, and advanced thermally stable wafer stage; all of which are key components to providing the best scanner solution to meet the requirements for 10 nm half pitch node and beyond. In this paper, we describe the NSR-630D development concept and the latest performance data at factory. One of the key factors in improving overlay is shot distortion; in order to improve shot distortion, the NSR-S630D is equipped with a newly developed state-of-the-art projection lens. The overall overlay improvements have been made possible not only by minimizing lens distortion through advancements in lens manufacturing techniques, but also by reducing thermal distortion, which is especially important in actual device production. In addition, we have also added a new function for more effective reticle heating distortion compensation. In order to improve wafer grid performance, we newly designed a wafer table with enhanced thermal stability. We have also further improved the reticle bending system in order to minimize the field curvature induced by projection lens thermal aberration. The new features described above, in addition to the matured Streamlign platform, have enabled the NSR-S630D to deliver highest accuracy and stability.

  9. Solutions with precise prediction for thermal aberration error in low-k1 immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Kazuya; Mimotogi, Akiko; Kono, Takuya; Aoyama, Hajime; Ogata, Taro; Kita, Naonori; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki

    2013-04-01

    Thermal aberration becomes a serious problem in the production of semiconductors for which low-k1 immersion lithography with a strong off-axis illumination, such as dipole setting, is used. The illumination setting localizes energy of the light in the projection lens, bringing about localized temperature rise. The temperature change varies lens refractive index and thus generates aberrations. The phenomenon is called thermal aberration. For realizing manufacturability of fine patterns with high productivity, thermal aberration control is important. Since heating areas in the projection lens are determined by source shape and distribution of diffracted light by a mask, the diffracted pupilgram convolving illumination source shape with diffraction distribution can be calculated using mask layout data for the thermal aberration prediction. Thermal aberration is calculated as a function of accumulated irradiation power. We have evaluated the thermal aberration computational prediction and control technology "Thermal Aberration Optimizer" (ThAO) on a Nikon immersion system. The thermal aberration prediction consists of two steps. The first step is prediction of the diffraction map on the projection pupil. The second step is computing thermal aberration from the diffraction map using a lens thermal model and an aberration correction function. We performed a verification test for ThAO using a mask of 1x-nm memory and strong off-axis illumination. We clarified the current performance of thermal aberration prediction, and also confirmed that the impacts of thermal aberration of NSR-S621D on CD and overlay for our 1x-nm memory pattern are very small. Accurate thermal aberration prediction with ThAO will enable thermal aberration risk-free lithography for semiconductor chip production.

  10. Microscopic Observation of Self-Propagation of Calcifying Nanoparticles (Nanobacteria)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Grace; McKay, David S.; Ciftcioglu, Neva

    2007-01-01

    Biologists typically define living organisms as carbon and water-based cellular forms with :self-replication" as the fundamental trait of the life process. However, this standard dictionary definition of life does not help scientists to categorize self-replicators like viruses, prions, proteons and artificial life. CNP also named nanobacteria were discovered in early 1990s as about 100 nanometer-sized bacteria-like particles with unique apatite mineral-shells around them, and found to be associated with pathological-calcification related diseases. Although CNP have been isolated and cultured from mammalian blood and diseased calcified tissues, and their biomineralizing properties well established, their biological nature and self-replicating capability have always been severely challenged. The terms "self-replication", "self-assembly" or "self-propagation" have been widely used for all systems including nanomachines, crystals, computer viruses and memes. In a simple taxonomy, all biological and non-biological "self replicators", have been classified into "living" or "nonliving" based on the properties of the systems and the amount of support they require to self-replicate. To enhance our understanding about self-replicating nature of CNP, we have investigated their growth in specific culture conditions using conventional inverted light microscope and BioStation IM, Nikon s latest time-lapse imaging system. Their morphological structure was examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. This present study, in conjunction with previous findings of metabolic activity, antibiotic sensitivity, antibody specificity, morphological aspects and infectivity, all concomitantly validate CNP as living self-replicators.

  11. Image selection in photogrammetric multi-view stereo methods for metric and complete 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseininaveh Ahmadabadian, Ali; Robson, Stuart; Boehm, Jan; Shortis, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Multi-View Stereo (MVS) as a low cost technique for precise 3D reconstruction can be a rival for laser scanners if the scale of the model is resolved. A fusion of stereo imaging equipment with photogrammetric bundle adjustment and MVS methods, known as photogrammetric MVS, can generate correctly scaled 3D models without using any known object distances. Although a huge number of stereo images (e.g. 200 high resolution images from a small object) captured of the object contains redundant data that allows detailed and accurate 3D reconstruction, the capture and processing time is increased when a vast amount of high resolution images are employed. Moreover, some parts of the object are often missing due to the lack of coverage of all areas. These problems demand a logical selection of the most suitable stereo camera views from the large image dataset. This paper presents a method for clustering and choosing optimal stereo or optionally single images from a large image dataset. The approach focusses on the two key steps of image clustering and iterative image selection. The method is developed within a software application called Imaging Network Designer (IND) and tested by the 3D recording of a gearbox and three metric reference objects. A comparison is made between IND and CMVS, which is a free package for selecting vantage images. The final 3D models obtained from the IND and CMVS approaches are compared with datasets generated with an MMDx Nikon Laser scanner. Results demonstrate that IND can provide a better image selection for MVS than CMVS in terms of surface coordinate uncertainty and completeness.

  12. Project support of practical training in biophysics.

    PubMed

    Mornstein, V; Vlk, D; Forytkova, L

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Biophysics ensures practical training in biophysics and related subjects for students of medical and health study programmes. Demonstrations of medical technology are an important part of this training. Teaching for Faculty of Sciences in biophysical study programmes becomes also very important. Some lectures and demonstrations of technology are involved, but the practical trainig is missing. About 1 mil. CZK for additional laboratory equipment was obtained from the HEIDF project No. 1866/ 2005 "The demonstration and measuring technology for education in medical biophysics and radiological physics" for measuring system DEWETRON for high frequency signal analysis, Fluke Ti30 IR camera, PM 9000B patient monitor, ARSENAL AF 1 fluorescence microscope, and Nikon Coolpix 4500 digital camera with accessories for microphotography. At the present time, further financial resources are being provided by a development project of Ministry of Education "Inter-university co-operation in biomedical technology and engineering using top technologies" in total amount of almost 5 mil CZK, whereas over 2 mil CZK from this project are reserved for student laboratory equipment. The main goal of this project is to ensure the participation of Medical Faculty in educational co-operation in the biomedical technology and engineering, namely with the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication (FEEC), Brno University of Technology. There will be taught those areas of biophysics which are not covered by FEEC, thus forming a separate subject "General Biophysics". The following instruments will be installed: UV-VIS spectrophotometers, rotation viscometers, tensiometers, microscopes with digital image processing, cooled centrifuge, optical benches, and some smaller instruments for practical measurements. PMID:17125070

  13. Application of terrestrial 'structure-from-motion' photogrammetry on a medium-size Arctic valley glacier: potential, accuracy and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynek, Bernhard; Binder, Daniel; Boffi, Geo; Schöner, Wolfgang; Verhoeven, Geert

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial photogrammetry was the standard method for mapping high mountain terrain in the early days of mountain cartography, until it was replaced by aerial photogrammetry and airborne laser scanning. Modern low-price digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras and highly automatic and cheap digital computer vision software with automatic image matching and multiview-stereo routines suggest the rebirth of terrestrial photogrammetry, especially in remote regions, where airborne surveying methods are expensive due to high flight costs. Terrestrial photogrammetry and modern automated image matching is widely used in geodesy, however, its application in glaciology is still rare, especially for surveying ice bodies at the scale of some km², which is typical for valley glaciers. In August 2013 a terrestrial photogrammetric survey was carried out on Freya Glacier, a 6km² valley glacier next to Zackenberg Research Station in NE-Greenland, where a detailed glacier mass balance monitoring was initiated during the last IPY. Photos with a consumer grade digital camera (Nikon D7100) were taken from the ridges surrounding the glacier. To create a digital elevation model, the photos were processed with the software photoscan. A set of ~100 dGPS surveyed ground control points on the glacier surface was used to georeference and validate the final DEM. Aim of this study was to produce a high resolution and high accuracy DEM of the actual surface topography of the Freya glacier catchment with a novel approach and to explore the potential of modern low-cost terrestrial photogrammetry combined with state-of-the-art automated image matching and multiview-stereo routines for glacier monitoring and to communicate this powerful and cheap method within the environmental research and glacier monitoring community.

  14. Quality of DEMs derived from Kite Aerial Photogrammety System: a case study of Dutch coastal environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; Smith, Mike J.; Anders, Niels; Meesuk, Vorawit

    2014-05-01

    Coastal protection is one of the main challenges for the Netherlands, where a large proportion of anthropogenic activity is located below sea level (both residential and economic). The Dutch government is implementing an innovative method of coastal replenishment using natural waves and winds to relocate sand from one side to the other of the country. This requires close monitoring of the spatio-temporal evolution of beaches in order to correctly model the future direction and amount of sand movement. To do so -on the onshore beach- we tested a Kite-Aerial Photography System for monitoring the beach dynamics at Zandmotor (http://www.dezandmotor.nl/en-GB/). The equipment used for data collection were a commercial DSLR camera (Nikon D7000 with a 20mm lens), gyro-levelled rig, Sutton Flowform 16 kite and Leica GNSS Viva GS10, with GSM connection to the Dutch geodetic network. We flew using a 115 m line with an average inclination of 40 to 45°; this gave a camera vertical distance of ~80 m and pixel size of ~20 mm. The methodology follows that of Smith et al. (2009), and of Paron & Smith (2013), applied to a highly dynamic environment with low texture and small relief conditions. Here we present a comparison of the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM) generated from the same dataset using two different systems: Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft Photoscan Pro and traditional photogrammetry using Leica Photograpmmetry Suite. In addition the outputs from the two data processing methods are presented, including both an image mosaic and DEM, and highlighting pros and cons of both methods. References Smith, M. J. et al. 2009. High spatial resolution data acquisition for the geosciences: kite aerial photography. ESPL, 34(1), 155-161. Paron, P., Smith, M.J. 2013. Kite aerial photogrammetry system for monitoring coastal change in the Netherlands. 8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology, Paris, August.

  15. The influence of urban area opacity on biologically active UV-B irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarova, Nataly; Rozental', Victor

    2013-04-01

    The study of UV irradiance changes in urban area is an essential problem due to the significant effect of UV irradiance on human health which can be positive (vitamin D synthesis) and negative (erythema, skin cancer, eye damage). According to the results of several experiments within the Moscow megacity we studied the effects of urban area opacity on the different types of biologically active UV-B irradiance on the base of a specially developed mobile photometric complex snd additional measurements of the urban opacity by Nikon Fisheye Converter FC-E8. We analyzed both the level of erythemally-active irradiance and the UV eye damaging radiation using the broadband UVB-1 YES pyranometer calibrated against ultraviolet spectroradiometer Bentham DTM-300 of the Medical University of Innsbruck (courtesy of Dr. M.Blumthaler). In order to estimate the effects of the urban opacity the measurements were normalized on similar measurements at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University with zero opacity. This ratio is defined as an urban radiative transmittance (URT). Different atmospheric conditions were considered. In cloudy conditions the effect of opacity on URT is much less than that in conditions when the sun disk is open from clouds. We revealed some spectral features in transmittance of biologically active UV-B irradiance which is characterized by higher URT variations in overcast cloudy conditions due to more intensive scattering and smaller direct solar radiation component. In the absence of cloudiness the effect of opacity was studied for open and screening solar disk conditions. We obtained much higher URT in UVB spectral region compared with that for total solar irradiance for screening solar disk conditions with a significant URT dependence on the opacity only in UVB spectral region. No URT dependence was obtained for total solar irradiance in these conditions. Some model calculations were fulfilled to match the experimental results.

  16. Expression of GFP in tumor cells and fluorescent examination by confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Ying; Xing, Da; Xu, Chaoyang

    2002-04-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP), from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria, yields a bright green fluorescence when expressed in either eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells and illuminated by blue or UV light. The characteristic properties of GFP make this protein a good candidate for use as a molecular reporter to monitor patterns of protein localization, gene expression, and intracellular protein trafficking in living cells. In this study, the plasmid EGFP encoding GFP was used to transfect SWO cells (a cancer cell line of nerve gelatinous tissue) mediated by liposome: (1) The plasmid EGFP-C1, purchased from Clontech Co., propagated in suitable E. coli strain (JM 109), was extracted by Concert High Purity Plasmid Miniprep (Gibco). (2) SWO was cultured in RPMI 1640 (10% FCS and 25 mM HEPES), 37 degree(s)C, 5% CO2. Cancer cells were transfected in 6-cm tissue culture dishes by Lipofectin Reagent (Gibco) for 6-12 hr using 2 ug DNA. (3) Then, infected cells were collected in medium containing 800 ug/ml G418, and the resistant clones were harvested and subcloned in fresh culture medium maintaining 800 ug/ml G418. (4) The cells were examined by using Nikon fluorescent microscope (E600) and Bio-Rad confocal microscope (MRC 600). (5) Next step, the cancer cells, stably expressing GFP after in vivo transduction, were implanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) in nude mice. Tracking of these cancer cells will become more sensitive and rapid than the traditional procedure of histopathological examination or immunohistochemistry. This method demonstrates external, noninvasive, whole-body, real-time fluorescence optical imaging of internally growing tumors and metastases in transplanted animals.

  17. Pore space connectivity and porosity using CT scans of tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previatello da Silva, Livia; de Jong Van Lier, Quirijn

    2015-04-01

    Microtomography has been used in soil physics for characterization and allows non-destructive analysis with high-resolution, yielding a three-dimensional representation of pore space and fluid distribution. It also allows quantitative characterization of pore space, including pore size distribution, shape, connectivity, porosity, tortuosity, orientation, preferential pathways and is also possible predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity using Darcy's equation and a modified Poiseuille's equation. Connectivity of pore space is an important topological property of soil. Together with porosity and pore-size distribution, it governs transport of water, solutes and gases. In order to quantify and analyze pore space (quantifying connectivity of pores and porosity) of four tropical soils from Brazil with different texture and land use, undisturbed samples were collected in São Paulo State, Brazil, with PVC ring with 7.5 cm in height and diameter of 7.5 cm, depth of 10 - 30 cm from soil surface. Image acquisition was performed with a CT system Nikon XT H 225, with technical specifications of dual reflection-transmission target system including a 225 kV, 225 W high performance Xray source equipped with a reflection target with pot size of 3 μm combined with a nano-focus transmission module with a spot size of 1 μm. The images were acquired at specific energy level for each soil type, according to soil texture, and external copper filters were used in order to allow the attenuation of low frequency X-ray photons and passage of one monoenergetic beam. This step was performed aiming minimize artifacts such as beam hardening that may occur during the attenuation in the material interface with different densities within the same sample. Images were processed and analyzed using ImageJ/Fiji software. Retention curve (tension table and the pressure chamber methods), saturated hydraulic conductivity (constant head permeameter), granulometry, soil density and particle density

  18. Development status of EUV resist materials and processing at Selete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Kentaro; Shiraishi, Gousuke; Santillian, Julius Joseph; Kaneyama, Koji; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Itani, Toshiro

    2011-04-01

    The Selete R&D program evaluates the feasibility of the Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography process for manufacturing semiconductor devices. We therefore conducted a yield analysis of hp-2x-nm test chips by using the EUV1 (Nikon) full-field exposure tool. However, the resist performance did not comply with the stringent requirements of ultimate resolution, sensitivity, and line-width roughness. We subsequently reported two new Selete standard resists (SSRs), i.e., SSR6 and SSR7. SSR6 is the polymer resist used in hp-2x-nm test chip evaluation in which an ultimate resolution of 22 nm line-and-space (L/S) pattern was achieved. SSR7 is the first molecular resist that was evaluated for feasibility at Selete. SSR7 is a fullerene based resist with strong etching durability. By using this resist, an ultimate resolution of 24 nm L/S pattern was achieved. We have also evaluated resist processing by using SSRs for hp-2x-nm test chip evaluation. An ultrathin underlayer was evaluated for the improvement of pattern transferability. This optimized ultrathin underlayer was coated on the test chip substrate that was devoid of nano-sized-pinholes, and a fine pattern was observed on this ultrathin underlayer. In the evaluation of the development process, SSRs were evaluated with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) developer solutions. In summary, it was clear that the lithographic performance improvement varies depending on the type of polymer resist used with a particular developer solution. Furthermore, a significant improvement in the prevention of pattern collapse was demonstrated using a combination of the TBAH developer solution and alternative rinse solutions.

