Science.gov

Sample records for cycle assessment approach

  1. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  2. Emerging approaches, challenges and opportunities in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Milà i Canals, Llorenç

    2014-06-01

    In the modern economy, international value chains--production, use, and disposal of goods--have global environmental impacts. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) aims to track these impacts and assess them from a systems perspective, identifying strategies for improvement without burden shifting. We review recent developments in LCA, including existing and emerging applications aimed at supporting environmentally informed decisions in policy-making, product development and procurement, and consumer choices. LCA constitutes a viable screening tool that can pinpoint environmental hotspots in complex value chains, but we also caution that completeness in scope comes at the price of simplifications and uncertainties. Future advances of LCA in enhancing regional detail and accuracy as well as broadening the assessment to economic and social aspects will make it more relevant for producers and consumers alike. PMID:24904154

  3. Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and managing to reduce burdens in the sustainability of product systems. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods fail to integrate the multiple im...

  4. An approach to incorporate risks into a product`s life-cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pirhonen, P.

    1995-12-31

    Life-cycle assessment is usually based on regular discharges that occur at a more or less constant rate. Nevertheless, the more factors that are taken into account in the LCA the better picture it gives on the environmental aspects of a product. In this study an approach to incorporate accidental releases into a products` life-cycle assessment was developed. In this approach accidental releases are divided into two categories. The first category consists of those unplanned releases which occur with a predicted level and frequency. Due to the high frequency and small release size at a time, these accidental releases can be compared to continuous emissions. Their global impacts are studied in this approach. Accidental releases of the second category are sudden, unplanned releases caused by exceptional situations, e.g. technical failure, action error or disturbances in process conditions. These releases have a singular character and local impacts are typical of them. As far as the accidental releases of the second category are concerned, the approach introduced in this study results in a risk value for every stage of a life-cycle, the sum of which is a risk value for the whole life-cycle. Risk value is based on occurrence frequencies of incidents and potential environmental damage caused by releases. Risk value illustrates the level of potential damage caused by accidental releases related to the system under study and is meant to be used for comparison of these levels of two different products. It can also be used to compare the risk levels of different stages of the life-cycle. An approach was illustrated using petrol as an example product. The whole life-cycle of petrol from crude oil production to the consumption of petrol was studied.

  5. Structured Assessment Approach: a procedure for the assessment of fuel cycle safeguard systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parziale, A.A.; Patenaude, C.J.; Renard, P.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-03-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed and tested for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission a procedure for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at Nuclear Fuel Facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment was made available in October, 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented.

  6. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  7. Towards Robust Energy Systems Modeling: Examinging Uncertainty in Fossil Fuel-Based Life Cycle Assessment Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Aranya

    Increasing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels used in the U.S. transportation and electricity sectors have spurred interest in alternate energy sources, such as natural gas and biofuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods can be used to estimate the environmental impacts of incumbent energy sources and potential impact reductions achievable through the use of alternate energy sources. Some recent U.S. climate policies have used the results of LCAs to encourage the use of low carbon fuels to meet future energy demands in the U.S. However, the LCA methods used to estimate potential reductions in environmental impact have some drawbacks. First, the LCAs are predominantly based on deterministic approaches that do not account for any uncertainty inherent in life cycle data and methods. Such methods overstate the accuracy of the point estimate results, which could in turn lead to incorrect and (consequent) expensive decision-making. Second, system boundaries considered by most LCA studies tend to be limited (considered a manifestation of uncertainty in LCA). Although LCAs can estimate the benefits of transitioning to energy systems of lower environmental impact, they may not be able to characterize real world systems perfectly. Improved modeling of energy systems mechanisms can provide more accurate representations of reality and define more likely limits on potential environmental impact reductions. This dissertation quantitatively and qualitatively examines the limitations in LCA studies outlined previously. The first three research chapters address the uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with petroleum-based fuels, natural gas and coal consumed in the U.S. The uncertainty in life cycle GHG emissions from fossil fuels was found to range between 13 and 18% of their respective mean values. For instance, the 90% confidence interval of the life cycle GHG emissions of average natural gas consumed in the U.S was found to

  8. Whole ecosystem approaches for assessing the coupling of N and P cycles in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, J. D.; Thomas, S. A.; Seybold, E. C.; Drake, T.; Lewis, K.; MacNeill, K.; Zimov, N.

    2010-12-01

    The most pressing environmental problems faced by society are manifestations of changes in biogeochemical cycles. The urgency of mitigating these problems has brought into sharp focus the need for a stronger mechanistic understanding of the factors that control biogeochemical cycles and how these factors affect multiple elements. Our overarching goal is to assess the strength of coupling between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in small headwater streams, including streams draining small watersheds in Northern California and the East Siberian Arctic. We have used a range of whole ecosystem approaches, rooted in nutrient spiraling theory, including plateau and pulsed nutrient enrichment experiments at a range of N:P ratios in heterotrophic and autotrophic streams. We use these experiments to calculate changes in nutrient spiraling metrics in response to changes in absolute and relative supply of N and P, and we use these results to infer the strength of the linkage between N and P cycles. In all California study streams, ecological processes are N limited, and we have observed significant changes in the strength of N and P coupling depending on position along the stream network. In small heterotrophic streams, addition of N caused significant increases in P uptake, while P had little influence on N. In larger autotrophic streams, N and P were only weakly coupled, which we attributed to a shift towards dominance of uptake by algae rather than heterotrophic bacteria, which is associated with differences in cellular structures. In addition, we have observed a small but consistent reduction in P uptake at high N:P of supply in autotrophic streams, which we speculate may indicate a suppression of N fixers at high N supply. In the Arctic, we have observed less consistency in the response of streams to nutrient enrichment, with some streams showing very little change in N or P uptake with changes in supply N:P, and others showing a decrease in N uptake in response

  9. Towards a Sustainable Approach to Nanotechnology by Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…

  10. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  11. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany. PMID:26061620

  12. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  13. Environmental optimization of chromium recovery from tannery sludge using a life cycle assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Eylem; Puig, Rita; Baquero, Grau; Font, Joaquim; Colak, Selime; Gürler, Deniz

    2011-08-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the environmental impact of an oxidative chromium recovery method from tannery sludge, in comparison with the usual landfilling process. Three improvement options (water reduction, byproduct use and anaerobic sludge digestion) were considered. The results showed that the proposed chromium recovery process would be better environmentally than conventional landfilling in all the evaluated impact categories if the amount of chromium recovered was 43 kg per ton of sludge. This amount could be recovered if the chromium concentration was about 20 times higher than that considered in this study. Alternatively, a lower chromium concentration would produce a better result if the recovery method was optimized and implemented at industrial rather than laboratory scale, and if more accurate data were provided on environmental credits for avoiding the chromium production process. Thus, the recovery method is environmentally beneficial when tannery sludge contains a chromium concentration of about 100,000 ppm. According to the literature, such concentrations are not unusual. The results could serve as the basis for further environmental improvements in chromium recovery and tannery sludge management and should be used in decision-making processes, especially for end-of-pipe treatments. PMID:21684684

  14. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach.

    PubMed

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results. PMID:23117186

  15. Sustainability evaluation of pasteurized milk production with a life cycle assessment approach: An Iranian case study.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Shahin; Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Mohammadi, Issa; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mousazadeh, Hossein; Clark, Sean

    2016-08-15

    Agro-food systems play a significant role in the economies of all nations due to energy use and the resulting environmental consequences. The sustainability of these systems is determined by a multitude of interacting economic, social and environmental factors. Dairy production presents a relevant example of the sustainability trade-offs that occur within such systems. On the one hand, dairy production constitutes an important part of the human diet, but it is also responsible for significant emissions of potent greenhouse gases and other pollutants. In this study, the environmental aspects of pasteurized milk production in Iran were investigated using a life-cycle approach. Three sub-systems, namely feed production, dairy farm and dairy factory, were taken into account to determine how and where Iranian pasteurized milk production might be made more environmentally friendly and energy efficient. The results clearly demonstrate that the feed production stage was the hot spot in pasteurized milk production in terms of energy consumption, environmental burdens and economic costs. The largest share of the total production costs belonged to animal feeds (43%), which were part of the feed production stage. The largest consumers of energy in the production of raw milk were alfalfa (30.3%), concentrate (24%), straw (17.8%) and maize (10.9%) for cows, followed by diesel fuel (6.6%) and electricity (5.6%). The global warming potential for the production of 1000kg of raw milk at the dairy-farm gate was estimated at 457kg CO2,eq. Thus, more than 69% of the total impact at the milk-processing gate resulted from the previous two sub-systems (feed production and dairy farm), with the feed-production stage accounting for the largest fractions of the environmental burdens. PMID:27110976

  16. MADYMO simulation of children in cycle accidents: a novel approach in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    McNally, D S; Rosenberg, N M

    2013-10-01

    Head injuries are a significant cause of death and injury to child cyclists both on and off the road. Current evaluations of the effectiveness of cycle helmets rely on simplified mechanical testing or the analysis of aggregated accident statistics. This paper presents a direct evaluation of helmet efficacy by using computational modelling to simulate a range of realistic accident scenarios, including loss of control, collision with static objects and vehicle impact. A 6-year-old cyclist was modelled (as a Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy), in addition to a typical children's bicycle and a vehicle using the MADYMO dynamics software package. Simulations were performed using ranges of cyclist position, cycle speed and vehicle speed with and without a helmet that meets current standards. Wearing a cycle helmet was found to reduce the probability of head injuries, reducing the average probability of fatality over the scenarios studied from 40% to 0.3%. Similarly, helmet wearing reduced the probability of neck injuries (average probability of fatality reduced from 11% to 1%). There was no evidence that helmet wearing increased the severity of brain or neck injuries caused by rotational accelerations; in fact these were slightly reduced. Similarly, there was no evidence that increased cycling speed, such as might result from helmet related risk compensation, increased the probability of head injury. PMID:23954681

  17. When Is the Simple Radiotoxicity Approach Useful for Advanced Fuel Cycle System Assessments Given the Existence of Complex Performance Dose Assessments?

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Engineers often face the general question of which approximations are appropriate for a given analytical task. In particular, when is a simpler model useful if a more complex model also exists? This paper explores this question in the domain of radiotoxicity relative to geologic disposal performance dose assessments. Criterion 1 requires that the simpler approach, radiotoxicity, must be calculated correctly. The concept of ingestion radiotoxic inventories is analogous to the inventory of toxic chemicals in other industries. From a decision analysis perspective, it is also somewhat analogous to the nuclear reactor safety concept of “passive safety.” This paper explains some of the issues in calculating radiotoxicity, motivated by the author’s observations of errors in the literature: not accounting for radioactive progeny, misunderstanding natural “ore,” and focusing on transuranic (TRU) isotopes without adequate attention to actinide decay products. For example, Th/233U fuel cycles do have lower amounts of TRU isotopes than U/239Pu fuel cycles, but that does not necessarily mean lower long-term hazard. Criterion 2 requires that the uncertainties in the more complex approach, performance dose assessments, must raise issues for the assessments’ intended purposes—in which case, radiotoxic inventory may be of assistance until those issues are resolved. Performance dose assessments were developed for, and are legally the way to show, compliance with regulations, but the uncertainties are large. Less obvious is the degree to which dose assessments are applicable to other purposes—comparing fuel cycle options prior to site selection and showing the safety of a fuel cycle and waste management approach to the public. In the last sense especially, performance dose assessments are analogous to probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear reactor safety. The United States lacks a selected consensus site, selected fuel cycle approach (direct disposal versus

  18. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process - A Life Cycle Assessment Approach.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Rizwan R; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  19. Development of a Two-Stage Microalgae Dewatering Process – A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Rizwan R.; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu; Danquah, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented. PMID:26904075

  20. The work environment disability-adjusted life year for use with life cycle assessment: a methodological approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systems-based method used to determine potential impacts to the environment associated with a product throughout its life cycle. Conclusions from LCA studies can be applied to support decisions regarding product design or public policy, therefore, all relevant inputs (e.g., raw materials, energy) and outputs (e.g., emissions, waste) to the product system should be evaluated to estimate impacts. Currently, work-related impacts are not routinely considered in LCA. The objectives of this paper are: 1) introduce the work environment disability-adjusted life year (WE-DALY), one portion of a characterization factor used to express the magnitude of impacts to human health attributable to work-related exposures to workplace hazards; 2) outline the methods for calculating the WE-DALY; 3) demonstrate the calculation; and 4) highlight strengths and weaknesses of the methodological approach. Methods The concept of the WE-DALY and the methodological approach to its calculation is grounded in the World Health Organization’s disability-adjusted life year (DALY). Like the DALY, the WE-DALY equation considers the years of life lost due to premature mortality and the years of life lived with disability outcomes to estimate the total number of years of healthy life lost in a population. The equation requires input in the form of the number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and illnesses that occur in the industries relevant to the product system evaluated in the LCA study, the age of the worker at the time of the fatal or nonfatal injury or illness, the severity of the injury or illness, and the duration of time lived with the outcomes of the injury or illness. Results The methodological approach for the WE-DALY requires data from various sources, multi-step instructions to determine each variable used in the WE-DALY equation, and assumptions based on professional opinion. Conclusions Results support the use of the WE-DALY in a

  1. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    PubMed

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred. PMID:27336697

  2. Wave Engine Topping Cycle Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.

    1996-01-01

    The performance benefits derived by topping a gas turbine engine with a wave engine are assessed. The wave engine is a wave rotor that produces shaft power by exploiting gas dynamic energy exchange and flow turning. The wave engine is added to the baseline turboshaft engine while keeping high-pressure-turbine inlet conditions, compressor pressure ratio, engine mass flow rate, and cooling flow fractions fixed. Related work has focused on topping with pressure-exchangers (i.e., wave rotors that provide pressure gain with zero net shaft power output); however, more energy can be added to a wave-engine-topped cycle leading to greater engine specific-power-enhancement The energy addition occurs at a lower pressure in the wave-engine-topped cycle; thus the specific-fuel-consumption-enhancement effected by ideal wave engine topping is slightly lower than that effected by ideal pressure-exchanger topping. At a component level, however, flow turning affords the wave engine a degree-of-freedom relative to the pressure-exchanger that enables a more efficient match with the baseline engine. In some cases, therefore, the SFC-enhancement by wave engine topping is greater than that by pressure-exchanger topping. An ideal wave-rotor-characteristic is used to identify key wave engine design parameters and to contrast the wave engine and pressure-exchanger topping approaches. An aerodynamic design procedure is described in which wave engine design-point performance levels are computed using a one-dimensional wave rotor model. Wave engines using various wave cycles are considered including two-port cycles with on-rotor combustion (valved-combustors) and reverse-flow and through-flow four-port cycles with heat addition in conventional burners. A through-flow wave cycle design with symmetric blading is used to assess engine performance benefits. The wave-engine-topped turboshaft engine produces 16% more power than does a pressure-exchanger-topped engine under the specified topping

  3. Understanding the impacts of allocation approaches during process-based life cycle assessment of water treatment chemicals.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Gaitan, Juan P; Peters, Gregory M; Short, Michael D; Schulz, Matthias; Moore, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Chemicals are an important component of advanced water treatment operations not only in terms of economics but also from an environmental standpoint. Tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are useful for estimating the environmental impacts of water treatment operations. At the same time, LCA analysts must manage several fundamental and as yet unresolved methodological challenges, one of which is the question of how best to "allocate" environmental burdens in multifunctional processes. Using water treatment chemicals as a case study example, this article aims to quantify the variability in greenhouse gas emissions estimates stemming from methodological choices made in respect of allocation during LCA. The chemicals investigated and reported here are those most important to coagulation and disinfection processes, and the outcomes are illustrated on the basis of treating 1000 ML of noncoagulated and nondisinfected water. Recent process and economic data for the production of these chemicals is used and methodological alternatives for solving the multifunctionality problem, including system expansion and mass, exergy, and economic allocation, are applied to data from chlor-alkali plants. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation is included to provide a comprehensive picture of the robustness of economic allocation results to changes in the market price of these industrial commodities. For disinfection, results demonstrate that chlorine gas has a lower global warming potential (GWP) than sodium hypochlorite regardless of the technique used to solve allocation issues. For coagulation, when mass or economic allocation is used to solve the multifunctionality problem in the chlor-alkali facility, ferric chloride was found to have a higher GWP than aluminum sulfate and a slightly lower burden where system expansion or exergy allocation are applied instead. Monte Carlo results demonstrate that when economic allocation is used, GWP results were relatively robust and resilient

  4. An Integrated Approach to Life Cycle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chytka, T. M.; Brown, R. W.; Shih, A. T.; Reeves, J. D.; Dempsey, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is the evaluation of the impacts that design decisions have on a system and provides a framework for identifying and evaluating design benefits and burdens associated with the life cycles of space transportation systems from a "cradle-to-grave" approach. Sometimes called life cycle assessment, life cycle approach, or "cradle to grave analysis", it represents a rapidly emerging family of tools and techniques designed to be a decision support methodology and aid in the development of sustainable systems. The implementation of a Life Cycle Analysis can vary and may take many forms; from global system-level uncertainty-centered analysis to the assessment of individualized discriminatory metrics. This paper will focus on a proven LCA methodology developed by the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify and assess key LCA discriminatory metrics, in particular affordability, reliability, maintainability, and operability. This paper will address issues inherent in Life Cycle Analysis including direct impacts, such as system development cost and crew safety, as well as indirect impacts, which often take the form of coupled metrics (i.e., the cost of system unreliability). Since LCA deals with the analysis of space vehicle system conceptual designs, it is imperative to stress that the goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but, rather, to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process, allowing the managers to make risk-informed decisions, and increase the likelihood of meeting mission success criteria.

  5. Assessment of potential impacts of municipal solid waste treatment alternatives by using life cycle approach: a case study in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2013-10-01

    In Vietnam, most of municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of at open dumping and landfill sites, and the methane gas from waste is the un-ignorable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. It is indispensable to explore the possibility for GHG mitigation in MSW management. The objective of this study was to estimate alternative waste treatment practices towards the GHG emission mitigation, energy consumption and generation, reduction of landfill volume, and various benefits for proposing the appropriate selection by scenario analyses for representative Vietnam's cities. Impacts were calculated by utilizing life cycle assessment (LCA) method. A literature review survey on the current applicability of LCA database for assessing impacts from waste sector in developing countries, especially for Vietnam, was carried out. This study assessed the contribution of alternative solid waste treatment practices. The result showed that, except investment and operation costs, incineration with energy recovery seems the suitable alternative for treating waste from representative cities of Vietnam according to reduction of GHG emission and waste burden to landfill sites and energy recovery and generation. Besides, MSW composition was identified as an important factor directly influencing to impacts as well as other products and benefits of waste treatment alternatives. Reliable data on waste composition are indispensable for assessing to choose, improve, or plan the waste treatment practices towards sustainable development. PMID:23475528

  6. Life cycle impact assessment modeling for particulate matter: A new approach based on physico-chemical particle properties.

    PubMed

    Notter, Dominic A

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes severe damage to human health globally. Airborne PM is a mixture of solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. It consists of organic and inorganic components, and the particles of concern range in size from a few nanometers to approximately 10μm. The complexity of PM is considered to be the reason for the poor understanding of PM and may also be the reason why PM in environmental impact assessment is poorly defined. Currently, life cycle impact assessment is unable to differentiate highly toxic soot particles from relatively harmless sea salt. The aim of this article is to present a new impact assessment for PM where the impact of PM is modeled based on particle physico-chemical properties. With the new method, 2781 characterization factors that account for particle mass, particle number concentration, particle size, chemical composition and solubility were calculated. Because particle sizes vary over four orders of magnitudes, a sound assessment of PM requires that the exposure model includes deposition of particles in the lungs and that the fate model includes coagulation as a removal mechanism for ultrafine particles. The effects model combines effects from particle size, solubility and chemical composition. The first results from case studies suggest that PM that stems from emissions generally assumed to be highly toxic (e.g. biomass combustion and fossil fuel combustion) might lead to results that are similar compared with an assessment of PM using established methods. However, if harmless PM emissions are emitted, established methods enormously overestimate the damage. The new impact assessment allows a high resolution of the damage allocatable to different size fractions or chemical components. This feature supports a more efficient optimization of processes and products when combating air pollution. PMID:26001495

  7. Delving into sensible measures to enhance the environmental performance of biohydrogen: A quantitative approach based on process simulation, life cycle assessment and data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gamboa, Mario; Iribarren, Diego; Susmozas, Ana; Dufour, Javier

    2016-08-01

    A novel approach is developed to evaluate quantitatively the influence of operational inefficiency in biomass production on the life-cycle performance of hydrogen from biomass gasification. Vine-growers and process simulation are used as key sources of inventory data. The life cycle assessment of biohydrogen according to current agricultural practices for biomass production is performed, as well as that of target biohydrogen according to agricultural practices optimised through data envelopment analysis. Only 20% of the vineyards assessed operate efficiently, and the benchmarked reduction percentages of operational inputs range from 45% to 73% in the average vineyard. The fulfilment of operational benchmarks avoiding irregular agricultural practices is concluded to improve significantly the environmental profile of biohydrogen (e.g., impact reductions above 40% for eco-toxicity and global warming). Finally, it is shown that this type of bioenergy system can be an excellent replacement for conventional hydrogen in terms of global warming and non-renewable energy demand. PMID:27155266

  8. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  9. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. CA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so mater...

  10. Improving the assessment of the State of the Carbon Cycle in North America by integrating inventory- and process- based approaches: A case study for Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, D. J.; Smyth, C.; Chen, G.; Kurz, W.; Stinson, G.; McGuire, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Regional and continental carbon stock and flux estimates differ among assessments depending on the scaling approach used and the budget components considered. This is particularly manifest across the vast circum-boreal region, which has experienced substantial modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle in recent decades, including pronounced climate warming and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. In Canada, inventory-based estimates suggest a small carbon sink for its managed forest, but do not include unmanaged lands nor capture major driving forces such as climate change and atmospheric chemistry. On the other hand, estimates from process-based models vary widely and often do not consider critical disturbance and management impacts. Here, we demonstrate results from an updated approach that integrates inventory-based information on management and disturbances with process-level representation of ecological dynamics using a terrestrial biogeochemistry model. The integrated approach facilitates more comprehensive diagnosis of Canada's land-based carbon budget within a framework that also allows for attribution of the major driving forces and prediction under future scenarios. Using this framework, we diagnose an approximately 30 Tg C yr-1 sink in Canada over the first decade of the 21st Century, which represents a significant reduction in the strength of the CO2 sink estimated for previous decades. This decline in sink strength is attributed primarily to CO2 emissions from the substantial area disturbed by wildfire and insect outbreaks in recent years. Such changes are predicted to create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming. Compared to other assessments, our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region's ecosystems may not be as strong as estimated by atmospheric inverse approaches, which are highly uncertain over the high latitudes, or by process-based models that do not

  11. A Learning Cycle Approach To Introducing Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an inquiry activity with a learning cycle approach to engage students in testing their own hypotheses about how molecules move through cell membranes. Offers student materials and teacher materials, including teaching tips for each phase of the learning cycle. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  12. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  13. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  14. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  15. The Assessment Cycle: A Model for Learning through Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinholz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances a model describing how peer assessment supports self-assessment. Although prior research demonstrates that peer assessment promotes self-assessment, the connection between these two activities is underspecified. This model, the assessment cycle, draws from theories of self-assessment to elaborate how learning takes place…

  16. WaLA, a versatile model for the life cycle assessment of urban water systems: Formalism and framework for a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis on the sustainable urban water management has increased over the last decades. In this context decision makers need tools to measure and improve the environmental performance of urban water systems (UWS) and their related scenarios. In this paper, we propose a versatile model, named WaLA (Water system Life cycle Assessment), which reduces the complexity of the UWS while ensuring a good representation of water issues and fulfilling life cycle assessment (LCA) requirements. Indeed, LCAs require building UWS models, which can be tedious if several scenarios are to be compared. The WaLA model is based on a framework that uses a "generic component" representing alternately water technology units and water users, with their associated water flows, and the associated impacts due to water deprivation, emissions, operation and infrastructure. UWS scenarios can be built by inter-operating and connecting the technologies and users components in a modular and integrated way. The model calculates life cycle impacts at a monthly temporal resolution for a set of services provided to users, as defined by the scenario. It also provides the ratio of impacts to amount of services provided and useful information for UWS diagnosis or comparison of different scenarios. The model is implemented in a Matlab/Simulink interface thanks to object-oriented programming. The applicability of the model is demonstrated using a virtual case study based on available life cycle inventory data. PMID:26474151

  17. Space transportation main engine cycle assessment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.; Lyles, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program selection process for a space transportation main engine (STME) power cycle is described in terms of the methodology employed. Low cost, robustness, and high reliability are the primary parameters for engine choice, suggesting simplicity of design and efficient fabrication methods as the crucial characteristics. An evaluation methodology is developed based on the Pugh (1981) process and the King (1989) matrices. The cycle configurations considered are the gas generator (GG), the closed expander, and the open expander. The cycle assessment team determined that the GG cycle is favored by most cycle discriminators, based on an assessment of the characteristics in terms of ALS goals. The lower development risk of the GG-cycle STME is consistent with the goals of the ALS program in terms of reliability and cost efficiency.

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  19. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  1. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  2. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  3. Understanding the Carbon Cycle : A Jigsaw Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2006-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the carbon cycle is fundamental to understanding the eventual fate of CO2. To achieve this, students must understand individual processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, as well as an integrated knowledge of how these processes relate to each other. In this "jigsaw" exercise, each student is assigned one five fundamental geochemical processes in the short- term carbon cycle to research and fully understand. In class, students first meet with others who have studied the same process to strengthen and deepen their understanding of this process. They then form teams of five students and explain to other students their particular process. In exchange, other students explain the other aspects of the carbon cycle. At the end of class all students will know about each of the five processes, and thus develop an integrated understanding of the entire carbon cycle. This approach is an efficient method for students to learn the material. As in a jigsaw puzzle, each student's part is essential for the full understanding of the carbon cycle. Since each student's part is essential, then each student is essential, which is what makes this strategy effective The jigsaw approach encourages listening, engagement, and collaboration by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity.

  4. Reinforcing the Cycle of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harhai, Marilyn K.; Krueger, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Multi-Subject Learning Survey (MSLS) as an assessment instrument for graduate students. Methodology: The MSLS was administered as a pre-test to 124 students enrolled in the introductory course for the Master of Science in Library Science degree at an American Library…

  5. Demonstrating an approach for including pesticide use in life-cycle assessment: Estimating human and ecosystem toxicity of pesticide use in Midwest corn farming

    EPA Science Inventory

    PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...

  6. Demonstrating an Approach for Including Pesticide Use in Life Cycle Assessment: Estimating Human and Ecosystem Toxicity of Pesticide Use in Midwest Corn Farming

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...

  7. Effect of soil in nutrient cycle assessment at dairy farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Annual farm nutrient cycle assessments give valuable insight in the nutrient cycles and nutrient losses at dairy farms. It describes nutrient use efficiencies for the entire farm and for the underlying components cattle, manure, crops and soil. In many modelling studies, soil is kept as a constant factor, while soil quality is vital for soil functioning of the ecosystem. Improving soil quality will improve the nutrient cycle, and will also have positive effect on the soil functions crop production, water cycling and greenhouse gas mitigation. Spatial variation of soil properties within a farm, however, are not included in annual nutrient cycle assessments. Therefore it is impossible to identify fields where most profit can be gained by improving farm management at field level, and it is not possible to identify and to quantify nutrient flow path ways. The aim of this study is to develop a framework to improve the annual nutrient cycle assessment at Dutch dairy farms, by including soil properties and their spatial variation within farms. Soil type and soil quality will be described by visual soil assessment of soil quality characteristics. The visual observations will be linked to the nutrient cycle assessment, using soil-hydrological model SWAP. We will demonstrate how soil quality at field level can impact on crop production, eutrophication potential and greenhouse gas potential at farm level. Also, we will show how this framework can be used by farmers to improve their farm management. This new approach is focusing on annual nutrient cycle assessment, but could also be used in life cycle assessment. It will improve understanding of soil functioning and dairy farm management.

  8. Metabolomics approach to assessing plasma 13- and 9-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid and linoleic acid metabolite responses to 75-km cycling.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Shanely, R Andrew; Luo, Beibei; Meaney, Mary Pat; Dew, Dustin A; Pappan, Kirk L

    2014-07-01

    Bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OXLAMs) include 13- and 9-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE + 9-HODE) and have been linked to oxidative stress, inflammation, and numerous pathological and physiological states. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in plasma 13-HODE + 9-HODE following a 75-km cycling bout and identify potential linkages to linoleate metabolism and established biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes) and inflammation (cytokines) using a metabolomics approach. Trained male cyclists (N = 19, age 38.0 ± 1.6 yr, wattsmax 304 ± 10.5) engaged in a 75-km cycling time trial on their own bicycles using electromagnetically braked cycling ergometers (2.71 ± 0.07 h). Blood samples were collected preexercise, immediately post-, 1.5 h post-, and 21 h postexercise, and analyzed for plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), F2-isoprostanes, and shifts in metabolites using global metabolomics procedures with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). 13-HODE + 9-HODE increased 3.1-fold and 1.7-fold immediately post- and 1.5 h postexercise (both P < 0.001) and returned to preexercise levels by 21-h postexercise. Post-75-km cycling plasma levels of 13-HODE + 9-HODE were not significantly correlated with increases in plasma cytokines but were positively correlated with postexercise F2-isoprostanes (r = 0.75, P < 0.001), linoleate (r = 0.54, P = 0.016), arachidate (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoate (12,13-DiHOME) (r = 0.60, P = 0.006), dihomo-linolenate (r = 0.57, P = 0.011), and adrenate (r = 0.56, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that prolonged and intensive exercise caused a transient, 3.1-fold increase in the stable linoleic acid oxidation product 13-HODE + 9-HODE and was related to increases in F2-isoprostanes, linoleate, and fatty acids in the linoleate

  9. The changing nature of life cycle assessment

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Marcelle C.; Taylor, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    LCA has evolved from its origins in energy analysis in the 1960s and 70s into a wide ranging tool used to determine impacts of products or systems over several environmental and resource issues. The approach has become more prevalent in research, industry and policy. Its use continues to expand as it seeks to encompass impacts as diverse as resource accounting and social well being. Carbon policy for bioenergy has driven many of these changes. Enabling assessment of complex issues over a life cycle basis is beneficial, but the process is sometimes difficult. LCA's use in framing is increasingly complex and more uncertain, and in some cases, irreconcilable. The charged environment surrounding biofuels and bioenergy exacerbates all of these. Reaching its full potential to help guide difficult policy discussions and emerging research involves successfully managing LCA's transition from attributional to consequential and from retrospective to prospective. This paper examines LCA's on-going evolution and its use within bioenergy deployment. The management of methodological growth in the context of the unique challenges associated with bioenergy and biofuels is explored. Changes seen in bioenergy LCA will bleed into other LCA arenas, especially where it is important that a sustainable solution is chosen. PMID:26664146

  10. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is describing the process, the underlying data, and the Inherent assumptions Involved in conducting the Inventory component of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) In order to facilitate understanding by potential users. This Inventory...

  11. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  12. Technology Assessment Report: Duty Cycling Controllers Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom; Benenson, Peter

    1998-05-01

    This report covers an assessment of two brands of energy management controllers that are currently being offered that utilize the principle of duty cycling to purportedly save energy for unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, gas furnaces, and gas fired boilers. The results of an extensive review of past research on this subject as well as a review of vendor sponsored field testing of these controllers compares these newer controllers to those of the past. Included also is a discussion of how the duty cycling principle is prone to misinterpretation as to its potential to save energy.

  13. Approaches to Cycle Analysis and Performance Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    The following notes were prepared as part of an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sponsored short course entitled Air Breathing Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) Technology. The course was presented in January of 2003, and again in July of 2004 at two different AIAA meetings. It was taught by seven instructors, each of whom provided information on particular areas of PDE research. These notes cover two areas. The first is titled Approaches to Cycle Analysis and Performance Metrics. Here, the various methods of cycle analysis are introduced. These range from algebraic, thermodynamic equations, to single and multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solutions. Also discussed are the various means by which performance is measured, and how these are applied in a device which is fundamentally unsteady. The second topic covered is titled PDE Hybrid Applications. Here the concept of coupling a PDE to a conventional turbomachinery based engine is explored. Motivation for such a configuration is provided in the form of potential thermodynamic benefits. This is accompanied by a discussion of challenges to the technology.

  14. ASSESSING THE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE OF INNOVATIVE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLES.

    SciTech Connect

    BARI,R.; ROGLANS,J.; DENNING,R.; MLADINEO,S.

    2003-06-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments to support the development and implementation of U.S. nonproliferation policy. This paper summarizes the key results of that effort. Proliferation resistance is the degree of difficulty that a nuclear material, facility, process, or activity poses to the acquisition of one or more nuclear weapons. A top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed here from a hierarchy of metrics. At the lowest level, intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to proliferation are defined. These barriers are recommended as a means to characterize the proliferation characteristics of a fuel cycle. Because of the complexity of nonproliferation assessments, the problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The spectrum of potential threats of nuclear proliferation is complex and ranges from small terrorist cells to industrialized countries with advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Two general categories of methods have historically been used for nonproliferation assessments: attribute analysis and scenario analysis. In the former, attributes of the systems being evaluated (often fuel cycle systems) are identified that affect their proliferation potential. For a particular system under consideration, the attributes are weighted subjectively. In scenario analysis, hypothesized scenarios of pathways to proliferation are examined. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and estimates the likelihood of success in achieving a proliferation objective. An attribute analysis approach should be used at the conceptual design level in the selection of fuel cycles that will receive significant investment for development. In the development of a detailed facility design, a scenario approach should be undertaken to reduce the potential for design vulnerabilities

  15. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  17. Waste management through life cycle assessment of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Yu V.; Aliferova, T. E.; Ncube, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid growth of a population in a country can contribute to high production of waste. Municipal waste and industrial waste can bring unhealthy and unpleasant environment or even diseases to human beings if the wastes are not managed properly.With increasing concerns over waste and the need for ‘greener’ products, it is necessary to carry out Life Cycle Assessments of products and this will help manufacturers take the first steps towards greener designs by assessing their product's carbon output. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a process to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, and to assess the impact of those energy and material used and released to the environment. The aim of the study was to use a life cycle assessment approach to determine which waste disposal options that will substantially reduce the environmental burdens posed by the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle. Several important observations can be made. 1) Recycling of the PET bottle waste can significantly reduce the energy required across the life cycle because the high energy inputs needed to process the requisite virgin materials greatly exceeds the energy needs of the recycling process steps. 2) Greenhouse gases can be reduced by opting for recycling instead of landfilling and incineration. 3) Quantity of waste emissions released from different disposal options was identified. 4) Recycling is the environmentally preferable disposal method for the PET bottle. Industry can use the tools and data in this study to evaluate the health, environmental, and energy implications of the PET bottle. LCA intends to aid decision-makers in this respect, provided that the scientific underpinning is available. Strategic incentives for product development and life cycle management can then be developed.

  18. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  19. Life cycle approaches to sustainable consumption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2005-07-01

    The 2002 World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg called for a comprehensive set of programs focusing on sustainable consumption and production. According to world leaders, these programs should rely on life cycle assessment (LCA) to promote sustainable patterns of production and consumption. Cleaner production is a well-established activity, and it uses LCA. UNEP, the European Union, and a number of national organizations have now begun to work on sustainable consumption. In developing sustainable consumption policies and activities, the use of LCA presents interesting opportunities that are not yet well understood by policy makers. This paper reviews how life cycle approaches, primarily based on input-output analysis, have been used in the area of sustainable consumption: to inform policy making, select areas of action, identify which lifestyles are more sustainable, advise consumers, and evaluate the effectiveness of sustainable consumption measures. Information on consumption patterns usually comes from consumer expenditure surveys. Different study designs and a better integration with consumer research can provide further interesting insights. Life-cycle approaches still need to be developed and tested. Current research is mostly descriptive; policy makers, however, require more strategic analysis addressing their decision options, including scenario analysis and backcasting. PMID:16053063

  20. Insights: Teaching Stoichiometry: A Two Cycle Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a method to teach stoichiometry where a problem is broken down into four factors and two cycles. Offers grams of known, moles of known, moles of unknown, and grams of unknown as the factors. Uses factor labeling as the second cycle. (MVL)

  1. Structural Margins Assessment Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A general approach to the structural design and verification used to determine the structural margins of the space vehicle elements under Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) management is described. The Space Shuttle results and organization will be used as illustrations for techniques discussed. Given also are: (1) the system analyses performed or to be performed by, and (2) element analyses performed by MSFC and its contractors. Analysis approaches and their verification will be addressed. The Shuttle procedures are general in nature and apply to other than Shuttle space vehicles.

  2. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    PubMed

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. PMID:27092420

  3. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). PMID:25623003

  4. Approaches to Academic Growth Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Gimbert, Belinda; O'Connell, Ann A.; Riegel, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is much interest in assessing growth in student learning. Assessments of growth have important implications and affect many policy decisions at many levels. Aims: In the present article, we review some of the different approaches to measuring growth and examine the implications of their usage. Sample: Samples used in research on…

  5. Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…

  6. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  7. EVALUATION OF PUBLIC DATABASES AS SOURCES OF DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods to determine the environmental effects of production systems must encourage a comprehensive evaluation of all "upstream" and "downstream" effects and their interrelationships. This cradle-to-grave approach, called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), has led to the development...

  8. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/xrel.pdf). NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  9. Life cycle assessment of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Taufiq, Fierly Muhammad; Padmi, Tri; Rahardyan, Dan Benno

    2016-03-01

    In 2013 the population of dairy cattle in Indonesia had reached 636,000 head with a 4.61% growth rate per year. The inputs were energy, water, and feed. These inputs produced outputs, such as emissions, solid waste and liquid waste. This research compared the maintenance systems in modern farms and local farms. The data were collected from 30 local farmers and one modern farm. This research used the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. LCA is based on ISO 14040. LCA consists of several stages: the goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation. This research used the cradle to gate concept and fat corrected milk (FCM) as the function unit. The impacts of these activities could generate global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), and eutrophication potential (EP). The calculations showed that the systems in local farms had the greatest emissions result over all impacts. In the case of local farms, the GWP was 2.34 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP was 0.12 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP was 18.28 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L milk FCM. While the impact from the modern farm was GWP of 1.52 kg CO2 eq/L of milk FCM, AP of 0.02 g SO2 eq/L of milk FCM, and EP of 0.353 g PO43- $P{O_{\\rm{4}}}^{{\\rm{3}} - }$ eq/L of milk FCM. Based on the total-weighted result, the GWP had the greatest impact from the overall life cycle phase of milk production. The total-weighted result obtained was of 0.298 EUR/L of FCM from a local farm and 0.189 EUR/L of FCM from the modern farm. This amount could be used to remediate the global warming, acidification, and eutrophication impacts of milk production. PMID:26953699

  10. Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1986-10-01

    In order to compare several nuclear-safeguards verification approaches to one another and to the conventional facility-oriented approach, we establish a framework of the classes of information routinely verifiable by IAEA safeguards inspections. For each facility type within a State nuclear fuel cycle, the classes include flow data, inventory data, and shipper and receiver data. By showing which classes of information are verified for each facility type within three fuel cycles of different complexity, we distinguish the inspection approaches from one anoter and exhibit their fuel-cycle dependence, i.e., their need for sets of safeguards inspection activities different from those required under the facility-oriented approach at similar facilities in fuel cycles of differing complexity. Tables V-1, V-2, and V-3 graphically depict these relations and give a qualitative summary of the relative effectiveness and effort requirements of the approaches classified. The zone, information-correlation, diversion-assumption-change, and randomization-over-facilities approaches depend intrinsically on the complexity of the fuel cycle: their very definition implies fuel-cycle dependence. The approaches involving randomization over activities and goal relaxations do not have such dependence.

  11. LIFE CYCLE BIOASSAY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS USING RAPID CYCLING OF BRASSICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial evaluation of a new plant life cycle bioassay for the assessment of the effects of toxic chemicals is presented. he bioassay features a rapid cycling Brassica species that can complete its life cycle in as little as 36 days. he herbicide dalapon (2,2 dichloropropionic aci...