  19. Digital stereo photogrammetry for grain-scale monitoring of fluvial surfaces: Error evaluation and workflow optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, Stephane; Friedrich, Heide; Delmas, Patrice; Chan, Edwin; Gimel'farb, Georgy

    2015-03-01

    Grain-scale monitoring of fluvial morphology is important for the evaluation of river system dynamics. Significant progress in remote sensing and computer performance allows rapid high-resolution data acquisition, however, applications in fluvial environments remain challenging. Even in a controlled environment, such as a laboratory, the extensive acquisition workflow is prone to the propagation of errors in digital elevation models (DEMs). This is valid for both of the common surface recording techniques: digital stereo photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The optimisation of the acquisition process, an effective way to reduce the occurrence of errors, is generally limited by the use of commercial software. Therefore, the removal of evident blunders during post processing is regarded as standard practice, although this may introduce new errors. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of a digital stereo-photogrammetric workflow developed for fluvial hydraulic applications. The introduced workflow is user-friendly and can be adapted to various close-range measurements: imagery is acquired with two Nikon D5100 cameras and processed using non-proprietary "on-the-job" calibration and dense scanline-based stereo matching algorithms. Novel ground truth evaluation studies were designed to identify the DEM errors, which resulted from a combination of calibration errors, inaccurate image rectifications and stereo-matching errors. To ensure optimum DEM quality, we show that systematic DEM errors must be minimised by ensuring a good distribution of control points throughout the image format during calibration. DEM quality is then largely dependent on the imagery utilised. We evaluated the open access multi-scale Retinex algorithm to facilitate the stereo matching, and quantified its influence on DEM quality. Occlusions, inherent to any roughness element, are still a major limiting factor to DEM accuracy. We show that a careful selection of the camera

  20. Winter sky brightness & cloud cover over Dome A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Moore, A. M.; Fu, J.; Ashley, M.; Cui, X.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hu, Z.; Laurence, J.; LuongVan, D.; Riddle, R. L.; Shang, Z.; Sims, G.; Storey, J.; Tothill, N.; Travouillon, T.; Wang, L.; Yang, H.; Yang, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.; Burton, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    At the summit of the Antarctic plateau, Dome A offers an intriguing location for future large scale optical astronomical Observatories. The Gattini DomeA project was created to measure the optical sky brightness and large area cloud cover of the winter-time sky above this high altitude Antarctic site. The wide field camera and multi-filter system was installed on the PLATO instrument module as part of the Chinese-led traverse to Dome A in January 2008. This automated wide field camera consists of an Apogee U4000 interline CCD coupled to a Nikon fish-eye lens enclosed in a heated container with glass window. The system contains a filter mechanism providing a suite of standard astronomical photometric filters (Bessell B, V, R), however, the absence of tracking systems, together with the ultra large field of view 85 degrees) and strong distortion have driven us to seek a unique way to build our data reduction pipeline. We present here the first measurements of sky brightness in the photometric B, V, and R band, cloud cover statistics measured during the 2009 winter season and an estimate of the transparency. In addition, we present example light curves for bright targets to emphasize the unprecedented observational window function available from this ground-based location. A ~0.2 magnitude agreement of our simultaneous test at Palomar Observatory with NSBM(National Sky Brightness Monitor), as well as an 0.04 magnitude photometric accuracy for typical 6th magnitude stars limited by the instrument design, indicating we obtained reasonable results based on our ~7mm effective aperture fish-eye lens.

  1. Prediction of the weight of Alaskan pollock using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Murat O; Chombeau, Melanie; Cırban, Dilşat; Gümüş, Bahar

    2010-10-01

    Determining the size and quality attributes of fish by machine vision is gaining acceptance and increasing use in the seafood industry. Objectivity, speed, and record keeping are advantages in using this method. The objective of this work was to develop the mathematical correlations to predict the weight of whole Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) based on its view area from a camera. One hundred and sixty whole Pollock were obtained fresh, within 2 d after catch from a Kodiak, Alaska, processing plant. The fish were first weighed, then placed in a light box equipped with a Nikon D200 digital camera. A reference square of known surface area was placed by the fish. The obtained image was analyzed to calculate the view area of each fish. The following equations were used to fit the view area (X) compared with weight (Y) data: linear, power, and 2nd-order polynomial. The power fit (Y = A · X(B)) gave the highest R(2) for the fit (0.99). The effect of fins and tail on the accuracy of the weight prediction using view area were evaluated. Removing fins and tails did not improve prediction accuracy. Machine vision can accurately predict the weight of whole Pollock. Practical Application: The weight of Alaskan Pollock can be predicted automatically by taking the image of the fish and using it in one of the correlations developed in this study. The removal of the fins or the fins and the tail did not increase the prediction accuracy of the method. Therefore, intact fish images should be used. PMID:21535495

  2. Microfabrication of a two-stage BioMEMS microfluidic cell sorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafton, Meggie M.; Geheb, Benjamin; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Chuang, Han-Sheng; Rajdev, Pooja; Reece, Lisa M.; Irazoqui, Pedro P.; Wereley, Steven T.; Jung, Byunghoo; Leary, James F.

    2009-02-01

    Point-of-care devices represent the future for medical technologies. Current diagnostic tools are cumbersome, expensive, complicated, and often at risk for contamination. There is a need for cost effective, portable, closed-system, high-speed cell screening and cell isolating device. A microfabricated, exponentially-staging, BioMEMS microfluidic cytometer/cell sorting device offers these advantages over current technologies. A two-stage branched architecture allows the study of inter-particle spacing, flow relations, pressure measurements, and cell behavior in an environment where fluorescence detection is used to identify and analyze certain cellular characteristics. This device was microfabricated using the polymer PDMS to transmit light effectively, to be inexpensive and disposable, and to be easy to manipulate. For initial prototyping, an inverted fluorescent Nikon microscope provided the necessary excitation to view the particles and cells. For the portable device, avalanche photo diodes (APDs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being incorporated into the device for the detection and excitation respectively. For low light level applications, sigma-delta modulation methods are being applied to reduce noise susceptibility and to detect the APD signal more efficiently. In addition, a data acquisition system (DAQ) has been designed that can effectively track signals from a cell sorter using a digital signal processing (DSP) board and a laptop computer. Currently elastomeric valves for diverting flow have been incorporated into the microfluidic chip. Measurements are being made of the effects of the microfluidics valve structures, or the simple opening and closing of selected channels to divert flow and cells down specific channels depending on their measured properties.

  3. Three Dimensional Imaging of Paraffin Embedded Human Lung Tissue Samples by Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Anna E.; Vasilescu, Dragos M.; Seal, Katherine A. D.; Keyes, Samuel D.; Mavrogordato, Mark N.; Hogg, James C.; Sinclair, Ian; Warner, Jane A.; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Lackie, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) micro-architecture of lung tissue can provide insights into the pathology of lung disease. Micro computed tomography (µCT) has previously been used to elucidate lung 3D histology and morphometry in fixed samples that have been stained with contrast agents or air inflated and dried. However, non-destructive microstructural 3D imaging of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues would facilitate retrospective analysis of extensive tissue archives of lung FFPE lung samples with linked clinical data. Methods FFPE human lung tissue samples (n = 4) were scanned using a Nikon metrology µCT scanner. Semi-automatic techniques were used to segment the 3D structure of airways and blood vessels. Airspace size (mean linear intercept, Lm) was measured on µCT images and on matched histological sections from the same FFPE samples imaged by light microscopy to validate µCT imaging. Results The µCT imaging protocol provided contrast between tissue and paraffin in FFPE samples (15mm x 7mm). Resolution (voxel size 6.7 µm) in the reconstructed images was sufficient for semi-automatic image segmentation of airways and blood vessels as well as quantitative airspace analysis. The scans were also used to scout for regions of interest, enabling time-efficient preparation of conventional histological sections. The Lm measurements from µCT images were not significantly different to those from matched histological sections. Conclusion We demonstrated how non-destructive imaging of routinely prepared FFPE samples by laboratory µCT can be used to visualize and assess the 3D morphology of the lung including by morphometric analysis. PMID:26030902

  4. Comparative study of i-line and DUV lithography for 0.35 um and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakone, Nandasiri; Chang, Wayne H.; Tandberg, Erik; Elliot, Christina; Wang, Timothy Y.

    1995-05-01

    New I-line resists are claimed to be usable at 0.35 micrometers design rules. We have examined the suitability of several such materials (JSR IX750, Sumitomo PFi-38a, OCG RX64I) for this purpose and compared them with our production 0.5 micrometers resist, JSR IX700. A variety of criteria have been used, including the measured focus exposure windows at e-min and e-max, DOF vs. CD for grouped and isolated lines as well as contacts, linearity, and proximity response as a function of pitch. A limited study has been done on the impact of embedded phase shift reticles on printing small geometry contacts. We report upon the process improvements observed with two different reticle transmissions, their impact on isofocal bias, as well as the issue of sidelobe formation. Proponents of DUV claim that modern DUV materials exhibit significant advantages in terms of process window and more over are applicable to smaller geometries without the need for supplementary techniques such as phase shifting or modified illumination. In this study, we have examined the performance of a number of DUV materials (BASF ST3.5, OCG ARCH, JSR KRFL2 and an as yet experimental JSR resists) on ASM-L and Nikon excimer laser steppers. Limited results were also obtained using Shipley 2408 and dyed XP-9444 (0.8) on the SVG Micrascan II. Our studies conclude with a comparison of the CD swing observed over a variety of chemically mechanically planarized steps. This has been done for selected I-line and DUV resists with the aid of a TAR or BARC or as in the case of the broad band SVG system either a BARC or a dyed resist.

  5. Evaluation of two novel methods for assessing intracellular oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Kombrabail, M.; Vijayalakshmi, K.; White, Nick; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Lloyd, David

    2012-08-01

    The ability to resolve the spatio-temporal complexity of intracellular O2 distribution is the ‘Holy Grail’ of cellular physiology. In an effort to obtain a non-invasive approach of mapping intracellular O2 tensions, two methods of phosphorescent lifetime imaging microscopy were examined in the current study. These were picosecond time-resolved epiphosphorescence microscopy (single 0.5 µm focused spot) and two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy with pinhole shifting. Both methods utilized nanoparticle-embedded Ru complex (45 nm diameter) as the phosphorescent probe, excited using pulsed outputs of Ti-sapphire Tsunami lasers (710-1050 nm). The former method used a 1 ps pulse width excitation beam with vertical polarization via a dichroic mirror (610 nm, XF43) and a 20× objective (NA 0.55, Nikon). Transmitted luminescence (1-2 × 104 counts s-1) was collected and time-correlated single photon counted decay times measured. Alternatively, an unmodified Zeiss LSM510 Confocal NLO microscope with 40× objective (NA 1.3) used successively shifted pinhole positions to collect image data from the lagging trail of the raster scan. Images obtained from two-photon excitation of a yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and a flagellate fish parasite (Spironucleus vortens), electroporated with Ru complex, indicated the intracellular location and magnitude of O2 gradients, thus confirming the feasibility of optical mapping under different external O2 concentrations. Both methods gave similar lifetimes for Ru complex phosphorescence under aerobic and anaerobic gas phases. Estimation of O2 tensions within individual fibroblasts (human dermal fibroblast (HDF)) and mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells was possible using epiphosphorescence microscopy. MCF-7 cells showed lower intracellular O2 concentrations than HDF cells, possibly due to higher metabolic rates in the former. Future work should involve construction of higher resolution 3D maps of Ru coordinate complex lifetime

  6. Three-dimensional measurement of cAMP gradients using hyperspectral confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel; Favreau, Peter F.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions over a wide range of timescales. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform, and that cAMP compartmentalization is largely responsible for signaling specificity within the cAMP signaling pathway. However, to date, no studies have experimentally measured three dimensional (3D) cAMP distributions within cells. Here we use both 2D and 3D hyperspectral microscopy to visualize cAMP gradients in endothelial cells from the pulmonary microvasculature (PMVECs). cAMP levels were measured using a FRETbased cAMP sensor comprised of a cAMP binding domain from EPAC sandwiched between FRET donors and acceptors -- Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. Data were acquired using either a Nikon A1R spectral confocal microscope or custom spectral microscopy system. Analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from a single confocal slice or from summed images of all slices (2D analysis) indicated little or no cAMP gradients were formed within PMVECs under basal conditions or following agonist treatment. However, analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from 3D cellular geometries (z stacks) demonstrate marked cAMP gradients from the apical to basolateral membrane of PMVECs. These results strongly suggest that 2D imaging studies of cAMP compartmentalization -- whether epifluorescence or confocal microscopy -- may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity.

  7. Using small unmanned aerial vehicle for instream habitat evaluation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Luca; Vezza, Paolo; Comoglio, Claudio; Lingua, Andrea; Spairani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in digital image collection and processing have led to the increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for river research and management. In this paper, we assess the capabilities of a small UAV to characterize physical habitat for fish in three river stretches of North-Western Italy. The main aim of the study was identifying the advantages and challenges of this technology for environmental river management, in the context of the increasing river exploitation for hydropower production. The UAV used to acquire overlapping images was a small quadcopter with a two different high-resolution (non-metric) cameras (Nikon J1™ and Go-Pro Hero 3 Black Edition™). The quadcopter was preprogrammed to fly set waypoints using a small tablet PC. With the acquired imagery, we constructed a 5-cm resolution orthomosaic image and a digital surface model (DSM). The two products were used to map the distribution of aquatic and riparian habitat features, i.e., wetted area, morphological unit distributions, bathymetry, water surface gradient, substrates and grain sizes, shelters and cover for fish. The study assessed the quality of collected data and used such information to identify key reach-scale metrics and important aspects of fluvial morphology and aquatic habitat. The potential and limitations of using UAV for physical habitat survey were evaluated and the collected data were used to initialize and run common habitat simulation tools (MesoHABSIM). Several advantages of using UAV-based imagery were found, including low cost procedures, high resolution and efficiency in data collection. However, some challenges were identified for bathymetry extraction (vegetation obstructions, white waters, turbidity) and grain size assessment (preprocessing of data and automatic object detection). The application domain and possible limitation for instream habitat mapping were defined and will be used as a reference for future studies. Ongoing activities include the

  8. Are sectioning and soldering of short-span implant-supported prostheses necessary procedures?

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Marco A; Souza, João G O; Souza, Dircilene C; Magini, Ricardo S; Benfatti, Cesar A M; Cardoso, Antonio C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fit between dental abutments and the metal framework of a 3-unit fixed prosthesis screwed to two implants to determine whether sectioning and soldering of the framework are in fact necessary procedures. The study was based on a model of a metal framework of a 3-unit prosthesis screwed to two implants. A total of 18 metal frameworks were constructed and divided into 3 groups: (1) NS group - each framework was cast in one piece and not sectioned; (2) CS group - the components of each sectioned framework were joined by conventional soldering; and (3) LW group - the components of each sectioned framework were joined by laser welding. The control group consisted of six silver-palladium alloy copings that were not cast together. Two analyses were mperformed: in the first analysis, the framework was screwed only to the first abutment, and in the second analysis, the framework was screwed to both abutments. The prosthetic fit was assessed at a single point using a measuring microscope (Measurescope, Nikon, Japan) and the marginal gap was measured in micrometers. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffe's test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. The NS group had larger marginal gaps than the other groups (p<0.01), while the CS and LW groups had a similar degree of misfit with no significant difference between them. The results revealed that, in the case of short-span 3-unit fixed prostheses, the framework should be sectioned and soldered or welded to prevent or reduce marginal gaps between the metal framework and dental abutments. PMID:22010402

  9. Total lithography system based on a new application software platform enabling smart scanner management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Hirotaka; Masaki, Kazuo; Matsuyama, Tomoyuki; Wakamoto, Shinji; Park, Seemoon; Sugihara, Taro; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Along with device shrinkage, higher accuracy will continuously be required from photo-lithography tools in order to enhance on-product yield. In order to achieve higher yield, the advanced photo-lithography tools must be equipped with sophisticated tuning knobs on the tool and with software that is flexible enough to be applied per layer. This means photo-lithography tools must be capable of handling many types of sub-recipes and parameters simultaneously. To enable managing such a large amount of data easily and to setup lithography tools smoothly, we have developed a total lithography system called Litho Turnkey Solution based on a new software application platform, which we call Plug and Play Manager (PPM). PPM has its own graphical user interface, which enables total management of various data. Here various data means recipes, sub-recipes, tuning-parameters, measurement results, and so on. Through PPM, parameter making by intelligent applications such as CDU/Overlay tuning tools can easily be implemented. In addition, PPM is also linked to metrology tools and the customer's host computer, which enables data flow automation. Based on measurement data received from the metrology tools, PPM calculates correction parameters and sends them to the scanners automatically. This scheme can make calibration feedback loops possible. It should be noted that the abovementioned functions are running on the same platform through a user-friendly interface. This leads to smart scanner management and usability improvement. In this paper, we will demonstrate the latest development status of Nikon's total lithography solution based on PPM; describe details of each application; and provide supporting data for the accuracy and usability of the system. Keywords: exposure

  10. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) promotes collagen fibre deposition associated with increased myofibroblast population in the early healing phase of diabetic wound.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ming-Chun; Cheung, Kwok-Kuen; Li, Xiaohui; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of PEMF on collagen fibre deposition, collagen fibril alignment and collagen fibre orientation. The potential relationships between collagen fibre deposition and myofibroblast population in diabetic wound healing were also examined. Forty young male streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to PEMF group or control group. 2 cm × 2 cm square wounds were made at their back. The PEMF group received daily exposure of PEMF to the wounds, while control group was handled in the same manner except that the PEMF device was not activated. Wound tissues harvested on post-wounding day 7, 10 and 14 were fixed, processed and sectioned. The abundance, fibril alignment and fibre orientation of type I collagen were quantified with picro-sirius polarization method and image analysis software (Nikon NIS Element AR). Myofibroblast population data were adopted from our previous study. Correlation between myofibroblast population and collagen fibre deposition was examined. There was significantly greater abundance of type I collagen fibre in the PEMF group than in the control on day 7 (P = .013), but not on day 10 or 14. No significant between-group differences were found in collagen fibril alignment and collagen fibre orientation at any measured time points. Positive correlation was found between collagen fibre deposition and myofibroblast population only on day 7 (r = .729, P = .007). In conclusion, PEMF can significantly increase collagen fibre in the early phase of diabetic wound healing, which is associated with the enhancement of myofibroblast population. PMID:26511857

  11. Observations of eruption clouds from Sakura-zima volcano, Kyushu, Japan from Skylab 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.D.; Heiken, G.; Randerson, D.; McKay, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    Hasselblad and Nikon stereographic photographs taken from Skylab between 9 June 1973 and 1 February 1974 give synoptic plan views of several entire eruption clouds emanating from Sakura-zima volcano in Kagoshima Bay, Kyushu, Japan. Analytical plots of these stereographic pairs, studied in combination with meteorological data, indicate that the eruption clouds did not penetrate the tropopause and thus did not create a stratospheric dust veil of long residence time. A horizontal eddy diffusivity of the order of 106 cm2 s-1 and a vertical eddy diffusivity of the order of 105 cm2 s-1 were calculated from the observed plume dimensions and from available meteorological data. These observations are the first, direct evidence that explosive eruption at an estimated energy level of about 1018 ergs per paroxysm may be too small under atmospheric conditions similar to those prevailing over Sakura-zima for volcanic effluents to penetrate low-level tropospheric temperature inversions and, consequently, the tropopause over northern middle latitudes. Maximum elevation of the volcanic clouds was determined to be 3.4 km. The cumulative thermal energy release in the rise of volcanic plumes for 385 observed explosive eruptions was estimated to be 1020 to 1021 ergs (1013 to 1014 J), but the entire thermal energy release associated with pyroclastic activity may be of the order of 2.5 ?? 1022 ergs (2.5 ?? 1015 J). Estimation of the kinetic energy component of explosive eruptions via satellite observation and meteorological consideration of eruption clouds is thus useful in volcanology as an alternative technique to confirm the kinetic energy estimates made by ground-based geological and geophysical methods, and to aid in construction of physical models of potential and historical tephra-fallout sectors with implications for volcano-hazard prediction. ?? 1976.

  12. Challenge of 1-Gb DRAM development when using optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Ronald; Samuels, Donald J.; Thomas, Alan C.; Ferguson, Richard A.; Molless, Antoinette F.; Wong, Alfred K. K.; Conley, Will; Wheeler, Donald C.; Credendino, Santo; Naeem, Munir; Hoh, Peter; Lu, Zhijian G.

    1997-07-01

    The traditional lithographic approach employed by the semiconductor industry has been to pursue use of advanced prototype optical exposure tools and resists. The benefits of doing so have been: (1) The lithographic process that is used in development more closely resembles the process that will in fact be used to manufacture the chip. (2) The cost of low K1 imaging (phase-masks, off-axis illumination, and surface imaging resist) can be avoided. However with the introduction of 1Gb-dynamic random access memory (DRAM) development, a paradigm shift is being experienced within the optical lithographic community. With 1Gb-DRAMs, the minimum feature size falls irreversibly below the optical wavelength used to image the feature. Such a situation will make low K1 factor imaging unavoidable. With 175 nm groundrules typical for first generation 1G-DRAMs, K1 factors near 0.4 will be common with 0.5 as an upper limit on advanced systems currently in development irrespective of optical wavelength. This paper will cover the selection process, experimental data, and problems encountered in defining and integrating the lithographic process used to support the critical mask levels on 1Gb-DRAM development. Factors considered include: resist, masks, and illuminations via both simulation and experiment. The simulations were conducted with both internal and externally developed software. The experimental data to be reviewed was generated using an experimental 0.6 NA KrF step and scan system provided by Nikon. The resist used is commercially available from the Shipley corporation.

  13. Effects of the Nd:YAG laser on amalgam dental restorative material: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernavin, Igor; Hogan, Sean P.

    1996-09-01

    The Nd:YAG laser has been marketed as an instrument for use on both hard and soft dental tissues. Its potential for use on hard tissues is limited but it may be the instrument of choice for use in certain soft tissue procedures. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the Nd:YAG laser on amalgam restorations which frequently occur on tooth surfaces adjacent to areas of soft tissue which may be subjected to the laser. The amalgam used was Tytin. The laser firing was controlled by a computer and a constant repetition rate of 40 Hz was used. Energy per pulse was altered as follows, 30 mJ, 40 mJ, 60 mJ, 80 mJ, 120 mJ and 140 mJ. Exposure times of 0.05 sec, 0.125 sec, 0.25 sec, 0.5 sec, 1 sec, 2 sec, 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec were used. The width of defect was measured using a Nikon measurescope with 10x magnification and it was established that the damage threshold lies between 0.125 sec and 0.25 sec for 30 mJ per pulse. The data was analyzed using a one way ANOVA statistical test. There was a significant correlation between the width of the defect and energy per pulse setting as well as exposure time. The findings indicate that amalgam restorations are prone to damage from inadvertent laser exposure and clinicians must take measures to protect such restorations during lasing of soft tissues.

  14. Mobile teledermatopathology: using a tablet PC as a novel and cost-efficient method to remotely diagnose dermatopathology cases.

    PubMed

    Speiser, Jodi J; Hughes, Ian; Mehta, Vikas; Wojcik, Eva M; Hutchens, Kelli A

    2014-01-01

    : Dermatopathology has relatively few studies regarding teledermatopathology and none have addressed the use of new technologies, such as the tablet PC. We hypothesized that the combination of our existing dynamic nonrobotic system with a tablet PC could provide a novel and cost-efficient method to remotely diagnose dermatopathology cases. 93 cases diagnosed by conventional light microscopy at least 5 months earlier by the participating dermatopathologist were retrieved by an electronic pathology database search. A high-resolution video camera (Nikon DS-L2, version 4.4) mounted on a microscope was used to transmit digital video of a slide to an Apple iPAD2 (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA) at the pathologist's remote location via live streaming at an interval time of 500 ms and a resolution of 1280/960 pixels. Concordance to the original diagnosis and the seconds elapsed to reaching the diagnosis were recorded. 24.7% (23/93) of cases were melanocytic, 70.9% (66/93) were nonmelanocytic, and 4.4% (4/93) were inflammatory. About 92.5% (86/93) of cases were diagnosed on immediate viewing (<5 seconds), with the average time to diagnosis at 40.2 seconds (range: 10-218 seconds). Of the cases diagnosed immediately, 98.8% (85/86) of the telediagnoses were concordant with the original. Telepathology performed via a tablet PC may serve as a reliable and rapid technique for the diagnosis of routine cases with some diagnostic caveats in mind. Our study established a novel and cost-efficient solution for those institutions that may not have the capital to purchase either a dynamic robotic system or a virtual slide system. PMID:23928452

  15. Pharmacognostical studies of leaves of Combretum albidum G. Don

    PubMed Central

    Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Combretum albidum Don belonging to family Combretaceae is an unexplored medicinal plant in the Indian medicinal system. According to ethnobotanical information, the leaves are used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and its fruits are used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Stem bark is used in the treatment of jaundice and skin diseases. The problem encountered in standardisation of this medicinal plant is its identification by source. Materials and Methods: The pharmacognostical studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, florescence and phytochemical analysis. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content and extractive values are determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf components are observed with Nikon lab photo device with microscopic units. Results: Macroscopically, the leaves are simple, obovate in shape, acuminate apex, entire margin and smooth surface. Microscopically, the leaves showed a large vascular strand that consists of thick walled xylem elements mixed with xylem fibres and phloem which is present in a thin layer along inner and outer portions of xylem. External to the xylem occur a thin line of sclerenchyma. Powder microscopy revealed glandular trichomes in the adaxial epidermal peelings also shows the non-glandular trichomes fairly common in powder and epidermis with anisocytic stomata. Vessels elements are narrow, long, cylindrical and dense multi-seriate bordered pits. Xylem fibres are thin and long, with thick walls, which are lignified. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin, flavonoid, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of pharmacognostic information as suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications. PMID:24991065

  16. Hyperspectral imaging using a color camera and its application for pathogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Gamble, Gary

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports the results of a feasibility study for the development of a hyperspectral image recovery (reconstruction) technique using a RGB color camera and regression analysis in order to detect and classify colonies of foodborne pathogens. The target bacterial pathogens were the six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) grown in Petri dishes of Rainbow agar. The purpose of the feasibility study was to evaluate whether a DSLR camera (Nikon D700) could be used to predict hyperspectral images in the wavelength range from 400 to 1,000 nm and even to predict the types of pathogens using a hyperspectral STEC classification algorithm that was previously developed. Unlike many other studies using color charts with known and noise-free spectra for training reconstruction models, this work used hyperspectral and color images, separately measured by a hyperspectral imaging spectrometer and the DSLR color camera. The color images were calibrated (i.e. normalized) to relative reflectance, subsampled and spatially registered to match with counterpart pixels in hyperspectral images that were also calibrated to relative reflectance. Polynomial multivariate least-squares regression (PMLR) was previously developed with simulated color images. In this study, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was also evaluated as a spectral recovery technique to minimize multicollinearity and overfitting. The two spectral recovery models (PMLR and PLSR) and their parameters were evaluated by cross-validation. The QR decomposition was used to find a numerically more stable solution of the regression equation. The preliminary results showed that PLSR was more effective especially with higher order polynomial regressions than PMLR. The best classification accuracy measured with an independent test set was about 90%. The results suggest the potential of cost-effective color imaging using hyperspectral image

  17. Accuracy combining different brands of implants and abutments

    PubMed Central

    Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo; Senent-Vicente, Gisela; González-de-Cossio, Inés; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vertical misfit between different brands of dental implants and prosthetic abutments, with or without mechanical torque, and to study their possible combination. Study design: Five different brands of implant were used in the study: Biofit (Castemaggiore, Italy), Bioner S.A. (Barcelona, Spain), 3i Biomet (Palm Beach, U.S.A.), BTI (Alava, Spain) and Nobel Biocare (Göteborg, Sweden), with standard 4.1 mm heads and external hexagons, and their respective machined prosthetic abutments. The implant-to-abutment fit/misfit was evaluated at four points (vestibular, lingual/palatine, mesial and distal) between implants and abutments of the same brand and different brands, with or without mechanical torque, using SEM micrographs at 5000X. Image analysis was performed using NIS-Elements software (Nikon Instruments Europe B.V.). Results: Before applying torque, vertical misfit (microgaps) of the different combinations tested varied between 1.6 and 5.4 microns and after applying torque, between 0.9 and 5.9 microns, an overall average of 3.46±2.96 microns. For manual assembly without the use of mechanical torque, the best results were obtained with the combination of the 3i implant and the BTI abutment. The Nobel implant and Nobel abutment, 3i-3i and BTI-BTI and the combination of 3i implant with BTI or Nobel abutment provided the best vertical fit when mechanical torque was applied. Conclusions: The vertical fits obtained were within the limits considered clinically acceptable. The application of mechanical torque improved outcomes. There is compatibility between implants and abutments of different brand and so their combination is a clinical possibility. Key words:Vertical fit, implant, prosthetic abutment, combination. PMID:23229250