  12. Measuring Nitrification: A Laboratory Approach to Nutrient Cycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an approach to the study of nutrient cycling in the school laboratory. Discussed are obtaining, processing, and incubating samples; extraction of ions from soil; procedures for nitrate and ammonium analysis; data analysis; an example of results; and other aspects of the nitrogen cycle. (CW)

  13. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  14. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    PubMed

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. PMID:22230660

  15. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  16. Background and Reflections on the Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. A.; Mann, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    Despite the ever-growing body of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature on electricity generation technologies, inconsistent methods and assumptions hamper comparison across studies and pooling of published results. Synthesis of the body of previous research is necessary to generate robust results to assess and compare environmental performance of different energy technologies for the benefit of policy makers, managers, investors, and citizens. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory initiated the LCA Harmonization Project in an effort to rigorously leverage the numerous individual studies to develop collective insights. The goals of this project were to: (1) understand the range of published results of LCAs of electricity generation technologies, (2) reduce the variability in published results that stem from inconsistent methods and assumptions, and (3) clarify the central tendency of published estimates to make the collective results of LCAs available to decision makers in the near term. The LCA Harmonization Project's initial focus was evaluating life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity generation technologies. Six articles from this first phase of the project are presented in a special supplemental issue of the Journal of Industrial Ecology on Meta-Analysis of LCA: coal (Whitaker et al. 2012), concentrating solar power (Burkhardt et al. 2012), crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PVs) (Hsu et al. 2012), thin-film PVs (Kim et al. 2012), nuclear (Warner and Heath 2012), and wind (Dolan and Heath 2012). Harmonization is a meta-analytical approach that addresses inconsistency in methods and assumptions of previously published life cycle impact estimates. It has been applied in a rigorous manner to estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from many categories of electricity generation technologies in articles that appear in this special supplemental supplemental issue, reducing the variability and

  17. Probabilistic approach to EMP assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bevensee, R.M.; Cabayan, H.S.; Deadrick, F.J.; Martin, L.C.; Mensing, R.W.

    1980-09-01

    The development of nuclear EMP hardness requirements must account for uncertainties in the environment, in interaction and coupling, and in the susceptibility of subsystems and components. Typical uncertainties of the last two kinds are briefly summarized, and an assessment methodology is outlined, based on a probabilistic approach that encompasses the basic concepts of reliability. It is suggested that statements of survivability be made compatible with system reliability. Validation of the approach taken for simple antenna/circuit systems is performed with experiments and calculations that involve a Transient Electromagnetic Range, numerical antenna modeling, separate device failure data, and a failure analysis computer program.

  18. Fabrication and life cycle assessment of organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anctil, Annick

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for renewable energy has resulted in a new interest for alternative technologies such as organic photovoltaics. With efficiencies exceeding 8% for both polymer and small molecule photovoltaics, organic photovoltaics are now being commercialized due to their flexibility and low weight which allow for their adoption in new applications such as portable electronics, smart fabrics, and building-integrated photovoltaics. To date, most research efforts have been focused on increasing power efficiency with little assessment of potential negative impacts associated with their large scale production. It is generally assumed that organic photovoltaics have low environmental impacts and are by nature inexpensive to produce since they are often solution processed. In the present work, a comprehensive analysis of the life cycle embodied energy for C60 and C70 fullerenes which are the most common acceptor molecules in organic photovoltaics, has been performed from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes. The embodied energy of all fullerenes was calculated to be an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals. These results have enabled the life cycle impact associated with the production of various types of organic photovoltaics to be calculated, including polymer, small molecule and multi-junction devices. An outcome of the life cycle assessment for organic photovoltaics shows that small molecule devices require significant fabrication energy from high vacuum processing and their efficiency is limited by poor absorption in the near-infrared (NIR). Therefore, a solution processing approach with novel NIR absorbing molecules in multi-junction devices has been developed in order to minimize the total cumulative energy. The combined efforts have led to the first demonstration of a spray-coated small molecule photovoltaic NIR device, using a combination of ZnPc and Al

  19. Aerodynamic drag in cycling: methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Debraux, Pierre; Grappe, Frederic; Manolova, Aneliya V; Bertucci, William

    2011-09-01

    When cycling on level ground at a speed greater than 14 m/s, aerodynamic drag is the most important resistive force. About 90% of the total mechanical power output is necessary to overcome it. Aerodynamic drag is mainly affected by the effective frontal area which is the product of the projected frontal area and the coefficient of drag. The effective frontal area represents the position of the cyclist on the bicycle and the aerodynamics of the cyclist-bicycle system in this position. In order to optimise performance, estimation of these parameters is necessary. The aim of this study is to describe and comment on the methods used during the last 30 years for the evaluation of the effective frontal area and the projected frontal area in cycling, in both laboratory and actual conditions. Most of the field methods are not expensive and can be realised with few materials, providing valid results in comparison with the reference method in aerodynamics, the wind tunnel. Finally, knowledge of these parameters can be useful in practice or to create theoretical models of cycling performance. PMID:21936289

  20. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  1. LCACCESS: A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCAccess is an EPA-sponsored website intended to promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in business decision-making by faciliatating access to data sources that are useful in developing a life cycle inventory (LCI). While LCAccess does not itself contain data, it is a sea...

  2. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  3. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  4. Energy life-cycle assessment of soybean biodiesel revisited

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the energy flows associated with biodiesel production. A similar study conducted previously (Sheehan et al., Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus, Publication NREL/SR-580-24089, National Renewable Ener...

  5. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European Union's new Integrated Product Policy directs governments and companies to consider the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, in their environmental decision-making process. A life-cycle based approach is intended to lead toward true environmental improvem...

  6. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Heijungs, R

    2014-01-15

    Noise is a serious stressor affecting the health of millions of citizens. It has been suggested that disturbance by noise is responsible for a substantial part of the damage to human health. However, no recommended approach to address noise impacts was proposed by the handbook for life cycle assessment (LCA) of the European Commission, nor are characterisation factors (CFs) and appropriate inventory data available in commonly used databases. This contribution provides CFs to allow for the quantification of noise impacts on human health in the LCA framework. Noise propagation standards and international reports on acoustics and noise impacts were used to define the model parameters. Spatial data was used to calculate spatially-defined CFs in the form of 10-by-10-km maps. The results of this analysis were combined with data from the literature to select input data for representative archetypal situations of emission (e.g. urban day with a frequency of 63 Hz, rural night at 8000 Hz, etc.). A total of 32 spatial and 216 archetypal CFs were produced to evaluate noise impacts at a European level (i.e. EU27). The possibility of a user-defined characterisation factor was added to support the possibility of portraying the situation of full availability of information, as well as a highly-localised impact analysis. A Monte Carlo-based quantitative global sensitivity analysis method was applied to evaluate the importance of the input factors in determining the variance of the output. The factors produced are ready to be implemented in the available LCA databases and software. The spatial approach and archetypal approach may be combined and selected according to the amount of information available and the life cycle under study. The framework proposed and used for calculations is flexible enough to be expanded to account for impacts on target subjects other than humans and to continents other than Europe. PMID:24035845

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  8. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  9. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  10. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  11. Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the Millennium Assessment: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

  12. Breaking the Intergenerational Cycle of Disadvantage: The Three Generation Approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tina L; Johnson, Sara B; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities in the United States related to socioeconomic status are persistent and pervasive. This review highlights how social disadvantage, particularly low socioeconomic status and the health burden it brings, is passed from 1 generation to the next. First, we review current frameworks for understanding the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and provide 4 illustrative examples relevant to child health, development, and well-being. Second, the leading strategy to break the cycle of poverty in young families in the United States, the 2-generation approach, is reviewed. Finally, we propose a new 3-generation approach that must combine with the 2-generation approach to interrupt the intergenerational cycle of disadvantage and eliminate health disparities. PMID:27244844

  13. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  14. Use of risk assessment and life cycle assessment in decision making: a common policy research agenda.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Sarah J; Fairman, Robyn; Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2002-10-01

    Quantitative risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are both analytical tools used to support decision making in environmental management. They have been developed and used by largely separate groups of specialists, and it is worth considering whether there is a common research agenda that may increase the relevance of these tools in decision-making processes. The validity of drawing comparisons between use of the tools is established through examining key aspects of the two approaches for their similarities and differences, including the nature of each approach and contextual and methodological aspects. Six case studies involving use of each approach in public decision making are described and used to draw out concerns about using RA and LCA in this context. The following categories of concern can be distinguished: philosophical approach of the tools; quantitative versus qualitative assessment; stakeholder participation; the nature of the results; and the usefulness of the results in relation to time and financial resource requirements. These can be distilled into a common policy research agenda focusing on: the legitimacy of using tools built on a particular perspective in decision making; recognition and role of value judgments in RA and LCA; treatment of uncertainty and variability; the influence of analytical tools in focusing attention on particular aspects of a decision-making situation; and understandability of the results for nonspecialists. It is concluded that it is time to bring together the experiences of RA and LCA specialists and benefit from cross-fertilization of ideas. PMID:12442986

  15. A Methodology for Robust Comparative Life Cycle Assessments Incorporating Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jeremy R; Noshadravan, Arash; Olivetti, Elsa A; Kirchain, Randolph E

    2016-06-21

    We propose a methodology for conducting robust comparative life cycle assessments (LCA) by leveraging uncertainty. The method evaluates a broad range of the possible scenario space in a probabilistic fashion while simultaneously considering uncertainty in input data. The method is intended to ascertain which scenarios have a definitive environmentally preferable choice among the alternatives being compared and the significance of the differences given uncertainty in the parameters, which parameters have the most influence on this difference, and how we can identify the resolvable scenarios (where one alternative in the comparison has a clearly lower environmental impact). This is accomplished via an aggregated probabilistic scenario-aware analysis, followed by an assessment of which scenarios have resolvable alternatives. Decision-tree partitioning algorithms are used to isolate meaningful scenario groups. In instances where the alternatives cannot be resolved for scenarios of interest, influential parameters are identified using sensitivity analysis. If those parameters can be refined, the process can be iterated using the refined parameters. We also present definitions of uncertainty quantities that have not been applied in the field of LCA and approaches for characterizing uncertainty in those quantities. We then demonstrate the methodology through a case study of pavements. PMID:27219285

  16. Life-cycle impact assessment: A conceptual framework, key issues, and summary of existing methods

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a holistic concept and approach for evaluating the environmental and human health impacts associated with a product, process, or activity. A complete LCA looks upstream and down stream, identifies inputs and outputs, and assesses the potential effects of those inputs and outputs on ecosystems, human health, and natural resoures. This report presents a conceptual framework for conducting a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA), discusses major issues, and summarizes existing methods. It also identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of various methods.

  17. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  18. Assessment for advanced fuel cycle options in CANDU

    SciTech Connect

    Morreale, A.C.; Luxat, J.C.; Friedlander, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The possible options for advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors including actinide burning options and thorium cycles were explored and are feasible options to increase the efficiency of uranium utilization and help close the fuel cycle. The actinide burning TRUMOX approach uses a mixed oxide fuel of reprocessed transuranic actinides from PWR spent fuel blended with natural uranium in the CANDU-900 reactor. This system reduced actinide content by 35% and decreased natural uranium consumption by 24% over a PWR once through cycle. The thorium cycles evaluated used two CANDU-900 units, a generator and a burner unit along with a driver fuel feedstock. The driver fuels included plutonium reprocessed from PWR, from CANDU and low enriched uranium (LEU). All three cycles were effective options and reduced natural uranium consumption over a PWR once through cycle. The LEU driven system saw the largest reduction with a 94% savings while the plutonium driven cycles achieved 75% savings for PWR and 87% for CANDU. The high neutron economy, online fuelling and flexible compact fuel make the CANDU system an ideal reactor platform for many advanced fuel cycles.

  19. Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.

  20. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  1. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  2. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    . While average results are valuable in comparing transport modes generally, they are less representative of local planning decisions, where the focus is on understanding the consequences of new infrastructure and how it might affect traffic, community impacts, and environmental aspects going forward. Chester et al (2013) also present their results using consequential LCA, which provides more detailed insights about the marginal effects of the specific rapid bus and light rail lines under study. The trade-offs between the additional resources required to install the public transit infrastructure (the 'resource debt') and the environmental advantages during the operation of these modes can be considered explicitly in terms of environmental impact payback periods, which vary with the type of environmental impact being considered. For example, bus rapid transit incurs a relatively small carbon debt associated with the GHG emissions of manufacturing new buses and installing transit infrastructure and pays this debt off almost immediately, while it takes half a century for the light rail line to pay off the 'smog debt' of its required infrastructure. This payback period approach, ubiquitous in life cycle costing, has been useful for communicating the magnitude of unintended environmental consequences from other resource and land management decisions, e.g., the release of soil carbon from land conversion to bioenergy crops (Fargione et al 2008), and will likely grow in prevalence as consequential LCA is used for decision support. The locations of projected emissions is just as important to decision-making as their magnitudes, as policy-making bodies seek to understand effects in their jurisdictions; however, life cycle impact assessment methods typically aggregate results by impact category rather than by source or sink location. Chester et al (2013) address this issue by providing both local (within Los Angeles) and total emissions results, with accompanying local-only payback

  3. Maintaining quality critical peer review (CPR) as the demand for life cycle assessments increases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental managers and government policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the need to follow the holistic approach of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to move us in the right strategic direction to best achieve environmental sustainability. Along with this realization ha...

  4. Is the Critical Review Process Keeping Pace with the Growing Number of Life Cycle Assessments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental managers and government policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the need to follow the holistic approach of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to move us in the right strategic direction to best achieve environmental sustainability. Along with this increasing real...

  5. Applying the PDCA Cycle to the Complex Task of Teaching and Assessing Public Relations Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, John E.; Allen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Teaching skills, knowledge and abilities appropriate for career-ready graduates and assessing learning are complex issues. Developing a valid and reliable approach is often by trial and error. Instead, the authors employed Deming's PDCA Cycle of continuous improvement as a systematic procedure to incrementally move closer to their goal. This paper…

  6. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  7. A Life Cycle Assessment of a Magnesium Automotive Front End

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit; Dubreuil, Alain; Bushi, Lindita; Tharumarajah, Ambalavanar

    2009-01-01

    The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobile. The goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North America built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS with the standard carbon steel based design. This LCA uses the 'cradle-to-grave' approach by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006. Furthermore, the LCA results for aluminum based front end autopart are presented. While weight savings result in reductions in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions during the use of the car, the impacts of fabrication and recycling of lightweight materials are substantial in regard to steel. Pathways for improving sustainability of magnesium use in automobiles through material management and technology improvements including recycling are also discussed.

  8. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The

  9. Failure of engineering artifacts: a life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Del Frate, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Failure is a central notion both in ethics of engineering and in engineering practice. Engineers devote considerable resources to assure their products will not fail and considerable progress has been made in the development of tools and methods for understanding and avoiding failure. Engineering ethics, on the other hand, is concerned with the moral and social aspects related to the causes and consequences of technological failures. But what is meant by failure, and what does it mean that a failure has occurred? The subject of this paper is how engineers use and define this notion. Although a traditional definition of failure can be identified that is shared by a large part of the engineering community, the literature shows that engineers are willing to consider as failures also events and circumstance that are at odds with this traditional definition. These cases violate one or more of three assumptions made by the traditional approach to failure. An alternative approach, inspired by the notion of product life cycle, is proposed which dispenses with these assumptions. Besides being able to address the traditional cases of failure, it can deal successfully with the problematic cases. The adoption of a life cycle perspective allows the introduction of a clearer notion of failure and allows a classification of failure phenomena that takes into account the roles of stakeholders involved in the various stages of a product life cycle. PMID:22389210

  10. A Scientific Synthesis and Assessment of the Arctic Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Daniel J.; Guo, Laodong; McGuire, A. David

    2007-06-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), along with the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) Project and the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), sponsored the Arctic Carbon Cycle Assessment Workshop, at the Red Lion Hotel in Seattle, Wash., between 27 February and 1 March 2007. The workshop was held in a general effort toward the scientific synthesis and assessment of the Arctic system carbon cycle, as well as to generate feedback on the working draft of an assessment document. The initial assessment was prepared by the Arctic carbon cycle assessment writing team, which is led by A. David McGuire (University of Alaska Fairbanks) and includes Leif Anderson (Goteborg University, Sweden), Torben Christensen (Lund University, Sweden), Scott Dallimore (Natural Resources Canada), Laodong Guo (University of Southern Mississippi), Martin Heimann (Max Planck Institute, Germany), Robie MacDonald (Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada), and Nigel Roulet (McGill University, Canada). The workshop brought together leading researchers in the fields of terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric science to report on and discuss the current state of knowledge on contemporary carbon stocks and fluxes in the Artie and their potential responses to a changing climate. The workshop was attended by 35 scientists representing institutions from 10 countries in addition to two representatives of the sponsor agencies (John Calder for AMAP and Diane Verseghy for CliC).

  11. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to p...

  12. ANALYZING SHORT CUT METHODS FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Work in progress at the U.S. EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory is developing methods for quickly, easily, and inexpensively developing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) inventories. An LCA inventory represents the inputs and outputs from processes, including fuel and ...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  14. Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Indoor Emissions of Synthetic Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate impacts of chemicals on the environment and human health along the lifespan of products. However, the increasingly produced and applied nanomaterials (defined as one dimension <100 nm) show particular characteri...

  15. Improvements to Emergy evaluations by using Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized, multicriteria and standardized tool for environmental assessment of products and processes. As an independent evaluation method, emergy assessment has shown to be a promising and relatively novel tool. The technique has gained wide recognition in the past decade but still faces methodological difficulties which prevent it from being accepted by a broader stakeholder community. This review aims to elucidate the fundamental requirements to possibly improve the Emergy evaluation by using LCA. Despite its capability to compare the amount of resources embodied in production systems, Emergy suffers from its vague accounting procedures and lacks accuracy, reproducibility, and completeness. An improvement of Emergy evaluations can be achieved via (1) technical implementation of Emergy algebra in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI); (2) selection of consistent Unit Emergy Values (UEVs) as characterization factors for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA); and (3) expansion of the LCI system boundaries to include supporting systems usually considered by Emergy but excluded in LCA (e.g., ecosystem services and human labor). Whereas Emergy rules must be adapted to life-cycle structures, LCA should enlarge its inventory to give Emergy a broader computational framework. The matrix inversion principle used for LCAs is also proposed as an alternative to consistently account for a large number of resource UEVs. PMID:22489863

  16. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Management Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Listed by Time Magazine as the method behind calculating “Ecological Intelligence,” one of “10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now” (March 23, 2009), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that is used to understand the environmental impacts of the products we make and sell. Jo...

  18. Modelling the hydrological cycle in assessments of climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Goldberg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The predictions of climate change studies depend crucially on the hydrological cycles embedded in the different models used. It is shown here that uncertainties in hydrological processes and inconsistencies in both climate and impact models limit confidence in current assessments of climate change. A future course of action to remedy this problem is suggested.

  19. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (CHAPTER 15): BOOK CHAPTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    BOOK NRMRL-CIN-1088 Curran*, M.A., and Schenck, R.C. "Pollution Prevention and Life Cycle Assessment (Chapter 15)." Published in: Handbook of Pollution Control and Waste Minimization, A. Ghassemi (Ed.),New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2001, p. 289-320. /2000 Much has been ac...

  1. Incorporating exposure science into life-cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential for environmental damage that may be caused by a product or process, ideally before the product or process begins. LCA includes all of the steps from extracting natural resources through manufacturing through product u...

  2. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an effective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes fro...

  3. A Probabilistic Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.

    1999-01-01

    A probabilistic approach is described for aeropropulsion system assessment. To demonstrate this approach, the technical performance of a wave rotor-enhanced gas turbine engine (i.e. engine net thrust, specific fuel consumption, and engine weight) is assessed. The assessment accounts for the uncertainties in component efficiencies/flows and mechanical design variables, using probability distributions. The results are presented in the form of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and sensitivity analyses, and are compared with those from the traditional deterministic approach. The comparison shows that the probabilistic approach provides a more realistic and systematic way to assess an aeropropulsion system.

  4. Assessing the Learning Organization: Part 2--Exploring Practical Assessment Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosey, Paul; Smith, Peter A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents two approaches to assessing learning organizations: (1) Focus, Will, Capability, Performance System and (2) organizations as energies. Describes ways in which behavior change is measured in each approach. (SK)

  5. Accounting for the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in input-output life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2013-08-20

    Nitrogen is indispensable for sustaining human activities through its role in the production of food, animal feed, and synthetic chemicals. This has encouraged significant anthropogenic mobilization of reactive nitrogen and its emissions into the environment resulting in severe disruption of the nitrogen cycle. This paper incorporates the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen into the 2002 input-output model of the U.S. economy. Due to the complexity of this cycle, this work proposes a unique classification of nitrogen flows to facilitate understanding of the interaction between economic activities and various flows in the nitrogen cycle. The classification scheme distinguishes between the mobilization of inert nitrogen into its reactive form, use of nitrogen in various products, and nitrogen losses to the environment. The resulting inventory and model of the US economy can help quantify the direct and indirect impacts or dependence of economic sectors on the nitrogen cycle. This paper emphasizes the need for methods to manage the N cycle that focus not just on N losses, which has been the norm until now, but also include other N flows for a more comprehensive view and balanced decisions. Insight into the N profile of various sectors of the 2002 U.S. economy is presented, and the inventory can also be used for LCA or Hybrid LCA of various products. The resulting model is incorporated in the approach of Ecologically-Based LCA and available online. PMID:23869533

  6. Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Greg

    2006-01-01

    It is the conclusion of the Committee on Assessing Technological Literacy, a study panel appointed by the National Academy of Engineering and the National Research Council, that very little is known about what children or adults know, can do, and believe about technology. This is because the state of assessment related to technology--or, …

  7. Designing Assessments: A Multiliteracies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gloria E.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment, as defined by policy mandates such as No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, is a well--established concept within education. However, assessing multiliteracies presents new challenges because multiliteracies is about ways of knowing and being in the world rather than mastery of a particular set of cognitive skills. In this article,…

  8. Assessment Approaches in Virtual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastgoo, Azam; Namvar, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Today, the traditional assessment methods are not enough for measuring students' ability. Internet and its technologies have a strong impact to change it and there are some new ways to measure students' ability and knowledge. This article identifies some assessment methods and tools in online education and describes findings that show the…

  9. APPROACHES FOR INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing the need to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of risk assessments globally, the WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development form...

  10. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    . While average results are valuable in comparing transport modes generally, they are less representative of local planning decisions, where the focus is on understanding the consequences of new infrastructure and how it might affect traffic, community impacts, and environmental aspects going forward. Chester et al (2013) also present their results using consequential LCA, which provides more detailed insights about the marginal effects of the specific rapid bus and light rail lines under study. The trade-offs between the additional resources required to install the public transit infrastructure (the 'resource debt') and the environmental advantages during the operation of these modes can be considered explicitly in terms of environmental impact payback periods, which vary with the type of environmental impact being considered. For example, bus rapid transit incurs a relatively small carbon debt associated with the GHG emissions of manufacturing new buses and installing transit infrastructure and pays this debt off almost immediately, while it takes half a century for the light rail line to pay off the 'smog debt' of its required infrastructure. This payback period approach, ubiquitous in life cycle costing, has been useful for communicating the magnitude of unintended environmental consequences from other resource and land management decisions, e.g., the release of soil carbon from land conversion to bioenergy crops (Fargione et al 2008), and will likely grow in prevalence as consequential LCA is used for decision support. The locations of projected emissions is just as important to decision-making as their magnitudes, as policy-making bodies seek to understand effects in their jurisdictions; however, life cycle impact assessment methods typically aggregate results by impact category rather than by source or sink location. Chester et al (2013) address this issue by providing both local (within Los Angeles) and total emissions results, with accompanying local-only payback

  11. A matrix approach for assessing biosolids stability

    SciTech Connect

    Switzenbaum, M.S.; Moss, L.H.; Epstein, E.; Pincince, A.B.; Donovan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    Stability assessment of biosolids must be made on the basis of the stabilization process used and the intended use of the manufactured biosolids. In this manner, a matrix based on technology and use was developed as an approach for assessing biosolids stability. Specific tests were recommended as to the most useful methods of stability assessment for each of the stabilization technologies examined.

  12. Assessment of Young Children: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    In an era of standards and norms where assessment tends to minimize or dismiss individual differences and results in punitive outcomes or no action at all, Assessment of Young Children provides teachers with an approach to assessment that is in the best interest of both children and their families. Author Lisa B. Fiore explores a variety of ways…

  13. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  14. A Comparative Study of a Traditional Approach and a Multimedia Approach to Teaching the Accounting Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squizzero, William E.

    Because of course difficulty and dryness, students of elementary accounting often have poor grades and manifest low interest and a 40-50% dropout rate. In answer to these problems, an experimental multimedia approach to teaching the accounting cycle was tested with 58 students against a control group of 62. Both groups consisted of male and female…

  15. An Approach to Competitive Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Petrina M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers a detailed discussion of competitive assessment, an efficient and cost-effective method to evaluate competitive products. Describes its three phases: numerical scoring, building a best-of-breed model, and determining the gap between the best-of-breed model and another product. (SR)

  16. Bioaccumulation Assessment using Predictive Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mandated efforts to assess chemicals for their potential to bioaccumulate within the environment are increasingly moving into the realm of data inadequacy. Consequently, there is an increasing reliance on predictive tools to complete regulatory requirements in a timely and cost-e...

  17. Assessing Discrimination: A Boolean Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragin, Charles C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses current practices for statistical assessments of employment discrimination and suggests nonstatistical techniques that can be used to aid in interpreting results of statistical analyses. The techniques incorporate principles of Boolean algebra and allow holistic comparison of categories of similarly situated individuals. (CMG)

  18. Using Life Cycle Assessment methodology to assess UHT milk production in Portugal.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Castanheira, Erica G; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Milk and dairy products constitute an important ingredient in the human diet. Ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk is the main dairy product consumed in Portugal and its production entails large inputs of resources which derive on negative environmental effects such as nutrient enrichment of the ecosystem and climate change. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was considered for the environmental assessment of packaged UHT milk produced in Portugal, including simple (whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed) and cocoa milk from a cradle-to-gate perspective and to identify the environmental hot spots. Results showed that the production of the raw milk in the dairy farm is the main hot spot in almost all the categories under assessment mainly due to the emissions from enteric fermentation, manure management and fertilisers production and application. Furthermore, on-site emissions derived from dairy factory are remarkable together with the packages and energy requirements production. The values reported in this study are in the range of other related papers. However, differences were also identified due to several reasons such as allocation approach, data sources, characterisation factors, farm management regimes and assumptions considered. Therefore, these aspects should be carefully addressed and sensitivity to the assumptions and uncertainty of the results should be evaluated. PMID:23178782

  19. The systems approach to environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The systems approach in ecology is both a methodology and a holistic mindset. As a methodology, it utilizes mathematical and computer models to simulate natural ecosystems. As a mindset, it focuses on the total functioning and overall properties of the ecosystem. The distinction between methodology and mindset forms a convenient outline for the present review. Under the rubric of methodology, I will discuss the applicability of ecological models to environmental assessment. Under holistic mindset, I will consider the feasibility of assessing impacts on overall ecosystem function. In both cases, we will find that the systems approach has much to offer in assessing environmental impacts. The approach encourages a comprehensive viewpoint and avoids the pitfalls that result from focusing too closely on a single population or process. At the same time, we will find that the systems approach is no panacea. No single approach should be relied upon (or ignored) in addressing complex assessment issues. 92 figs.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  1. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  2. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  3. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  4. An Approach to Assessing Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Feightner, J.W.; Gass, D.A.; Bass, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Early tell-tale signs of dementia may not be manifest or recognized as significant by the patient or the physician. Often a spouse, relative, or someone close to the patient recognizes changes over time. While it might be argued that little is lost if the cause is irreversible, a small but significant number of cases have reversible causes and suffering can be alleviated. The recommendations of the Canadian Consensus Conference on the Assessment of Dementia take into account the family physician's perspective. This article looks at applications in the office setting. PMID:21221295

  5. Life cycle assessment comparison of photocatalytic coating and air purifier.

    PubMed

    Tichá, Marie; Žilka, Miroslav; Stieberová, Barbora; Freiberg, František

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a comparison of 2 very different options for removal of undesirable microorganisms and airborne pollutants from the indoor environment of hospitals, schools, homes, and other enclosed spaces using air purifiers and photocatalytic coatings based on nano titanium dioxide (TiO2 ). Both products were assessed by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology from cradle-to-grave. The assessment also includes comparison of 2 different nano TiO2 production technologies, one by continuous hydrothermal synthesis and the other by a sulfate process. Results of the study showed a relatively large contribution of photocatalytic coatings to reducing the effects of selected indices in comparison with an air purifier, regardless of which nano TiO2 production method is used. Although the impacts of the sulfate process are significantly lower compared to those of hydrothermal synthesis when viewed in terms of production alone, taken in the context of the entire product life cycle, the net difference becomes less significant. The study has been elaborated within the Sustainable Hydrothermal Manufacturing of Nanomaterials (SHYMAN) project, which aims to develop competitive and sustainable continuous nanoparticle (NP) production technology based on supercritical hydrothermal synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:478-485. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27082715

  6. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability. PMID:20178382

  7. Risk-Based Probabilistic Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    In an era of shrinking development budgets and resources, where there is also an emphasis on reducing the product development cycle, the role of system assessment, performed in the early stages of an engine development program, becomes very critical to the successful development of new aeropropulsion systems. A reliable system assessment not only helps to identify the best propulsion system concept among several candidates, it can also identify which technologies are worth pursuing. This is particularly important for advanced aeropropulsion technology development programs, which require an enormous amount of resources. In the current practice of deterministic, or point-design, approaches, the uncertainties of design variables are either unaccounted for or accounted for by safety factors. This could often result in an assessment with unknown and unquantifiable reliability. Consequently, it would fail to provide additional insight into the risks associated with the new technologies, which are often needed by decision makers to determine the feasibility and return-on-investment of a new aircraft engine. In this work, an alternative approach based on the probabilistic method was described for a comprehensive assessment of an aeropropulsion system. The statistical approach quantifies the design uncertainties inherent in a new aeropropulsion system and their influences on engine performance. Because of this, it enhances the reliability of a system assessment. A technical assessment of a wave-rotor-enhanced gas turbine engine was performed to demonstrate the methodology. The assessment used probability distributions to account for the uncertainties that occur in component efficiencies and flows and in mechanical design variables. The approach taken in this effort was to integrate the thermodynamic cycle analysis embedded in the computer code NEPP (NASA Engine Performance Program) and the engine weight analysis embedded in the computer code WATE (Weight Analysis of Turbine

  8. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  9. Life cycle assessment: Existing building retrofit versus replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabi, Nura

    The embodied energy in building materials constitutes a large part of the total energy required for any building (Thormark 2001, 429). In working to make buildings more energy efficient this needs to be considered. Integrating considerations about life cycle assessment for buildings and materials is one promising way to reduce the amount of energy consumption being used within the building sector and the environmental impacts associated with that energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) model can be utilized to help evaluate the embodied energy in building materials in comparison to the buildings operational energy. This thesis takes into consideration the potential life cycle reductions in energy and CO2 emissions that can be made through an energy retrofit of an existing building verses demolition and replacement with a new energy efficient building. A 95,000 square foot institutional building built in the 1960`s was used as a case study for a building LCA, along with a calibrated energy model of the existing building created as part of a previous Masters of Building Science thesis. The chosen case study building was compared to 10 possible improvement options of either energy retrofit or replacement of the existing building with a higher energy performing building in order to see the life cycle relationship between embodied energy, operational energy, and C02 emissions. As a result of completing the LCA, it is shown under which scenarios building retrofit saves more energy over the lifespan of the building than replacement with new construction. It was calculated that energy retrofit of the chosen existing institutional building would reduce the amount of energy and C02 emissions associated with that building over its life span.

  10. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

  11. A Comparative Judgement Approach to Teacher Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Suzanne; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We report one teacher's response to a top-down shift from external examinations to internal teacher assessment for summative purposes in the Republic of Ireland. The teacher adopted a comparative judgement approach to the assessment of secondary students' understanding of a chemistry experiment. The aims of the research were to investigate whether…

  12. Life cycle assessments of urban water systems: a comparative analysis of selected peer-reviewed literature.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Loiseau, Eleonore; Bellon-Maurel, Veronique

    2014-12-15

    Water is a growing concern in cities, and its sustainable management is very complex. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used to assess the environmental impacts of water technologies during the last 20 years. This review aims at compiling all LCA papers related to water technologies, out of which 18 LCA studies deals with whole urban water systems (UWS). A focus is carried out on these 18 case studies which are analyzed according to criteria derived from the four phases of LCA international standards. The results show that whereas the case studies share a common goal, i.e., providing quantitative information to policy makers on the environmental impacts of urban water systems and their forecasting scenarios, they are based on different scopes, resulting in the selection of different functional units and system boundaries. A quantitative comparison of life cycle inventory and life cycle impact assessment data is provided, and the results are discussed. It shows the superiority of information offered by multi-criteria approaches for decision making compared to that derived from mono-criterion. From this review, recommendations on the way to conduct the environmental assessment of urban water systems are given, e.g., the need to provide consistent mass balances in terms of emissions and water flows. Remaining challenges for urban water system LCAs are identified, such as a better consideration of water users and resources and the inclusion of recent LCA developments (territorial approaches and water-related impacts). PMID:25282088

  13. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    PubMed

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems. PMID:20553042

  14. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a technoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  15. Life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle power system

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.

    1997-12-01

    The potential environmental benefits from biomass power are numerous. However, biomass power may also have some negative effects on the environment. Although the environmental benefits and drawbacks of biomass power have been debated for some time, the total significance has not been assessed. This study serves to answer some of the questions most often raised in regard to biomass power: What are the net CO{sub 2} emissions? What is the energy balance of the integrated system? Which substances are emitted at the highest rates? What parts of the system are responsible for these emissions? To provide answers to these questions, a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a hypothetical biomass power plant located in the Midwest United States was performed. LCA is an analytical tool for quantifying the emissions, resource consumption, and energy use, collectively known as environmental stressors, that are associated with converting a raw material to a final product. Performed in conjunction with a t echnoeconomic feasibility study, the total economic and environmental benefits and drawbacks of a process can be quantified. This study complements a technoeconomic analysis of the same process, reported in Craig and Mann (1996) and updated here. The process studied is based on the concept of power Generation in a biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) plant. Broadly speaking, the overall system consists of biomass production, its transportation to the power plant, electricity generation, and any upstream processes required for system operation. The biomass is assumed to be supplied to the plant as wood chips from a biomass plantation, which would produce energy crops in a manner similar to the way food and fiber crops are produced today. Transportation of the biomass and other materials is by both rail and truck. The IGCC plant is sized at 113 MW, and integrates an indirectly-heated gasifier with an industrial gas turbine and steam cycle. 63 refs., 34 figs., 32 tabs.

  16. Organic carbon cycling in landfills: Model for a continuum approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.; Lagerkvist, A.

    1997-09-01

    Organic carbon cycling in landfills can be addressed through a continuum model where the end-points are conventional anaerobic digestion of organic waste (short-term analogue) and geologic burial of organic material (long-term analogue). Major variables influencing status include moisture state, temperature, organic carbon loading, nutrient status, and isolation from the surrounding environment. Bioreactor landfills which are engineered for rapid decomposition approach (but cannot fully attain) the anaerobic digester end-point and incur higher unit costs because of their high degree of environmental isolation and control. At the other extreme, uncontrolled land disposal of organic waste materials is similar to geologic burial where organic carbon may be aerobically recycled to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, anaerobically converted to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} during early diagenesis, or maintained as intermediate or recalcitrant forms into geologic time (> 1,000 years) for transformations via kerogen pathways. A family of improved landfill models are needed at several scales (molecular to landscape) which realistically address landfill processes and can be validated with field data.

  17. Life-Cycle Cost/Benefit Assessment of Expedite Departure Path (EDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Chang, Paul; Datta, Koushik

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment (LCCBA) of Expedite Departure Path (EDP), an air traffic control Decision Support Tool (DST) currently under development at NASA. This assessment is an update of a previous study performed by bd Systems, Inc. (bd) during FY01, with the following revisions: The life-cycle cost assessment methodology developed by bd for the previous study was refined and calibrated using Free Flight Phase 1 (FFP1) cost information for Traffic Management Advisor (TMA, or TMA-SC in the FAA's terminology). Adjustments were also made to the site selection and deployment scheduling methodology to include airspace complexity as a factor. This technique was also applied to the benefit extrapolation methodology to better estimate potential benefits for other years, and at other sites. This study employed a new benefit estimating methodology because bd s previous single year potential benefit assessment of EDP used unrealistic assumptions that resulted in optimistic estimates. This methodology uses an air traffic simulation approach to reasonably predict the impacts from the implementation of EDP. The results of the costs and benefits analyses were then integrated into a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment.

  18. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: A Systematic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, Stefano

    For decades, nuclear energy development was based on the expectation that recycling of the fissionable materials in the used fuel from today's light water reactors into advanced (fast) reactors would be implemented as soon as technically feasible in order to extend the nuclear fuel resources. More recently, arguments have been made for deployment of fast reactors in order to reduce the amount of higher actinides, hence the longevity of radioactivity, in the materials destined to a geologic repository. The cost of the fast reactors, together with concerns about the proliferation of the technology of extraction of plutonium from used LWR fuel as well as the large investments in construction of reprocessing facilities have been the basis for arguments to defer the introduction of recycling technologies in many countries including the US. In this thesis, the impacts of alternative reactor technologies on the fuel cycle are assessed. Additionally, metrics to characterize the fuel cycles and systematic approaches to using them to optimize the fuel cycle are presented. The fuel cycle options of the 2010 MIT fuel cycle study are re-examined in light of the expected slower rate of growth in nuclear energy today, using the CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis). The Once Through Cycle (OTC) is considered as the base-line case, while advanced technologies with fuel recycling characterize the alternative fuel cycle options available in the future. The options include limited recycling in L WRs and full recycling in fast reactors and in high conversion LWRs. Fast reactor technologies studied include both oxide and metal fueled reactors. Additional fuel cycle scenarios presented for the first time in this work assume the deployment of innovative recycling reactor technologies such as the Reduced Moderation Boiling Water Reactors and Uranium-235 initiated Fast Reactors. A sensitivity study focused on system and technology parameters of interest has been conducted to test

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for desalination: a review on methodology feasibility and reliability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Chang, Victor W-C; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-15

    As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. PMID:24926621

  20. Approach for Assessing Direct Flood Damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaňová, Lenka; Zeleňáková, Martina; Słyś, Daniel; Purcz, Pavol

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a methodological approach to flood direct tangible damage - damage to assets and direct intangible damage - environmental damage and loss of life assessment. The assessment of flood risk is an essential part of the risk management approach, which is the conceptual basis for the EU directive 2007/60/ES on the assessment and management of flood risk. The purpose of this directive is to establish a framework for the assessment and management of flood risk, aiming at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with flood in the community. Overall, an accurate estimation of negative effects on assets, environment and people is important in order to be able to determine the economy, environmental and social flood risk level in a system and the effects of risk mitigation measures.

  1. An approach for assessing software prototypes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, V. E.; Card, D. N.; Agresti, W. W.; Jordan, Q. L.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating a software prototype is presented. The need to assess the prototype itself arises from the use of prototyping to demonstrate the feasibility of a design or development stategy. The assessment procedure can also be of use in deciding whether to evolve a prototype into a complete system. The procedure consists of identifying evaluations criteria, defining alterative design approaches, and ranking the alternatives according to the criteria.

  2. A point of view on Otto cycle approach specific for an undergraduate thermodynamics course in CMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memet, F.; Preda, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper refers to the description of the way in which can be presented to future marine engineers the analyzis of the performance of an Otto cycle, in a manner which is beyond the classic approach of the course of thermodynamics in Constanta Maritime University. The conventional course of thermodynamics is dealing with the topic of performance analysis of the cycle of the internal combustion engine with isochoric combustion for the situation in which the working medium is treated as such a perfect gas. This type of approach is viable only when are considered relatively small temperature differences. But this is the situation when specific heats are seen as constant. Instead, the practical experience has shown that small temperature differences are not viable, resulting the need for variable specific heat evaluation. The presentation bellow is available for the adiabatic exponent written as a liniar function depending on temperature. In the section of this paper dedicated to methods and materials, the situation in which the specific heat is taken as constant is not neglected, additionaly being given the algorithm for variable specific heat.For the both cases it is given the way in which it is assessed the work output. The calculus is based on the cycle shown in temperature- entropy diagram, in which are also indicated the irreversible adiabatic compression and expansion. The experience achieved after understanding this theory will allow to future professionals to deal successfully with the design practice of internal combustion engines.

  3. [Approaches for assessing forest ecosystem health].

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Deng, Hongbing; Wang, Qingli; Dai, Limin; Hao, Zhanqing

    2003-06-01

    Assessment and indicator system become the key issues in the research on ecosystem health in 21st century. Assessing forest ecosystem health gradually attach much attention because it is an important component of terrestrial ecosystem. The definition, measurement, evaluation and its management had been discussed broadly, and some theories, assessing methods and frameworks had been proposed, which provides a new concept and a serial research approaches for dealing with the crisis of terrestrial ecosystems, even the environment problems in the world. Now, the common operational models for assessing forest ecosystem health do not exist owing to the manifold limitations. This paper discussed forest ecosystem health problem, and brought forward three preconditions for assessing forest ecosystem health: 1) a clear conceptual framework; 2) adequate data sets; 3) proper research and analysis techniques. The issues of three preconditions were discussed, and the possible approaches for the assessing research on forest ecosystem health, e.g., long-term studies and environment monitoring, space-for-time substation studies, e.g., history approaches, economics valuation and others were expariated. PMID:12974013

  4. Recommendations for Cycle II of National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Mallard, Gail E.; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.; Broshears, Robert E.; Evenson, Eric J.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Prince, Keith R.