  18. A Novel Multi-Digital Camera System Based on Tilt-Shift Photography Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; Fang, Jun-yong; Zhao, Dong; Liu, Xue; Tong, Qing-xi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-digital camera systems (MDCS) are constantly being improved to meet the increasing requirement of high-resolution spatial data. This study identifies the insufficiencies of traditional MDCSs and proposes a new category MDCS based on tilt-shift photography to improve ability of the MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data. A prototype system, including two or four tilt-shift cameras (TSC, camera model: Nikon D90), is developed to validate the feasibility and correctness of proposed MDCS. Similar to the cameras of traditional MDCSs, calibration is also essential for TSC of new MDCS. The study constructs indoor control fields and proposes appropriate calibration methods for TSC, including digital distortion model (DDM) approach and two-step calibrated strategy. The characteristics of TSC are analyzed in detail via a calibration experiment; for example, the edge distortion of TSC. Finally, the ability of the new MDCS to acquire high-accuracy spatial data is verified through flight experiments. The results of flight experiments illustrate that geo-position accuracy of prototype system achieves 0.3 m at a flight height of 800 m, and spatial resolution of 0.15 m. In addition, results of the comparison between the traditional (MADC II) and proposed MDCS demonstrate that the latter (0.3 m) provides spatial data with higher accuracy than the former (only 0.6 m) under the same conditions. We also take the attitude that using higher accuracy TSC in the new MDCS should further improve the accuracy of the photogrammetry senior product. PMID:25835187

  19. 4D photogrammetric technique to study free surface water in open channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubé, Damien; Berkaoui, Amine; Vinatier, Fabrice; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Belaud, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Characteristics of three-dimensional surface water are considered as the most valuable information to understand hydrodynamic phenomena in open channel flow. An accurate and coherent description of the free water surface morphology improves the accuracy of hydraulic models which study river processes. However, amongst existing techniques to measure three-dimensional surface, stereo-photogrammetry is clearly the most effective technique to obtain an instantaneous and high accurate 3D free water surface and it's suitable to both flume and field condition. Our study aims at developing this technique in two controlled channels, one in interior with glass borders (length: 6 m, width: 0.3 m and depth: 0.5 m) and one outside with cement borders (length: 13 m, width: 0.7 m and depth: 0.4 m). A system consisting in three NIKON-D3200 cameras, mounted to an adjustable tripod head, which is fixed to an inverted aluminium T-bar with the center camera higher than the two side cameras. Each camera is fitted with a 28 mm lens and cameras are synchronized using a Phottix(R) system. The system was mounted at a downstream position from the channel with an oblique configuration. A series of pictures taken at a 3 s interval during the water weight bearing were reported and analyzed using the Photoscan Pro(R) software for image matching. Validation procedure of the technique was realized using an orthophotography of the lateral border of the interior channel to delimit the line of water surface, and using a video capture of a slide fixed inside the outside channel. A high resolution and dynamic elevation map of the surface water was constructed. Our study give encouraging results, with a good capture of water surface morphology and a limited occlusion issues. The confrontation of the results with the validation dataset highlight limitations that need to be discussed with the audience.

  20. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  1. Compact standoff Raman system for detection of homemade explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Bates, David E.; Acosta, Tayro E.

    2010-04-01

    We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a compact portable standoff Raman system developed at the University of Hawaii. Data presented in this article show that good quality Raman spectra of various organic and inorganic chemicals, including hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, and gasoline, can be easily obtained from remote distances with a compact standoff Raman system utilizing only a regular 85 mm Nikon camera lens as collection optics. Raman spectra of various chemicals showing clear Raman fingerprints obtained from targets placed at 50 m distance in daylight with 1 to 10 second of integration time are presented in this article. A frequency-doubled mini Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 30 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz, pulse width 8 ns) is used in an oblique geometry to excite the target located at 50 m distance. The standoff Raman system uses a compact spectrograph of size 10 cm (length) × 8.2 cm (width) × 5.2 cm (height) with spectral coverage from 100 to 4500 cm-1 Stokes-Raman shifted from 532 nm laser excitation and is equipped with a gated thermo-electrically cooled ICCD detector. The system is capable of detecting both the target as well as the atmospheric gases before the target. Various chemicals could be easily identified through glass, plastic, and water media. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  2. Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas; Coutts, Louise V; D'Angelo, Stefania; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Phillipp J

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional approaches to fracture risk assessment using clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD), a new technique, reference point microindentation (RPI), permits direct assessment of bone quality; in vivo tibial RPI measurements appear to discriminate patients with a fragility fracture from controls. However, it is unclear how this relates to the site of the most clinically devastating fracture, the femoral neck, and whether RPI provides information complementary to that from existing assessments. Femoral neck samples were collected at surgery after low-trauma hip fracture (n = 46; 17 male; aged 83 [interquartile range 77-87] years) and compared, using RPI (Biodent Hfc), with 16 cadaveric control samples, free from bone disease (7 male; aged 65 [IQR 61-74] years). A subset of fracture patients returned for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment (Hologic Discovery) and, for the controls, a micro-computed tomography setup (HMX, Nikon) was used to replicate DXA scans. The indentation depth was greater in femoral neck samples from osteoporotic fracture patients than controls (p < 0.001), which persisted with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and height (p < 0.001) but was site-dependent, being less pronounced in the inferomedial region. RPI demonstrated good discrimination between fracture and controls using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79 to 0.89), and a model combining RPI to clinical risk factors or BMD performed better than the individual components (AUC = 0.88 to 0.99). In conclusion, RPI at the femoral neck discriminated fracture cases from controls independent of BMD and traditional risk factors but dependent on location. The clinical RPI device may, therefore, supplement risk assessment and requires testing in prospective cohorts and comparison between the clinically accessible tibia and the femoral neck. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  3. CDP: application of focus drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Schulz, K.; Old, G.; Matthus, E.

    2009-01-01

    The achievement of a depth of focus required for stable process conditions is one of the biggest challenges in modern optical photolithography. There are several ways of improving the depth of focus. For line/space layers, for instance, application of RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology) using scattering bars, phaseshift masks or optimized illumination systems have shown good results. For contact and via layers the depth of focus is limited and critical, due to the structure size of the holes, alternating pattern density and wafer topology. A well known method of improving the depth of focus for contact and via layers is called focus latitude enhancement exposure (FLEX) [1-3]. With FLEX, several focal planes are being exposed, i.e. each during a separate exposure step. The main drawback is low throughput, as the total processing time rises which each additional exposure. In this paper, we investigate Nikon's CDP (continuous depth of focus expansion procedure) [4]. The CDP option is applicable to modern scanning exposure tools [4-5]. A schematic view of the procedure is shown in Fig. 1. The CDP value or CDP amplitude defines the tilt of the wafer and thus the range of focus in the resist, as the focus plane migrates through the resist during the exposure. The main advantage of CDP, compared to FLEX, is higher throughput, since focal planes are defined within a single exposure. A non-CDP exposure may result in varying aerial images within resist thickness, therefore leading to decreased image contrast within out-of-focus planes. As shown in Fig. 1 the averaged aerial images of a CDP exposure induce better image contrast throughout the resist layer and therefore increase the focus window.

  4. A methodology to generate high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and surface water profile for a physical model using close range photogrammetric (CRP) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, V. K.; Kuiry, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the river flow dynamics with varying topography in a real field is very intricate and difficult. Conventional experimental methods based on manual data collection are time consuming and prone to many errors. Recently, remotely sensed satellite imageries are at the best to provide necessary information for large area provided the high resolution but which are very expensive and untimely, consequently, attaining accurate river bathymetry from relatively course resolution and untimely imageries are inaccurate and impractical. Despite of that, these data are often being used to calibrate the river flow models, though these models require highly accurate morpho-dynamic data in order to predict the flow field precisely. Under this circumstance, these data could be supplemented through experimental observations in a physical model with modern techniques. This paper proposes a methodology to generate highly accurate river bathymetry and water surface (WS) profile for a physical model of river network system using CRP technique. For the task accomplishment, a number of DSLR Nikon D5300 cameras (mounted at 3.5 m above the river bed) were used to capture the images of the physical model and the flooding scenarios during the experiments. During experiment, non-specular materials were introduced at the inlet and images were taken simultaneously from different orientations and altitudes with significant overlap of 80%. Ground control points were surveyed using two ultrasonic sensors with ±0.5 mm vertical accuracy. The captured images are, then processed in PhotoScan software to generate the DEM and WS profile. The generated data were then passed through statistical analysis to identify errors. Accuracy of WS profile was limited by extent and density of non-specular powder and stereo-matching discrepancies. Furthermore, several factors of camera including orientation, illumination and altitude of camera. The CRP technique for a large scale physical

  5. Application of the Photomodeler software and Matlab environment for analysisof objects movement parameters based on image sequences. (Polish Title: Wykorzystanie pakietu Photomodeler oraz środowiska Matlab, do badania parametrów ruchu obiektów na podstawie obrazów sekwencyjnych)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, T.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of objects movement parameters is the area of interest of scientists representing many disciplines. Technological progress provides improvement of research methods. One of them is photogrammetry, and more specifically, close-range image sequences processing. Much research on different approaches to this issue are conducted all over the world. Proposed solution is to carry out photogrammetric measurements using one of the standard programs for close-range objects 3D modeling - PhotoModeler software and their mathematical processing using popular computing environment - Matlab software. Application of existing software's functionality, in many cases seems to be less costly than development and then implementation of specialized measuring and computing applications, dedicated to analysis of movement parameters. Considered solution is based primarily on the appropriate transformations of the frame of reference with respect to which the movement takes place. Automatic coded targets measurements and bundle adjustment, carried out using PhotoModeler software, were used in the research. In order to calculate objects movements parameters, there were further repeated isometric coordinates transformations, numerical differentiation in method of difference quotient and orientation by iterative tabulation with intervals narrowing additionally applied by building own Matlab environment functions. A number of experiments were performed using registration in the form of films from JVC GZ-HD5 digital video camera and films and series of photographs from Nikon D5000 digital photographic camera. Accomplished experiments covered different objects of movement parameters analysis and also distinct movement types. There were also three different versions of established frame of reference -movement of the camera in relation to surroundings, movement of the object in relation to the camera and movement of the object in relation to surrounding. Carried out research revealed that

  6. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  7. A methodology to generate high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) and surface water profile for a physical model using close range photogrammetric (CRP) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez Incera, F. J.; Erikson, L. H.; Ruggiero, P.; Barnard, P.; Camus, P.; Rueda Zamora, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the river flow dynamics with varying topography in a real field is very intricate and difficult. Conventional experimental methods based on manual data collection are time consuming and prone to many errors. Recently, remotely sensed satellite imageries are at the best to provide necessary information for large area provided the high resolution but which are very expensive and untimely, consequently, attaining accurate river bathymetry from relatively course resolution and untimely imageries are inaccurate and impractical. Despite of that, these data are often being used to calibrate the river flow models, though these models require highly accurate morpho-dynamic data in order to predict the flow field precisely. Under this circumstance, these data could be supplemented through experimental observations in a physical model with modern techniques. This paper proposes a methodology to generate highly accurate river bathymetry and water surface (WS) profile for a physical model of river network system using CRP technique. For the task accomplishment, a number of DSLR Nikon D5300 cameras (mounted at 3.5 m above the river bed) were used to capture the images of the physical model and the flooding scenarios during the experiments. During experiment, non-specular materials were introduced at the inlet and images were taken simultaneously from different orientations and altitudes with significant overlap of 80%. Ground control points were surveyed using two ultrasonic sensors with ±0.5 mm vertical accuracy. The captured images are, then processed in PhotoScan software to generate the DEM and WS profile. The generated data were then passed through statistical analysis to identify errors. Accuracy of WS profile was limited by extent and density of non-specular powder and stereo-matching discrepancies. Furthermore, several factors of camera including orientation, illumination and altitude of camera. The CRP technique for a large scale physical

  8. An unusually very bright dust light mass (?) observed in the vicinity (?) of á Lyrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanopoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    There are not many written worldwide references regarding unusual phenomena such as dust, unusual lights or unexplained objects orbiting the earth or the solar and extra solar systems. Regarding the external space few references exist . Regarding the a Lyrae many scientists were involve in the eighties with the possible existence of a planet next to this star. Structure in the Dusty Debris around Vega, D. J. Wilner et al 2002 ApJ 569.Near-infrared observations of Vega, at 2006 Philip M. Hinz et al. refers to possible companion planet round this star .In constellations Lyrae and Eridani,some authors refer to possible initial formation of planets and they mention the presence of dust formations orbiting around those stars.(A. N. Heinze, Philip M. Hinz, Deep L' and M-band Imaging for Planets Around Vega and epsilon Eridani,The Astrophysical Journal 688 (2008) 583. This paper is concerned with an unexplained or perhaps portion of dust, in the constellation of Lyrae, which appears and have been observed only in conventional photographic plaque.For this observation , simple equipment and amateur instruments are use.In the night of April the 2002, during an amatory observation in variable stars, in the RR Lyrae, pictures were taken in the mentioned deep space area as a normal weekly study procedure. The instruments used are, telescope Meade 10΄΄, illuminate reticle guiding, 12mm, photo camera Nikon F -100, and lenses,70mm, f =1,8.The film used was a Kodak X-pro,BW 400 ASA.The equatorial mount was motorized. A total of six pictures with an exposure 5-10 min were taken. While developing the film, on the fifth photogram, a bright (object?) - dust light appear which seems to be in adhesion with the Vega star . On consecutive months more pictures were taken, with conventional and digital exposures, without any repetition of the event. What is provoke illumination of this dust portion to have been present in a simple photographic film? This simple observation study is

  9. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.

    2016-06-01

    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  10. Estimation of Leaf Area Index Using Downward and Upward Looking Digital Cameras in a Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Kang, S.; Lim, J.; Nasahara, K. N.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring the distribution and changes of leaf area index (LAI) is important for assessing growth of a forest ecosystem. However, it is difficult and time consuming to directly measure LAI. In this study, we suggest an indirect method to calculate the LAI based on the analyses of digital spectral image from the Phenological Eyes Network (PEN) system which consists of Automatic-capturing Digital Fisheye Camera (ADFC) and Hemi-Spherical Spectroradiometer (HSSR). Our main purpose is to develop indirect methods for estimating LAI using either upward or downward ADFC without other ancillary field observation. In developing stage, we used field measured LAI by LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer (PCA, LI-Cor.), two ADFCs and Hemiview software. The ADFC is a set of Nikon coolpix 4500 camera and FC-E8 fisheye lens and it automatically capture downward and upward canopy in hourly interval. The downward ADFC was used to calculate various vegetation indices through RGB analysis. Meanwhile, the upward ADFC was used to estimate LAI using the Hemiview software. Threshold value of the Hemiview is important to separate the leaves and background such as sky, wood, edge on digital image. In other to decide accurate threshold value of the Hemiview, we performed that comparison of field measured LAI measured and the Hemiview LAI using upward ADFC digital image. Based on the determined threshold value, an objective method to recognize peculiar patterns of RGB histogram around the threshold was developed and applied to estimate LAI from upward ADFC images only. As well, two spectral indices (i.e. G/R ratio and 2G-RB) were calculated from the downward ADFC images. The relations between the spectral indices and LAI time series from the upward ADFC images were investigated and regression models were developed. The regression models were utilized to reconstruct seasonal LAI variation from the downward ADFC images only. Both field-measured and upward ADFC-derived LAIs showed good agreement (R2

  11. A rapid screening method using DNA binding dyes to determine whether hair follicles have sufficient DNA for successful profiling.