    1999-01-01

    The Planning Team for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program defines a successful NAWQA Program as one that makes a balanced contribution to study-unit issues, national issues, and to the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Using this criterion, NAWQA has been a success. The program has provided important new knowledge and understanding of scientific processes, and insights into the occurrence and distribution of contaminants that have been key to local and national policy decisions. Most of the basic design characteristics of NAWQA's first decade (1991-2000), hereafter called cycle I) remain appropriate as the program enters its second decade (cycle II) in 2001. In cycle II, the program has the opportunity to build on its successful base and to evolve to take advantage of the knowledge generated in cycle I. In addition to this expected evolution, NAWQA must also make some changes to compensate for the fact that program funding has not kept pace with inflation. An important theme for the second cycle of NAWQA will be the integration of knowledge across scales and across disciplines. The question that drove the NAWQA design in the first cycle was "How is water quality related to land use?" Cycle II will build upon what was learned in cycle I and use land-use and water-quality gradients to identify and understand potential sources of various constituents and the processes affecting transport and fate of those constituents and their effects on receptors. The understanding we gain from applying this approach will be relevant to the interests of policymakers, regulatory agencies, and resource managers.

  5. Assessing burden of disease as disability adjusted life years in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Shiels, Sean; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-15

    Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) have been used to quantify endpoint indicators of the human burden of disease in life cycle assessment (LCA). The purpose of this paper was to examine the current use of DALYs in LCA, and also to consider whether DALYs as used in LCA have the potential to be compatible with DALYs as used in quantitative risk assessment (QRA) to facilitate direct comparison of the results of the two approaches. A literature review of current usage of DALYs in LCA was undertaken. Two prominent methods were identified: ReCiPe 2008 and LIME2. The methods and assumptions used in their calculations were then critically reviewed. The assumptions used for the derivation of characterization factors in DALYs were found to be considerably different between LCA methods. In many cases, transparency of these calculations and assumptions is lacking. Furthermore, global average DALY values are often used in these calculations, but may not be applicable for impact categories where the local factors play a significant role. The concept of DALYs seems beneficial since it enables direct comparison and aggregation of different health impacts. However, given the different assumptions used in each LCA method, it is important that LCA practitioners are aware of the differences and select the appropriate method for the focus of their study. When applying DALYs as a common metric between LCA and QRA, understanding the background information on how DALYs were derived is crucial to ensure the consistency of DALYs used in LCA and QRA for resulting DALYs to be comparable and to minimize any double counting of effects. PMID:26042893

  6. Life cycle assessment of biochar cofiring with coal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Fong; Syu, Fu-Siang; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2013-03-01

    This study used life cycle assessment software SimaPro 7.2 and impact assessment model IMPACT 2002+ to evaluate the environmental impact and benefits of a biochar cofiring supply chain used for electricity generation. The biochar was assumed to be produced by rice straw torrefaction and the case study was located in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. This supply chain may provide impact reduction benefits in five categories (aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, land occupation, global warming, and non-renewable energy) but cause higher impacts than coal firing systems in other categories. Damage assessment of cofiring systems indicated that damage to human health was higher while the damage categories of ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources were lower. Carbon reduction could be 4.32 and 4.68metric tons CO2eq/ha/yr at 10% and 20% cofiring ratios, respectively. The improvement of electricity generation efficiency of cofiring systems may be the most important factor for reducing its environmental impact. PMID:23347924

  7. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  8. Prospective Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Nanosilver T-Shirts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to compare nanosilver T-shirts with conventional T-shirts with and without biocidal treatment. For nanosilver production and textile incorporation, we investigate two processes: flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and plasma polymerization with silver co-sputtering (PlaSpu). Prospective environmental impacts due to increased nanosilver T-shirt commercialization are estimated with six scenarios. Results show significant differences in environmental burdens between nanoparticle production technologies: The “cradle-to-gate” climate footprint of the production of a nanosilver T-shirt is 2.70 kg of CO2-equiv (FSP) and 7.67–166 kg of CO2-equiv (PlaSpu, varying maturity stages). Production of conventional T-shirts with and without the biocide triclosan has emissions of 2.55 kg of CO2-equiv (contribution from triclosan insignificant). Consumer behavior considerably affects the environmental impacts during the use phase. Lower washing frequencies can compensate for the increased climate footprint of FSP nanosilver T-shirt production. The toxic releases from washing and disposal in the life cycle of T-shirts appear to be of minor relevance. By contrast, the production phase may be rather significant due to toxic silver emissions at the mining site if high silver quantities are required. PMID:21506582

  9. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-05-15

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative.

  10. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development. PMID:23238338

  11. Life cycle assessment of domestic and agricultural rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Santosh R; Johnston, John M; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Hawkins, Troy R

    2014-04-01

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricultural rainwater harvesting (ARWH) systems. We also summarize the design aspects of DRWH and ARWH systems adapted to the Back Creek watershed, Virginia. The baseline design reveals that the pump and pumping electricity are the main components of DRWH and ARWH impacts. For nonpotable uses, the minimal design of DRWH (with shortened distribution distance and no pump) outperforms municipal drinking water in all environmental impact categories except ecotoxicity. The minimal design of ARWH outperforms well water in all impact categories. In terms of watershed sustainability, the two minimal designs reduced environmental impacts, from 58% to 78% energy use and 67% to 88% human health criteria pollutants, as well as avoiding up to 20% blue water (surface/groundwater) losses, compared to municipal drinking water and well water. We address potential environmental and human health impacts of urban and rural RWH systems in the region. The Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) model-based life cycle inventory data were used for this study. PMID:24605844

  12. Ares Project Technology Assessment: Approach and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Tyson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Technology assessments provide a status of the development maturity of specific technologies. Along with benefit analysis, the risks the project assumes can be quantified. Normally due to budget constraints, the competing technologies are prioritized and decisions are made which ones to fund. A detailed technology development plan is produced for the selected technologies to provide a roadmap to reach the desired maturity by the project s critical design review. Technology assessments can be conducted for both technology only tasks or for product development programs. This paper is primarily biased toward the product development programs. The paper discusses the Ares Project s approach to technology assessment. System benefit analysis, risk assessment, technology prioritization, and technology readiness assessment are addressed. A description of the technology readiness level tool being used is provided.

  13. Russian risk assessment methods and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, M.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Smith, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    One of the benefits resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union is the increased dialogue currently taking place between American and Russian nuclear weapons scientists in various technical arenas. One of these arenas currently being investigated involves collaborative studies which illustrate how risk assessment is perceived and utilized in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The collaborative studies indicate that, while similarities exist with respect to some methodologies, the assumptions and approaches in performing risk assessments were, and still are, somewhat different in the FSU as opposed to that in the US. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the present knowledge of risk assessment methodologies and philosophies within the two largest nuclear weapons laboratories of the Former Soviet Union, Arzamas-16 and Chelyabinsk-70. Furthermore, This paper will address the relative progress of new risk assessment methodologies, such as Fuzzy Logic, within the framework of current risk assessment methods at these two institutes.

  14. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ralph, Peter J; Tamburic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this work is to establish whether algal bio-crude production is environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. To this end, an economic multi-regional input-output model of Australia was complemented with engineering process data on algal bio-crude production. This model was used to undertake hybrid life-cycle assessment for measuring the direct, as well as indirect impacts of producing bio-crude. Overall, the supply chain of bio-crude is more sustainable than that of conventional crude oil. The results indicate that producing 1 million tonnes of bio-crude will generate almost 13,000 new jobs and 4 billion dollars' worth of economic stimulus. Furthermore, bio-crude production will offer carbon sequestration opportunities as the production process is net carbon-negative. PMID:25465782

  15. Comparing life cycle assessments of different biofuel options.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Alissa; Yuan, Juhong

    2013-06-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has shown that first generation biofuels provide a little to no benefit for greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions compared to petroleum fuels, particularly when indirect effects are considered. Second generation fuels are intended to achieve greater GHG reductions and avoid other sustainability issues. LCAs of second generation biofuels exhibit great variability and uncertainty, leading to inconclusive results for the performance of particular pathways (combinations of feedstocks and fuels). Variability arises in part because of the prospective nature of LCAs for future fuels; however, a review of recent articles on biofuel LCA methodology indicates two additional sources of variability: real sources such as spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and methodological sources such as choices for co-product allocation methods and system boundary definition. PMID:23490811

  16. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  17. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Butera, Stefania Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  18. STREAMLINING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    After having completed work on investigating streamlining the life cycle inventory phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), research efforts focused on the impact phase of LCA in the third and final year of this cooperative agreement. A simplified life cycle impact assessment model,...

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  20. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Massarutto, Antonio; Carli, Alessandro de; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  1. Combining the effect of crops surface albedo variability on the radiative forcing together with crop GHG budgets calculated from in situ flux measurements in a life cycle assessment approach: methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceschia, E.; Ferlicoq, M.; Brut, A.; Tallec, T.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon and GHG budgets (GHGB) of the 2 crop sites with contrasted management located in South West France was estimated over a complete rotation by combining a classical LCA approach with on site CO2 flux measurements. At both sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilization, seeds), carbon exports (harvest) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were estimated. The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analyzed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for GHG fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHGB for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines or and CH4 emissions were assumed to be negligible. Albedo was calculated continuously using the short wave incident and reflected radiation measurements in the field from CNR1 sensors. Rapid changes in surface albedo typical from those ecosystems and resulting from management and crop phenology were analysed. The annual radiative forcing for each plot was estimated by calculating the difference between a mean annual albedo for each crop and a reference bare soil albedo value calculated over 5 years for each plot. To finalize the radiative forcing calculation, the method developed by Muñoz et al (2010) using up and down atmospheric transmittance had to be corrected so it would only account for up-going atmospheric transmittance. Annual differences in radiative forcing between crops were then converted in g C equivalent m-2 in order to add this effect to the GHG budget of each crop within a rotation. This methodology could be applied to all ICOS/NEON cropland sites. We found that the differences in radiative

  2. Life cycle assessment part 1: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications.

    PubMed

    Rebitzer, G; Ekvall, T; Frischknecht, R; Hunkeler, D; Norris, G; Rydberg, T; Schmidt, W-P; Suh, S; Weidema, B P; Pennington, D W

    2004-07-01

    Sustainable development requires methods and tools to measure and compare the environmental impacts of human activities for the provision of goods and services (both of which are summarized under the term "products"). Environmental impacts include those from emissions into the environment and through the consumption of resources, as well as other interventions (e.g., land use) associated with providing products that occur when extracting resources, producing materials, manufacturing the products, during consumption/use, and at the products' end-of-life (collection/sorting, reuse, recycling, waste disposal). These emissions and consumptions contribute to a wide range of impacts, such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric ozone (smog) creation, eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources, water use, land use, and noise-among others. A clear need, therefore, exists to be proactive and to provide complimentary insights, apart from current regulatory practices, to help reduce such impacts. Practitioners and researchers from many domains come together in life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate indicators of the aforementioned potential environmental impacts that are linked to products-supporting the identification of opportunities for pollution prevention and reductions in resource consumption while taking the entire product life cycle into consideration. This paper, part 1 in a series of two, introduces the LCA framework and procedure, outlines how to define and model a product's life cycle, and provides an overview of available methods and tools for tabulating and compiling associated emissions and resource consumption data in a life cycle inventory (LCI). It also discusses the application of LCA in industry and policy making. The second paper, by Pennington et al. (Environ. Int. 2003, in press), highlights the key features, summarises available approaches, and outlines the key

  3. Comparative life cycle assessment of three biohydrogen pathways.

    PubMed

    Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-02-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify and compare the energetic and environmental performances of hydrogen from wheat straw (WS-H(2)), sweet sorghum stalk (SSS-H(2)), and steam potato peels (SPP-H(2)). Inventory data were derived from a pilot plant. Impacts were assessed using the impact 2002+ method. When co-product was not considered, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 5.60 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for WS-H(2), 5.32 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SSS-H(2), and 5.18 kg CO(2eq) kg(-1) H(2) for SPP-H(2). BioH(2) pathways reduced GHG emissions by 52-56% compared to diesel and by 54-57% compared to steam methane reforming production of H(2). The energy ratios (ER) were also comparable: 1.08 for WS-H(2), 1.14 for SSS-H(2) and 1.17 for SPP-H(2). A shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) would therefore not affect the ER and GHG emissions of these BioH(2) pathways. When co-product was considered, a shift from SPP-H(2) to WS-H(2) or SSS-H(2) decreased the ER, while increasing the GHG emissions significantly. Co-product yield should be considered when selecting BioH(2) feedstocks. PMID:21112211

  4. An evaluation of life cycle assessment of European milk production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-Jia; Humphreys, James; Holden, Nicholas M

    2011-03-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method regulated by ISO that conveys the environmental impact of products. LCA studies of the same product should be comparable to benefit environmental policy making. LCA of milk production has evaluated environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, resource utilisation and land use change. Thirteen LCA studies of European milk production were analysed for comparability, and direct comparison was difficult due to technical issues, arbitrary choices and inconsistent assumptions. The strengths and weaknesses of LCA for evaluating an agricultural system are identified and improvements for comparability of future studies are also considered. Future LCA of milk production should ensure that: (1) the production system is appropriately characterized according to the goal of study; (2) a clear description of the system boundary and allocation procedures is provided according to ISO standards; (3) a common functional unit, probably Energy Corrected Milk, should be used or assumed fat and protein content presented to enable comparisons; (4) where appropriate, site-specific emission factors and characterization factors should be used in environmental hotspots (e.g. manure management, spreading of synthetic fertilizer, production of purchased feed), and phosphorous loss should be better addressed; (5) a range of impact categories including climate change, energy use, land use, acidification and eutrophication should be used to assess pollution swapping, all of which are subject to national or regional directives; perhaps in the future biodiversity should also be included; and (6) the sensitivity to choices of methods and uncertainty of final results should be evaluated. PMID:21055870

  5. Comparison of different building shells - life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Rixrath, Doris; Wartha, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Action (REACT) project is a European Union-funded cross-border cooperative venture featuring the participation of companies and researchers from the Austrian state of Burgenland and western Slovakia that is developing zero-energy concepts for newly built single-family homes. A variety of building structures are defined for family houses, and the different impacts they have on the environment are evaluated over the entire life cycle. This paper aims to compare the environmental impacts of different building shells during both the construction and the demolition phases. However, the operation phase of the building is not evaluated. One of the findings of the project thus far is that the demolition and disposal of building materials should be included in any such evaluation. For some environmental impact assessment categories, both demolition and disposal are important. The environmental impacts of various end-of-life scenarios can differ greatly based on the disposal method (e.g., landfill, incineration, recycling) chosen and on the proportion of recycled content. Furthermore, the results show that manufacturing building materials from renewable resources can have strong environmental impacts, particularly when substantial amounts of fossil fuel are required in their production. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:437-444. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27332927

  6. A Vectorial Semantics Approach to Personality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, Yair; Cohen, Yochai

    2014-04-01

    Personality assessment and, specifically, the assessment of personality disorders have traditionally been indifferent to computational models. Computational personality is a new field that involves the automatic classification of individuals' personality traits that can be compared against gold-standard labels. In this context, we introduce a new vectorial semantics approach to personality assessment, which involves the construction of vectors representing personality dimensions and disorders, and the automatic measurements of the similarity between these vectors and texts written by human subjects. We evaluated our approach by using a corpus of 2468 essays written by students who were also assessed through the five-factor personality model. To validate our approach, we measured the similarity between the essays and the personality vectors to produce personality disorder scores. These scores and their correspondence with the subjects' classification of the five personality factors reproduce patterns well-documented in the psychological literature. In addition, we show that, based on the personality vectors, we can predict each of the five personality factors with high accuracy.

  7. How can LCA approaches contribute to improve geo-cycles management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Delgado, F.; Andrade, F.; Franco, J.; Pereira, C. D.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change and land use have become a major challenge for mankind and the natural environment. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released into the atmosphere in ever rapidly growing volumes are most likely to be responsible for this change. Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is suggested to be the main cause of global warming. Carbon reduction is the key to preventing this, for example, by enhancing energy efficiency and mitigating carbon emissions by means of green energy and adjusting the use of natural resources. Different activities produce distinguish impacts, and each product generates specific impacts on nature. The impact of man activities in the geo-cycles is of paramount importance in what concerns long term sustainability. Nevertheless, the environmental and sustainability impacts of different approaches and techniques of ecosystem management is a difficult question that can be assessed using LCA techniques LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave. Based on that, LCA can be effective in supporting the assessment of decision making on complex sustainability issues because it can integrate the diversity of impacts categories guise and it can be adapted to a large variety of contexts. By incorporating quantitative data LCA allows decision makers to include a full range of economic, environmental, social and technical criteria. The integrated framework is configured such that the pros and cons of alternative environmental and energy strategies can be measured in terms of their ability to achieve the overall goals and objectives of the sustainable development, while satisfying the pollution control requirements. Because it is holistic, integrate and dynamic, this approach represents a state of the art tool for enhance the sustainable development of a sector, allowing a more transparent and participated management, a basic instrument for improved competitiveness. This approach may serve

  8. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country

  9. Airport vulnerability assessment: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarick, Richard T.

    1998-12-01

    The Airport Vulnerability Assessment Project (AVAP) is the direct result of congressional funding of recommendation 3.13 of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. This project takes a new approach to the assessment of U.S. commercial airports. AVAP uses automation, analytical methods and tools to evaluate vulnerability and risk, and to analyze cost/benefits in a more quantitative manner. This paper addresses both the process used to conduct this program, as well as a generalized look at the results, which have been achieved for the initial airport assessments. The process description covers the acquisition approach, the project structure, and a review of the various methodologies and tools being used by the sever performing organizations (Abacus Technology, Battelle, CTI, Lockwood Greene, Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, SAIC, and Science & Engineering Associates). The tools described include ASSESS, SAM, RiskWatch, CASRAP, and AVAT. Included in the process is the utilization of an advisory panel made up predominantly of experts from the National Laboratories 9Sandia, Oak Ridge, Argonne and Brookhaven). The results portion addresses the findings and products resulting from the initial airport assessments. High level (unrestricted) summaries of the results are presented, along with initial trends in commonly recommended security improvements (countermeasures). Opportunities for the application of optics technology are identified.

  10. Incorporation of a risk analysis approach for the nuclear fuel cycle advanced transparency framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko; Kitabata, Takuya; Vugrin, Eric D.; Vugrin, Kay White; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2007-05-01

    Proliferation resistance features that reduce the likelihood of diversion of nuclear materials from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. A framework that monitors process information continuously can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation by measuring and reducing diversion risk, thus ensuring the legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation makes this possible by generating instantaneous system state data that can be used to track and measure the status of the process and material at any given time. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) are working in cooperation to develop an advanced transparency framework capable of assessing diversion risk in support of overall plant transparency. The ''diversion risk'' quantifies the probability and consequence of a host nation diverting nuclear materials from a civilian fuel cycle facility. This document introduces the details of the diversion risk quantification approach to be demonstrated in the fuel handling training model of the MONJU Fast Reactor.

  11. Old and New Approaches for Assessing Sweating.

    PubMed

    Murota, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of sweating activities contributes to both medical services and social living. There are several old and new approaches for assessing sweating. These methods are mainly composed of adopted techniques that focus on detecting small amounts of water on the skin surface. For many years, the iodine-starch reaction has been applied in various settings to evaluate sweat on the skin surface. However, methodology based on the coloration of sweat is in a constant state of evolution, and multiple advancements have been made. Furthermore, common fingerprinting is not just used for obtaining personal-identifying information anymore as it can also provide scientifically important information for sweat-pore mapping and sweat-component analysis. Additionally, there are multiple techniques for the quantitative measurement of sweat volume and dynamic intravital imaging of sweat, and these are also continually evolving. This chapter provides an overview of the old and new approaches for assessing sweating. PMID:27584959

  12. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  13. Breaking the Cycle of Educational Alienation: A Multiprofessional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard; Pritchard, Colin

    2006-01-01

    In this groundbreaking book, the authors show how the cycle of educational alienation can be broken, to enable parents and schools to work together to contribute to children's educational, social and emotional well-being. They illustrate this by exploring a highly successful initiative in a school with severe socioeconomic disadvantages, which, in…

  14. Limitations of toxicity characterization in life cycle assessment: Can adverse outcome pathways provide a new foundation?

    PubMed

    Gust, Kurt A; Collier, Zachary A; Mayo, Michael L; Stanley, Jacob K; Gong, Ping; Chappell, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has considerable merit for holistic evaluation of product planning, development, production, and disposal, with the inherent benefit of providing a forecast of potential health and environmental impacts. However, a technical review of current life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods revealed limitations within the biological effects assessment protocols, including: simplistic assessment approaches and models; an inability to integrate emerging types of toxicity data; a reliance on linear impact assessment models; a lack of methods to mitigate uncertainty; and no explicit consideration of effects in species of concern. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate that a new concept in toxicological and regulatory assessment, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP), has many useful attributes of potential use to ameliorate many of these problems, to expand data utility and model robustness, and to enable more accurate and defensible biological effects assessments within LCIA. Background, context, and examples have been provided to demonstrate these potential benefits. We additionally propose that these benefits can be most effectively realized through development of quantitative AOPs (qAOPs) crafted to meet the needs of the LCIA framework. As a means to stimulate qAOP research and development in support of LCIA, we propose 3 conceptual classes of qAOP, each with unique inherent attributes for supporting LCIA: 1) mechanistic, including computational toxicology models; 2) probabilistic, including Bayesian networks and supervised machine learning models; and 3) weight of evidence, including models built using decision-analytic methods. Overall, we have highlighted a number of potential applications of qAOPs that can refine and add value to LCIA. As the AOP concept and support framework matures, we see the potential for qAOPs to serve a foundational role for next-generation effects characterization within LCIA. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  15. Life Cycle Assessment modelling of stormwater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Aisling D; Wicke, Daniel; Hengen, Tyler J; Sieverding, Heidi L; Stone, James J

    2015-02-01

    Stormwater treatment technologies to manage runoff during rain events are primarily designed to reduce flood risks, settle suspended solids and concurrently immobilise metals and nutrients. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is scarcely documented for stormwater systems despite their ubiquitous implementation. LCA modelling quantified the environmental impacts associated with the materials, construction, transport, operation and maintenance of different stormwater treatment systems. A pre-fabricated concrete vortex unit, a sub-surface sandfilter and a raingarden, all sized to treat a functional unit of 35 m(3) of stormwater runoff per event, were evaluated. Eighteen environmental mid-point metrics and three end-point 'damage assessment' metrics were quantified for each system's lifecycle. Climate change (kg CO2 eq.) dominated net environmental impacts, with smaller contributions from human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq.), particulate matter formation (kg PM10 eq.) and fossil depletion (kg oil eq.). The concrete unit had the highest environmental impact of which 45% was attributed to its maintenance while impacts from the sandfilters and raingardens were dominated by their bulky materials (57%) and transport (57%), respectively. On-site infiltrative raingardens, a component of green infrastructure (GI), had the lowest environmental impacts because they incurred lower maintenance and did not have any concrete which is high in embodied CO2. Smaller sized raingardens affording the same level of stormwater treatment had the lowest overall impacts reinforcing the principle that using fewer resources reduces environmental impacts. LCA modelling can serve as a guiding tool for practitioners making environmentally sustainable solutions for stormwater treatment. PMID:25463586

  16. Life cycle assessment of wastewater treatment options for small and decentralized communities.

    PubMed

    Machado, A P; Urbano, L; Brito, A G; Janknecht, P; Salas, J J; Nogueira, R

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability has strong implications on the practice of engineering. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an appropriate methodology for assessing the sustainability of a wastewater treatment plant design. The present study used a LCA approach for comparing alternative wastewater treatment processes for small and decentralised rural communities. The assessment was focused on two energy-saving systems (constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration) and a conventional one (activated sludge process). The low environmental impact of the energy-saving wastewater treatment plants was demonstrated, the most relevant being the global warming indicator. Options for reduction of life cycle impacts were assessed including materials used in construction and operational lifetime of the systems. A 10% extension of operation lifetime of constructed wetland and slow rate infiltration systems led to a 1% decrease in CO2 emissions, in both systems. The decrease in the abiotic depletion was 5 and 7%, respectively. Also, replacing steel with HDPE in the activated sludge tank resulted in a 1% reduction in CO2 emission and 1% in the abiotic depletion indicator. In the case of the Imhoff tank a 1% reduction in CO2 emissions and 5% in the abiotic depletion indicator were observed when concrete was replaced by HDPE. PMID:17802833

  17. Conducting an Agricultural Life Cycle Assessment: Challenges and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Kevin R.; Veal, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is a diverse field that produces a wide array of products vital to society. As global populations continue to grow the competition for natural resources will increase pressure on agricultural production of food, fiber, energy, and various high value by-products. With elevated concerns related to environmental impacts associated with the needs of a growing population, a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework can be used to determine areas of greatest impact and compare reduction strategies for agricultural production systems. The LCA methodology was originally developed for industrial operations but has been expanded to a wider range of fields including agriculture. There are various factors that increase the complexity of determining impacts associated with agricultural production including multiple products from a single system, regional and crop specific management techniques, temporal variations (seasonally and annually), spatial variations (multilocation production of end products), and the large quantity of nonpoint emission sources. The lack of consistent methodology of some impacts that are of major concern to agriculture (e.g., land use and water usage) increases the complexity of this analysis. This paper strives to review some of these issues and give perspective to the LCA practitioner in the field of agriculture. PMID:24391463

  18. Identifying improvement potentials in cement production with life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Michael Elias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    Cement production is an environmentally relevant process responsible for 5% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and 7% of industrial fuel use. In this study, life cycle assessment is used to evaluate improvement potentials in the cement production process in Europe and the USA. With a current fuel substitution rate of 18% in Europe and 11% in the USA, both regions have a substantial potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save virgin resources by further increasing the coprocessing of waste fuels. Upgrading production technology would be particularly effective in the USA where many kiln systems with very low energy efficiency are still in operation. Using best available technology and a thermal substitution rate of 50% for fuels, greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced by 9% for Europe and 18% for the USA per tonne of cement. Since clinker production is the dominant pollution producing step in cement production, the substitution of clinker with mineral components such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash is an efficient measure to reduce the environmental impact. Blended cements exhibit substantially lower environmental footprints than Portland cement, even if the substitutes feature lower grindability and require additional drying and large transport distances. The highest savings in CO(2) emissions and resource consumption are achieved with a combination of measures in clinker production and cement blending. PMID:21047057

  19. Conducting an agricultural life cycle assessment: challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, Kevin R; Veal, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is a diverse field that produces a wide array of products vital to society. As global populations continue to grow the competition for natural resources will increase pressure on agricultural production of food, fiber, energy, and various high value by-products. With elevated concerns related to environmental impacts associated with the needs of a growing population, a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework can be used to determine areas of greatest impact and compare reduction strategies for agricultural production systems. The LCA methodology was originally developed for industrial operations but has been expanded to a wider range of fields including agriculture. There are various factors that increase the complexity of determining impacts associated with agricultural production including multiple products from a single system, regional and crop specific management techniques, temporal variations (seasonally and annually), spatial variations (multilocation production of end products), and the large quantity of nonpoint emission sources. The lack of consistent methodology of some impacts that are of major concern to agriculture (e.g., land use and water usage) increases the complexity of this analysis. This paper strives to review some of these issues and give perspective to the LCA practitioner in the field of agriculture. PMID:24391463

  20. Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

    2003-12-01

    We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options. PMID:14700331

  1. How to assess performance in cycling: the multivariate nature of influencing factors and related indicators

    PubMed Central

    Castronovo, A. Margherita; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    Finding an optimum for the cycling performance is not a trivial matter, since the literature shows the presence of many controversial aspects. In order to quantify different levels of performance, several indexes have been defined and used in many studies, reflecting variations in physiological and biomechanical factors. In particular, indexes such as Gross Efficiency (GE), Net Efficiency (NE) and Delta Efficiency (DE) have been referred to changes in metabolic efficiency (EffMet), while the Indexes of Effectiveness (IE), defined over the complete crank revolution or over part of it, have been referred to variations in mechanical effectiveness (EffMech). All these indicators quantify the variations of different factors [i.e., muscle fibers type distribution, pedaling cadence, setup of the bicycle frame, muscular fatigue (MFat), environmental variables, ergogenic aids, psychological traits (PsychTr)], which, moreover, show high mutual correlation. In the attempt of assessing cycling performance, most studies in the literature keep all these factors separated. This may bring to misleading results, leaving unanswered the question of how to improve cycling performance. This work provides an overview on the studies involving indexes and factors usually related to performance monitoring and assessment in cycling. In particular, in order to clarify all those aspects, the mutual interactions among these factors are highlighted, in view of a global performance assessment. Moreover, a proposal is presented advocating for a model-based approach that considers all factors mentioned in the survey, including the mutual interaction effects, for the definition of an objective function E representing the overall effectiveness of a training program in terms of both EffMet and EffMech. PMID:23734130

  2. Dose-Response Modeling for Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Findingsof the Portland Review Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Kyle, Amy D.; Jolliet, Olivier; Olsen, StigIrving; Hauschild, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative aims at putting life cycle thinking into practice and at improving the supporting tools for this process through better data and indicators. The initiative has thus launched three programs with associated working groups (see http://www.uneptie.org/pc/sustain/lcinitiative/). The Task Force on Toxic Impacts was established under the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) program to establish recommended practice and guidance for use in human toxicity, ecosystem toxicity, and related categories with direct effects on human health and ecosystem health. The workshop consisted of three elements. (A) presentations summarizing (1) the goals of the LCIA Task Force (2) historical approaches to exposure and toxic impacts in LCIA (3) current alternative proposals for addressing human health impacts. Viewgraphs from two of these presentations are provided in Appendix B to this report. (B) Discussion among a panel of experts about the scientific defensibility of these historical and proposed approaches in the context of the goals of the LCIA Task Force 3 on toxicity impacts. (C) Development of the recommendations to the LCIA program and working group for optimum short- and long-term strategies for addressing human health impacts in LCA.

  3. Life cycle assessment of active and passive groundwater remediation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Finkel, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Groundwater remediation technologies, such as pump-and-treat (PTS) and funnel-and-gate systems (FGS), aim at reducing locally appearing contaminations. Therefore, these methodologies are basically evaluated with respect to their capability to yield local improvements of an environmental situation, commonly neglecting that their application is also associated with secondary impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a widely accepted method of assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts related to a product, process or service. This study presents the set-up of a LCA framework in order to compare the secondary impacts caused by two conceptually different technologies at the site of a former manufactured gas plant in the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. As a FGS is already operating at this site, a hypothetical PTS of the same functionality is adopted. During the LCA, the remediation systems are evaluated by focusing on the main technical elements and their significance with respect to resource depletion and potential adverse effects on ecological quality, as well as on human health. Seven impact categories are distinguished to address a broad spectrum of possible environmental loads. A main point of discussion is the reliability of technical assumptions and performance predictions for the future. It is obvious that a high uncertainty exists when estimating impact specific indicator values over operation times of decades. An uncertainty analysis is conducted to include the imprecision of the underlying emission and consumption data and a scenario analysis is utilised to contrast various possible technological variants. Though the results of the study are highly site-specific, a generalised relative evaluation of potential impacts and their main sources is the principle objective rather than a discussion of the calculated absolute impacts. A crucial finding that can be applied to any other site is the central role of steel, which particularly derogates

  4. Environmental life cycle assessment of Ethiopian rose cultivation.

    PubMed

    Sahle, Abiy; Potting, José

    2013-01-15

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for Ethiopian rose cultivation. The LCA covered the cradle-to-gate production of all inputs to Ethiopian rose cultivation up to, and including transport to the Ethiopian airport. Primary data were collected about materials and resources used as inputs to, and about the product outputs from 21 farms in 4 geographical regions (i.e. Holleta, Sebeta, Debre Ziet, and Ziway). The primary data were imported in, and analyzed with the SimaPro7.3 software. Data for the production of used inputs were taken from the EcoInvent®2.0 database. Emissions from input use on the farms were quantified based on estimates and emission factors from various studies and guidelines. The resulting life cycle inventory (LCI) table was next evaluated with the CML 2 baseline 2000 V2/world, 1990/characterization method to quantify the contribution of the rose cultivation chain to 10 environmental impact categories. The set of collected primary data was comprehensive and of high quality. The data point to an intensive use of fertilizers, pesticides, and greenhouse plastic. Production and use of these inputs also represent the major contributors in all environmental impact categories. The largest contribution comes from the production of the used fertilizers, specifically nitrogen-based fertilizers. The use of calcium nitrate dominates Abiotic Depletion (AD), Global Warming (GW), Human Toxicity (HT) and Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity (MAET). It also makes a large contribution to Ozone Depletion (OD), Acidification (AD) and Fresh water Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET). Acidification (AC) and Eutrophication (EU) are dominated by the emission of fertilizers. The emissions from the use of pesticides, especially insecticides dominate Terrestrial Ecotoxicity (TE) and make a considerable contribution to Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity (FAET) and Photochemical Oxidation (PhO). There is no visible contribution from the use of pesticides to the other toxicity categories

  5. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  6. A Protocol for the Global Sensitivity Analysis of Impact Assessment Models in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Borgonovo, E; Heijungs, R

    2016-02-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework has established itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Several works have established the need of integrating the LCA and risk analysis methodologies, due to the several common aspects. One of the ways to reach such integration is through guaranteeing that uncertainties in LCA modeling are carefully treated. It has been claimed that more attention should be paid to quantifying the uncertainties present in the various phases of LCA. Though the topic has been attracting increasing attention of practitioners and experts in LCA, there is still a lack of understanding and a limited use of the available statistical tools. In this work, we introduce a protocol to conduct global sensitivity analysis in LCA. The article focuses on the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and particularly on the relevance of global techniques for the development of trustable impact assessment models. We use a novel characterization model developed for the quantification of the impacts of noise on humans as a test case. We show that global SA is fundamental to guarantee that the modeler has a complete understanding of: (i) the structure of the model and (ii) the importance of uncertain model inputs and the interaction among them. PMID:26595377

  7. Assessing Understanding of the Learning Cycle: The ULC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Edmund A.; Maier, Steven J.; McCann, Florence

    2008-01-01

    An 18-item, multiple choice, 2-tiered instrument designed to measure understanding of the learning cycle (ULC) was developed and field-tested from the learning cycle test (LCT) of Odom and Settlage ("Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7", 123-142, 1996). All question sets of the LCT were modified to some degree and 5 new sets were added,…

  8. THE EPA'S EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been actively engaged in LCA research since 1990 to help advance the methodology and application of life cycle thinking in decision making. Across the Agency consideration of the life cycle concept is increasing in the development of policies and programs. A major force i...

  9. Chemical footprint: a methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution.

    PubMed

    Sala, Serenella; Goralczyk, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 1990s, several other footprints were defined, e.g., carbon and water footprint. These footprints-even though based on a different meaning of "footprint"-integrate life cycle thinking, and focus on some challenging environmental impacts including resource consumption, CO2 emission leading to climate change, and water consumption. However, they usually neglect relevant sources of impacts, as those related to the production and use of chemicals. This article presents and discusses the need and relevance of developing a methodology for assessing the chemical footprint, coupling a life cycle-based approach with methodologies developed in other contexts, such as ERA and sustainability science. Furthermore, different concepts underpin existing footprint and this could be the case also of chemical footprint. At least 2 different approaches and steps to chemical footprint could be envisaged, applicable at the micro- as well as at the meso- and macroscale. The first step (step 1) is related to the account of chemicals use and emissions along the life cycle of a product, sector, or entire economy, to assess potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. The second step (step 2) aims at assessing to which extent actual emission of chemicals harm the ecosystems above their capability to recover (carrying capacity of the system). The latter step might contribute to the wide discussion on planetary boundaries for chemical pollution: the thresholds that should not be surpassed to guarantee a sustainable use of chemicals from an environmental safety perspective. The definition of what the planetary boundaries for chemical pollution are and how the boundaries should be identified is an on-going scientific challenge for ecotoxicology and ecology. In

  10. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model. PMID:24291626

  11. Life cycle assessment for dredged sediment placement strategies.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Fox-Lent, Cate; Seymour, Linda; Wender, Ben A; Linkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Dredging to maintain navigable waterways is important for supporting trade and economic sustainability. Dredged sediments are removed from the waterways and then must be managed in a way that meets regulatory standards and properly balances management costs and risks. Selection of a best management alternative often results in stakeholder conflict regarding tradeoffs between local environmental impacts associated with less expensive alternatives (e.g., open water placement), more expensive measures that require sediment disposal in constructed facilities far away (e.g., landfills), or beneficial uses that may be perceived as risky (e.g., beach nourishment or island creation). Current sediment-placement decisions often focus on local and immediate environmental effects from the sediment itself, ignoring a variety of distributed and long-term effects from transportation and placement activities. These extended effects have implications for climate change, resource consumption, and environmental and human health, which may be meaningful topics for many stakeholders not currently considered. Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a systematic and quantitative method for accounting for this wider range of impacts and benefits across all sediment management project stages and time horizons. This paper applies a cradle-to-use LCA to dredged-sediment placement through a comparative analysis of potential upland, open water, and containment-island placement alternatives in the Long Island Sound region of NY/CT. Results suggest that, in cases dealing with uncontaminated sediments, upland placement may be the most environmentally burdensome alternative, per ton-kilometer of placed material, due to the emissions associated with diesel fuel combustion and electricity production and consumption required for the extra handling and transportation. These results can be traded-off with the ecosystem impacts of the sediments themselves in a decision-making framework. PMID:25553545

  12. High-resolution assessment of land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment using species habitat suitability models.

    PubMed

    de Baan, Laura; Curran, Michael; Rondinini, Carlo; Visconti, Piero; Hellweg, Stefanie; Koellner, Thomas

    2015-02-17

    Agricultural land use is a main driver of global biodiversity loss. The assessment of land use impacts in decision-support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) requires spatially explicit models, but existing approaches are either not spatially differentiated or modeled at very coarse scales (e.g., biomes or ecoregions). In this paper, we develop a high-resolution (900 m) assessment method for land use impacts on biodiversity based on habitat suitability models (HSM) of mammal species. This method considers potential land use effects on individual species, and impacts are weighted by the species' conservation status and global rarity. We illustrate the method using a case study of crop production in East Africa, but the underlying HSMs developed by the Global Mammals Assessment are available globally. We calculate impacts of three major export crops and compare the results to two previously developed methods (focusing on local and regional impacts, respectively) to assess the relevance of the methodological innovations proposed in this paper. The results highlight hotspots of product-related biodiversity impacts that help characterize the links among agricultural production, consumption, and biodiversity loss. PMID:25584628

  13. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-18

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. PMID:24951550

  14. Alternative Approaches to the Family Life Cycle in the Analysis of Housing Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, P. B.; Ellis, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Used loan-approval data to analyze the effects of life-cycle stage on housing consumption. The detailed typologies were not generally superior to the more simplified approaches, except for per capita consumption. For per capita consumption, price, and quality, clear evidence is found for structural nonhomogeneity across life-cycle stages. (JAC)

  15. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    PubMed

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-01

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents. PMID:25587896

  16. Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-07-01

    The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk.

  17. Public participation in life cycle assessment and risk assessment: a shared need.

    PubMed

    Anex, Robert P; Focht, Will

    2002-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment are operationally different but share the common purpose of supporting decisions about reducing threats to human welfare. Both analysis methods also involve a complex mixture of science and value judgments reflecting epistemological as well as moral and esthetic values. The inability of risk assessment and LCA to be "value free" has been a source of considerable controversy in both communities. Recognition of the contingent and social nature of human interpretation of the risks and environmental impacts created by public and private decisions has led to an increased appreciation of the importance of involving interested and affected parties in risk characterization. Comparison of the value-based nature of LCA and risk assessment demonstrates the need for participation in LCA. Although the need for participation by affected parties in decision-making processes is gaining acceptance, there is little agreement as to how participation should be structured. Risk assessment and LCA have a shared need for research examining the design and analysis of participation processes appropriate to a given decision context. A proposed framework recommends participation strategies designed to enhance the effectiveness of policy-driven analyses such as risk assessment and LCA based on the level of trust that interested and affected parties have for other policy participants. PMID:12442985

  18. Breaking the Cycle of Failure through the Thematic Experience Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Thematic Experience Approach, designed to build on positive experiences that enlarge the high school dropout's perspective while building self-esteem, background knowledge, and reading ability. Describes a sample unit dealing with legal rights as presented in a history class, a futures class, and two language arts classes. (RS)

  19. Assessing Understanding of the Learning Cycle: The ULC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Edmund A.; Maier, Steven J.; McCann, Florence

    2008-08-01

    An 18-item, multiple choice, 2-tiered instrument designed to measure understanding of the learning cycle (ULC) was developed and field-tested from the learning cycle test (LCT) of Odom and Settlage ( Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7, 123 142, 1996). All question sets of the LCT were modified to some degree and 5 new sets were added, resulting in the ULC. The ULC measures (a) understandings and misunderstandings of the learning cycle, (b) the learning cycle’s association with Piaget’s ( Biology and knowledge theory: An essay on the relations between organic regulations and cognitive processes, 1975) theory of mental functioning, and (c) applications of the learning cycle. The resulting ULC instrument was evaluated for internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha, yielding a coefficient of .791.