    PubMed

    Haines, Alicia M; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    We report a simple screening method to assess the viability of successful DNA profiling from single hair follicles. A total of 48 hair samples (shed and plucked) were collected from male and female donors and the root tips (0.5cm) were stained using one of three DNA binding dyes (EvaGreen™, Diamond™ Nucleic Acid Dye and RedSafe™) at 20× concentration. The hairs were subsequently viewed under a Nikon Optiphot fluorescent microscope to count the approximate number of nuclei in one plane of view. The hairs were then processed using either (1) a DNA extraction kit (QIAmp(®) Mini Kit) and then amplified using the AmpFLSTR(®) NGM™ kit, which amplifies 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus the gender marker amelogenin, or (2) by direct PCR amplification using the same DNA profiling kit. Diamond™ dye had the lowest background signal and plucked hairs treated with this dye produced full DNA profiles when amplified directly and was chosen to screen a further 150 mixed hair samples. These hairs were separated into one of five categories (1, >100 nuclei; 1.5, 50-99 nuclei; 2, 1-49 nuclei; 2.5, no nuclei but high fluorescent signal; 3, no nuclei and very low fluorescent signal) from which 60 of the hairs were chosen to undergo direct amplification using the NGM™ kit. It was found that there was a direct correlation to the category designation and the ability to obtain a DNA profile up-loadable to the Australian DNA Database. Approximately 91% of category 1 hairs resulted in either a full or high partial (12-29 alleles) profile by direct PCR whereas about 78% of category 3 hairs exhibited no amplification. The results show that this method can be used to predict successful STR amplification from single hair follicles. It is a rapid, sensitive, cheap, non-destructive and easy to perform methodology applicable for screening multiple hairs in order to aid forensic investigators in predicting hairs that will yield DNA results. PMID:27038658

  12. An Experimental Determination of Natural Clathrate Hydrate Dissolution Rates in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.; Dunk, R. M.; Hester, K.; Sloan, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    In August of 2006 we carried out a series of geochemical experiments on the massive Structure II hydrate mounds in Barkley Canyon using MBARI's ROV Tiburon deployed from the R/V Western Flyer. One of the primary questions regarding the fate of this hydrate exposure at 850m depth is the temporal persistence of un-sedimented surfaces exposed to steady currents of seawater undersaturated with methane. Previous work on the dissolution rate of laboratory prepared methane hydrate (Rehder et al., 2004) showed diameter reduction rates of ~3 m/year. These formations appeared largely unchanged from the earlier descriptions and photographs contained in media reports released in 2002 and later (Chapman et al., 2004; Lu et al., 2005) leading us to speculate that these hydrates are far slower to dissolve. In order to quantify their dissolution rates, samples of the outcropping hydrate, both a pure white hydrate and a much harder yellow, oil-stained hydrate, were collected using an ROV operated coring device and hydraulically expelled into an open mesh container for time-lapse photography over the course of the next 48 hours. By exposing these samples of natural hydrate to the flow of ambient seawater we hoped to observe the dissolution rate consistent with the local environmental conditions. Initial analysis of the time-lapse photographs obtained using a Nikon Cool-pix camera revealed an apparent diameter reduction rate for the yellow hydrate of approximately 0.040 μm/s, corresponding to a volume loss rate of 1.3×10-6cm3/cm2/s. The observed dissolution rate of the white hydrate was significantly faster, consistent with the observed large-scale undercutting of the exposed layered structures. Assuming that the yellow hydrate has a density of 0.93 g/cm3 and an average hydration number near 6, this yields a guest gas loss rate of about 9.4×10-9 mol/cm2/s. This is approximately one-fourth the rate that was observed for the dissolution of synthetic Structure I methane hydrates

  13. Microleakage of repaired class V silorane and nano-hybrid composite restorations after preparation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and diamond bur.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Batu Can; Efes, Begüm Güray; Dörter, Can; Gömeç, Yavuz; Erdilek, Dina; Yazıcıoğlu, Oktay

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the microleakage of repaired class V resin composite restorations prepared either by Er:YAG laser or a diamond bur. Ninety-six intact human molar teeth were randomly distributed into eight groups. In the first four groups, class V cavities (3 × 3 × 3 mm) prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth using an erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (VersaWave, HOYA ConBio, Japan). Similar class V cavities were prepared in the second four groups using a diamond bur (S-Class, Komet, UK). Teeth in groups 1, 2, and 5, 6 were restored with a nano-ceramic composite (Ceram.X duo, DENTSPLY), whereas a silorane material (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) was used to restore cavities in groups 3, 4, and 7, 8. Two different adhesive systems (XP Bond, DENTSPLY, and Silorane System Adhesive, 3M ESPE) were also used. All specimens were aged for 7 days. New cavities (3 × 3 × 3 mm) were prepared adjacent to the old restorations with Er:YAG laser (groups I-IV) or diamond bur (groups V-VIII). Different repair materials were then applied to the new cavities using the previous two restorative materials and two adhesive systems. All teeth were subjected to thermocycling (5,000 cycles between 5 and 55°C) and axial loadcycling (30 N, 1 Hz, 2,000 cycles). Specimens were immersed in 50% w/w silver nitrate solution. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 800) and SEM (JEOL JSM 5600) were used to evaluate the microleakage that existed at the interface between the old restorations and the repair materials. Data were analyzed statistically with one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Even though no statistically significant differences were found between any of the groups, the cavities repaired with different restoratives showed slight microleakage, especially those prepared by Er:YAG laser (p > 0.05). No microleakage scores were obtained in the groups repaired with Filtek Silorane

  14. Standards And Their Impact On Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endelman, Lincoln L.

    1990-01-01

    The needs for standards and the processes to provide them are very complex. Standardization is dependent upon voluntary and nonvoluntary agreement among individuals, companies, various organizations, and countries around the world. The agreements on standards, which sometimes take five to ten years, are hindered by monetary considerations, relinquishment of patent rights, disagreement among nations on dimensions in metric or the English system, and professional jealousy among some individuals. Standards, Standards, Standards - what a boring and uninteresting topic. Why did I ever agree to speak to you about something that most people take for granted and don't even bother to pay much attention to until they encounter a situation where a nonstandard item creates a problem. Have any of you ever bought a roll of 35mm film for your foreign made camera and found out that it needs 32mm film? That could have happened to you in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. Yes, we know that, you say, but that's not a problem anymore. Well, how about when you try to put a Beta cassette into your VCR that uses VHS cassettes? Have you tried to fit a Minolta lens onto a Nikon camera? But enough, you all have the idea. Standards were developed to make interchangeable components compatible with other equipment, no matter who made it or where it was made. Some companies and countries deliberately made things different to protect their inventions and profit by their uniqueness. More and more attempts are being made to reduce the international differences in technology and establish a common ground for trade and commerce. The European Common Market is in the process of eliminating many of the barriers to free exchange of goods, services, and even moving to a universal currency. This all sounds good for Europe, but what about the USA and the rest of the world. The United States has fought the change to the metric system for almost two hundred years. Our electrical system and the

  15. Concomitant use of polarization and positive phase contrast microscopy for the study of microbial cells.

    PubMed

    Žižka, Zdeněk; Gabriel, Jiří

    2015-11-01

    Polarization and positive phase contrast microscope were concomitantly used in the study of the internal structure of microbial cells. Positive phase contrast allowed us to view even the fine cell structure with a refractive index approaching that of the surrounding environment, e.g., the cytoplasm, and transferred the invisible phase image to a visible amplitude image. With polarization microscopy, crossed polarizing filters together with compensators and a rotary stage showed the birefringence of different cell structures. Material containing algae was collected in ponds in Sýkořice and Zbečno villages (Křivoklát region). The objects were studied in laboratory microscopes LOMO MIN-8 Sankt Petersburg and Polmi A Carl Zeiss Jena fitted with special optics for positive phase contrast, polarizers, analyzers, compensators, rotary stages, and digital SLR camera Nikon D 70 for image capture. Anisotropic granules were found in the cells of flagellates of the order Euglenales, in green algae of the orders Chlorococcales and Chlorellales, and in desmid algae of the order Desmidiales. The cell walls of filamentous algae of the orders Zygnematales and Ulotrichales were found to exhibit significant birefringence; in addition, relatively small amounts of small granules were found in the cytoplasm. A typical shape-related birefringence of the cylindrical walls and the septa between the cells differed in intensity, which was especially apparent when using a Zeiss compensator RI-c during its successive double setting. In conclusion, the anisotropic granules found in the investigated algae mostly showed strong birefringence and varied in number, size, and location of the cells. Representatives of the order Chlorococcales contained the highest number of granules per cell, and the size of these granules was almost double than that of the other monitored microorganisms. Very strong birefringence was exhibited by cell walls of filamentous algae; it differed in the intensity

  16. Comparison of snow melt properties across multiple spatial scales and landscape units in interior sub-Arctic boreal Alaskan watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K. E.; Cherry, J. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Bolton, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Interior sub-Arctic Alaskan snow cover is rapidly changing and requires further study for correct parameterization in physically based models. This project undertook field studies during the 2013 snow melt season to capture snow depth, snow temperature profiles, and snow cover extent to compare with observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor at four different sites underlain by discontinuous permafrost. The 2013 melt season, which turned out to be the latest snow melt period on record, was monitored using manual field measurements (SWE, snow depth data collection), iButtons to record temperature of the snow pack, GoPro cameras to capture time lapse of the snow melt, and low level orthoimagery collected at ~1500 m using a Navion L17a plane mounted with a Nikon D3s camera. Sites were selected across a range of landscape conditions, including a north facing black spruce hill slope, a south facing birch forest, an open tundra site, and a high alpine meadow. Initial results from the adjacent north and south facing sites indicate a highly sensitive system where snow cover melts over just a few days, illustrating the importance of high resolution temporal data capture at these locations. Field observations, iButtons and GoPro cameras show that the MODIS data captures the melt conditions at the south and the north site with accuracy (2.5% and 6.5% snow cover fraction present on date of melt, respectively), but MODIS data for the north site is less variable around the melt period, owing to open conditions and sparse tree cover. However, due to the rapid melt rate trajectory, shifting the melt date estimate by a day results in a doubling of the snow cover fraction estimate observed by MODIS. This information can assist in approximating uncertainty associated with remote sensing data that is being used to populate hydrologic and snow models (the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model, coupled with SNOW-17, and the Variable

  17. Studying Glacial Melt Processes Using Sub-Centimeter dem Extraction and Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Ablanedo, E.; Chandler, J. H.; Irvine-Fynn, T. D. L.

    2012-07-01

    Glaciers are sensitive to climatic variation and a particular developing area of investigation is in the field of "cryoconite", referring to dustlike residues which form on the glacier surface. Cryoconite absorbs the Sun's shortwave energy, accelerates ice melt and because of the localised distribution of dust creates localised melting which is highly spatially variable. There is therefore a need to quantify the detailed topographic surface of ice and measure its variability through time. This paper describes the use of close range photogrammetry to reconstruct the glacier surface at the sub-centimetre or micro scale, an approach which may allow the relationship between cryoconite and ice surface properties to be explored over either space or time. The field campaign was conducted at Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard (78.88° North 12.08° East), during the summer of 2010 and executed using simple equipment and procedures. A simple and ageing Nikon 5400 5 MP camera was used to acquire all imagery, proving sufficiently robust for the challenging field environment. The camera was handheld approximately 1.6 m above the ice surface, providing an oblique perspective. Images were acquired at three different camera/object distances, each generating coverage occupying three different areas. All imagery was processed using the commercial photogrammetric package PhotoModeler Scanner, generating threedimensional point clouds consisting of many thousands of XYZ coordinates, each colour-coded. It had been feared that lack of texture in the ice surface combined with differing specular reflections in each image would compromise the DEM generation process. Results were better than expected, although DEM quality proved to be variable depending on ice cleanliness and more significantly, the degree of obliquity of the image pairs. Despite these differences, digital close-range photogrammetry has proven to be a useful technique to reconstruct the glacier's surface to sub

  18. Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined

  19. 100 nm half-pitch double exposure KrF lithography using binary masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler, S.; Bauer, J.; Haak, U.; Stolarek, D.; Schulz, K.; Wolf, H.; Meier, W.; Trojahn, M.; Matthus, E.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the process margin for the 100nm half - pitch double exposure KrF lithography using binary masks for different illumination settings. The application of Double Exposure Lithography (DEL) would enlarge the capability of 248 nm exposure technique to smaller pitch e.g. for the integration of dedicated layers into 0.13 μm BiCMOS with critical dimension (CD) requirements exceeding the standard 248 nm lithography specification. The DEL was carried out with a KrF Scanner (Nikon S207D, NA Lens = 0.82) for a critical dimension (CD) of 100nm half pitch. The chemical amplified positive resists SL4800 or UV2000 (Rohm & Haas) with a thickness of 325nm were coated on a 70 nm AR10L (Rohm & Haas) bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC). With a single exposure and using binary masks it is not possible to resolve 100nm lines with a pitch of 200 nm, due to the refraction and the resolution limit. First we investigated the effect of focus variation. It is shown that the focus difference of 1st and 2nd exposure is one critical parameter of the DEL. This requires a good focus repeatability of the scanner. The depth of focus (DOF) of 360 nm with the coherence parameter σ = 0.4 was achieved for DEL with SL4800 resist. The influence of the better resist resolution of UV2000 on the process window will be shown (DOF = 460 nm). If we change the focus of one of the exposures the CD and DOF performance of spaces is reduced with simultaneous line position changing. Second we investigated the effect of different illumination shapes and settings. The results for conventional illumination with different values for σ and annular illumination with σ inner = 0.57 and σ outer = 0.85 will be shown. In summary, the results show that DEL has the potential to be a practical lithography enhancement method for device fabrication using high NA KrF tool generation.