  20. ASSESSING NITROGEN CYCLING MECHANISMS TO EVALUATE RIPARIAN ZONE RESTORATION EFFECTIVENESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural and forestry practices, point source pollution, and urban development have had considerable impacts on nitrogen cycling and water quality in many developed and agricultural regions of the world. Among these impacts are eutrophication due to nutrient loading and oxyge...

  1. Industrial process system assessment: bridging process engineering and life cycle assessment through multiscale modeling.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Process System Assessment (IPSA) methodology is a multiple step allocation approach for connecting information from the production line level up to the facility level and vice versa using a multiscale model of process systems. The allocation procedure assigns inpu...

  2. Algae biodiesel life cycle assessment using current commercial data.

    PubMed

    Passell, Howard; Dhaliwal, Harnoor; Reno, Marissa; Wu, Ben; Ben Amotz, Ami; Ivry, Etai; Gay, Marcus; Czartoski, Tom; Laurin, Lise; Ayer, Nathan

    2013-11-15

    Autotrophic microalgae represent a potential feedstock for transportation fuels, but life cycle assessment (LCA) studies based on laboratory-scale or theoretical data have shown mixed results. We attempt to bridge the gap between laboratory-scale and larger scale biodiesel production by using cultivation and harvesting data from a commercial algae producer with ∼1000 m(2) production area (the base case), and compare that with a hypothetical scaled up facility of 101,000 m(2) (the future case). Extraction and separation data are from Solution Recovery Services, Inc. Conversion and combustion data are from the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET). The LCA boundaries are defined as "pond-to-wheels". Environmental impacts are quantified as NER (energy in/energy out), global warming potential, photochemical oxidation potential, water depletion, particulate matter, and total NOx and SOx. The functional unit is 1 MJ of energy produced in a passenger car. Results for the base case and the future case show an NER of 33.4 and 1.37, respectively and GWP of 2.9 and 0.18 kg CO2-equivalent, respectively. In comparison, petroleum diesel and soy diesel show an NER of 0.18 and 0.80, respectively and GWP of 0.12 and 0.025, respectively. A critical feature in this work is the low algal productivity (3 g/m(2)/day) reported by the commercial producer, relative to the much higher productivities (20-30 g/m(2)/day) reported by other sources. Notable results include a sensitivity analysis showing that algae with an oil yield of 0.75 kg oil/kg dry biomass in the future case can bring the NER down to 0.64, more comparable with petroleum diesel and soy biodiesel. An important assumption in this work is that all processes are fully co-located and that no transport of intermediate or final products from processing stage to stage is required. PMID:23900083

  3. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. PMID:25971645

  4. Systematic Review Checklist: A Standardized Technique for Assessing and Reporting Reviews of Life Cycle Assessment Data

    PubMed Central

    Zumsteg, Jennifer M.; Cooper, Joyce S.; Noon, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Systematic review, including meta-analysis, is increasingly utilized in life cycle assessment (LCA). There are currently no widely recognized guidelines for designing, conducting, or reporting systematic reviews in LCA. Other disciplines such as medicine, ecology, and software engineering have both recognized the utility of systematic reviews and created standardized protocols for conducting and reporting systematic reviews. Based largely on the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, which updated the preferred format for reporting of such reviews in biomedical research, we provide an introduction to the topic and a checklist to guide the reporting of future LCA reviews in a standardized format. The standardized technique for assessing and reporting reviews of LCA (STARR-LCA) checklist is a starting point for improving the utility of systematic reviews in LCA. PMID:26069437

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is gaining momentum with the pressure to lightweight vehicles, however energy-intensity and cost remain some of the major barriers before this material could be used in large-scale automotive applications. A representative automotive part, i.e., a 30.8 kg steel floor pan having a 17% weight reduction potential with stringent cash performance requirements has been considered for the life cycle energy and emissions analysis based on the latest developments occurring in the precursor type (conventional textile-based PAN vs. renewable-based lignin), part manufacturing (conventional SMC vs. P4) and fiber recycling technologies. Carbon fiber production is estimated to be about 14 times more energy-intensive than conventional steel production, however life cycle primary energy use is estimated to be quite similar to the conventional part, i.e., 18,500 MJ/part, especially when considering the uncertainty in LCI data that exists from using numerous sources in the literature. Lignin P4 technology offers the most life cycle energy and CO2 emissions benefits compared to a conventional stamped steel technology. With a 20% reduction in energy use in the lignin conversion to carbon fiber and free availability of lignin as a by-product of ethanol and wood production, a 30% reduction in life cycle energy use could be obtained. A similar level of life cycle energy savings could also be obtained with a higher part weight reduction potential of 43%.

  6. Assessment Matters in Higher Education: Choosing and Using Diverse Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Glasner, Angela, Ed.

    This book presents 16 papers on assessment in higher education grouped into four sections on: first, systems approaches to assessment; second, the effectiveness of innovative assessment; third, assessing practice; and fourth, autonomous assessment. The included papers are: (1) "Institutional Strategies for Assessment" (Sally Brown); (2)…

  7. An improved approach for flight readiness assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, N. R.; Ebbeler, D. H.; Creager, M.

    1990-01-01

    An improved methodology for quantitatively evaluating failure risk for a spaceflight system in order to assess flight readiness is presented. This methodology is of particular value when information relevant to failure prediction, including test experience and knowledge of parameters used in engineering analyses of failure phenomena, is limited. In this approach, engineering analysis models that characterize specific failure modes based on the physics and mechanics of the failure phenomena are used in a prescribed probabilistic structure to generate a failure probability distribution that is modified by test and flight experience in a Bayesian statistical procedure. The probabilistic structure and statistical methodology are generally applicable to any failure mode for which quantitative engineering analysis can be employed to characterize the failure phenomenon and are particularly well suited for use under the constraints on information availability that are typical of such spaceflight systems as the Space Shuttle and planetary spacecraft.

  8. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Titania Perovskite Solar Cell Technology for Sustainable Design and Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; Gao, Xianfeng; Deng, Yelin; Li, Bingbing; Yuan, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted enormous attention in recent years due to their low cost and superior technical performance. However, the use of toxic metals, such as lead, in the perovskite dye and toxic chemicals in perovskite solar cell manufacturing causes grave concerns for its environmental performance. To understand and facilitate the sustainable development of perovskite solar cell technology from its design to manufacturing, a comprehensive environmental impact assessment has been conducted on titanium dioxide nanotube based perovskite solar cells by using an attributional life cycle assessment approach, from cradle to gate, with manufacturing data from our laboratory-scale experiments and upstream data collected from professional databases and the literature. The results indicate that the perovskite dye is the primary source of environmental impact, associated with 64.77% total embodied energy and 31.38% embodied materials consumption, contributing to more than 50% of the life cycle impact in almost all impact categories, although lead used in the perovskite dye only contributes to about 1.14% of the human toxicity potential. A comparison of perovskite solar cells with commercial silicon and cadmium-tellurium solar cells reveals that perovskite solar cells could be a promising alternative technology for future large-scale industrial applications. PMID:26489525

  10. Nanotoxicity and Life Cycle Assessment: First attempt towards the determination of characterization factors for carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Zimmermann, Benedikt; Weil, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Carbon materials, whether at macro, micro or at nanoscale, play an important role in the battery industry, as they can be used as electrodes, electrode enhancers, bipolar separators, or current collectors. When conducting a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of novel batteries manufacturing processes, we also need to consider the fate of potentially emitted carbon based nanomaterials. However, the knowledge generated in the last decade regarding the behavior of such materials in the environment and its toxicological effects has yet to be included in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodologies. Conventional databases of chemical products (e.g. ECHA, ECOTOX) offer little information regarding engineered nanomaterials (ENM). It is thus necessary to go one step further and compile physicochemical and toxicological data directly from scientific literature. Such studies do not only differ in their results, but also in their methodologies, and several calls have been made towards a more consistent approach that would allow us model the fate of ENM in the environment as well as their potentially harmful effects. Trying to overcome these limitations we have developed a tool based on Microsoft Excel® combining several methods for the estimation of physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT). The information generated with this tool is combined with degradation rates and toxicological data consistent with the methods followed by the USEtox methodology. Thus, it is possible to calculate the characterization factors of CNTs and integrate them as a first proxy in future LCA of products including these ENM.

  11. Environmental Impacts of Surgical Procedures: Life Cycle Assessment of Hysterectomy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare sector is a driver of economic growth in the U.S., with spending on healthcare in 2012 reaching $2.8 trillion, or 17% of the U.S. gross domestic product, but it is also a significant source of emissions that adversely impact environmental and public health. The current state of the healthcare industry offers significant opportunities for environmental efficiency improvements, potentially leading to reductions in costs, resource use, and waste without compromising patient care. However, limited research exists that can provide quantitative, sustainable solutions. The operating room is the most resource-intensive area of a hospital, and surgery is therefore an important focal point to understand healthcare-related emissions. Hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to quantify environmental emissions from four different surgical approaches (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic) used in the second most common major procedure for women in the U.S., the hysterectomy. Data were collected from 62 cases of hysterectomy. Life cycle assessment results show that major sources of environmental emissions include the production of disposable materials and single-use surgical devices, energy used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, and anesthetic gases. By scientifically evaluating emissions, the healthcare industry can strategically optimize its transition to a more sustainable system. PMID:25517602

  12. Life Cycle Considerations for Improving Sustainability Assessments in Seafood Awareness Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2008-11-01

    It is widely accepted that improving the sustainability of seafood production requires efforts to reverse declines in global fisheries due to overfishing and to reduce the impacts to host ecosystems from fishing and aquaculture production technologies. Reflective of on-going dialogue amongst participants in an international research project applying Life Cycle Assessment to better understand and manage global salmon production systems, we argue here that such efforts must also address the wider range of biophysical, ecological, and socioeconomic impacts stemming from the material and energetic throughput associated with these industries. This is of particular relevance given the interconnectivity of global environmental change, ocean health, and the viability of seafood production in both fisheries and aquaculture. Although the growing popularity of numerous ecolabeling, certification, and consumer education programs may be making headway in influencing Western consumer perceptions of the relative sustainability of alternative seafood products, we also posit that the efficacy of these initiatives in furthering sustainability objectives is compromised by the use of incomplete criteria. An emerging body of Life Cycle Assessment research of fisheries and aquaculture provides valuable insights into the biophysical dimensions of environmental performance in alternative seafood production and consumption systems, and should be used to inform a more holistic approach to labeling, certifying, and educating for sustainability in seafood production. More research, however, must be undertaken to develop novel techniques for incorporating other critical dimensions, in particular, socioeconomic considerations, into our sustainability decision-making.

  13. Alternative Approaches to Outcomes Assessment for Postsecondary Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D., Ed.

    This document describes six different approaches to outcomes assessments, approaches that are named in the titles of chapters 2 through 7. The chapters and authors are as follows: "Perspectives on Assessment Policy and Practice" (Bragg, Harmon); "Total Quality Management" (Bragg); "Assessing Student Success" (Harmon); "Value-Added Assessment"…

  14. Maximal muscle power output in cycling: a modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Yoshihuku, Y; Herzog, W

    1996-04-01

    This study sought to find the optimal design parameters for a bicycle-rider system (crank length, pelvic inclination, seat height and rate of crank rotation) that maximise the power output from muscles of the human lower limb during cycling. The human lower limb was modelled as a planar system of five rigid bodies connected by four frictionless pin joints and driven by seven functional muscle groups. The muscles were assumed to behave according to an adapted form of Hill's (1938) equation, incorporating the muscle force-length relation. The force-length relation and the values of length that served as input into the relations of the various muscles were defined in the following two ways: (1) the force-length relation was parabolic, based on the experiment of Woittiez et al. (1984), and the length was defined as the whole muscle length; and (2) the force-length relation was expressed as a combination of lines, based on the cross-bridge theory, and the length was defined as muscle fibre length. In the second definition, the joint configurations at which four of the seven muscle groups reached optimal length (i.e. the length at which the muscle can exert maximal isometric force) were further given in two ways. The first way was consistent with a previous study from this laboratory (Yoshihuku and Herzog, 1990); the second way relied on unpublished experimental data. The dependence of the average power on the design parameters and definitions of the force-length relation and muscle length was examined. Maximal average power for one full crank rotation with a crank length of 0.17 m was found to be about 1300 W for definition 1 and 1000 W for definition 2. The average power was more sensitive to changes in design parameters in definition 2 than definition 1. The optimal rate of crank rotation with a crank length of 0.17 m was 18.4 rad s-1 (176 rev min-1) for definition 1 (this value is different from the result of the previous study due to revisions in input for two

  15. Comparative assessment of nuclear fuel cycles. Light-water reactor once-through, classical fast breeder reactor, and symbiotic fast breeder reactor cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.; Barrett, R.J.; Freiwald, J.G.

    1980-06-01

    The object of the Alternative Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study is to perform comparative assessments of nuclear power systems. There are two important features of this study. First, this evaluation attempts to encompass the complete, integrated fuel cycle from mining of uranium ore to disposal of waste rather than isolated components. Second, it compares several aspects of each cycle - energy use, economics, technological status, proliferation, public safety, and commercial potential - instead of concentrating on one or two assessment areas. This report presents assessment results for three fuel cycles. These are the light-water reactor once-through cycle, the fast breeder reactor on the classical plutonium cycle, and the fast breeder reactor on a symbiotic cycle using plutonium and /sup 233/U as fissile fuels. The report also contains a description of the methodology used in this assessment. Subsequent reports will present results for additional fuel cycles.

  16. Approaches to assess biocover performance on landfills.

    PubMed

    Huber-Humer, M; Röder, S; Lechner, P

    2009-07-01

    Methane emissions from active or closed landfills can be reduced by means of methane oxidation enhanced in properly designed landfill covers, known as "biocovers". Biocovers usually consist of a coarse gas distribution layer to balance gas fluxes placed beneath an appropriate substrate layer. The application of such covers implies use of measurement methods and evaluation approaches, both during the planning stage and throughout the operation of biocovers in order to demonstrate their efficiency. Principally, various techniques, commonly used to monitor landfill surface emissions, can be applied to control biocovers. However, particularly when using engineered materials such as compost substrates, biocovers often feature several altered, specific properties when compared to conventional covers, e.g., respect to gas permeability, physical parameters including water retention capacity and texture, and methane oxidation activity. Therefore, existing measuring methods should be carefully evaluated or even modified prior to application on biocovers. This paper discusses possible strategies to be applied in monitoring biocover functionality. On the basis of experiences derived from investigations and large-scale field trials with compost biocovers in Austria, an assessment approach has been developed. A conceptual draft for monitoring biocover performance and recommendations for practical application are presented. PMID:19282167

  17. LCACCESS: PROMOTING THE USE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating environmental impacts holistically from raw material acquisition, through manufacture, to use and disposal using a life cycle perspective is gradually being viewed by environmental managers and decision-makers as an important element in the tools that are used to achie...

  18. Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict cycling time-trial performance in the field: a non-linear approach.

    PubMed

    Nevill, A M; Jobson, S A; Palmer, G S; Olds, T S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present article is to identify the most appropriate method of scaling VO2max for differences in body mass when assessing the energy cost of time-trial cycling. The data from three time-trial cycling studies were analysed (N = 79) using a proportional power-function ANCOVA model. The maximum oxygen uptake-to-mass ratio found to predict cycling speed was VO2max(m)(-0.32) precisely the same as that derived by Swain for sub-maximal cycling speeds (10, 15 and 20 mph). The analysis was also able to confirm a proportional curvilinear association between cycling speed and energy cost, given by (VO2max(m)(-0.32))0.41. The model predicts, for example, that for a male cyclist (72 kg) to increase his average speed from 30 km h(-1) to 35 km h(-1), he would require an increase in VO2max from 2.36 l min(-1) to 3.44 l min(-1), an increase of 1.08 l min(-1). In contrast, for the cyclist to increase his mean speed from 40 km h(-1) to 45 km h(-1), he would require a greater increase in VO2max from 4.77 l min(-1) to 6.36 l min(-1), i.e. an increase of 1.59 l min(-1). The model is also able to accommodate other determinants of time-trial cycling, e.g. the benefit of cycling with a side wind (5% faster) compared with facing a predominately head/tail wind (P<0.05). Future research could explore whether the same scaling approach could be applied to, for example, alternative measures of recording power output to improve the prediction of time-trial cycling performance. PMID:15906080

  19. Probabilistic Risk-Based Approach to Aeropropulsion System Assessment Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.

    2001-01-01

    In an era of shrinking development budgets and resources, where there is also an emphasis on reducing the product development cycle, the role of system assessment, performed in the early stages of an engine development program, becomes very critical to the successful development of new aeropropulsion systems. A reliable system assessment not only helps to identify the best propulsion system concept among several candidates, it can also identify which technologies are worth pursuing. This is particularly important for advanced aeropropulsion technology development programs, which require an enormous amount of resources. In the current practice of deterministic, or point-design, approaches, the uncertainties of design variables are either unaccounted for or accounted for by safety factors. This could often result in an assessment with unknown and unquantifiable reliability. Consequently, it would fail to provide additional insight into the risks associated with the new technologies, which are often needed by decisionmakers to determine the feasibility and return-on-investment of a new aircraft engine.

  20. A coordinated approach to investigating human perturbations to the Nitrogen cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, J. N.; Sahagian, D.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen is essential to the survival of all life forms yet the natural abundance of useable nitrogen is so low that massive human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has been required to sustain the feeding of the worldAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s burgeoning population. The alteration has been made even greater by the release of nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion. Changes in the nitrogen cycle due to human action have exacerbated a number of environmental issues, including smog, acid deposition, climate change, coastal eutrophication, stratospheric ozone depletion, all of which have impacts on people and ecosystems on a regional or global basis. Because of the cascading nature of the effectAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s on nitrogen, understanding of the effects, their underlying causes and their interactions must be studied in an integrated fashion from both science and policy perspectives. Toward that end, a coordinated effort is being made to integrate the diverse scientific, policy, industrial, and other stakeholder communities in an "International Nitrogen Initiative" (INI) with the goal of placing the global community in a position to optimize nitrogenAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s beneficial role in sustainable food production and minimize nitrogenAŸA›A›ƒ_sAªA›ƒ_zA›s negative effects on human health and the environment resulting from food and energy production. Preliminary results suggest that novel approaches to fertilizer application can have a profound effect on excess nitrogen that enters surface and ground water, and that eutrophication of lakes and the coastal zone can be ameliorated by more efficient practices. In addition, as the processes involved in denitrification are more fully understood, it is becoming possible to better assess the partitioning of nitrogen between the ground/surface water and the atmosphere. As the coordinated study of the nitrogen cycle progresses, the assessment of nitrogen fluxes

  1. Life cycle assessment of advanced bioethanol production from pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Diogo; Gonçalves, Margarida S; Marques, Susana; Fonseca, César; Gírio, Francisco; Oliveira, Ana C; Matos, Cristina T

    2016-05-01

    This work evaluates the environmental performance of using pulp and paper sludge as feedstock for the production of second generation ethanol. An ethanol plant for converting 5400 tons of dry sludge/year was modelled and evaluated using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The sludge is a burden for pulp and paper mills that is mainly disposed in landfilling. The studied system allows for the valorisation of the waste, which due to its high polysaccharide content is a valuable feedstock for bioethanol production. Eleven impact categories were analysed and the results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and neutralisation of the CaCO3 are the environmental hotspots of the system contributing up to 85% to the overall impacts. Two optimisation scenarios were evaluated: (1) using a reduced HCl amount in the neutralisation stage and (2) co-fermentation of xylose and glucose, for maximal ethanol yield. Both scenarios displayed significant environmental impact improvements. PMID:26926202

  2. A new approach to assessment of the left ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, Katrina K.; Doughty, Rob N.; Whalley, Gillian A.; Triggs, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac motion is a continuous process; however most measurements to assess cardiac function are taken at brief moments in the cardiac cycle. Using functional data analysis, repeated measurements of left ventricular volume recorded at each frame of a continuous image measured with cardiac ultrasound (echocardiography) were turned into a function of volume over time. The first derivative of the displacement of volume with respect to time is velocity; the second derivative is acceleration. Plotting volume, velocity, and acceleration against each other in a 3-dimensional plot results in a closed loop. The area within the loop is defined by the kinematics of volume change and so may represent ventricular function. • We have developed an approach to analyzing images of the left ventricle that incorporates information from throughout the cardiac cycle. • Comparing systolic and diastolic areas within a loop defined by volume, velocity, and acceleration of left ventricular volume highlights imbalances in the kinematics of the two phases, potentially indicating early sub-clinical disease. • Substantially more information about left ventricular function may be derived from a non-invasive clinically available tool such as echocardiography. PMID:27104150

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Amonix 7700 HCPV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.; Kim, H.

    2010-04-07

    We estimated the energy payback time (EPBT) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the life cycle of the Amonix high-concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) system with III-V solar cells. For a location in the southwest United States, the Amonix 7700 has an EPBT of only 0.86 yrs and GHG emissions of 24g CO{sub 2}-eq./kWh we expect further decreases in both by 2011.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Scientific Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories. PMID:24999810

  5. Life cycle assessment of metals: a scientific synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Philip; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining). For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium) are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use), and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories. PMID:24999810

  6. A fourth order spline collocation approach for a business cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayfy, A.; Khoury, S.; Ibdah, H.

    2013-10-01

    A collocation approach, based on a fourth order cubic B-splines is presented for the numerical solution of a Kaleckian business cycle model formulated by a nonlinear delay differential equation. The equation is approximated and the nonlinearity is handled by employing an iterative scheme arising from Newton's method. It is shown that the model exhibits a conditionally dynamical stable cycle. The fourth-order rate of convergence of the scheme is verified numerically for different special cases.

  7. Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-31

    A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel

  8. Energy Approach-Based Simulation of Structural Materials High-Cycle Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balayev, A. F.; Korolev, A. V.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Sklyarova, A. I.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper describes the mechanism of micro-cracks development in solid structural materials based on the theory of brittle fracture. A probability function of material cracks energy distribution is obtained using a probabilistic approach. The paper states energy conditions for cracks growth at material high-cycle loading. A formula allowing to calculate the amount of energy absorbed during the cracks growth is given. The paper proposes a high- cycle fatigue evaluation criterion allowing to determine the maximum permissible number of solid body loading cycles, at which micro-cracks start growing rapidly up to destruction.

  9. Assessment of Life Cycle Impacts on Ecosystem Services: Promise, Problems, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Othoniel, Benoit; Rugani, Benedetto; Heijungs, Reinout; Benetto, Enrico; Withagen, Cees

    2016-02-01

    The analysis of ecosystem services (ES) is becoming a key-factor to implement policies on sustainable technologies. Accordingly, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods are more and more oriented toward the development of harmonized characterization models to address impacts on ES. However, such efforts are relatively recent and have not reached full consensus yet. We investigate here on the transdisciplinary pillars related to the modeling of LCIA on ES by conducting a critical review and comparison of the state-of-the-art in both LCIA and ES domains. We observe that current LCIA practices to assess impacts on "ES provision" suffer from incompleteness in modeling the cause-effect chains; the multifunctionality of ecosystems is omitted; and the "flow" nature of ES is not considered. Furthermore, ES modeling in LCIA is limited by its static calculation framework, and the valuation of ES also experiences some limitations. The conceptualization of land use (changes) as the main impact driver on ES, and the corresponding approaches to retrieve characterization factors, eventually embody several methodological shortcomings, such as the lack of time-dependency and interrelationships between elements in the cause-effect chains. We conclude that future LCIA modeling of ES could benefit from the harmonization with existing integrated multiscale dynamic integrated approaches. PMID:26717294

  10. Comparison of energy-based indicators used in life cycle assessment tools for buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, building rating systems focused on, among others, energy used during operational stage. Recently, there is a strong push by these rating systems to include the life cycle energy use of buildings, particularly using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), by offering credits t...

  11. Integrating risk assessment and life cycle assessment: a case study of insulation.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Yurika; Levy, Jonathan I; Norris, Gregory A; Wilson, Andrew; Hofstetter, Patrick; Spengler, John D

    2002-10-01

    Increasing residential insulation can decrease energy consumption and provide public health benefits, given changes in emissions from fuel combustion, but also has cost implications and ancillary risks and benefits. Risk assessment or life cycle assessment can be used to calculate the net impacts and determine whether more stringent energy codes or other conservation policies would be warranted, but few analyses have combined the critical elements of both methodologies In this article, we present the first portion of a combined analysis, with the goal of estimating the net public health impacts of increasing residential insulation for new housing from current practice to the latest International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2000). We model state-by-state residential energy savings and evaluate particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), NOx, and SO2 emission reductions. We use past dispersion modeling results to estimate reductions in exposure, and we apply concentration-response functions for premature mortality and selected morbidity outcomes using current epidemiological knowledge of effects of PM2.5 (primary and secondary). We find that an insulation policy shift would save 3 x 10(14) British thermal units or BTU (3 x 10(17) J) over a 10-year period, resulting in reduced emissions of 1,000 tons of PM2.5, 30,000 tons of NOx, and 40,000 tons of SO2. These emission reductions yield an estimated 60 fewer fatalities during this period, with the geographic distribution of health benefits differing from the distribution of energy savings because of differences in energy sources, population patterns, and meteorology. We discuss the methodology to be used to integrate life cycle calculations, which can ultimately yield estimates that can be compared with costs to determine the influence of external costs on benefit-cost calculations. PMID:12442994

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON METRICS FOR LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metrics (potentials, potency factors, equivalency factors or characterization factors) are available to support the environmental comparison of alternatives in application domains like proces design and product life-cycle assessment (LCA). These metrics typically provide relative...

  13. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach.

    PubMed

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-09-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  14. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  15. A multibiomarker approach to environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tamara S; Brown, Rebecca J; Browne, Mark A; Dissanayake, Awantha; Lowe, David; Jones, Malcolm B; Depledge, Michael H

    2004-03-15

    Incorporation of ecologically relevant biomarkers into routine environmental management programs has been advocated as a pragmatic means of linking environmental degradation with its causes. Here, suites of biomarkers, devised to measure molecular damage, developmental abnormality and physiological impairment, were combined with chemical analysis to determine exposure to and the effects of pollution at sites within Southampton Water (UK). Test species included a filter feeder, a grazer, and an omnivore to determine the sensitivity of organisms occupying different trophic levels. Linear regression confirmed a significant association between incidence of intersex in Littorina littorea and tributyltin (TBT) concentrations (R2 = 0.954) and between PAH metabolites in Carcinus maenas urine and PAHs in sediments (R2 = 0.754). Principal component analysis revealed a gradient of detrimental impact to biota from the head to the mouth of the estuary, coincident with high sediment concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs, and biocides. Multidimensional scaling identified C. maenas as the organism most sensitive to contamination. Carboxylesterase activity, metallothionein and total haemolymph protein were the most discriminating biomarkers among sites. This holistic approach to environmental assessment is encouraged as it helps to identify the integrated impact of chemical contamination on organisms and to provide a realistic measure of environmental quality. PMID:15074681

  16. A tiered approach for assessing children's exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, T W; Hushka, L J; Tell, J G; Zaleski, R T

    2000-01-01

    Recently, intense attention has been given to children's health issues, particularly in the use of consumer products. Because of this attention, researchers have been planning and initiating studies specifically aimed at developing both toxicology data and exposure data directed to improve our understanding of industrial and consumer product chemical impacts on children's health. To ensure that this research is focused on the highest priority chemicals, we present a methodology for determining and prioritizing the higher hazard chemicals and scenarios for which children could be disproportionately or highly exposed. This tiered approach includes a screening step for initial chemical selection, a hazard assessment based on no- or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels, and a margin of exposure (MOE) calculation. The initial chemical screen focuses on the chemical presence in specific media that are special to children, such as foods children regularly eat and drink, residential or school air, products children use, and soil and dust in and around residences. Data from the literature or from models serve as the initial exposure estimate. This methodology would allow us to focus on those chemicals to which children are most exposed that are also associated with, potentially, the highest risk. Use of the MOE calculation allows for comparison among chemicals, prioritization of chemicals for evaluation and testing, and identification of significant data gaps. PMID:10856018

  17. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, H.; Wang, M.; Bloyd, C.; Putsche, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  18. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    PubMed

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts. PMID:19245012

  19. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from low-Earth orbit satellites sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimations are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments like the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers. Specifically, we assess how representing the fire diurnal cycle affects FRP and FRE estimations when using data collected at MODIS overpasses. Using data assimilation we explored three different methods to estimate hourly FRE, based on an incremental sophistication of parameterizing the fire diurnal cycle. We sampled data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) at MODIS detection opportunities to drive the three approaches. The full SEVIRI time-series, providing full coverage of the diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised three years (2010-2012), and we focussed on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal cycle as done currently in some approaches caused structural

  20. Making It Better: Research, Assessment, and Recursive Learning Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Robert; Timmerman, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides case study examples of how assessment efforts led to and have been enhanced by the creation of integrated curriculum delivery models in parks, recreation, and tourism programs at Clemson University and the University of Utah.

  1. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (CHAPTER 15)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much has been accomplished internationally to establish industrial Pollution Prevention as an important component in environmental management. It includes approaches that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants or wastes at the source. However, the growing recognition th...

  2. Guidelines for a Scientific Approach to Critical Thinking Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, D. Alan; Murtagh, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of student learning outcomes can be a powerful tool for improvement of instruction when a scientific approach is taken; unfortunately, many educators do not take full advantage of this approach. This article examines benefits of taking a scientific approach to critical thinking assessment and proposes guidelines for planning,…

  3. Life cycle assessment and carbon footprint in the wine supply-chain.

    PubMed

    Pattara, Claudio; Raggi, Andrea; Cichelli, Angelo

    2012-06-01

    Global warming represents one of the most critical internationally perceived environmental issues. The growing, and increasingly global, wine sector is one of the industries which is under increasing pressure to adopt approaches for environmental assessment and reporting of product-related greenhouse gas emissions. The International Organization for Vine and Wine has recently recognized the need to develop a standard and objective methodology and a related tool for calculating carbon footprint (CF). This study applied this tool to a wine previously analyzed using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The objective was to test the tool as regards both its potential and possible limitations, and thus to assess its suitability as a standard tool. Despite the tool's user-friendliness, a number of limitations were noted including the lack of accurate baseline data, a partial system boundary and the impossibility of dealing with the multi-functionality issue. When the CF and LCA results are compared in absolute terms, large discrepancies become obvious due to a number of different assumptions, as well as the modeling framework adopted. Nonetheless, in relative terms the results seem to be quite consistent. However, a critical limitation of the CF methodology was its focus on a single issue, which can lead to burden shifting. In conclusion, the study confirmed the need for both further improvement and adaptation to additional contexts and further studies to validate the use of this tool in different companies. PMID:22525986

  4. Life cycle assessment of energy from waste via anaerobic digestion: a UK case study.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Sara; Lettieri, Paola; Borello, Domenico; Clift, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Particularly in the UK, there is potential for use of large-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants to treat food waste, possibly along with other organic wastes, to produce biogas. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of AD with energy and organic fertiliser production against two alternative approaches: incineration with energy production by CHP and landfill with electricity production. In particular the paper investigates the dependency of the results on some specific assumptions and key process parameters. The input Life Cycle Inventory data are specific to the Greater London area, UK. Anaerobic digestion emerges as the best treatment option in terms of total CO2 and total SO2 saved, when energy and organic fertiliser substitute non-renewable electricity, heat and inorganic fertiliser. For photochemical ozone and nutrient enrichment potentials, AD is the second option while incineration is shown to be the most environmentally friendly solution. The robustness of the model is investigated with a sensitivity analysis. The most critical assumption concerns the quantity and quality of the energy substituted by the biogas production. Two key issues affect the development and deployment of future anaerobic digestion plants: maximising the electricity produced by the CHP unit fuelled by biogas and to defining the future energy scenario in which the plant will be embedded. PMID:24112851

  5. Development and application of methods for regional scaling and normalization in life-cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tolle, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a technical, quantitative and/or qualitative method to classify, characterize, and valuate potential impacts on human health, ecosystems, and natural resources, based on the environmental burdens identified in a life-cycle inventory. Research described here for two LCIAs included development and application of regional scaling methods for the following 5 of 14 relevant impact categories: Suspended (PM{sub 10}) particulate effects, water use, acid deposition, smog creation, and eutrophication. Normalization is recommended after characterization, because aggregated sums per impact category need to be expressed in equivalent terms before assigning valuation weight factors. The normalization approach described here involves determination of factors that represent the total, geographically-relevant impact for a given impact category. The goal for the 14 normalization factors developed and applied to two LCIAS, was to make them scientifically defensible, while utilizing existing data on emission or resource extraction quantities for three spatial perspectives. Data on the total environmental burden for each inventory item under a given impact category were obtained for normalization factors. Since the boundaries of the two LCIAs were primarily in the US, the data for the regional or local impact category perspectives were restricted to appropriate areas in the US. Normalization factors were developed and applied in the two LCIAs for 11 impact categories involving chemical emissions, water use, solid waste volume, and resource extraction/production land use.

  6. A fuel cycle assessment guide for utility and state energy planners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This guide, one in a series of documents designed to help assess fuel cycles, is a framework for setting parameters, collecting data, and analyzing fuel cycles for supply-side and demand-side management. It provides an automated tool for entering comparative fuel cycle data that are meaningful to state and utility integrated resource planning, collaborative, and regional energy planning activities. It outlines an extensive range of energy technology characteristics and environmental, social, and economic considerations within each stage of a fuel cycle. The guide permits users to focus on specific stages or effects that are relevant to the technology being evaluated and that meet the user`s planning requirements.

  7. What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ekvall, Tomas Assefa, Getachew; Bjoerklund, Anna; Eriksson, Ola; Finnveden, Goeran

    2007-07-01

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  8. Solar/gas Brayton/Rankine cycle heat pump assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, J.; Liu, A. Y.

    1982-05-01

    A 10-ton gas-fired heat pump is currently under development at AiResearch under joint DOE and GRI sponsorship. This heat pump features a highly efficient, recuperated, subatmospheric Brayton-cycle engine which drives the centrifugal compressor of a reversible vapor compression heat pump. The investigations under this program were concerned initially with the integration of this machine with a parabolic dish-type solar collector. Computer models were developed to accurately describe the performance of the heat pump packaged in this fashion. The study determined that (1) only a small portion (20 to 50 percent) of the available solar energy could be used because of a fundamental mismatch between the heating and cooling demand and the availability of solar energy, and (2) the simple pay back period, by comparison to the baseline non-solar gas-fired heat pump, was unacceptable (15 to 36 years).

  9. Life cycle assessment of biomethane use in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Groppelli, Eduardo; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-04-01

    Renewable substitutes for natural gas, such as biogas, require adequate treatment to remove impurities. This paper presents the life cycle and environmental impact of upgrading biogas using absorption-desorption process with three different solvents: water, diglycolamine and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether. The results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories, and an economic analysis showed that water is the most feasible solvent for obtaining the lowest payback period. This analysis includes three different sources for biogas production and two end uses for biomethane. The use of different wastes as sources results in different environmental impacts depending on the type of energy used in the anaerobic digestion. The same situation occurs when considering the use of biomethane as a domestic fuel or for power generation. Using energy from biogas to replace conventional energy sources in production and upgrading biogas significantly reduce the environmental impacts of processes. PMID:25700340

  10. Ovarian cycle approach by rectal temperature and fecal progesterone in a female killer whale, Orcinus orca.

    PubMed

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Kakizoe, Yuka; Kanda, Koji; Sengoku, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yohei; Adachi, Itsuki; Watanabe, Yoko; Doi, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the measurements of body temperature and fecal progesterone concentrations as minimally invasive techniques for assessing ovarian cycle in a single sexually mature female killer whale. Rectal temperature data, fecal and blood samples were collected in the dorsal position using routine husbandry training on a voluntary basis. The correlations between rectal temperature and plasma progesterone concentration and between fecal and plasma progesterone concentrations were investigated. Fecal progesterone metabolites were identified by a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Plasma progesterone concentrations (range: 0.2-18.6 ng/ml) and rectal temperature (range: 35.3-35.9°C) changed cyclically, and cycle lengths were an average (±SD) of 44.9±4.0 days (nine cycles) and 44.6±5.9 days (nine cycles), respectively. Rectal temperature positively correlated with the plasma progesterone concentrations (r=0.641, P<0.01). There was a visual trend for fecal progesterone profiles to be similar to circulating plasma progesterone profiles. Fecal immunoreactive progestagen analysis resulted in a marked immunoreactive peak of progesterone. The data from the single killer whale indicate that the measurement of rectal temperature is suitable for minimally invasive assessment of the estrous cycle and monitoring the fecal progesterone concentration is useful to assess ovarian luteal activity. PMID:20648568

  11. Assessment of global flood exposures - developing an appropriate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millinship, Ian; Booth, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly complex probabilistic catastrophe models have become the standard for quantitative flood risk assessments by re/insurance companies. On the one hand, probabilistic modelling of this nature is extremely useful; a large range of risk metrics can be output. However, they can be time consuming and computationally expensive to develop and run. Levels of uncertainty are persistently high despite, or perhaps because of, attempts to increase resolution and complexity. A cycle of dependency between modelling companies and re/insurers has developed whereby available models are purchased, models run, and both portfolio and model data 'improved' every year. This can lead to potential exposures in perils and territories that are not currently modelled being largely overlooked by companies, who may then face substantial and unexpected losses when large events occur in these areas. We present here an approach to assessing global flood exposures which reduces the scale and complexity of approach used and begins with the identification of hotspots where there is a significant exposure to flood risk. The method comprises four stages: i) compile consistent exposure information, ii) to apply reinsurance terms and conditions to calculate values exposed, iii) to assess the potential hazard using a global set of flood hazard maps, and iv) to identify potential risk 'hotspots' which include considerations of spatially and/or temporally clustered historical events, and local flood defences. This global exposure assessment is designed as a scoping exercise, and reveals areas or cities where the potential for accumulated loss is of significant interest to a reinsurance company, and for which there is no existing catastrophe model. These regions are then candidates for the development of deterministic scenarios, or probabilistic models. The key advantages of this approach will be discussed. These include simplicity and ability of business leaders to understand results, as well as

  12. Nimble Navigation: A Constant Cycle Assessment Keeps Learning on Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Wendy; Johanson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Just like in a classroom, a professional learning facilitator needs to base planning and instruction on assessment. Adult learners need the learning experience to be as focused as possible on their questions and their teaching circumstances. Whether the professional learning is a half-day session or extends over multiple school years, leaders can…

  13. International business cycle synchronization since the 1870s: Evidence from a novel network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Gogas, Periklis; Papadimitriou, Theophilos; Sarantitis, Georgios Antonios

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we examine the issue of business cycle synchronization from a historical perspective in 27 developed and developing countries. Based on a novel complex network approach, the Threshold-Minimum Dominating Set (T-MDS), our results reveal heterogeneous patterns of international business cycle synchronization during fundamental globalization periods since the 1870s. In particular, the proposed methodology reveals that worldwide business cycles de-coupled during the Gold Standard, though they were synchronized during the Great Depression. The Bretton Woods era was associated with a lower degree of synchronization as compared to that during the Great Depression, while worldwide business cycle synchronization increased to unprecedented levels during the latest period of floating exchange rates and the Great Recession.

  14. General Education Assessment Plan: A Four-Tiered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLawhon, Ryan; Phillips, Loraine H.

    2013-01-01

    Planning is possibly the most important step of the assessment process. This article presents a four-tiered approach to designing and implementing a general education institutional assessment plan. Categorizing the measures you use to assess established learning outcomes helps you prioritize your general education assessment initiatives and keep…

  15. Life cycle assessment of first-generation biofuels using a nitrogen crop model.

    PubMed

    Gallejones, P; Pardo, G; Aizpurua, A; del Prado, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative approach to assess the impacts of biofuel production using a method integrating the simulated values of a new semi-empirical model at the crop production stage within a life cycle assessment (LCA). This new approach enabled us to capture some of the effects that climatic conditions and crop management have on soil nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions, crop yields and other nitrogen (N) losses. This analysis considered the whole system to produce 1 MJ of biofuel (bioethanol from wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed). Non-renewable energy use, global warming potential (GWP), acidification, eutrophication and land competition are considered as potential environmental impacts. Different co-products were handled by system expansion. The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the variability due to site-specific conditions of climate and fertiliser management of the LCA of two different products: biodiesel from rapeseed and bioethanol from wheat produced in the Basque Country (Northern Spain), and (ii) to improve the estimations of the LCA impacts due to N losses (N₂O, NO₃, NH₃), normally estimated with unspecific emission factors (EFs), that contribute to the impact categories analysed in the LCA of biofuels at local scale. Using biodiesel and bioethanol derived from rapeseed and wheat instead of conventional diesel and gasoline, respectively, would reduce non-renewable energy dependence (-55%) and GWP (-40%), on average, but would increase eutrophication (42 times more potential). An uncertainty analysis for GWP impact showed that the variability associated with the prediction of the major contributor to global warming potential (soil N₂O) can significantly affect the results from the LCA. Therefore the use of a model to account for local factors will improve the precision of the assessment and reduce the uncertainty associated with the convenience of the use of biofuels. PMID:25461117

  16. Approaching Assessment from a Learning Perspective: Elevating Assessment beyond Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Michele; George, Beena

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is a key process in assuring quality education but how is it linked to the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL)? How can we join teaching and learning to the assessment process rather than view it as a stand-alone component in course and/or program development? This paper explores the relationship between assessment and the SoTL…

  17. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    PubMed

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus). PMID:26360761

  18. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  19. Is objective and accurate cognitive assessment across the menstrual cycle possible? A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Jo; Scally, Andy; Tuffnell, Derek; Marshall, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Variation in plasma hormone levels influences the neurobiology of brain regions involved in cognition and emotion processing. Fluctuations in hormone levels across the menstrual cycle could therefore alter cognitive performance and wellbeing; reports have provided conflicting results, however. The aim of this study was to assess whether objective assessment of cognitive performance and self-reported wellbeing during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle is feasible and investigate the possible reasons for variation in effects previously reported. Methods: The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were used to assess the cognitive performance and wellbeing of 12 women. Data were analysed by self-reported and hormone-estimated phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Recruitment to the study and assessment of cognition and wellbeing was without issue. Plasma hormone and peptide estimation showed substantial individual variation and suggests inaccuracy in self-reported menstrual phase estimation. Conclusion: Objective assessment of cognitive performance and self-assessed wellbeing across the menstrual cycle is feasible. Grouping data by hormonal profile rather by self-reported phase estimation may influence phase-mediated results. Future studies should use plasma hormone and peptide profiles to estimate cycle phase and group data for analyses. PMID:26770760

  20. Leadership Assessment from an Institutional Approach.

    PubMed

    Nobbe, June; Soria, Krista M

    2016-09-01

    This chapter provides information about linking undergraduates' leadership development assessment to institutional student learning outcomes illustrated by a case example at the University of Minnesota. PMID:27502100

  1. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Recycling of Magnesium Vehicle Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenberger, Simone; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2013-10-01

    Life-cycle assessment is basically the assessment of a product from the cradle to the grave. Ideally, a product is recycled after its useful life is complete and the end-of-life of the first life cycle leads to the beginning of a new product system. For the end-of-life of magnesium vehicle parts, there are various possible paths to a second life cycle. When magnesium parts are dismantled or magnesium is separated after shredding, the resulting magnesium alloys can be used for secondary, noncritical applications. However, the typical case for magnesium components is that the magnesium postconsumer scrap ends up in the nonferrous metals fraction that consists primarily of aluminum, magnesium, and heavy metals. Today, aluminum is typically fed into a second life cycle as a secondary alloy, and magnesium becomes part of the aluminum cycle as an alloy addition. In this article, we evaluate the environmental effects of using magnesium in the aluminum cycle. We also assess the influence of end-of-life scenarios on the overall environmental impact of a component's life cycle. The primary focus of our analysis is the evaluation of the effects of magnesium vehicle components on greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Classic “broken cell” techniques and newer live cell methods for cell cycle assessment

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Lindsay; Bortone, Dante S.; Lim, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Many common, important diseases are either caused or exacerbated by hyperactivation (e.g., cancer) or inactivation (e.g., heart failure) of the cell division cycle. A better understanding of the cell cycle is critical for interpreting numerous types of physiological changes in cells. Moreover, new insights into how to control it will facilitate new therapeutics for a variety of diseases and new avenues in regenerative medicine. The progression of cells through the four main phases of their division cycle [G0/G1, S (DNA synthesis), G2, and M (mitosis)] is a highly conserved process orchestrated by several pathways (e.g., transcription, phosphorylation, nuclear import/export, and protein ubiquitination) that coordinate a core cell cycle pathway. This core pathway can also receive inputs that are cell type and cell niche dependent. “Broken cell” methods (e.g., use of labeled nucleotide analogs) to assess for cell cycle activity have revealed important insights regarding the cell cycle but lack the ability to assess living cells in real time (longitudinal studies) and with single-cell resolution. Moreover, such methods often require cell synchronization, which can perturb the pathway under study. Live cell cycle sensors can be used at single-cell resolution in living cells, intact tissue, and whole animals. Use of these more recently available sensors has the potential to reveal physiologically relevant insights regarding the normal and perturbed cell division cycle. PMID:23392113

  3. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    PubMed

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation. PMID:20924666

  4. Assessing time-integrated dissolved concentrations and predicting toxicity of metals during diel cycling in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Nimick, David A.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating water quality and the health of aquatic organisms is challenging in systems with systematic diel (24 h) or less predictable runoff-induced changes in water composition. To advance our understanding of how to evaluate environmental health in these dynamic systems, field studies of diel cycling were conducted in two streams (Silver Bow Creek and High Ore Creek) affected by historical mining activities in southwestern Montana. A combination of sampling and modeling tools was used to assess the toxicity of metals in these systems. Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) samplers were deployed at multiple time intervals during diel sampling to confirm that DGT integrates time-varying concentrations of dissolved metals. Site specific water compositions, including time-integrated dissolved metal concentrations determined from DGT, a competitive, multiple-toxicant biotic ligand model, and the Windemere Humic Aqueous Model Version 6.0 (WHAM VI) were used to determine the equilibrium speciation of dissolved metals and biotic ligands. The model results were combined with previously collected toxicity data on cutthroat trout to derive a relationship that predicts the relative survivability of these fish at a given site. This integrative approach may prove useful for assessing water quality and toxicity of metals to aquatic organisms in dynamic systems and evaluating whether potential changes in environmental health of aquatic systems are due to anthropogenic activities or natural variability.

  5. Alternative "global warming" metrics in life cycle assessment: a case study with existing transportation data.

    PubMed

    Peters, Glen P; Aamaas, Borgar; T Lund, Marianne; Solli, Christian; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2011-10-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) impact category "global warming" compares emissions of long-lived greenhouse gases (LLGHGs) using Global Warming Potential (GWP) with a 100-year time-horizon as specified in the Kyoto Protocol. Two weaknesses of this approach are (1) the exclusion of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) and biophysical factors despite their established importance, and (2) the use of a particular emission metric (GWP) with a choice of specific time-horizons (20, 100, and 500 years). The GWP and the three time-horizons were based on an illustrative example with value judgments and vague interpretations. Here we illustrate, using LCA data of the transportation sector, the importance of SLCFs relative to LLGHGs, different emission metrics, and different treatments of time. We find that both the inclusion of SLCFs and the choice of emission metric can alter results and thereby change mitigation priorities. The explicit inclusion of time, both for emissions and impacts, can remove value-laden assumptions and provide additional information for impact assessments. We believe that our results show that a debate is needed in the LCA community on the impact category "global warming" covering which emissions to include, the emission metric(s) to use, and the treatment of time. PMID:21936535

  6. REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes: Results and Data Legacy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadell, J.; Ciais, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Carbon Project with the involvement of over 150 contributing scientists has finalized the largest and most comprehensive assessment of regional carbon budgets, land and oceans, ever undertaken: the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP; http:// www.globalcarbonproject.org/reccap). The objective of RECCAP was to establish the mean carbon balance of 10 land regions (Africa, the Arctic tundra, Australia, Europe, Russia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and North America) and 4 major ocean basins (Atlantic and Arctic, Indian, Pacific, and Southern oceans) for the period 1990-2009. The fundamental tenet of RECCAP was to establish carbon budgets in each region by comparing and reconciling multiple bottom-up flux estimates with top-down estimates. Bottom-up flux approaches include estimates from ensembles of process-based land and ocean models, surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), forest inventories, eddy covariance measurements, fire modeling, riverine export, and wood harvest among others, while top-down estimates relied on model ensembles of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 inversions. In this talk we'll present an overview of results of the various regions, compare with the independently developed global carbon budget, and emphasize major regional differences and data gaps. An important legacy of RECCAP are a number of updated and new databases including an ensemble of 9 Global Dynamic Vegetation Models (TRENDY), 4 Ocean biogeochemical models, and 10 atmospheric CO2 inversions for the period 1990-2009.

  7. ''An assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation''

    SciTech Connect

    Hauber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

    1983-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. This study was managed by Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal Utilization. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2,150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules.

  8. Assessment of integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.A.; Kirk, R.J.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Smith, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative study of various selected technologies for coal-fired electric power generation with emphasis on the generation of power using the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Concept. All of the power plant conceptual designs were prepared as grassroots plants with a nominal output of 500 MWe, located in the east-central region of the United States. The designs were based upon a uniform set of design, performance, economic criteria and a 1990 state-of-the-art reference frame. Three IGCC power plant concepts were studied (Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, and Westinghouse gasification processes) and compared with conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants. Each of the IGCC plant concepts were designed to produce a medium-Btu fuel gas which was treated in a SELEXOL processing facility to remove sulfur from the fuel gas in order to meet NSPS SO/sub 2/ emission control requirements. The IGCC power generation facilities for each concept used advanced gas turbines with a rotor inlet temperature of 2150/sup 0/F. Conventional heat recovery steam generators produced high pressure superheated steam which was expanded through a non-reheat steam turbine exhausting to a conventional condenser. The basic designs, estimated performance, and economics for the IGCC plants are presented for both eastern and western coals with varying sulfur removals and are compared with conventional power plants of the same outputs. A consistent set of technical and economic ground rules was employed in making the comparisons. Each of the base case concepts that were studied were found to be cost competitive under the economic ground rules. 8 figures, 12 tables.

  9. A Systematic Approach to Educational Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Center for Community Needs Assessment.

    The focus of this paper is on the development of a model for assessing community educational needs, referred to as the Needs Assessment Project (NAP). The model's primary purpose is to classify, organize, and assign priority to community needs, so that the educational system can assign these needs to the proper administrative unit for changes to…

  10. Authentic Literacy Assessment: An Ecological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Lauren; Jett-Simpson, Mary

    The goal of this revised edition is to describe and illustrate the process of implementing ecological assessment in classrooms. The focus is on the process of change. Teachers who assess ecologically create classroom environments that are small ecosystems representative of the larger literacy system outside the classroom. New developments in…

  11. A Psycholinguistic Approach to Oral Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Moere, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for incorporating the assessment of psycholinguistic constructs into spoken language proficiency testing. Although response time and automaticity of language processing are vital factors in language acquisition, as constructs they are rarely explicitly assessed in language tests. It is proposed that efficiency of…

  12. Environmental sustainability assessments of pharmaceuticals: an emerging need for simplification in life cycle assessments.

    PubMed

    De Soete, Wouter; Debaveye, Sam; De Meester, Steven; Van der Vorst, Geert; Aelterman, Wim; Heirman, Bert; Cappuyns, Philippe; Dewulf, Jo

    2014-10-21

    The pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries are eager to strive toward innovative products and technologies. This study first derives hotspots in resource consumption of 2839 Basic Operations in 40 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient synthesis steps through Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA). Second, since companies are increasingly obliged to quantify the environmental sustainability of their products, two alternative ways of simplifying (E)LCA are discussed. The usage of averaged product group values (R(2) = 3.40 × 10(-30)) is compared with multiple linear regression models (R(2) = 8.66 × 10(-01)) in order to estimate resource consumption of synthesis steps. An optimal set of predictor variables is postulated to balance model complexity and embedded information with usability and capability of merging models with existing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) data systems. The amount of organic solvents used, molar efficiency, and duration of a synthesis step were shown to be the most significant predictor variables. Including additional predictor variables did not contribute to the predictive power and eventually weakens the model interpretation. Ideally, an organization should be able to derive its environmental impact from readily available ERP data, linking supply chains back to the cradle of resource extraction, excluding the need for an approximation with product group averages. PMID:25244162

  13. Exposure assessment of MWCNTs in their life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono-Ogasawara, M.; Takaya, M.; Yamada, M.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used as a filler in composites to obtain electrical conductivity, and improve mechanical strength and other properties. However, exposure to MWCNTs may pose health risks because of their size, shape, and insolubility. A quantitative exposure assessment method for CNTs is therefore needed. We have developed a promising carbon analysis method that considers the size distribution of elemental carbon. We conducted exposure assessment according to the lifecycle of CNTs. At the first stage, large quantity of CNTs are handled and exposure to neat CNTs is likely to occur. When large quantity of CNTs are handled, enclosure and automated process are strongly recommended. By applying appropriate measures, CNT concentration can be well controlled. Local exhaust ventilation and less-restrictive enclosures were found to work well during the second stage, which involves handling smaller CNT quantities. At measured sites, MWCNT concentrations were below an occupational exposure level proposed by Nakanishi (i.e., 0.030 mg/m3). This analysis method can also be applied to particles containing MWCNTs. At downstream stages of the lifecycle, neat MWCNTs were not observed and concentrations of embedded MWCNTs were lower than 0.015 mg/m3.

  14. Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, Anna

    2012-01-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.

  15. Intelligent approach for parallel HEV control strategy based on driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri-Gh, M.; Asadi, M.

    2011-02-01

    This article describes a methodological approach for the intelligent control of parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) by the inclusion of the concept of driving cycles. In this approach, a fuzzy logic controller is designed to manage the internal combustion engine to work in the vicinity of its optimal condition instantaneously. In addition, based on the definition of microtrip, several driving patterns are classified that represent the congested to highway traffic conditions. The driving cycle and traffic conditions are then incorporated in an optimisation process to tune the fuzzy membership function parameters. In this study, the optimisation process is formulated to minimise the HEV fuel consumption (FC) and emissions as well as the satisfaction of the driving performance constraints. Finally, optimisation results are provided for three different driving cycles including ECE-EUDC, FTP and TEH-CAR. TEH-CAR is a driving cycle that is developed based on the experimental data collected from the real traffic condition in the city of Tehran. The results from the computer simulation show the effectiveness of the approach and reduction in FC and emissions while ensuring that the vehicle performance is not sacrificed.

  16. Life cycle assessment applied to the sector of microelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matarazzo, Agata; Ingrao, Carlo; Clasadonte, Maria Teresa

    2016-07-01

    This work is about the application of LCA to the ends of the environmental assessment of pure-silicon wafers production. The input-data quantification is realized studying two microelectronic devices and presenting schematically tables and graphs, to be easily interpreted. This will allow help the reader to individuate, clearly and immediately, the materials flows and the relationships among the different steps of the production process. The material flows, in terms of raw materials use and energy consumption, were studied using the data provided by a firm involved in the microelectronic device production field. The two devices environmental analysis was developed considering potential effects such as Acidification, Eutrophication, Ozone reduction, Global warming, Ozone photochemical formation, Human Toxicity.

  17. Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP): Approach and Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the approach and methodology to develop a assessment protocol for hydrogen hazards. Included in the presentation are the reasons to perform hazards assessment, the types of hazard assessments that exist, an analysis of hydrogen hazards, specific information about the Hydrogen Hazards Assessment Protocol (HHAP). The assessment is specifically tailored for hydrogen behavior. The end product of the assesment is a compilation of hazard, mitigations and associated factors to facilitate decision making and achieve the best practice.

  18. Dynamic Assessment: An Approach Toward Reducing Test Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Wiedl, Karl Heinz

    Through dynamic testing (the notion that tailored testing can be extended to the use of a learning oriented approach to assessment), analysis were made of how motivational, personality, and cognitive style factors interact with assessment approaches to yield performance data. Testing procedures involving simple feedback, elaborated feedback, and…

  19. A Formative Approach to National Assessments: The Case of Uruguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravela, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case of national achievement assessment at the primary level within a formative approach. Many countries experience an increasing obligation to attach high stakes to national assessments, which results in greater pressure on teachers and schools. The author's view is that this kind of approach is…

  20. Sleep-wake Cycle Assessment in Type 2 Diabetes and Salivary Melatonin Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, Paula Regina Aguiar

    The aim of this study was to analyze the sleep-wake cycle of T2DM subjects and compare it to healthy controls using the nonparametric approach and to assess the changes in the circadian and homeostatic control of the sleep-wake cycle in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and correlate it with melatonin concentration. The sample consisted of 21 subjects with diagnosis of T2DM for more than a year and 21 healthy controls matched for gender and age. Subjects were assessed using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), actigraphy and melatonin levels. The findings revealed that T2DM subjects demonstrate lower IS (p=.03), higher IV (p=.046) and lower rhythm amplitude (p=.02) when compared to healthy controls. Mean melatonin concentrations collected at bed time were significantly lower in the diabetic subjects than that of controls (11.7+/-7.27 pg/ml vs. 24.13+/-10.80pg/ml; p<.01). Actigraphic analysis during the wake phase demonstrated that diabetic subjects showed lower levels of activity (p=.02). Additionally, there was a significant difference decrease in sleep duration (p=.03), efficiency (p=.02); and higher activity counts during the sleep phase (p=.02) in the diabetic group. Sleep efficiency was significantly correlated with melatonin collected two hours before bed time (rho=.61; p=.047). Additionally, there were significant inverse relationships between melatonin collected at two hours before bed time and latency (rho=-.87; p=.001), wake after sleep onset (rho=-.69; p=.02) and nocturnal activity (rho=-.67; p=.03). Latency was inversely correlated with melatonin collected at bed time (rho=-.69; p=.02). These findings suggest that T2DM presents disturbances in the homeostatic and circadian drives, mainly characterized by less consistency across days of the daily circadian signal, higher rhythm fragmentation and lower rhythm amplitude. In addition to the lower melatonin levels, the decrease in the amplitude of the

  1. Multiscale design and life-cycle based sustainability assessment of polymer nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttarwar, Rohan G.

    In recent years, nanocoatings with exceptionally improved and new performance properties have found numerous applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, chemical, electronics, steel, construction, and many other industries. Especially the formulations providing multiple functionalities to cured paint films are believed to dominate the coatings market in the near future. It has shifted the focus of research towards building sustainable coating recipes which can deliver multiple functionalities through applied films. The challenge to this exciting area of research arrives from the insufficient knowledge about structure-property correlations of nanocoating materials and their design complexity. Experimental efforts have been successful in developing certain types of nanopaints exhibiting improved properties. However, multifunctional nanopaint design optimality is extremely difficult to address if not impossible solely through experiments. In addition to this, the environmental implications and societal risks associated with this growing field of nanotechnology raise several questions related to its sustainable development. This research focuses on the study of a multiscale sustainable nanocoating design which can have the application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement point of view, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications. The nanocoating design is studied using computational simulations of nano- to macro- scale models and sustainability assessment study over the life-cycle. Computational simulations aim at integrating top-down, goals/means, inductive systems engineering and bottom-up, cause and effect, deductive systems engineering approaches for material development. The in-silico paint resin system is a water-dispersible acrylic polymer with hydrophilic nanoparticles incorporated into it. The nano-scale atomistic and micro-scale coarse-grained (CG) level

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD AND U.S. NORMALIZATION DATABASE FOR LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normalization is an optional step within Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) that may be used to assist in the interpretation of life cycle inventory data as well as, life cycle impact assessment results. Normalization transforms the magnitude of LCI and LCIA results into relati...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF APPROACHES FOR CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population focused cumulative health risk assessment of a contaminated site or situation can include the evaluation of toxic risk from multiple chemicals, by multiple pathways, over different time frames of exposure, with multiple sensitive population subgroups, and possibly ot...

  4. Assessing Students' Accounting Knowledge: A Structural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Margaret N.

    2001-01-01

    Comparisons of students' representations of financial accounting concepts with the knowledge structures of experts were depicted using Pathfinder networks. This structural approach identified the level of students' understanding of concepts and knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. (SK)

  5. CRP at early follicular phase of menstrual cycle can cause misinterpretation for cardiovascular risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Kiseli, Mine; Pabuccu, Emre; Candar, Tuba; Demirtas, Selda

    2015-01-01

    Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known marker of inflammation and infection in clinical practice. This study is designed to evaluate CRP levels in different phases of menstrual cycle, which might end up with misleading conclusions especially when used for cardiovascular risk assessment. Methods Twenty-seven women were eligible for the cross-sectional study. Venous blood samples from each participant were collected twice during the menstrual cycle. The first sampling was held at 2nd to 5th days of the menstrual cycle for FSH, estradiol, CRP, and sedimentation, and the second was done at 21st to 24th days of the menstrual cycle for measurement of progesterone, CRP, and sedimentation values. Results CRP values were significantly higher in the early follicular phase compared to luteal phase (1.8 mg/L [0.3–7.67] vs. 0.7 mg/L [0.1–8.3], p < 0.001, respectively). In both phases of the menstrual cycle, sedimentation rate was similar (12.1 ± 6.7 vs. 12.3 ± 7.7; p = 0.717, respectively). Conclusions CRP levels in early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (menstruation) are significantly higher than CRP levels in luteal phase of the same cycle. In reproductive age women, detection of CRP for cardiovascular risk assessment during menstruation might not be appropriate. PMID:26767119

  6. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from MODIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimates are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers using data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). In addition, we sampled data from the SEVIRI instrument at MODIS detection opportunities to develop two approaches to estimate hourly FRE based on MODIS active fire detections. The first approach ignored the fire diurnal cycle, assuming persistent fire activity between two MODIS observations, while the second approach combined knowledge on the climatology of the fire diurnal cycle with active fire detections to estimate hourly FRE. The full SEVIRI time series, providing full coverage of the fire diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised of 3 years (2010-2012), and we focused on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal

  7. A Methodology for Integrated, Multiregional Life Cycle Assessment Scenarios under Large-Scale Technological Change.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Arvesen, Anders; Bergesen, Joseph D; Suh, Sangwon; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2015-09-15

    Climate change mitigation demands large-scale technological change on a global level and, if successfully implemented, will significantly affect how products and services are produced and consumed. In order to anticipate the life cycle environmental impacts of products under climate mitigation scenarios, we present the modeling framework of an integrated hybrid life cycle assessment model covering nine world regions. Life cycle assessment databases and multiregional input-output tables are adapted using forecasted changes in technology and resources up to 2050 under a 2 °C scenario. We call the result of this modeling "technology hybridized environmental-economic model with integrated scenarios" (THEMIS). As a case study, we apply THEMIS in an integrated environmental assessment of concentrating solar power. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for this plant range from 33 to 95 g CO2 eq./kWh across different world regions in 2010, falling to 30-87 g CO2 eq./kWh in 2050. Using regional life cycle data yields insightful results. More generally, these results also highlight the need for systematic life cycle frameworks that capture the actual consequences and feedback effects of large-scale policies in the long term. PMID:26308384

  8. A Unified Approach to Outcomes Assessment for Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Waljee, Jennifer F; Ladd, Amy; MacDermid, Joy C; Rozental, Tamara D; Wolfe, Scott W

    2016-04-01

    Distal radius fractures are one of the most common upper extremity injuries. Currently, outcome assessment after treatment of these injuries varies widely with respect to the measures that are used, timing of assessment, and the end points that are considered. A more consistent approach to outcomes assessment would provide a standard by which to assess treatment options and best practices. In this summary, we review the consensus regarding outcomes assessment after distal radius fractures and propose a systematic approach that integrates performance, patient-reported outcomes, pain, complications, and radiographs. PMID:26952734

  9. Applying a weed risk assessment approach to GM crops.

    PubMed

    Keese, Paul K; Robold, Andrea V; Myers, Ruth C; Weisman, Sarah; Smith, Joe

    2014-12-01

    Current approaches to environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants are modelled on chemical risk assessment methods, which have a strong focus on toxicity. There are additional types of harms posed by plants that have been extensively studied by weed scientists and incorporated into weed risk assessment methods. Weed risk assessment uses robust, validated methods that are widely applied to regulatory decision-making about potentially problematic plants. They are designed to encompass a broad variety of plant forms and traits in different environments, and can provide reliable conclusions even with limited data. The knowledge and experience that underpin weed risk assessment can be harnessed for environmental risk assessment of GM plants. A case study illustrates the application of the Australian post-border weed risk assessment approach to a representative GM plant. This approach is a valuable tool to identify potential risks from GM plants. PMID:24046097

  10. A Novel Fuel/Reactor Cycle to Implement the 300 Years Nuclear Waste Policy Approach - 12377

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, M.D.; Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Petrovic, B.

    2012-07-01

    A thorium-based fuel cycle system can effectively burn the currently accumulated commercial used nuclear fuel and move to a sustainable equilibrium where the actinide levels in the high level waste are low enough to yield a radiotoxicity after 300 years lower than that of the equivalent uranium ore. The second step of the Westinghouse approach to solving the waste 'problem' has been completed. The thorium fuel cycle has indeed the potential of burning the legacy TRU and achieve the waste objective proposed. Initial evaluations have been started for the third step, development and selection of appropriate reactors. Indications are that the probability of show-stoppers is rather remote. It is, therefore, believed that development of the thorium cycle and associated technologies will provide a permanent solution to the waste management. Westinghouse is open to the widest collaboration to make this a reality. (authors)

  11. Assessment of Person Fit Using Resampling-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    De la Torre and Deng suggested a resampling-based approach for person-fit assessment (PFA). The approach involves the use of the [math equation unavailable] statistic, a corrected expected a posteriori estimate of the examinee ability, and the Monte Carlo (MC) resampling method. The Type I error rate of the approach was closer to the nominal level…

  12. Life cycle assessment perspectives on delivering an infant in the US.

    PubMed

    Campion, Nicole; Thiel, Cassandra L; DeBlois, Justin; Woods, Noe C; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2012-05-15

    This study introduces life cycle assessment as a tool to analyze one aspect of sustainability in healthcare: the birth of a baby. The process life cycle assessment case study presented evaluates two common procedures in a hospital, a cesarean section and a vaginal birth. This case study was conducted at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, which delivers over 10,000 infants per year. The results show that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), waste disposal, and the production of the disposable custom packs comprise a large percentage of the environmental impacts. Applying the life cycle assessment tool to medical procedures allows hospital decision makers to target and guide efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of healthcare procedures. PMID:22482785

  13. Life Cycle Assessment Perspectives on Delivering an Infant in the US

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Nicole; Thiel, Cassandra L.; DeBlois, Justin; Woods, Noe C.; Landis, Amy E.; Bilec, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces life cycle assessment as a tool to analyze one aspect of sustainability in healthcare: the birth of a baby. The process life cycle assessment case study presented evaluates two common procedures in a hospital, a cesarean section and a vaginal birth. This case study was conducted at Magee-Womens Hospital of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, which delivers over 10,000 infants per year. The results show that heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), waste disposal, and the production of the disposable custom packs comprise a large percentage of the environmental impacts. Applying the life cycle assessment tool to medical procedures allows hospital decision makers to target and guide efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of healthcare procedures. PMID:22482785

  14. Approaches for the computationally efficient assessment of the plug-in HEV impact on the grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyung; Filipi, Zoran S.

    2012-11-01

    Realistic duty cycles are critical for design and assessment of hybrid propulsion systems, in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The analysis of the PHEV impact requires a large amount of data about daily missions for ensuring realism in predicted temporal loads on the grid. This paper presents two approaches for the reduction of the computational effort while assessing the large scale PHEV impact on the grid, namely 1) "response surface modelling" approach; and 2) "daily driving schedule modelling" approach. The response surface modelling approach replaces the time-consuming vehicle simulations by response surfaces constructed off-line with the consideration of the real-world driving. The daily driving modelling approach establishes a correlation between departure and arrival times, and it predicts representative driving patterns with a significantly reduced number of simulation cases. In both cases, representative synthetic driving cycles are used to capture the naturalistic driving characteristics for a given trip length. The proposed approaches enable construction of 24-hour missions, assessments of charging requirements at the time of plugging-in, and temporal distributions of the load on the grid with high computational efficiency.

  15. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigamonti, L. Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  16. Assessing biodiversity loss due to land use with Life Cycle Assessment: are we there yet?

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Danielle M; Teixeira, Ricardo FM; Ostermann, Ole P

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems are under increasing pressure from human activities, with land use and land-use change at the forefront of the drivers that provoke global and regional biodiversity loss. The first step in addressing the challenge of how to reverse the negative outlook for the coming years starts with measuring environmental loss rates and assigning responsibilities. Pinpointing the global pressures on biodiversity is a task best addressed using holistic models such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). LCA is the leading method for calculating cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of products and services; it is actively promoted by many public policies, and integrated as part of environmental information systems within private companies. LCA already deals with the potential biodiversity impacts of land use, but there are significant obstacles to overcome before its models grasp the full reach of the phenomena involved. In this review, we discuss some pressing issues that need to be addressed. LCA mainly introduces biodiversity as an endpoint category modeled as a loss in species richness due to the conversion and use of land over time and space. The functional and population effects on biodiversity are mostly absent due to the emphasis on species accumulation with limited geographic and taxonomical reach. Current land-use modeling activities that use biodiversity indicators tend to oversimplify the real dynamics and complexity of the interactions of species among each other and with their habitats. To identify the main areas for improvement, we systematically reviewed LCA studies on land use that had findings related to global change and conservation ecology. We provide suggestion as to how to address some of the issues raised. Our overall objective was to encourage companies to monitor and take concrete steps to address the impacts of land use on biodiversity on a broader geographical scale and along increasingly globalized supply chains. PMID:25143302

  17. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program`s mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator`s success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning.

  18. Increasing the Confidence of African Carbon Cycle Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardö, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    Scarcity of in situ measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes hamper calibration and validation of assessments of carbon budgets in Africa. It limits essential studies of ecosystem function and ecosystem processes. The wide range reported net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP) for continental African is partly a function of the uncertainty originating from this data scarcity. GPP estimates, based on vegetation models and remote sensing based models, range from ~17 to ~40 Pg C yr‑1 and NPP estimates roughly range from ~7 to ~20 Pg C yr‑1 for continental Africa. According to the MOD17 product does Africa contribute about 23 % of the global GPP and about 25 % of the global NPP. These percentages have recently increased slightly. Differences in modeled carbon use efficiency (i.e. the NPP/GPP ratio) further enhance the uncertainty caused by low spatial resolution driver data sets when deriving NPP from GPP. Current substantial uncertainty in vegetation productivity estimates for Africa (both magnitudes and carbon use efficiency) may be reduced by increased abundance and availability of in situ collected field data including meteorology, radiation, spectral properties, GHG fluxes as well as long term ecological field experiments. Current measurements of GHGs fluxes in Africa are sparse and lacking impressive coordination. The European Fluxes Database Cluster includes ~24 African sites with carbon flux data, most of them with a small amount of data in short time series. Large and diverse biomes such as the evergreen broad leafed forest are under-represented whereas savannas are slightly better represented. USA for example, with 171 flux site listed in FLUXNET has a flux site density of 17 sites per million km2, whereas Africa has density of 0.8 sites per million km2. Increased and coordinated collection of data on fluxes of GHGs, ecosystem properties and processes, both through advanced micro meteorological measurements and through cost

  19. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  20. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. PMID:23500422

  1. Parameter estimation for cell cycle ordinary differential equation (ODE) models using a grid approach.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Roberta; Mosca, Ettore; Merelli, Ivan; Milanesi, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    Cell cycle is one of the biological processes that has been investigated the most in the recent years, this due to its importance in cancer studies and drug discovery. The complexity of this biological process is revealed every time a mathematical simulation of the processes is carried out. We propose an automated approach that mathematically simulates the cell cycle process with the aim to describe the best estimation of the model. We have implemented a system that starting from a cell cycle model is capable of retrieving from a specific database, called Cell Cycle Database, the necessary mathematical information to perform simulation using a grid approach and identify the best model related to a specific dataset of experimental results from the real biological system. Our system allows the visualization of mathematical expressions, such as the kinetic rate law of a reaction, and the direct simulation of the models with the aim to give the user the possibility to interact with the simulation system. The parameter estimation process usually implies time-consuming computations due to algorithms of linear regression and stochastic methods. In particular, in the case of a stochastic approach based on evolutionary algorithms, the iterative selection process implies many different computations. Therefore, a large number of ODE system simulations are required: the grid infrastructure allows to distribute and obtain the best model that fits the experimental data. The computation of many ODE systems can be distributed on different grid nodes so that the execution time for the estimation of the best model is reduced. This system will be useful for the comparison of models with different initial conditions related to normal and deregulated cell cycles. PMID:17476052

  2. RISK ASSESSMENT AND LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LCIA) FOR HUMAN HEALTH CANCEROUS AND NONCANCEROUS EMISSIONS: INTEGRATED AND COMPLEMENTARY WITH CONSISTENCY WITHIN THE USEPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The historical parallels, complementary roles, and potential for integration of human health risk assessment (RA) and Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) are explored. Previous authors have considered the comparison of LCA and risk assessment recognizing the inherent differences ...

  3. Mitigation measures to contain the environmental impact of urban areas: a bibliographic review moving from the life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Belussi, Lorenzo; Barozzi, Benedetta

    2015-12-01

    The global environmental impact of urban areas has greatly increased over the years, due to the growth of urbanisation and the associated increase in management costs. There are several measures aimed at mitigating this impact that affect in different ways the environmental, economic and societal spheres. This article has analysed a selection of different mitigation measures, related to the built environment, according to the life cycle approach, aimed at identifying the procedural features chosen by the different authors and defining a common way to deal with this issue. In particular, all the individual single steps of a Life Cycle Assessment/Life Cycle Costing of the different studies are analysed and the results of the individual measures are highlighted. The analysis has shown how the scientific literature is mainly focused on the evaluation of the impact of technological solutions related to individual buildings (cool/green roof). Less interest is shown in the solutions for urban areas, while, as far as the impact on greenhouse gas emissions is concerned, some studies are shifting the target to a global scale. Due to the accuracy whereby the calculation of the impact indicators deals with and structures the life cycle methods, opportunities to compare studies developed by different authors are quite rare and hard to find. Hence the need to find a simple, intuitive and flexible scheme to combine some of the most useful results of the bibliographical studies, in a comparative outline of different technological solutions, which can support the decision-making phase through a rough assessment. PMID:26563232

  4. A 5E Learning Cycle Approach-Based, Multimedia-Supplemented Instructional Unit for Structured Query Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piyayodilokchai, Hongsiri; Panjaburee, Patcharin; Laosinchai, Parames; Ketpichainarong, Watcharee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2013-01-01

    With the benefit of multimedia and the learning cycle approach in promoting effective active learning, this paper proposed a learning cycle approach-based, multimedia-supplemented instructional unit for Structured Query Language (SQL) for second-year undergraduate students with the aim of enhancing their basic knowledge of SQL and ability to apply…

  5. Chemical Mixtures: Cancer Risk Assessment Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will describe how EPA uses linear and nonlinear methods to derive cancer slope factors and reference doses,respectively, for single carcinogens, as described in EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Then, the presentation will show how these toxicity ...

  6. A Systematic Approach to Vocational Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Thomas W.; Camp, Joseph J.

    This unit is designed to provide school psychologists with information helpful in consulting with teachers and counselors who have questions regarding the career and vocational needs of students. It is intended to help the school psychologist assist teachers and counselors to be effective in assessing the needs of students in their particular…

  7. Systems Biology Approach to Model the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Carrea, Alejandra; Diambra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent advances in reprogramming cell phenotypes, many efforts have been dedicated to developing reverse engineering procedures for the identification of gene regulatory networks that emulate dynamical properties associated with the cell fates of a given biological system. In this work, we propose a systems biology approach for the reconstruction of the gene regulatory network underlying the dynamics of the Trypanosoma cruzi’s life cycle. By means of an optimisation procedure, we embedded the steady state maintenance, and the known phenotypic transitions between these steady states in response to environmental cues, into the dynamics of a gene network model. In the resulting network architecture we identified a small subnetwork, formed by seven interconnected nodes, that controls the parasite’s life cycle. The present approach could be useful for better understanding other single cell organisms with multiple developmental stages. PMID:26752404

  8. A Modular Approach to Model Heterogeneous MPSoC at Cycle Level

    SciTech Connect

    Monchiero, Matteo; Palermo, Gianluca; Silvano, Cristina; Villa, Oreste

    2008-11-07

    This paper proposes a system-level cycle-based framework to model and design heterogeneous Multiprocessor Systems on-Chip (MPSoC), called GRAPES. The approach features flexibility and modularity maintaining high simulation speed despite modeling at cycle level. Intellectual Property (IP) system modules can be described as C++ or SystemC entities and they are wrapped into C++ objects, called plug-ins. Plug-ins, that are modeled by the Transaction Level Modeling (TLM) style, are managed by the GRAPES kernel, which is the core of the simulation framework. GRAPES structural approach permits to easily model run-time reconfiguration and power modeling. Furthermore, it has been used to model and to simulate a case study of a scalable and heterogeneous MPSoC based on Network-on-Chip (NoC) interconnect.

  9. Systems Biology Approach to Model the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Carrea, Alejandra; Diambra, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent advances in reprogramming cell phenotypes, many efforts have been dedicated to developing reverse engineering procedures for the identification of gene regulatory networks that emulate dynamical properties associated with the cell fates of a given biological system. In this work, we propose a systems biology approach for the reconstruction of the gene regulatory network underlying the dynamics of the Trypanosoma cruzi's life cycle. By means of an optimisation procedure, we embedded the steady state maintenance, and the known phenotypic transitions between these steady states in response to environmental cues, into the dynamics of a gene network model. In the resulting network architecture we identified a small subnetwork, formed by seven interconnected nodes, that controls the parasite's life cycle. The present approach could be useful for better understanding other single cell organisms with multiple developmental stages. PMID:26752404

  10. Life-Cycle inventory/impact Assessment in the context of Chemical Risk Assessment: An Informatics-driven Scoping Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the goals of Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is to compare the full range of environmental effects assignable to products and services in order to improve processes, support policy and provide a sound “systems-thinking” basis for decision support. How in fact LCA can be incorp...

  11. An evaluation of alternative household solid waste treatment practices using life cycle inventory assessment mode.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Waste disposal is an important part of the life cycle of a product and is associated with environmental burdens like any other life-cycle stages. In this study, an integrated assessment for solid waste treatment practices, especially household solid waste, was undertaken to evaluate the impact contribution of household solid waste treatment alternatives towards the sustainable development by using Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method. A case study has been investigated under various possible scenarios, such as (1) landfill without landfill gas recovery, (2) landfill with landfill gas recovery and flaring, (3) landfill with landfill gas recovery and electric generation, (4) composting, and (5) incineration. The evaluation utilized the Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method for multiple assessments based on various aspects, such as greenhouse gas emission/reduction, energy generation/consumption, economic benefit, investment and operating cost, and land use burden. The results showed that incineration was the most efficient alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction, economic benefit, energy recovery, and land use reduction, although it was identified as the most expensive for investment and operating cost, while composting scenario was also an efficient alternative with quite economic benefit, low investment and operating cost, and high reduction of land use, although it was identified as existing greenhouse gas emission and no energy generation. Furthermore, the aim of this study was also to establish localized assessment methods that waste management agencies, environmental engineers, and environmental policy decision makers can use to quantify and compare the contribution to the impacts from different waste treatment options. PMID:21773866

  12. Approaches to environmental exposure assessment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Buckley, T J; Groopman, J D

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the contribution made by environmental exposures to disease burden in children is essential, given current increasing rates of childhood illnesses such asthma and cancer. Children must be routinely included in environmental research. Exposure assessment, both external (e.g., air, water) and internal dose (e.g., biomarkers), is an integral component of such research. Biomarker measurement has some advantages that are unique in children. These include assessment of potentially increased absorption because of behaviors that differ from adults (i.e., hand-to-mouth activity); metabolite measurement, which can help identify age-related susceptibility differences; and improved assessment of dermal exposure, an important exposure route in children. Environmental exposure assessment in children will require adaption of techniques that are currently applied in adult studies as well as development of tools and validation of strategies that are unique for children. Designs that focus on parent-child study units provide adult comparison data and allow the parent to assist with more complex study designs. Use of equipment that is sized appropriately for children, such as small air pumps and badge monitors, is also important. When biomarkers are used, biologic specimens that can be obtained noninvasively are preferable. Although the current need is primarily for small focused studies to address specific questions and optimize research tools, the future will require establishment of large prospective cohorts. Urban children are an important study cohort because of relatively high morbidity observed in the urban environment. Finally, examples of completed or possible future studies utilizing these techniques are discussed for specific exposures such as benzene, environmental tobacco smoke, aflatoxin, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:9646045

  13. Bio-ecological approach to cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Armour-Thomas, E; Gopaul-McNicol, S A

    1997-01-01

    Because determining a child's educational program usually takes into consideration the child's cognitive functioning, it is vital that those who are involved in this enterprise recognize that many variables contribute to and explain performance. Thus, careful consideration, assessment, and planning are mandatory to plan a child's individual educational program. This article emphasizes that cognitive assessment is both a formal and an informal process that occurs in several contexts-the school, the home, and the community. Therefore, when psychological evaluators assess the cognitive performance of a child, it is necessary to analyze the complete of his or her social/emotional environments that have contributed to his/her current cognitive performance levels. Thus, it is vital to examine the orientation of family members, the academic assistance students receive at home, as well as the current and previous classroom environments in which the student has been educated. Six nonpsychometric measures (using item equivalency, test-teach-retest, and contextualization) were developed by the authors and are presented in recognition that there are many factors that one must consider when interpreting the performance of a child. PMID:9231540

  14. Reference H Cycle 3 Stability, Control, and Flying Qualities Batch Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Dennis K.