  20. All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin; Prieto, J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Holoien, T.; Jencson, J.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Szczygiel, D.; Pojmanski, G.; Brimacombe, J.; Dubberley, M.; Elphick, M.; Foale, S.; Hawkins, E.; Mullins, D.; Rosing, W.; Ross, R.; Walker, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Even in the modern era, only human eyes scan the entire optical sky for the violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. The "All Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae" (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") is changing this by surveying the extragalactic sky roughly once a week, and within a year ASAS-SN will triple in size. We began running our real-time search for variable sources in late April 2013 with our first unit, "Brutus". Brutus presently consists of two telescopes on a common mount hosted by Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network in the Faulkes Telescope North enclosure on Mount Haleakala, Hawaii. Each telescope consists of a 14-cm Nikon telephoto lens and has a 4.47 by 4.47 degree field-of-view. On a typical clear night, it can survey 5000+ square degrees. The data are reduced in real-time, and we can search for transient candidates about an hour after the data are taken using an automated difference imaging pipeline. We are now meeting, and frequently exceeding, our current depth goal of 16 mag, corresponding to the apparent brightness at maximum light of core-collapse SNe within ~30 Mpc and SNe Ia out to ~100 Mpc. Brutus will shortly expand to have four cameras instead of two, and a second unit, "Cassius", with two cameras, should commence operations in early 2014 on Cerro Tololo, Chile. With these expansions, ASAS-SN will be able to observe the entire extragalactic sky every 2-3 nights. ASAS-SN has already discovered 10+ nearby SNe, 100+ outbursts from CVs and novae, 15+ M-dwarf and other stellar flares, and AGN outbursts which have resulted in 35+ ATel and CBET telegrams and 3 publications. In particular, ASAS-SN discovered one of the most extreme M-dwarf Flares ever detected (delta 9 mag). Furthermore, after triggering on an outburst in NGC 2617 we found that the AGN had changed from a Type 1.8 into a Type 1 Seyfert. After monitoring the transient with Swift and ground-based telescopes for 70 days, we clearly determined that the X

  1. Low cost attitude and heading sensors in terrestrial photogrammetry - calibration and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, J.; Kuras, P.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the contemporary terrestrial mobile mapping systems (MMSs) use tactical or navigation grade inertial measurement units (IMU) to determine the approximated angular exterior orientation (EO) elements of images. Navigation grade IMUs, usually integrated with GNSS receivers, are also used to determine the projection center coordinates. Recent researches show that using also a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) or a low-cost IMU, satisfies the demands of certain photogrammetric applications. Our researches aim to evaluate the accuracy of low-cost devices suitable for constructing small, low-cost photogrammetric MMS. During our research two low-cost devices, providing information about image attitude and heading, were tested. The first one is the calibrated Ricoh G700SE GPS camera with an electronic compass and a level indicator. The second device is the Xsens MTi AHRS unit, comprising 3 MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) gyros, 3 MEMS accelerometers and 3 magnetometers. For the testing purposes the AHRS was combined with the calibrated Nikon D80 SLR camera. The 3D AHRS magnetometer calibration was carried out using the manufacturer's software to compensate for the soft and hard iron effects. The images of three test fields were taken. The images of the first test field with signalized control points were used to determine the boresight rotation matrix of the AHRS. The bundle adjustment was solved separately for each camera and each test field to determine the true (reference) angular exterior orientation parameters. The differences between measured and calculated angles allowed to evaluate the accuracy of the measured angles. The tests results for the GPS camera show high residuals of measured azimuths, however its level indicator allows camera levelling with subdegree accuracy. The results obtained for the low-cost AHRS unit were significantly better, however over 2° residuals for yaw angle were also observed. The results prove the

  2. The use of laser technology for the welding of the automotive tree mechanical clutch subject to the action of residual intrinsic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daurelio, G.; Campanile, E.; D'Alonzo, M.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; Spera, M.; Lugarà, M.; Ferrandino, V.

    2007-05-01

    The material in issue is a case-hardening steel, type 20MnCr5 (UNI 8550), that has been previously undergone to a softening annealing process conferring therefore to the material one equal Hardness Brinnel 200 to 220 HB. This steel is very difficult to weld as by laser technology as by other welding technologies by fusion. It has been experienced a power at first laser of 1500 W (for requirements begins them of understanding of the process and the relative to you parameters to set up then) and of 3000 W, like previewed. They have been used a covering gas and a laser beam focusing mirror. All the welded tests have been at first subordinates to taken care of a visual examination to eye and then to an Image Acquisition System, computerized and connected to both metallographic and stereo microscope. Then cut to you with metallographic apparatus, workings to the abrasive papers and metallographic cloths, in order to end with a chemical etching of type NITAL. The best ones turn out to you have been then always visualize in shape of macro and micro-graphs, acquired with the same Image Acquisition System of type NIKON - LUCIA 4.82 vers. by LIM, to storage and automatically measure the cross-section area (melted zone) and then to calculate the efficiency level, on each joint and bead on plate, expressed in Dau unit, to verify the laser welding efficiency, correlated to the laser working parameters. To a better characterization of the produced joints many micro-hardness tests and relate family hardness trends and profiles have been carried out. At the end from the comparison of the values of ETE % and MR % (Model of Swift- Hook & Gick) and of the values of WE in Dau (Model DA.LU.), lead on some beads of the 20MnCr5, has turned out an ulterior and substantial validity and goodness (as well as easiness of employment and calculation of WE) of this last Model and Unit of Measure. In fact the values of ETE % and WE (in Dau) are appeared substantially similar, respecting both all

  3. Live (Rose-bengal stained) foraminifera from deep-sea anoxic salt brine in the Eastern Mediterranean: toward understanding limit of life for single-celled eukaryotes (foraminifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazato, H.; Ohkawara, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Nomaki, H.; Akoumianaki, I.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    What is a limit of life for the eukaryotes? Eukaryotes are thought to adapt and evolve under oxic environmental conditions. Recently, there are many exceptions for this hypothesis, as many eukaryotes including metazoan groups are found in anoxic environmental conditions. We found many rose-bengal stained foraminifera from a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin (DHAB) in the eastern Mediterranean. During KH06-04 cruise, we conducted oceanographic research at Medée Lake, the largest DHAB, that is located 100km southwest of Crete Island in the eastern Mediterranean. The lake situates at 2920m in water depth. Depth of saline water is 120m in maximum. Both water and sediment samplings were carried out both with Niskin bottles and multiple corer attached to camera watching sampling system at three sites, inside of the lake (CS), the edge of the lake (OMS) and the normal deep-sea floor (RS). Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations at central saline lake are 15.27 oC, 328PSU, and 0.0 ml/L, respectively. Strong smell of hydrogen sulfide was detected from the lake sediment. Subsamples were conducted for multiple core samples using 3 subcores(φ 2.9cm) from each core tube (φ 8.2cm). Sediment samples were fixed with 4% formalin Rose Bengal solution on board. In laboratory, samples were washed with 32μm sieve. Rose Bengal stained specimens were picked under binocular stereomicroscope (Zeiss Stemi SV11) for surface 0.5cm layer, and identified with inverted microscope (Nikon ECLIPSE TE300). In total, 26 species belonging to 9 genera were identified from three sites. Six species belonging to two genera were identified in the center of the salt brine. Only a few species are common among three sites, even though the numbers of common species were 10 between OMS and RS sites. In DHAB, spherical organic-walled species, such as allogromiid and psammosphaerid, are dominant. In contrast, tube-like chitinous foraminifera, such as Resigella, Conicotheca and Nodellum, are

  4. Coming of Age: Polarization as a Probe of Plant Canopy Water Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kupinski, M.; Bradley, C. L.; Dahlgren, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the relative water content (RWC) of the sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from polarized canopy imagery. Recently (IGARSS, July 27-31, 2015, Milan, Italy), we reported the results of laboratory polarization measurements of single detached leaves during dry down. We found that RWC was linearly related to the ratio of the reflectance of the interior of the leaf and the leaf transmittance. Here we report application of the laboratory results to estimate RWC for sunlit leaves in a plant canopy. Using a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Nikon 810 camera with Nikkor 300 mm lens and Polaroid type HN-22 linear polarizer, we photographed in the principle plane a plant canopy displaying a gradient of water stress and collected, at each of multiple points along the gradient, two images, one with the polarization filter oriented for maximum scene response and a second with the filter oriented for minimum scene response. We converted the digital values in the two images to reflectance factor with reference to images of a white, flat, horizontal Spectralon surface. We classified the polarization imagery, identifying reflecting leaves, transmitting leaves, other sunlit vegetation and shadows. For each image pair we normalized the leaf internal reflectance by dividing by the cosine of the angle of incidence of the sunlight on the leaf, selected the leaf maximum transmittance in the scene and divided to obtain the ratio reflectance/transmittance, which we compared with leaf RWC. We determined the leaf relative water content by harvesting a section of leaf and immediately placing it in a sealed container in an ice chest. Later in the laboratory the leaf sample was weighed, rehydrated, weighed, dried and again weighed. RWC was determined using the standard formula.Our experimental results support our hypothesis, suggesting that the RWC of sunlit leaves in a plant canopy may be estimated from analysis of polarization imagery collected by a

  5. Resist evaluation for EUV application at ASET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goo, Doohoon; Tanaka, Yuusuke; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Oizumi, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Iwao

    2007-03-01

    Although EUV lithography has been prepared for next generation litho-technique for several years, there are still lots of obstacles on its way. Especially, phase defect from the mask, and immaturity in the resist should be solved as soon as possible because they are directly related to realizing patterns on the wafer. ASET has been focusing on these two problems, that is, the mask-related defect control and the resist screening for EUV application. In this study, we concentrate on the resist evaluation for the EUV lithography application, mainly commercial CAR (Chemically- Amplified Resist) type resist, for example, ArF resist based on polymethacrylate and KrF resist based on poly(4- hydroxystyrene) (PHS). We screened tens of resists in viewpoint of resolution, photo-speed, and LWR (Line Width Roughness). We used two METs (Micro-Exposure Tools). The one is HiNA in ASET and the other is MET in Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL) to evaluate resist. And we used EUV masks fabricated by DNP and ASET. Some resist showed modulation on the wafer for 28nm-hp line and space pattern and some resist showed very high photo-speed about 5mJ/cm2. Photo-speed could be improved about 25% by controlling the amount of additives, PAG and quencher. However, improvement in photo-speed caused degradation in resolution. This means there are trade-off relation between resolution and photo-speed. And we also evaluated polymer-bound PAG resist, which showed new possibility for EUV resist. And we encountered unexpected problem, pattern lifting, which was solved by using bufferlayer to increase attachment force between resist and wafer surface. We conclude that polymer bound PAG resist is a good approach to lower LWR of resist for EUVL application and bufferlayer tuning and matching with resist is also needed for low LWR. The EUVL masks were fabricated by Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd. The HiNA set-3 projection optics were developed and provided by Nikon Corporation. This work was supported

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Water Absorption on the Surface Properties of Heat Cure Acrylic: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandu, G S; Asnani, Pooja; Gupta, Siddarth; Faisal Khan, Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of alkaline peroxide denture cleanser with different temperature of water could cause a change in surface hardness of the acrylic denture and also has a bleaching effect. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of increased water content during thermal cycling of hot water-treated acrylic on the surface hardness of acrylic denture base when compared to warm water treated acrylic. And to compare the bleaching effect of alkaline peroxide solution on the acrylic denture base on hot water and warm water treated acrylic. Materials and Methods: Forty samples (10 mm × 10 mm × 2.5 mm) were prepared. After the calculation of the initial hardness 40 samples, each was randomly assigned to two groups. Group A: 20 samples were immersed in 250 ml of warm distilled water at 40°C with alkaline peroxide tablet. Group B: 20 samples were immersed in 250 ml of hot distilled water at 100°C with alkaline peroxide tablet. The surface hardness of each test sample was obtained using the digital hardness testing machine recording the Rockwell hardness number before the beginning of the soaking cycles and after completion of 30 soak cycles and compared. Values were analyzed using paired t-test. Five samples from the Group A and five samples from Group B were put side by side and photographed using a Nikon D 40 digital SLR Camera and the photographs were examined visually to assess the change in color. Results: Acrylic samples immersed in hot water showed a statistically significant decrease of 5.8% in surface hardness. And those immersed in warm water showed a statistically insignificant increase of 0.67% in surface hardness. Samples from the two groups showed clinically insignificant difference in color when compared to each other on examination of the photographs. Conclusion: Thermocycling of the acrylic resin at different water bath temperature at 40°C and 100°C showed significant changes in the surface hardness. PMID:25954074

  7. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protects cultured equine Leydig cells from undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M J; Roser, J F

    2010-12-01

    Leydig cells located in the interstitial space of the testicular parenchyma produce testosterone which plays a critical role in the maintenance and restoration of spermatogenesis in many species, including horses. For normal spermatogenesis, maintaining Leydig cells is critical to provide an optimal and constant level of testosterone. Recently, an anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I in testicular cells in rats has been reported, but a similar effect of IGF-I on equine Leydig cells remains to be elucidated. If IGF-I also protects stallion testicular cells from undergoing apoptosis, then IGF-I may have potential as a treatment regime to prevent testicular degeneration. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I on cultured equine Leydig cells. Testes were collected from 5 post-pubertal stallions (2-4 years old) during routine castrations. A highly purified preparation of equine Leydig cells was obtained from a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Purity of equine Leydig cells was assessed using histochemical 3β-HSD staining. Equine Leydig cells and selected doses of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-I; Parlow A.F., National Hormone and Peptide Program, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) were added to wells of 24 or 96 well culture plates in triplicate and cultured for 24 or 48 h under 95% air:5% CO(2) at 34°C. After 24 or 48 h incubation, apoptotic rate was assessed using a Cell Death Detection ELISA kit. Significantly lower apoptotic rates were observed in equine Leydig cells cultured with 5, 10, or 50ng/ml of rhIGF-I compared with control cells cultured without rhIGF-I for 24h. Exposure to 1, 5, 10 or 50 ng/ml of rhIGF-I significantly decreased apoptotic rate in equine Leydig cells cultured for 48 h. After 48 h incubation, cells were labeled with Annexin V and propodium iodine to determine the populations of healthy, apoptotic, and necrotic cells by counting stained cells using a Nikon Eclipse inverted fluorescence microscope. As a percentage of

  8. Algolcam: Low Cost Sky Scanning with Modern Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Bolton, Dempsey; Doktor, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Low cost DSLR cameras running under computer control offer good sensitivity, high resolution, small size, and the convenience of digital image handling. Recent developments in small single board computers have pushed the performance to cost and size ratio to unprecedented values, with the further advantage of very low power consumption. Yet a third technological development is motor control electronics which is easily integrated with the computer to make an automated mount, which in our case is custom built, but with similar mounts available commercially. Testing of such a system under a clear plastic dome at our auroral observatory was so successful that we have developed a weatherproof housing allowing use during the long, cold, and clear winter nights at northerly latitudes in Canada. The main advantage of this housing should be improved image quality as compared to operation through clear plastic. We have improved the driving software to include the ability to self-calibrate pointing through the web API of astrometry.net, and data can be reduced automatically through command line use of the Muniwin program. The mount offers slew in declination and RA, and tracking at sidereal or other rates in RA. Our previous tests with a Nikon D5100 with standard lenses in the focal length range 50-200 mm, operating at f/4 to f/5, allowed detection of 12th magnitude stars with 30 second exposure under very dark skies. At 85 mm focal length, a field of 15° by 10° is imaged with 4928 by 3264 color pixels, and we have adopted an 85 mm fixed focal length f/1.4 lens (as used by Project Panoptes), which we expect will give a limited magnitude approaching 15. With a large field of view, deep limiting magnitude, low cost, and ease of construction and use, we feel that the Algolcam offers great possibilities in monitoring and finding changes in the sky. We have already applied it to variable star light curves, and with a suitable pipeline for detection of moving or varying objects

  9. Testing photogrammetry-based techniques for three-dimensional surface documentation in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Jurda, Mikoláš