    1999-01-01

    This work is an update of the assessment completed in February of 1996, when a preliminary assessment report was issued for the Cycle 2B simulation model. The primary purpose of the final assessment was to re-evaluate each assessment against the flight control system (FCS) requirements document using the updated model. Only a limited number of final assessments were completed due to the close proximity of the release of the Langley model and the assessment deliverable date. The assessment used the nonlinear Cycle 3 simulation model because it combines nonlinear aeroelastic (quasi-static) aerodynamic with hinge moment and rate limited control surface deflections. Both Configuration Aerodynamics (Task 32) and Flight Controls (Task 36) were funded in 1996 to conduct the final stability and control assessments of the unaugmented Reference H configuration in FY96. Because the two tasks had similar output requirements, the work was divided such that Flight Controls would be responsible for the implementation and checkout of the simulation model and Configuration Aerodynamics for writing Madab "script' files, conducting the batch assessments and writing the assessment report. Additionally, Flight Controls was to investigate control surface allocations schemes different from the baseline Reference H in an effort to fulfill flying qualities criteria.

  15. Influence of data collection schemes on the Life Cycle Assessment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-06-01

    A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was conducted to illustrate the effect of an emission inventory data collection scheme on the outcomes of an environmental impact assessment. Due to their burden in respect to data collection, LCAs often rely heavily on existing emission and operational data, which are gathered under either compulsory monitoring or reporting requirements under law. In this study, an LCA was conducted using three input data sources: Information compiled under compulsory disclosure requirements (the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Registry), compliance with national discharge limits, and a state-of-the-art emission data collection scheme conducted at the same WWTP. Parameter uncertainty for each collection scheme was assessed through Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison of the results confirmed that LCA results depend heavily on input data coverage. Due to the threshold on reporting value, the E-PRTR did not capture the impact for particulate matter emission, terrestrial acidification, or terrestrial eutrophication. While the current practice can capture more than 90% of non-carcinogenic human toxicity and marine eutrophication, an LCA based on the data collection scheme underestimates impact potential due to limitations of substance coverage. Besides differences between data collection schemes, the results showed that 3-13,500% of the impacts came from background systems, such as from the provisioning of fuel, electricity, and chemicals, which do not need to be disclosed currently under E-PRTR. The incidental release of pollutants was also assessed by employing a scenario-based approach, the results of which demonstrated that these non-routine emissions could increase overall WWTP greenhouse gas emissions by between 113 and 210%. Overall, current data collection schemes have the potential to provide standardized data collection and form the basis for a sound environmental impact assessment, but

  16. Quantitative uncertainty analysis of Life Cycle Assessment for algal biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sills, Deborah L; Paramita, Vidia; Franke, Michael J; Johnson, Michael C; Akabas, Tal M; Greene, Charles H; Tester, Jefferson W

    2013-01-15

    As a result of algae's promise as a renewable energy feedstock, numerous studies have used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental performance of algal biofuels, yet there is no consensus of results among them. Our work, motivated by the lack of comprehensive uncertainty analysis in previous studies, uses a Monte Carlo approach to estimate ranges of expected values of LCA metrics by incorporating parameter variability with empirically specified distribution functions. Results show that large uncertainties exist at virtually all steps of the biofuel production process. Although our findings agree with a number of earlier studies on matters such as the need for wet lipid extraction, nutrients recovered from waste streams, and high energy coproducts, the ranges of reported LCA metrics show that uncertainty analysis is crucial for developing technologies, such as algal biofuels. In addition, the ranges of energy return on (energy) invested (EROI) values resulting from our analysis help explain the high variability in EROI values from earlier studies. Reporting results from LCA models as ranges, and not single values, will more reliably inform industry and policy makers on expected energetic and environmental performance of biofuels produced from microalgae. PMID:23237457

  17. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Energy Storage: Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.; Turchi, C.; Burkhardt, J.; Kutscher, C.; Decker, T.

    2009-07-01

    In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

  19. Global and local health burden trade-off through the hybridisation of quantitative microbial risk assessment and life cycle assessment to aid water management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yumi; Peters, Greg M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and quantitative risk assessment (QRA) are commonly used to evaluate potential human health impacts associated with proposed or existing infrastructure and products. Each approach has a distinct objective and, consequently, their conclusions may be inconsistent or contradictory. It is proposed that the integration of elements of QRA and LCA may provide a more holistic approach to health impact assessment. Here we examine the possibility of merging LCA assessed human health impacts with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for waterborne pathogen impacts, expressed with the common health metric, disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The example of a recent large-scale water recycling project in Sydney, Australia was used to identify and demonstrate the potential advantages and current limitations of this approach. A comparative analysis of two scenarios - with and without the development of this project - was undertaken for this purpose. LCA and QMRA were carried out independently for the two scenarios to compare human health impacts, as measured by DALYs lost per year. LCA results suggested that construction of the project would lead to an increased number of DALYs lost per year, while estimated disease burden resulting from microbial exposures indicated that it would result in the loss of fewer DALYs per year than the alternative scenario. By merging the results of the LCA and QMRA, we demonstrate the advantages in providing a more comprehensive assessment of human disease burden for the two scenarios, in particular, the importance of considering the results of both LCA and QRA in a comparative assessment of decision alternatives to avoid problem shifting. The application of DALYs as a common measure between the two approaches was found to be useful for this purpose. PMID:25965885

  20. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius. PMID:23240194

  1. Assessing health risks of synthetic vitreous fibers: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    McClellan, R O

    1994-12-01

    This paper reviews a tiered approach to acquiring information from multiple experimental systems to understand and assess the potential human health risks of exposure to airborne synthetic fibers. The approach is grounded in the now widely accepted research-risk assessment-risk management paradigm. It involves the acquisition of information that will provide mechanistic linkages within the exposure-dose-response paradigm. It advocates the use of the inhalation route of exposure for developing relevant information for assessing human health risks and calls attention to serious problems encountered using nonphysiologic routes of administration to assess human health risks. PMID:7724844

  2. Decision Tree Approach for Soil Liquefaction Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Gandomi, Amir H.; Fridline, Mark M.; Roke, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the performances of some decision tree (DT) techniques are evaluated for postearthquake soil liquefaction assessment. A database containing 620 records of seismic parameters and soil properties is used in this study. Three decision tree techniques are used here in two different ways, considering statistical and engineering points of view, to develop decision rules. The DT results are compared to the logistic regression (LR) model. The results of this study indicate that the DTs not only successfully predict liquefaction but they can also outperform the LR model. The best DT models are interpreted and evaluated based on an engineering point of view. PMID:24489498

  3. Life cycle assessment of oriented strand boards (OSB): from process innovation to ecodesign.

    PubMed

    Benetto, Enrico; Becker, Marko; Welfring, Joëlle

    2009-08-01

    Oriented strand boards (OSBs) are wood panels that are used worldwide mainly in the packaging and the building sectors. Their market share is rapidly increasing thanks to their outstanding mechanical properties and to a renewed interest for wood based products. The OSB production process generates, nonetheless, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the air-drying of wood strands. This known problem in the literature leads to an odorous nuisance in the surrounding area of the production site. In order to address this problem, a novel application to wood drying of an innovative vapor drying technology is successfully operated at the production site of Kronospan Luxembourg S.A. In addition to the reduced odorous nuisance, a significant environmental added value is expected because of the other modifications induced by the vapor-drying technique on the OSB production process viz. the reduced energy and raw materials demands and the change of adhesive mixture, with the addition of phenol resin. The potential impact of this technology on the OSB market is therefore very significant. This study was aimed at assessing the environmental added value provided by the vapor-drying technique through a life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14040-44 standards. The objective was to compare the environmental performances of the former and the current OSB production processes. Considering only the pollutant emissions from the OSB production process, the reduction of climate change impact and human health damage is significant respectively, 15-20% and 50-75%. When the lifecycle processes related to the OSB production are included, the reduction of damages does not exceed 3-7%. Following an uncertainty analysis,this reduction was nevertheless proven to be statistically significant. However, it is observed that the reduction of environmental impacts and damages allowed by the vapor-drying technology is counterbalanced by the change of adhesive mixture. Indeed the

  4. Can we Observe and Assess Whether the Global Hydrological Cycle is "Intensifying"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Sheffield, J.

    2012-12-01

    There is controversy over whether the hydrological cycle is "intensifying" (or "accelerating"), and if so how and where? Resolving this critical question is a central goal of both national (e.g. NASA's Energy and Water cycle Study: NEWS) and international (WCRP Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment: GEWEX) programs. Its resolution has significant implications for understanding changes in hydroclimatic states and variability, and in future water security at regional to global scales. Over the last decade a number of papers have addressed trends and change in specific water cycle variables with results that can best be described as inconclusive, regardless of the conclusions of specific papers. In this presentation a number of recent studies will be reviewed for their consistency in assessing whether collectively one can make conclusions regarding how the hydrologic cycle is changing. The presentation will also demonstrate a pathway for analyzing where to observe for the detection of change based on a NASA-supported, global, 1983-2009, terrestrial water cycle Earth System Data Record project being led by the author. Initial results will be presented and a discussion presented on the extent that the proposed strategy can be used to detect change in the terrestrial hydrological cycle.

  5. Comparative analysis of the life cycle impact assessment of available cement inventories in the EU

    SciTech Connect

    Josa, Alejandro; Byars, Ewan

    2007-05-15

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is one of basic steps in life cycle assessment methodology (LCA). This paper presents a comparative study of the LCIA of different life cycle inventories (LCI) for EU cements. The analysis unit used is the manufacture of 1 kg of cement, from 'cradle to gate'. The impact categories considered are those resulting from the manufacture of cement and include greenhouse effects, acidification, eutrophication and summer and winter smog, amongst others. The results of the study highlighted some inconsistencies in existing inventories. As for the LCIA, the main environmental interventions related to cement manufacture were classified and characterised and their effect on different impact categories analysed. Differences observed in evaluation of the impact of cement type were essentially related to their clinker content.

  6. Life cycle assessment of high-rate anaerobic treatment, microbial fuel cells, and microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey M; Rozendal, René A; Hertle, Christopher K; Lant, Paul A; Rabaey, Korneel

    2010-05-01

    Existing wastewater treatment options are generally perceived as energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Much attention has been focused on two new approaches in the past years, (i) microbial fuel cells and (ii) microbial electrolysis cells, which directly generate electrical current or chemical products, respectively, during wastewater treatment. These systems are commonly denominated as bioelectrochemical systems, and a multitude of claims have been made in the past regarding the environmental impact of these treatment options. However, an in-depth study backing these claims has not been performed. Here, we have conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare the environmental impact of three industrial wastewater treatment options, (i) anaerobic treatment with biogas generation, (ii) a microbial fuel cell treatment, with direct electricity generation, and (iii) a microbial electrolysis cell, with hydrogen peroxide production. Our analysis showed that a microbial fuel cell does not provide a significant environmental benefit relative to the "conventional" anaerobic treatment option. However, a microbial electrolysis cell provides significant environmental benefits through the displacement of chemical production by conventional means. Provided that the target conversion level of 1000 A.m(-3) can be met, the decrease in greenhouse gas emissions and other environmentally harmful emissions (e.g., aromatic hydrocarbons) of the microbial electrolysis cell will be a key driver for the development of an industrial standard for this technology. Evidently, this assessment is highly dependent on the underlying assumptions, such as the used reactor materials and target performance. This provides a challenge and an opportunity for researchers in the field to select and develop appropriate and environmentally benign materials of construction, as well as demonstrate the required 1000 A.m(-3) performance at pilot and full scale. PMID:20356090

  7. Understanding Life Cycle Assessment: Applications for OSWER's Land and Materials Managment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) is hosting an informative webcast presentation by Jane Bare, expert on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) in EPA's Office of Research and Development. Ms. Bare's presentation will provide an overview of LCIA, ...

  8. Life-Cycle Assessment of Cookstove Fuels in India and China

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental footprint of current and possible fuels used for cooking within China and India. Current fuel mix profiles are compared to scenarios of projected differences in and/or cleaner cooking fuels. Results are repo...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE ALTERNATIVES: MTBE AND ETHANOL ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the U.S. is considering options for additives to reformulated gasoline. To inform this debate the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development is conducting a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of three gasoline alternatives. These alternatives include gasoline w...

  10. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from beef production systems in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef production is recognized as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emission from production systems. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate whole-farm GHG emissions from representa...

  11. LCACCESS: A U.S. EPA-SPONSORED WEBSITE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA's Office of Research and Development has initiated a project with the aim of encouraging and supporting the use of life cycle assessments (LCA's) in environmental management. While LCA is being recognized internationally as an appropriate tool for dealing with environmen...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1612A Mata, T.M., Smith*, R.L., Young*, D.M., and Costa, C.A.V. Environmental Comparison of Gasoline Blending Options using Life Cycle Assessment. R'02 Recovery, Recycling, Re-Integration, Geneva, Switzerland, 2/12-15/2002. EPA/600/A-02/068, [DISK]. 09/27/2001 A li...

  13. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most effective way to achieve long-term environmental results is through the use of a consistent set of metrics within a decision-making framework. This paper describes the role of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and details its use within two tools available to this indu...

  14. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  15. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT WORKSHOP SUMMARY - MIDPOINTS VERSUS ENDPOINTS: THE SACRIFICES AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On 5/25-26/2000 in Brighton, England, the third international workshop was held under the umbrella of UNEP addressing issues in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). The workshop provided a forum for experts to discuss midpoint vs. endpoint modeling. Midpoints are considered to be...

  16. Quality assessment: A performance-based approach to assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Caplinger, W.H.; Greenlee, W.D.

    1993-08-01

    Revision C to US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5700.6 (6C) ``Quality Assurance`` (QA) brings significant changes to the conduct of QA. The Westinghouse government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) sites have updated their quality assurance programs to the requirements and guidance of 6C, and are currently implementing necessary changes. In late 1992, a Westinghouse GOCO team led by the Waste Isolation Division (WID) conducted what is believed to be the first assessment of implementation of a quality assurance program founded on 6C.

  17. Assessing Conduct Disorder: A New Measurement Approach

    PubMed Central

    Reavy, Racheal; Stein, L. A. R.; Quina, Kathryn; Paiva, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    The Delinquent Activities Scale (DAS) was used to develop indicators of conduct disorder (CD) in terms of symptom severity and age of onset. Incarcerated adolescents (N = 190) aged 14 to 19 were asked about their delinquent behaviors, including age the behavior was first performed, as well as substance use and parental and peer influences. Assessments were performed for the 12 months prior to incarceration and at 3-month postrelease follow-up. Evidence supports the utility of the DAS as a measure of CD diagnosis, including concurrent incremental validity. Furthermore, CD severity (symptom count) was significantly associated with two peer factors: friend substance use and friend prior arrests, with medium to large effect sizes (ESs). Earlier age of CD onset was associated with earlier marijuana use. This study finds that the DAS is a useful instrument in that it is easy to apply and has adequate psychometrics. PMID:24241820

  18. An alternate approach to assessing climate risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Casey; Wilby, Robert L.

    2012-10-01

    U.S. federal agencies are now required to review the potential impacts of climate change on their assets and missions. Similar arrangements are also in place in the United Kingdom under reporting powers for key infrastructure providers (http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/climate/sectors/reporting-authorities/reporting-authorities-reports/). These requirements reflect growing concern about climate resilience and the management of long-lived assets. At one level, analyzing climate risks is a matter of due diligence, given mounting scientific evidence. However, there is no consensus about the means for doing so nor about whether climate models are even ft for the purpose; in addition, several important issues are often overlooked when incorporating climate information into adaptation decisions. An alternative to the scenarioled strategy, such as an approach based on a vulnerability analysis ("stress test"), may identify practical options for resource managers.

  19. [Marine environmental assessment approaches based on biomarker index: a review].

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Ping; Yang, Fei-Fei; Cheng, Feng-Lian

    2012-04-01

    Biomarkers are applied worldwide in marine environmental assessment due to their "early warning" function to chemical pollutants. Several integrative index approaches such as multi-marker pollution index (MPI), integrated biomarker response (IBR), bioeffect assessment index (BAI), biomarker response index (BRI), and health assessment index (HIS), have been developed based on biomarkers. By transforming the complex alterations of biomarkers into a single class or value, these approaches have been so far the useful tools for assessing the environmental quality. This review summarized the establishment of evaluation indicator system, the calculation of integrative index, the grading of pollution status, and the practical applications of each approach, and discussed the existing problems in marine environmental assessment based on biomarker index. Some improving suggestions were also proposed. PMID:22803485

  20. How Sensitive Is the Carbon Budget Approach to Potential Carbon Cycle Changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of global Earth-system models, which include dynamic representations of both physical climate and carbon cycle processes, has led to new insights about how the climate responds to human carbon dioxide emissions. Notably, several model analyses have now shown that global temperature responds linearly to cumulative CO2 emissions across a wide range of emissions scenarios. This implies that the timing of CO2 emissions does not affect the overall climate response, and allows a finite global carbon carbon budget to be defined for a given global temperature target. This linear climate response, however, emerges from the interaction of several non-linear processes and feedbacks involving how carbon sinks respond to changes in atmospheric CO2 and climate. In this presentation, I will give an overview of how carbon sinks and carbon cycle feedbacks contribute to the overall linearity of the climate response to cumulative emissions, and will assess how robust this relationship is to a range of possible changes in the carbon cycle, including (a) potential positive carbon cycle feedbacks that are not well represented in the current generation of Earth-system models and (b) negative emission scenarios resulting from possible technological strategies to remove CO2 from the atmosphere.

  1. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, Robin; Lee, Russell

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  2. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  3. To recycle or not to recycle? An intergenerational approach to nuclear fuel cycles.

    PubMed

    Taebi, Behnam; Kloosterman, Jan Leen

    2008-06-01

    This paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and involves less long-term radiological risks and proliferation concerns. However, it compromises short-term public health and safety and security, due to the separation of plutonium. The trade-offs in nuclear energy are reducible to a chief trade-off between the present and the future. To what extent should we take care of our produced nuclear waste and to what extent should we accept additional risks to the present generation, in order to diminish the exposure of future generation to those risks? The advocates of the open fuel cycle should explain why they are willing to transfer all the risks for a very long period of time (200,000 years) to future generations. In addition, supporters of the closed fuel cycle should underpin their acceptance of additional risks to the present generation and make the actual reduction of risk to the future plausible. PMID:18075732

  4. To Recycle or Not to Recycle? An Intergenerational Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Jan Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and involves less long-term radiological risks and proliferation concerns. However, it compromises short-term public health and safety and security, due to the separation of plutonium. The trade-offs in nuclear energy are reducible to a chief trade-off between the present and the future. To what extent should we take care of our produced nuclear waste and to what extent should we accept additional risks to the present generation, in order to diminish the exposure of future generation to those risks? The advocates of the open fuel cycle should explain why they are willing to transfer all the risks for a very long period of time (200,000 years) to future generations. In addition, supporters of the closed fuel cycle should underpin their acceptance of additional risks to the present generation and make the actual reduction of risk to the future plausible. PMID:18075732

  5. Assessment of external fixator reusability using load- and cycle-dependent tests.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Maiko; Lounici, Smain; Inoue, Nozomu; Walulik, Stephen; Chao, Edmund Y S

    2003-01-01

    No standard method has been established for investigating repeated use of an external fixator. The purpose of the current study was to establish a fatigue testing method for assessing fixator frame reuse. A unilateral DynaFix trade mark external fixator system was tested using high-load and low-cycle (900-150 N at 5 Hz) and low-load and high-cycle (450-100 N at 10 Hz) tests (assumed one use of 500,000 and 1 million cycles, respectively). These loading conditions were selected to simulate single clinical use and to satisfy Food and Drug Administration requirements. In the high-load low-cycle test, substantial failure of the serrated joint occurred before completion of the first simulated use. In the low-load high-cycle test, all fixators completed three simulated clinical uses without failure, although (1/4) of the serrated joint components had hairline cracks. The high-load low-cycle test identified the fixator components which should be examined and replaced if reuse of the fixator is to be considered. Wear and deformation of the set screw on the rotary joint and telescoping mechanisms were observed in the low-load high-cycle test but not in the high-load low-cycle test. Therefore, if the unilateral DynaFix trade mark fixators are being considered for reusability, the number of reuses should be limited as the whole structure of the device will experience fatigue damage as the loading cycle increases. PMID:12579028

  6. Bridging the gap between life cycle inventory and impact assessment for toxicological assessments of pesticides used in crop production.

    PubMed

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrène; Roux, Philippe

    2014-04-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) provides emission data to the various environmental compartments and Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) determines the final distribution, fate and effects. Due to the overlap between the Technosphere (anthropogenic system) and Ecosphere (environment) in agricultural case studies, it is, however, complicated to establish what LCI needs to capture and where LCIA takes over. This paper aims to provide guidance and improvements of LCI/LCIA boundary definitions, in the dimensions of space and time. For this, a literature review was conducted to provide a clear overview of available methods and models for both LCI and LCIA regarding toxicological assessments of pesticides used in crop production. Guidelines are provided to overcome the gaps between LCI and LCIA modeling, and prevent the overlaps in their respective operational spheres. The proposed framework provides a starting point for LCA practitioners to gather the right data and use the proper models to include all relevant emission and exposure routes where possible. It is also able to predict a clear distinction between efficient and inefficient management practices (e.g. using different application rates, washing and rinsing management, etc.). By applying this framework for toxicological assessments of pesticides, LCI and LCIA can be directly linked, removing any overlaps or gaps in between the two distinct LCA steps. PMID:24314898

  7. Asteroid Risk Assessment: A Probabilistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Jason C; Chen, Xi; Liu, Wenhao; Manchev, Petar; Paté-Cornell, M Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    Following the 2013 Chelyabinsk event, the risks posed by asteroids attracted renewed interest, from both the scientific and policy-making communities. It reminded the world that impacts from near-Earth objects (NEOs), while rare, have the potential to cause great damage to cities and populations. Point estimates of the risk (such as mean numbers of casualties) have been proposed, but because of the low-probability, high-consequence nature of asteroid impacts, these averages provide limited actionable information. While more work is needed to further refine its input distributions (e.g., NEO diameters), the probabilistic model presented in this article allows a more complete evaluation of the risk of NEO impacts because the results are distributions that cover the range of potential casualties. This model is based on a modularized simulation that uses probabilistic inputs to estimate probabilistic risk metrics, including those of rare asteroid impacts. Illustrative results of this analysis are presented for a period of 100 years. As part of this demonstration, we assess the effectiveness of civil defense measures in mitigating the risk of human casualties. We find that they are likely to be beneficial but not a panacea. We also compute the probability-but not the consequences-of an impact with global effects ("cataclysm"). We conclude that there is a continued need for NEO observation, and for analyses of the feasibility and risk-reduction effectiveness of space missions designed to deflect or destroy asteroids that threaten the Earth. PMID:26215051

  8. Assessing DOVID security: a system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ana A.; Rebordao, Jose M.

    2000-04-01

    Optical variable devices are usually characterized by their physical objective properties, which are key elements to distinguish originals form fakes, especially in the court of law context, however, at the selection, planning or pre- production stages, an evaluation of devices could and should be performed, in view of its classification in a security scale. The ranking in this scale would be indicative of the likelihood of counterfeiting and would have to take into account not only the physical aspects, but also subjective ones such as the security of the legal manufacture or of the technology itself. In this paper, we propose a methodology and elaborate on a model for DOVID security measurement, based on Multi criteria Decision Analysis. Critical evaluation factors, related to technology, design and quality, are proposed, its impacts quantified and grouped in order to allow an evaluation of DOVID samples. Using this methodology all the aspects that contribute to the DOVID security might be assessed and inter-related, leading to a final classification and, in the long term, to a standard of security.

  9. E-Assessment: Institutional Development Strategies and the Assessment Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomas, Carmen; Borg, Michaela; McNeil, Jane

    2015-01-01

    E-assessment is an umbrella term that comprises a complex array of tools of varying capacities. This paper focuses on the topic of e-assessment from the perspective of its strategic institutional development in higher education. The paper argues that research on e-assessment has been dominated by a focus on investigating benefits of use and…

  10. Comprehensive Assessment of Emotional Disturbance: A Cross-Validation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Emily S.; Doyon, Katie E.; Saldana, Enrique; Allen, Megan Redding

    2007-01-01

    Assessing a student for emotional disturbance is a serious and complex task given the stigma of the label and the ambiguities of the federal definition. One way that school psychologists can be more confident in their assessment results is to cross validate data from different sources using the RIOT approach (Review, Interview, Observe, Test).…

  11. Developing a Competency-Based Assessment Approach for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunning, Pamela T.

    2014-01-01

    Higher education accrediting bodies are increasing the emphasis on assessing student learning outcomes as opposed to teaching methodology. The purpose of this article is to describe the process used by Troy University's Master of Public Administration program to change their assessment approach from a course learning objective perspective to a…

  12. A Portfolio Approach to Assessment in a Developmentally Appropriate Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marian J.

    This practicum was designed to provide an assessment instrument that would serve as an alternative method of documenting the progress of kindergarten students. The portfolio approach to assessment of student progress was implemented in a kindergarten class and applied as an ongoing process. During a 12-week period, teacher and student selected…

  13. Standardised Library Instruction Assessment: An Institution-Specific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Shannon M.; Branch, Nicole A.; Hewitt, Tom L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We explore the use of a psychometric model for locally-relevant, information literacy assessment, using an online tool for standardised assessment of student learning during discipline-based library instruction sessions. Method: A quantitative approach to data collection and analysis was used, employing standardised multiple-choice…

  14. Assessment for One-Shot Library Instruction: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore a conceptual approach to assessment for one-shot library instruction. This study develops a new assessment instrument based on Carol Kuhlthau's information search process (ISP) model. The new instrument focuses on measuring and identifying changes in student readiness to do research along three…

  15. Alcohol Expectancy Multiaxial Assessment: A Memory Network-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Mark S.; Darkes, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Despite several decades of activity, alcohol expectancy research has yet to merge measurement approaches with developing memory theory. This article offers an expectancy assessment approach built on a conceptualization of expectancy as an information processing network. The authors began with multidimensional scaling models of expectancy space,…

  16. Conceptions of and Approaches to Learning through Online Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated junior college students' conceptions of and approaches to learning via online peer assessment (PA) using a phenomenographic approach. Participants were 163 college students. Students were asked to accomplish a given learning task via an online PA system. Of the participants, 62 were interviewed after the activity.…

  17. Actigraphy assessments of circadian sleep-wake cycles in the Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States (VS; MCS) are characterized by absent or highly disordered signs of awareness alongside preserved sleep-wake cycles. According to international diagnostic guidelines, sleep-wake cycles are assessed by means of observations of variable periods of eye-opening and eye-closure. However, there is little empirical evidence for true circadian sleep-wake cycling in these patients, and there have been no large-scale investigations of the validity of this diagnostic criterion. Methods We measured the circadian sleep-wake rhythms of 55 VS and MCS patients by means of wrist actigraphy, an indirect method that is highly correlated with polysomnographic estimates of sleeping/waking. Results Contrary to the diagnostic guidelines, a significant proportion of patients did not exhibit statistically reliable sleep-wake cycles. The circadian rhythms of VS patients were significantly more impaired than those of MCS patients, as were the circadian rhythms of patients with non-traumatic injuries relative to those with traumatic injuries. The reliability of the circadian rhythms were significantly predicted by the patients' levels of visual and motor functioning, consistent with the putative biological generators of these rhythms. Conclusions The high variability across diagnoses and etiologies highlights the need for improved guidelines for the assessment of sleep-wake cycles in VS and MCS, and advocates the use of actigraphy as an inexpensive and non-invasive alternative. PMID:23347467

  18. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  19. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings. PMID:24053574

  20. Comparative study of approaches to assess damage in thermally fatigued Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arya; Mitra, R.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rotti, C.; Ray, K. K.

    2016-06-01

    For the first time the nature of response of thermal fatigue damage (TFD) in Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloys, considered for the High Heat Flux components of Tokamak and its subsystems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor application has been studied. Temperature cycling between 290 °C and 30 °C, similar to the service condition, has been carried out on two differently aged Cusbnd Crsbnd Zr alloys. The TFD has been assessed by damage mechanics approach using damage parameters, and by surface characteristics. The damage parameters increase exponentially during initial fatigue cycles and saturates, whilst surface characteristics shows continuous increase with increase in thermal fatigue cycles. Damages are different in the aged alloys depending upon the aging conditions.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S; Cabral, M; da Cruz, N F; Simões, P; Marques, R C

    2014-09-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called "Baseline" scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called "Incineration" scenario) or to landfill ("Landfill" scenario). Overall, the results show that the "Baseline" scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios. PMID:24910140

  2. Development of an Open Rotor Cycle Model in NPSS Using a Multi-Design Point Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft (Refs. 1 and 2). The open rotor concept (also referred to as the Unducted Fan or advanced turboprop) may allow the achievement of this objective by reducing engine emissions and fuel consumption. To evaluate its potential impact, an open rotor cycle modeling capability is needed. This paper presents the initial development of an open rotor cycle model in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) computer program which can then be used to evaluate the potential benefit of this engine. The development of this open rotor model necessitated addressing two modeling needs within NPSS. First, a method for evaluating the performance of counter-rotating propellers was needed. Therefore, a new counter-rotating propeller NPSS component was created. This component uses propeller performance maps developed from historic counter-rotating propeller experiments to determine the thrust delivered and power required. Second, several methods for modeling a counter-rotating power turbine within NPSS were explored. These techniques used several combinations of turbine components within NPSS to provide the necessary power to the propellers. Ultimately, a single turbine component with a conventional turbine map was selected. Using these modeling enhancements, an open rotor cycle model was developed in NPSS using a multi-design point approach. The multi-design point (MDP) approach improves the engine cycle analysis process by making it easier to properly size the engine to meet a variety of thrust targets throughout the flight envelope. A number of design points are considered including an aerodynamic design point, sea-level static, takeoff and top of climb. The development of this MDP model was also enabled by the selection of a simple power

  3. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    PubMed

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone. PMID:16683626

  4. Life-Cycle Assessment of Oilseeds for Biojet Production Using Localized Cold-Press Extraction.

    PubMed

    Sieverding, Heidi L; Zhao, Xianhui; Wei, Lin; Stone, James J

    2016-05-01

    As nonfood oilseed varieties are being rapidly developed, new varieties may affect agricultural production efficiency and life-cycle assessment results. Current, detailed feedstock production information is necessary to accurately assess impacts of the biofuel life-cycle. The life-cycle impacts of four nonfood oilseeds (carinata [ L. Braun], camelina [ L. Crantz], canola or rapeseed [ L.], and sunflower [ L.]) were modeled using Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model to compare feedstocks for renewable biojet production using cold-press oil extraction. Only feedstock-related inputs were varied, allowing isolation of feedstock influence. Carinata and camelina performed slightly better than other oilseed crops at most product stages and impact categories as a result of current, low-input agricultural information and new feedstock varieties. Between 40 to 50% of SO and NO emissions, ∼25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ∼40% of total energy consumption for the biojet production impact occurred during feedstock production. Within the first standard deviation, total well-to-tank emissions varied between ∼13% (GHG) and ∼35% (SO) for all feedstocks emphasizing the importance of accurate agricultural production information. Nonfood oilseed feedstock properties (e.g., oil content, density) and agricultural management (e.g., fertilization, yield) affect life-cycle assessment results. Using biofuels in feedstock production and focusing on low-impact management would assist producers in improving overall product sustainability. PMID:27136164

  5. Anthropogenic impacts on the global water cycle - a multi model approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, F.; haddeland, I.; Biemans, H.; Clark, D.; Fransen, W.; Voss, F.; Floerke, M.; Heinke, J.; Hagemann, S.; Hanasakki, N.; Gerten, D.; Kabat, P.

    2012-04-01

    Humans activities have a large impact on the global water cycle. Through the building of dams and irrigation schemes large amounts of water are diverted from river systems. Through the emission of greenhouse gases causing global warming, also the rainfall and evaporation patterns are changed across the globe. It is, however, still difficult to quantify current and future impacts on the global water cycle due to limited data availability, model imperfections and large uncertainties in climate change projections. To partly overcome these limitations we used a multi-model approach to study anthropogenic impacts on the global water cycle. Four different global hydrological models (H08, VIC, WaterGAP and LPJml) were forced with an historical climate dataset (Watch Forcing Data) and bias corrected output of three different global climate models (Echam, IPSL and CNRM) using two emission scenarios (A2 and B1). In addition the LPJml model was also run with two different land use change scenarios. Combining the water availability simulations with the water demand scenarios developed within the Watch project we also analyzed current and future water scarcity. The analyses show that current human impacts and on the water cycle are especially high in Central Asia, parts of Europe, the Southwestern US and the Murray-Darling Basin in Australia. The model comparison of agricultural water use and demand showed that the differences in total global agricultural demand and water use were relatively smaller than the differences in simulated water availability. All models showed agricultural water extractions are high in South and East Asia in particular in Northern India and Pakistan and in Northeast China. The most important spatial differences between the different models was observed for Northern China where H08 showed much higher water demands than VIC. Future analyses showed that climate change impacts on the global water cycle are potentially high especially in the semi

  6. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Nuclear Space Power Systems: A Feasibility Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon recuperators in closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) nuclear space power conversion systems (PCS) was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on projected thermodynamic cycle state values for a planetary mission. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for a plate-fin carbon-carbon recuperator were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for a conventional offset-strip-fin metallic design. Material compatibility issues regarding carbon-carbon surfaces exposed to the working fluid in the CBC PCS were also discussed.

  7. On reversible, endoreversible, and irreversible heat device cycles versus the Carnot cycle: a pedagogical approach to account for losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, J.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Calvo Hernández, A.; Velasco, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we analyze the deviations of reversible cycles (for both heat engines and refrigerators) from the corresponding Carnot cycle operating between the same extreme temperatures, and deviations of irreversible cycles from their corresponding reversible realization while putting emphasis on the corresponding losses. The endoreversible models fit in the proposed framework. Two suitable loss factors, which do not need the explicit calculation of entropy variations, are introduced. The behavior of these factors and their interplay allow for a clear and pedagogical visualization of where external and internal irreversibilities are located, and their intensities in terms of the main variables describing the cycle. The analysis could be used as a starting point for more advanced studies on modeling and optimization of real devices and installations.

  8. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  9. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  10. A practical method to assess model sensitivity and parameter uncertainty in C cycle models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delahaies, Sylvain; Roulstone, Ian; Nichols, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    The carbon cycle combines multiple spatial and temporal scales, from minutes to hours for the chemical processes occurring in plant cells to several hundred of years for the exchange between the atmosphere and the deep ocean and finally to millennia for the formation of fossil fuels. Together with our knowledge of the transformation processes involved in the carbon cycle, many Earth Observation systems are now available to help improving models and predictions using inverse modelling techniques. A generic inverse problem consists in finding a n-dimensional state vector x such that h(x) = y, for a given N-dimensional observation vector y, including random noise, and a given model h. The problem is well posed if the three following conditions hold: 1) there exists a solution, 2) the solution is unique and 3) the solution depends continuously on the input data. If at least one of these conditions is violated the problem is said ill-posed. The inverse problem is often ill-posed, a regularization method is required to replace the original problem with a well posed problem and then a solution strategy amounts to 1) constructing a solution x, 2) assessing the validity of the solution, 3) characterizing its uncertainty. The data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model is a simple box model simulating the carbon budget allocation for terrestrial ecosystems. Intercomparison experiments have demonstrated the relative merit of various inverse modelling strategies (MCMC, ENKF) to estimate model parameters and initial carbon stocks for DALEC using eddy covariance measurements of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 and leaf area index observations. Most results agreed on the fact that parameters and initial stocks directly related to fast processes were best estimated with narrow confidence intervals, whereas those related to slow processes were poorly estimated with very large uncertainties. While other studies have tried to overcome this difficulty by adding complementary

  11. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  12. Reliability and availability assessments of selected domestic combined-cycle power-generating plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. W.; Gardner, N. J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents the results of reliability and availability assessment performed with the cooperation of seven utilities operating combined-cycle power plants in service since 1974 to evaluate: combined-cycle unit equivalent availability and equivalent forced outage rates; system and component mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean downtime (MDT); and gas turbine reliability correlations with service hours, starting frequency, fuel type, and service factor. A data base was developed for 45 plant components or systems for the period 1978 through 1980; this led to recommendations for improving outage data collection for the purpose of reliability analysis. In addition reliability, availability, and maintainability prediction models for several commercial combined cycle plant designs were developed and validated.

  13. Reliability and availability assessments of selected domestic combined-cycle power-generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.W.; Gardner, N.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents the results of reliability and availability assessments performed with the cooperation of seven utilities operating combined-cycle power plants in service since 1974 to evaluate: combined-cycle unit equivalent availability and equivalent forced outage rates; system and component mean time between failures (MTBF) and mean downtime (MDT); and gas turbine reliability correlations with service hours, starting frequency, fuel type, and service factor. A data base was developed for 45 plant components or systems for the period 1978 through 1980; this led to recommendations for improving outage data collection for the purpose of reliability analysis. In addition reliability, availability, and maintainability prediction models for several commercial combined-cycle plant designs were developed and validated.

  14. Assessors' Approaches to Portfolio Assessment in Assessment of Prior Learning Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten-ten Brinke, Desiree; Sluijsmans, Dominique M. A.; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to gain better understanding of the assessment of prior informal and non-formal learning, this article explores assessors' approaches to portfolio assessment. Through this portfolio assessment, candidates had requested exemptions from specific courses within an educational programme or admission to the programme based on their prior…

  15. Modeling Menstrual Cycle Length and Variability at the Approach of Menopause Using Hierarchical Change Point Models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaobi; Elliott, Michael R.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY As women approach menopause, the patterns of their menstrual cycle lengths change. To study these changes, we need to jointly model both the mean and variability of cycle length. Our proposed model incorporates separate mean and variance change points for each woman and a hierarchical model to link them together, along with regression components to include predictors of menopausal onset such as age at menarche and parity. Additional complexity arises from the fact that the calendar data have substantial missingness due to hormone use, surgery, and failure to report. We integrate multiple imputation and time-to event modeling in a Bayesian estimation framework to deal with different forms of the missingness. Posterior predictive model checks are applied to evaluate the model fit. Our method successfully models patterns of women’s menstrual cycle trajectories throughout their late reproductive life and identifies change points for mean and variability of segment length, providing insight into the menopausal process. More generally, our model points the way toward increasing use of joint mean-variance models to predict health outcomes and better understand disease processes. PMID:24729638

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste: Multi-input versus multi-output perspective.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, G; Ripa, M; Protano, G; Hornsby, C; Ulgiati, S

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyses four strategies for managing the Mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MMSW) in terms of their environmental impacts and potential advantages by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. To this aim, both a multi-input and a multi-output approach are applied to evaluate the effect of these perspectives on selected impact categories. The analyzed management options include direct landfilling with energy recovery (S-1), Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) followed by Waste-to-Energy (WtE) conversion (S-2), a combination of an innovative MBT/MARSS (Material Advanced Recovery Sustainable Systems) process and landfill disposal (S-3), and finally a combination of the MBT/MARSS process with WtE conversion (S-4). The MARSS technology, developed within an European LIFE PLUS framework and currently implemented at pilot plant scale, is an innovative MBT plant having the main goal to yield a Renewable Refined Biomass Fuel (RRBF) to be used for combined heat and power production (CHP) under the regulations enforced for biomass-based plants instead of Waste-to-Energy systems, for increased environmental performance. The four scenarios are characterized by different resource investment for plant and infrastructure construction and different quantities of matter, heat and electricity recovery and recycling. Results, calculated per unit mass of waste treated and per unit exergy delivered, under both multi-input and multi-output LCA perspectives, point out improved performance for scenarios characterized by increased matter and energy recovery. Although none of the investigated scenarios is capable to provide the best performance in all the analyzed impact categories, the scenario S-4 shows the best LCA results in the human toxicity and freshwater eutrophication categories, i.e. the ones with highest impacts in all waste management processes. PMID:26257056

  17. Time-dependent Variation in Life Cycle Assessment of Microalgal Biorefinery Co-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazeri, Mahdokht

    Microalgae can serve as a highly productive biological feedstock for fuels and chemicals. The lipid fraction of algal seeds has been the primary target of research for biofuel production. However, numerous assessments have found that valorization of co-products is essential to achieve economic and environmental goals. The relative proportion of co-products depends on the biomolecular composition of algae at the time of harvesting. In the present study the productivity of lipid, starch, and protein fractions were shown through growth experiments to vary widely with species, feeding regime, and harvesting time. Four algae species were cultivated under nitrogen-replete and -deplete conditions and analyzed at regular harvesting intervals. Dynamic growth results were then used for life cycle assessment using the U.S. Department of Energy's GREET model to determine optimal growth scenarios that minimize life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, eutrophication, and cumulative energy demand (CED), while aiming for an energy return on investment (EROI) greater than unity. Per kg of biodiesel produced, C. sorokiniana in N-replete conditions harvested at 12 days was most favorable for GHG emissions and CED, despite having a lipid content of <20%. N. oculata under the same conditions had the lowest life cycle eutrophication impacts, driven by efficient nutrient cycling and valorization of microalgal protein and anaerobic digester residue co-products. The results indicate that growth cycle times that maximize a single fraction do not necessarily result in the most favorable environmental performance on a life cycle basis, underscoring the importance of designing biorefinery systems that simultaneously optimize for lipid and non-lipid fractions.

  18. The Carnot cycle and the teaching of thermodynamics: a historical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laranjeiras, Cássio C.; Portela, Sebastião I. C.

    2016-09-01

    The Carnot cycle is a topic that is traditionally present in introductory physics courses dedicated to the teaching of thermodynamics, playing an essential role in introducing the concept of Entropy and the consequent formulation of the second Law. Its effective understanding and contribution to the development of thermodynamics is often hindered, however. Among other things, this is the result of a pragmatic approach, which usually limits itself to presenting the isotherms and adiabatic curves in a P-V diagram and is totally disconnected from the historical fundamentals of Heat Theory. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the potential of an approach to the subject that recovers the historical and social dimensions of scientific knowledge, and to promote reflections about the nature of science (NOS).

  19. Prediction of positional isotopomers of the citric acid cycle: the syntactic approach.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D M; Bergman, R N

    1994-03-01

    We propose a syntactic approach to modeling of biochemical fluxes that combines a rule-based description of atomic transfer in chemical reactions with a structurally oriented, stochastic model of chemical reaction kinetics. This approach avoids the use of differential equations to describe the production and disappearance of each molecule. The computer simulation predicts the changes over time in the abundance of each positional isotopomer of every metabolic intermediate in the citric acid cycle of heart cells, subsequent to administration of [2-13C]acetate (including natural abundance of 13C). (Positional isotopomers are isomers that differ in the positions of isotopes within the molecule.) The 32 positional isotopomers of glutamate fell into four groups with similar intragroup dynamics but with very different amplitudes. From the relative abundance of each isotopomer of glutamate, we calculate the relative area of multiplets of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum. PMID:7909408

  20. Sex and estrous cycle differences in cocaine-induced approach-avoidance conflict.

    PubMed

    Kerstetter, Kerry A; Su, Zu-In; Ettenberg, Aaron; Kippin, Tod E

    2013-03-01

    Human and animal research indicates that females may have a higher biological propensity for cocaine abuse than do males. Furthermore, reproductive status modulates the subjective effects of cocaine in women and self-administration rates in rats. Despite the attention that has been given to the modulation of appetitive responses by reproductive status and the well-known mixed positive and negative subjective effects of cocaine, it is unknown if similar effects are observed on aversive responses to cocaine. The present study examines the impact of sex and estrous cycle on approach-avoidance behavior for cocaine as measured in the runway self-administration model. Male and freely cycling female Sprague Dawley rats were trained to traverse a straight alley for single daily injections of 1.0 mg/kg intravenous cocaine over 21 trials. Relative to males, females had significantly longer start latencies but significantly faster approach and shorter run times during the first week of training. Further, estrus females displayed significantly fewer approach-avoidance retreats across all sessions relative to non-estrus females. These results suggest that females initially exhibit greater motivation for cocaine (faster approach) than do males and that the drug's anxiogenic properties have a reduced impact on the motivation to seek cocaine (fewer retreats) in females during the estrus phase relative to other reproductive phases. These findings indicate that both sex and reproductive status contribute to the motivation for cocaine and that sex differences in addiction vulnerability may be attributable in part to differences in the motivational impact of both the appetitive and aversive properties of cocaine. PMID:21309954

  1. Temporal discounting in life cycle assessment: A critical review and theoretical framework

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Chris; Wang, Endong; Zhai, Qiang; Yang, Fan

    2015-02-15

    Temporal homogeneity of inventory data is one of the major problems in life cycle assessment (LCA). Addressing temporal homogeneity of life cycle inventory data is important in reducing the uncertainties and improving the reliability of LCA results. This paper attempts to present a critical review and discussion on the fundamental issues of temporal homogeneity in conventional LCA and propose a theoretical framework for temporal discounting in LCA. Theoretical perspectives for temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis are discussed first based on the key elements of a scientific mechanism for temporal discounting. Then generic procedures for performing temporal discounting in LCA is derived and proposed based on the nature of the LCA method and the identified key elements of a scientific temporal discounting method. A five-step framework is proposed and reported in details based on the technical methods and procedures needed to perform a temporal discounting in life cycle inventory analysis. Challenges and possible solutions are also identified and discussed for the technical procedure and scientific accomplishment of each step within the framework. - Highlights: • A critical review for temporal homogeneity problem of life cycle inventory data • A theoretical framework for performing temporal discounting on inventory data • Methods provided to accomplish each step of the temporal discounting framework.

  2. Assessing Global Mercury Cycling and Trends in the Context of the Minamata Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Giang, A.

    2015-12-01

    We draw upon recent modeling work to reassess the global biogeochemical cycle of mercury in the context of scientific and monitoring challenges in implementing the Minamata Convention. Mercury that cycles between the atmosphere and the land and ocean surface originates from anthropogenic activities (both present and historical) and from natural sources. The timescales of mercury cycling are poorly constrained, and better knowledge of these would allow us to understand trends and responses to policies. We synthesize information from a global suite of observations to provide improved constraints on the global (past and present) mercury cycle and trends. We project future mercury emissions under policy scenarios consistent with the Minamata Convention, and assess their impacts on atmospheric concentrations, deposition, and the global biogeochemical cycle. We examine the importance of uncertainties, and identify key uncertainties in measurements and our understanding of atmospheric chemistry, ecosystem processes and human responses that affect our ability to link emissions to impacts. Finally, we draw conclusions about the ability for currently-available measurements and networks to evaluate levels and trends, and draw lessons for policy implementation.

  3. Life cycle assessment of switchgrass- and corn stover-derived ethanol-fueled automobiles.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Zhang, Yimin; MacLean, Heather L

    2005-12-15

    Utilizing domestically produced cellulose-derived ethanol for the light-duty vehicle fleet can potentially improve the environmental performance and sustainability of the transport and energy sectors of the economy. A life cycle assessment model was developed to examine environmental implications of the production and use of ethanol in automobiles in Ontario, Canada. The results were compared to those of low-sulfur reformulated gasoline (RFG) in a functionally equivalent automobile. Two time frames were evaluated, one near-term (2010), which examines converting a dedicated energy crop (switchgrass) and an agricultural residue (corn stover) to ethanol; and one midterm (2020), which assumes technological improvements in the switchgrass-derived ethanol life cycle. Near-term results show that, compared to a RFG automobile, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are 57% lower for an E85-fueled automobile derived from switchgrass and 65% lower for ethanol from corn stover, on a grams of CO2 equivalent per kilometer basis. Corn stover ethanol exhibits slightly lower life cycle GHG emissions, primarily due to sharing emissions with grain production. Through projected improvements in crop and ethanol yields, results for the mid-term scenario show that GHG emissions could be 25-35% lower than those in 2010 and that, even with anticipated improvements in RFG automobiles, E85 automobiles could still achieve up to 70% lower GHG emissions across the life cycle. PMID:16475363

  4. The JRC-ITU approach to the safety of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Fanghaenel, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Somers, J.; Konings, R.; Erdmann, N.; Uffelen, P. van; Glatz, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    The JRC-ITU safety studies of advanced fuels and cycles adopt two main axes. First the full exploitation of still available and highly relevant knowledge and samples from past fuel preparation and irradiation campaigns (complementing the limited number of ongoing programmes). Secondly, the shift of focus from simple property measurement towards the understanding of basic mechanisms determining property evolution and behaviour of fuel compounds during normal, off-normal and accident conditions. The final objective of the second axis is the determination of predictive tools applicable to systems and conditions different from those from which they were derived. State of the art experimental facilities, extensive networks of partnerships and collaboration with other organizations worldwide, and a developing programme for training and education are essential in this approach. This strategy has been implemented through various programs and projects. The SUPERFACT programme constitutes the main body of existing knowledge on the behavior in-pile of MOX fuel containing minor actinides. It encompassed all steps of a closed fuel cycle. Another international project investigating the safety of a closed cycle is METAPHIX. In this case a U-Pu19-Zr10 metal alloy containing Np, Am and Cm constitutes the fuel. 9 test pins have been prepared and irradiated. In addition to the PIE (Post Irradiation Examination), pyrometallurgical separation of the irradiated fuel has been performed, to demonstrate all the steps of a multiple recycling closed cycle and characterize their safety relevant aspects. Basic studies like thermodynamic fuel properties, fuel-cladding-coolant interactions have also been carried out at JRC-ITU.

  5. Global Water Cycle Agreement in the Climate Models Assessed in the IPCC AR4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waliser, D.; Seo, K. -W.; Schubert, S.; Njoku, E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the fidelity of the global water cycle in the climate model simulations assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. The results demonstrate good model agreement in quantities that have had a robust global observational basis and that are physically unambiguous. The worst agreement occurs for quantities that have both poor observational constraints and whose model representations can be physically ambiguous. In addition, components involving water vapor (frozen water) typically exhibit the best (worst) agreement, and fluxes typically exhibit better agreement than reservoirs. These results are discussed in relation to the importance of obtaining accurate model representation of the water cycle and its role in climate change. Recommendations are also given for facilitating the needed model improvements.

  6. Life cycle assessment of the production of ethanol from eastern redcedar.

    PubMed

    Olukoya, Ife A; Ramachandriya, Karthikeyan D; Wilkins, Mark R; Aichele, Clint P

    2014-12-01

    This life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the environmental impacts of an ethanol production system using eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) as the feedstock. Aspen Plus® was used to model the acid bisulfite pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and distillation steps. A cradle-to-gate LCA was conducted to evaluate the environmental impacts from cutting the trees to the production of anhydrous ethanol. The environmental impacts of the redcedar ethanol process were compared to those from the production of corn ethanol. Inventory data for the system were collected and used to calculate a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the IMPACT 2002+ and BEES+ framework in SimaPro 8.0.0. Four impact categories were evaluated: land occupation, water use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and non-renewable energy use. Results indicate that acid bisulfite pretreatment contributed to 65% of GHG emissions, 81% of non-renewable energy use, and 77% of water use of the overall process. PMID:25305654

  7. A life-cycle approach to food and nutrition security in India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Sandhya; Sekher, Madhushree; Pritchard, Bill; Rammohan, Anu

    2015-04-01

    India's poor performance on critical food and nutrition security indicators despite substantial economic prosperity has been widely documented. These failings not only hamper national progress, but also contribute significantly to the global undernourished population, particularly children. While the recently passed National Food Security Act 2013 adopts a life-cycle approach to expand coverage of subsidized food grains to the most vulnerable households and address food security, there remains much to be desired in the legislation. Access to adequate food for 1.24 billion people is a multifaceted problem requiring an interconnected set of policy measures to tackle the various factors affecting food and nutrition security in India. In the present opinion paper, we discuss a fivefold strategy that incorporates a life-cycle approach, spanning reproductive health, bolstering citizen participation in existing national programmes, empowering women, advancing agriculture and better monitoring the Public Distribution System in order to fill the gaps in both access and adequacy of food and nutrition. PMID:24866692

  8. Reducing impacts from ammunitions: A comparative life-cycle assessment of four types of 9mm ammunitions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, José; Almada, Sara; Rotariu, Traian; Freire, Fausto

    2016-10-01

    Increase of environmental awareness of the population has pressured research activities in the defence area to cover environment and toxicity issues, where have been considered appropriate manners to reduce the environmental and toxicological impacts of ammunition. One of the adopted approaches to achieve such goal involves the replacement of lead and other heavy metals by alternative materials. However, the consequences of using alternative materials in ammunitions manufacturing are uncertain for the other life-cycle phases and trade-offs can occur. The present paper describes the potential benefits from the replacement of lead in the primer and in the projectile of a 9mm calibre ammunition. For that purpose, it is assessed and compared the environmental and toxicological impacts associated with the life-cycle of four ammunitions: combination of two types of projectiles (steel jacket and lead core; copper and nylon composite) with two types of primers (lead primer; non-lead primer). In addition, some potential improvements for the environmental performance of small calibre ammunition are also presented. To assess the impacts two Life-Cycle Impact Assessment methods are applied: CML for six environmental categories and USEtox to three toxicity categories. Results showed that the conclusion drawn for environmental and toxicological impact categories are distinct. In fact, ammunition production phase presents higher impacts for the environmental categories, whilst the operation phase has a higher impact to the toxicity categories. The substitution of lead in the primer and in the projectile provides a suitable alternative from a toxicology perspective; however, the composite projectile still presents some environmental concerns. The conclusions drawn are important for the procurement (and design) of environmental responsible ammunitions, in order to avoid (or decrease) the impacts for their manufacture and the effects on human health (e.g. shooters) and ecosystems

  9. A new approach to criteria for health risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Goh, Yang Miang

    2012-01-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a developing component of the overall impact assessment process and as such needs access to procedures that can enable more consistent approaches to the stepwise process that is now generally accepted in both EIA and HIA. The guidelines developed during this project provide a structured process, based on risk assessment procedures which use consequences and likelihood, as a way of ranking risks to adverse health outcomes from activities subjected to HIA or HIA as part of EIA. The aim is to assess the potential for both acute and chronic health outcomes. The consequences component also identifies a series of consequences for the health care system, depicted as expressions of financial expenditure and the capacity of the health system. These more specific health risk assessment characteristics should provide for a broader consideration of health consequences and a more consistent estimation of the adverse health risks of a proposed development at both the scoping and risk assessment stages of the HIA process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more objective approach to health risk assessment is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences for chronic and acute impacts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for the consequences on the health care system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An objective set of criteria for event frequency that could impact on health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The approach presented is currently being trialled in Australia.

  10. A practical approach to glare assessment for train cabs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Daniel P; Baker, Lisa M; Harvey, Carl

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of glare is a key consideration in the design of a railway driver's cab. However, unlike assessment of other factors, such as forward visibility, there are no standardised approaches for performing assessments of glare. This paper describes an approach for assessing the impact of glare in a full size mock-up of a railway cab. While it is unrealistic to evaluate every possible lighting condition that may potentially occur in the vehicle cab in service, a pragmatic and practical approach is taken to provide a good level of indicative information about the cab design's likely glare performance. This involves assessing internal light sources, such as internal lights and illuminated controls, and simulating external light sources (e.g. the sun, other trains' headlights) by illuminating the cab mock up windscreen, side and door windows with a single light source manually located in a sequence of discrete positions and orientations and assessing the resulting glare impacts. The paper describes a structured process for assessing and recording the impact of glare and recommending mitigations. PMID:25479986

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  12. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    PubMed

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas. PMID:22326758

  13. The Chicago Center for Green Technology: life-cycle assessment of a brownfield redevelopment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecheisen, Thomas; Theis, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The sustainable development of brownfields reflects a fundamental, yet logical, shift in thinking and policymaking regarding pollution prevention. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to assist in determining the conformity of brownfield development projects to the sustainability paradigm. LCA was applied to the process of a real brownfield redevelopment project, now known as the Chicago Center for Green Technology, to determine the cumulative energy required to complete the following redevelopment stages: (1) brownfield assessment and remediation, (2) building rehabilitation and site development and (3) ten years of operation. The results of the LCA have shown that operational energy is the dominant life-cycle stage after ten years of operation. The preservation and rehabilitation of the existing building, the installation of renewable energy systems (geothermal and photovoltaic) on-site and the use of more sustainable building products resulted in 72 terajoules (TJ) of avoided energy impacts, which would provide 14 years of operational energy for the site. Methodological note: data for this life-cycle assessment were obtained from project reports, construction blueprints and utility bills.

  14. Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Susan Tarka; Woods, Jeremy; Akhurst, Mark; Brander, Matthew; O'Hare, Michael; Dawson, Terence P; Edwards, Robert; Liska, Adam J; Malpas, Rick

    2012-06-01

    The expansion of land used for crop production causes variable direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and other economic, social and environmental effects. We analyse the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Two approaches are critiqued: direct, attributional life cycle analysis and consequential life cycle analysis (CLCA). A proposed hybrid 'combined model' of the two approaches for ILUC analysis relies on first defining the system boundary of the resulting full LCA. Choices are then made as to the modelling methodology (economic equilibrium or cause-effect), data inputs, land area analysis, carbon stock accounting and uncertainty analysis to be included. We conclude that CLCA is applicable for estimating the historic emissions from ILUC, although improvements to the hybrid approach proposed, coupled with regular updating, are required, and uncertainly values must be adequately represented; however, the scope and the depth of the expansion of the system boundaries required for CLCA remain controversial. In addition, robust prediction, monitoring and accounting frameworks for the dynamic and highly uncertain nature of future crop yields and the effectiveness of policies to reduce deforestation and encourage afforestation remain elusive. Finally, establishing compatible and comparable accounting frameworks for ILUC between the USA, the European Union, South East Asia, Africa, Brazil and other major biofuel trading blocs is urgently needed if substantial distortions between these markets, which would reduce its application in policy outcomes, are to be avoided. PMID:22467143

  15. Accounting for indirect land-use change in the life cycle assessment of biofuel supply chains

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Susan Tarka; Woods, Jeremy; Akhurst, Mark; Brander, Matthew; O'Hare, Michael; Dawson, Terence P.; Edwards, Robert; Liska, Adam J.; Malpas, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of land used for crop production causes variable direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions, and other economic, social and environmental effects. We analyse the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) for estimating the carbon intensity of biofuel production from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Two approaches are critiqued: direct, attributional life cycle analysis and consequential life cycle analysis (CLCA). A proposed hybrid ‘combined model’ of the two approaches for ILUC analysis relies on first defining the system boundary of the resulting full LCA. Choices are then made as to the modelling methodology (economic equilibrium or cause–effect), data inputs, land area analysis, carbon stock accounting and uncertainty analysis to be included. We conclude that CLCA is applicable for estimating the historic emissions from ILUC, although improvements to the hybrid approach proposed, coupled with regular updating, are required, and uncertainly values must be adequately represented; however, the scope and the depth of the expansion of the system boundaries required for CLCA remain controversial. In addition, robust prediction, monitoring and accounting frameworks for the dynamic and highly uncertain nature of future crop yields and the effectiveness of policies to reduce deforestation and encourage afforestation remain elusive. Finally, establishing compatible and comparable accounting frameworks for ILUC between the USA, the European Union, South East Asia, Africa, Brazil and other major biofuel trading blocs is urgently needed if substantial distortions between these markets, which would reduce its application in policy outcomes, are to be avoided. PMID:22467143

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  17. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Fang, Linda L; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Rygaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus. However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. Based on a simulation of a full-scale nutrient and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts from the chosen end use of wastewater recovery products. The toxicity impacts are from both heavy metals release associated with land application of recovered nutrients and production of AlCl3, which is required for advanced wastewater treatment prior to aquifer recharge. Perturbation analysis of the LCA pinpointed nutrient substitution and heavy metals content of algae biofertilizer as critical areas for further research if the performance of nutrient recovery systems such as

  18. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  19. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    SciTech Connect

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  20. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Model for Soil Bioengineering Measures on Infrastructure Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil bioengineering techniques can be a helpful instrument for civil engineers taking into account not only technical but also ecological, socio-economic and sustainability aspects. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models can serve as supplementary evaluation methods to economic analyses, taking into account the resource demand and environmental burdens of engineering structures. The presented LCA model includes the functional grade of structures in addition to environmental aspects. When using vegetation as living construction material, several factors have to be considered. There is the provision of ecosystem services of plants, such as the stabilization of the slope through its root-system, CO2 sequestration through biomass production et cetera. However, it must be noted that vegetation can cause security issues on infrastructure facilities and entail costs through the necessity of maintenance works. For this reason, it is necessary to already define the target systems during the planning phase of a soil bioengineering structure. In this way, necessary measures can be adapted in all life cycles of a structure. The objective of the presented LCA model is to serve as a basis for the definition of target systems. In the designed LCA model the soil bioengineering structures are divided into four life phases; construction phase, operational phase, end of life phase and subsequent use phase. A main objective of the LCA model is the understanding of the "Cumulative Energy Demand" (CED) and "Global Warming Potential" (GWP) of soil bioengineering structures during all life cycle phases. Additionally, the biomass production and the CO2 sequestration potential of the used plants are regarded as well as the functional integrity of the soil bioengineering system. In the life phase of soil bioengineering structures, a major part of the energy input is required during the construction phase. This is mainly due to the cumulative energy demand of the inert materials

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature. [Once-through Cycle and Plutonium Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included.

  2. An Integrated Approach to Risk Assessment for Concurrent Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Voss, Luke; Feather, Martin; Cornford, Steve

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to risk assessment and analysis suited to the early phase, concurrent design of a space mission. The approach integrates an agile, multi-user risk collection tool, a more in-depth risk analysis tool, and repositories of risk information. A JPL developed tool, named RAP, is used for collecting expert opinions about risk from designers involved in the concurrent design of a space mission. Another in-house developed risk assessment tool, named DDP, is used for the analysis.

  3. Conceptualizing and Assessing Self-Enhancement Bias: A Componential Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Virginia S. Y.; Kuang, Lu Lu; John, Oliver P.; Robins, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Four studies implemented a componential approach to assessing self-enhancement and contrasted this approach with 2 earlier ones: social comparison (comparing self-ratings with ratings of others) and self-insight (comparing self-ratings with ratings by others). In Study 1, the authors varied the traits being rated to identify conditions that lead to more or less similarity between approaches. In Study 2, the authors examined the effects of acquaintance on the conditions identified in Study 1. In Study 3, the authors showed that using rankings renders the self-insight approach equivalent to the component-based approach but also has limitations in assessing self-enhancement. In Study 4, the authors compared the social-comparison and the component-based approaches in terms of their psychological implications; the relation between self-enhancement and adjustment depended on the self-enhancement approach used, and the positive-adjustment correlates of the social-comparison approach disappeared when the confounding influence of the target effect was controlled. PMID:18505318

  4. Assessment of drug-induced arrhythmic risk using limit cycle and autocorrelation analysis of human iPSC-cardiomyocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R Jason; Qi, Feng; Phatak, Sharangdhar; Smith, Layton H; Malany, Siobhan

    2016-08-15

    Cardiac safety assays incorporating label-free detection of human stem-cell derived cardiomyocyte contractility provide human relevance and medium throughput screening to assess compound-induced cardiotoxicity. In an effort to provide quantitative analysis of the large kinetic datasets resulting from these real-time studies, we applied bioinformatic approaches based on nonlinear dynamical system analysis, including limit cycle analysis and autocorrelation function, to systematically assess beat irregularity. The algorithms were integrated into a software program to seamlessly generate results for 96-well impedance-based data. Our approach was validated by analyzing dose- and time-dependent changes in beat patterns induced by known proarrhythmic compounds and screening a cardiotoxicity library to rank order compounds based on their proarrhythmic potential. We demonstrate a strong correlation for dose-dependent beat irregularity monitored by electrical impedance and quantified by autocorrelation analysis to traditional manual patch clamp potency values for hERG blockers. In addition, our platform identifies non-hERG blockers known to cause clinical arrhythmia. Our method provides a novel suite of medium-throughput quantitative tools for assessing compound effects on cardiac contractility and predicting compounds with potential proarrhythmia and may be applied to in vitro paradigms for pre-clinical cardiac safety evaluation. PMID:27343406

  5. Environmental Biochemistry--A New Approach for Teaching the Cycles of the Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricci, Juan C. Diaz; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents three dimensional models of biological pathways for the following cycles: carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a combination of the three. Discusses steps involved in each cycle and breaks each cycle into trophic and environmental regions. (MVL)

  6. A life cycle analysis approach to D and D decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.L.; Gresalfi, M.; Yerace, P.; Flora, J.; Krstich, M.; Gerrick, D.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes a life cycle analysis (LCA) approach that makes decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of US Department of Energy facilities more efficient and more responsive to the concerns of the society. With the considerable complexity of D and D projects and their attendant environmental and health consequences, projects can no longer be designed based on engineering and economic criteria alone. Using the LCA D and D approach, the evaluation of material disposition alternatives explicitly includes environmental impacts, health and safety impacts, socioeconomic impacts, and stakeholder attitudes -- in addition to engineering and economic criteria. Multi-attribute decision analysis is used to take into consideration the uncertainties and value judgments that are an important part of all material disposition decisions. Use of the LCA D and D approach should lead to more appropriate selections of material disposition pathways and a decision-making process that is both understandable and defensible. The methodology and procedures of the LCA D and D approach are outlined and illustrated by an application of the approach at the Department of Energy`s West Valley Demonstration Project. Specifically, LCA was used to aid decisions on disposition of soil and concrete from the Tank Pad D and D Project. A decision tree and the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Users Guide for Environmental Restoration Projects were used to identify possible alternatives for disposition of the soil and concrete. Eight alternatives encompassing source reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal were defined for disposition of the soil; two alternatives were identified for disposition of the concrete. Preliminary results suggest that segregation and treatment are advantageous in the disposition of both the soil and the concrete. This and other recent applications illustrate the strength and ease of application of the LCA D and D approach.

  7. DNA Damage Signaling Assessed in Individual Cells in Relation to the Cell Cycle Phase and Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Halicka, H. Dorota; Rybak, Paulina; Dobrucki, Jurek; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Reviewed are the phosphorylation events reporting activation of protein kinases and the key substrates critical for the DNA damage signaling (DDS). These DDS events are detected immunocytochemically using phospho-specific Abs; flow cytometry or image-assisted cytometry provide the means to quantitatively assess them on a cell by cell basis. The multiparameter analysis of the data is used to correlate these events with each other and relate to the cell cycle phase, DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. Expression of γH2AX as a possible marker of induction of DNA double strand breaks is the most widely studied event of DDS. Reviewed are applications of this multiparameter approach to investigate constitutive DDS reporting DNA damage by endogenous oxidants byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation. Also reviewed are its applications to detect and explore mechanisms of DDS induced by variety of exogenous agents targeting DNA such as exogenous oxidants, ionizing radiation, radiomimetic drugs, UV light, DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors, DNA crosslinking drugs and variety of environmental genotoxins. Analysis of DDS induced by these agents provides often a wealth of information about mechanism of induction and the type of DNA damage (lesion) and is reviewed in the context of cell cycle phase specificity, DNA replication, and induction of apoptosis or cell senescence. Critically assessed is interpretation of the data as to whether the observed DDS events report induction of a particular type of DNA lesion. PMID:23137030

  8. Life cycle-based water assessment of a hand dishwashing product: opportunities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Gert; Buyle, Bea; Kounina, Anna; Humbert, Sebastien

    2013-10-01

    It is only recently that life cycle-based indicators have been used to evaluate products from a water use impact perspective. The applicability of some of these methods has been primarily demonstrated on agricultural materials or products, because irrigation requirements in food production can be water-intensive. In view of an increasing interest on life cycle-based water indicators from different products, we ran a study on a hand dishwashing product. A number of water assessment methods were applied with the purpose of identifying both product improvement opportunities, as well as understanding the potential for underlying database and methodological improvements. The study covered the entire life cycle of the product and focused on environmental issues related to water use, looking in-depth at inventory, midpoint, and endpoint methods. "Traditional" water emission driven methods, such as freshwater eutrophication, were excluded from the analysis. The use of a single formula with the same global supply chain, manufactured in 1 location was evaluated in 2 countries with different water scarcity conditions. The study shows differences ranging up to 4 orders in magnitude for indicators with similar units associated with different water use types (inventory methods) and different cause-effect chain models (midpoint and endpoint impact categories). No uncertainty information was available on the impact assessment methods, whereas uncertainty from stochastic variability was not available at the time of study. For the majority of the indicators studied, the contribution from the consumer use stage is the most important (>90%), driven by both direct water use (dishwashing process) as well as indirect water use (electricity generation to heat the water). Creating consumer awareness on how the product is used, particularly in water-scarce areas, is the largest improvement opportunity for a hand dishwashing product. However, spatial differentiation in the inventory and

  9. Life cycle assessment of the application of nanoclays in wire coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellaetxe, A.; Blázquez, M.; Arteche, A.; Egizabal, A.; Ermini, V.; Rose, J.; Chaurand, P.; Unzueta, I.

    2012-09-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out to compare nanoclay-reinforced polymer wire coatings with conventional ones. While the conventional wire coatings contain standard halogen free retardants, in reinforced coatings, montmorillonite (nanoclay) is incorporated into electric cable linings as a rheological agent for an increased resistance to fire. In addition, a reduced load of standard halogen free retardants is obtained. The synergistic effect of the montmorillonite on traditional flame retardant additives (by the formation of a three-dimensional char network) can lead to a revolution in wire production. The application of nanoclays contributes also to anti-dripping effect and flexibility increase [1]. Some producers have already started commercializing wire with nanotechnology-based coating; in the short term the use of nanoclay in wire coating production will probably reach a significant market share replacing traditional formulations. The main aim of this study is to compare the environmental impacts along the life cycle of a traditional wire coating (mineral flame retardants like ATH or MDH in a polymer matrix) with the nanoclay-reinforced wire coating, where the montmorillonite replaces a low percentage of the mineral flame retardant. The system boundaries of the study include the following unit processes: nanoclay production, thermoplastic material and mineral flame retardants production, cable coating manufacturing by extrusion and different end of life scenarios (recycling, incineration and landfill disposal). Whereas nanoreinforced composites have shown and increased fire retardance, the addition of nanomaterials seems to have no significant relevance in the environmental assessment. However, the lack of nano-specific characterization factors for nanomaterials and emission rates associated to the different life cycle stages -mainly in the extrusion and use phase, where accidental combustions can take place- still remains a challenge for realistic

  10. Life-Cycle Assessment of Advanced Nutrient Removal Technologies for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sheikh M; Eckelman, Matthew J; Onnis-Hayden, Annalisa; Gu, April Z

    2016-03-15

    Advanced nutrient removal processes, while improving the water quality of the receiving water body, can also produce indirect environmental and health impacts associated with increases in usage of energy, chemicals, and other material resources. The present study evaluated three levels of treatment for nutrient removal (N and P) using 27 representative treatment process configurations. Impacts were assessed across multiple environmental and health impacts using life-cycle assessment (LCA) following the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) impact-assessment method. Results show that advanced technologies that achieve high-level nutrient removal significantly decreased local eutrophication potential, while chemicals and electricity use for these advanced treatments, particularly multistage enhanced tertiary processes and reverse osmosis, simultaneously increased eutrophication indirectly and contributed to other potential environmental and health impacts including human and ecotoxicity, global warming potential, ozone depletion, and acidification. Average eutrophication potential can be reduced by about 70% when Level 2 (TN = 3 mg/L; TP = 0.1 mg/L) treatments are employed instead of Level 1 (TN = 8 mg/L; TP = 1 mg/L), but the implementation of more advanced tertiary processes for Level 3 (TN = 1 mg/L; TP = 0.01 mg/L) treatment may only lead to an additional 15% net reduction in life-cycle eutrophication potential. PMID:26871301

  11. Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - The case of a Swedish waste incineration tax

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, Anna E. Finnveden, Goeran

    2007-07-01

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatment. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste.

  12. Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, S. B.; Horvath, A.; Dornfeld, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the life-cycle environmental and human health impacts of semiconductor logic is essential to a better understanding of the role information technology can play in achieving energy efficiency or global warming potential reduction goals. This study provides a life-cycle assessment for digital logic chips over seven technology generations, spanning from 1995 through 2010. Environmental indicators include global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, ground-level ozone (smog) formation, potential human cancer and non-cancer health effects, ecotoxicity and water use. While impacts per device area related to fabrication infrastructure and use-phase electricity have increased steadily, those due to transportation and fabrication direct emissions have fallen as a result of changes in process technology, device and wafer sizes and yields over the generations. Electricity, particularly in the use phase, and direct emissions from fabrication are the most important contributors to life-cycle impacts. Despite the large quantities of water used in fabrication, across the life cycle, the largest fraction of water is consumed in generation of electricity for use-phase power. Reducing power consumption in the use phase is the most effective way to limit impacts, particularly for the more recent generations of logic.

  13. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  14. INPRO Assessment of an INS in the Area of Safety of Fuel Cycle Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, B.; Busurin, Y.; Depisch, F.

    2006-07-01

    INPRO has defined requirements organized in a hierarchy of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria (consisting of an indicator and an acceptance limit) to be met by innovative nuclear reactor systems (INS) in six areas, namely: economics, safety, waste management, environment, proliferation resistance, and infrastructure. If an INS meets all requirements in all areas it represents a sustainable system for the supply of energy, capable of making a significant contribution to meeting the energy needs of the 21. century. Draft manuals have been developed, for each INPRO area, to provide guidance for performing an assessment of whether an INS meets the INPRO requirements in a given area. The manuals set out the information that needs to be assembled to perform an assessment and provide guidance on selecting the acceptance limits and, for a given INS, for determining the value of the indicators for comparison with the associated acceptance limits. Each manual also includes an example of a specific assessment to illustrate the guidance. This paper discusses the manual for performing an INPRO assessment in the area of safety of fuel cycle installations. The example, chosen solely for the purpose of illustrating the INPRO methodology, describes an assessment of an MOX fuel fabrication plant based on sol-gel technology and illustrates an assessment performed for an INS at an early stage of development. The safety issues and the assessment steps are presented in detail in the paper. (authors)

  15. Assessing EDCs in the Field: Challenges and New Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the occurrence and effects of EDCs in the environment can be challenging from a number of perspectives. For example, conventional analytical approaches and/or toxicity tests may not be appropriate to detecting very potent chemicals that impact specific pathways, and oft...

  16. An Ecological Approach to Needs Assessment For Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, Claudine

    Physical educators must explore the interrelationships between persons and their total human environment to promote optimal learning. This form of needs assessment broadens the concept of teaching from a student- and school-based perspective to one encompassing the home and community. This ecological approach is more crucial in facilitating…

  17. A Systems Approach To Assess Severe Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Brian R.; Meyer, John K.

    1998-01-01

    The systems approach assembles in a single assessment setting four basic instruments to determine the current functioning status of the individual for the purpose of better understanding the dynamics involved in severe behavior problems: (1) the Democratic Maturity Test ; (2) the Life Fulfillment Inventory; (3) the Voluntary Control Test; and (4)…

  18. Data Mining: A Systems Approach to Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using raw data and information from reliable assessments can inform teachers' decisions leading to improved instruction. The primary aim is to use a systems approach to provide evidence of what students know and how they demonstrate mastery. Such evidence can empower teachers to reach all students. The pedagogic…

  19. DERMAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: A SUMMARY OF EPA APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report presents a concise description and evaluation of the approaches used in the Agency for dermal exposure assessment including a discussion about harmonization and research needs in this area. The report is intended to be used by EPA program offices in their effort...

  20. An Expectancy Theory Motivation Approach to Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Barry A.; Cox, Pamela L.; Maher, Larry E.

    2008-01-01

    Group projects are an important component of higher education, and the use of peer assessment of students' individual contributions to group projects has increased. The researchers employed an expectancy theory approach and an experimental design in a field setting to investigate conditions that influence students' motivation to rate their peers'…

  1. A Situational Approach for Assessing and Teaching Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinsky, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a situational approach for assessing and teaching acculturation that captures how a person's level of competence and authenticity in a foreign cultural setting varies across the various situations the person encounters. Whereas previous research, such as the U-curve and Berry's dual identification model, portrays cultural…

  2. Domains and Facets: A Hierarchical Approach to Personality Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Robert R.

    The domain and facet approach to personality assessment is discussed. The strategy used to identify and measure aspects of the five factors of personality structure is described. Evidence concerning the factorial invariance of the resulting set of 30 facet scales and some recent evidence concerning their discriminant validity are reviewed. Some…

  3. Exposure as Part of a Systems Approach for Assessing Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is facing large challenges in managing environmental chemicals with increasingly complex requirements for assessing risk that push the limits of our current approaches. To address some of these challenges, the National Research Council (NR...

  4. Integrative Approaches to Evaluating Neurotoxicity Data for Risk Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment classically has been based on single adverse outcomes identified as the Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) or the highest dose level in a credible study producing a No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). While this approach has been useful overal...

  5. SMALL POPULATIONS REQUIRE SPECIFIC MODELING APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    All populations face non-zero risks of extinction. However, the risks for small populations, and therefore the modeling approaches necessary to predict them, are different from those of large populations. These differences are currently hindering assessment of risk to small pop...

  6. Using a Backward Design Approach to Embed Assessment in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Backward design provides a framework for curriculum planning that can be used at unit, course or school level. The approach places assessment at the heart of the planning process. In this article the ideas of backward design are outlined and their application to a current curriculum development project, York Science, is described.

  7. Plenary lecture: innovative modeling approaches applicable to risk assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of safe and unsafe food at the processing plant is important for maximizing the public health benefit of food by ensuring both its consumption and safety. Risk assessment is a holistic approach to food safety that consists of four steps: 1) hazard identification; 2) exposure a...

  8. Machine learning approach for objective inpainting quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantc, V. A.; Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Sherstobitov, A. I.; Agaian, S.; Egiazarian, K.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on a machine learning approach for objective inpainting quality assessment. Inpainting has received a lot of attention in recent years and quality assessment is an important task to evaluate different image reconstruction approaches. Quantitative metrics for successful image inpainting currently do not exist; researchers instead are relying upon qualitative human comparisons in order to evaluate their methodologies and techniques. We present an approach for objective inpainting quality assessment based on natural image statistics and machine learning techniques. Our method is based on observation that when images are properly normalized or transferred to a transform domain, local descriptors can be modeled by some parametric distributions. The shapes of these distributions are different for noninpainted and inpainted images. Approach permits to obtain a feature vector strongly correlated with a subjective image perception by a human visual system. Next, we use a support vector regression learned on assessed by human images to predict perceived quality of inpainted images. We demonstrate how our predicted quality value repeatably correlates with a qualitative opinion in a human observer study.

  9. A Holistic, Collaborative Approach to Teaching Assessment and Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Judy I.

    A project undertaken to observe an instructor in three college courses in three consecutive quarters provided an opportunity to examine the teaching process in a holistic way, seek students' views in the classroom, and describe a collaborative approach to teaching assessment and development. Factors taken into account in the holistic model of…

  10. New Approaches to Cognitive Assessment in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.; And Others

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and effects of new approaches to cognitive assessment within an undergraduate engineering course at the U.S. Air Force Academy. The course, ENGR 110, "Introduction to Engineering," was designed to be a problem-based learning environment in which cadets worked in teams to solve problems integral…

  11. Quantitative assessment of the differential impacts of arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza on soil carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Makarov, Mikhail I; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Maslov, Mikhail N; Akhmetzhanova, Asem A; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    A significant fraction of carbon stored in the Earth's soil moves through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (EM). The impacts of AM and EM on the soil carbon budget are poorly understood. We propose a method to quantify the mycorrhizal contribution to carbon cycling, explicitly accounting for the abundance of plant-associated and extraradical mycorrhizal mycelium. We discuss the need to acquire additional data to use our method, and present our new global database holding information on plant species-by-site intensity of root colonization by mycorrhizas. We demonstrate that the degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization has globally consistent patterns across plant species. This suggests that the level of plant species-specific root colonization can be used as a plant trait. To exemplify our method, we assessed the differential impacts of AM : EM ratio and EM shrub encroachment on carbon stocks in sub-arctic tundra. AM and EM affect tundra carbon stocks at different magnitudes, and via partly distinct dominant pathways: via extraradical mycelium (both EM and AM) and via mycorrhizal impacts on above- and belowground biomass carbon (mostly AM). Our method provides a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mycorrhizal impact on local and global carbon cycling processes, paving the way towards an improved understanding of the role of mycorrhizas in the Earth's carbon cycle. PMID:26011828

  12. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Sediment Remediation at the London Olympic Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, D.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there is an emerging 'green and sustainable remediation' (GSR) movement. It is drawing increasing attention from both the government and the industry, because this GSR movement is promising in accelerating process in addressing the contaminated land issue, by overcoming regulatory barriers, encouraging technological innovation, and balancing life cycle environmental stewardship with economic vitality and social well-being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used by both researchers and industrial practitioners in an initiative to make environmental remediation greener and more sustainable. Life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA), aiming at expanding the traditional LCA model in both breadth and depth (e.g. to incorporate both environmental and social-economic sustainability), is an important research direction in the existing LCA research field. The present study intends to develop a LCSA method based on a hybrid LCA model and economic input-output (EIO) data. The LCSA method is applied to a contaminated sediment remediation project conducted at the London Olympic Park site.

  13. Comparative life cycle assessment of battery storage systems for stationary applications.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Mitavachan; Derendorf, Karen; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-04-21

    This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP) of four stationary battery technologies: lithium-ion, lead-acid, sodium-sulfur, and vanadium-redox-flow. The analyses were carried out for a complete utilization of their cycle life and for six different stationary applications. Due to its lower CED and GWP impacts, a qualitative analysis of lithium-ion was carried out to assess the impacts of its process chains on 17 midpoint impact categories using ReCiPe-2008 methodology. It was found that in general the use stage of batteries dominates their life cycle impacts significantly. It is therefore misleading to compare the environmental performance of batteries only on a mass or capacity basis at the manufacturing outlet ("cradle-to-gate analyses") while neglecting their use stage impacts, especially when they have different characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the relative ranking of batteries does not show a significant dependency on the investigated stationary application scenarios in most cases. Based on the results obtained, the authors go on to recommend the deployment of batteries with higher round-trip efficiency, such as lithium-ion, for stationary grid operation in the first instance. PMID:25798660

  14. Life cycle assessment based evaluation of regional impacts from agricultural production at the Peruvian coast.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Karin; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-09-18

    Crop and technology choices in agriculture, which largely define the impact of agricultural production on the environment, should be considered in agricultural development planning. A life cycle assessment of the dominant crops produced in a Peruvian coastal valley was realized, in order to establish regionalized life cycle inventories for Peruvian products and to provide the basis for a regional evaluation of the impacts of eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and biodiversity loss due to water use. Five scenarios for the year 2020 characterized by different crop combinations and irrigation systems were considered as development options. The results of the regional assessment showed that a business-as-usual scenario, extrapolating current trends of crop cultivation, would lead to an increase in nitrate leaching with eutrophying effects. On the other hand, scenarios of increased application of drip irrigation and of mandarin area expansion would lead to a decrease in nitrate leaching. In all scenarios the human toxicity potential would decrease slightly, while an increase in irrigation water use would benefit the biodiversity of a nearby groundwater-fed wetland. Comparisons with results from other studies confirmed the importance of regionalized life cycle inventories. The results can be used as decision support for local farmers and authorities. PMID:22894858

  15. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick R. Soelberg

    2010-11-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication.

  16. Quantifying the Lunar Hydrogen Cycle: A Fast, Effective, and Economical CubeSat Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, M.; Adams, M. L.; Barabash, S.; Calhoun, P. C.; Clark, P. E.; Farrell, W. M.; Folta, D. C.; Halekas, J.; Haque, S. E.; Hurley, D. M.; Keidar, M.; Keller, J. W.; Killen, R. M.; Kletzing, C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Malphrus, B. K.; McNeil, R. R.; Vondrak, R. R.; Wieser, M.

    2015-10-01

    The Moon breathes hydrogen: solar wind protons and micro-meteoroids deliver hydrogen to the lunar surface at local rates that depend on surface composition, local topography, and the presence of structures such as magnetic anomalies. Because the lunar surface is generally saturated with hydrogen, the implanted hydrogen escapes the surface and forms the hydrogen exosphere through a variety of processes including sputtering, recoil, and diffusion - giving the surface an effective hydrogen "albedo." These processes can lead to hydrogen deposition into cold traps and the formation of OH, and possibly water, through chemical alteration of oxygen-bearing minerals. Exospheric hydrogen is reclaimed by the solar wind as picked-up photoions and chargeexchange products. The exact pathway for each of these processes remains unknown, especially at regional scales, and quantifying each of these processes in this "lunar hydrogen cycle" as a function of solar zenith angle and plasma and space environment will lead to a unified understanding of the plasma, exospheric, and geologic Moon. CubeSats provide a fast, effective, and economical approach to quantifying the currently unknown parameters in the lunar hydrogen cycle.

  17. Nitrogen sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay estuary: A nitrate dual isotopic composition approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wankel, Scott D.; Kendall, C.; Francis, C.A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-01-01

    We used the dual isotopic composition of nitrate (??15N and ??18O) within the estuarine system of San Francisco (SF) Bay, California, to explore the utility of this approach for tracing sources and cycling of nitrate (NO3-). Surface water samples from 49 sites within the estuary were sampled during July-August 2004. Spatial variability in the isotopic composition suggests that there are multiple sources of nitrate to the bay ecosystem including seawater, several rivers and creeks, and sewage effluent. The spatial distribution of nitrate from these sources is heavily modulated by the hydrodynamics of the estuary. Mixing along the estuarine salinity gradient is the main control on the spatial variations in isotopic composition of nitrate within the northern arm of SF Bay. However, the nitrate isotopic composition in the southern arm of SF Bay exhibited a combination of source mixing and phytoplankton drawdown due mostly to the long residence time during the summer study period. Very low ?? 18ONO3 values (as low as -5.0???) at the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta region give rise to a wide range of ??18ONO3 values in the SF Bay system. The range in ??18ONO3 values is more than twice that of (??15NNO3, suggesting that ??18O NO3 is an even more sensitive tool for tracing nitrate sources and cycling than ??15NNO3. ?? 2006, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  18. A convolution integral approach for performance assessments with uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dawoud, E.; Miller, L.F.

    1999-09-01

    Performance assessments that include uncertainty analyses and risk assessments are typically not obtained for time-dependent releases of radioactive contaminants to the geosphere when a series of sequentially coupled transport models is required for determining results. This is due, in part, to the geophysical complexity of the site, and to the numerical complexity of the fate and transport models. The lack of a practical tool for linking the transport models in a fashion that facilitates uncertainty analysis is another reason for not performing uncertainty analyses in these studies. The multiconvolution integral (MCI) approach presented herein greatly facilitates the practicality of incorporating uncertainty analyses into performance assessments. In this research an MCI approach is developed, and the decoupling of fate and transport processes into an independent system is described. A conceptual model, extracted from the Inactive Tanks project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is used to demonstrate the approach. Numerical models are used for transport of {sup 90}Sr from a disposal facility, WC-1 at ORNL, through the vadose and saturated zones to a downgradient point at Fifth Creek, and an analytical surface water model is used to transport the contaminants to a downstream potential receptor point at White Oak Creek. The probability density functions of the final concentrations obtained by the MCI approach are in excellent agreement with those obtained by a Monte Carlo approach that propagated uncertainties through all submodels for each random sample.

  19. A cloud model-based approach for water quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Liu, Dengfeng; Ding, Hao; Singh, Vijay P; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    Water quality assessment entails essentially a multi-criteria decision-making process accounting for qualitative and quantitative uncertainties and their transformation. Considering uncertainties of randomness and fuzziness in water quality evaluation, a cloud model-based assessment approach is proposed. The cognitive cloud model, derived from information science, can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data, based on probability and statistics and fuzzy set theory. When applying the cloud model to practical assessment, three technical issues are considered before the development of a complete cloud model-based approach: (1) bilateral boundary formula with nonlinear boundary regression for parameter estimation, (2) hybrid entropy-analytic hierarchy process technique for calculation of weights, and (3) mean of repeated simulations for determining the degree of final certainty. The cloud model-based approach is tested by evaluating the eutrophication status of 12 typical lakes and reservoirs in China and comparing with other four methods, which are Scoring Index method, Variable Fuzzy Sets method, Hybrid Fuzzy and Optimal model, and Neural Networks method. The proposed approach yields information concerning membership for each water quality status which leads to the final status. The approach is found to be representative of other alternative methods and accurate. PMID:26995351

  20. Terrestrial ecotoxicity and effect factors of metals in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Haye, Sébastien; Slaveykova, Vera I; Payet, Jérôme

    2007-07-01

    Life cycle impact assessment aims to translate the amounts of substance emitted during the life cycle of a product into a potential impact on the environment, which includes terrestrial ecosystems. This work suggests some possible improvements in assessing the toxicity of metals on soil ecosystems in life cycle assessment (LCA). The current available data on soil ecotoxicity allow one to calculate the chronic terrestrial HC50(EC50) (hazardous concentration affecting 50% of the species at their EC50 level, i.e. the level where 50% of the individuals of the species are affected) of nine metals and metalloids (As(III) or (V), Be(II), Cr(III) or (VI), Sb(III) or (V), Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II)). Contrarily to what is generally advised in LCIA, the terrestrial HC50 of metals shall not be extrapolated from the aquatic HC50, using the Equilibrium Partitioning method since the partition coefficient (K(d)) of metals is highly variable. The experimental ecotoxicology generally uses metallic salts to contaminate artificial soils but the comparison of the EC50 or NOEC obtained for the same metal with different salts reveals that the kind of salt used insignificantly influences these values. In contrast, depending on the metallic fraction of concern, the EC50 may vary, as for cadmium: the EC50 of Folsomia candida, expressed as free Cd in pore water is almost 2.5 orders of magnitude lower than that expressed as total metal. A similar result is obtained with Eisenia fetida, confirming the importance of metals speciation in assessing their impact on soils. By ranking the metals according to the difference between their terrestrial and aquatic HC50 values, two groups are distinguished, which match the hard soft acids and bases (HSAB) concept. This allows to estimate their affinity for soil components and potential toxicity according to their chemical characteristics. PMID:17467037

  1. Life cycle assessment of corn-based ethanol production in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pieragostini, Carla; Aguirre, Pío; Mussati, Miguel C

    2014-02-15

    The promotion of biofuels as energy for transportation in the world is mainly driven by the perspective of oil depletion, the concerns about energy security and global warming. In Argentina, the legislation has imposed the use of biofuels in blend with fossil fuels (5 to 10%) in the transport sector. The aim of this paper is to assess the environmental impact of corn-based ethanol production in the province of Santa Fe in Argentina based on the life cycle assessment methodology. The studied system includes from raw materials production to anhydrous ethanol production using dry milling technology. The system is divided into two subsystems: agricultural system and refinery system. The treatment of stillage is considered as well as the use of co-products (distiller's dried grains with solubles), but the use and/or application of the produced biofuel is not analyzed: a cradle-to-gate analysis is presented. As functional unit, 1MJ of anhydrous ethanol at biorefinery is chosen. Two life cycle impact assessment methods are selected to perform the study: Eco-indicator 99 and ReCiPe. SimaPro is the life cycle assessment software used. The influence of the perspectives on the model is analyzed by sensitivity analysis for both methods. The two selected methods identify the same relevant processes. The use of fertilizers and resources, seeds production, harvesting process, corn drying, and phosphorus fertilizers and acetamide-anillide-compounds production are the most relevant processes in agricultural system. For refinery system, corn production, supplied heat and burned natural gas result in the higher contributions. The use of distiller's dried grains with solubles has an important positive environmental impact. PMID:24295743

  2. Application of hybrid life cycle approaches to emerging energy technologies--the case of wind power in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Thomas O; Suh, Sangwon; Feng, Kuishuang; Lenzen, Manfred; Acquaye, Adolf; Scott, Kate; Barrett, John R

    2011-07-01

    Future energy technologies will be key for a successful reduction of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. With demand for electricity projected to increase significantly in the future, climate policy goals of limiting the effects of global atmospheric warming can only be achieved if power generation processes are profoundly decarbonized. Energy models, however, have ignored the fact that upstream emissions are associated with any energy technology. In this work we explore methodological options for hybrid life cycle assessment (hybrid LCA) to account for the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of energy technologies using wind power generation in the UK as a case study. We develop and compare two different approaches using a multiregion input-output modeling framework - Input-Output-based Hybrid LCA and Integrated Hybrid LCA. The latter utilizes the full-sized Ecoinvent process database. We discuss significance and reliability of the results and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The comparison of hybrid LCA methodologies provides valuable insight into the availability and robustness of approaches for informing energy and environmental policy. PMID:21649442

  3. Data supporting the comparative life cycle assessment of different municipal solid waste management scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ali Rajaeifar, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios would help to select eco-friendly scenarios. In this study, the inventory data in support of life cycle assessment of different MSW are presented. The scenarios were defined as: anaerobic digestion (AD, Sc-0), landfilling combined with composting (Sc-1), incineration (Sc-2), incineration combined with composting (Sc-3), and AD combined with incineration (Sc-4). The current article contains flowcharts of the different scenarios. Additionally, six supplementary files including inventory data on the different scenarios, data on the different damage assessment categories, normalization, and single scores are presented (Supplementary files 1–6). The analysis of the different scenarios revealed that the most eco-friendly scenario to be implemented in the future would be the combination of AD and incineration (Sc-4). PMID:26217743

  4. A fuzzy areal assessment approach for potentially contaminated sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdamar, Linet; Demirhan, Melek; Özpinar, Alper; Kilanç, Burak

    2000-04-01

    This article describes a new fuzzy areal site assessment approach in the detection of contaminated zones within a site which is under environmental investigation. Conventional techniques utilized in this field are mostly interpolation based. These methods interpolate the contaminant concentration values at unobserved locations using observed values. Unlike these interpolation techniques, the motivation of the approach introduced here consists of partitioning a given site into smaller sections. Partitioning is carried out iteratively where subregions of interest are divided into further smaller regions. This re-partitioning scheme leads to a dynamic grouping of observations, since areas of differing sizes and boundaries contain different sets of samples. The potential of an area to contain contaminated zones is assessed by a fuzzy measure which converts the data values in that area into an aggregate grade normalized on [0, 1]. Thus, this approach does not assume concentration values at unobserved locations, rather, an areal potential is evaluated.

  5. The Coordinated Energy and Water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) Data Integration Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. F.

    2010-09-01

    Many of the Projects under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) bring together numerous types of data to perform climate research on various regional and time scales using routine operational/research global observations and process studies. The Coordinated Energy and Water cycle Observations Project (CEOP) [under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)] goal is to demonstrate skill in predicting changes in water resources and soil moisture on time scales up to seasonal and annual as an integral part of the climate system. In order to satisfy the multi-disciplinary scientific objectives of CEOP, an integrated approach to bring together such global in-situ observations, remote sensing (satellite), and model output was needed. Both a centralized and distributed integrated data management strategy was then designed and implemented to incorporate and distribute such research quality data. There are multitudes of global/regional surface in-situ measurements made globally that are quite disparate in type, number, quality, and format. The concept of a "Reference Site" combining specialized observations of sub-surface (soil temperature and moisture profiles), near-surface (standard meteorological parameters, radiation, flux), and lower tropospheric profiles (tower, rawinsonde, lidar, wind profiler) over various spatial scales (from single point to 104 square km) was created for evaluation with satellite data and model output analyses. A network of 36 such Reference Sites from various climatic regions was identified and organized through coordination of CEOP's Regional Hydroclimate Projects (RHPs). Standardized observation times/averaging and format (with complete metadata) was agreed upon and a "composite" in-situ database developed. This presentation will describe CEOP's data integration approach and "lessons learned" from such a prototype network for use in global climate studies.

  6. Students' Assessment Preferences and Approaches to Learning: Can Formative Assessment Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijbels, David; Dochy, Filip

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the relationships between hands-on experiences with formative assessment, students' assessment preferences and their approaches to learning. The sample consisted of 108 university first-year Bachelor's students studying criminology. Data were obtained using the "Revised two-factor study process…

  7. Computerized Communication Assessment Management: A Multi-Method Approach to Skills and Field Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, Joan E.

    The Department of Communication Studies at the University of Missouri-Kansas City is developing a computer package designed to teach and assess aural, visual, and oral communication skills through a multi-media approach with classroom tests, portfolios, and performance measures. Before developing the multi-method approach, the department tried six…

  8. A closed-loop life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete utilization in China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Tao; Xiao, Jianzhuang; Tam, Vivian W Y

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the potential environmental impact of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) for concrete production in China. According to the cradle-to-cradle theory, a closed-loop life cycle assessment (LCA) on recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) utilization in China with entire local life cycle inventory (LCI) is performed, regarding the environmental influence of cement content, aggregate production, transportation and waste landfilling. Special attention is paid on the primary resource and energy conservation, as well as climate protection induced by RAC applications. Environmental impact between natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC are also compared. It is shown that cement proportion and transportation are the top two contributors for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy consumption for both NAC and RAC. Sensitivity analysis also proves that long delivery distances for natural coarse aggregate (NCA) leave a possible opportunity for lowering environmental impact of RAC in China. PMID:27297045

  9. Key issues in life cycle assessment of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anoop; Pant, Deepak; Korres, Nicholas E; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Prasad, Shiv; Murphy, Jerry D

    2010-07-01

    Progressive depletion of conventional fossil fuels with increasing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have led to a move towards renewable and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is available in massive quantities and provides enormous potential for bioethanol production. However, to ascertain optimal biofuel strategies, it is necessary to take into account environmental impacts from cradle to grave. Life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques allow detailed analysis of material and energy fluxes on regional and global scales. This includes indirect inputs to the production process and associated wastes and emissions, and the downstream fate of products in the future. At the same time if not used properly, LCA can lead to incorrect and inappropriate actions on the part of industry and/or policy makers. This paper aims to list key issues for quantifying the use of resources and releases to the environment associated with the entire life cycle of lignocellulosic bioethanol production. PMID:20015644

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Warren Station externally fired combined cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The proposed Penelec project is one of 5 projects for potential funding under the fifth solicitation under the Clean Coal Technology program. In Penelec, two existing boilers would be replaced at Warren Station, PA; the new unit would produce 73 MW(e) in a combined cycle mode (using both gas-fired and steam turbines). The project would fill the need for a full utility-size demonstration of externally fire combined cycle (EFCC) technology as the next step toward commercialization. This environmental assessment was prepared for compliance with NEPA; its purpose is to provide sufficient basis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or to issue a finding of no significant impact. It is divided into the sections: purpose and need for proposed action; alternatives; brief description of affected environment; environmental consequences, including discussion of commercial operation beyond the demonstration period.

  11. An assessment of the future of closed-cycle gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Fejer, A.A.; Khinkis, M.J.; Wurm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) has not reached the worldwide level of success that was expected inspite of the strongly desirable features of this concept and the success of several large closed-cycle power plants operating in Western Europe today. However, an assessment of the CCGT's future has recently been made at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), and IGT has shown that due to innovative developments in technologies relevant to the development of CCGT's, coupled with worldwide changes in some economic factors, the CCGT could become a successful competitor of other externally fired power plants and also of internal combustion engines, especially in sizes ranging from 200 to 5000 kW. Documentation of data recently published in the technical literature and some recent relevant developments at IGT in the area of combustion, show a promising future for the cost. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Use of education as social indicator in the assessment of sustainability throughout the life cycle of a building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruano, Marco A.; García Cruzado, Marcos

    2012-08-01

    The authors seek to establish the need for better education to develop procedures useful to evaluate the sustainability of a building. The analysis emphasises the need for education in the social dimension of sustainability assessment in the context of the life cycle of a building and how such education of building agents could increase sustainability. Their approach includes a definition of sustainable education and describes both useful indicator and a descriptive-analytic method. Next, strategies and technologies required to implement and measure education are presented. From a holistic viewpoint, 'sustainable social building' factors must be evaluated, in part, using an educational indicator, to cover all aspects of sustainable building. It is contended that those responsible for building (local authorities, constructors and users) must be informed of and trained in sustainable issues. The proposed educational indicator could complement other commercially available methods (e.g. LEED) and incidentally improve the sustainability of other building parameters (e.g. energy).

  13. Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production ( Baseline ), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design ( LWSV ), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle. Secondary mass savings resulting from body lightweighting are considered for the vehicles engine, driveline and suspension. A cradle-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for these three vehicle material alternatives. LCA methodology for this study included material production, mill semi-fabrication, vehicle use phase operation, and end-of-life recycling. This study followed international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2], consistent with the automotive LCA guidance document currently being developed [3]. Vehicle use phase mass reduction was found to account for over 90% of total vehicle life cycle energy and CO2e emissions. The AIV design achieved mass reduction of 25% (versus baseline) resulting in reductions in total life cycle primary energy consumption by 20% and CO2e emissions by 17%. Overall, the AIV design showed the best breakeven vehicle mileage from both primary energy consumption and climate change perspectives.

  14. Environmental impacts of lighting technologies - Life cycle assessment and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Welz, Tobias; Hischier, Roland Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2011-04-15

    With two regulations, 244/2009 and 245/2009, the European Commission recently put into practice the EuP Directive in the area of lighting devices, aiming to improve energy efficiency in the domestic lighting sector. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment comparison of four different lighting technologies: the tungsten lamp, the halogen lamp, the conventional fluorescent lamp and the compact fluorescent lamp. Taking advantage of the most up-to-date life cycle inventory database available (ecoinvent data version 2.01), all life cycle phases were assessed and the sensitivity of the results for varying assumptions analysed: different qualities of compact fluorescent lamps (production phase), different electricity mixes (use phase), and end-of-life scenarios for WEEE recycling versus municipal solid waste incineration (disposal phase). A functional unit of 'one hour of lighting' was defined and the environmental burdens for the whole life cycle for all four lamp types were calculated, showing a clearly lower impact for the two gas-discharge lamps, i.e. the fluorescent and the compact fluorescent lamp. Differences in the product quality of the compact fluorescent lamps reveal to have only a very small effect on the overall environmental performance of this lamp type; a decline of the actual life time of this lamp type doesn't result in a change of the rank order of the results of the here examined four lamp types. It was also shown that the environmental break-even point of the gas-discharge lamps is reached long before the end of their expected life-span. All in all, it can be concluded that a change from today's tungsten lamp technology to a low-energy-consuming technology such as the compact fluorescent lamp results in a substantial environmental benefit.

  15. Modeling spatially- and temporally-explicit water stress indices for use in life cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Venkatesh, A.; Karuppiah, R.; Usadi, A.; Pfister, S.; Hellweg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water scarcity is a regional issue in many areas across the world, and can affect human health and ecosystems locally. Water stress indices (WSIs) have been developed as quantitative indicators of such scarcities - examples include the Falkenmark indicator, Social Water Stress Index, and the Water Supply Stress Index1. Application of these indices helps us understand water supply and demand risks for multiple users, including those in the agricultural, industrial, residential and commercial sectors. Pfister et al.2 developed a method to calculate WSIs that were used to estimate characterization factors (CFs) in order to quantify environmental impacts of freshwater consumption within a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. Global WSIs were based on data from the WaterGAP model3, and presented as annual averages for watersheds. Since water supply and demand varies regionally and temporally, the resolution used in Pfister et al. does not effectively differentiate between seasonal and permanent water scarcity. This study aims to improve the temporal and spatial resolution of the water scarcity calculations used to estimate WSIs and CFs. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)4 hydrological model to properly simulate water supply in different world regions with high spatial and temporal resolution, and coupled it with water use data from WaterGAP3 and Pfister et al.5. Input data to SWAT included weather, land use, soil characteristics and a digital elevation model (DEM), all from publicly available global data sets. Potential evapotranspiration, which affects water supply, was determined using an improved Priestley-Taylor approach. In contrast to most other hydrological studies, large reservoirs, water consumption and major water transfers were simulated. The model was calibrated against observed monthly discharge, actual evapotranspiration, and snow water equivalents wherever appropriate. Based on these simulations, monthly WSIs were calculated for a few

  16. Integrating Human Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hellweg, Stefanie; Demou, Evangelia; Bruzzi, Raffaella; Meijer, Arjen; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2008-12-21

    Neglecting health effects from indoor pollutant emissions and exposure, as currently done in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), may result in product or process optimizations at the expense of workers? or consumers? health. To close this gap, methods for considering indoor exposure to chemicals are needed to complement the methods for outdoor human exposure assessment already in use. This paper summarizes the work of an international expert group on the integration of human indoor and outdoor exposure in LCA, within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative. A new methodological framework is proposed for a general procedure to include human-health effects from indoor exposure in LCA. Exposure models from occupational hygiene and household indoor air quality studies and practices are critically reviewed and recommendations are provided on the appropriateness of various model alternatives in the context of LCA. A single-compartment box model is recommended for use as a default in LCA, enabling one to screen occupational and household exposures consistent with the existing models to assess outdoor emission in a multimedia environment. An initial set of model parameter values was collected. The comparison between indoor and outdoor human exposure per unit of emission shows that for many pollutants, intake per unit of indoor emission may be several orders of magnitude higher than for outdoor emissions. It is concluded that indoor exposure should be routinely addressed within LCA.

  17. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    SciTech Connect

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  18. Guidance on How to Move from Current Practice to Recommended Practice in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative Publication)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides guidance on how to move from current practice to recommended practice in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. It is composed of three complementary parts elaborated in the first task force (TFI) of the LCIA programme, with contribution of the other three task forces:

  19. Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach (CARMINA).

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Pierfrancesco; Tardivo, Stefano; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Moretti, Francesca; Poletti, Piera; Fiore, Alberto; Monturano, Massimo; Mura, Ida; Privitera, Gaetano; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The European Union recommendations for patient safety calls for shared clinical risk management (CRM) safety standards able to guide organizations in CRM implementation. The purpose of this paper is to develop a self-evaluation tool to measure healthcare organization performance on CRM and guide improvements over time. Design/methodology/approach - A multi-step approach was implemented including: a systematic literature review; consensus meetings with an expert panel from eight Italian leader organizations to get to an agreement on the first version; field testing to test instrument feasibility and flexibility; Delphi strategy with a second expert panel for content validation and balanced scoring system development. Findings - The self-assessment tool - Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach includes seven areas (governance, communication, knowledge and skills, safe environment, care processes, adverse event management, learning from experience) and 52 standards. Each standard is evaluated according to four performance levels: minimum; monitoring; outcomes; and improvement actions, which resulted in a feasible, flexible and valid instrument to be used throughout different organizations. Practical implications - This tool allows practitioners to assess their CRM activities compared to minimum levels, monitor performance, benchmarking with other institutions and spreading results to different stakeholders. Originality/value - The multi-step approach allowed us to identify core minimum CRM levels in a field where no consensus has been reached. Most standards may be easily adopted in other countries. PMID:27477931

  20. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  1. Using Screening Level Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Aid Decision Making: A Case Study of a College Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.; Curran, Mary Ann; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Hawkins, Troy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences' current printed annual report to a version distributed via the internet. Design/methodology/approach: Life cycle environmental impacts of both versions of the report are modeled using…

  2. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps.

    PubMed

    Hischier, Roland; Walser, Tobias

    2012-05-15

    The use of engineered nanomaterials offers advantages as well as disadvantages from a sustainability perspective. It is important to identify such points as early as possible in order to be able to build on existing strengths, while counteracting disadvantages. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a suitable method to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. But so far studies applying LCA to the area of nanotechnology have been scarce. One reason might be that the LCA framework has a whole list of issues that need further precision in order to be applicable to nanotechnologies: system boundaries and a functional unit have to be chosen in a way that allows one to do a comparison of equal functionalities; adequate and comprehensive life cycle inventory data for engineered nanomaterials are the key on the level of inventory analysis; and the impact assessment step requires a clear definition of the degree of detail on the level of nanoparticle emissions. The LCA studies existing thus far in the area of nanotechnology have barely begun to cover all these aspects. Thus, in order to improve the current situation, the authors propose to go ahead in each of the LCA stages as far as scientific advances allow. For the inventory modelling this means e.g. that comprehensive, transparently documented and quality ensured data of the most important engineered nanomaterials should be collected and made available in a widely-accepted format. Concerning nanoparticle emissions, as many parameters as possible have to be collected pertaining to the production, use, and the disposal phase of these engineered nanomaterials. Furthermore, on the level of impact assessment, relevant physical characteristics have to be identified for a toxicity assessment of nanoparticles and a consensus has to be found for a limited but sufficient number of independent parameters influencing toxicity to be collected. PMID:22483746

  3. Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Saloranta, Tuomo; Cornelissen, Gerard; Eek, Espen; Fet, Annik Magerholm; Breedveld, Gijs D; Linkov, Igor

    2011-05-15

    Ecological and human risks often drive the selection of remedial alternatives for contaminated sediments. Traditional human and ecological risk assessment (HERA) includes assessing risk for benthic organisms and aquatic fauna associated with exposure to contaminated sediments before and after remediation as well as risk for human exposure but does not consider the environmental footprint associated with implementing remedial alternatives. Assessment of environmental effects over the whole life cycle (i.e., Life Cycle Assessment, LCA) could complement HERA and help in selecting the most appropriate sediment management alternative. Even though LCA has been developed and applied in multiple environmental management cases, applications to contaminated sediments and marine ecosystems are in general less frequent. This paper implements LCA methodology for the case of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F)-contaminated Grenland fjord in Norway. LCA was applied to investigate the environmental footprint of different active and passive thin-layer capping alternatives as compared to natural recovery. The results showed that capping was preferable to natural recovery when analysis is limited to effects related to the site contamination. Incorporation of impacts related to the use of resources and energy during the implementation of a thin layer cap increase the environmental footprint by over 1 order of magnitude, making capping inferior to the natural recovery alternative. Use of biomass-derived activated carbon, where carbon dioxide is sequestered during the production process, reduces the overall environmental impact to that of natural recovery. The results from this study show that LCA may be a valuable tool for assessing the environmental footprint of sediment remediation projects and for sustainable sediment management. PMID:21520943

  4. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Navin; Dubey, Brajesh; Dutta, Animesh

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. PMID:25981938

  5. Study of feasible and sustainable multilateral approach on nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuno, Y.; Tazaki, M.; Akiba, M.; Takashima, R.; Izumi, Y.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the Fukushima accident it is undeniable that nuclear power remains one of the most important methods to handle global growth of economic/energy consumption and issues with greenhouse gases. If the demand for nuclear power increases, the demand for not only the generation of power but also for refining uranium (U), conversion, enrichment, re-conversion, and fuel manufacturing should increase. In addition, concerns for the proliferation of 'Sensitive Nuclear Technologies' (SNT) should also increase. We propose a demand-side approach, where nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities would be implemented among multiple states. With this approach, NFC services, in particular those using SNTs, are multilaterally executed and controlled, thereby preventing unnecessary proliferation of SNTs, and enabling safe and appropriate control of nuclear technologies and nuclear materials. This proposal would implement nuclear safety and security at an international level and solve transport issues for nuclear fuels. This proposal is based on 3 types of cooperation for each element of NFC: type A: cooperation for 3S only, services received; Type B: cooperation for 3S, MNA (Multilateral Nuclear Activities) without transfer of ownership to MNA; and Type C cooperation for 3S, MNA holding ownership rights. States involved in the 3 types of activity should be referred to as partner states, host states, and site states respectively. The feasibility of the proposal is discussed for the Asian region.

  6. Life cycle assessment in market, research, and policy: Harmonization beyond standardization.

    PubMed

    Zamagni, Alessandra; Cutaia, Laura

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces the special series "LCA in Market Research and Policy: Harmonization beyond standardization," which was generated from the 19th SETAC Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Case Study Symposium held November 2013, in Rome, Italy. This collection of invited articles reflects the purpose of symposium and focuses on how LCA can support the decision-making process at all levels (i.e., in industry and policy contexts) and how LCA results can be efficiently communicated and used to support market strategies. PMID:26119764

  7. Assessment of dose during the life cycle of natural stone production.

    PubMed

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Weltner, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The environmental impact during the life cycle of natural stone production was studied. One of the points of interest was radiation. Natural stone samples from 23 quarries were surveyed for the radioactivity. One quarry was selected for a case study where the effective dose to the workers was assessed. The use of these stones in buildings was also evaluated with respect to the excess dose caused to the residents. According to the results the excess effective dose to the workers does not exceed 1 mSv a(-1) at the quarries. In buildings, all natural stones studied can be used safely as surfacing materials. PMID:17525055

  8. A structured approach to the assessment of a floppy neonate

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Molla Imaduddin; Iqbal, Mehtab; Hussain, Nahin

    2016-01-01

    Hypotonia in a newborn presents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. It is an important clinical feature that may indicate an underlying systemic illness or neurological problem at the level of the central or peripheral nervous system. It is important to know the different presentations of hypotonia and to have the knowledge of the diagnostic work up which requires multidisciplinary assessment and input and the prognostic implications of these disorders. This review article presents a structured approach highlighting initial assessment, examination, and management of a neonate with generalized hypotonia. PMID:27195025

  9. Incorporating climate-system and carbon-cycle uncertainties in integrated assessments of climate change. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, J.; McCollum, D. L.; Reisinger, A.; Knutti, R.; Riahi, K.; Meinshausen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The field of integrated assessment draws from a large body of knowledge across a range of disciplines to gain robust insights about possible interactions, trade-offs, and synergies. Integrated assessment of climate change, for example, uses knowledge from the fields of energy system science, economics, geophysics, demography, climate change impacts, and many others. Each of these fields comes with its associated caveats and uncertainties, which should be taken into account when assessing any results. The geophysical system and its associated uncertainties are often represented by models of reduced complexity in integrated assessment modelling frameworks. Such models include simple representations of the carbon-cycle and climate system, and are often based on the global energy balance equation. A prominent example of such model is the 'Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change', MAGICC. Here we show how a model like MAGICC can be used for the representation of geophysical uncertainties. Its strengths, weaknesses, and limitations are discussed and illustrated by means of an analysis which attempts to integrate socio-economic and geophysical uncertainties. These uncertainties in the geophysical response of the Earth system to greenhouse gases remains key for estimating the cost of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios. We look at uncertainties in four dimensions: geophysical, technological, social and political. Our results indicate that while geophysical uncertainties are an important factor influencing projections of mitigation costs, political choices that delay mitigation by one or two decades a much more pronounced effect.

  10. Life cycle assessment of fuel selection for power generation in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hsien; Lin, Sue-Jane; Lewis, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to performance data from 1997-2002 to evaluate the environmental impacts of the energy input, airborne emission, waterborne emission, and solid waste inventories for Taiwan's electric power plants. Eco-indicator 95 was used to compare the differences among the generation processes and fuel purification. To better understand the environmental trends related to Taiwan's electric power industry, three fuel scenarios were selected for LCA system analysis. Results indicate that there are differences in characteristic environmental impact among the 13 power plants. Scenario simulation provided a basis for minimizing environmental impacts from fuel selection targets. Fuel selection priority should be a gas-fired combined cycle substituted for a coal-fired steam turbine to be more environmentally friendly, particularly in the areas of the greenhouse effect, acidification, winter smog, and solid waste. Furthermore, based purely on economic and environmental criteria, it is recommended that the gas-fired combined cycle be substituted for the oil-fired steam turbine. PMID:18069462

  11. Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-02-01

    Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives. PMID:23272937

  12. Life cycle assessment of urban wastewater systems: Quantifying the relative contribution of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Risch, Eva; Gutierrez, Oriol; Roux, Philippe; Boutin, Catherine; Corominas, Lluís

    2015-06-15

    This study aims to propose a holistic, life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban wastewater systems (UWS) based on a comprehensive inventory including detailed construction and operation of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For the first time, the inventory of sewers infrastructure construction includes piping materials and aggregates, manholes, connections, civil works and road rehabilitation. The operation stage comprises energy consumption in pumping stations together with air emissions of methane and hydrogen sulphide, and water emissions from sewer leaks. Using a real case study, this LCA aims to quantify the contributions of sewer systems to the total environmental impacts of the UWS. The results show that the construction of sewer infrastructures has an environmental impact (on half of the 18 studied impact categories) larger than both the construction and operation of the WWTP. This study highlights the importance of including the construction and operation of sewer systems in the environmental assessment of centralised versus decentralised options for UWS. PMID:25839834

  13. Meniere's disease: an evidence based approach to assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Syed, I; Aldren, C

    2012-02-01

    Menière's disease (MD) is frequently over-diagnosed in both primary and secondary care. This is unfortunate given the significant medical and social implications of such a diagnosis. Difficulties may arise in differentiating the patient with true MD from those individuals with less clearly defined disorders of cochleo-vestibular function. In this review, we suggest a practical evidence based approach to assessment and management of the patient with MD. PMID:22257041

  14. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  15. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production: Biochemical Versus Thermochemical Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dongyan; Seager, Thomas; Rao, P. Suresh; Zhao, Fu

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted into ethanol through either biochemical or thermochemical conversion processes. Biochemical conversion involves hydrolysis and fermentation while thermochemical conversion involves gasification and catalytic synthesis. Even though these routes produce comparable amounts of ethanol and have similar energy efficiency at the plant level, little is known about their relative environmental performance from a life cycle perspective. Especially, the indirect impacts, i.e. emissions and resource consumption associated with the production of various process inputs, are largely neglected in previous studies. This article compiles material and energy flow data from process simulation models to develop life cycle inventory and compares the fossil fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and water consumption of both biomass-to-ethanol production processes. The results are presented in terms of contributions from feedstock, direct, indirect, and co-product credits for four representative biomass feedstocks i.e., wood chips, corn stover, waste paper, and wheat straw. To explore the potentials of the two conversion pathways, different technological scenarios are modeled, including current, 2012 and 2020 technology targets, as well as different production/co-production configurations. The modeling results suggest that biochemical conversion has slightly better performance on greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel consumption, but that thermochemical conversion has significantly less direct, indirect, and life cycle water consumption. Also, if the thermochemical plant operates as a biorefinery with mixed alcohol co-products separated for chemicals, it has the potential to achieve better performance than biochemical pathway across all environmental impact categories considered due to higher co-product credits associated with chemicals being displaced. The results from this work serve as a starting point for developing full life cycle

  16. Approaches to Children's Exposure Assessment: Case Study with Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP).

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary; Ginsberg, Justine; Foos, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Children's exposure assessment is a key input into epidemiology studies, risk assessment and source apportionment. The goals of this article are to describe a methodology for children's exposure assessment that can be used for these purposes and to apply the methodology to source apportionment for the case study chemical, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP). A key feature is the comparison of total (aggregate) exposure calculated via a pathways approach to that derived from a biomonitoring approach. The 4-step methodology and its results for DEHP are: (1) Prioritization of life stages and exposure pathways, with pregnancy, breast-fed infants, and toddlers the focus of the case study and pathways selected that are relevant to these groups; (2) Estimation of pathway-specific exposures by life stage wherein diet was found to be the largest contributor for pregnant women, breast milk and mouthing behavior for the nursing infant and diet, house dust, and mouthing for toddlers; (3) Comparison of aggregate exposure by pathways vs biomonitoring-based approaches wherein good concordance was found for toddlers and pregnant women providing confidence in the exposure assessment; (4) Source apportionment in which DEHP presence in foods, children's products, consumer products and the built environment are discussed with respect to early life mouthing, house dust and dietary exposure. A potential fifth step of the method involves the calculation of exposure doses for risk assessment which is described but outside the scope for the current case study. In summary, the methodology has been used to synthesize the available information to identify key sources of early life exposure to DEHP. PMID:27376320

  17. Ranking potential impacts of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental impacts on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a case study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining impact scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental impact when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this case study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available. PMID:18951608

  18. Assessment of life cycle environmental benefits of an industrial symbiosis cluster in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Han, Feng; Cui, Zhaojie

    2015-04-01

    Reusing industrial waste may have impressive potential environmental benefits, especially in terms of the total life cycle, and life cycle assessment (LCA) has been proved to be an effective method to evaluate industrial symbiosis (IS). Circular economy and IS have been developed for decades and have been successful in China. However, very few studies about the environmental benefit assessment of IS applied by LCA in China have been conducted. In the current article, LCA was used to evaluate the environmental benefits and costs of IS, compared with a no-IS scenario for four environmental impact categories. The results showed that four environmental benefits were avoided by the 11 symbiosis performances, namely, 41.6 thousand TJ of primary energy, 4.47 million t CO2e of greenhouse gasses, 19.7 thousand t SO2e of acidification, and 81.1 t PO4(3+)e of eutrophication. Among these IS performances, the comprehensive utilization of red mud produced the most visible benefit. The results also present that energy conservation was the distinctive feature of IS in China. PMID:25339529

  19. Measurement control design and performance assessment in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Orechwa, Y.; Bucher, R.G.

    1994-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR)--consisting of a metal fueled and liquid metal cooled reactor together with an attendant fuel cycle facility (FCF)--is currently undergoing a phased demonstration of the closed fuel cycle at Argonne National Laboratory. The recycle technology is pyrometalurgical based with incomplete fission product separation and all transuranics following plutonium for recycle. The equipment operates in batch mode at 500 to 1,300 C. The materials are highly radioactive and pyrophoric, thus the FCF requires remote operation. Central to the material control and accounting system for the FCF are the balances for mass measurements. The remote operation of the balances limits direct adjustment. The radiation environment requires that removal and replacement of the balances be minimized. The uniqueness of the facility precludes historical data for design and performance assessment. To assure efficient operation of the facility, the design of the measurement control system has called for procedures which assess the performance of the balances in great detail and will support capabilities for the correction of systematic changes in the performance of the balances through software.

  20. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site. PMID:21053954