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional surface technologies particularly close range photogrammetry and optical surface scanning have recently advanced into affordable, flexible and accurate techniques. Forensic postmortem investigation as performed on a daily basis, however, has not yet fully benefited from their potentials. In the present paper, we tested two approaches to 3D external body documentation - digital camera-based photogrammetry combined with commercial Agisoft PhotoScan(®) software and stereophotogrammetry-based Vectra H1(®), a portable handheld surface scanner. In order to conduct the study three human subjects were selected, a living person, a 25-year-old female, and two forensic cases admitted for postmortem examination at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (both 63-year-old males), one dead to traumatic, self-inflicted, injuries (suicide by hanging), the other diagnosed with the heart failure. All three cases were photographed in 360° manner with a Nikon 7000 digital camera and simultaneously documented with the handheld scanner. In addition to having recorded the pre-autopsy phase of the forensic cases, both techniques were employed in various stages of autopsy. The sets of collected digital images (approximately 100 per case) were further processed to generate point clouds and 3D meshes. Final 3D models (a pair per individual) were counted for numbers of points and polygons, then assessed visually and compared quantitatively using ICP alignment algorithm and a cloud point comparison technique based on closest point to point distances. Both techniques were proven to be easy to handle and equally laborious. While collecting the images at autopsy took around 20min, the post-processing was much more time-demanding and required up to 10h of computation time. Moreover, for the full-body scanning the post-processing of the handheld scanner required rather time-consuming manual image alignment. In all instances the applied approaches

  10. Spheres of Earth: An Introduction to Making Observations of Earth Using an Earth System's Science Approach. Student Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Baker, Marshalyn (Editor); Graff, Trevor (Editor); Lindgren, Charlie (Editor); Mailhot, Michele (Editor); McCollum, Tim (Editor); Runco, Susan (Editor); Stefanov, William (Editor); Willis, Kim (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from the Image Science and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) work with astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) who take images of Earth. Astronaut photographs, sometimes referred to as Crew Earth Observations, are taken using hand-held digital cameras onboard the ISS. These digital images allow scientists to study our Earth from the unique perspective of space. Astronauts have taken images of Earth since the 1960s. There is a database of over 900,000 astronaut photographs available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . Images are requested by ISAL scientists at JSC and astronauts in space personally frame and acquire them from the Destiny Laboratory or other windows in the ISS. By having astronauts take images, they can specifically frame them according to a given request and need. For example, they can choose to use different lenses to vary the amount of area (field of view) an image will cover. Images can be taken at different times of the day which allows different lighting conditions to bring out or highlight certain features. The viewing angle at which an image is acquired can also be varied to show the same area from different perspectives. Pointing the camera straight down gives you a nadir shot. Pointing the camera at an angle to get a view across an area would be considered an oblique shot. Being able to change these variables makes astronaut photographs a unique and useful data set. Astronaut photographs are taken from the ISS from altitudes of 300 - 400 km (185 to 250 miles). One of the current cameras being used, the Nikon D3X digital camera, can take images using a 50, 100, 250, 400 or 800mm lens. These different lenses allow for a wider or narrower field of view. The higher the focal length (800mm for example) the narrower the field of view (less area will be covered). Higher focal lengths also show greater detail of the area on the surface being imaged. Scientists from the Image Science and Analysis

  11. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  12. Multiparameter fluorescence imaging for quantification of TH-1 and TH-2 cytokines at the single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekkar, Hakim; Benbernou, N.; Esnault, S.; Shin, H. C.; Guenounou, Moncef

    1998-04-01

    Immune responses are strongly influenced by the cytokines following antigenic stimulation. Distinct cytokine-producing T cell subsets are well known to play a major role in immune responses and to be differentially regulated during immunological disorders, although the characterization and quantification of the TH-1/TH-2 cytokine pattern in T cells remained not clearly defined. Expression of cytokines by T lymphocytes is a highly balanced process, involving stimulatory and inhibitory intracellular signaling pathways. The aim of this study was (1) to quantify the cytokine expression in T cells at the single cell level using optical imaging, (2) and to analyze the influence of cyclic AMP- dependent signal transduction pathway in the balance between the TH-1 and TH-2 cytokine profile. We attempted to study several cytokines (IL-2, IFN-(gamma) , IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cells were prestimulated in vitro using phytohemagglutinin and phorbol ester for 36h, and then further cultured for 8h in the presence of monensin. Cells were permeabilized and then simple-, double- or triple-labeled with the corresponding specific fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. The cell phenotype was also determined by analyzing the expression of each of CD4, CD8, CD45RO and CD45RA with the cytokine expression. Conventional images of cells were recorded with a Peltier- cooled CCD camera (B/W C5985, Hamamatsu photonics) through an inverted microscope equipped with epi-fluorescence (Diaphot 300, Nikon). Images were digitalized using an acquisition video interface (Oculus TCX Coreco) in 762 by 570 pixels coded in 8 bits (256 gray levels), and analyzed thereafter in an IBM PC computer based on an intel pentium processor with an adequate software (Visilog 4, Noesis). The first image processing step is the extraction of cell areas using an edge detection and a binary thresholding method. In order to reduce the background noise of fluorescence, we performed an opening

  13. Rapid additive manufacturing of MR compatible multipinhole collimators with selective laser melting of tungsten powder

    SciTech Connect

    Deprez, Karel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Vaerenbergh, Jonas; Van Holen, Roel

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The construction of complex collimators with a high number of oblique pinholes is very labor intensive, expensive or is sometimes impossible with the current available techniques (drilling, milling or electric discharge machining). All these techniques are subtractive: one starts from solid plates and the material at the position of the pinholes is removed. The authors used a novel technique for collimator construction, called metal additive manufacturing. This process starts with a solid piece of tungsten on which a first layer of tungsten powder is melted. Each subsequent layer is then melted on the previous layer. This melting is done by selective laser melting at the locations where the CAD design file defines solid material. Methods: A complex collimator with 20 loftholes with 500 {mu}m diameter pinhole opening was designed and produced (16 mm thick and 70 Multiplication-Sign 52 mm{sup 2} transverse size). The density was determined, the production accuracy was measured (GOM ATOS II Triple Scan, Nikon AZ100M microscope, Olympus IMT200 microscope). Point source measurements were done by mounting the collimator on a SPECT detector. Because there is increasing interest in dual-modality SPECT-MR imaging, the collimator was also positioned in a 7T MRI scanner (Bruker Pharmascan). A uniform phantom was acquired using T1, T2, and T2* sequences to check for artifacts or distortion of the phantom images due to the collimator presence. Additionally, three tungsten sample pieces (250, 500, and 750 {mu}m thick) were produced. The density, attenuation (140 keV beam), and uniformity (GE eXplore Locus SP micro-CT) of these samples were measured. Results: The density of the collimator was equal to 17.31 {+-} 0.10 g/cm{sup 3} (89.92% of pure tungsten). The production accuracy ranges from -260 to +650 {mu}m. The aperture positions have a mean deviation of 5 {mu}m, the maximum deviation was 174 {mu}m and the minimum deviation was -122 {mu}m. The mean aperture diameter

  14. D Modeling of Historical Doger Caravansaries by Digital Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakar, M.; Uysal, M.; Toprak, A. S.; Polat, N.

    2013-07-01

    main gate. Today, it has been cancelled to reach upstairs. The underside of the satires is empty. There are two loophole windows at the both two short side. The columns that are near the long walls are bounded each other with arches and overlaid with cross squinches. The rooms in the second floor have domes. One of these rooms was arranged as prey room. The second part of Caravansaries is single storey and walls made of rubble. There are four columns inside the room and they bounded with arches. Back side of the rooms were destroyed by earth quake and restored. This restoration was not appropriate with its original plan but the good one is that the Caravansaries was saved from totally comedown. It is aimed to survey Doger Caravansaries Photogrammetricaly and generate 3D model covered by real tissues. In this study, South NTS-352 Total Station is used to constitute a closed polygon with 6 point. The coordinates of polygon points are calculated by distance and direction measurements. Levelling was carried out for determining the height of polygon points. Photographs was taken by Nikon D7000 camera. 3D model and faces were created in Photomodeler software.

  15. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  16. Implications of the colonic deposition of free hemoglobin-alpha chain: a previously unknown tissue by-product in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeremy N.; Schäffer, Michael W.; Korolkova, Olga Y.; Williams, Amanda D.; Gangula, Pandu R.; M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed inflamed mucosal/submucosal layers of ulcerative colitis (UC=63) and Crohn’s colitis (CC=50) and unexpectedly we unveiled a pool of free-hemoglobin-alpha (Hb-α) chain. Patients with colitides have increased ROS, DNA-oxidation products, free-iron in mucosa, in pre-neoplastic, and in colitis-cancers and increased risks of developing colorectal-cancer (CRC). All IBD-related-CRC lesions are found in segments with colitis. Linking this information we investigated whether free-Hb-α is key transformational stepping that increases colitis-related-CRC vulnerability. Methods UC/CC samples were profiled using MALDI-MS; protein identification was made by LCM. Diverticulitis (DV) was used as control (Ctrl). The presence of Hb(n) (n=α, β and hemin)/Hb was validated by Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We tested for DNA-damage (DNAD) by exposing normal colonic-epithelial-cell-line, NCM460, to 10μM and 100μM of Hb(n)/Hb, individually for 2 h, 6 h, and 12 h. Quantification of Hb-α-staining was done by Nikon Elements Advance Research Analysis software. ROS was measured by the production of 8-OHdG. DNAD was assessed by Comet-assay. Colonic tissue homogenate antioxidants Nrf2-, CAT-, SOD- and GPx-expressions was analyzed densitometrically/ normalized by β-actin. Results IHC of CC/UC mucosal/submucosal-compartments stained strongly positive for Hb-α and significantly higher vs. Ctrl. NCM460 exposed to Hb(n)/Hb exhibited steadily-increasing ROS and subsequent DNAD. DNAD was higher in 10μM than 100μM in Hb-β/hemin the first 2 h then plateaued followed by DNAD-repair. This may be likely due to apoptosis in the later concentration. Nrf2 enzyme activities among UC, CC and UCAC were observed impaired in all IBD subjects. Decreased levels of Nrf2 among UC vs. CC patients with active disease was insignificant as well as vs. Ctrls but significantly lower in UCAC vs. Ctrl. SOD was decreased in UC and UCAC and GPx in CC but statistically not

  17. Photogrammetric survey to measure the bed topography of a laboratory large amplitude meandering channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Brutto, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    distance between the probe and the bed (or between the probe and the free surface) in order to maintain a constant electric capacity. Thus, the instrument is able to monitor the temporal or the spatial variation of the bed (or the free surface) sampling a value per second. Then, the analogical output is converted into digital, filtered and recorded by the help of a PC card NI-DAQ (National Instruments) and of a data acquisition algorithm expressly scheduled in Labview (ver. 7.0) environment. Then a photogrammetric survey has been carried out to produce in a fully automatic way a very dense Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the bed topography of the laboratory channel. The image acquisition has been performed using a Nikon D80 digital camera with a focal length of 28 mm and a resolution of 3872 pixel x 2592 pixel; the pixel size was 6.1 mm. The camera-to-object distance was 0.65 m and the photo scale was 1:23. The photos were taken providing the stereo coverage necessary for automatic DSM generation. The photos orientation was executed by bundle adjustment without control points using only several calibrated scale bar to scale the photogrammetric model. The very dense DSM has been produced with a step of 2 mm for the whole channel using image matching techniques without editing.

  18. Response of the diatom flora in the Gdańsk Basin (southern Baltic Sea) to eutrophication in the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    index nD=1.73). The analysis was performed with a NIKON microscope under a 100× oil immersion objective. The raw counts were transformed to relative abundance of the total frustules counted. The diatoms were divided into groups according to their biotype, salinity, trophy and saproby requirements. The content (in percentage) of all ecological groups were counted in the core. A total of 145 diatom species including varieties and forms representing 53 genera were identified in all samples. The diatom community was strong dominance by small-size planktic euhalobous (Thalassiosira levanderi, Pauliella taeniata) and mesohalobous (Cyclotella choctawhatcheeana) species. They were accompanied by freshwater eutraphentic and pollution-tolerant forms Actinocyclus normanii, Cyclostephanos dubius, Cyclotella atomus, C. caspia, C. meneghiniana, Stephanodiscus hantzschii, S. medius, S. neoastraea and S. parvus. The assemblage structure is a visible evidence of the progressive anthropopressure recorded in the near-bottom sediments of the Gdańsk Basin. Moreover, changes in spatial distribution of diatom anthropogenic assemblage show the close relationship to the distance from mouth of the Vistula River.

  19. Multi Length Scale Imaging of Flocculated Estuarine Sediments; Insights into their Complex 3D Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatland, Jonathan; Bushby, Andy; Droppo, Ian; Carr, Simon; Spencer, Kate

    2015-04-01

    addition of heavy metal stains and washing samples in a series of ethanol solutions and acetone. Gross-scale characterisation involved scanning samples using a Nikon Metrology HM X 225 µCT. For micro-scale analysis a working surface was revealed by microtoming the sample. Ultrathin sections were then collected and analysed using a JEOL 1200 Ex II TEM, and FIB-tomography datasets obtained using an FEI Quanta 3D FIB-SEM. Finally, to locate the surface and relate TEM and FIB-tomography datasets to the original floc, samples were rescanned using the µCT. Image processing was initially conducted in ImageJ. Following this datasets were imported into Amira 5.5 where pixel intensity thresholding allowed particle-matrix boundaries to be defined. Using 'landmarks' datasets were then registered to enable their co-visualisation in 3D models. Analysis of registered datasets reveals the complex non-fractal nature of flocs, whose properties span several of orders of magnitude. Primary particles are organised into discrete 'bundles', the arrangement of which directly influences their gross morphology. This strategy, which allows the co-visualisation of spatially registered multi-scale 3D datasets, provides unique insights into the true nature floc which would other have been impossible.

  20. Assessment of Middle Creek stream (Snyder County, PA) using Water Quality Index (WQI) and Diatom metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Holt, J. R.; Beren, M.; Santiago, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality Index (WQI) in combination with diatom community metrics were used to provide single values to express the overall quality of water based on a number of measurable parameters. WQI, Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) and Bray-Curtis Index of similarity were all measured during the period between June 26th and July 14th in an effort to assess the water quality of Middle Creek (MC) (Snyder, CO., PA). MC is a 2nd order tributary stream flowing into Penns Creek before joining the Susquehanna River. In this study, eleven sites were selected between the head waters and its confluence with Penns Creek. MC has two main branches in its upper reaches, each branch with a manmade reservoir. 3 sites were selected on each branch with one site upstream, the other site downstream and the third site on the reservoir. Five sites (A, B, C, D and E) were selected on the main stem from the confluence with Penns Creek to the confluence of the two headwater branches. For the WQI, all sites were sampled three times during the first week, twice the second week and once a week for the remaining two weeks. Diatom communities were samples by placing diatometers at each site and allowing them to incubate in situ for three weeks. Each diatometer had five microscope slides, each of which was mounted to form a permanent slide and then examined at 1000X using a Nikon E 200. A minimum of 300 cells was identified to species on each slide (~1500 cells per diatometer). The resulting relative abundances were used to generate a Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI) for each site and to compare the diatom communities using a Bray-Curtis Similarity Index. Physical properties were measured in the field and grab-samples were tested for PO43-, NO2-, NH3, NO3-, Na+, NH4, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ in addition to BOD5, COD and TSS. The results showed and average WQI for the first week of 90.35 confirming that the water was in good condition and could overcome discharge of runoff with nutrients chemicals. KE

  1. Geomaterials and architecture of the medieval monuments of Sardinia (Italy): petrophysical investigations on their construction materials and documentation on the architectonic aspects using digital technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Stefano; Verdiani, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    The Sardinia Island is in the core area of the Mediterranean Sea. Its position has made it the crossing point of many cultural and political events, but at the same time its isolation has favoured the manifestation of specific and unique Cultural Heritage phenomena. The network of several medieval monuments (i.e., Romanesque churches) disseminated all around the island clearly shows how an architectural language can be declined according to site specific materials and specific artistical and practical choices, always preserving its original logic and grammar. On the bases of different architectural characteristics and petrophysical features of their lithology, a significant number of churches have been chosen from the different medieval geographical-political areas of the Sardinia named (at that time) "Giudicati". Each of these churches were surveyed using the following methods: photography, 3D Laser Scanner for the whole interior and exterior parts (using a Leica HDS 6000 and a Cam/2 Faro Photon units), photogrammetry (using high resolution Nikon D700 and D800e) of a selected set of the extern surface of significant altered samples (aimed to the production of high quality and highly detailed 3D digital models), direct sampling of representative rocks and ancient mortars for geochemical and minero-petrographic analysis using optical polarized microscope, electronic microscopy (SEM), X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD). The physical-mechanical properties (real and bulk densities, open and closed porosity, water absorption and saturation, vapour permeability, flexion and compression strengths, etc.) of various geomaterials are determined with helium picnometry, microscopic image analysis, gas-permeability thermostatic chamber, oil-hydraulic press machine, Point Load Test (PLT), abrasimeter. For each church, when there was the occasion, some specific case study has been developed, matching the information about the materials and the specific events

  2. Computer graphics of center of masticatory forces in complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Kawahara, K; Kishimoto, E; Ogata, S

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. In dental education, it is valuable to show visually the differences between a good-fitting and an ill-fitting complete denture. A vector of masticatory forces across all the teeth of the denture is available to estimate the capability of the denture. The vector is simple while the forces exerted on a denture are very complex. A vector has only two factors, the point of application (center of force) and the magnitude. Because a complete denture acts as a unit, we can obtain the vector from electrical signals detected by transducers installed in the denture base. The aim of this study was to develop software which is able to show visually to dental students, the differences between the vectors of the dentures of three representative complete denture wearers. 2. METHODS. Three subjects, each with either a good, a moderate or an ill-fitting complete denture, were selected. Subject 1 could use the denture very comfortably during experiment. Subject 2 was uncomfortable at the insertion of the new denture, but after adaptations to the denture he could use it very well. Subject 3 had been uncomfortable during the experiment. A bottom complete denture was divided into upper and lower parts. These were connected by the four force-detecting units which were embedded in approximately the first premolar and second molar regions on both sides of the denture. The electric signals from these units during the chewing of peanuts and raisins (sampling time period: 30 msec) were recorded as digital signals and processed using the computer (Macintosh IIcx, Apple Computer) with the A/D converter (Lab-NB), National Instruments). Center and magnitudes of masticatory force were calculated from all sampling points using our newly developed software scripted by ¿C¿ (MPW C, Apple Computer). On the other hand, a tracing of the external shape of the dentition of the denture was made using the project (V-12, NIKON). The tracing of the dentition, with center and magnitude of

  3. The Milky Way above La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    experience in ground-based non-optical observations, paving the way for the ALMA project. The Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) [1] is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects of the next decade after the ESO VLT. Its construction started last year and will be completed by 2011. When ready, it will be the largest and most sensitive astronomical observatory of its kind, comprisiing some sixty-four 12-m antennas located on a 10-km wide plateau at a 5000-m elevation in the Atacama Desert. More information on ALMA can be found on ESO PR 29/03 or on the ESO ALMA web page. ESO PR Photo 27/04 may be reproduced if Nico Housen and the European Southern Observatory are mentioned as source. Technical information: The photo was obtained on September 4, 2004 at about 20:45 hrs local time (00:45 hrs UT) with a Nikon D100 digital camera with a Sigma 20mm/f1.8 lens. The exposure time was about 40 sec at 1600 ASA.

  4. Using a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to analyze the stability of a natural rock slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Mastrorocco, Giovanni; Seddaiu, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of a rotary wing RPAS for monitoring the stability of a natural rock slope in the municipality of Vecchiano (Pisa, Italy). The slope under investigation is approximately oriented NNW-SSE and has a length of about 320 m; elevation ranges from about 7 to 80 m a.s.l.. The hill consists of stratified limestone, somewhere densely fractured, with dip direction predominantly oriented in a normal way respect to the slope. Fracture traces are present in variable lengths, from decimetre to metre, and penetrate inward the rock versant with thickness difficult to estimate, often exceeding one meter in depth. The intersection between different fracture systems and the slope surface generates rocky blocks and wedges of variable size that may be subject to phenomena of gravitational instability (with reference to the variation of hydraulic and dynamic conditions). Geometrical and structural info about the rock mass, necessary to perform the analysis of the slope stability, were obtained in this work from geo-referenced 3D point clouds acquired using photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques. In particular, a terrestrial laser scanning was carried out from two different point of view using a Leica Scanstation2. The laser survey created many shadows in the data due to the presence of vegetation in the lower parts of the slope and limiting the feasibility of geo-structural survey. To overcome such a limitation, we utilized a rotary wing Aibotix Aibot X6 RPAS geared with a Nikon D3200 camera. The drone flights were executed in manual modality and the images were acquired, according to the characteristics of the outcrops, under different acquisition angles. Furthermore, photos were captured very close to the versant (a few meters), allowing to produce a dense 3D point cloud (about 80 Ma points) by the image processing. A topographic survey was carried out in order to guarantee the necessary spatial accuracy to the process of images exterior

  5. Lithography with infrared illumination alignment for advanced BiCMOS backside processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulse, P.; Schulz, K.; Behrendt, U.; Wietstruck, M.; Kaynak, M.; Marschmeyer, S.; Tillack, B.

    2014-10-01

    Driven by new applications such as BiCMOS embedded RF-MEMS, high-Q passives, Si-based microfluidics for bio sensing and InP-Si BiCMOS heterointegration [1-4], accurate alignment between back and front side is highly desired. In this paper, we present an advanced back to front side alignment technique and implementation of it into the back side processing module of IHP's 0.25/0.13 μm high performance SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Using the Nikon i-line Stepper NSR-SF150, a new infrared alignment system has been introduced. The developed technique enables a high resolution and accurate lithography on the back side of the BiCMOS-processed Si wafers for additional backside processing, such as backside routing metallization. In comparison to previous work [5] with overlay values of 500 nm and the requirement of two-step lithography, the new approach provides significant improvement in the overlay accuracy with overlay values of 200 nm and a significant increase of the fabrication throughput by eliminating the need of the two-step lithography. The new non-contact alignment procedure allows a direct back to front side alignment using any front side alignment mark (Fig. 2), which generated a signal by reflecting the IR light beam. Followed by a measurement of the misalignment between both front to back side overlay marks (Fig. 3) using EVG®NT40 automated measurement system, a final lithography process with wafer interfield corrections is applied to obtain a minimum overlay of 200 nm. For the specific application of deep Si etching using Bosch process, the etch profile angle deviation across the wafer (tilting) has to be considered as well. From experimental data, an etch profile angle deviation of 8 μm across the wafer has been measured (Fig. 7). The overlay error caused by tilting was corrected by optimization and adjustment of the stepper offset parameters. All measurements of back to front side misalignment were performed with the EVG®40NT automated measurement system

  6. X-ray CT imaging and image-based modelling study of gas exchange in the rice rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affholder, Marie-Cecile; Keyes, Samuel David; Roose, Tiina; Heppell, James; Kirk, Guy

    2016-04-01

    We used X-ray computer tomography and image-based modelling to investigate CO2 uptake by rice roots growing in submerged soil, and its consequences for the chemistry and biology of the rhizosphere. From previous work, three processes are known to greatly modify the rhizophere of rice and other wetland plants: (1) oxygenation of the submerged, anoxic soil by O2 transported through the root gas channels (aerenchyma); (2) oxidation of ferrous iron and resulting accumulation of ferric oxide; and (3) pH changes due to protons formed in iron oxidation and released from the roots to balance excess intake of cations over anions. A further process, so far not much investigated, is the possibility of CO2 uptake by the roots. Large amounts of CO2 accumulate in submerged soils because CO2 formed in soil respiration escapes only slowly by diffusion through the water-saturated soil pores. There is therefore a large CO2 gradient between the soil and the aerenchyma inside the root, and CO2 may be taken up by the roots and vented to the atmosphere. The extent of this and its consequences for rhizosphere chemistry and biology are poorly understood. We grew rice plants in a submerged, strongly-reduced, Philippine rice soil contained in 10-cm diameter, 20-cm deep Perspex pots. Four-week old rice seedlings, grown in nutrient culture, were transplanted into the pots at either 1 or 4 plants per pot, planted closely together. After 3 and 4 weeks, the pots were analysed with an X-ray CT scanner (Custom Nikon/Xtek Hutch; 80 mm by 56 mm field of view and 40 μm voxel size). Gas bubbles were extracted from the data by 3D median filtering and roots using a region-growth method. The images showed prominent and abundant gas bubbles in the soil bulk, but no or very few bubbles in the soil close to roots. There was a clear relation between the absence of gas bubbles and the presence of roots, as well as an increasing concentration of bubbles with depth through the soil. Analysis of the bubbles

  7. An Experimental Approach Using Vesicle Size Distribution (VSD) to Investigate the Kinetics of Vesiculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholis, M. G.; Kilinc, A. I.

    2001-05-01

    The exsolution of volatiles in magma initiates the formation of gas bubbles as a result of the development of a state of supersaturation from either magma ascending in the conduit, decrease in temperature, or the crystallization of anhydrous solid phases. In this analysis bubble-free rhyolitic glasses were isothermally decompressed in a series of controlled nucleation experiments to investigate the kinetics of bubble nucleation and growth. A two-fold approach was used to synthetically saturate the high silica melt. The first method is based on using blocks of solid obsidian placed in gold capsules with > 10 wt.% H2O and saturated for 72 hours. The second technique uses powdered obsidian that was saturated with H2O at a given pressure and temperature for 48 hours, quenched, reground, and then repeated one more time. The use of powdered obsidian in the second method evenly saturates the melt by minimizing the volume to surface area ratio, hence the diffusion distance. In all experiments glass charges were saturated with H2O at 100 MPa and 850\\deg C, and than isothermally decompressed at a rate of approximately 0.26 MPa/sec to a final confining pressure of 30, 50, and 70 MPa. Samples were held at the final pressure for a period ranging from 5 to 300 seconds (residence time) to allow for nucleation to take place. Bubble-bearing glass charges were cut, polished, imaged under SEM and Nikon petrographic microscopes, and digitally analyzed with "Scion Image". All glass charges produced by the block method contained either no bubbles or only a few bubbles. The only indication of bubble nucleation was limited in a zone on the outer periphery of the glass charges. This leads us to believe that in the block method the time given for hydration was insufficient for homogeneous saturation of the melt. We directed our attention to the bubble-bearing glasses generated by the powder experiments. Vesicle Size Distribution (VSD) was used to determine the kinetic behavior of bubbles

  8. Validation of Global EO Biophysical Products at JECAM Test Site in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Kravchenko, Oleksiy; Basarab, Ruslan; Ostapenko, Vadym; Yailymov, Bohdan; Shelestov, Andrii; Kolotii, Andrii; Mironov, Andrii

    acquired with a NIKON D70 camera. The images acquired during the field campaign are processed with the CAN-EYE software to derive LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER. The in situ biophysical values were used for producing LAI, FCOVER and FAPAR maps from optical satellite images, and provide cross-validation, and validation of global remote sensing products. The following satellite data were used: SPOT-4, RapidEye and Landsat-8. Inter-comparison of the derived products is performed. The paper presents an insight on the general methodology used within JECAM test site, the results achieved so far and challenges, and future planned activities. 1. Gallego, F.J., Kussul, N., Skakun, S., Kravchenko, O., Shelestov, A., Kussul, O. “Efficiency assessment of using satellite data for crop area estimation in Ukraine,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 29, pp. 22-30, 2014. 2. Kogan, F., Kussul, N., Adamenko, T., Skakun, S., Kravchenko, O., Kryvobok, O., Shelestov, A., Kolotii, A., Kussul, O., Lavrenyuk, A., “Winter wheat yield forecasting in Ukraine based on Earth observation, meteorological data and biophysical models,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 23, pp. 192-203, 2013.

  9. a Comparison of Laser Scanning and Structure from Motion as Applied to the Great Barn at Harmondsworth, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. P.; Bedford, J.; Bryan, P. G.

    2013-07-01

    repeat visit following the clearance of artefacts and with the benefit of access equipment was required to obtain complete coverage, especially for the top surfaces of the timber frame elements. Initial results from the laser scanning were extremely promising, with some historical events (e.g. a major fire at one end of the structure) dramatically shown in the intensity data. Comprehensive photographic coverage of the exterior of the barn including the roof was obtained using a Nikon D3X mounted on both a 6m telescopic pole and a conventional tripod. A repeat visit was required to address some exposure problems in shadow areas. A unified control network for both sets of data was obtained through the use of a total station theodolite (TST) with reflectorless electromagnetic distance measurement (REDM), incorporating a closed traverse as well as the acquisition of scanner and photogrammetric targets. The control network therefore permits the direct comparison of the results from both survey methods (allowing for systematic errors). A point cloud generated from the photography, using Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion software, was compared with the registered laser scan points with a view to determining any systematic differences, although these were to a large extent ameliorated by the use of the dense control network. The resultant data also has potential downstream use within English Heritage for improving our understanding of Building Information Modelling (BIM) as applied to heritage structures rather than new build, and thereby contributing to the formulation of elements of a BIM strategy for English Heritage. There are also a number of hand-measured survey drawings of the barn in existence. A quantitative as well as a qualitative comparison was made with drawings generated from the laser scan data. In general the later drawings were more metrically accurate but exhibited less understanding of the construction techniques employed. A discussion of the reasons for

  10. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    , on 21 September 2009. Notes [1] During his quest, Brunier used a Nikon D3 digital camera. The apparent motion of the sky caused by Earth's rotation was corrected for using a small, precise equatorial mount moving in the opposite direction, which made a whole circle in 23 hours 56 minutes around the Earth's axis of rotation. Each photo required a six-minute exposure, for a total exposure time of more than 120 hours. [2] The data processing, using software called Autopano Pro Giga, took great care in respecting the colours and "texture" of the Milky Way. Frédéric Tapissier needed about 340 computing hours on a powerful PC to complete the task. More information As part of the IYA2009, ESO is participating in several remarkable outreach activities, in line with its world-leading rank in the field of astronomy. ESO is hosting the IYA2009 Secretariat for the International Astronomical Union, which coordinates the Year globally. ESO is one of the Organisational Associates of IYA2009, and was also closely involved in the resolution submitted to the United Nations (UN) by Italy, which led to the UN's 62nd General Assembly proclaiming 2009 the International Year of Astronomy. In addition to a wide array of activities planned both at the local and international level, ESO is leading three of the twelve global Cornerstone Projects. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO